Science.gov

Sample records for d-60 swasconol d-80

  1. Corrected Article: Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory [Phys. Rev. D 80, 104033 (2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio

    2010-05-15

    Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are studied within the framework of Einstein-Born-Infeld theory. We analyze the exotic matter content, and find that for certain values of the Born-Infeld parameter the amount of exotic matter on the shell can be reduced in relation with the Maxwell case. We also examine the mechanical stability of the wormhole configurations under radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry.

  2. CYP2D60 and Clinical Response to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, David; Read, Holly A.; Ruff, Dustin D.; Witcher, Jennifer; Zhang, Shuyu; McCracken, James

    2007-01-01

    Background: Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is metabolized through the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme pathway, which is genetically polymorphic in humans. Variations in plasma atomoxetine exposures can occur because of genetic variation…

  3. Chlorophyll derivatives--a new photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Lee, W Y; Hahn, B S; Han, M J; Yang, W I; Kim, B S

    1989-09-01

    The in vivo photosensitizing efficacy of chlorophyll derivatives (CpD), which had been developed as a new photosensitizer, was compared with that of hematoporphyrin derivatives (HpD). A murine tumor model implanted subcutaneously with S-180 cells on the abdomen was used. The CpD or HpD was administered by intratumoral injection, and light of appropriate wavelength was irradiated on the tumor areas for 10 minutes at 1h and 24h or 24h and 48h after the injection of photosensitizer. When CpD was injected, the early irradiation group (1h and 24h) showed a 100% tumor cure rate; however, the late irradiation group (24h and 48h) showed a 60% tumor cure rate (p less than 0.01). This showed that the early irradiation with light after injection of CpD was an important factor for obtaining better results. With HpD, there was no difference in tumor cure rate between early (1h and 24h, 80%) and late irradiation (24h and 48h, 80%) groups. Thus, in early irradiation groups, the tumor cure rate using CpD (100%) was superior to that of HpD (80%) (p less than 0.05). However, in late irradiation groups, the tumor cure rate using CpD (60%) was inferior to that of HpD (80%), but this difference was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.1). Pathologic sections of these tumors were made before treatment and 48h and 3 weeks after treatment. These showed geographic necrosis at 48h after treatment and no viable tumor tissue at 3 weeks after treatment. Our results showed that CpD was as effective as HpD as a photosensitizer for in vivo photodynamic therapy.

  4. Winter-feeding systems for gestating sheep I. Effects on pre- and postpartum ewe performance and lamb progeny preweaning performance.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2011-02-01

    Mature pregnant crossbred ewes (n = 90) were used in a randomized complete block design and assigned to 1 of 3 winter-feeding systems differing in primary feed source: haylage (HL), limit-fed corn (CN), or limit-fed dried distillers grains (DDGS). Effects of these winter-feeding strategies on ewe and lamb performance were determined. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1985) nutrient requirements during gestation and were fed from about d 60 of gestation until parturition. All ewes were fed a common diet postpartum. Every 2 wk during gestation, BW and BCS were collected and diets were adjusted to maintain similar BW gain for ewes fed CN and DDGS vs. HL. At 80 and 122 d of gestation, jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding to measure plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. At birth, 6 lambs per treatment were killed to measure body composition. At 28 ± 2 d postpartum, milk yield was measured. Lambs were weaned at 61 ± 4 d of age. During mid gestation (d 60 to 115), BW gain of ewes was similar among treatments; however, at d 115 of gestation ewes fed HL had a smaller (P = 0.04) BCS than ewes fed DDGS or CN. Plasma glucose concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.004) in ewes fed CN than in those fed HL or DDGS just before feeding on d 80 and 122 of gestation, whereas ewes fed DDGS vs. CN or HL had greater (P ≤ 0.04) plasma insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding. At parturition, ewe BW was greatest for DDGS, least for HL, and intermediate for CN (P ≤ 0.003). Ewes fed CN and DDGS had greater BCS at parturition than those fed HL, but by weaning, ewes fed DDGS had greater BCS (P ≤ 0.05) than those fed CN or HL. Birth BW tended (P = 0.09) to be heavier for lambs from ewes fed CN and DDGS than from those fed HL prepartum, but there was no difference (P = 0.19) due to ewe gestation diet on lamb BW at weaning. At birth, lamb muscle, bone, organ, and fat measures were not affected (P > 0.13) by

  5. Hydrogen Isotope Evidence for Giant Meteoric-Hydrothermal Systems Associated with Extension and Magmatism in the Southern Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holk, G. J.; McCarthy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Over 400 published mineral and fluid inclusion δD values from the southern Canadian Cordillera and our new data from the Eocene Penticton Group Volcanics and Coryell Intrusive Suite of the Southern Omineca Belt and the Western Metamorphic Belt of the Central Coast Orogen are compiled using GIS. δDH2O is estimated using published D/H fractionation factors at 400°C; the error is ±20‰, small enough to distinguish deep magmatic/metamorphic fluids from meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. Histogram plots of δDH2O values estimated from minerals reveal peaks at δD = -60‰ (deep fluid) and ­-110‰ (Early Cenozoic meteoric-hydrothermal fluid); this provides a clear distinction between the two kinds of fluid. Our analysis reveals that syn-extensional meteoric-hydrothermal systems (δDH2O < -80‰) affected the eastern margin of the Coast Ranges Batholith between latitude 49° and 55° and the Omineca Belt between latitude 49° and 52°45'; both regions were affected by detachment faulting during late stages of magmatism in the Early Cenozoic (e.g., Parrish et al., 1988; Crawford et al., 2009). Zones that escaped the effects of meteoric-hydrothermal systems, preserving the D/H signature of deep fluids (δD > -80‰), include the Western Metamorphic Belt, the Western and Central Coast Ranges Batholith, the belt of Jurassic metamorphism that extends from the Cariboo Mountains to the Purcell Mountains, and the deepest structural levels of the Shuswap Metamorphic Core Complex; most of these samples have quartz-feldspar 18O/16O fractionations indicative of magmatic temperatures. High δDH2O values (> -50‰) suggest seawater alteration of the plutons of Vancouver Island (Magaritz and Taylor, 1986). Histogram plots of vein quartz fluid inclusion δD values (Nesbitt and Muehlenbachs, 1995) reveal three peaks that include the two produced by the mineral δD values, but these data are dominated by a large peak at δD = -150, a value similar to modern meteoric waters in the region

  6. Non-Airborne Conflicts: The Causes and Effects of Runway Transgressions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    and O’Hara, Dolores B., "Human Factors Associated with Runway Incursions", NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System: Eighth Quarterly Report, NASA...ararararocearx OUUU13UUK O_<X<X<XCJ<X<X<X 3uaa« a zaacjzcicjzzi zu uzu D &#60I <I D &#60I U d &#60c za <r a. ZUOU.ZUUUIUUUUO t

  7. 42 CFR 433.10 - Rates of FFP for program services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; (B) 95 percent, for calendar quarters in CY 2017; (C) 94 percent, for calendar quarters in CY 2018... quarters in CY 2016; (D) 80 percent, for calendar quarters in CY 2017; (E) 90 percent, for...

  8. A Good Image Model Eases Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-06

    algorithms, and various classical as well as unexpected new applications of the BV ( bounded variation ) image model, first introduced into image processing by Rudin, Osher, and Fatemi in 1992 Physica D, 60:259-268.

  9. 49 CFR 1002.3 - Updating user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Services, 1 I.C.C.2d 60 (1984) or subsequent cost studies. The base period for measuring changes shall be... material in the Federal Register. (e) Rounding of updated fees. Updated fees shall be rounded in...

  10. 49 CFR 360.5 - Updating user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the cost study in Regulations Governing Fees For Service, 1 I.C.C. 2d 60 (1984), or subsequent... material in the Federal Register or FMCSA Register. (This rounding procedures excludes copying,...

  11. Mutation of a zinc-binding residue in the glycine receptor α1 subunit changes ethanol sensitivity in vitro and alcohol consumption in vivo.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Lindsay M; Blednov, Yuri A; Trudell, James R; Benavidez, Jillian M; Betz, Heinrich; Harris, R Adron

    2013-02-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug, yet an understanding of its sites and mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Among the protein targets of ethanol are glycine receptors (GlyRs), which are potentiated by millimolar concentrations of ethanol. In addition, zinc ions also modulate GlyR function, and recent evidence suggests that physiologic concentrations of zinc enhance ethanol potentiation of GlyRs. Here, we first built a homology model of a zinc-bound GlyR using the D80 position as a coordination site for a zinc ion. Next, we investigated in vitro the effects of zinc on ethanol action at recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant α1 GlyRs containing the D80A substitution, which eliminates zinc potentiation. At D80A GlyRs, the effects of 50 and 200 mM ethanol were reduced as compared with WT receptors. Also, in contrast to what was seen with WT GlyRs, neither adding nor chelating zinc changed the magnitude of ethanol enhancement of mutant D80A receptors. Next, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the D80A substitution by using heterozygous Glra1(D80A) knock-in (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased ethanol consumption and preference, and they displayed increased startle responses compared with their WT littermates. Other behavioral tests, including ethanol-induced motor incoordination and strychnine-induced convulsions, revealed no differences between the KI and WT mice. Together, our findings indicate that zinc is critical in determining the effects of ethanol at GlyRs and suggest that zinc binding at the D80 position may be important for mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol action at GlyRs.

  12. Space Dependence - A Critical Vulnerability of the Net-Centric Operational Commander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-17

    Manuel Cereijo. Dangerous Threat: Infrastructure Interdependencies, n.d. &#60http://www.amigospais- guaracabuya.org/oagmc188.php> [10 Apr 2005]. 8...Natural satellite hazards can be kinetic, as in meteorites or particles from the earth’s upper atmosphere. These natural hazards also include...Dependence on Space,” Joint Force Quarterly, Winter 1995-96. Cereijo, Manuel. Dangerous Threat: Infrastructure Interdependencies. n.d. &#60http

  13. Comment on ''Insensitivity of Hawking radiation to an invariant Planck-scale cutoff''

    SciTech Connect

    Helfer, Adam D.

    2010-05-15

    I point out that the cutoff introduced by Agulloet al.[I. Agullo, J. Navarro-Salas, G. J. Olmo, and ?>L. Parker, Phys. Rev. D 80, 047503 (2009)] has little impact on the trans-Planckian problem as it is usually understood; it excludes only a small fraction of the problematic modes.

  14. Effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis PT 30 in wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Smith, Danielle F; Marks, Bradley P

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella is able to survive in low-moisture environments and is known to be more heat resistant as product water activity (aw) decreases. However, it is unknown how rapidly the resistance changes if product aw is altered rapidly, as can occur in certain processes. Therefore, the objective was to determine the effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on Salmonella thermal resistance. Two dynamic moisture treatments were compared with two static moisture treatments to determine the effect of time-at-moisture on the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 (PT 30) in wheat flour. After inoculation, two static moisture groups were equilibrated to 0.3 and 0.6 aw over 4 to 7 days, and two dynamic moisture groups then were rapidly (<4 min) desiccated from 0.6 to 0.3 aw or hydrated from 0.3 to 0.6 aw. Samples then were subjected to isothermal (80°C) heat treatments, and Salmonella thermal resistance was compared via decimal reduction times (i.e., D80°C-values). The D80°C-value in flour that was rapidly desiccated from 0.6 to 0.3 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw, but both were greater (P < 0.05) than the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. Similarly, the D80°C-value in flour rapidly hydrated from 0.3 to 0.6 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw, and both were less than the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw. Therefore, Salmonella in the rapidly desiccated flour (0.3 aw) was as thermally resistant as that which previously had been equilibrated to 0.3 aw, and Salmonella in the rapidly hydrated flour (0.6 aw) responded similarly to that in the flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. These results suggest that the response period to new aw is negligible, which is critically important in applying thermal resistance data or parameters to industrial

  15. A Marine Corps Logistician Examines Logistics Planning and Execution During Operation OVERLORD: A Study in Effectiveness and Implications for Today

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-05

    and the artificial Mulberry “A” harbor belonging to the British at Arromanches, as the U.S. Mulberry “B” was destroyed by a Channel storm in mid...Planned D+30 Actual D+60 Planned D+60 Actual OMAHA Beach June 6 June 6 6,000 12,000 5,000 10,000 MULBERRY A June 6 June 6 5,000 - 5,000...Actual 5 August Planned 5 August Actual 4 October Planned 4 October Actual OMAHA 6 June 6 June 5,000 10,000 5,000 4,300 MULBERRY A 6 June 6 June

  16. R&D ERL: Magnetic measurements of the ERL magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.

    2010-08-01

    The magnet system of ERL consists of G5 solenoids, 6Q12 quadrupoles with 0.58 T/m gradient, 3D60 dipoles with 0.4 T central field, 15 and 30 degree Z-bend injection line dipole/quadrupole combined function magnets, and extraction line magnets. More details about the magnets can be found in a report by G. Mahler. Field quality in all the 6Q12 quadrupoles, 3D60 dipoles and the injection line magnets has been measured with either a rotating coil, or a Hall probe mapper. This report presents the results of these magnetic measurements.

  17. 49 CFR 1002.3 - Updating user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... direct labor costs are direct labor costs determined by the cost study set forth in Revision of Fees For Services, 1 I.C.C.2d 60 (1984) or subsequent cost studies. The base period for measuring changes shall be April 1984. (2) Operations overhead shall be developed each year on the basis of current...

  18. AFCEE Natural Attenuation Initiative Presentation of Summary Reports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-11

    LNAPL weathering rates (i.e., contaminant source-term reduction rates). - -- LNAPL Weathering Conceptual Model BIO <MgradaUon - -- " Dluolyed R.ln...I Groundwater ExtracCion / Treatment with Free Product Skimming d&#60.-.I133V3~,cd< """ 11122M No y., Vacuum-enhanced DuaUmulti

  19. Design and Development of a User Interface and User Manual for a System Dynamics Model of Software Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Perceptual Mechanisms in the Search of Computer Command Menus," Proceedings on Human Factors in Computer Systems, March 1982. 4. Covington, Michael A...Dynamo interface \\IF or MA Press \\1D&#60ESC> \\lAto return to the Main Menu! \\IF 53 end DUCEY %I I if %1 = key0lb goto -topi PD PROJBCT.DYN retum -%0-4

  20. A Non-parametric Analysis of Morbidity/Mortality Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    Contribution 1 (0,0,0,0) T= ru D= r, PUs U 2 (1,0,0,0) T< ru D= r, EPqs q=1 min(I,s) 3 (0,1,0,0) T> ru D= r, E Pqs q=u S 4 (0,0,1,0) T= ru ru < D &#60 r, 5...r T_< rs5 D E -Pqe q=1 t=s min(I,s) s 9 (0,1,1,0) T> ru T< D &#60 rs Y pqS q=u I=q S J 10 (0,1,0,1) T> ru T_< r, _5 D E 1- pq q=u -=s 11 (0,0,1,1) T= ru...ru < rL • D &#60 rs 1 pu I=L U S 12 (1,1,1,0) rL :5 T < ru T< D &#60_ rs E -Pq q=L I=q U J 13 (1,1,0,1) rL •_ T <_ r r <_ r, :_ D E 1- Pqt q=L I=s 5 Table 1

  1. ILIR Task of Digital Recoil Travel Measurement System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    8217 . ."c"’S9FEA4D&#60 LU. 14 f",:N 000 F(’ IKONS ,EQ, :£4 ," ,A’ Ll.h ,:. .. O;,G O 1 .. 1 0 ***. TE DATA T10 Jf)%:jL"’]." 3 *CA-LL PTPRr4’ L1.. ’ t iE

  2. Evaluation of an Air Force Information Resources Management (IRM) Overview Course.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    consistency estimate of reliability to determine the reliability of the instrument. Specifically, the Kuder - Richardson formula 20 was used to estimate the...38 Appendix C: 160-Item Measurement Instrument ( Reliability Test ) ............................ 39 Appendix D: 60-Item Measurement Instrument (Pretest...34 Greater reliability than other test items, multiple-choice tests are both objective and less susceptible to guessing effects. (Aiken, 1987:44) Pool

  3. Sustainability: Land Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-24

    UNCLASSIFIED -- I 10 -=-oOTPRINT ( MMF ) Mission Sustainment Awareness Area • • • I , t I ’ I li’mmc:JmD&#60»I1): ... --· .-. \\ ,’ /f...8217. .’" , .. . . . . Aqula Harbour , , MCB Quantico Notification Area MMF Legend Flight Tracks - FixedW1ng - Rot;wy Wing TBS :::_-, FIXed Wing Alea

  4. (S)-2-Amino-6-nitrohexanoic Acid Binds to Human Arginase I through Multiple Nitro−Metal Coordination Interactions in the Binuclear Manganese Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharian, T.; Di Costanzo, L; Christianson, D

    2008-01-01

    The binding affinity of (S)-2-amino-6-nitrohexanoic acid to human arginase I was studied using surface plasmon resonance (K{sub d} = 60 {mu}M), and the X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme-inhibitor complex was determined at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution to reveal multiple nitro-metal coordination interactions.

  5. AKARI/AcuA PHYSICAL STUDIES OF THE CYBELE ASTEROID FAMILY

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Mueller, Thomas G.; Ishiguro, Masateru

    2012-06-15

    We present a study of 107 Cybele asteroids based on the archival database 'Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA)' taken by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite. The database provides diameters D > 10 km, geometric albedos, and taxonomic information (75%) of the Cybeles. We find taxonomic diversity (mainly C-, D-, and P-type) in the population of 78 small Cybeles with diameters 10 km <D < 80 km. Their cumulative power-law size distribution index shows a shallow value of 0.86 {+-} 0.03. By contrast, 29 large Cybeles with D > 80 km are mostly classified as C- or P-types (90%), with a power-law index of 2.39 {+-} 0.18. The total mass of Cybele asteroids is estimated to be {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Earth}. We also discuss the origin and formation process of the Cybele asteroid family.

  6. Fracture Toughness of Thin Plates by the Double-Torsion Test Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Radovic, Miladin; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Nelson, George

    2006-01-01

    Double torsion testing can produce fracture toughness values without crack length measurement that are comparable to those measured via standardized techniques such as the chevron-notch, surface-crack-in-flexure and precracked beam if the appropriate geometry is employed, and the material does not exhibit increasing crack growth resistance. Results to date indicate that 8 < W/d < 80 and L/W > 2 are required if crack length is not considered in stress intensity calculations. At L/W = 2, the normalized crack length should be 0.35 < a/L < 0.65; whereas for L/W = 3, 0.2 < a/L < 0.75 is acceptable. In addition, the load-points need to roll to reduce friction. For an alumina exhibiting increasing crack growth resistance, values corresponding to the plateau of the R-curve were measured. For very thin plates (W/d > 80) nonlinear effects were encountered.

  7. Quasiconformality and mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Dennis D.

    2010-09-15

    We identify universal quasiconformal (walking) behavior in non-Abelian gauge field theories based on the mass-dependent all-order {beta} function introduced in [D. D. Dietrich, Phys. Rev. D 80, 065032 (2009)]. We find different types of walking behavior in the presence of (partially) massive species. We employ our findings to the construction of candidate theories for dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by walking technicolor.

  8. The Shape of Shading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    the behaviors of isophotes (lines of equal brightness) and their relationship to i on For geometrical invariants of surfaces ([KvD80], [Yui89...appear the same. 1 I >’dil~tF LnAI/ Dist ometrical invariants of surfaces from isophotes . I assume similar restrictive assumptions on the reflectance...required. For additional families of surfaces, the individual isophotes , or lines of equal brightness, are identical to the contour lines on the surface

  9. Proceedings of an Occupational Analysis Seminar Held at Canberra, Australia, 17-20 September 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    September 1979. Guest speaker was Dr Raymond E. Christal of the United States Air Force Human Resources Laboratory in Texas. Dr Christal was Technical...and Youth Affairs. NOTE CONCERNING DR CHRISTAL ’ S PAPERS Dr Christal did not prepare formal papers for the symposium. Rather, he talked from notes and...pecillo ~(ii) CONTENTS: Page Opening Adrje .- MAJGEN J.C. Hughes, D80, MC 1 History of Job Survey and CODAP Analysis System) Dr R.E. Christal 3

  10. Conditional Belief Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    hypothetical knowledge , conditional probability, counterfactuals REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...spaces are closely related to the sphere models of counterfactual conditionals and to models of hypothetical knowledge . 3 Approved for public release...hypothetical knowledge . Keywords: Conditional probability; Type spaces; Hypothetical knowledge ; Counterfactuals JEL Classification: C70; C72; D80; D82

  11. Analysis of Aircraft Fuels and Related Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    9) Hypodermic syringes and needles (10) Laboratory detergent preparation for glassware 533...AFWAL-TR-82-2082 ANALYSIS OF AIRCR ’ELS AND RELATED MATERIALS F. Neil Hodgson, Edward A. Steinmetz. John D. Tobias, Billy B. Bowles, and Charlotte D...80 Discussion 80 7. Analysis of Rman Spectroscopy Data for Goodness-Of-Fit to Four Statistical Distributions 86 S. Analyses to Determine Cause of

  12. 30 CFR 931.15 - Approval of New Mexico regulatory program amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...),-40(a)(2); 80-1-20-97(b), (c); 80-1-31-21 through -24; July 12, 1990 Policy Statement. July 22, 1989...-29-16(a); 80-1-30-13(d); 80-1-31-17(b)(1), 18(b)(1); Policy Statement for Records and Retention. July... 26, 1994 February 15, 1995 CSMC 80-1-34-1 through 10. January 22, 1996 May 29, 1996 CSMC...

  13. An all-silica three element wide-field corrector for GMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Will; Gillingham, Peter; Lin, Sean; Woodruff, Bob; Rakich, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    We present an alternative Corrector-ADC design for GMT. The design consists of just 3 silica lenses, of maximum size 1.51m, and includes only a single low-precision asphere for 20' field-of-view, and none for 10'. The polychromatic (360nm-1300nm) image quality is d80<0.043" at zenith and d80<0.20" for ZD<60 degrees. The monochromatic image quality is d80<0.1" everywhere, and typically 0.05". The ADC action is achieved by tilt and translation of all three lenses; L1 and L2 via simple slide mechanisms each using a single encoded actuator, and L3 via a novel `tracker-ball' support and three actuators. There is also a small motion of M2 via the hexapod, automatically generated by the AGWS system. The ADC action causes a small non-telecentricity, but this is much less than the unavoidable chromatic effects shared with the baseline design. The ADC action also changes the distortion pattern of the telescope, but this can be used positively, to reduce the maximum image motion due to differential refraction by a factor of three. The transmission is superb at all wavelengths, because of the reduced number of air/glass surfaces, and the use only of fused silica.

  14. Oxygen and strontium isotopic studies of basaltic lavas from the Snake River plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeman, William P.; Whelan, Joseph F.

    1983-01-01

    The Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton of the southern Snake Range crops out over an area of about 30 km2, about 60 km southeast of Ely, Nev. This Jurassic intrusion displays large and systematic chemical and mineralogical zonation over a horizontal distance of 5 km. Major-element variations compare closely with Dalyls average andesite-dacite-rhyolite over an SiO2 range of 63 to 76 percent. For various reasons it was originally thought that assimilation played a dominant role in development of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton. However, based on modeling of more recently obtained trace element and isotopic data, we have concluded that the zonation is the result of in-situ fractional crystallization, with little assimilation at the level of crystallization. This report summarizes data available for each of the mineral species present in the zoned intrusion. Special attention has been paid to trends We present oxygen and strontium isotopic data for olivine tholeiites, evolved (that is, differentiated and (or) contaminated) lavas, rhyolites, and crustal- derived xenoliths from the Snake River Plain. These data show that the olivine tholeiites are fairly uniform in d80 (5.1 to 6.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7056 to 0.7076) and reveal no correlation between these ratios. The tholeiites are considered representative of mantle-derived magmas that have not interacted significantly with crustal material or meteoric water. The evolved lavas display a wider range in d 80 (5.6 to 7.6) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.708 to 0.717) with positive correlations between these ratios in some suites but not in others. Crustal xenoliths have high and variable 8?Sr/86Sr (0.715 to 0.830) and d80 values that vary widely (6.7 to 9.2) and are a few permil greater than d80 values of the Snake River basalts. Thus, isotopic data for the evolved lavas are permissive of small degrees of contamination by crustal rocks similar to the most d80-depleted xenoliths. The d80 enrichments in some evolved lavas also are

  15. The role of coherent structures in the generation of noise for subsonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Whitaker, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    Acoustic measurements were made in the 'near' (r/D 60, x/D 60) field for high Reynolds number (184,000 to 262,000) axisymmetric cold air jets exhausting at atmospheric pressure. These measurements were in conjunction with an investigation which characterized the large scale coherent structure in the flow field of Mach number 0.6 to 0.8 jets. Natural jets as well as artificially excited jets were studied. Directivity plots were made for both natural jets and jets excited at various frequencies. Overall noise radiated by the jets reached a maximum value around 30 deg from the jet axis. However, individual frequencies emitted maximum sound pressure level at different angles from the jet axis. As the angle from the jet axis increased, the spectra of the noise shifted to higher frequencies.

  16. Scheduling and Coordination of Multiple Dynamic Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    x,v)+ CPj (x)]. Hence, C(DL-xuvk) +Yj (x ) >C(D 2 -x 2 , k ) + CP (x2). Consider the following two cases: 24 Case 1: D&#60x +iE d. ThenD &#60D2 implies ±Zd...C(D,vyk) f- C (D2 -x 2 ,’Z k ) . Furthermore, hence, x is in the domain of Yj. which implies cPj (x) S 9j (x 2) Since D-Dl-x we have C (Dl-x,Vk) +(Pj...D n - x,Vk) + Yj (£n) - j (Xn) -c(D - x n yk -C (D n - x𔃾) + cj (dn - cpj (xn), where the last inequality results from lemma 5. Since both C(.,4

  17. A Steady State and Dynamic Analysis of a Mooring System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-25

    element of eabla subject to weight and ataady hydro - dynamic forces are given aa: d &&#60*< I £*m d> -X+^^w) (J, dLT — yUr.^^^ - -jj-^TfoL £*7ir...t a «a e c o « H > • ::§ * * f ? **!££: ! »> — — — «.-»«-•» - ~ «. («punod) aoTBaax S — -^-.^ • . •T?? wrf

  18. High Power Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hower, P. L.; Kao, Y. C.; Carnahan, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Improved switching transistors handle 400-A peak currents and up to 1,200 V. Using large diameter silicon wafers with twice effective area as D60T, form basis for D7 family of power switching transistors. Package includes npn wafer, emitter preform, and base-contact insert. Applications are: 25to 50-kilowatt high-frequency dc/dc inverters, VSCF converters, and motor controllers for electrical vehicles.

  19. Design of an Integrated Division-Level Battle Simulation for Research, Development, and Training. Volume 2. Detailed Design Notes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    information will be included in paragraph 3. D-52 54 NUCLEAR WARNING ORDER 0. Nuclear W1arning Order Number A. Code Word (--> Nuclear Strike) D. DTG of...movement, passed check point, passed phase line, passed line of departure, assembly area, closed new position. D-60 t.sea p ILL,- 61 LOSS CONTACT WITH...Lost/Destroyed During Reporting Period 3. Quantity Inoperable Because of Deficiency 4. Quantity of ŗ" not Repairable Because of Lack of Parts/ Assemblies

  20. Construction and Evaluation of Content Addressable Memories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    M :: A A :: M M = Memory bit specified by d*&#60es 1 M := B B := M A = A tag register M := X X M B = B tag register 3 M := Y Y := M X = X tag...register 4 M := C A M Y = Y tag register 5 M : B B :: M C = broadcast Comparand Underline indicates jam transfer Non-Memory to Register Operations Op code...Activity register 0 i A:’=1 B - riQcondary Activity

  1. A Prediction of Response of the Head and Neck of the U.S. Adult Military Population to Dynamic Impact Acceleration from Selected Dynamic Test Subjects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    Flexion (Top), Extension (Middle), and Lateral Bending (Bottom) 27 2.7 Typical EMG and Force Results from Isometric Strength Tests 28 3.1 MVMA-2D...60.5 degrees respectively aE measured from the Frankfort Plane position. Reflex times were similar for flexion, extension, and lateral bend , being 53.5...ztrengths were in extension where the average is about 33% yrcater than in flexion or lateral bend . Where appropriate, these measurement results for 5

  2. An Evaluation of the New ’Multi-Restaurant’ Food Service System for the Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    From Group Each Day) Ham and Cheese Sandwich Fishwich or Cheese Fishwich Grilled Cheese Hot Roast Beef on Seeded Bun (oven roast ) Ham Sandwich on...Seeded Bun Sliced Roast Turkey Sandwich Side Orders Boston Baked Beans French Fried Potatoes French Fried Onion Rings Salads and Desserts Use...i <r <x « 4> Cramped o. Pleasant view <!• « <D &#60P i Unpleasant view p. Low number of safety H

  3. Effects of the supplementation of vitamin D3 on the growth and vitamin D metabolites in juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Wang, Liansheng; Xu, Hong; Wang, Yang; Wang, Chang'an; Li, Jinnan; Zhao, Zhigang; Luo, Liang; Du, Xue; Xu, Qiyou

    2017-01-23

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the supplementation of vitamin D3 on the growth, vitamin D metabolites, and osteocalcin secretion in juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). A 90-day growth trial was conducted with juvenile Siberian sturgeon (initial body weight 3.47 ± 0.14 g) fed seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic practical diets (45% CP and 13% lipid) containing 60 (basal diet), 240, 450, 880, 1670, 3300, or 1.0 × 10(5) IU/kg feed (D60~D 1.0 × 10(5)) vitamin D3. The results showed that weight gain and specific growth rate increased as the dietary vitamin D3 levels increased from 450 to 3300 IU/kg (P < 0.05). The fish fed with D1670 and D3300 diets had higher crude lipid and ash levels than the fish fed the D60 diet (P < 0.05). The fish fed D880, D1670, or D3300 diets had higher 25-OH-D3 and 1,25-(OH)2-D3 levels than the fish fed the D60 diet (P < 0.05). The fish fed D880, D1670, D3300, or D1.0 × 10(5) diets had higher osteocalcin levels than the fish fed the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Based on the broken line method analysis of weight gain and osteocalcin, the dietary vitamin D3 requirement of juvenile Siberian sturgeon was estimated to be 1683.30 and 1403.27 IU/kg per diet, respectively.

  4. A Study of Adaptive Relevance Feedback - UIUC TREC-2008 Relevance Feedback Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    1− β)αf + βαd where if αd &#60 αf , β = 1; otherwise β = 0. 5. EXPERIMENT RESULTS 5.1 Data Preprocessing We employ the Lemur toolkit (version 4.5) and... Lemur toolkit, we adopt the KL-Divergence retrieval model with mixture model feedback to do relevance feed- back experiments (related parameters are

  5. Survival, growth, and thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in products containing peanut and chocolate.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Stephen J; Beuchat, Larry R

    2004-10-01

    Outbreaks of listeriosis associated with the consumption of ready-to-eat foods have raised interest in determining growth, survival, and inactivation characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in a wide range of products. A study was undertaken to determine the thermal tolerance of L. monocytogenes in a peanut-based beverage (3.1% fat), whole-fat (3.5%) milk, wholefat (4.0%) and reduced-fat (1.0%) chocolate milk, a chocolate-peanut spread (39% fat), and peanut butter (53% fat). The D60 degrees C value (decimal reduction time at 60 degrees C) in peanut beverage (3.2 min) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) than the D60 degrees C value in whole-fat milk (3.3 min) or whole-fat chocolate milk (4.5 min) but significantly lower (P < or = 0.05) than the D60 degrees C value in reduced-fat chocolate milk (5.9 min). The pathogen was significantly more resistant to heat when enmeshed in chocolate-peanut spread (water activity [aw] of 0.46; D60 degrees C = 37.5 min) and peanut butter (aw of 0.32; D60 degrees C = 26.0 min) than in liquid products. At 10 degrees C, the pathogen grew most rapidly in whole-fat chocolate milk and slowest in peanut beverage. At 22 degrees C, populations increased significantly within 12 and 16 h in whole-fat milk and reduced-fat chocolate milk, respectively, and within 8 h in whole-fat chocolate milk and peanut beverage. Initial populations (3.37 to 4.42 log CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in chocolate-peanut spread and peanut butter adjusted to an aw of 0.33 and 0.65 declined, but the pathogen was not eliminated during a 24-week period at 20 degrees C. Survival was enhanced at reduced aw. Results indicate that a pasteurization process similar to that used for full-fat milk would be adequate to ensure the destruction of L. monocytogenes in peanut beverage. The pathogen survives for at least 24 weeks in chocolate-peanut spread and peanut butter at an aw range that encompasses that found in these products.

  6. Maternal stress during late gestation has moderate but long-lasting effects on the immune system of the piglets.

    PubMed

    Couret, David; Jamin, Agnès; Kuntz-Simon, Gaëlle; Prunier, Armelle; Merlot, Elodie

    2009-09-15

    Events acting prenatally on developing foetuses are important determinants for disorders later in life. Prenatal stress (PNS) is one of these events. The purpose of this study was to determine the consequences of a repeated social stress applied during late gestation of the pregnant gilt on the immune system and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity of the piglets from birth to two months of age. Pregnant gilts were submitted to repeated social stress which was induced by housing unfamiliar gilts in pairs modified twice a week during 4 weeks between days 77 and 105 of gestation (S group, n=18). Control gilts were housed in stable pairs during the same period (C group, n=18). Blood cortisol, haptoglobin and IgG levels, immune cell counts, mitogen-induced whole-blood proliferation and TNF-alpha production were evaluated in piglets at 4 days of age (D4), before and after weaning (D26 and 28) and before and after relocation to a new building (D60 and 62). We found that PNS did not affect growth rate of the progeny. It decreased the relative weight of adrenal glands on D4 (P<0.05) but plasma cortisol levels were similar in both groups at all ages. IgG levels in colostrum and in the serum of piglets were not affected. PNS decreased the total numbers of white blood cells, lymphocytes and granulocytes from D26 to D60 (P<0.05), the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell ratio on D4 (P<0.05), and LPS induced-TNF-alpha production on D60 (P<0.05). PNS increased the ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation on D4 and D60 and the PWM-induced proliferation on D60 (P<0.05). Our results demonstrate that a repeated social stress applied to pregnant sows during late gestation can induce long-lasting effects on several parameters of the immune function of the offspring. These effects are not due to modifications of the HPA axis activity and may impair the abilities of the piglets to efficiently react against infections during the suckling period and around weaning.

  7. Effects of inorganic or organic selenium on immunoglobulins in swine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if Se source fed during gestation and lactation affects passive transfer of immunoglobulins. Sixty days prior to breeding (d -60), gilts were randomly assigned to one of three treatments prior to breeding and throughout gestation: control (Control, no supplemental Se; n = 8), inorganic Se (Inorganic Se, 0.3 ppm; n = 4) and organic Se (Organic Se, 0.3 ppm; n = 4). Blood was collected on d -60, 57 and 113 of gestation and on d 21 of lactation and milk was collected at d 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 of lactation. Blood was collected from piglets at d 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 of age. Gilts fed organic Se had greater (P < 0.05) circulating concentrations of Se than Inorganic and Control gilts. Regardless of treatment, circulating concentrations of Se were greatest (P < 0.05) at d -60 compared to all other days. Serum concentrations of IgG were greatest (P < 0.05) in gilts at d 57 of gestation compared to d 113. Serum concentrations of IgA were greatest (P < 0.05) on d 113 of gestation and d 21 of lactation compared to d -60 and 57. Serum concentrations of IgM were greater (P < 0.05) at d 57 compared to d -60. Inorganic gilts had greater (P < 0.05) colostral and milk concentrations of IgG and IgM than Organic or Control gilts. Circulating concentrations of Se in piglets were greatest (P < 0.05) at d 14 and 21 of age compared to all other days. Piglets from gilts supplemented with organic Se had greater (P < 0.05) circulating concentrations of Se on d 1 versus piglets from gilts supplemented with no additional Se. The immunoglobulin concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgM were lowest (P < 0.05) on d 0 and then increased when compared to d 1. The addition of different sources of Se did not affect the immunoglobulin concentrations in the gilt or piglet. PMID:24280099

  8. Simultaneous and successive inoculations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation of an unsulfited Tannat grape must

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Viviana; Beccaria, Bruno; Abreo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are strain specific, and their outcome is expected to change in simultaneous alcoholic - malolactic fermentations from the pattern observed in successive fermentations. One Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin VP41™ was inoculated with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains either simultaneously, three days after the yeast inoculation, or when alcoholic fermentation was close to finish. Early bacterial inoculations with each yeast strain allowed for the growth of the bacterial populations, and the length of malolactic fermentation was reduced to six days. Alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® yeast strain left the highest residual sugar, suggesting a negative effect of the bacterial growth and malolactic activity on its performance. In sequential inoculations the bacterial populations did not show actual growth with either yeast strain. In this strategy, both yeast strains finished the alcoholic fermentations, and malolactic fermentations took longer to finish. Lalvin ICV D80® allowed for higher viability and activity of the bacterial strain than Fermicru UY4® under the three inoculation strategies. This was beneficial for the sequential completion of both fermentations, but negatively affected the completion of alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® in the early bacteria additions. Conversely, Fermicru UY4®, which was rather inhibitory towards the bacteria, favored the timely completion of both fermentations simultaneously. As bacteria in early inoculations with low or no SO2 addition can be expected to multiply and interact with fermenting yeasts, not only are the yeast-bacterium strains combination and time point of the inoculation to be considered, but also the amount of bacteria inoculated. PMID:24948914

  9. Terminology and Assessment Methods of Solid Propellant Rocket Exhaust Signatures (Methodes d’Evaluation des Signatures des Propulseurs a Propergol Solide)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    11 69D-80tJ0 Mu~nchcn 80 Spain Mr D,M. Barreiros Dr R. Dirscherl Departemento Energia y Deutsche Aerospace Propulsion Abteilung VAR 331 INTA Postfach... Solar scattering from less thtan a factor at I1) for smokte bmoke a Search lightl effert Near infrared S Glood S Poor P lrobably figir but relatively...rotational systems 8.01 to00o or solar aind earthishine regioni lredictiolls cai be made to a (1 Molecular Ilybrlde relatioii factor or 5 (I F. I [CI 1120) a

  10. High Voltage TAL Erosion Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Extended operation of a D-80 anode layer thruster at high voltage was investigated. The thruster was operated for 1200 hours at 700 Volts and 4 Amperes. Laser profilometry was employed to quantify the erosion of the thruster's graphite guard rings and electrodes at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 hours. Thruster performance and electrical characteristics were monitored over the duration of the investigation. The guard rings exhibited asymmetric erosion that was greatest in the region of the cathode. Erosion of the guard rings exposed the magnet poles between 600 to 900 hours of operation.

  11. USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbooks. F-16B In-Flight Crew Noise. Volume 146

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    data processing and Mrs. Norma Peachey who typed this report and prepared it for publication. ;L ___ _ be" W 1 I H: III I - UnFUTM TABLE OF CONTENTS...1 I3 I w~~0 A 0 0 , I I * N . J . 0 * 0 C* 8) 0 5 I I z . 0 L) 12 4.5I D 80 A (e Ii f.1 1 0 . I cm W I 0 .J b’I~.0 0 Cr N .4%0O0 8..*~ ISO r N0goC Y

  12. Linking the hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a dissipative relativistic conformal theory

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetta, E.; Peralta-Ramos, J.

    2010-11-15

    We use the entropy production variational method to associate a one-particle distribution function to the assumed known energy-momentum and entropy currents describing a relativistic conformal fluid. Assuming a simple form for the collision operator we find this one-particle distribution function explicitly, and show that this method of linking the hydro and kinetic descriptions is a nontrivial generalization of Grad's ansatz. The resulting constitutive relations are the same as in the conformal dissipative type theories discussed by J. Peralta-Ramos and E. Calzetta [Phys. Rev. D 80, 126002 (2009)]. Our results may prove useful in the description of freeze-out in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  13. Don’t Tug on Superman’s Cape: In Defense of Convening Authority Selection and Appointment of Court-Martial Panel Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    newspaper libel case, this time from Puerto Rico. In Balzac v. People of Porto Rico [sic],277 the appellant had been tried for misdemeanor libel in a...and Balzac are still valid.283 While they do not apply per se to courts-martial, they do illustrate that the Court applies a different Constitutional...States, 229 F.3d 80, 87 (3d Cir. 2000) (noting that the "fundamental rights" doctrine of Balzac and Dorr still applies to Puerto Rico today). 61 that

  14. Thermal effective action for 1+1 dimensional massive QED

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Ashok

    2010-12-15

    In continuation of our earlier proposal [A. Das and J. Frenkel, Phys. Lett. B 680, 195 (2009).] and [A. Das and J. Frenkel, Phys. Rev. D 80, 125039 (2009).] for evaluating thermal effective actions, we determine the exact fermion propagator in 1+1 dimensional massive QED. This propagator is used to derive the finite temperature effective action of the theory which generates systematically all the one loop Feynman amplitudes calculated in thermal perturbation theory. Various aspects of the effective action, including its imaginary part are discussed.

  15. A purely reflective large wide-field telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebizh, V. Yu.

    2008-06-01

    Two versions of a fast, purely reflective Paul-Baker-type telescope are discussed, each with an 8.4-m aperture, 3° diameter flat field and f/1.25 focal ratio. The first version is based on a common, even asphere type of surface with zero conic constant. The primary and tertiary mirrors are 6th order aspheres, while the secondary mirror is an 8th order asphere (referred to here for brevity, as the 6/8/6 configuration). The D 80 diameter of a star image varies from 0″.18 on the optical axis up to 0″.27 at the edge of the field (9.3-13.5 μm). The second version of the telescope is based on a polysag surface type, which uses a polynomial expansion in the sag z, r^2 = 2R_0 z - left( {1 + b} right)z^2 + a_3 z^3 + a_4 z^3 + a_4 z^4 + ldots + a_N z^N instead of the common form of aspheric surface. This approach results in somewhat better images, with D 80 ranging from 0″.16 to 0″.23, using a lower-order 3/4/3 combination of powers for the mirror surfaces. An additional example with 3.5-m aperture, 3°.5 diameter flat field, and f/1.25 focal ratio featuring near-diffraction-limited image quality is also presented.

  16. Oxygen enhancement ratio for d(800) + (Be + Ta) and d(800) + (Ta + Be) neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, G.H.; Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K.

    1980-07-01

    Specialized experiments were performed to determine whether the neutron oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) changes significantly as the mean energy increases above 25 MeV. The experimental design called for OER measurements at two energies in the same experiment. The neutron production reaction d(80) + (Be + Ta) generated a beam with mean energy 38 MeV; upon rotation of the target, d(80) + (Ta + Be) neutrons were generated with mean energy 25 MeV. Suspensions of the bacterium Serratia marcesens were irradiated in oxic-hypoxic pairs, alternately with high- and lower-energy neutrons. Replicate experiments yielded OER values and 95% confidence limits of 2.25 (2.05, 2.50) at 25 MeV and 1.67 (1.57, 1.79) at 38 MeV. The x-ray OER was 3.3 (3.1, 3.5). The significant decrease in OER supports our results with Vicia faba showing OER values of 1.7, 1.4, and 2.6 for 25- and 38-MeV neutrons and for x rays, respectively. The yield of spallation products with mass number 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11 arising from neutrons interacting in tissue was analyzed. The tissue kerma from such product contribute kerma equal to 15 to 30% of the recoil proton kerma and thus may provide the physical basis for the observed OER reduction at high neutron energies.

  17. Adversity and Adjustment in Children in Institutions, Family Foster Care, and Adoption.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Morago, Jesús M; León, Esperanza; Román, Maite

    2015-06-22

    This study's objective was to identify the adversity profiles of children in different childcare placements, and to analyze their relationship with subsequent psychological adjustment. We studied a group of 230 children 4 to 10 years old indifferent childcare placements (international adoption, institutional care, non-kin foster care, and kinship care), as well as a control group. Information was collected from parent or caregiver interviews and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The results showed that children in the child welfare system had experienced significant adversity before their current placement, especially among institutional care cases and international adoptees. Meanwhile, children in kinship care had experienced less adversity (p .50 to d > .80). After a period of time in their respective placements, children's psychological adjustment was generally positive, but children living in institutional care exhibited the most problems and difficulties, followed by non-kin foster care cases (p .50 to d > .80). Finally, we found that children's early adversity levels (p < .05; r = .16), age of current placement (p < .01; r = .23), and duration of current placement (p < .05: r = -.19) were all tied to current psychological adjustment.

  18. Optimize Operating Conditions on Fine Particle Grinding Process with Vertically Stirred Media Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Rowson, Neil; Ingram, Andy

    2016-11-01

    Stirred media mill recently is commonly utilized among mining process due to its high stressing intensity and efficiency. However, the relationship between size reduction and flow pattern within the mixing pot is still not fully understand. Thus, this work investigates fine particle grinding process within vertically stirred media mills by altering stirrer geometry, tip speed and solids loading. Positron Emitting Particle Tracking (PEPT) technology is utilized to plot routine of particles velocity map. By tacking trajectory of a single particle movement within the mixing vessel, the overall flow pattern is possible to be plotted. Ground calcium carbonate, a main product of Imerys, is chosen as feeding material (feed size D80 30um) mixed with water to form high viscous suspension. To obtain fine size product (normally D80 approximately 2um), large amount of energy is drawn by grinding mill to break particles through impact, shear attrition or compression or a combination of them. The results indicate higher energy efficient is obtained with more dilute suspension. The optimized stirrer proves more energy-saving performance by altering the slurry circulate. Imerys Minerals Limited.

  19. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 11. (Kalidescope Shipping, Inc.-Lous Electronics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Coo) 0000)4 0) 8-0))00) >0 0)<)4 00 0004 C 0004 44 is 1 0 -) :, 00 00 C000P- g- 400 000009- -.100 0000000000- 300 00 0is- 200009- 2009 - 3m.o I) M" 00...t- r- P.- 10 -zt -* -1 (n 04 N cj 0 1 , r- :50 1 N, 100 w < In c fl- r- r- I’, I - r- r- r- r- r.. P, w 00 00 -.4 r, r r cimm 0 Cl) C1) 40 1 M(D&#60 :1

  20. The 1996 Survey of Threatened and Endangered Species on Army Lands: A Summary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    improvement, refining question content, and expanding survey instructions. Pretests helped ascertain if the questions could be answered and showed how...Clm Cd C -r) C.J Cd C a0a) 0O 0 -o -u 0 0 o 0 0cc E (D AD to Li a) CD C D - C CDd- - a ) C d C ) N0. ~ ~ ~ r CD N(D C -- 0 0 D 05 0E OIL CD CD CD <D &#60D...PORT AMARANTHUS PUMILUS SEABEACH AMARANTH T PLA C COMMAND, SUNNY POINT MTMC 1303D MAJOR PORT CARETTA CARETTA LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE T REP C COMMAND

  1. Viability of Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes surviving mild heat or aqueous ozone treatment on beef followed by heat, alkali, or salt stress.

    PubMed

    Novak, John S; Yuan, James T C

    2003-03-01

    The threat of pathogen survival following ozone treatment of meat necessitates careful evaluation of the microorganisms surviving under such circumstances. The objective of this study was to determine whether sublethal aqueous ozone treatment (3 ppm of O3 for 5 min) of microorganisms on beef surfaces would result in increased or decreased survival with respect to subsequent heat, alkali, or NaCl stress. A mild heat treatment (55 degrees C for 30 min) was used for comparison. Reductions in three-strain cocktails of Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on beef following the heat treatment were 0.14, 0.77, and 1.47 log10 CFU/g, respectively, whereas reductions following ozone treatment were 1.28, 0.85, and 1.09 log10 CFU/g, respectively. C. perfringens cells exhibited elevated heat resistance at 60 degrees C (D60 [time at 60 degrees C required to reduce the viable cell population by 1 log10 units or 90%] = 17.76 min) following heat treatment of beef (55 degrees C for 30 min) but exhibited reduced viability at 60 degrees C following ozone treatment (D60 = 7.64 min) compared with the viability of untreated control cells (D60 = 13.84 min). The D60-values for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 following heat and ozone exposures were not significantly different (P > 0.05). C. perfringens cells that survived ozone treatment did not exhibit increased resistance to pH (pH 6 to 12) relative to non-ozone-treated cells when grown at 37 degrees C for 24 h. The heat treatment also resulted in decreased numbers of surviving cells above and below neutral pH values for both E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes relative to those of non-heat-treated cells grown at 37 degrees C for 24 h. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in C. perfringens reductions with increasing NaCl concentrations. The effects of NaCl were less apparent for E. coli and L. monocytogenes survivors. It is concluded that pathogens surviving ozone treatment of beef

  2. Brazil’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    energy, and various renewable energies (aeolian, biomass, biodiesel, hydrogen, solar ). From 2003 to 2005, funding for the energy sectorial fund...Minas e Energia , “Biodiesel: The New Fuel from Brazil” (Brasília: n.d.). &#60http://www.biodiesel.gov.br/docs/cartilha_ingles.pdf> (accessed on October 5...Tecnologia, “ Energia e Recursos Minerais: Introdução” (Brasília: 2006). <http://www.mct.gov.br/index.php/content/view/5066.html> (accessed on October

  3. Supertank Laboratory Data Collection Project. Volume 2. Appendices A-I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    to ca c m wm w w m m co .0 0000 0 0 0 0 00 0 0000 (𔃾~ ~~ ~~~~ 0 0 0 I ) 0 4 t . ) U f d 60 00 0 00 0 00 -~~9 -, -. N - - - - - - 100 ~0 H14 Appendix...Soatierftu S4,ankpi (db) Raktw Seeirnift S- bti (db) hmspot-c of Scat. Stre1h(i3l30c iwb6m0 v Pa,11w"qIN S1V~ le0l’. 10’ IV’ Freqmay (Hit) H6 1 Appendix H

  4. Aero-Hydroacoustics for Ships. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Report) 10. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Corl,t.’iu on ree a ide if necessary and Identify by block number) Aeroacoutics Lifting Surface Noise...A at Reynolds numbers near 105 by Davies, Fisher, and Barratt I1 2 1 1 7 . _. .. . and by Laurence also give 1 0.13 yl for D &#60 v < 6D, independently...of radial location from the centerline. 117 A radial integral scale, given by Laurence , is A r 0.05 yl S where SA ; R(O,r ,0,O;y) drr r’ P ; r. . 0

  5. Theoretical Analysis of Microwave Propagation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    surface integral over S and B, aG~rrr u~r =-f (I:~ - dr S+B a On B both u(r) and G(r,rp) satisfy a homogeneous boundary p condition of the form Du() a...normal to the beam, is A = D So 6 hR cos BR For a line-of-sight ray in a homogeneous medium, we would have A LOS (D cosOT 6 )(D 60T0) A-17 6 - - ! E...The rollowing approach can then be used to evaluate the worst case performance: 1. Find all eigenrays and evaluate their amplitudes and delays using

  6. Structural Analysis of Natural Textures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    172227 3Z837 23718a173887 337 8 7 12 178287 3837 D60 395 416 960 462 403 Element Spacing Element Size Figure 2-21. Wool 1 ERA Graphs 72 rs 2 712 172287...D 4 D 15 PIXEL LINE E E Epq =.i z p=q=.2 p q x3 .5- .3 2 3 4 5 6 D D D 23 PIXEL LINE E = E p~q=.2 E p-q=1 .5 2 3 4 5 6 D 4 D 4 D 28 PIXEL LINE Figure

  7. Field Demonstration Test Report for the AN/TRN-41 TACAN Navigational Set

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-14

    8217■- ’-■-»’-’■«"-"»« ^■„„„^»m.^, i IT imiiiriiMii mmmm mmvt.mMimvti\\i\\. „Muummmmmmm - i 8 x ♦- c c e& III us Ul Q. > D- &#60N o <- ♦* c ■n * 11 > x a < S ... op C V E * E 3 C E in m > x c a < 1? o z 00 > X a < CM > X ■a I a < x ɘ E c E a 10 < a c a> a a

  8. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies (16th) Held in Hiroshima, Japan on April 22-25, 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-25

    distribution of fluid proper- a free surface regi n a d a bo y region (Fig. 1). In ties in the computational domain , the actual location t frmerfthe...f( d ) =f if d &#60 -• and (matching region) of the two domains can exist. f( d ) = (f. + fa)12 + (f. - fa)/2 sin(7rd/(23)) To illustrate the matching...fluid domain is split in two regions, separated arbitrary by an interface OD. The platforms stays in the region D - and the region towards infinity is

  9. Semiannual Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-21

    Aviation Security Program -s fro January 1 -June 30, 1983 c> CD C_3 LU DTIC ELECTE NOV 1 8 1983 D &#60sS^ B Washington, O.C. 20691 October...Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program 7. A-.W.) Aviation Security Division V. P»tf»m..»» 0>|fi •« Nam» «n4 Aa^rai» DOT/Federal...Aviation Administration Office of Civil Aviation Security 800 Independence Avenue, SW. Washington, P.C. 20591 1. ••€•*.»•<•’• Caiala*. Na. S.

  10. Phenotypic correlations between ovum pick-up in vitro production traits and pregnancy rates in Zebu cows.

    PubMed

    Vega, W H O; Quirino, C R; Serapião, R V; Oliveira, C S; Pacheco, A

    2015-07-03

    The growth of the Gyr breed in Brazil in terms of genetic gain for milk, along with conditions for market, has led to the use of ovum pick-up in vitro production (OPU-IVP) as a leader in biotechnology for the multiplication of genetic material. The aim of this study was to investigate phenotypic correlations between OPU-IVP-linked characteristics and pregnancy rates registered in an embryo transfer program using Gyr cows as oocyte donors. Data collected from 211 OPU sessions and 298 embryo transfers during the years 2012 and 2013 were analyzed and statistical analysis was performed. Estimates of simple Pearson correlations were calculated for NVcoc and PVcoc (number and proportion of viable cumulus-oocyte complexes, respectively); NcleavD4 and PcleavD4 (number and proportion of cleaved embryos on day 4 of culture, respectively); NTembD7 and PTembD7 (number and proportion of transferable embryos on day 7 of culture, respectively); NPrD30 and PPrD30 (number and proportion of pregnancies 30 days after transfer, respectively); and NPrD60 and PPrD60 (number and proportion of pregnancies 60 days after transfer, respectively). Moderate to moderately high correlations were found for all numerical characteristics, suggesting these as the most suitable parameters for selection of oocyte donors in Gyr programs. NVcoc is proposed as a selection trait due to positive correlations with percentage traits and pregnancy rates 30 and 60 days after transfer.

  11. Structural sequences are conserved in the genes coding for the alpha, alpha' and beta-subunits of the soybean 7S seed storage protein.

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, M A; Ladin, B F; Pollaco, J C; Freyer, G; Beachy, R N

    1982-01-01

    Cloned DNAs encoding four different proteins have been isolated from recombinant cDNA libraries constructed with Glycine max seed mRNAs. Two cloned DNAs code for the alpha and alpha'-subunits of the 7S seed storage protein (conglycinin). The other cloned cDNAs code for proteins which are synthesized in vitro as 68,000 d., 60,000 d. or 53,000 d. polypeptides. Hybrid selection experiments indicate that, under low stringency hybridization conditions, all four cDNAs hybridize with mRNAs for the alpha and alpha'-subunits and the 68,000 d., 60,000 d. and 53,000 d. in vitro translation products. Within three of the mRNA, there is a conserved sequence of 155 nucleotides which is responsible for this hybridization. The conserved nucleotides in the alpha and alpha'-subunit cDNAs and the 68,000 d. polypeptide cDNAs span both coding and noncoding sequences. The differences in the coding nucleotides outside the conserved region are extensive. This suggests that selective pressure to maintain the 155 conserved nucleotides has been influenced by the structure of the seed mRNA. RNA blot hybridizations demonstrate that mRNA encoding the other major subunit (beta) of the 7S seed storage protein also shares sequence homology with the conserved 155 nucleotide sequence of the alpha and alpha'-subunit mRNAs, but not with other coding sequences. Images PMID:6897678

  12. In vivo multiphoton imaging of human skin: assessment of topical corticosteroid-induced epidermis atrophy and depigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait El Madani, Hassan; Tancrède-Bohin, Emmanuelle; Bensussan, Armand; Colonna, Anne; Dupuy, Alain; Bagot, Martine; Pena, Ana-Maria

    2012-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged in the past decade as a promising tool for noninvasive skin imaging. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of multiphoton microscopy to detect topical corticosteroids side effects within the epidermis and to provide new insights into their dynamics. Healthy volunteers were topically treated with clobetasol propionate on a small region of their forearms under overnight occlusion for three weeks. The treated region of each patient was investigated at D0, D7, D15, D22 (end of the treatment), and D60. Our study shows that multiphoton microscopy allows for the detection of corticoid-induced epidermis modifications: thinning of stratum corneum compactum and epidermis, decrease of keratinocytes size, and changes in their morphology from D7 to D22. We also show that multiphoton microscopy enables in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative assessment of melanin content. We observe that melanin density decreases during treatment and almost completely disappears at D22. Moreover, these alterations are reversible as they are no longer present at D60. Our study demonstrates that multiphoton microscopy is a convenient and powerful tool for noninvasive 3-D dynamical studies of skin integrity and pigmentation.

  13. Feasibility of tungsten functional paper in electron grid therapy: a Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Mikoto; Monzen, Hajime; Kubo, Kazuki; Hirata, Makoto; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2017-02-01

    Electron grid therapy is expected to be a valid treatment for bulky superficial tumors. It is difficult, however, to fit irradiation fields to bulky superficial tumor shapes for conventional electron grid therapy with a cerrobend grid collimator. In this study, we investigated whether a grid collimator using tungsten functional paper (TFP), with its radiation shielding ability, could be used for electron grid therapy. Dose distributions were measured using 9 MeV electron grid beams from a cerrobend grid collimator. For the simulation study, the same grid irradiation fields were shaped using a TFP grid collimator (thicknesses of 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 cm) by laying them on a phantom. We then determined the dose distributions using Monte Carlo calculations and compared the cerrobend and TFP electron grid beams regarding dose distributions, including the depths of the maximum dose (d max), 90% dose (d 90), and 80% dose (d 80), and the ratios of the doses in the areas with and without shielding (valley to peak ratios). The equivalent dosimetric thickness was obtained with the TFP grid collimator that was equivalent to the dose distribution of the cerrobend grid collimator. For the cerrobend electron grid beams, the d max, d 90, and d 80 were 1.0, 2.1, and 2.5 cm, respectively, and the valley to peak ratios at those depths were 0.48, 0.66, and 0.73, respectively. The equivalent dosimetric thickness of TFP was 0.52 cm. The d max, d 90, and d 80 for the 0.52 cm thick TFP electron grid beams were 1.1, 1.9, and 2.3 cm, respectively, and the valley to peak ratios at those depths were 0.49, 0.63, and 0.71, respectively. The TFP grid collimator flexibly delivered excellent dose distributions by simply attaching it to the patient’s skin. It could thus be used for electron grid therapy instead of the cerrobend grid collimator.

  14. Deep eutectic solvent (DES) as a pretreatment for oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) in production of sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, Nur Atikah Md; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Hassan, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) at different parameters to enable a highest yield of sugar. DES is a combination of two or more cheap and safe components to form a eutectic mixture through hydrogen bond interaction, which has a melting point lower than that of each component. DES can be used to replace ionic liquids (ILs), which are more expensive and toxic. In this study, OPEFB was pretreated with DES mixture of choline chloride: urea in 1:2 molar ratio. The pretreatment was performed at temperature 110°C and 80°C for 4 hours and 1 hour. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour). Enzymatic hydrolysis was done by using the combination of two enzymes, namely, Cellic Ctec2 and Cellic Htec2. The treated fiber is tested for crystallinity using XRD and functional group analysis using FTIR, to check the effect of the pretreatment on the fiber and compared it with the untreated fiber. From XRD analysis, DES successfully gave an effect towards degree of crystallinity of cellulose. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours) and B (110°C, 1 hour) successfully reduce the percentage of crystallinity while pretreatment C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) increased the percentage of crystallinity. From FTIR analysis, DES cannot remove the functional group of lignin and hemicellulose but it is believed that DES can expose the structure of cellulose. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, DES-treated fiber successfully produced sugar but not significantly when compared with raw. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) produced glucose at the amount of 60.47 mg/ml, 66.33 mg/ml, 61.96 mg/ml and 59.12 mg/ml respectively. However, pretreatment C gave the highest xylose (70.01 mg/ml) production compared to other DES pretreatments.

  15. Feasibility of tungsten functional paper in electron grid therapy: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Mikoto; Monzen, Hajime; Kubo, Kazuki; Hirata, Makoto; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2017-02-07

    Electron grid therapy is expected to be a valid treatment for bulky superficial tumors. It is difficult, however, to fit irradiation fields to bulky superficial tumor shapes for conventional electron grid therapy with a cerrobend grid collimator. In this study, we investigated whether a grid collimator using tungsten functional paper (TFP), with its radiation shielding ability, could be used for electron grid therapy. Dose distributions were measured using 9 MeV electron grid beams from a cerrobend grid collimator. For the simulation study, the same grid irradiation fields were shaped using a TFP grid collimator (thicknesses of 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 cm) by laying them on a phantom. We then determined the dose distributions using Monte Carlo calculations and compared the cerrobend and TFP electron grid beams regarding dose distributions, including the depths of the maximum dose (d max), 90% dose (d 90), and 80% dose (d 80), and the ratios of the doses in the areas with and without shielding (valley to peak ratios). The equivalent dosimetric thickness was obtained with the TFP grid collimator that was equivalent to the dose distribution of the cerrobend grid collimator. For the cerrobend electron grid beams, the d max, d 90, and d 80 were 1.0, 2.1, and 2.5 cm, respectively, and the valley to peak ratios at those depths were 0.48, 0.66, and 0.73, respectively. The equivalent dosimetric thickness of TFP was 0.52 cm. The d max, d 90, and d 80 for the 0.52 cm thick TFP electron grid beams were 1.1, 1.9, and 2.3 cm, respectively, and the valley to peak ratios at those depths were 0.49, 0.63, and 0.71, respectively. The TFP grid collimator flexibly delivered excellent dose distributions by simply attaching it to the patient's skin. It could thus be used for electron grid therapy instead of the cerrobend grid collimator.

  16. Actions of thienyl analogs of baclofen in the guinea-pig isolated ileum.

    PubMed

    Ong, J; Kerr, D I; Berthelot, P; Vaccher, C; Flouquet, N; Debaert, M

    1992-08-06

    In guinea-pig isolated ileal preparations, the 5-methylthien-2-yl (5d), 5-bromothien-2-yl (5f) and 5-chlorothien-2-yl (5h) analogs of baclofen depressed twitch responses to field stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. These actions were reversibly and competitively antagonised by 2-hydroxysaclofen but not by naloxone, phentolamine, propranolol or theophylline. The relative potencies (EC50 values) were baclofen (10 microM) greater than 5h (40 microM) greater than 5d (80 microM) greater than 5f (120 microM). These analogs represent a novel class of specific GABAB receptor agonists which, like baclofen, should readily enter the brain.

  17. The use of neural networks to predict the particle-size distribution of coal ground in the PETC PRF hammermill

    SciTech Connect

    McKeegan, D.

    1996-04-01

    Sieve-analysis data obtained pursuant to grinding several types of coal using various settings of adjustable parameters on a hammer mill in PETC`s Process Research Facility were input to a neural-network simulation program in a variety of ways. The quality of the resulting particle-size predictions were tabulated and analyzed to determine which approach yielded the most accurate results. The simplicity of each approach was considered as a secondary factor. The most successful approaches yielded errors averaging 10 percent or less in the prediction of characteristic particle sizes such as the D-80 point. Generally speaking, the simpler approaches worked better, in that complicated manipulations of the input data produced either less accurate predictions or such small improvements in predictions that the extra effort seemed unjustified. Likely reasons for the success or failure of each approach are discussed. The methodology described could also prove useful for predicting coal particle sizes resulting from more complex grinding configurations.

  18. B{yields}X{sub s{gamma}} rate and CP asymmetry within the aligned two-Higgs-doublet model

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Martin; Pich, Antonio; Tuzon, Paula

    2011-04-01

    In the two-Higgs-doublet model the alignment of the Yukawa matrices in flavor space guarantees the absence of flavor-changing neutral currents at tree level, while introducing new sources for CP violation parametrized in a very economical way [Antonio Pich and Paula Tuzon, Phys. Rev. D 80, 091702 (2009)]. This implies a potentially large influence in a number of processes, b{yields}s{gamma} being a prominent example where rather high experimental and theoretical precision meet. We analyze the CP rate asymmetry in this inclusive decay and determine the resulting constraints on the model parameters. We demonstrate the compatibility with previously obtained limits [Martin Jung, Antonio Pich, and Paula Tuzon, J. High Energy Phys. 11 (2010) 003]. Moreover, we extend the phenomenological analysis of the branching ratio, and examine the influence of resulting correlations on the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry in B decays.

  19. Quantum Interference of Surface States in Bismuth Nanowires in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, L. A.; Huber, T. E.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Burceacov, L. A.

    2013-06-01

    We report the results of studies of the magnetoresistance (MR) and electric field effect (EFE) of single-crystal Bi nanowires with diameter d<80 nm at low temperatures. Single-crystal nanowire samples were prepared by the Taylor-Ulitovsky technique; they were cylindrical single crystals with the (10bar{1}1) orientation along the wire axis where the C 3 axis was inclined at an angle of 70∘ to the wire axis. According to theory of S. Murakami, bismuth bilayers can exhibit the quantum spin Hall effect. A Bi crystal can be viewed as a stacking of bilayers with a honeycomblike lattice structure along the [111] direction. An interpretation of transverse MR oscillations with using this theory is presented.

  20. Bondi-Sachs energy-momentum for the constant mean extrinsic curvature initial value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardeen, James M.; Buchman, Luisa T.

    2012-03-01

    The constraints on the asymptotic behavior of the conformal factor and conformal extrinsic curvature imposed by the initial value equations of general relativity on constant mean extrinsic curvature (CMC) hypersurfaces are analyzed in detail. We derive explicit formulas for the Bondi-Sachs energy and momentum in terms of coefficients of asymptotic expansions on CMC hypersurfaces near future null infinity. Precise numerical results for the Bondi-Sachs energy, momentum, and angular momentum are used to interpret physically Bowen-York initial data on conformally flat CMC hypersurfaces similar to that calculated earlier by Buchman et al. [L. T. Buchman, H. P. Pfeiffer, and J. M. Bardeen, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 084024-1 (2009).10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084024].

  1. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Microstructure and Magnetic Domains of Iron Films on Liquid Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jian-Ping; Xia, A.-Gen; Zhang, Chu-Hang; Yang, Bo; Fang, Zheng-Nong; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2009-11-01

    Iron (Fe) films with a thickness ranging from 1.0 nm to 80.0 nm are deposited on silicone oil surfaces by a vapor phase deposition method. The films with a thickness of d < 2.0 nm do not exhibit planar morphology but ramified aggregates instead. Magnetic force microscopy studies for the Fe films (10.0 nm <= d <= 80.0 nm) show that the domain wall structure is widespread and irregularly shaped and the oscillation phase shift Δθ, which records as the magnetic force image, changes from 0.29° to 0.81°. Correspondingly, the magnetic force gradient varies from 1.4 × 10-3 to 4.0 × 10-3 N/m, respectively. In our measurement, the characteristic domain walls, such as Bloch walls, Néel walls and cross-tie walls, are not observed in the film system clearly.

  2. Elementary theorems regarding blue isocurvature perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-04-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of Kasuya and Kawasaki [Axion Isocurvature Fluctuations with Extremely Blue Spectrum, Phys. Rev. D 80, 023516 (2009).], which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O (10 ) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  3. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600)

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Simpson, Ben M.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; Schmidt, Walter F.; Gore, Christopher J.; Aughey, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h-1 (D>14.4 km·h-1) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen’s d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8) and D>14.4 km·h-1 (+0.5 ± 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h-1 was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h-1 increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in ‘fitness’ do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key points When playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a ‘tolerable’ relative exercise intensity. While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008). In the context of

  4. Water, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, carbon-13, and oxygen-18 content of selected lunar material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; O'Neil, J.R.; Adami, L.H.; Gleason, J.D.; Hardcastle, K.

    1970-01-01

    The water content of the breccia is 150 to 455 ppm, with a ??D from -580 to -870 per mil. Hydrogen gas content is 40 to 53 ppm with a ??D of -830 to -970 per mil. The CO2 is 290 to 418 ppm with S 13C = + 2.3 to + 5.1 per mil and ??18O = 14.2 to 19.1 per mil. Non-CO2 carbon is 22 to 100 ppm, ??18C = -6.4 to -23.2 per mil. Lunar dust is 810 ppm H2O (D = 80 ppm) and 188 ppm total carbon (??13C = -17.6 per mil). The 18O analyses of whole rocks range from 5.8 to 6.2 per mil. The temperature of crystallization of type B rocks is 1100?? to 1300??C, based on the oxygen isotope fractionation between coexisting plagioclase and ilmenite.

  5. Quantum Interference in Bismuth Nanowires: Evidence for Surface Charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, L.; Huber, T. E.; Nikolaeva, A.

    2011-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the transverse magnetoresistance (MR) of single-crystal Bi nanowires with diameter d<80 nm. The single-crystal nanowire samples were prepared by the Taylor-Ulitovsky technique. Due to the semimetal-to-semiconductor transformation and high density of surface states with strong spin-orbit interactions, the charge carriers are confined to the conducting tube made of surface states. The non monotonic changes of transverse MR that are equidistant in a direct magnetic field were observed at low temperatures in a wide range of magnetic fields up to 14 T. The period of oscillations depends on the wire diameter d as for the case of longitudinal MR. An interpretation of transverse MR oscillations is presented.

  6. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases

  7. Staphylococcal enterotoxin type A internal deletion mutants: serological activity and induction of T-cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, T O; Hufnagle, W O; Betley, M J

    1993-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that the N-terminal region of staphylococcal enterotoxin type A (SEA) is required for its ability to induce T-cell proliferation. To better localize internal peptides of SEA that are important for induction of murine T-cell proliferation, SEA mutants that had internal deletions in their N-terminal third were constructed. A series of unique restriction enzyme sites were first engineered into sea; only one of these changes resulted in an amino acid substitution (the aspartic acid residue at position 60 of mature SEA was changed to a glycine [D60G]). Because the D60G substitution had no discernible effect on serological or biological activity, the sea allele encoding this mutant SEA was used to construct a panel of mutant SEAs lacking residues 3 to 17, 19 to 23, 24 to 28, 29 to 49, 50 to 55, 56 to 59, 61 to 73, 68 to 74, or 74 to 85. Recombinant plasmids with the desired mutations were constructed in Escherichia coli and transferred to Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcal culture supernatants containing the mutant SEAs were examined. Western immunoblot analysis with polyclonal anti-SEA antiserum revealed that each of the recombinant S. aureus strains produced a mutant SEA of the predicted size. All the mutant SEAs exhibited increased sensitivity to monkey stomach lavage fluid in vitro, which is consistent with these mutants having conformations unlike that of wild-type SEA or the SEA D60G mutant. In general, deletion of internal peptides had a deleterious effect on the ability to induce T-cell proliferation; only SEA mutants lacking either residues 3 to 17 or 56 to 59 consistently produced a statistically significant increase in the incorporation of [3H]thymidine. In the course of this work, two monoclonal antibodies that had different requirements for binding to SEA in Western blots were identified. The epitope for one monoclonal antibody was contained within residues 108 to 230 of mature SEA. Binding of the other monoclonal antibody to

  8. Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumit; Chandra, Rakesh; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar, Navin

    2016-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction ( V f) and aspect ratio ( l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0% to 16%. The aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d = 5 to l/d = 100. Results show that, with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E 11 increases 748%. Increase in E 22 is much less in comparison to the increase in E 11. With the increase in the CNF aspect ratio ( l/d) up to l/d = 60, the longitudinal loss factor ( η 11) decreases rapidly. The results of this study have been compared with those available in the literature.

  9. Investigation of Environmental Deterioration on Nomex Honeycomb Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    A b OJ o 0 c x: (/) • >> QJ -t-j —’ c ta UD ■«* 0 OJ O QJ ^r-’+J c; Di ^ r^ 00 z: =5 X CL+-> +J C TO cu UJ o x: CT^ 3: 1 X tD ...C\\i tn u- c .C O +J fD &#60— < t/1 rj ix> c (O 0 0) rD +J U cu CSi J— UJ O +J 3 T3 0) (/I O 21 1- Ul *(— a c C/l ■D C C TD 4- OJ...0 VI • QJ c ll cn c V) "O S- gr £ QJ c: +J -^ OJ QJ CX - U -’- +-» ro I- > V» C E .CTO.CTOCVl-’-O (— EUQ -QJTOECJ >> O S

  10. Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in minced beef under laboratory conditions and in sous-vide prepared minced and solid beef cooked in a commercial retort.

    PubMed

    Bolton, D J; McMahon, C M; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A; Blair, I S; Harrington, D

    2000-04-01

    D-values were obtained for Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica at 50, 55 and 60 degrees C in vacuum-packed minced beef samples heated in a laboratory water-bath. The experiment was repeated using vacutainers, which allowed heating of the beef to the desired temperature before inoculation. D-values of between 0.15 and 36.1 min were obtained for L. monocytogenes. Pre-heating the beef samples significantly affected (P < 0.05) the D60 value only. D-values for Y. enterocolitica ranged from 0.55 to 21.2 min and all the D-values were significantly different (P < 0.05) after pre-heating. In general, the D-values obtained for core inoculated solid beef samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those generated in minced beef when heated in a Barriquand Steriflow commercial retort.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Yawed Rod Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    34EPIC-3 A Computer Program For Elastia- Plastia Impact Calculations in 3 Dimensionsŗ BEL CE 343, July 1977. (AD A043281) 2Gordon E...8217 (N ’ CO to (N T3 ^^ H rH to O B *—- 00 (N ai oo i-H 00 to O 1^ O to o I/) LO g z H N 0. H S (U h <d &#60-> o >- « r a...tf) rH O C <U <U X <u a: ^ fj i" $.. <u D JJ J) O M z 11 Rounds 14-20 attempted a striking velocity of approximately 830 m/s

  12. Localization of flunitrazepam in artificial membranes. A spectrophotometric study about the effect the polarity of the medium exerts on flunitrazepam acid-base equilibrium.

    PubMed

    García, D A; Perillo, M A

    1997-02-21

    In the present paper we tried to test the hypothesis that nonspecific flunitrazepam-membrane interactions are consistent with drug molecules accommodated between lipid molecules, becoming an integral part of the bilayer. We developed a spectrophotometric method to determine FNTZH+ equilibrium dissociation constant and applied it to the study of the acid-base equilibria of this drug in homogeneous media of different polarity. In these conditions, pK decreased with the decrement in the dielectric constant (D) of the media. These results, analyzed under the light of the theory developed by Fernandez and Fromherz (1977; J. Phys. Chem. 81, 1755-1761) let us infer that flunitrazepam is localized a region with D = 60. This D value is lower that Dwater = 78 and higher than D of hydrocarbon chains zone (D = 2-5) and would correspond to D of the region of polar groups. This result is compatible with the hypothesis.

  13. An Operational Lanchester-Type Model of Small-Unit Amphibious Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    8217-.-’-’ 00 LULLI X W..-I CA4 LLUI tn U.10 a =0-.ZW coo ( Z0 w fll 2ZX()OtA tA 11P- If U AlJJO - 11 .JJClA= cc I-I-LUL 2: -7-uu Wv~o vl O 6"WI-Lil- -Lw...w jb - Z Z - -- X- <. 4 0- a x. . w 4i’) . .- xu d I= & Z - M D&#60mu, L’)J-4L -L .(4 -( -- xm- 0 U Ci W-w o 4X .0. 0fi yl - ONO".7J ft ’\\ .0 000 LU . 0

  14. Biotransformation of heterocyclic dinitriles by Rhodococcus erythropolis and fungal nitrilases.

    PubMed

    Vejvoda, Vojtech; Sveda, Ondrej; Kaplan, Ondrej; Prikrylová, Vera; Elisáková, Veronika; Himl, Michal; Kubác, David; Pelantová, Helena; Kuzma, Marek; Kren, Vladimír; Martínková, Ludmila

    2007-07-01

    2,6-Pyridinedicarbonitrile (1a) and 2,4-pyridinedicarbonitrile (2a) were hydrated by Rhodococcus erythropolis A4 to 6-cyanopyridine-2-carboxamide (1b; 83% yield) and 2-cyanopyridine-4-carboxamide (2b; 97% yield), respectively, after 10 min. After 118 h, the intermediates 1b or 2b were transformed into 2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (1c; 35% yield) and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (1d; 60% yield) or 2-cyanopyridine-4-carboxylic acid (2c; 64% yield), respectively. The nitrilase from Fusarium solani afforded cyanocarboxylic acids 1e and 2c after 118 h (yields 95 and 62%, respectively). 3,4-Pyridinedicarbonitrile (3a) and 2,3-pyrazinedicarbonitrile (4a) were inferior substrates of nitrile hydratase and nitrilase.

  15. The Origin of Neutron Star Kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dong

    2000-05-01

    Despite decades of theoretical investigations, our understanding of core-collapse supernovae remains significantly incomplete. Recent observations show that many supernovae are asymmetric and newly-formed neutron stars have large space velocities. I will discuss the physics of different mechanisms for generating asymmetric explosions and pulsar velocities, including hydrodynamically driven, neutrino and magnetically driven kicks. References: D. Lai and Y.-Z. Qian 1998, ApJ, 505, 844. P. Arras and D. Lai 1999, ApJ, 519, 745. P. Arras and D. Lai 1999, Phys. Rev. D60, 043001. D. Lai 1999, "Physics of Neutron Star Kicks", in press (astro-ph/9912522). D. Lai and P. Goldreich 2000, ApJ, in press (astro-ph/9906400). D. Lai 2000, ApJ, in press (astro-ph/0004066). This research is supported by NASA Grants NAG 5-8484 and NAG 5-8356, and by a research fellowship from the Alfred P. Sloan foundation.

  16. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Moguls Scoring Record Number 588 (Parsons)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Zn Zn 2: Z Z u u o 0~ - 00K, 0 < z Un U V)c n n)nu0 2 < ~9 00~0~00 w LQ 0 0 00 00 co 0 C1 cq 0q 00C C q C1E 0 4 -C C - - D-60 z H H H zz z...I) 0 CC CL 0 C, V) U 0 0 0l ) O 0 0 - - - - u m ")) 1) 0 00 ON’- ID- 0 8 zz ci2 C/u C/I U) V)V) cn nif t zz z z z z Z vs < 00< &- V) = o 6 z ~ 0 OE

  17. Acousto-Elastic Fastener Preload Indicator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    Calculator 30 " .-~C.’" 6,". %N q’O’D W - c PI Dm% Dc V00I )c . N * -’ u - 0 0 ag ~..Cc V)O o- . 6 D&#60DV-- - N ý r0 r O 1 M 0 c h r 0 0 ( a -Oh N a -@N e...34 D01.0" 8 .975" S =50,000 psi - F CURVE r A 0 B . 041r , C .147" a .333"____ ___ E.417" - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ F .48" a 2 3 4 figur B-9 C"a"a Toosioss in a Ste

  18. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 8. (General Contractor, Inc.-H and H Industrial Instruments)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    flu1 0 00 11 111 020 mo 1 00 11 4) 1 MrI - If - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - J J 4 4 4 - - ~ - - LL 11 - I 02(04 11MnI I U)U .1)L)I r r)W )a ) nw )I n...vt aNNNNNNN - ca C> C> In M NM -- 4 it xooc >Oac> COOOO< MrI "r4NN(1JN :3:W00c if L) I CO -- 4 it -* in V) V) (1) on (A 00 c:> 0 (D _j in (0 CO ID (D...N N Ili NNN N N N 1 14 IN N ZZZZ>- zz zz zzz z >- >- Z>->- IUD - -, 4-=4 Z< <<<<< U U N N <<< IN IN N NNN If 0< < 00 MCD -4 -4 N zzmzm d d &#60 IM 00 on

  19. DMSP Special Sensor Microwave/Imager Calibration/Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-20

    DMAX. When D > 1, the ice concentration will be more than 90% -And old ice is arcsent in the fleid of view. 1 1A. I LTL)I 9-f(seoson) 1, TA37 -1(u"os4)I...N I>NID 1yF-cs NI ___ T___ 37:tr7J=3)j -I- Mc OGE r1LTER RIOR AThm(spt4fRE.- - -- 1 tIS/T37>NI2 N "-OX2 O>CMIN2 ~-y Ofi>N14)c A * N T937-I V37. TA37 §T...n N rTA37-$(T837) TO ~ TUS,-rC- TA37 ) - I C7ET-T7U Fi&r 1OA. -cniu 40 lOA-9 The data points for which D &#60 DmAx and D > Dm are given a second test. This

  20. On the foundations of vision modeling. I. Weber’s law and Weberized TV restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianhong

    2003-02-01

    Most conventional image processors consider little the influence of human vision psychology. Weber’s law in psychology and psychophysics claims that humans’ perception and response to the intensity fluctuation δu of visual signals are weighted by the background stimulus u, instead of being plainly uniform. This paper attempts to integrate this well known perceptual law into the classical total variation (TV) image restoration model of Rudin et al. [Physica D 60 (1992) 259]. We study the issues of existence and uniqueness for the proposed Weberized nonlinear TV restoration model, making use of the direct method in the space of functions with bounded variations. We also propose an iterative algorithm based on the linearization technique for the associated nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equation.

  1. Level Set Methods for Optimization Problems Involving Geometry and Constraints. I. Frequencies of a Two-Density Inhomogeneous Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osher, Stanley J.; Santosa, Fadil

    2001-07-01

    Many problems in engineering design involve optimizing the geometry to maximize a certain design objective. Geometrical constraints are often imposed. In this paper, we use the level set method devised in (Osher and Sethian, J. Comput. Phys.79, 12 (1988)), the variational level set calculus presented in (Zhao et al., J. Comput. Phys.127, 179 (1996)), and the projected gradient method, as in (Rudin et al., Physica D.60, 259 (1992)), to construct a simple numerical approach for problems of this type. We apply this technique to a model problem involving a vibrating system whose resonant frequency or whose spectral gap is to be optimized subject to constraints on geometry. Our numerical results are quite promising. We expect to use this approach to deal with a wide class of optimal design problems in the future.

  2. CCD Observations of ERS with the 60 cm Telescope at ASV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damljanovic, G.; Milic, I. S.

    2013-05-01

    We present the observations of extragalactic radio sources (ERS) which are possible in the optical domain and can be used to establish the link between the ICRF2 and the future Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF). Our telescope of small aperture size (< 1 m) is located in the south of Serbia, near the town of Prokuplje, at the Astronomical Station Vidojevica (ASV) which belongs to the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade (AOB). It is a Cassegrain-type optical system (D=60 cm, F=600 cm) of equatorial mount. About 40 ERS, from ICRF2 list, were observed at ASV during 2011 and 2012. These observations are of importance to compare the ERS optical and radio positions (VLBI ones), and to investigate the relation between optical and radio reference frames. Also, they are useful to check the possibilities of the instrument. We observed ERS with the CCD Apogeee Alta U42. The observations, reduction and preliminary results of some ERS are presented here.

  3. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor. Part 10 (Croom, Maryland-Mendon, Mass)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    C)( 0)4 4D&#60 T0 :34(0 -4444 >-0( Ca-i1cc1 C-4 if400o LA- In 0 01L-00 (02 000 c0 _iZ LL00 C11000 WZ 4< 0 40 ()It4 I-- 0 In N In 0> ( 0>~I 4(1< 10 0n...34-4 N MiniM N-I -c I N II -0 00 -4 -4N cicimcMc(7ci CD ci -40 C, 0ci ONQ - 4-4 INLA.-4 -4 N ci) 171iMci -40 -4 44 II ciOOOOOOOOOOOO ciC0 0)0 C11000

  4. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 16 (Panhandle Food Sales-Ray Gene Electric Co Inc)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    AD-A236 466 1990 ANNUAL PRIME CONTRACTS AWARDS ALPHABETICALLY BY CONTRACTOR, BY STATE OR COUNTRY, AND PLACE. PT-16 (PANHANDLE FOOD SALES-RAY GENE ...4 I-l e~ I 0 MM 0)1 47470:14710) 0) 0) 0) I" gene , I LA 4 00 0) co -4 -FF- F- C (D &#60r- 0CD I~ gene , U0 -4 0. C4 0> 0D-4-4-40 C> C- N0 -4 (n L-4 cn...LW ,U ’L a) I CIme 𔃺" 0)0)100)0)10)0) (00 0 Ei(Cn" cc cc c c c c c c c c c 410mc’ " ::U. C 001. C00 r-0C0C r00 C w izI0’ M" ~ 000000 , . > .0 000 s-s

  5. Characterization of the Suspended-Sediment Regime and Bed-Material Gradation of the Mississippi River Basin. Potamology Program (P-I). Report 1, Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Needham to investigate the back country west of the Virginia mountains in 1673. Needham was killed by one of the Indian guides, but Gabriel Arthur...Wabash River 33,100 320 1257 40 Total 203,980 D60 0 0 (N 0 0 en en fn wI CN C) q r-. m-. .4 -4 (nI cn 1to ID w -4 4 .J1 oj 0 D ON (N 7 01 .9 a’ - t -0...4) I- 0 0 V) CD CD0 (NI mo 41 14j 0 M- t 0 a’ c 1, to CD r 𔃺 1- e’I r- -c0to a 𔃺 (N co 0l - 4 CD CY - o -0 Le) -41 (’) Oo 00 I,4-w (NI ’.0 a𔃺 U)-4

  6. Uncovering Novel Reproductive Defects in Neurokinin B Receptor Null Mice: Closing the Gap Between Mice and Men

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jasmine J.; Caligioni, Claudia S.; Chan, Yee-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Patients bearing mutations in TAC3 and TACR3 (which encode neurokinin B and its receptor, respectively) have sexual infantilism and infertility due to GnRH deficiency. In contrast, Tacr3−/− mice have previously been reported to be fertile. Because of this apparent phenotypic discordance between mice and men bearing disabling mutations in Tacr3/TACR3, Tacr3 null mice were phenotyped with close attention to pubertal development, estrous cyclicity, and fertility. Tacr3−/− mice demonstrated normal timing of preputial separation and day of first estrus, markers of sexual maturation. However, at postnatal d 60, Tacr3−/− males had significantly smaller testes and lower FSH levels than their wild-type littermates. Tacr3−/− females had lower uterine weights and abnormal estrous cyclicity. Approximately half of Tacr3−/− females had no detectable corpora lutea on ovarian histology at postnatal d 60. Despite this apparent ovulatory defect, all Tacr3−/− females achieved fertility when mated. However, Tacr3−/− females were subfertile, having both reduced numbers of litters and pups per litter. The subfertility of these animals was not due to a primary ovarian defect, because they demonstrated a robust response to exogenous gonadotropins. Thus, although capable of fertility, Tacr3-deficient mice have central reproductive defects. The remarkable ability of acyclic female Tacr3 null mice to achieve fertility is reminiscent of the reversal of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism seen in a high proportion of human patients bearing mutations in TACR3. Tacr3 mice are a useful model to examine the mechanisms by which neurokinin B signaling modulates GnRH release. PMID:22253416

  7. [Suppression of telomerase activity leukemic cells by mutant forms of Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase].

    PubMed

    Pokrovskaya, M V; Zhdanov, D D; Eldarov, M A; Aleksandrova, S S; Veselovskiy, A V; Pokrovskiy, V S; Grishin, D V; Gladilina, Ju A; Sokolov, N N

    2017-01-01

    The active and stable mutant forms of short chain cytoplasmic L-asparaginase type I of Rhodospirillum rubrum (RrA): RrA+N17, D60K, F61L, RrA+N17, A64V, E67K, RrA+N17, E149R, V150P, RrAE149R, V150P and RrAE149R, V150P, F151T were obtained by the method of site-directed mutagenesis. It is established that variants RrA-N17, E149R, V150P, F151T and RrАE149R, V150P are capable to reduce an expression hTERT subunit of telomerase and, hence, activity of telomeres in Jurkat cells, but not in cellular lysates. During too time, L-asparaginases of Escherichia coli, Erwinia carotovora and Wolinella succinogenes, mutant forms RrА+N17, D60K, F61L and RrА+N17, A64V, E67K do not suppress of telomerase activity. The assumption of existence in structure RrA of areas (amino acids residues in the position 146-164, 1-17, 60-67) which are responsible for suppression of telomerase activity is made. The received results show that antineoplastic activity of some variants RrA is connected both with reduction of concentration of free L-asparagine, and with expression suppression of hTERT telomerase subunit, that opens new prospects for antineoplastic therapy.

  8. The effect of caffeine on mammary gland development and milk yield in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Hacker, R R

    1995-02-01

    Pregnant Yorkshire gilts (n = 42) were fed caffeine (6 g/d) or served as controls from d 60 of pregnancy until d 4 postpartum to test the effect of caffeine on mammary gland development, milk yield, and feed consumption. Caffeine reduced voluntary feed intake (P = .001) and body weight gain (P = .001) of gilts from d 60 to 109 of gestation. Pig birth weight in the treated group was less than (P = .01) that in the control group. However, pig viability score at birth was not affected by maternal caffeine ingestion. For assessing mammary gland DNA, RNA, dry fat-free tissue (DFFT), fat, and protein content, four sows from the caffeine group and three controls were slaughtered on the 1st d of lactation. Immediately after slaughter, mammary systems were removed, separated by gland, and dissected free of skin, muscle, and fatty pad, which had not been invaded by glandular tissue. The DNA and RNA content were evaluated in DFFT. Caffeine increased mammary RNA content (P = .023) and milk yield (P = .001) on d 1 of lactation. However, DNA, DFFT, fat, and protein were not significantly increased, although values were somewhat greater in the treatment group (approximately 82%). On d 21 of lactation, milk yield of treated sows did not differ from that of controls. The increased milk yield on d 1 of lactation was due to increased mammary epithelial cell activity and cell numbers. These results indicate that caffeine feeding can have a positive effect on porcine mammary gland development as well as milk yield.

  9. Effects of oral intake of cetirizine HCl and desloratadine molecules on the middle ear mucosa: an experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Songu, Murat; Ozkul, Yilmaz; Kirtay, Seyithan; Arslanoglu, Secil; Ozkut, Mahmut; Inan, Sevinc; Onal, Kazim

    2014-04-01

    We have planned to demonstrate histopathologic effects of mid- or long-term oral use of desloratadine and cetirizine HCl molecules on middle ear mucosa of rats. Thirty-six rats were randomized equally into six groups. Desloratadine groups received once daily doses of 1 mg/ml desloratadine for 30 (D30 Group) or 60 (D60 Group) days. The Cetirizine study groups were given once daily doses of 1 mg/ml cetirizine for 30 (S30 Group) or 60 (S60 Group) days. Control groups were given 2 cc physiologic saline using orogastric gavage method through a 12 G gavage catheter for 30 (K30 Group) or 60 (K60) days. At the end of 30 days, D30, S30 and K30 Groups were sacrificed. Tissue samples harvested from groups were evaluated between 1 and 4 Grades for histological characteristics of middle ear canal, eardrum, middle ear epithelium and connective tissue, edema, vascular congestion and inflammatory cells. In the control group no pathological finding was encountered in rats sacrificed on 30 and 60 days. No statistical difference was observed when groups were compared on external ear epithelial tissue, external ear sebaceous gland, middle ear inflammation, and middle ear capillary dilatation both on 30 and 60 days. Tympanic membrane collagen was more evident in D30 and D60 groups when compared with C30 and C60 groups. Comparison of histopathological grading results between 30 and 60 days revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, oral intake of cetirizine and desloratadine preparations has effects of tympanic membrane collagen, degrees of edema and vascular congestion being more prominent with desloratadine molecule.

  10. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Ryan G.; Zheng, Jinshui; Garcia-Hernandez, Rigoberto; Ruan, Lifang; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli. PMID:26441869

  11. Protein Profile in Corpus Luteum during Pregnancy in Korean Native Cows

    PubMed Central

    Chung, H. J.; Kim, K. W.; Han, D. W.; Lee, H. C.; Yang, B. C.; Chung, H. K.; Shim, M. R.; Choi, M. S.; Jo, E. B.; Jo, Y. M.; Oh, M. Y.; Jo, S. J.; Hong, S. K.; Park, J. K.; Chang, W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Steroidogenesis requires coordination of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of lipid metabolism, but the profile of proteins associated with progesterone synthesis in cyclic and pregnant corpus luteum (CL) is not well-known in cattle. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone level was monitored in cyclic cows (n = 5) and pregnant cows (n = 6; until d-90). A significant decline in the plasma progesterone level occurred at d-19 of cyclic cows. Progesterone level in abbatoir-derived luteal tissues was also determined at d 1 to 5, 6 to 13 and 14 to 20 of cyclic cows, and d-60 and -90 of pregnant cows (n = 5 each). Progesterone level in d-60 CL was not different from those in d 6 to 13 CL and d-90 CL, although the difference between d 6 to 13 and d-90 was significant. In Experiment 2, protein expression pattern in CL at d-90 (n = 4) was compared with that in CL of cyclic cows at d 6 to 13 (n = 5). Significant changes in the level of protein expression were detected in 32 protein spots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 23 of them were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Six proteins were found only in pregnant CL, while the other 17 proteins were found only in cyclic CL. Among the above 6 proteins, vimentin which is involved in the regulation of post-implantation development was included. Thus, the protein expression pattern in CL was disorientated from cyclic luteal phase to mid pregnancy, and alterations in specific CL protein expression may contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy in Korean native cows. PMID:25049514

  12. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  13. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Removal of Arsenic and Strontium from Wastewater: AN Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ding-Wei

    The emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique has been successfully applied on the removal of arsenic (As) from metallurgical wastewater and the removal of strontium (Sr) from radioactive wastewater. This study consisted of experimental work and mathematical modeling. Extraction of arsenic by an emulsion liquid membrane was firstly investigated. The liquid membrane used was composed of 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (2EHA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant, and Exxsol D-80 solvent (or heptane) as the diluent. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions were used as the external and internal phases, respectively. The arsenic removal efficiency reached 92% within 15 minutes in one stage. Extraction and stripping chemistries were postulated and investigated. It was observed that extraction efficiency and rate increase with the increase of acidic strength and alkali strength in the external and internal phases, respectively. It was also observed that the removal selectivity of arsenic over copper is extremely high. Strontium-90 is one of the major radioactive metals appearing in nuclear wastewater. The emulsion liquid membrane process was investigated as a separation method by using the non-radioactive ^{87}Sr as its substitute. In our study, the membrane phase was composed of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant and Exxsol D-80 as the diluent. A sulfuric acid solution was used in the internal phase as the stripping agent. The pH range in the external phase was determined by the extraction isotherm. Under the most favorable operating condition, the strontium removal efficiency can reach 98% in two minutes. Mass transfer of the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system was modeled mathematically. Our model took into account the following: mass transfer of solute across the film between the external phase and the membrane phase, chemical equilibrium of the extraction reaction at the external phase-membrane interface

  14. Effects of postbreeding gonadotropin treatments on conception rates of lactating dairy cows subjected to timed artificial insemination or embryo transfer in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, J L M; Sá Filho, O G; Justolin, P L T; Morelli, P; Aragon, F L; Veras, M B; Soriano, S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to evaluate the effects of treatments with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or GnRH 7 d after induced ovulation on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI) or timed embryo transfer (TET). A total of 834 potential breedings were used from 661 lactating Holstein cows (37.3±0.3 kg of milk/d). Cows had ovulation synchronized and were assigned randomly to receive TAI on d 0 or TET on d 7. Within each group, cows were assigned randomly to receive on d 7 no additional treatment (control; nTAI=156; nTET=126), a 100 μg i.m. injection of GnRH (nTAI=155; nTET=124), or a 2,500 IU i.m. injection of hCG (nTAI=151; nTET=122). Postbreeding treatment affected the percentages of pregnant cows at TET on d 28 (control: 38.1%; GnRH: 52.4%; hCG: 45.1%) and on d 60 (control: 32.5%; GnRH: 41.1%; hCG: 38.5%), but postbreeding treatment did not affect percentages of pregnant cows at TAI on d 28 (control: 30.1%; GnRH: 32.2%; hCG: 32.4%) or on d 60 (control: 25.6%; GnRH: 27.1%; hCG: 29.8%). The objective of experiment 2 was to evaluate the effect of a treatment with GnRH 7 d after TET on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows that received a previous GnRH treatment at TET. A total of 285 potential breedings were used from 257 lactating Holstein cows (35.1±0.8 kg of milk/d). Cows had ovulation synchronized and were assigned for TET on d 7. Immediately after TET, all cows were treated with a 100 μg i.m. injection of GnRH. On d 14, cows were assigned randomly to receive (G7-14; n=147) or not (G7; n=138) an additional injection of GnRH. Pregnancy diagnosis were performed on d 28 and 60. The additional treatment with GnRH on d 14 did not affect the percentages of pregnant cows on d 28 (G7: 48.5%; G7-14: 42.9%) or on d 60 (G7: 39.8%; G7-14: 37.4%). In conclusion, treatment with GnRH or hCG 7 d after induced ovulation increased conception rates in lactating dairy cows submitted to TET, but not

  15. Mechanism for Selectivity-inactivation Coupling in KcsA Potassium Channels

    SciTech Connect

    W Cheng; J McCoy; A Thompson; C Nichols; C Nimigean

    2011-12-31

    Structures of the prokaryotic K{sup +} channel, KcsA, highlight the role of the selectivity filter carbonyls from the GYG signature sequence in determining a highly selective pore, but channels displaying this sequence vary widely in their cation selectivity. Furthermore, variable selectivity can be found within the same channel during a process called C-type inactivation. We investigated the mechanism for changes in selectivity associated with inactivation in a model K{sup +} channel, KcsA. We found that E71A, a noninactivating KcsA mutant in which a hydrogen-bond behind the selectivity filter is disrupted, also displays decreased K{sup +} selectivity. In E71A channels, Na{sup +} permeates at higher rates as seen with {sup 86}Rb{sup +} and {sup 22}Na{sup +} flux measurements and analysis of intracellular Na{sup +} block. Crystal structures of E71A reveal that the selectivity filter no longer assumes the 'collapsed,' presumed inactivated, conformation in low K{sup +}, but a 'flipped' conformation, that is also observed in high K{sup +}, high Na{sup +}, and even Na{sup +} only conditions. The data reveal the importance of the E71-D80 interaction in both favoring inactivation and maintaining high K{sup +} selectivity. We propose a molecular mechanism by which inactivation and K{sup +} selectivity are linked, a mechanism that may also be at work in other channels containing the canonical GYG signature sequence.

  16. Promoting Resilience in Stress Management: A Pilot Study of a Novel Resilience-Promoting Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults With Serious Illness

    PubMed Central

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P.; Eaton, Lauren; Wharton, Claire; Cochrane, Katherine; Pihoker, Catherine; Baker, K. Scott; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility and format of the Promoting Resilience in Stress Management (PRISM) intervention among two groups of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) at-risk for poor outcomes: those with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) or cancer. Methods PRISM consists of two long or four short skills-based modules. English-speaking patients 12–25 years old were eligible if they had T1D for >6 months or cancer for >2 weeks. Feasibility was defined as an 80% completion rate and high satisfaction. Ongoing monitoring shaped iterative refinement of disease-specific approach. Results 12 of 15 patients with T1D (80%) completed the two-session intervention. 3 of 15 patients with cancer declined to complete the two-session version, citing prohibitive length of individual sessions. 12 (80%) completed the four-session version. Patient-reported satisfaction was high across groups. Conclusions The PRISM intervention is feasible and well-accepted by AYAs with cancer or T1D. Differences in patient populations warrant differences in approach. PMID:25678533

  17. Rigidification of the autolysis loop enhances Na[superscript +] binding to thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Raymond; Chen, Zhiwei; Bah, Alaji; Di Cera, Enrico

    2011-09-20

    Binding of Na{sup +} to thrombin ensures high activity toward physiological substrates and optimizes the procoagulant and prothrombotic roles of the enzyme in vivo. Under physiological conditions of pH and temperature, the binding affinity of Na{sup +} is weak due to large heat capacity and enthalpy changes associated with binding, and the K{sub d} = 80 mM ensures only 64% saturation of the site at the concentration of Na{sup +} in the blood (140 mM). Residues controlling Na{sup +} binding and activation have been identified. Yet, attempts to improve the interaction of Na{sup +} with thrombin and possibly increase catalytic activity under physiological conditions have so far been unsuccessful. Here we report how replacement of the flexible autolysis loop of human thrombin with the homologous rigid domain of the murine enzyme results in a drastic (up to 10-fold) increase in Na{sup +} affinity and a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Rigidification of the autolysis loop abolishes the heat capacity change associated with Na{sup +} binding observed in the wild-type and also increases the stability of thrombin. These findings have general relevance to protein engineering studies of clotting proteases and trypsin-like enzymes.

  18. Percolation Diffusion into Self-Assembled Mesoporous Silica Microfibres

    PubMed Central

    Canning, John; Huyang, George; Ma, Miles; Beavis, Alison; Bishop, David; Cook, Kevin; McDonagh, Andrew; Shi, Dongqi; Peng, Gang-Ding; Crossley, Maxwell J.

    2014-01-01

    Percolation diffusion into long (11.5 cm) self-assembled, ordered mesoporous microfibres is studied using optical transmission and laser ablation inductive coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Optical transmission based diffusion studies reveal rapid penetration (<5 s, D > 80 μm2∙s−1) of Rhodamine B with very little percolation of larger molecules such as zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) observed under similar loading conditions. The failure of ZnTPP to enter the microfibre was confirmed, in higher resolution, using LA-ICP-MS. In the latter case, LA-ICP-MS was used to determine the diffusion of zinc acetate dihydrate, D~3 × 10−4 nm2∙s−1. The large differences between the molecules are accounted for by proposing ordered solvent and structure assisted accelerated diffusion of the Rhodamine B based on its hydrophilicity relative to the zinc compounds. The broader implications and applications for filtration, molecular sieves and a range of devices and uses are described. PMID:28348290

  19. Role of stress fiber-like structures in assembling nascent myofibrils in myosheets recovering from exposure to ethyl methanesulfonate

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    When day 1 cultures of chick myogenic cells were exposed to the mutagenic alkylating agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) for 3 d, 80% of the replicating cells were killed, but postmitotic myoblasts survived. The myoblasts fused to form unusual multinucleated "myosheets": extraordinarily wide, flattened structures that were devoid of myofibrils but displayed extensive, submembranous stress fiber-like structures (SFLS). Immunoblots of the myosheets indicated that the carcinogen blocked the synthesis and accumulation of the myofibrillar myosin isoforms but not that of the cytoplasmic myosin isoform. When removed from EMS, widely spaced nascent myofibrils gradually emerged in the myosheets after 3 d. Striking co-localization of fluorescent reagents that stained SFLS and those that specifically stained myofibrils was observed for the next 2 d. By both immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, individual nascent myofibrils appeared to be part of, or juxtaposed to, preexisting individual SFLS. By day 6, all SFLS had disappeared, and the definitive myofibrils were displaced from their submembranous site into the interior of the myosheet. Immunoblots from recovering myosheets demonstrated a temporal correlation between the appearance of the myofibrillar myosin isoforms and the assembly of thick filaments. The assembly of definitive myofibrils did not appear to involve desmin intermediate filaments, but a striking aggregation of sarcoplasmic reticulum elements was seen at the level of each I-Z-band. Our findings suggest that SFLS in the EMS myosheets function as early, transitory assembly sites for nascent myofibrils. PMID:3958057

  20. Flow behaviour and transitions in surfactant-laden gas-liquid vertical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadrazil, Ivan; Chakraborty, Sourojeet; Matar, Omar; Markides, Christos

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is to elucidate the effect of surfactant additives on vertical gas-liquid counter-current pipe flows. Two experimental campaigns were undertaken, one with water and one with a light oil (Exxsol D80) as the liquid phase; in both cases air was used as the gaseous phase. Suitable surfactants were added to the liquid phase up to the critical micelle concentration (CMC); measurements in the absence of additives were also taken, for benchmarking. The experiments were performed in a 32-mm bore and 5-m long vertical pipe, over a range of superficial velocities (liquid: 1 to 7 m/s, gas: 1 to 44 m/s). High-speed axial- and side-view imaging was performed at different lengths along the pipe, together with pressure drop measurements. Flow regime maps were then obtained describing the observed flow behaviour and related phenomena, i.e., downwards/upwards annular flow, flooding, bridging, gas/liquid entrainment, oscillatory film flow, standing waves, climbing films, churn flow and dryout. Comparisons of the air-water and oil-water results will be presented and discussed, along with the role of the surfactants in affecting overall and detailed flow behaviour and transitions; in particular, a possible mechanism underlying the phenomenon of flooding will be presented. EPSRC UK Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.

  1. Rho Kinase Inhibition with Fasudil in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis—Symptomatic Treatment Potential after Disease Onset

    PubMed Central

    Günther, René; Balck, Alexander; Koch, Jan C.; Nientiedt, Tobias; Sereda, Michael; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul; Tönges, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Despite an improved understanding of the genetic background and the pathomechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) no novel disease-modifying therapies have been successfully implemented in clinical routine. Riluzole still remains the only clinically approved substance in human ALS treatment with limited efficacy. We have previously identified pharmacological rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors as orally applicable substances in SOD1.G93A transgenic ALS mice (SOD1G93A), which are able to extend survival time and improve motor function after presymptomatic treatment. Here, we have evaluated the therapeutic effect of the orally administered ROCK inhibitor Fasudil starting at a symptomatic disease stage, more realistically reflecting the clinical situation. Oral Fasudil treatment was initiated at a symptomatic stage at 80 days of life (d80) with 30 or 100 mg/kg body weight in both female and male mice. While baseline neurological scoring and survival were not influenced, Fasudil significantly improved motor behavior in male mice. Spinal cord pathology of motoneurons (MN) and infiltrating microglial cells (MG) at disease end-stage were not significantly modified. Although treatment after symptom onset was less potent than treatment in asymptomatic animals, our study shows the therapeutic benefits of this well-tolerated substance, which is already in clinical use for other indications. PMID:28197100

  2. Capture of Trojans by Jumping Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to ~5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) × 10-7 for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) × 107 planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M disk ~ 14-28 M Earth, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  3. An eye movement analysis of the spatial contiguity effect in multimedia learning.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cheryl I; Mayer, Richard E

    2012-06-01

    In three studies, eye movements of participants were recorded while they viewed a single-slide multimedia presentation about how car brakes work. Some of the participants saw an integrated presentation in which each segment of words was presented near its corresponding area of the diagram (integrated group, Experiments 1 and 3) or an integrated presentation that also included additional labels identifying each part (integrated-with-labels group, Experiment 2), whereas others saw a separated presentation in which the words were presented as a paragraph below the diagrams (separated group, Experiments 1 and 2) or as a legend below the diagrams (legend group, Experiment 3). On measures of cognitive processing during learning, the integrated groups made significantly more eye-movements from text to diagram and vice versa (integrative transitions; d = 1.65 in Experiment 1, d = 0.85 in Experiment 2, and d = 1.44 in Experiment 3) and significantly more eye-movements from the text to the corresponding part of the diagram (corresponding transitions; d = 2.02 in Experiment 1 and d = 1.35 in Experiment 3) than the separated groups. On measures of learning outcome the integrated groups significantly outperformed the separated groups on transfer test score in Experiment 1(d = .80) and Experiment 2 (d = .73) but not in Experiment 3 (d = .35). Spatial contiguity encourages more attempts to integrate words and pictures and enables more successful integration of words and pictures during learning, which can result in meaningful learning outcomes.

  4. Structural changes of the KcsA potassium channel upon application of the electrode potential studied by surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakata, Akira; Shimizu, Hirofumi; Osawa, Masatoshi; Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Structural changes of the KcsA potassium channel fixed on gold electrode surface in the upright orientation were studied by surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS). Measurements were performed at neutral pH, where the activation gate is kept closed. Band intensities were enhanced for the asymmetric (1565 cm-1) and symmetric (1405 cm-1) OCO-carboxylate groups at negative electrode potentials in the K+ solution, but not in the Na+ solution. Even for the reverse-oriented channel, the enhanced OCO-carboxylate band was evident at negative potential. When TBA was loaded in the central cavity, the K+-specific OCO band was not elicited. These results indicate that the negative electrode potential renders the local K+ concentration accumulated at the vicinity of the electrode surface, and the KcsA channel bathed in high K+ changes conformation of the selectivity filter from the collapsed to the open, and OCO-carboxylate groups (D80 and E71) in the back of the filter were rearranged.

  5. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and children's emotion dysregulation: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; Garcia, Alexis

    2016-06-01

    While executive functioning deficits have been central to cognitive theories of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), recent work has suggested that emotion dysregulation may also play a key role in understanding the impairments suffered by youth with ADHD. However, given the multiple processes involved in emotion dysregulation, the extent to which youth with ADHD are impaired across multiple domains of emotion dysregulation including: emotion recognition/understanding (ERU), emotion reactivity/negativity/lability (ERNL), emotion regulation (EREG), and empathy/callous-unemotional traits (ECUT) remains unclear. A meta-analysis of 77 studies (n=32,044 youths) revealed that youth with ADHD have the greatest impairment on ERNL (weighted ES d=.95) followed by EREG (weighted ES d=.80). Significantly smaller effects were observed for ECUT (weighted ES d=.68) and ERU (weighted ES d=.64). Moderation analyses indicated that the association between ADHD and ERNL was stronger among studies that had a sample containing older youth (no other demographic factors were significant). Additionally, the association between ADHD and ECUT was significantly weaker among studies that controlled for co-occurring conduct problems. Co-occurring conduct problems did not moderate the link between ADHD and any other emotion dysregulation domain. Lastly, the association between ADHD and ERNL was significantly weaker when controlling for youth's cognitive functioning. Cognitive functioning did not moderate the link between ADHD and ERU, EREG, or ECUT, respectively. Theoretical/practical implications for the study of emotional dysregulation in youth with ADHD are discussed.

  6. Biodegradation of the organophosphorus insecticide diazinon by Serratia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. and their use in bioremediation of contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Wójcik, Marcin; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2009-07-01

    An enrichment culture technique was used for the isolation of bacteria responsible for biodegradation of diazinon in soil. Three bacterial strains were screened and identified by MIDI-FAME profiling as Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas sp. All isolates were able to grow in mineral salt medium (MSM) supplemented with diazinon (50 mgL(-1)) as a sole carbon source, and within 14d 80-92% of the initial dose of insecticide was degraded by the isolates and their consortium. Degradation of diazinon was accelerated when MSM was supplemented with glucose. However, this process was linked with the decrease of pH values, after glucose utilization. Studies on biodegradation in sterilized soil showed that isolates and their consortium exhibited efficient degradation of insecticide (100mg kg(-1) soil) with a rate constant of 0.032-0.085d(-1), and DT(50) for diazinon was ranged from 11.5d to 24.5d. In contrast, degradation of insecticide in non-sterilized soil, non-supplemented earlier with diazinon, was characterized by a rate constant of 0.014d(-1) and the 7-d lag phase, during which only 2% of applied dose was degraded. The results suggested a strong correlation between microbial activity and chemical processes during diazinon degradation. Moreover, isolated bacterial strains may have potential for use in bioremediation of diazinon-contaminated soils.

  7. Scanning SQUID microscopy of local superconductivity in inhomogeneous combinatorial ceramics.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, Mitra; Stir, Manuela; Kirtley, John R; Hulliger, Jürg

    2014-11-24

    Although combinatorial solid-state chemistry promises to be an efficient way to search for new superconducting compounds, the problem of determining which compositions are strongly diamagnetic in a mixed-phase sample is challenging. By means of reactions in a system of randomly mixed starting components (Ca, Sr, Ba, La, Y, Pb, Bi, Tl, and Cu oxides), samples were produced that showed an onset of diamagnetic response above 115 K in bulk measurements. Imaging of this diamagnetic response in ceramic samples by scanning SQUID microscopy (SSM) revealed local superconducting areas with sizes down to as small as the spatial resolution of a few micrometers. In addition, locally formed superconducting matter was extracted from mixed-phase samples by magnetic separation. The analysis of single grains (d<80 μm) by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and bulk SQUID measurements allowed Tl2Ca3Ba2Cu4O12, TlCaBaSrCu2O(7-δ), BaPb(0.5)Bi(0.25)Tl(0.25)O(3-δ), TlBa2Ca2Cu3O9, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8, and YBa2Cu3O7 phases to be identified. SSM, in combination with other diagnostic techniques, is therefore shown to be a useful instrument to analyze inhomogeneous reaction products in the solid-state chemistry of materials showing magnetic properties.

  8. Fingerprinting dark energy. III. Distinctive marks of viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapone, Domenico; Majerotto, Elisabetta

    2012-06-01

    The characterization of dark energy is one of the primary goals in cosmology especially now that many new experiments are being planned with the aim of reaching a high sensitivity on cosmological parameters. It is known that if we move away from the simple cosmological constant model then we need to consider perturbations in the dark energy fluid. This means that dark energy has two extra degrees of freedom: the sound speed cs2 and the anisotropic stress σ. If dark energy is inhomogenous at the scales of interest then the gravitational potentials are modified and the evolution of the dark matter perturbations is also directly affected. In this paper we add an anisotropic component to the dark energy perturbations. Following the idea introduced in D. Sapone and M. Kunz, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 083519 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.083519, we solve analytically the equations of perturbations in the dark sector, finding simple and accurate approximated solutions. We also find that the evolution of the density perturbations is governed by an effective sound speed that depends on both the sound speed and the anisotropic stress parameter. We then use these solutions to look at the impact of the dark energy perturbations on the matter power spectrum and on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the cosmic microwave background.

  9. Impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life among hospital nurses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makabe, Sachiko; Takagai, Junko; Asanuma, Yoshihiro; Ohtomo, Kazuo; Kimura, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the status of work-life imbalance among hospital nurses in Japan and impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life. A cross-sectional survey of 1,202 nurses (81% response rate) was conducted in three Japanese acute care hospitals. Participants were divided into four groups for actual work-life balance (Group A: 50/50, including other lower working proportion groups [e.g., 40/50]; Group B: 60/40; Group C: 70/30; and Group D: 80/20, including other higher working proportion groups [e.g., 90/10]). We also asked participants about desired work-life balance, and private and work-related perspectives. Satisfactions (job, private life, and work-life balance), quality of life, and stress-coping ability were also measured. All data were compared among the four groups. Most nurses sensed that they had a greater proportion of working life than private life, and had a work-life imbalance. Actual WLB did not fit compared to desired WLB. When the actual working proportion greatly exceeds the private life proportion, nurses' health could be in danger, and they may resign due to lower job satisfaction and QOL. Simultaneous progress by both management and individual nurses is necessary to improve work-life imbalance.

  10. Dipyrone has no effects on bone healing of tibial fractures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Sansanovicz, Dennis; Ventin, Fernando Carvalho; Paes, Rodrigo Henrique; Quevedo, Francisco Carlos; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dipyrone on healing of tibial fractures in rats. METHODS: Fourty-two Wistar rats were used, with mean body weight of 280g. After being anesthetized, they were submitted to closed fracture of the tibia and fibula of the right posterior paw through manual force. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group that received a daily intraperitoneal injection of saline solution; group D-40, that received saline injection containing 40mg/Kg dipyrone; and group D-80, that received saline injection containing 80mg/Kg dipyrone. After 28 days the rats were sacrificed and received a new label code that was known by only one researcher. The fractured limbs were then amputated and X-rayed. The tibias were disarticulated and subjected to mechanical, radiological and histological evaluation. For statistical analysis the Kruskal-Wallis test was used at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There wasn't any type of dipyrone effect on healing of rats tibial fractures in relation to the control group. CONCLUSION: Dipyrone may be used safely for pain control in the treatment of fractures, without any interference on bone healing. Level of Evidence II, Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:25246852

  11. Real-time particle size analysis using focused beam reflectance measurement as a process analytical technology tool for a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Stagner, William C

    2013-06-01

    Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used as a process analytical technology tool to perform inline real-time particle size analysis of a proprietary granulation manufactured using a continuous twin-screw granulation-drying-milling process. A significant relationship between D20, D50, and D80 length-weighted chord length and sieve particle size was observed with a p value of <0.0001 and R(2) of 0.886. A central composite response surface statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of granulator screw speed and Comil® impeller speed on the length-weighted chord length distribution (CLD) and particle size distribution (PSD) determined by FBRM and nested sieve analysis, respectively. The effect of granulator speed and mill speed on bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index were also investigated. An inline FBRM probe placed below the Comil-generated chord lengths and CLD data at designated times. The collection of the milled samples for sieve analysis and PSD evaluation were coordinated with the timing of the FBRM determinations. Both FBRM and sieve analysis resulted in similar bimodal distributions for all ten manufactured batches studied. Within the experimental space studied, the granulator screw speed (650-850 rpm) and Comil® impeller speed (1,000-2,000 rpm) did not have a significant effect on CLD, PSD, bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index (p value > 0.05).

  12. Static and dynamic magnetic properties of monodispersed Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanomagnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Kinnari; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2010-03-01

    Static and dynamic magnetic properties of oleic acid/oleyamine coated Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles of diameter 82 Å are reported. The zero-field-cooled peak temperature decreases with increasing magnetic field and obeys the well known de Almeida-Thouless line. The zero-field-cooled magnetization data are simulated by assuming noninteracting magnetic particles with uniaxial anisotropy and lognormal particle size distribution. The relevant parameters give the values of particle diameter (D) 80 Å, standard deviation 0.3 in ln(D), and the anisotropy constant K to be 5.8×105 erg/cm3. The observed higher value of standard deviation is due to the interparticle interaction. The complex magnetic susceptibility was measured as a function of temperature for frequencies ranging from 67 to 1800 Hz. The temperature at which the maximum in the ac-susceptibility curve is observed is well accounted by the Vogel-Fulcher law for both χ' and χ″. The peak is also observed in a plot of χ″/χ' versus temperature, which may mean the existence of magnetic aftereffect, and furthermore, it has an Arrhenius as well as Vogel-Fulcher law type dependence. An observed nonthermal activation type relaxation mechanism at 12 K is attributed to possible quantum tunneling effect in Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles.

  13. B¯→Xsγ rate and CP asymmetry within the aligned two-Higgs-doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Martin; Pich, Antonio; Tuzón, Paula

    2011-04-01

    In the two-Higgs-doublet model the alignment of the Yukawa matrices in flavor space guarantees the absence of flavor-changing neutral currents at tree level, while introducing new sources for CP violation parametrized in a very economical way [Antonio Pich and Paula Tuzon, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 091702 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.091702]. This implies a potentially large influence in a number of processes, b→sγ being a prominent example where rather high experimental and theoretical precision meet. We analyze the CP rate asymmetry in this inclusive decay and determine the resulting constraints on the model parameters. We demonstrate the compatibility with previously obtained limits [Martin Jung, Antonio Pich, and Paula Tuzon, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 11 (2010) 00310.1007/JHEP11(2010)003]. Moreover, we extend the phenomenological analysis of the branching ratio, and examine the influence of resulting correlations on the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry in B decays.

  14. The use of 2D and 3D information in a perceptual-cognitive judgement task.

    PubMed

    Put, Koen; Wagemans, Johan; Spitz, Jochim; Gallardo, Manuel Armenteros; Williams, A Mark; Helsen, Werner F

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the use of three-dimensional (3D) simulations in an off-field offside decision-making task is beneficial compared to the more widely available two-dimensional (2D) simulations. Thirty-three assistant referees, who were all involved in professional football, participated in the experiment. They assessed 40 offside situations in both 2D and 3D formats using a counterbalanced design. A distinction was made between offside situations near (i.e., 15 m) and far (i.e., 30 m) from the touchline. Subsequently, a frame recognition task was performed in which assistant referees were asked to indicate which of the five pictures represented the previous video scene. A higher response accuracy score was observed under 3D (80.0%) compared to 2D (75.0%) conditions, in particular for the situations near the touchline (3D: 81.8%; 2D: 72.7%). No differences were reported between 2D and 3D in the frame recognition task. Findings suggest that in highly dynamic and complex situations, the visual system can benefit from the availability of 3D information, especially for relatively fine, metric position judgements. In the memory task, in which a mental abstraction had to be made from a dynamic situation to a static snapshot, 3D stereo disparities do not add anything over and beyond 2D simulations. The specific task demands should be taken into account when considering the most appropriate format for testing and training.

  15. Epitope mapping of metuximab on CD147 using phage display and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    He, Bifang; Mao, Canquan; Ru, Beibei; Han, Hesong; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Metuximab is the generic name of Licartin, a new drug for radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although it is known to be a mouse monoclonal antibody against CD147, the complete epitope mediating the binding of metuximab to CD147 remains unknown. We panned the Ph.D.-12 phage display peptide library against metuximab and got six mimotopes. The following bioinformatics analysis based on mimotopes suggested that metuximab recognizes a conformational epitope composed of more than 20 residues. The residues of its epitope may include T28, V30, K36, L38, K57, F74, D77, S78, D79, D80, Q81, G83, S86, N98, Q100, L101, H102, G103, P104, V131, P132, and K191. The homology modeling of metuximab and the docking of CD147 to metuximab were also performed. Based on the top one docking model, the epitope was predicted to contain 28 residues: AGTVFTTV (23-30), I37, D45, E84, V88, EPMGTANIQLH (92-102), VPP (131-133), Q164, and K191. Almost half of the residues predicted on the basis of mimotope analysis also appear in the docking result, indicating that both results are reliable. As the predicted epitopes of metuximab largely overlap with interfaces of CD147-CD147 interactions, a structural mechanism of metuximab is proposed as blocking the formation of CD147 dimer.

  16. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  17. Non-Gaussianity in the cosmic microwave background induced by dipolar dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, Luc; Marsat, Sylvain; Langlois, David; Tiec, Alexandre Le E-mail: langlois@iap.fr E-mail: marsat@iap.fr

    2013-02-01

    In previous work [L. Blanchet and A. Le Tiec, Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 023524], motivated by the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales, a model of dipolar dark matter (DDM) was introduced. At linear order in cosmological perturbations, the dynamics of the DDM was shown to be identical to that of standard cold dark matter (CDM). In this paper, the DDM model is investigated at second order in cosmological perturbation theory. We find that the internal energy of the DDM fluid modifies the curvature perturbation generated by CDM with a term quadratic in the dipole field. This correction induces a new type of non-Gaussianity in the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation with respect to standard CDM. Leaving unspecified the primordial amplitude of the dipole field, which could in principle be determined by a more fundamental description of DDM, we find that, in contrast with usual models of primordial non-Gaussianities, the non-Gaussianity induced by DDM increases with time after the radiation-matter equality on super-Hubble scales. This distinctive feature of the DDM model, as compared with standard CDM, could thus provide a specific signature in the CMB and large-scale structure probes of non-Gaussianity.

  18. Quantum Larmor radiation in a conformally flat universe

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Rampei; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2011-02-15

    We investigate the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an expanding universe based on the framework of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. A theoretical formula for the radiation energy is derived at the lowest order of the perturbation theory with respect to the coupling constant of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the radiation energy on the background universe so that the Minkowski spacetime transits to the Milne universe, in which the equation of motion for the mode function of the free complex scalar field can be exactly solved in an analytic way. Then, the result is compared with the WKB approach, in which the equation of motion of the mode function is constructed with the WKB approximation which is valid as long as the Compton wavelength is shorter than the Hubble horizon length. This demonstrates that the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation of the order e{sup 2}({h_bar}/2{pi}) is determined by a nonlocal integration in time depending on the background expansion. We also compare our result with a recent work by Higuchi and Walker [Phys. Rev. D 80, 105019 (2009)], which investigated the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a charged particle in a nonrelativistic motion in a homogeneous electric field.

  19. Quantum Larmor radiation in a conformally flat universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Rampei; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an expanding universe based on the framework of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. A theoretical formula for the radiation energy is derived at the lowest order of the perturbation theory with respect to the coupling constant of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the radiation energy on the background universe so that the Minkowski spacetime transits to the Milne universe, in which the equation of motion for the mode function of the free complex scalar field can be exactly solved in an analytic way. Then, the result is compared with the WKB approach, in which the equation of motion of the mode function is constructed with the WKB approximation which is valid as long as the Compton wavelength is shorter than the Hubble horizon length. This demonstrates that the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation of the order e2ℏ is determined by a nonlocal integration in time depending on the background expansion. We also compare our result with a recent work by Higuchi and Walker [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 105019 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.105019], which investigated the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a charged particle in a nonrelativistic motion in a homogeneous electric field.

  20. Water, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, carbon-13, and oxygen-18 content of selected lunar material.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; O'neil, J R; Adami, L H; Gleason, J D; Hardcastle, K

    1970-01-30

    The water content of the breccia is 150 to 455 ppm, with a deltaD from-580 to -870 per mil. Hydrogen gas content is 40 to 53 ppm with a deltaD of -830 to -970 per mil. The CO(2) is 290 to 418 ppm with delta (13)C = + 2.3 to + 5.1 per mil and delta(18)O = 14.2 to 19.1 per mil. Non-CO(2) carbon is 22 to 100 ppm, delta(13)C = -6.4 to -23.2 per mil. Lunar dust is 810 ppm H(2)O (D = 80 ppm) and 188 ppm total carbon(delta(13)C = -17.6 per mil). The (18)O analyses of whole rocks range from 5.8 to 6.2 per mil. The temperature of crystallization of type B rocks is 1100 degrees to 1300 degrees C, based on the oxygen isotope fractionation between coexisting plagioclase and ilmenite.

  1. Berry's phase manifestation in Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in single Bi nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitsu, D. V.; Huber, T. E.; Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.

    2009-02-01

    Here we report on Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of magnetoresistance (MR) of the single Bi nanowires with diameter d<80 nm. The samples were prepared by Ulitovsky technique and represented cylindrical single crystals with the 1011 orientation along the wire axis. Due to semimetal-to-semiconductor transformation and big density of surface states with strong spin-orbit interactions Bi nanowire should effectively become a conducting tube. The equidistant oscillations of the MR have been observed in a wide range of magnetic fields up to 14 T at various temperatures (1.5 K< T< 4.2 K) and angles θ (0< θ < 90°) of the sample orientation relative to the magnetic field. We have obtained longitudinal MR oscillations with periods ΔB1=Φ0/S and ΔB2=Φ0/2S, where Φ0=h/e is the flux quantum and S is the wire cross section. From B approx 8 T down to B=0 the extremums of Φ0/2S oscillations are shifted up to 3π at B=0 which is the manifestation of Berry phase shift due to carriers moving in inhomogeneous magnetic field. An interpretation of the MR oscillations in terms of a subband structure in the surface state band caused by quantum interference is presented.

  2. Quantum Interference and Surface States Effects in Bismuth Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, L.; Huber, T.; Nikolaeva, A.

    2010-02-01

    We report the observation of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations for single Bi nanowires with diameter d< 80 nm. The single nanowire samples with glass coating were prepared by the Ulitovsky technique; they were cylindrical single crystals with (10 bar{1} 1) orientation along the wire axis. The surface of Bi nanowire supports surface states which give rise to a significant population of charge carriers with high effective mass that form a highly conducting tube around the nanowire. The oscillations of longitudinal magnetoresistance (MR) of Bi nanowires with two periods Δ B 1 and Δ B 2 proportional to Φ0 and Φ0/2 were observed, where Φ0= h/ e is the flux quantum. From B˜ 8 T down to B = 0 the extremums of Φ0/2 oscillations are shifted up to 3 π at B = 0 which is the manifestation of Berry phase shift due to electron moving in a nonuniform magnetic field. A derivative of MR was measured at various inclined angles. The observed angle variation of the periods is not in agreement with the theoretical dependence Δ( α)=Δ(0)/cos α of the size effect oscillations of the “flux quantization” type. Moreover, the equidistant oscillations of MR exist in transverse magnetic fields under certain rotation angles. An interpretation of the MR oscillations is presented.

  3. Monte Carlo dose calculation in dental amalgam phantom.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Mohd Zahri Abdul; Yusoff, A L; Osman, N D; Abdullah, R; Rabaie, N A; Salikin, M S

    2015-01-01

    It has become a great challenge in the modern radiation treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment delivery in electron beam therapy. Tissue inhomogeneity has become one of the factors for accurate dose calculation, and this requires complex algorithm calculation like Monte Carlo (MC). On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) images used in treatment planning system need to be trustful as they are the input in radiotherapy treatment. However, with the presence of metal amalgam in treatment volume, the CT images input showed prominent streak artefact, thus, contributed sources of error. Hence, metal amalgam phantom often creates streak artifacts, which cause an error in the dose calculation. Thus, a streak artifact reduction technique was applied to correct the images, and as a result, better images were observed in terms of structure delineation and density assigning. Furthermore, the amalgam density data were corrected to provide amalgam voxel with accurate density value. As for the errors of dose uncertainties due to metal amalgam, they were reduced from 46% to as low as 2% at d80 (depth of the 80% dose beyond Zmax) using the presented strategies. Considering the number of vital and radiosensitive organs in the head and the neck regions, this correction strategy is suggested in reducing calculation uncertainties through MC calculation.

  4. Effect of Thermal Shock on Grindability of Oleic Adsorbed Flotation Placer Sillimanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxmi, T.; Bhima Rao, R.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal shock is one of the most effective techniques in size reduction. The present investigation deals with the effect of thermal shock treatment on grindability and grinding characteristics of sillimanite minerals and also an attempt has been made on the overall energy saving for preparation of sillimanite flour by using ball mill. This attempt is made due to a fine dry grinding of sillimanite minerals to produce sillimanite flour, which is an energy intensive operation. It is observed from the present investigation that the particle sizes at d50 and d80 passing size in microns for thermally treated sillimanite is slightly lower than that of natural sillimanite. The study of grinding kinetics using ball mill indicate that the slope value obtained for thermally treated sillimanite is lower than the natural sillimanite, which shows that the sample responded to higher rate of grinding. The result of grindability studies reveal that the power required for thermal treatment of sillimanite is 395.36 hp and the total energy saving in the order of 8.9 % is achieved by thermal treatment of sillimanite at 900 °C for period of half an hour heating time due to development of numerous micro-cracks and fractures within the mineral grains. Hence, it is recommended to use thermally treated sillimanite for preparation of sillimanite flour (<75 µm particle size) which reduces power consumption of 8.9 %.

  5. Analysis of high-dose rate brachytherapy dose distribution resemblance in CyberKnife hypofractionated treatment plans of localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sudahar, H; Kurup, P G G; Murali, V; Mahadev, P; Velmurugan, J

    2013-01-01

    The present study is to analyze the CyberKnife hypofractionated dose distribution of localized prostate cancer in terms of high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy equivalent doses to assess the degree of HDR brachytherapy resemblance of CyberKnife dose distribution. Thirteen randomly selected localized prostate cancer cases treated using CyberKnife with a dose regimen of 36.25Gy in 5 fractions were considered. HDR equivalent doses were calculated for 30Gy in 3 fractions of HDR brachytherapy regimen. The D5% of the target in the CyberKnife hypofractionation was 41.57 ± 2.41Gy. The corresponding HDR fractionation (3 fractions) equivalent dose was 32.81 ± 1.86Gy. The mean HDR fractionation equivalent dose, D98%, was 27.93 ± 0.84Gy. The V100% of the prostate target was 95.57% ± 3.47%. The V100% of the bladder and the rectum were 717.16 and 79.6mm(3), respectively. Analysis of the HDR equivalent dose of CyberKnife dose distribution indicates a comparable resemblance to HDR dose distribution in the peripheral target doses (D98% to D80%) reported in the literature. However, there is a substantial difference observed in the core high-dose regions especially in D10% and D5%. The dose fall-off within the OAR is also superior in reported HDR dose distribution than the HDR equivalent doses of CyberKnife.

  6. Young Stellar Object Variability (YSOVAR): Mid Infrared Clues to Accretion Disk Physics and Protostar Rotational Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, John; Akeson, Rachel; Allen, Lori; Ardila, David; Barrado, David; Bayo, Amelia; Bouvier, Jerome; Calvet, Nuria; Carey, Sean; Carpenter, John; Ciardi, David; Covey, Kevin; Favata, Fabio; Flaherty, Kevin; Forbrich, Jan; Guieu, Sylvain; Gutermuth, Rob; Hartmann, Lee; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hora, Joe; McCaughrean, Mark; Megeath, Tom; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Muzerolle, James; Plavchan, Peter; Rebull, Luisa; Skrutskie, Mike; Smith, Howard; Song, Inseok; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Sung, Hwankyung; Terebey, Susan; Vrba, Fred; Werner, Mike; Whitney, Barbara; Winston, Elaine; Wood, Kenny

    2008-12-01

    Spitzer/IRAC in the warm mission is the only facility now existing or planned capable of carrying out an extensive, accurate time series photometric monitoring survey of star-forming regions in the thermal infrared. The demonstrated sensitivity and stability of IRAC allows measurement of the relative fluxes of YSO's down to the substellar mass limit to 1-2% accuracy in star-forming regions out to >500 pc. We propose a time series monitoring exploration science survey of the Orion Nebula Cluster and 11 very young, populous embedded star-forming cores which will provide >D 80 epochs of data for > 1500 YSO's. We will complement these observations with contemporaneous optical and near-IR monitoring data in order to allow comparison of the phase, amplitude and light-curve shape as a function of wavelength. These data will allow us to: (a) provide otherwise unobtainable constraints on the structure of the inner disks in Class I and II YSOs - and hence, perhaps, provide clues to the formation and migration of planets at young ages; (b) measure the short and long-term stability of hot spots on the surfaces of YSO's of all evolutionary stages; and (c) determine rotational periods for the largest sample to date of Class I YSO's and hence obtain the best measure of the initial angular momentum distribution of young stars.

  7. Application of Anova on Fly Ash Leaching Kinetics for Value Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Ranjita; Mohapatro, Rudra Narayana; Bhima Rao, Raghupatruni

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash is a major problem in power plant sectors as it is dumped at the plant site. Fly ash generation increases day to day due to rapid growth of steel industries. Ceramic/refractory industries are growing rapidly because of more number of steel industries. The natural resources of the ceramic/refractory raw materials are depleting with time due to its consumption. In view of this, fly ash from thermal power plant has been identified for use in the ceramic/refractory industries after suitable beneficiation. In this paper, sample was collected from the ash pond of Vedanta. Particle size (d80 passing size) of the sample is around 150 micron. The chemical analysis of the sample shows that 3.9 % of Fe2O3 and CaO is more than 10 %. XRD patterns show that the fly ash samples consist predominantly of the crystalline phases of quartz, hematite and magnetite in a matrix of aluminosilicate glass. Leaching of iron oxide is 98.3 % at 3 M HCl concentration at 90 °C for 270 min of leaching time. Kinetic study on leaching experiment was carried out. ANOVA software is utilized for curve fitting and the process is optimized using MATLAB 7.1. The detailed study of properties for ceramic material is compared with the standard ceramic materials. The product contains 0.3 % of iron. The other properties of the product have established the fact that the product obtained can be a raw material for ceramic industries.

  8. Ligand and proton exchange dynamics in recombinant human myoglobin mutants.

    PubMed

    Lambright, D G; Balasubramanian, S; Boxer, S G

    1989-05-05

    Site-specific mutants of human myoglobin have been prepared in which lysine 45 is replaced by arginine (K45R) and aspartate 60 by glutamate (D60E), in order to examine the influence of these residues and their interaction on the dynamics of the protein. These proteins were studied by a variety of methods, including one and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, exchange kinetics for the distal and proximal histidine NH protons as a function of pH in the met cyano forms, flash photolysis of the CO forms, and ligand replacement kinetics. The electronic absorption and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the CO forms of these proteins are virtually identical, indicating that the structure of the heme pocket is unaltered by these mutations. There are, however, substantial changes in the dynamics of both CO binding and proton exchange for the mutant K45R, whereas the mutant D60E exhibits behavior indistinguishable from the reference human myoglobin. K45R has a faster CO bimolecular recombination rate and slower CO off-rate relative to the reference. The kinetics for CO binding are independent of pH (6.5 to 10) as well as ionic strength (0 to 1 M-NaCl). The exchange rate for the distal histidine NH is substantially lower for K45R than the reference, whereas the proximal histidine NH exchange rate is unaltered. The exchange behavior of the human proteins is similar to that reported for a comparison of the exchange rates for myoglobins having lysine at position 45 with sperm whale myoglobin, which has arginine at this position. This indicates that the differences in exchange rates reflects largely the Lys----Arg substitution. The lack of a simple correlation for the CO kinetics with this substitution means that these are sensitive to other factors as well. Specific kinetic models, whereby substitution of arginine for lysine at position 45 can affect ligand binding dynamics, are outlined. These experiments demonstrate that a relatively

  9. Effect of organic selenium in the diet on sperm quality of boars.

    PubMed

    López, A; Rijsselaere, T; Van Soom, A; Leroy, J L M R; De Clercq, J B P; Bols, P E J; Maes, D

    2010-12-01

    The effect of a diet supplemented with organic selenium (Se) on sperm production and quality of boars was investigated. Sixty mature boars from a commercial artificial insemination centre were randomly allocated at Day (D) 0 into Group A and B. Group A received the regular ration supplemented with inorganic Se (0.4 mg/kg feed as Na(2) SeO(3)) whereas Group B was switched to the same diet but with organic Se (0.4 mg/kg fed as Se-yeast). The sperm was investigated during 4 months (D0, D30, D60, D75, D90, D105 and D120). Sperm concentration and motility were objectively measured using a photometer and Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) respectively. Morphology of the sperm was assessed using eosin-nigrosin staining and the resistance to induction of oxidative stress (production of malonaldehyde, MDA) through thiobarbituric acid reagent species analysis. Additionally, the Se concentration in sperm and blood plasma were measured. Repeated measures analysis of variance (anova) from D60 to 120 (spermatogenesis of approximately 2 months) or anova at D120 (Se concentrations) were used for statistical analysis. The total number of ejaculated sperm was not significantly different between both groups, but boars of Group B had a significantly higher sperm concentration (434.6 vs 514.1 × 10(6) sperm/ml; p < 0.05). Small differences (p < 0.05) were observed between both groups for some CASA parameters, namely straight line velocity (μm/s) (Group A: 48.3, Group B: 45.1), straightness (%) (Group A: 65.6, Group B: 62.2) and linearity (%) (Group A: 32.2, Group B: 29.3). The sperm of Group B showed more oxidative stress (4.1 vs 4.9 μmol MDA/l; p < 0.05) compared with those of Group A. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for the other parameters. Under the present study conditions, changing from inorganic Se to organic Se in the diet of boars increased sperm concentration but reduced some motility parameters and resistance to

  10. Thermobacteriological characterization of Enterobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, C; Condón, S; Pagán, R

    2009-11-30

    In the present study the influence of various environmental and physiological factors on the heat resistance of Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter) have been investigated. Our results demonstrated that the heat resistance of E. sakazakii depended on the strain studied, the growth conditions - phase and temperature - the characteristics of treatment medium and the recovery conditions. The strain STCC 858 (ATCC type strain 29544) showed maximum heat resistance among the strains tested and it was selected for the further study. Stationary-phase cells grown between 20 and 37 degrees C (mean D(60)=0.9 min) resulted to be more resistant than cells grown at 10 degrees C (D(60)=0.2 min). Resistance decreased when the treatment medium pH was lower than pH 6.0, and it increased with decreasing water activity of the treatment medium, with a 32-fold increase in resistance when lowering water activity to 0.96. z value at pH 4.0 (z=4.79 degrees C) was significantly higher than at pH 7.0 (z=4.06 degrees C), although E. sakazakii cells were approximately 10 times more heat resistant at pH 7.0 than at pH 4.0 within the range of temperatures tested. Contrary to pH, the magnitude of the influence of a(w) on heat resistance did not significantly change with treatment temperature. The proportion of sublethally damaged cells was similar regardless of the treatment medium pH, but it decreased when lowering the water activity. Nevertheless, increasing treatment temperature would not result in a decreased proportion of sublethally injured E. sakazakii cells within the surviving population. Thus, the design of a theoretical combined process that could take advantage of the occurrence of sublethally injured cells would be similarly effective at low and high temperatures. E. sakazakii proved to be more heat resistant in four different liquid food matrixes than in buffers at the same pH, and this disagreement was especially higher in orange juice, which resulted to be the product that induced

  11. Estrogen modulates developmentally regulated gene expression in the fetal baboon liver.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Miriam D; Albrecht, Eugene D; Pepe, Gerald J

    2004-01-01

    Although estrogen plays a central integrative role in regulating key aspects of placental and fetal endocrine development in the primate, our understanding of the regulation of maturation of the fetal liver is incomplete. In adults, estrogen modulates several aspects of hepatic function. Therefore, the current study determined whether fetal hepatic gene expression development was modulated by estrogen. mRNA differential display was used to identify genes whose expression was altered in fetal livers obtained on d 165 of gestation (term = d 184) from baboons that were untreated or treated on d 60-164 with the aromatase inhibitor CGS 20267 (2 mg/d; sc), which suppressed estrogen levels in the fetus by >95% (p < 0.01). As confirmed by Northern blot, the mRNA levels (ratio to 18s RNA) of metallothionein I (MT-I), porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D), and cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP 2C8) in the livers of estrogen-deprived fetuses were 5-, 12-, and 3-fold higher (p < 0.05) than respective values of untreated fetuses. Moreover, mRNA levels of MT-I and PBG-D, expressed as a ratio to 18s RNA, were 3-fold and 26-fold higher (p < 0.05) on d 60-100 of gestation than on d 165 and in the adult. In contrast, CYP 2C8 mRNA increased 10-fold between d 100 and 165 and was not further altered in adult liver. Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of MT-I in hepatocytes. Erythropoietic cells, normally present in the fetal baboon liver on d 100 but not on d 165, were also detected on d 165 in animals treated with the aromatase inhibitor. Thus, upregulation of PBG-D mRNA in estrogen-deprived baboons may reflect prolongation of the erythropoietic role of the fetal liver. In summary, these results indicate that the normal developmental change in MT-I, PBG-D, and CYP 2C8 mRNA expression in baboon fetal liver with advancing gestation are dependent on increased secretion of estrogen into the fetus. We suggest, therefore, that estrogen regulates normal development of the primate fetal liver.

  12. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 7. (Eastport International-Flint Electric Membership Corp.)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    4 ix I-- < #.- 2009 - L&JI000N 𔃺 L- cc 0 InLn Ln1 0 0) U- 0 0) "-40-0 I 000-4 1 - 4< <- D- &#60 1-2 < - 1-410004 1 ow c0 4 Cc w z t z 2 w -C4 W �-4... CIMM CIO 1 WON 1 on MCD 49 0 4c 01300 U-C 44 -C -C Q 0 -C 04(04EQ<-c 000 dc 1 wo 4 1 1 0-4crtu Ln Let Ln in in Let n Ln to Ln in Ln w) w) Y) v) 9) w...w (a w (a w Co 0 w w (0 (a (D WCO(ow(040400 (040 CIA I LAJ 0 V 1 MOM (n(nCllMCn r) on C13 Cv) Cv) Cv) M CV) CnM I WO-w I CIMM to (0 1- 40 cc (0 (D (0

  13. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 15. (Ogilvie Electronics-Prime Engineering Co., Inc.)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    8217 2009 - -1 00 -c 0 8- 0 0 1-- 0 WICON I00001- U- 40< 8- 40 4 -0 W) 14 L- C0 11000.4 1𔃺 4 << 4 d &#60 0 1.- W. 4c U) 80. 14 -4 4 8 c 4 c Nc w V) w410004...too -4 cl cimm m (14 4c 0 Cl) -*000 CD * -* C,4 N cli Ln N Ln cL,4 Ln C"I Ln C%4 Ln 04 a) 00 1-- Cl) m tn -4 -Com CD. . . r- N r- -4 -4 -4 14-4 -4 -1...moln< I, f- 1- 1- f- -4-4 tD to -4 0) 00 .4--l CIMM COOLn< (D W (D W (0 Ln Ln cli Cj in 1 M m -0 -It -4 -* -0 I MOM I Ln 00 Cl) 0) 0 cy) -4 C14 C) 1

  14. Dollar Summary of Prime Contract Awards by State, County, Contractor, and Place. Part 2. (Alachua, Florida-Wexford, Michigan)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    0000 0 0 I td 00N -4_ 4A-41.11111.4- CL z >-WO 1-x Q QI o x-W0C I > c~0 Oz z0’ (0- z zoo LA ) OA r~C 0 00. o "I Ŕ( (0 (0Ŕ >* <~-0 0. LA r-C - L OW I...IJ -4 -0 )> 1- 1..- (0~IU I 04u ww x~ Z" 01- 00? 0?~<x OU "i1- Z u( Ŕ I-L) "EUIU < EUQ " D 34 I Il wmo0)wx ᝰ?=" o I < (DOwo sauo C).X" 0>U MJJ- I...NNl 00 0 0 (I 6 ( CL0O w0- C’) Cl0C ) Q 0 ~ ww I2 I r- -tCi - C., it ) 0N 00 -40 4 N * 6-4 W- I I (n.. C14- U WO 6(0 V ~- (a (d&#60< 9c 0 0 0 td w ’ z

  15. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    PubMed Central

    Boucetta, Kenza Qiraouani; Charrouf, Zoubida; Derouiche, Abdelfattah; Rahali, Younes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30) and the control group olive oil (n = 30). Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days’ period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and water content of the epidermis (WCE) on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60) of oils treatment. Results The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023) and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001). The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01) and a significant increase in WCE (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and application of argan oil have improved the skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity. PMID:26327867

  16. Turbulent Boundary Layer Measurements on the Boattail Section of a Yawed, Spinning Projectile Shape at Mach 3.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    in CO • J • o o r- in m ci » II II II o I UJ ►- a. a UJ o x o:»’<-*’*i-«-ivjmoo»-«Wh-’Hno’inon’^oo>coa>CT’<M x( vih -o(nma)o«(»i*inh...ioooi/iCT’eoo>(Vii/i—«i—«o(vjo>(vi( vih -^-r~iJicoai \\ ro r^ ^ m in coo (vj(n»o eo»^mco<*ir*»^in(^(o»oio o rn m ^* -* ^ jinLninini/isO^o^tr^i^cocDroa’Oo...D-oo-Hf-inno-*!!) ujo-»inh-o>’-<*(vjh->to»in(vio*in(vio,<o-’^( vih -’^(vj oooooor-<^H(vj(vj(^-*’*in^*r^eD&#60DO>oc)r-<rt(vj(vj v

  17. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Morris, E Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2011-09-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle.

  18. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E. Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  19. Biodegradation of paper waste under controlled composting conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J V López; Larrucea, M Aguilar; Bermúdez, P Arraiza; Chicote, B León

    2009-05-01

    The presence of paper in municipal solid waste (MSW) interferes with the efficiency of composting plants. The compost feedstock to these plants is between 12% and 27% paper on a dry weight basis, with an initial C:N ratio ranging from 32:1 to 57:1. Tests of the last aerobic biodegradability (LAB) of the type of paper present in paper and cardboard packaging were carried out, following UNE-EN 14046 standards. The results obtained, measured through the quantity of CO(2) generated over 45 days, compared with the maximum that could be produced (ThCO(2)), showed that the presence of paper retards, to a great degree, the biodegradation of organic material in general. Specifically, the presence of papers with a degradation D (%) >60% at 45 days (white (W) and recycled paper (R)) could be allowed, but always in proportions that did not exceed 27% in dry weight. These results can be achieved with an industrial level process, pre-treated by trituration.

  20. The human Werner syndrome protein stimulates repair of oxidative DNA base damage by the DNA glycosylase NEIL1.

    PubMed

    Das, Aditi; Boldogh, Istvan; Lee, Jae Wan; Harrigan, Jeanine A; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Piotrowski, Jason; de Souza Pinto, Nadja; Ramos, William; Greenberg, Marc M; Hazra, Tapas K; Mitra, Sankar; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2007-09-07

    The mammalian DNA glycosylase, NEIL1, specific for repair of oxidatively damaged bases in the genome via the base excision repair pathway, is activated by reactive oxygen species and prevents toxicity due to radiation. We show here that the Werner syndrome protein (WRN), a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases, associates with NEIL1 in the early damage-sensing step of base excision repair. WRN stimulates NEIL1 in excision of oxidative lesions from bubble DNA substrates. The binary interaction between NEIL1 and WRN (K(D) = 60 nM) involves C-terminal residues 288-349 of NEIL1 and the RecQ C-terminal (RQC) region of WRN, and is independent of the helicase activity WRN. Exposure to oxidative stress enhances the NEIL-WRN association concomitant with their strong nuclear co-localization. WRN-depleted cells accumulate some prototypical oxidized bases (e.g. 8-oxoguanine, FapyG, and FapyA) indicating a physiological function of WRN in oxidative damage repair in mammalian genomes. Interestingly, WRN deficiency does not have an additive effect on in vivo damage accumulation in NEIL1 knockdown cells suggesting that WRN participates in the same repair pathway as NEIL1.

  1. A frequency-duty cycle equation for the ACGIH hand activity level.

    PubMed

    Radwin, Robert G; Azari, David P; Lindstrom, Mary J; Ulin, Sheryl S; Armstrong, Thomas J; Rempel, David

    2015-01-01

    A new equation for predicting the hand activity level (HAL) used in the American Conference for Government Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value®(TLV®) was based on exertion frequency (F) and percentage duty cycle (D). The TLV® includes a table for estimating HAL from F and D originating from data in Latko et al. (Latko WA, Armstrong TJ, Foulke JA, Herrin GD, Rabourn RA, Ulin SS, Development and evaluation of an observational method for assessing repetition in hand tasks. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58(4):278-285, 1997) and post hoc adjustments that include extrapolations outside of the data range. Multimedia video task analysis determined D for two additional jobs from Latko's study not in the original data-set, and a new nonlinear regression equation was developed to better fit the data and create a more accurate table. The equation, HAL = 6:56 ln D[F(1:31) /1+3:18 F(1:31), generally matches the TLV® HAL lookup table, and is a substantial improvement over the linear model, particularly for F>1.25 Hz and D>60% jobs. The equation more closely fits the data and applies the TLV® using a continuous function.

  2. Thermal resistance of Saccharomyces yeast ascospores in beers.

    PubMed

    Milani, Elham A; Gardner, Richard C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-03

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are yeasts used to produce top and bottom fermenting beers, respectively. In this research, first the sporulation rate of 12 Saccharomyces strains was studied. Then, the thermal resistance of ascospores of three S. cerevisiae strains (DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, Ethanol Red(®)) and one strain of S. pastorianus (ATCC 9080) was determined in 4% (v/v) ethanol lager beer. D60 °C-values of 11.2, 7.5, 4.6, and 6.0 min and z-values of 11.7, 14.3, 12.4, and 12.7 °C were determined for DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, ATCC 9080, and Ethanol Red(®), respectively. Lastly, experiments with 0 and 7% (v/v) beers were carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol content on the thermal resistance of S. cerevisiae (DSMZ 1848). D55 °C-values of 34.2 and 15.3 min were obtained for 0 and 7% beers, respectively, indicating lower thermal resistance in the more alcoholic beer. These results demonstrate similar spore thermal resistance for different Saccharomyces strains and will assist in the design of appropriate thermal pasteurization conditions for preserving beers with different alcohol contents.

  3. Isolation and characterization of heat resistant enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus from a food poisoning outbreak in Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Nema, Vijay; Agrawal, Ranu; Kamboj, Dev Vrat; Goel, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Lokendra

    2007-06-10

    Outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) are very common across the world; however, there is hardly any report of SFP from the Indian subcontinent. An outbreak occurred in the state of Madhya Pradesh (India) after the consumption of a snack called "Bhalla" made up of potato balls fried in vegetable oil. More than 100 children and adults who ate the snack suffered from the typical symptoms of SFP and required hospitalization. Food and clinical samples were found to contain a large number of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus. All enterotoxigenic isolates produced a combination of SEB and SED enterotoxins and were sensitive to oxacillin and vancomycin. Isolates were characterized by molecular biology tools, viz., SDS-PAGE, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and nucleotide sequencing of seb, sed, and 16S rDNA genes. Results of these studies suggested that the isolates, irrespective of their isolation from food or clinical samples, were clonal in origin. Further, seb gene sequence of isolates showed nucleotide variations at multiple sites when compared with other sequences available in the database. Representative isolates, one each from food and clinical samples, were found to be highly heat resistant (D(60) approximately 15-16 min). Isolates obtained in the current outbreak need to be further studied to find out the impact on food safety guidelines with respect to thermal processing.

  4. Military Manpower Statistics, July 1984, FY-84.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    34MrM- W’I 0 I I 0L w * a --.2 I LL Sx «᝾Zx L J ~ II I- IUU zU~ I . I-. 1- I -W wI- bI- 14 I ~ UO- -- J O O-~d ZA ’ 3 I-- - C.) - - U I <<- LL. 0 c...0D &#60 0 ~~~~; W~0 CV)~ r-N rcp ( U) w ’ -ma foC~o U,’ -D %0 Pl - C0 %0 U)’ = -a-O - M4w . qqt - -00 CDP Nw - %0 N- CDPN Z5 1 CS C4, ), , WW c IUC O L -V...000 O "rNw r 04 CU)’ 14qtC OU) ~~- C)c t~ %0(4 qr0 -~ CDP ) 0U N -OD ONIL M -- m C- - LOC M---n NmW ) - UI) N ION c4-W CO 4qN - w0 woeI 00D 4D4= D

  5. Parathyroid and Calcium Status in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Meenu; Abrol, Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Thirty patients with thalassemia major receiving repeated blood transfusion were studied to see their serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium status. Serum PTH, serum and 24 h urinary calcium, and serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were determined. Half of these patients, in addition to transfusion, were also supplemented with vitamin D (60,000 IU for 10d) and calcium (1500 mg/day for 3 months). Serum PTH, and serum and 24 h urinary calcium concentrations of the patients receiving transfusions were found to be significantly reduced while their serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were not significantly altered when compared to the respective mean values for the control group. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation significantly increased their serum PTH and calcium levels. Supplementations also increased urinary excretion of calcium. The results thus suggest that patients with thalassemia have hypoparathyroidism and reduced serum calcium concentrations that in turn were improved with vitamin D and calcium supplementation. PMID:21966110

  6. Structural, optical and electrical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 films prepared from a non-toxic DMSO-based sol-gel and synthesized in low vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orletskyi, I. G.; Solovan, M. M.; Brus, V. V.; Pinna, F.; Cicero, G.; Maryanchuk, P. D.; Maistruk, E. V.; Ilashchuk, M. I.; Boichuk, T. I.; Tresso, E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a complex analysis of structural, optical and electrical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films, prepared by spin-coating of a sol-gel based on the low-cost and environmentally friendly solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and synthesized in low vacuum (0.1 Pa). The effect of a short-term low-temperature treatment in air and final annealing under low vacuum (0.1 Pa) on the synthesis of CZTS films was tested and analyzed. XRD and Raman spectra have shown the polycrystalline nature of obtained CZTS films with almost a pure kesterite phase content. The average size of crystallites D 60 nm in the films was estimated. The value of the band gap Eg≈1.53 eV was determined from the analysis of optical characteristics. The analysis of electrical characteristics was carried out in the scope of the model of current transport in polycrystalline materials with electrically active grain boundaries. The determined values of the specific resistance ρ≈2.38 Ω cm, the hole density p0≈4.2×1018 cm-3 and the effective mobility μp≈0.63 cm2/(V s) demonstrate that the CZTS films under investigation are prospective for the fabrication of highly efficient solar cells.

  7. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods.

  8. ZnO Nanorods Grown Electrochemically on Different Metal Oxide Underlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromyko, I.; Dedova, T.; Krunks, M.; Syritski, V.; Mere, A.; Mikli, V.; Unt, T.; Oja Acik, I.

    2015-03-01

    In this study we present results on electrochemically grown ZnO nanorods on different metal oxide underlays, such as ZnO seed layers with different morphologies, ZnS and TiO2 compact thin films produced by spray pyrolysis on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrates. Also in this work we present results on ZnO nanorods directly deposited on some chosen TCO substrates. The relationship between nanorod formation and substrate properties were studied. All ZnO nanorod layers were grown electrochemically using ZnCl2 aqueous solutions (c=0.2 mmol/L) at the bath temperature of 80 °C during one hour. The structural properties and morphology of metal oxide underlays and ZnO nanorods grown on them were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Depending on the substrate morphology, ZnO rods with different dimension, orientation, shape and density were obtained. For instance, larger rods (d~200 nm, l~700 nm) were obtained on substrates, such as ITO/glass, FTO/glass and ZnO:In/ITO/glass. Smaller rods (d~60 nm, l~350 nm) were obtained on smooth, uniform and fine-grained underlays, such as ZnS and TiO2.

  9. Palaeomagnetism of the Balantak ophiolite, Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubroto, B.; Briden, J. C.; McClelland, E.; Hall, R.

    1994-07-01

    Paleomagnetic data from the East Arm of Sulawesi provide constraints on the Cretaceous and subsequent history of a fragment of the tectonic mosaic of a complex region close to the junction between SE Asia, the Indo-Australian plate and the western Pacific microplates. Primary thermoremanence has been demonstrated in samples from 23 sites in a tilted Cretaceous-Palaeogene lava sequence in the Balantak ophiolite at Batusimpang on the eastern tip of the East Arm of Sulawesi. Its direction (D = 60.5 deg, I = -32.1 deg, alpha(sub 95) = 5.5 deg) indicates formation at 17 +/- 4 deg S and approximately 60 deg of subsequent clockwise rotation. The primary mode of remanence is deduced from NRM/TRM comparisons; low-temperature cycling and other rock magnetic tests point to SD magnetite as the principal remanence carrier. Supporting evidence for the paleolatitude and northward movement of the East Arm is derived from other lavas at Binsil, and from the Boba Cherts, but lack of tectonic control limits the interpretation. The contrast between these results and the subequatorial origin of contemporary rocks on nearly Halmahera is consistent with subduction of Indian Ocean lithosphere beneath the Sunda margin in the late Mesozoic and early Tertiary. Large differences in declination of remanence in the E Sulawesi rocks indicate large clockwise and anticlockwise rotations of tectonic blocks only tens of kilometers across.

  10. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = 0.57..mu..M. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ = 60..mu..M, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  11. A Brief Peer Support Intervention for Veterans with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Pilot Study of Feasibility and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Marianne S.; McGuire, Alan B.; Kukla, Marina; Daggy, Joanne; Myers, Laura J.; Bair, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To pilot test a peer support intervention, involving peer delivery of pain self-management strategies, for veterans with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Design Pre-test/post-test with 4-month intervention period. Methods Ten peer coaches were each assigned 2 patients (n=20 patients). All had chronic musculoskeletal pain. Guided by a study manual, peer coach-patient pairs were instructed to talk bi-weekly for 4 months. Pain was the primary outcome and was assessed with the PEG, a 3-item version of the Brief Pain Inventory, and the PROMIS Pain Interference Questionnaire. Several secondary outcomes were also assessed. To assess change in outcomes, a linear mixed model with a random effect for peer coaches was applied. Results Nine peer coaches and 17 patients completed the study. All were male veterans. Patients’ pain improved at 4 months compared to baseline but did not reach statistical significance (PEG: p = .33, ICC [intra-class correlation] = .28, Cohen's d = −.25; PROMIS: p = .17, d = −.35). Of secondary outcomes, self-efficacy (p = .16, ICC = .56, d = .60) and pain centrality (p = .06, ICC = .32, d = −.62) showed greatest improvement, with moderate effect sizes. Conclusions This study suggests that peers can effectively deliver pain self-management strategies to other veterans with pain. Although this was a pilot study with a relatively short intervention period, patients improved on several outcomes. PMID:25312858

  12. Comparative efficacy of a recombinant feline interferon omega in refractory cases of calicivirus-positive cats with caudal stomatitis: a randomised, multi-centre, controlled, double-blind study in 39 cats.

    PubMed

    Hennet, Philippe R; Camy, Guy A L; McGahie, David M; Albouy, Maxime V

    2011-08-01

    Chronic caudal stomatitis with alveolar/buccal mucositis in calicivirus-positive cats is the most severe presentation of feline chronic gingivostomatitis. Refractory cases are helped by antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatments often including glucocorticoids. In order to evaluate the comparative efficacy of oromucosal administration of recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) versus oral administration of glucocorticoids, a randomised, multi-centre, controlled, double-blind study was performed in 39 cats. The progression of behavioural, clinical and lesional scores was assessed over 90 days. Daily oromucosal treatment with 0.1 MU of rFeIFN-ω was associated with a significant improvement of clinical lesions (caudal stomatitis and alveolar/buccal mucositis) and a decrease of pain scores from D0 to D90. Although no such statistical improvement was noticed in the prednisolone group, there was, however, no significant difference between the two groups for most of the parameters, except pain at D60 and D90.

  13. Comparison of long-term (10 years) immunogenicity of two- and three-dose regimens of a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beran, Jiri; Kervyn, Diane; Wertzova, Veronika; Hobzova, Lenka; Tichy, Petr; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2010-08-23

    300 adolescents aged 12-15 years were randomised (1:1) into two groups to compare the long-term (10 years) immunogenicity profile of two doses of an Adult formulation [Group HAB_2D: 150; 0-6 months] vs. three doses of a Paediatric formulation [Group HAB_3D: 150; 0-1-6 months] of a combined hepatitis A and B (HAB) vaccine. At Year 10, anti-HAV seropositivity rate was 100% in both groups, while 85.9% and 85.1% subjects in the HAB_2D and HAB_3D groups, respectively, had anti-HBs antibody concentrations > or =10 mIU/mL. The anti-HAV antibody GMCs (HAB_2D: 429.3 mIU/mL; HAB_3D: 335.5 mIU/mL) and anti-HBs antibody GMCs (HAB_2D: 50.6 mIU/mL; HAB_3D: 60.1 mIU/mL) were similar in both groups. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Hence, with respect to long-term antibody persistence, the two-dose schedule of the combined HAB vaccine Adult formulation is an effective alternative to the conventional three-dose schedule of the Paediatric formulation in adolescents.

  14. Geographic List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 91 - Sep 92. FY92. (Goodells Michigan - Warrenton Missouri)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    t- I- -l I <o" :: (-I uro Ln LO tor) r- o It 0(0 0) C1) ý1 Cl) N on (71) Cl) m 00 00 00 cm tn " ?I. o * " r- V1 I <o" r 4 C) C> C) o C> Ln In fro to C...0)0a)00) a ) 0) mil -M 0 I CD (00- II (- LAt 400 C- N-I N- 11-4 N-I ICKO C10 . I" D ’-1w 1(0 4 ( isLA 4(1 N 17 NO 10 - 0 200 CPCPm(0 _0 C), (D&#60D0D0 20...0D0)0) o (’) V-)I 0 Isla 0c1 *0) C>33 m0 it3 0033 ý : 3 Do3 oXr-::3 :-- 11)3: u,-t i 3-1D 33: 140 < 400() :: -it Q I0000 I C0 -) 0 ’ -000 I I 00) C- 00

  15. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  16. Effects on the development of offspring of female mice exposed to platinum sulfate or sodium hexachloroplatinate during pregnancy or lactation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostino, R.B.; Lown, B.A.; Morganti, J.B.; Chapin, E.; Massaro, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    On d 7 or 12 of gestation or on d 2 postpartum, Swiss ICR dams were administered either (1) a single intragastric dose of Pt(SO/sub 4/) at the LD1 level or dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at an equivalent volume, pH, and sulfate content, or (2) a single subcutaneous dose of Na/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/ or phosphate-buffered saline at an equivalent volume and pH. To differentiate prenatal from postnatal effects of the compounds on the offspring, a full cross-fostering design was employed. Rate of growth (as a function of weight gain) and gross activity of the neonates were assessed on d 8 or 13 postpartum. On d 60-65 postpartum, open-field behavior (ambulations and rearings), rotarod performance, and passive avoidance learning of the adult offspring were investigated. Exposure to Pt(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ resulted in reduced offspring weight from d 8 to 45 postpartum, whereas the major effect of Na/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/ was a reduction in activity level of the offspring of mothers exposed on d 12 of gestation. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Dollar Summary of Prime Contract Awards by State, Place, and Contractor, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 4. Alcoa Center, Pennsylvania-Sheridan, Wyoming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    LA W 4 J< W W " 7-o o 0 0 I 0)0 I--0 ’ o Z m 001Z- I ~ 0 dbJu Z0 0JZ- O - JC4 Z 14 0 Z 0. C) dIC ) I0W- C/ Q ’ u 0 0- 0- 04dI >d0. -d 0r) I I o0 0 - I 01...0 n ’- Z LA 4 - 1) LA u LU 4z LUX at 0. c ( 0 0 :3 "- " LA " -4 Z- 4- Z LA > -JDU D &#60--0. X x LU C0 00 0 0 Z LU 0 .JLA 04-4) - Z~~~~~ UA) U 0 4 Z n 0...C 0- 4’ )x 3u L0 - c )0 L )w0 L zom4 0 )" )< ’ - *- a: - U O ) >-w" . - w "W o r LU 0 !- O 0d Lux -’ .0)’ -< -L -u w- -Q -D w u 4 -. C) 00LJLA w4:C

  18. Cassava Stillage Treatment by Thermophilic Anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi

    2010-11-01

    This paper assesses the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in the treatment of cassava stillage under various organic loading rates (OLRs) without suspended solids (SS) separation. The reactor was seeded with mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge, and the OLR increased by increments to 13.80 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 5d) over 80 days. Total COD removal efficiency remained stable at 90%, with biogas production at 18 L/d (60% methane). Increase in the OLR to 19.30 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 3d), however, led to a decrease in TCOD removal efficiency to 79% due to accumulation of suspended solids and incomplete degradation after shortened retention time. Reactor performance subsequently increased after OLR reduction. Alkalinity, VFA and pH levels were not significantly affected by OLR variation, indicating that no additional alkaline or pH adjustment is required. More than half of the SS in the cassava stillage could be digested in the process when HRT was 5 days, which demonstrated the suitability of anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage without SS separation.

  19. Structure of Physarum polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase at 1.56 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sangwoo; Suga, Michihiro; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Ikegami, Terumi; Minami, Yoshiko; Yubisui, Toshitsugu; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2007-04-01

    The structure of P. polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase, an enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome b{sub 5} by NADH, was determined at a resolution of 1.56 Å. Physarum polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome b{sub 5} by NADH. The structure of P. polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase was determined at a resolution of 1.56 Å. The molecular structure was compared with that of human cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase, which had previously been determined at 1.75 Å resolution [Bando et al. (2004 ▶), Acta Cryst. D60, 1929–1934]. The high-resolution structure revealed conformational differences between the two enzymes in the adenosine moiety of the FAD, the lid region and the linker region. The structural properties of both proteins were inspected in terms of hydrogen bonding, ion pairs, accessible surface area and cavity volume. The differences in these structural properties between the two proteins were consistent with estimates of their thermostabilities obtained from differential scanning calorimetry data.

  20. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles with a Reusable Template – “Plastic Antibodies”

    PubMed Central

    Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Whitcombe, Michael J.; Piletska, Elena V.; Turner, Anthony P.F.; Piletsky, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) are generic alternatives to antibodies in sensors, diagnostics and separations. To displace biomolecules without radical changes in infrastructure in device manufacture, MIPs should share their characteristics (solubility, size, specificity and affinity, localized binding domain) whilst maintaining the advantages of MIPs (low-cost, short development time and high stability) hence the interest in MIP nanoparticles. Herein we report a reusable solid-phase template approach (fully compatible with automation) for the synthesis of MIP nanoparticles and their precise manufacture using a prototype automated UV photochemical reactor. Batches of nanoparticles (30-400 nm) with narrow size distributions imprinted with: melamine (d = 60 nm, Kd = 6.3 × 10−8 m), vancomycin (d = 250 nm, Kd = 3.4 × 10−9 m), a peptide (d = 350 nm, Kd = 4.8 × 10−8 m) and proteins have been produced. Our instrument uses a column packed with glass beads, bearing the template. Process parameters are under computer control, requiring minimal manual intervention. For the first time we demonstrate the reliable re-use of molecular templates in the synthesis of MIPs (≥ 30 batches of nanoMIPs without loss of performance). NanoMIPs are produced template-free and the solid-phase acts both as template and affinity separation medium. PMID:26869870

  1. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 10 (Germer Equipment Co-Hamilton Hilton National Wembley)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

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  2. Changing the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio in sow diets alters serum, colostrum, and milk fatty acid profiles, but has minimal impact on reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, L; Leterme, P; Beaulieu, A D

    2014-12-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that reducing the omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratio in sow diets will improve performance, characterized by increased litter size, decreased preweaning mortality, and improved growth performance. Second, we determined if the FA profile in sow and piglet blood, colostrum, and milk are altered when sows are fed diets with varied n-6:n-3 ratios and if the dietary FA ratio impacts circulating concentrations of IgG, IgA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid. Sows (n=150) were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (each divided into gestation and lactation diets) on d 80 of gestation. Period 1 (P1) is defined as d 80 of gestation to weaning and Period 2 (P2) refers to the subsequent breeding to weaning. Diets were wheat and barley based (5% crude fat) and treatments consisted of a control (tallow), 3 diets with plant oil-based n-6:n-3 ratios (9:1P, 5:1P, and 1:1P), and a 5:1 fish oil diet (5:1F). Litter size was unaffected by treatment during P1 and P2 (P>0.10). In P1, birth weight was unaffected by diet (P>0.10); however, weaning weight (P=0.019) and ADG from birth to weaning (P=0.011) were greatest for piglets born to 9:1P and 5:1P sows. During P2, 5:1F sows consumed 10% less feed during lactation (P=0.036), tended to have reduced piglet birth weights (P=0.052), and piglet weaning weight was reduced by 0.8 kg (P=0.040) relative to the other diets. Colostrum and piglet serum IgA and IgG concentrations were unaffected by diet (P>0.10). Serum n-3 FA were greatest in sows (P<0.01) consuming 1:1P and 5:1F diets and in their offspring (P=0.014). Serum α-linolenic acid (ALA) was greatest in 1:1P sows and EPA and DHA were greatest in 5:1F sows (P<0.01). In pre-suckle piglet serum, ALA did not differ among treatment groups (P>0.10). Relative to piglets of sows consuming the control diet, EPA was 2.5-fold greater in the 1:1P group and 4-fold greater in 5:1F group (P<0.01) before suckling. In post-suckle samples

  3. SU-E-T-162: Characterization of a New Oblong Cone for Use with the Intraoperative Mobetron Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Cantley, J; Colussi, V

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of a new flat 7 cm x 12 cm oblong cone for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) procedures. Methods: Percent depth dose (PDD) curves and profile measurements at dose depths of D100, D90, D80, D50, and D30 were measured using a parallel-plate ion chamber and a 3-D water tank Blue phantom II (iba) for the three energies (6, 9, and 12 MeV) available with the new generation Mobetron 2000. In addition, PDD curves and profiles were made with Gafchromic EBT3 films in solid water phantom. H&D curves were created for each energy for absolute calibration. The films were analyzed using the RIT image analysis software and then compared with the ion chamber results. Output values were obtained by normalizing the dose/MU at D100 at the clinical axis of the oblong cone by the dose/MU at D100 for the flat 10cm cylindrical standard cone using ion chamber measurements. Results: Ion chamber results show that the PDDs from the flat oblong cone, at the clinical axis, match with the PDDs for its “cylindrical brother” 7cm flat cone. These PDDs are comparable with those from the 10cm standard cone. The D100 coincides for all three energies. The cone output factors for the oblong cone are 1.07 for all energies. Ion chamber profiles measurements and film analysis show that the use of flat oblong cone with the 6 and 9 MeV energies Result in horns of approximately 12% and 8%, respectively. Conversely, 12 MeV profiles show loss of flatness near the field edge. Conclusion: The potential advantage of the oblong cones is the elimination of the well-known difficulties of electron field matching, both dosimetrically and in clinical setup.

  4. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research.

  5. Development of Evaluation Methods for Lower Limb Function between Aged and Young Using Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Yohei; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Ohya, Tetsuya; Koyama, Hironori; Kawasumi, Masashi

    There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the fall of the aged. The improvement in aged people's the muscular strength of the lower-limb, postural control and walking ability are important for quality of life and fall prevention. The aim of this study was to develop multiple evaluation methods in order to advise for improvement and maintenance of lower limb function between aged and young. The subjects were 16 healthy young volunteers (mean ± S.D: 19.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 healthy aged volunteers (mean ± S.D: 80.6 ± 6.1 years). Measurement items related to lower limb function were selected from the items which we have ever used. Selected measurement items of function of lower are distance of extroversion of the toe, angle of flexion of the toe, maximum width of step, knee elevation, moving distance of greater trochanter, walking balance, toe-gap force and rotation range of ankle joint. Measurement items summarized by the principal component analysis into lower ability evaluation methods including walking ability and muscle strength of lower limb and flexibility of ankle. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.6 greater the assessment score of walking ability compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.4 greater the assessment score of muscle strength of lower limb compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.2 greater the assessment score of flexibility of ankle compared with the aged group. The results suggested that it was possible to assess the lower limb function of aged and young numerically and to advise on their foot function.

  6. Self-organization of local magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumak, O. V.

    2013-08-01

    Self-organization and evolution of magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone are discussed as a process of diffuse aggregation of magnetic flux tubes. Equations describing the tube motion under the action of magnetic interaction forces, hydrodynamic forces, and random forces are written explicitly. The process of aggregation of magnetic flux tubes into magnetic flux clusters of different shapes and dimensions is simulated numerically. The obtained structures are compared with the observed morphological types of sunspot groups. The quantitative comparison with the observational data was performed by comparing the fractal dimensions of the photospheric magnetic structures observed in solar active regions with those of structures obtained in the numerical experiment. The model has the following free parameters: the numbers of magnetic flux tubes with opposite polarities on the considered area element ( Nn and Ns), the average radius of the cross section of the magnetic flux tube ( a), its effective length ( l), the twist factor of the tube field ( k), and the absolute value of the average velocity of chaotic tube displacements ( d). Variations in these parameters in physically reasonable limits leads to the formation of structures (tube clusters of different morphological types) having different fractal dimensions. Using the NOAA 10488 active region, which appeared and developed into a complicated configuration near the central meridian, as an example, it is shown that good quantitative agreement between the fractal dimensions is achieved at the following parameters of the model: Nn = Ns = 250 ± 50; a = 150 ± 50 km; l ˜ 5000 km, and d = 80 ± 10 m/s. These results do not contradict the observational data and theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the Parker "spaghetti" model and provide new information on the physical processes resulting in the origin and evolution of local magnetic plasma structures in the near

  7. Experimental determination of the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers for high-energy photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanxiao; Willomitzer, Christian; Zakaria, Golam Abu; Hartmann, Guenther H

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of depth-dose curves in water phantom using a cylindrical ionization chamber require that its effective point of measurement is located at the measuring depth. Recommendations for the position of the effective point of measurement with respect to the central axis valid for high-energy electron and photon beams are given in dosimetry protocols. According to these protocols, the use of a constant shift P(eff) is currently recommended. However, this is still based on a very limited set of experimental results. It is therefore expected that an improved knowledge of the exact position of the effective point of measurement will further improve the accuracy of dosimetry. Recent publications have revealed that the position of the effective point of measurement is indeed varying with beam energy, field size and also with chamber geometry. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the shift of P(eff) can be taken to be constant and independent from the beam energy. An experimental determination of the effective point of measurement is presented based on a comparison between cylindrical chambers and a plane-parallel chamber using conventional dosimetry equipment. For electron beams, the determination is based on the comparison of halfvalue depth R(50) between the cylindrical chamber of interest and a well guarded plane-parallel Roos chamber. For photon beams, the depth of dose maximum, d(max), the depth of 80% dose, d(80), and the dose parameter PDD(10) were used. It was again found that the effective point of measurement for both, electron and photon beams Dosimetry, depends on the beam energy. The deviation from a constant value remains very small for photons, whereas significant deviations were found for electrons. It is therefore concluded that use of a single upstream shift value from the centre of the cylindrical chamber as recommended in current dosimetry protocols is adequate for photons, however inadequate for accurate electron beam dosimetry.

  8. Accuracy of Corneal Power Measurements for Intraocular Lens Power Calculation after Myopic Laser In situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Helaly, Hany A.; El-Hifnawy, Mohammad A. M.; Shaheen, Mohamed Shafik; Abou El-Kheir, Amr F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of corneal power measurements for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods: The study evaluated 45 eyes with a history of myopic LASIK. Corneal power was measured using manual keratometry, automated keratometry, optical biometry, and Scheimflug tomography. Different hypothetical IOL power calculation formulas were performed for each case. Results: The steepest mean K value was measured with manual keratometry (37.48 ± 2.86 D) followed by automated keratometry (37.31 ± 2.83 D) then optical biometry (37.06 ± 2.98 D) followed by Scheimflug tomography (36.55 ± 3.08). None of the K values generated by Scheimflug tomography were steeper than the measurements from the other 3 instruments. Using equivalent K reading (EKR) 4 mm with the Double-K SRK/T formula, the refractive outcome generated 97.8% of cases within ± 2 D, 80.0% of cases within ± 1 D, and 42.2% of cases within ± 0.5 D. The best combination of formulas was “Shammas-PL + Double-K SRK/T formula using EKR 4 mm.” Conclusion: Scheimflug tomography imaging using the Holladay EKR 4 mm improved the accuracy of IOL power calculation in post-LASIK eyes. The best option is a combination of formulas. We recommended the use the combined “Shammas-PL ± Double-K SRK/T formula using EKR 4 mm”h for optical outcomes. PMID:26957851

  9. Inactivation of Aspergillus niger in mango nectar by high-pressure homogenization combined with heat shock.

    PubMed

    Tribst, Alline A L; Franchi, Mark A; Cristianini, Marcelo; de Massaguer, Pilar R

    2009-01-01

    This research evaluated the inactivation of a heat-resistant Aspergillus niger conidia in mango nectar by high-pressure homogenization (HPH) combined with heat shock. A. niger were inoculated in mango nectar (10(6) conidia mL(-1)) and subjected to HPH (300 to 100 MPa) and heat shock (80 degrees C for 5 to 20 min) before or after HPH. Processes were evaluated according to number of decimal reductions reached by each isolated or combined process. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe conidia wall after pressure treatment. Pressures below 150 MPa did not inactivate A. niger while pressures of 200 and 300 MPa resulted in 2 and more than 6 log reductions, respectively. D(80 degrees C) of A. niger was determined as 5.03 min. A heat shock of 80 degrees C/15 min, reaching 3 decimal conidia reductions, was applied before or after a 200 MPa pressure treatment to improve the decimal reduction to 5 log cycles. Results indicated that HPH inactivated A. niger in mango nectar at 300 MPa (>6.24 log cycles) and that, with pressure (200 MPa) combined with post heat shock, it was possible to obtain the same decimal reduction, showing a synergistic effect. On the other hand, pre heat shock associated with HPH resulted in an additive effect. The observation of A. niger conidia treated by HPH at 100 and 200 MPa by scanning electron microscopy indicated that HPH promoted intense cell wall damage, which can sensitize the conidia to post heat shock and possibly explain the synergistic effect observed. Practical Application: The results obtained in this paper are relevant to elucidate the mechanism of conidia inactivation in order to develop the application of HPH as an alternative pasteurization process for the fruit nectar industry.

  10. Revealing equilibrium and rate constants of weak and fast noncovalent interactions.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Gleb G; Okhonin, Victor; Gorelsky, Serge I; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2011-03-15

    Rate and equilibrium constants of weak noncovalent molecular interactions are extremely difficult to measure. Here, we introduced a homogeneous approach called equilibrium capillary electrophoresis of equilibrium mixtures (ECEEM) to determine k(on), k(off), and K(d) of weak (K(d) > 1 μM) and fast kinetics (relaxation time, τ < 0.1 s) in quasi-equilibrium for multiple unlabeled ligands simultaneously in one microreactor. Conceptually, an equilibrium mixture (EM) of a ligand (L), target (T), and a complex (C) is prepared. The mixture is introduced into the beginning of a capillary reactor with aspect ratio >1000 filled with T. Afterward, differential mobility of L, T, and C along the reactor is induced by an electric field. The combination of differential mobility of reactants and their interactions leads to a change of the EM peak shape. This change is a function of rate constants, so the rate and equilibrium constants can be directly determined from the analysis of the EM peak shape (width and symmetry) and propagation pattern along the reactor. We proved experimentally the use of ECEEM for multiplex determination of kinetic parameters describing weak (3 mM > K(d) > 80 μM) and fast (0.25 s ≥ τ ≥ 0.9 ms) noncovalent interactions between four small molecule drugs (ibuprofen, S-flurbiprofen, salicylic acid and phenylbutazone) and α- and β-cyclodextrins. The affinity of the drugs was significantly higher for β-cyclodextrin than α-cyclodextrin and mostly determined by the rate constant of complex formation.

  11. Novel insights from molecular docking of SdiA from Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli with quorum sensing and quorum quenching molecules.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Felipe Alves de; Pinto, Uelinton Manoel; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2016-10-01

    Quorum sensing is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism leading to differential gene expression in response to high population density. The autoinducer-1 (AI-1) type quorum sensing system is incomplete in Escherichia coli and Salmonella due to the lack of the AI-1 synthase (LuxI homolog) responsible for acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthesis. However, these bacteria encode the AHL receptor SdiA (a LuxR homolog) leading to gene regulation in response to AI-1 produced by other bacteria. This study aimed to model the SdiA protein of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 578 based on three crystallized SdiA structures from Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) with different ligands. Molecular docking of these predicted structures with AHLs, furanones and 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol were also performed. The available EHEC SdiA structures provided good prototypes for modeling SdiA from Salmonella. The molecular docking of these proteins showed that residues Y63, W67, Y71, D80 and S134 are common binding sites for different quorum modulating signals, besides being conserved among other LuxR type proteins. We also show that AHLs with twelve carbons presented better binding affinity to SdiA than AHLs with smaller side chains in our docking analysis, regardless of the protein structures used. Interestingly, the conformational changes provided by AHL binding resulted in structural models with increased affinities to brominated furanones. These results suggest that the use of brominated furanones to inhibit phenotypes controlled by quorum sensing in Salmonella and EHEC may present a good strategy since these inhibitors seem to specifically compete with AHLs for binding to SdiA in both pathogens.

  12. Structural Analysis of β-Fructofuranosidase from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous Reveals Unique Features and the Crucial Role of N-Glycosylation in Oligomerization and Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Escudero, Mercedes; Gimeno-Pérez, María; González, Beatriz; Linde, Dolores; Merdzo, Zoran; Fernández-Lobato, María; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous β-fructofuranosidase (XdINV)is a highly glycosylated dimeric enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose and releases fructose from various fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and fructans. It also catalyzes the synthesis of FOS, prebiotics that stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in human gut. In contrast to most fructosylating enzymes, XdINV produces neo-FOS, which makes it an interesting biotechnology target. We present here its three-dimensional structure, which shows the expected bimodular arrangement and also a long extension of its C terminus that together with an N-linked glycan mediate the formation of an unusual dimer. The two active sites of the dimer are connected by a long crevice, which might indicate its potential ability to accommodate branched fructans. This arrangement could be representative of a group of GH32 yeast enzymes having the traits observed in XdINV. The inactive D80A mutant was used to obtain complexes with relevant substrates and products, with their crystals structures showing at least four binding subsites at each active site. Moreover, two different positions are observed from subsite +2 depending on the substrate, and thus, a flexible loop (Glu-334–His-343) is essential in binding sucrose and β(2–1)-linked oligosaccharides. Conversely, β(2–6) and neo-type substrates are accommodated mainly by stacking to Trp-105, explaining the production of neokestose and the efficient fructosylating activity of XdINV on α-glucosides. The role of relevant residues has been investigated by mutagenesis and kinetics measurements, and a model for the transfructosylating reaction has been proposed. The plasticity of its active site makes XdINV a valuable and flexible biocatalyst to produce novel bioconjugates. PMID:26823463

  13. Use of ion-pairing reagent for improving iodine speciation analysis in seaweed by pressure-driven capillary electrophoresis and ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiannan; Wang, Dan; Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanchao; Xu, Zigang

    2015-01-30

    This study achieved resolution improvement for iodine speciation in the presence of an ion-pairing reagent by a pressure-driven capillary electrophoresis (CE) system. Addition of 0.01mM tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide (TBAH) as the ion-pairing reagent into the electrophoretic buffer resulted in the complete separation of four iodine species (I(-), IO3(-), mono-iodothyrosine-MIT and di-iodothyrosine-DIT), because of the electrostatic interaction between TBAH and the negatively charged analytes. A +16kV separation voltage was applied along the separation capillary (50μm i.d., 80cm total and 60cm effective) with the inlet grounded. The detection wavelength was fixed at 210nm, and the pressure-driven flow rate was set at 0.12mLmin(-1) with an injected volume of 2μL. The optimal electrolyte consisted of 2mM borate, 2mM TBAH and 80% methanol with pH adjusted to 8.5. Baseline separation of iodine species was achieved within 7min. The detection limits for I(-), IO3(-), MIT and DIT were 0.052, 0.040, 0.032 and 0.025mgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations of peak heights and areas were all below 3% for 5mgL(-1) and 5% for 1mgL(-1). Application of the proposed method was demonstrated by speciation analysis of iodine in two seaweed samples. The developed method offered satisfactory recoveries in the 91-99% range and good precisions (<5%). Good agreement between the determined values by the proposed CE method and the HPLC-ICP-MS method was also obtained. All results proved its great potential in routine analysis of iodine speciation in environmental, food and biological samples.

  14. [Experimental Study of PMI Foam Composite Properties in Terahertz].

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-yun; Cui, Hong-liang; Shi, Chang-cheng; Han, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Zi-yin; Li, Wei; Ma, Yu-ting; Zheng, Yan; Zhang, Song-nian

    2015-12-01

    Polymethacrylimide (PMI) foam composite has many excellent properties. Currently, PMI is heat-resistant foam, with the highest strength and stiffness. It is suitable as a high-performance sandwich structure core material. It can replace the honeycomb structure. It is widely used in aerospace, aviation, military, marine, automotive and high-speed trains, etc. But as new sandwich materials, PMI performance testing in the THz band is not yet visible. Based on the Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy technique, we conducted the transmission and reflection experiments, got the time domain waveforms and power density spectrum. And then we analyzed and compared the signals. The MATALB and Origin 8. 0 was used to calculate and obtain the transmittance (transfer function), absorptivity Coefficient, reflectance and the refractive index of the different thickness Degussa PMI (Model: Rohacell WF71), which were based on the application of the time-domain and frequency-domain analysis methods. We used the data to compared with the THz refractive index and absorption spectra of a domestic PMI, Baoding Meiwo Technology Development Co. , Ltd. (Model: SP1D80-P-30). The result shows that the impact of humidity on the measurement results is obvious. The refractive index of PMI is about 1. 05. The attenuation of power spectrum is due to the signal of the test platform is weak, the sample is thick and the internal scattering of PMI foam microstructure. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the THz band applications in the composite PMI. It also made a good groundwork for THz NDT (Non-Destructive Testing, NDT) technology in terms of PMI foam composites.

  15. SU-E-T-352: Effects of Skull Attenuation and Missing Backscatter On Brain Dose in HDR Treatment of the Head with Surface Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Cifter, F; Dhou, S; Lewis, J; Cormack, R; Altundal, Y; Sajo, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To calculate the effect of lack of backscatter from air and attenuation of bone on dose distributions in brachytherapy surface treatment of head. Existing treatment planning systems based on TG43 do not account for heterogeneities, and thus may overestimate the dose to the brain. While brachytherapy generally has rapid dose falloff, the dose to the deeper tissues (in this case, the brain) can become significant when treating large curved surfaces. Methods: Applicator geometries representing a range of clinical cases were simulated in MCNP5. An Ir-192 source was modeled using the energy spectrum presented by TG-43. The head phantom was modeled as a 7.5-cm radius water sphere, with a 7 -mm thick skull embedded 5-mm beneath the surface. Dose values were calculated at 20 points inside the head, in which 10 of them were on the central axis and the other 10 on the axis connecting the central of the phantom with the second to last source from the applicator edge. Results: Central and peripheral dose distributions for a range of applicator and head sizes are presented. The distance along the central axis at which the dose falls to 80% of the prescribed dose (D80) was 7 mm for a representative small applicator and 9 mm for a large applicator. Corresponding D50 and D30 for the same small applicator were 17 mm and 32 mm respectively. D50 and D30 for the larger applicator were 32 mm and 60 mm respectively. These results reflect the slower falloff expected for larger applicators on a curved surface. Conclusion: Our results can provide guidance for clinicians to calculate the dose reduction effect due to bone attenuation and the lack of backscatter from air to estimate the brain dose for the HDR treatments of surface lesions.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hamburg/RASS Cat. of optical identifications (HRC) (Bade+, 1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bade, N.; Engels, D.; Voges, W.; Beckmann, V.; Boller, T.; Cordis, L.; Dahlem, M.; Englhauser, J.; Molthagen, K.; Nass, P.; Studt, J.; Reimers, D.

    2001-03-01

    The file rassid2.cat provides information on optical identifications to X-ray positions of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). The file was created by correlating the Bright Source Catalogue of ROSAT (Voges et al., 1996, Cat. ) and the Hamburg/RASS Catalogue of Optical Identifications (HRC) (Bade et al., 1996, in prep.). In the current state (Version 2.0) the catalogue contains 4665 positions in the extragalactic northern sky. For each X-ray position optical information taken from HQS objective prism and direct Schmidt plates (Hagen et al., 1995A&AS..111..195H) is given and a finding chart derived from digitized direct plates as gzipped Postscript file is provided (sky.ps file). If possible, the most likely optical counterpart is marked in the catalogue and on the finding chart. For many of the newly processed HQS fields of Version 2.0 no direct Schmidt plates from the HQS exists. In these cases we put finding charts generated from the STScI Digitized Sky Survey on the ftp server, ftp.hs.uni-hamburg.de, pub/outgoing/rass-id. We remind the reader that the STScI Digitized Sky Survey and HQS prism plates have different epochs. This has to be taken into account for stellar identifications. Furthermore the spectral sensitivity of the STScI Digitized Sky Survey and the HQS prism plates is different. The finding chart for each X-ray position is stored as a gzipped Postscript file and they can be found in the directories d-10 to d+80 at ftp.hs.uni-hamburg.de, pub/outgoing/rass-id. These directories arrange the files into declination belts. Names of finding charts generated by the STScI Digitized Sky Survey begin with a 'p'. (4 data files).

  17. A new electrocardiographic criterion to differentiate between Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and anterior wall ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Akira; Watanabe, Toru; Ishihara, Masaharu; Ando, Shinichi; Naono, Shigeru; Zaizen, Hirofumi; Abe, Yusei; Yano, Shoji; Shinozaki, Kazuhiro; Kotoku, Munenori; Momii, Hidetoshi; Kadokami, Toshiaki; Kadota, Junichi

    2011-09-01

    Several studies have examined the ability of electrocardiography to differentiate between takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) and anterior wall acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (AA-STEMI). In those studies, the magnitude of ST-segment elevation was not measured at the J point. The American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology Foundation, and Heart Rhythm Society guidelines recommend that the magnitude of ST-segment elevation should be measured at the J point. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to retrospectively examine whether electrocardiography, using the magnitude of ST-segment elevation measured at the J point, could differentiate 62 patients with TC from 280 with AA-STEMI. Patients with AA-STEMI were divided into following subgroups: 140 with left anterior descending coronary artery occlusions proximal to the first diagonal branch (AA-STEMI-P), 120 with left anterior descending occlusions distal to the first diagonal branch and proximal to the second diagonal branch (AA-STEMI-M), and 20 with left anterior descending occlusions distal to the second diagonal branch (AA-STEMI-D). TC had a much lower prevalence of ST-segment elevation ≥1 mm in lead V(1) (19.4%) compared to AA-STEMI (80.4%, p <0.01), AA-STEMI-P (80.7%, p <0.01), AA-STEMI-M (80%, p <0.01), and AA-STEMI-D (80%, p <0.01). ST-segment elevation ≥1 mm in ≥1 of leads V(3) to V(5) without ST-segment elevation ≥1 mm in lead V(1) identified TC with sensitivity of 74.2% and specificity of 80.6%. Furthermore, this criterion could differentiate TC from each AA-STEMI subgroup, with similar diagnostic values. In conclusion, using the magnitude of ST-segment elevation measured at the J point, a new electrocardiographic criterion is proposed with an acceptable ability to differentiate TC from AA-STEMI.

  18. Protein requirements of sheep in late pregnancy: partitioning of nitrogen between gravid uterus and maternal tissues.

    PubMed

    McNeill, D M; Slepetis, R; Ehrhardt, R A; Smith, D M; Bell, A W

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify effects of maternal protein nutrition on N accretion or loss in conceptus and maternal tissues of ewes during late pregnancy. Ewes, pregnant with twins, were fed low (LP, 79 g CP/kg DM), medium (MP, 116 g CP/kg DM), or high (HP, 157 g CP/kg DM) protein diets, each with an estimated ME concentration of 2.7 Mcal/kg DM, between d 111 and 140 of pregnancy; all ewes had been fed the same diet (2.7 Mcal ME, 120 g CP/kg DM) for the previous 30 d (d 80 to 110). Dry matter intakes were varied (LP = 1.0, MP = 1.2, and HP = 1.4 kg/d) according to predicted energy costs of protein deposition for each diet. Nitrogen accretion was estimated by comparative slaughter (d 140 minus d 110) and by collection of excreta between d 120 and 130. Fresh weights of maternal and gravid uterine tissues were measured at slaughter, before proximate analysis of these components. Whole-body N retention was directly and linearly related to N intake, but efficiency of deposition of apparently absorbed N decreased linearly with increasing N intake (LP, .79; MP, .70; HP, .62). Nitrogen accretion in the gravid uterus, maternal viscera, and mammary gland was significantly less in LP than in MP or HP ewes. Nitrogen balance in maternal carcass tissues was linearly related to N intake, ranging from a negative value in LP ewes to a positive value in HP ewes (LP, -63 g; MP -39 g; HP, 55 g). These data provide the basis for estimating N requirements for protein accretion in the conceptus and in maternal tissues during late pregnancy. They also highlight the capacity of maternal carcass tissues to mobilize or deposit amino acids in response to variations in dietary protein supply.

  19. [Bone protection in corticosteroid treated patients].

    PubMed

    Savoldi, Silvana; Giacchino, Franca; Rollino, Cristiana; Manganaro, Marco; Besso, Luca; Izzo, Cristina; Gianoglio, Bruno; Amore, Alessandro; Fenoglio, Roberta; Stratta, Piero

    2015-01-01

    The Piedmont Group of Clinical Nephrology compared the activity of 15 nephrology centers in Piedmont and Aosta Valley as regards bone protection in patients on corticosteroids therapy. Fracture prevalence shows great variability: in 4/15 centers (27%) no fractures were found, in 6/15 centers (40%) fractures were present in 1-4% of cases, in 1 center in 18% of patients. Clinical risk of fracture was based on sex, age and postmenopausal status in 11/14 of the centers (79%), history of fractures and bone disease in 4/14 centers (27%), smoking and alcohol consumption in 3 and 2 centers respectively, glucocorticoid dose and duration in 4, in children bone age and calcium phosphorus status. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed in 12 centers based on risk factors, in 8 (57%) DXA was performed during the follow-up, in 4 it was performed after 12 months and in 2 after 2-3 years. DXA is not prescribed in children. Only in one center, risk assessment is based on FRAX. Most of the patients are treated with vitamin D supplementation at a dose of steroids of 5 mg/d (80%). Calcium carbonate is used in 9 centers (60%), in two it is used only in the presence of low ionized calcium or bone mineral density. Bisphosphonates are used following AIFA prescription, in particular alendronate in all centers, risedronate in seven and denosumab in one. The analysis shows the great variability of the clinical and therapeutic approach regarding bone protection in patients on corticosteroids therapy, in Piedmont and Aosta Valley.

  20. pH-Responsive Artemisinin Dimer in Lipid Nanoparticles Are Effective Against Human Breast Cancer in a Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YITONG J.; ZHAN, XI; WANG, LIGUO; HO, RODNEY J.Y.; SASAKI, TOMIKAZU

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin (ART), a well-known antimalaria drug, also exhibits anticancer activities. We previously reported a group of novel dimeric artemisinin piperazine conjugates (ADPs) possessing pH-dependent aqueous solubility and a proof-of-concept lipid nanoparticle formulation based on natural egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC). EPC may induce allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to egg products. Therefore, the goal of this report is to develop ADP-synthetic lipid particles suitable for in vivo evaluation. We found that ADP binds to 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) with greater than 90% efficiency and forms drug–lipid particles (d ~ 80 nm). Cryo-electron microscopy of the ADP drug–lipid particles revealed unilamellar vesicle-like structures. Detailed characterization studies show insertion of the ADP lead compound, ADP109, into the DPPC membrane and the presence of an aqueous core. Over 50% of the ADP109 was released in 48 hours at pH4 compared with less than 20% at neutral. ADP109–lipid particles exhibited high potency against human breast cancer, but was tolerated well by nontumorigenic cells. In MDA-MB-231 mouse xenograft model, lipid-bound ADP109 particles were more effective than paclitaxel in controlling tumor growth. Cellular uptake studies showed endocytosis of the nanoparticles and release of core-trapped marker throughout the cytosol at 37°C. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the in vivo feasibility of lipid-bound ART dimer for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25753991

  1. Experimental Study on the Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradients of Air-Oil-Water Three-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20°C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  2. The Effect of Rocktape on Rating of Perceived Exertion and Cycling Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael G; Michael, Timothy J; Nicholson, Karrie S; Petro, Rebecca V; Hanson, Nicholas J; Prater, Daryl R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Rocktape (RT), a type of kinesiology tape, on perceived exertion and cycling efficiency. Eighteen recreational cyclists volunteered as subjects for this study. Four experimental conditions were used: (a) 60% VO2peak with RT, (b) 60% VO2peak without RT, (c) 80% VO2peak with RT, and (d) 80% VO2peak without RT. The Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was used to evaluate subjective exertion during the cycling bouts. Overall RPE and leg, arm, and chest RPEs were obtained (RPE-O, RPE-L, RPE-A, and RPE-C, respectively). Gross cycling efficiency was determined by calculating the ratio of the amount of work performed to the energy expended. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to investigate the differences between the 2 intensities and 2 tape conditions. There were main effects of intensity (p < 0.001) and tape (p = 0.02) found for the RPE-O, with RPE-C showing similar results for intensity (p < 0.001) and tape (p = 0.02). Similar findings were present for the RPE-C, and main effects of intensity (p < 0.001) and tape (p = 0.02) were discovered. A significant main effect of intensity was found for efficiency (p = 0.03), with the 80% intensity condition showing a greater level of efficiency than the 60% intensity condition. However, the use of RT did not increase gross efficiency (p = 0.61). The main finding in this study was that subjects reported a lower level of exertion overall and at the chest, which may lead to increases in overall performance of these athletes. The use of RT before athletic events should not be discouraged.

  3. Responses of estrogen sensitive tissues in female Wistar rats to pre- and postnatal isoflavone exposure.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, T; Ledwig, C; Kulling, S; Molzberger, A; Möller, F J; Zierau, O; Vollmer, G; Moors, S; Degen, G H; Diel, P

    2009-12-15

    Effects of isoflavones on estrogen sensitive tissues are discussed controversially. This study was designed to investigate tissue specific effects of an isoflavone exposure through different periods of life in female Wistar rats and to compare the effects of genistein (GEN) to those of mixed dietary isoflavones, GEN and daidzein (DAI). One group received an isoflavone-free diet (IDD), another was fed an isoflavone-rich diet (IRD) and the third group an IDD supplemented with GEN (GEN(d)) prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and up to weaning. The offspring were kept on the respective diets during growth, puberty and adulthood. The weight of the uterus, the height of the uterine and vaginal epithelium, the bone mineral density of the tibia, and the expression of the estrogen sensitive gene CaBP9K in the liver were determined. At d21, the uterine weight, the uterine epithelium and the expression of CaBP9K in the liver were significantly stimulated in GEN(d) animals compared to IDD and IRD. Interestingly, bone mineral density was increased in GEN(d) and in IRD animals. Around puberty (d50) neither uterine wet weights nor trabecular bone density differed significantly among the isoflavone groups and the IDD control. At d80 no significant differences in uterine weight were observed among IDD, GEN(d) and IRD animals. However, bone mineral density was increased in GEN(d) and IRD animals. In summary, our results demonstrate that lifelong dietary exposure to isoflavones can affect estrogen sensitive tissues, apparently in a tissue selective manner. With respect to health risk and benefit our data indicate that an increased bone mineral density can be achieved by lifelong exposure to an IRD, which, in contrast to GEN supplementation, does not seem to stimulate the proliferation of the uterine epithelium.

  4. Long-term fate and bioavailability of sediment associated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, R.S.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2000-06-01

    the fate and bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF; 4,6-tritium labeled) was examined over a 3-year period in littoral enclosures in a small oligotrophic lake in the Experimental Lakes Area. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was added as a single dose or as five small multiple additions over a 5-d period in a sediment slurry. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was rapidly redistributed, mainly to bottom sediments reflecting removal on settling particles. Between 0 and 120 d. 80 to 90% of TCDF in the water column was associated with particles (>1 {micro}m). The highest concentration of TCDF in suspended particles was consistently observed in the smallest size fraction (0.22--1 {micro}m) at 326 to 464 d post treatment. Mode of addition had no effect on TCDF concentrations in water or surficial sediments or pore waters throughout the experiment. Mean TCDF concentrations in surficial sediment were 1.830 {+-} 1.180 pg/g whereas they averaged 1.260 {+-} 596 pg/g OC from 318 to 851 d post treatment. Increasing concentrations of TCDE in lower sediment layers at 952 d suggests that TCDF was either diffusing into the sediment or undergoing burial. Fugacity (f) calculations indicated that the TCDF in enclosures shifted from disequilibrium favoring the water column to a disequilibrium with respect to bottom sediments from day 21 onward. Initially, TCDF was more bioavailable to filtering and deposit feeders (mussels, Chironomidae, Hexagenia sp., and zooplankton) in enclosures receiving multiple additions; however, differences were rarely statistically significant. Concentrations of TCDF in all organisms were initially high, and they decreased in later sampling periods. Biota--sediment-accumulation factors (BSAFs) in mussels and crayfish were >1 in the early sampling periods, which reflected greater bioavailability of the added particle-borne TCDF. By 851 d, BSAFs had declined to 0.02 to 0.04, reflecting removal of TCDF from the water column and from surficial sediments.

  5. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-28

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid.

  6. Effect of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Energy Metabolites, Lipid Peroxidation, and Milk Production in Peripartum Sahiwal Cows

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, G.; Aggarwal, A.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, M.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin E and zinc supplementation on energy metabolites, lipid peroxidation, and milk production in peripartum Sahiwal cows. For this, thirty-two pregnant dry Sahiwal cows were selected at sixty days prepartum and divided into four groups viz control, T1, T2, and T3 of eight each. Group T1 were supplemented with zinc at 60 ppm/d/cow, group T2 were supplemented with vitamin E at 1,000 IU/d/cow and group T3 were supplemented with combination of vitamin E at 1,000 IU/d/cow and zinc at 60 ppm/d/cow during d 60 prepartum to d 90 postpartum. Blood samples were collected on d −60, −45, −30, −15, −7, −3, 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 with respect to day of parturition and analysed for glucose, non esterified fatty acid, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. Body condition score was maintained significantly better (p<0.05) in T3 than in the control, T1 and T2 groups. Overall glucose level was higher (p<0.05) in T3 than control, T1, and T2 groups. Levels of nonesterified fatty acid, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were lower (p<0.05) in T3 than control, T1, and T2 groups. Milk yield was higher (p<0.05) in T3 than control, T1, and T2 groups. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the supplementation of vitamin E and zinc in peripartum Sahiwal cows enhanced milk production by reducing negative energy balance. PMID:25049743

  7. Bright light therapy to promote sleep in mothers of low-birth-weight infants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Aycock, Dawn M; Moloney, Margaret F

    2013-10-01

    Having a low-birth-weight (LBW) infant in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can intensify a mother's sleep disturbances due to both stress and the dim lighting in the ICU setting, which desynchronizes circadian rhythms. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a 3-week bright light therapy intervention on sleep and health outcomes of mothers with LBW infants in the NICU. Controlled stratified randomization was used to assign 30 mothers to a treatment or control group. Data were collected at pretreatment (second week postpartum) and after the 3-week intervention. Sleep data were assessed by wrist actigraph (total sleep time [TST], circadian activity rhythms [CARs]) and the General Sleep Disturbance scale. Other outcome variables were measured by the Lee's Fatigue scale, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression scale, and the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36, version 2. Mothers averaged 26.6 (SD = 6.3) years of age, and the majority were Black (73%). The mean gestational age for the infants was 27.7 (SD = 2.0) weeks. Small to large effect sizes were found when comparing the pre- to posttreatment differences between groups. Although none of the differences were statistically significant in this small sample, for mothers in the treatment group nocturnal TST (d = .33), CAR (d = 1.06), morning fatigue (d = .22), depressive symptoms (d = .40), physical health-related quality of life (d = .33), and mental health-related quality of life (d = .60) all improved compared to the control group. Bright light therapy is feasible for mothers with infants in an NICU. Clinically significant improvements have been evidenced; a larger-scale trial of effectiveness is needed.

  8. Evaluation of actual and estimated hydraulic conductivity of sands with different gradation and shape.

    PubMed

    Cabalar, Ali Firat; Akbulut, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of sands with different gradation and grain shape were estimated experimentally at a relative density (Dr) of about 40 % and a 22 ± 2 °C of constant temperature. Narli Sand (NS) with 0.67 of sphericity (S) and 0.72 of roundness (R), and Crushed Stone Sand (CSS) with 0.55 of S and 0.15 of R values were artificially graded into sixteen different grain-size fractions (4.75-2, 2-1.18, 1.18-0.6, 0.6-0.425, 0.425-0.3, 0.3-0.075, 4.75-0.075, 2-0.075, 1.18-0.075, 0.6-0.075, 0.425-0.075, 4.75-0.6, 2-0.6, 4.75-0.425, 2-0.425, 1.18-0.425 mm). Hydraulic conductivities of the NS estimated by use of constant head test ranged from 1.61 to 0.01 cm/s, whilst those of the CSS estimated by the same test ranged from 2.45 to 0.012 cm/s. It was observed that the hydraulic conductivity values of the NS are lower than those of the CSS samples, which is likely to be the result of differences in shape, particularly in R values. The results clearly demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity can be significantly influenced by grading characteristics (d10, d20, d30, d50, d60, cu, cc, n, Io). Furthermore, comparisons between results obtained in the present study and hydraulic conductivity estimated with other formulas available in the literature were made. The comparisons indicated that the best estimation of hydraulic conductivity changes based on the gradation and shape properties of the sands tested.

  9. Current sheet disruptions caused by explosive diamagnetic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincena, S. T.; Gekelman, W. N.; Pribyl, P.

    2012-12-01

    Rapid temporal changes in the magnetic field topology of current-carrying plasmas can enhance or disrupt these currents and trigger magnetic reconnection. A clear natural example of this can be found in the earth's magnetotail during magnetic substorms. In this laboratory study, preliminary results are presented of an effectively steady-state current sheet which is disrupted by the production of an impulsive diamagnetic cavity. The process is impulsive in that it occurs on a timescale less than the ion cyclotron period. The experiments are performed on UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD). This is a linear device with L=17m, d=60cm, 300G< B0<2kG, ne=2×1012cm-3, Te=6eV,Ti≈1eV, and He, H, or Ar). The diamagnetic cavity is produced by a pulsed (8ns, 1J) Nd:YAG laser-solid target ablation. The current sheet is produced using a CeB6 cathode, embedded within the main plasma column,(h=10cm, w=1cm). In the current sheet, the plasma has higher density, n≈ 4× 1012cm-3, yielding scaled cross-field dimensions of h=0.9c/ω pi and w=3.8c/ω pe for a H plasma. The radius of the diamagnetic cavity r can be varied, but is here chosen to be w < r < h. Results will be presented which include fast camera imaging, magnetic field probe data, and the resulting time varying currents during the disruption. These experiments were conducted at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility, which is jointly funded by the US DoE and the NSF.

  10. Identification and Functional Characterization of a Fructooligosaccharides-Forming Enzyme from Aspergillus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Virgen-Ortíz, José Juan; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; Centeno-Leija, Sara; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime David; Osuna-Castro, Juan Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Although fructosyltransferases from Aspergillus aculeatus have received a considerable interest for the prebiotics industry, their amino acid sequences and structural features remain unknown. This study sequenced and characterized a fructosyltransferase from A. aculeatus (AcFT) isolated by heat treatment of Pectinex Ultra SP-L. The AcFT enzyme showed two isoforms, low-glycosylated AcFT1 and high-glycosylated AcFT2 forms, with similar optimum activity at 60 °C. The purified heat-resistant AcFT1 and AcFT2 isoforms produced identical patterns of fructooligosaccharides (FOS; kestose, nystose and fructosylnystose) with a notable transfructosylation capability (~90 % transferase/hydrolase ratio). In contrast, the pI and optimum pH values exhibited discrete differences, attributable to their glycosylation pattern. Partial protein sequencing showed that AcFT enzyme corresponds to Aspac1_37092, a putative 654-residue fructosyltransferase encoded in the genome of A. aculeatus ATCC16872. A homology model of AcFT also revealed the typical fold common to members of the glycoside hydrolase family 32 (GH32), with an N-terminal five-blade β-propeller domain enclosing catalytic residues D60, D191, and E292, linked to a C-terminal β-sandwich domain. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the amino acid sequence and structural features of a heat-resistant FOS-forming enzyme from A. aculeatus, providing insights into its potential applications in the prebiotics industry.

  11. PIV measurements of near wake behind a U-grooved cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.-C.; Lee, S.-J.

    2003-08-01

    The flow structure around a circular cylinder with U-grooved surfaces has been investigated experimentally. The results were compared with that of a smooth cylinder having the same diameter. Drag force and turbulence statistics of wake behind each cylinder were measured for Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter (/D=60mm) in the range ReD=8×103-1.4×105. At ReD=1.4×105, the U-type grooves reduce the drag coefficient acting on the cylinder by 18.6%, compared with that of smooth cylinder. The flow characteristics of wake behind the U-grooved cylinder have been analyzed using two kinds of particle image velocimetry (PIV) velocity measurement techniques, cinematic PIV and high-resolution PIV. Consecutive instantaneous velocity fields were measured using the cinematic PIV technique at time interval of 5ms, corresponding to about 1% of the vortex shedding frequency of the wake. The instantaneous velocity fields measured with the high-resolution PIV technique were ensemble-averaged to get the spatial distributions of turbulent statistics including turbulent intensities and turbulent kinetic energy. For the case of smooth cylinder, large-scale vortices formed behind the cylinder maintain round shape and do not spread out noticeably in the near wake. However, for the case of U-grooved cylinder, the vortices are largely distorted and spread out significantly as they go downstream. The longitudinal grooves seem to shift the location of spanwise vortices toward the cylinder, reducing the vortex formation region, compared with the smooth cylinder. The sharp peaks of longitudinal U-shaped grooves also suppress the formation of large-scale secondary streamwise vortices. The secondary vortices are broken into smaller eddies, reducing turbulent kinetic energy in the near-wake region.

  12. Functional Assessment of Residues in the Amino- and Carboxyl-Termini of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) in the Mud Crab Scylla olivacea Using Point-Mutated Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Jing; Huang, Shiau-Shan; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Yun-Ru; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    To assess functional importance of the residues in the amino- and carboxyl-termini of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Sco-CHH), both wild-type and point-mutated CHH peptides were produced with an amidated C-terminal end. Spectral analyses of circular dichroism, chromatographic retention time, and mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant peptides indicate that they were close in conformation to native CHH and were produced with the intended substitutions. The recombinant peptides were subsequently used for an in vivo hyperglycemic assay. Two mutants (R13A and I69A rSco-CHH) completely lacked hyperglycemic activity, with temporal profiles similar to that of vehicle control. Temporal profiles of hyperglycemic responses elicited by 4 mutants (I2A, F3A, D12A, and D60A Sco-CHH) were different from that elicited by wild-type Sco-CHH; I2A was unique in that it exhibited significantly higher hyperglycemic activity, whereas the remaining 3 mutants showed lower activity. Four mutants (D4A, Q51A, E54A, and V72A rSco-CHH) elicited hyperglycemic responses with temporal profiles similar to those evoked by wild-type Sco-CHH. In contrast, the glycine-extended version of V72A rSco-CHH (V72A rSco-CHH-Gly) completely lost hyperglycemic activity. By comparing our study with previous ones of ion-transport peptide (ITP) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) using deleted or point-mutated mutants, detail discussion is made regarding functionally important residues that are shared by both CHH and ITP (members of Group I of the CHH family), and those that discriminate CHH from ITP, and Group-I from Group-II peptides. Conclusions summarized in the present study provide insights into understanding of how functional diversification occurred within a peptide family of multifunctional members. PMID:26261986

  13. Evaluation of Flexural Strength of Thermocycled Interim Resin Materials Used in Prosthetic Rehabilitation- An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Krishna Kishore; Anne, Gopinadh; Anche, Sampath Chowdary; Chiramana, Sandeep; Muvva, Suresh Babu; Zakkula, Srujana; Jyothula, Ravi Rakesh Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provisional restoration is an analytical component of fixed prosthodontics serving as a ground plan for the design of fixed dental prosthesis. Flexural strength is critical in case of long standing fixed dental prosthesis, to appreciate success of full mouth rehabilitation cases and temporomandibular joint dysfunction therapies. Aim The present study was to evaluate the flexural strength of different provisional restorative resins used for prosthetic rehabilitation. Materials and Methods Forty identical samples (n=10 for each material) measuring 25mm×2mm×2mm according to ADA/ANSI specification no. 27 were fabricated using autopolymerizing Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) (Group A); heat activated PMMA (Group B); autopolymerizing Bis-GMA composite resin (Group C) and light activated Urethane Dimethacrylate Resin (UDMA) (Group D). For 14 days all these samples were stored in artificial saliva. Ten samples from each material were subjected to thermal cycling for 2500 cycles (5°C to 55°C). Later, a standard three point bending test was conducted on all the specimens with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.75mm/min. Statistical analysis used included Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results The mean flexural strength of specimens confirmed higher flexural strength for Group C (102.98 Mpa) followed by Group B (91.86 Mpa), Group A (79.13 Mpa) and Group D (60.01 Mpa). There were significant differences between any two materials tested (p <0.05). Comparison between mean flexural strength values between four groups revealed significant difference between the interim materials (p <0.05). Conclusion The greatest flexural strength was observed for Bis-GMA composite resins followed by heat cure methacrylate resins, autopolymerizing methacrylate resins and was least for light cure resins. While fabricating provisional restorations, these greater values should be considered for better outcome of the treatment. PMID:27790588

  14. Health-related quality of life following pancreatectomy: results from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Anne A.; Gonen, Mithat; Karanicolas, Paul; Jarnagin, William R.; D'Angelica, Michael I.; DeMatteo, Ronald; Kingham, T. Peter; Allen, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A recent prospective randomized trial demonstrated that prophylactic pasireotide reduces the incidence of pancreatic complications (PC) following resection. In this secondary analysis, we aimed to describe quality of life (QoL) before and after resection, characterize the impact of PC on QoL, and assess whether pasireotide improves QoL. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of preoperative pasireotide in patients undergoing pancreatectomy. Participants completed the EORTC C30 and PAN26 modules preoperatively and on postoperative days 14 and 60. Scores were compared using t-tests. Percent of patients with clinically important worsening (a decline ≥0.5 times the baseline standard deviation) was reported. Results Eighty-seven percent of patients (260/300) completed all questionnaires. No major differences were observed between the pasireotide and placebo groups, therefore the data was pooled for further analyses. A significant worsening of function at 14D was detected on all PAN26 and C30 function scales except hepatic and emotional functioning (EF), and all C30 symptom scales. More than 75% of patients experienced clinically important worsening of fatigue, pain and role functioning. Most effects persisted at 60D. 60D EF was significantly better than baseline (p=0.03). PC were associated with worse outcomes on most function scales. Conclusions During the 14D following resection, patients can be expected to have a significant decline in QoL. Many symptoms abate by 60D, and EF improves. PC were associated with impaired QoL on several domains. Although pasireotide effectively reduced PC, its effect did not appear to translate to improved QoL in this sample of 300 patients. PMID:26786091

  15. Effect of low-level diode laser on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Fahimeh S.; Torshabi, Maryam; Mojahedi Nasab, Masoud; Khosraviani, Keikhosro; Khojasteh, Arash

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). DPSCs were exposed to 810 nm laser light (0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 J cm-2) for 7 d (60 s daily). The negative control group (cells in regular medium) and positive control group (cells in osteogenic medium (OM)) were not lased. One group of cells in OM was irradiated with laser operated at 0.2 J cm-2. Cell viability was evaluated at 24 h and one week after the last day of laser irradiation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and alizarin Red S staining. Cell proliferation was not affected by laser irradiation at 24 h except in one group (cells in OM exposed to laser at 0.2 J cm-2). However, one week after the last day of laser irradiation, it was significantly increased in groups exposed to laser at 0.1 or 0.2 J cm-2 and decreased in groups containing OM (P  <  0.05). Osteoblast marker expression was observed in groups containing OM. LLLI at 0.2 J cm-2 dramatically enhanced cell differentiation. Laser at 0.3 J cm-2 increased bone sialoprotein (BSP) and decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Mineralized nodules were only observed in groups containing OM. Considering these findings, LLLI may be used as a novel approach for preconditioning of DPSCs in vitro prior to bone tissue engineering.

  16. Corn grain and liquid feed as nonfiber carbohydrate sources in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, M L; Lefeld, A H; Eilenfeld, A M; Gott, P N; Bowen, W S; Firkins, J L

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of sources and processing methods for nonstructural carbohydrates may affect the efficiency of animal production. Five rumen-cannulated cows in late lactation were placed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed experimental diets for 2 wk. In the production trial, 54 cows were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk beginning at d 60 in milk. Diets contained 24% corn silage and 22% hay, averaging 20% alfalfa and 2% grass but being adjusted as needed to maintain dietary concentrations of 36% neutral detergent fiber. The control diet contained steam-flaked corn (SFC) and the other diets contained either finely (FGC; 0.8 mm) or coarsely ground corn (CGC; 1.9 mm), factorialized with or without 3.5% liquid feed (LF). The LF diets provided 1.03% of dietary dry matter as supplemental sugar. The FGC decreased rumen pH and concentration of NH(3)N compared with CGC. The SFC and FGC tended to increase the molar percentage of ruminal propionate and decrease the acetate:propionate ratio. The LF increased molar percentage of ruminal butyrate with FGC but not CGC. The LF tended to decrease starch digestibility with the CGC but not with the FGC. As expected, the SFC and FGC increased total tract starch digestibility. The DMI and milk yield were similar among dietary treatments. Compared with ground corn diets, the SFC tended to decrease milk fat percentage; thus, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and feed efficiency were decreased with SFC. The LF decreased milk protein percentage but had no effect on milk protein yield. The SFC compared with dry ground corn decreased the concentration of milk urea nitrogen. Sugar supplementation using LF appeared to be more beneficial with FGC than CGC. Increasing the surface area by finely grinding corn is important for starch digestibility and optimal utilization of nutrients.

  17. Combined use of a transformed red mud reactive barrier and electrokinetics for remediation of Cr/As contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Muntoni, A; Spiga, D; Zijlstra, J J P

    2012-01-01

    A reactive barrier (RB) of transformed red mud (TRM), a by-product of the refinement of bauxite in alumina production, was placed adjacent to the anode of an electrokinetic (EK) system with the aim of enhancing removal of chromium or arsenic, added singly to a low permeability clayey soil, and favouring entrapment. The innovative study focused on evaluation of the synergic interaction between the EK system and the RB, and of the efficiency when compared to traditional EK remediation (control tests). The results obtained underlined the successful outcome of treatment of the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. In presence of the TRM RB, 19.4% wt. of total Cr content was detected in the anolyte and 20.6% wt. trapped in the anodic RB after 6d, versus 6.6% wt. in the anolyte and 8.8% wt. in the soil adjacent to the anode following the control run without RB. On increasing duration of treatment up to 12d, 60.8% wt. of total initial Cr was found in the anolyte and 25.5% wt. trapped in the RB, versus 9.1% wt. and 5.3% wt., respectively, after a control run of the same duration. Finally, on increasing the mass of TRM in the RB, 60.6% wt. of initial Cr content was found to have accumulated in the RB, with Cr being completely absent from the anodic chamber. Conversely, combined treatment was much less effective on As contaminated soil, at least under the operative conditions applied. Low initial As concentration and interference with iron oxides in the soil were likely the reasons underlying low efficiency while attempting As decontamination.

  18. Effects of supplement type and selenium source on measures of growth and selenium status in yearling beef steers.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D

    2008-06-01

    Sugarcane molasses is a widely used animal feed by-product, but is concentrated in S (approximately 1%, DM basis) and has been shown to reduce the Cu status of cattle. Dietary S may also antagonize Se; therefore, two 90-d studies were conducted with forage-fed, yearling steers (12 pens; 2 steers/pen for each study) to investigate the impact of molasses supplementation on measures of Se status. In Exp. 1, steers were assigned isonitrogenous supplements with equivalent amounts of TDN from 2 sources (molasses or corn). Supplemental Se was provided (3.0 mg of Se/d; Na selenite) to both treatments. After 90 d of supplementation, steers provided corn diets had greater (P = 0.02) liver Se concentrations and tended (P = 0.07) to have greater ADG compared with steers supplemented with molasses. Irrespective of treatment (P >/= 0.54), plasma Se concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity increased (P < 0.001) from d 0 to 90. In Exp. 2, sources of supplemental Se (2.5 mg/ d), fed within molasses supplements, were compared. Treatments included 1) Na selenite, 2) Se-yeast (Sel-Plex, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY), or 3) no Se (control). Cattle provided supplemental Se, irrespective of source, had greater (P d 60 and 90. Measures of Se status did not differ among steers supplemented with Na selenite and Se-yeast. These data suggest that dietary S, derived from sugarcane molasses, may antagonize liver tissue accumulation of Se in cattle. The Se status of cattle consuming sugar-cane molasses was similar when provided 2.5 mg of supplemental Se/d from Na selenite or Se-yeast sources.

  19. Parenteral Administration of l-Arginine Prevents Fetal Growth Restriction in Undernourished Ewes12

    PubMed Central

    Lassala, Arantzatzu; Bazer, Fuller W.; Cudd, Timothy A.; Datta, Sujay; Keisler, Duane H.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major health problem worldwide that currently lacks an effective therapeutic solution. This study was conducted with an ovine IUGR model to test the hypothesis that parenteral administration of l-arginine (Arg) is effective in enhancing fetal growth. Beginning on d 28 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% (control-fed) or 50% (underfed) of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements. Between d 60 of gestation and parturition, underfed ewes received i.v. infusions of saline or 155 μmol Arg-HCl/kg body weight 3 times daily, whereas control-fed ewes received only saline. The birth weights of lambs from saline-infused underfed ewes were 23% lower (P < 0.01) than those of lambs from control-fed dams. Administration of Arg to underfed ewes increased (P < 0.01) concentrations of Arg (69%), ornithine (55%), proline (29%), methionine (37%), leucine (36%), isoleucine (35%), cysteine (19%), and FFA (43%) in maternal serum, decreased maternal circulating levels of ammonia (18%) and triglycerides (32%), and enhanced birth weights of lambs by 21% compared with saline-infused underfed ewes. There was no difference in birth weights of lambs between the control-fed and the Arg-infused underfed ewes. These novel results indicate that parenteral administration of Arg to underfed ewes prevented fetal growth restriction and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans. The findings also lay a new framework for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of Arg in regulating conceptus growth and development. PMID:20505020

  20. Evolving the [Myoglobin, Cytochrome b5] Complex from Dynamic Toward Simple Docking: Charging the Electron-Transfer Reactive Patch

    PubMed Central

    Trana, Ethan N.; Nocek, Judith M.; Knutson, Amanda K.; Hoffman, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe photo-initiated electron transfer (ET) from a suite of Zn-substituted myoglobin (1Mb) variants to cytochrome b5 (b5). An electrostatic interface redesign strategy has led to the introduction of positive charges in the vicinity of the heme edge through D/E → K charge-reversal mutation combinations at `hotspot' residues (D44, D60, E85), augmented by the elimination of negative charges from Mb or b5 by neutralization of heme propionates. These variations create an unprecedentedly large range in the product of the ET partners' total charges: −5 < −qMbqb5 < 40. The binding affinity (Ka) increases a thousand-fold as −qMbqb5 increases through this range, and exhibits a surprisingly simple, exponential dependence on −qMbqb5. This is explained in terms of electrostatic interactions between a `charged reactive patch' (crp) on each partner's surface, defined as a compact region around the heme edge that (i) contains the total protein charge of each variant, and (ii) encompasses a major fraction of the `reactive region' (Rr) comprising surface atoms with large matrix elements for electron tunneling to the heme. As −qMbqb5 increases, the complex undergoes a transition from fast to slow exchange dynamics on the triplet ET timescale, with a correlated progression in the rate constants for intracomplex (ket) and bimolecular (k2) ET. This progression is analyzed by integrating the crp and Rr descriptions of ET into the textbook steady-state treatment of reversible binding between partners that undergo intracomplex ET, and found to encompass the full range of behaviors predicted by the model. The generality of this approach is demonstrated by applying it to the extensive body of data for the ET complex between the photosynthetic reaction center and cytochrome c2. Deviations from this model also are discussed. PMID:23067206

  1. Length-tension relationships are altered in regenerating muscles of the rat after bupivacaine injection.

    PubMed

    Plant, David R; Beitzel, Felice; Lynch, Gordon S

    2005-06-01

    Intramuscular injection of bupivacaine causes complete degeneration of fibers in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats, followed by complete regeneration within 60 days. Previous studies have shown that regenerated EDL muscles are protected from contraction-induced injury 60 days after bupivacaine injection. It is possible that these regenerated muscles have altered length-tension relations because of fiber remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that length-tension relations are different in bupivacaine-injected and noninjected control muscles. EDL and soleus muscles of the right hindlimb of deeply anesthetized rats were injected with bupivacaine and then allowed to recover for 7, 14, 21, or 60 days (7D, 14D, 21D, 60D), and isometric contractile properties were assessed. Muscles of the contralateral limb were not injected and served as control. EDL muscles recovered from bupivacaine injection more rapidly than soleus muscles, with mass restored to control levels at 21D, and isometric tetanic force (P(o)) restored to control at 60D. In contrast, mass and P(o) of injected soleus muscles was not restored to control even at 60D. In 7D EDL muscles, length-tension curves were shifted leftward compared with control, but in 21D and 60D EDL muscles length-tension curves were right shifted significantly (treatment x muscle length: P < 0.001). Although no clear shift in the position of the length-tension curve was observed in regenerating soleus muscles, force production was enhanced on the descending limb of the curve in 60D soleus muscles (treatment x relative muscle length: P < 0.01). The rightward shift in the length-tension curve of EDL muscles 60 days after bupivacaine injection is likely to contribute to the mechanism for their previously observed protection from contraction-induced injury.

  2. Evaluation of preferable insertion routes for esophagogastroduodenoscopy using ultrathin endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Yu; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Nakayama, Chiemi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Rie; Hirayama-Asada, Itsuko; Tsuji, Yosuke; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Ozeki, Atsuko; Matsumoto, Lumine; Ohike, Yumiko; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the discomfort associated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) using an ultrathin endoscope through different insertion routes. METHODS: This study (January 2012-March 2013) included 1971 consecutive patients [male/female (M/F), 1158/813, 57.5 ± 11.9 years] who visited a single institute for annual health checkups. Transnasal EGD was performed in 1394 patients and transoral EGD in 577. EGD-associated discomfort was assessed using a visual analog scale score (VAS score: 0-10). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed gender (M vs F: 4.02 ± 2.15 vs 5.06 ± 2.43) as the only independent predictor of the VAS score in 180 patients who underwent EGD for the first time; whereas it revealed gender (M vs F 3.60 ± 2.20 vs 4.84 ± 2.37), operator, age group (A: < 39 years; B: 40-49 years; C: 50-59 years; D: 60-69 years; E: > 70 years; A/B/C/D/E: 4.99 ± 2.32/4.34 ± 2.49/4.19 ± 2.31/3.99 ± 2.27/3.63 ± 2.31), and type of insertion as independent predictors in the remaining patients. Subanalysis for gender, age group, and insertion route revealed that the VAS score decreased with age regardless of gender and insertion route, was high in female patients regardless of age and insertion route, and was low in males aged over 60 years who underwent transoral insertion. CONCLUSION: Although comprehensive analysis revealed that the insertion route may not be an independent predictor of the VAS score, transoral insertion may reduce EGD-associated discomfort in elderly patients. PMID:24803817

  3. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, L.H.; Zhu, X.Z.; Ma, M.; Ouyang, Y.; Dong, M.; Zhu, W.L.; Luo, S.M.

    2008-08-15

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D-60 and uniformity coefficient (K-60) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  4. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lihua; Zhu, Xizhen; Ma, Mei; Ouyang, Ying; Dong, Mei; Zhu, Wenling; Luo, Shiming

    2008-08-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D(60) and uniformity coefficient (K(60)) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  5. Growth temperature alters Salmonella Enteritidis heat/acid resistance, membrane lipid composition and stress/virulence related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yishan; Khoo, Wei Jie; Zheng, Qianwang; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2014-02-17

    The influence of growth temperature (10, 25, 37, and 42 °C) on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in simulated gastric fluid (SGF; pH=2.0) and during heat treatment (54, 56, 58, and 60 °C), on the membrane fatty acid composition, as well as on stress-/virulence-related gene expression was studied. Cells incubated at temperatures lower or higher than 37 °C did not increase their acid resistance, with the maximum D-value of 3.07 min in cells grown at 37 °C; while those incubated at higher temperature increased their heat resistance, with the maximum D60 °C-values of 1.4 min in cells grown at 42 °C. A decrease in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids was observed as the growth temperature increased. Compared to the control cells grown at 37 °C, the expression of rpoS was 16.5- and 14.4-fold higher in cells cultivated at 10 and 25 °C, respectively; while the expression of rpoH was 2.9-fold higher in those cultivated at 42 °C. The increased expression of stress response gene rpoH and the decreased ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids correlated with the greater heat resistance of bacteria grown at 42 °C; while the decreased expression of stress response gene rpoS at 42 °C might contribute to the decrease in acid resistance. Virulence related genes-spvR, hilA, avrA-were induced in cells cultivated at 42 °C, except sefA which was induced in the control cells. This study indicates that environmental temperature may affect the virulence potential of S. Enteritidis, thus temperature should be well controlled during food storage.

  6. Evolving the [myoglobin, cytochrome b(5)] complex from dynamic toward simple docking: charging the electron transfer reactive patch.

    PubMed

    Trana, Ethan N; Nocek, Judith M; Knutson, Amanda K; Hoffman, Brian M

    2012-10-30

    We describe photoinitiated electron transfer (ET) from a suite of Zn-substituted myoglobin (Mb) variants to cytochrome b(5) (b(5)). An electrostatic interface redesign strategy has led to the introduction of positive charges into the vicinity of the heme edge through D/E → K charge-reversal mutation combinations at "hot spot" residues (D44, D60, and E85), augmented by the elimination of negative charges from Mb or b(5) by neutralization of heme propionates. These variations create an unprecedentedly large range in the product of the ET partners' total charges (-5 < -q(Mb)q(b(5)) < 40). The binding affinity (K(a)) increases 1000-fold as -q(Mb)q(b(5)) increases through this range and exhibits a surprisingly simple, exponential dependence on -q(Mb)q(b(5)). This is explained in terms of electrostatic interactions between a "charged reactive patch" (crp) on each partner's surface, defined as a compact region around the heme edge that (i) contains the total protein charge of each variant and (ii) encompasses a major fraction of the "reactive region" (Rr) comprising surface atoms with large matrix elements for electron tunneling to the heme. As -q(Mb)q(b(5)) increases, the complex undergoes a transition from fast to slow-exchange dynamics on the triplet ET time scale, with a correlated progression in the rate constants for intracomplex (k(et)) and bimolecular (k(2)) ET. This progression is analyzed by integrating the crp and Rr descriptions of ET into the textbook steady-state treatment of reversible binding between partners that undergo intracomplex ET and found to encompass the full range of behaviors predicted by the model. The generality of this approach is demonstrated by its application to the extensive body of data for the ET complex between the photosynthetic reaction center and cytochrome c(2). Deviations from this model also are discussed.

  7. Trial of Early Aggressive Therapy in Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Carol A.; Giannini, Edward H.; Spalding, Steven J.; Hashkes, Philip J.; O’Neil, Kathleen M.; Zeft, Andrew S.; Szer, Ilona S.; Ringold, Sarah; Brunner, Hermine I.; Schanberg, Laura E.; Sundel, Robert P.; Milojevic, Diana; Punaro, Marilynn G.; Chira, Peter; Gottlieb, Beth S.; Higgins, Gloria C.; Ilowite, Norman T.; Kimura, Yukiko; Hamilton, Stephanie; Johnson, Anne; Huang, Bin; Lovell, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine if aggressive treatment initiated early in the course of rheumatoid factor positive or negative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (poly-JIA) can induce clinical inactive disease (CID) within 6 months. METHODS Between May 2007 and October 2010 a multi-center, prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of two aggressive treatments was conducted in 85 children aged 2 to 16 years with polyarticular JIA of less than 12 months duration. Patients received either methotrexate 0.5 mg/kg/wk SQ (40 mg max), etanercept 0.8 mg/kg/wk (50 mg max), prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/d (60 mg max) tapered to 0 by 17 weeks (Arm 1), or methotrexate (same dose as Arm 1), etanercept placebo, and prednisolone placebo (Arm 2). The primary outcome was CID at 6 months. An exploratory phase determined the rate of clinical remission on medication (6 months of continuous CID) at 12 months. RESULTS By 6 months, 17 of 42 (40%) of patients in Arm 1 and 10 of 43 (23%) in Arm 2 had achieved CID (X2 = 2.91; p = 0.088). After 12 months, 9 patients in Arm 1 and 3 in Arm 2 achieved clinical remission on medication (p = 0.0534). There were no significant inter-arm differences in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Although this study did not meet its primary endpoint, early aggressive therapy in this cohort of children with recent onset polyarticular JIA resulted in substantial proportions of patients in both arms achieving CID by 6 months and clinical remission on medication within 12 months of treatment. PMID:22183975

  8. Generalized Polynomial Chaos Based Uncertainty Quantification for Planning MRgLITT Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenholtz, S.; Stafford, R. J.; Maier, F.; Hazle, J. D.; Fuentes, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) method is used to incorporate constitutive parameter uncertainties within the Pennes representation of bioheat transfer phenomena. The stochastic temperature predictions of the mathematical model are critically evaluated against MR thermometry data for planning MR-guided Laser Induced Thermal Therapies (MRgLITT). Methods Pennes bioheat transfer model coupled with a diffusion theory approximation of laser tissue interaction was implemented as the underlying deterministic kernel. A probabilistic sensitivity study was used to identify parameters that provide the most variance in temperature output. Confidence intervals of the temperature predictions are compared to MR temperature imaging (MRTI) obtained during phantom and in vivo canine (n=4) MRgLITT experiments. The gPC predictions were quantitatively compared to MRTI data using probabilistic linear and temporal profiles as well as 2-D 60 °C isotherms. Results Within the range of physically meaningful constitutive values relevant to the ablative temperature regime of MRgLITT, the sensitivity study indicated that the optical parameters, particularly the anisotropy factor, created the most variance in the stochastic model's output temperature prediction. Further, within the statistical sense considered, a nonlinear model of the temperature and damage dependent perfusion, absorption, and scattering is captured within the confidence intervals of the linear gPC method. Multivariate stochastic model predictions using parameters with the dominant sensitivities show good agreement with experimental MRTI data. Conclusions Given parameter uncertainties and mathematical modeling approximations of the Pennes bioheat model, the statistical framework demonstrates conservative estimates of the therapeutic heating and has potential for use as a computational prediction tool for thermal therapy planning. PMID:23692295

  9. Cross-Laboratory Comparative Study of the Impact of Experimental and Regression Methodologies on Salmonella Thermal Inactivation Parameters in Ground Beef.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Ian M; Marks, Bradley P; Juneja, Vijay K; Osoria, Marangeli; Hall, Nicole O; Ryser, Elliot T

    2016-07-01

    Isothermal inactivation studies are commonly used to quantify thermal inactivation kinetics of bacteria. Meta-analyses and comparisons utilizing results from multiple sources have revealed large variations in reported thermal resistance parameters for Salmonella, even when in similar food materials. Different laboratory or regression methodologies likely are the source of methodology-specific artifacts influencing the estimated parameters; however, such effects have not been quantified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laboratory and regression methodologies on thermal inactivation data generation, interpretation, modeling, and inherent error, based on data generated in two independent laboratories. The overall experimental design consisted of a cross-laboratory comparison using two independent laboratories (Michigan State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center [ERRC] laboratories), both conducting isothermal Salmonella inactivation studies (55, 60, 62°C) in ground beef, and each using two methodologies reported in prior studies. Two primary models (log-linear and Weibull) with one secondary model (Bigelow) were fitted to the resultant data using three regression methodologies (two two-step regressions and a one-step regression). Results indicated that laboratory methodology impacted the estimated D60°C- and z-values (α = 0.05), with the ERRC methodology yielding parameter estimates ∼25% larger than the Michigan State University methodology, regardless of the laboratory. Regression methodology also impacted the model and parameter error estimates. Two-step regressions yielded root mean square error values on average 40% larger than the one-step regressions. The Akaike Information Criterion indicated the Weibull as the more correct model in most cases; however, caution should be used to confirm model robustness in application to real-world data. Overall, the

  10. The change in heat shock protein expression in avermectin induced neurotoxicity of the pigeon (Columba livia) both in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Wang, Xian-Song; Xu, Feng-Ping; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu

    2014-12-01

    The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30d, 60d and 90d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for King pigeon neurons is between 15μgL(-1) and 20μgL(-1). Following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent.

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF STAR-PLANET INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Pearson, Elliott G.; Wright, Jason T.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether ''hot Jupiter'' hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (M {sub P}/a {sup 2} or 1/a) versus coronal activity (L {sub X} or L {sub X}/L {sub bol}). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (∼99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with M {sub P}/a {sup 2}. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with M {sub P}/a {sup 2} > 450 M {sub Jup} AU{sup –2}, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in L {sub X}. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

  12. An Algorithm for image removals and decompositions without inverse matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dokkyun

    2009-03-01

    Partial Differential Equation (PDE) based methods in image processing have been actively studied in the past few years. One of the effective methods is the method based on a total variation introduced by Rudin, Oshera and Fatemi (ROF) [L.I. Rudin, S. Osher, E. Fatemi, Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms, Physica D 60 (1992) 259-268]. This method is a well known edge preserving model and an useful tool for image removals and decompositions. Unfortunately, this method has a nonlinear term in the equation which may yield an inaccurate numerical solution. To overcome the nonlinearity, a fixed point iteration method has been widely used. The nonlinear system based on the total variation is induced from the ROF model and the fixed point iteration method to solve the ROF model is introduced by Dobson and Vogel [D.C. Dobson, C.R. Vogel, Convergence of an iterative method for total variation denoising, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 34 (5) (1997) 1779-1791]. However, some methods had to compute inverse matrices which led to roundoff error. To address this problem, we developed an efficient method for solving the ROF model. We make a sequence like Richardson's method by using a fixed point iteration to evade the nonlinear equation. This approach does not require the computation of inverse matrices. The main idea is to make a direction vector for reducing the error at each iteration step. In other words, we make the next iteration to reduce the error from the computed error and the direction vector. We describe that our method works well in theory. In numerical experiments, we show the results of the proposed method and compare them with the results by D. Dobson and C. Vogel and then we confirm the superiority of our method.

  13. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic

    PubMed Central

    Eštoková, Adriana; Palaščáková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices) of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in the cements ranged from 8.58–19.1 Bq·kg−1, 9.78–26.3 Bq·kg−1 and 156.5–489.4 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radiological parameters in cement samples were calculated as follows: mean radium equivalent activity Raeq = 67.87 Bq·kg−1, gamma index Iγ = 0.256, alpha index Iα = 0.067, the absorbed gamma dose rate D = 60.76 nGy·h−1, external hazard index Hex = 0.182 and internal hazard index Hin was 0.218. The radionuclide activity in composites ranged from 6.84–10.8 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 13.1–20.5 Bq·kg−1 for 232Th and 250.4–494.4 Bq·kg−1 for 40K. The calculated radiological parameters of cements were lower than calculated radiological parameters of cement composites. PMID:24351739

  14. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  15. Identification of functional regions in the Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Pokrovskaya, M V; Aleksandrova, S S; Pokrovsky, V S; Veselovsky, A V; Grishin, D V; Abakumova, O Yu; Podobed, O V; Mishin, A A; Zhdanov, D D; Sokolov, N N

    2015-03-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase (RrA) was performed in order to identify sites of the protein molecule important for its therapeutic and physico-chemical properties. Ten multipoint mutant genes were obtained, and five recombinant RrA variants were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells and isolated as functionally active highly purified proteins. Protein purification was performed using Q-Sepharose and DEAE-Toyopearl chromatography. Overall yield of the active enzymes was 70-80 %, their specific activity at pH 7.4 and 37 °C varied of 140-210 U/mg. L-Glutaminase activity did not exceed 0.01 % of L-asparaginase activity. All RrA mutants showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 9.3-9.5 and 53-58 °C. Km and Vmax values for L-asparagine were evaluated for all mutants. Mutations G86P, D88H, M90K (RrAH), G121L, D123A (RrАI) caused the loss of enzyme activity and confirmed the importance of these sites in the implementation of catalytic functions. Removal of four residues from C-terminal area of the enzyme (RrAK) resulted in the enzyme instability. Mutations D60K, F61L(RrАD), and R118H, G120R(RrАJ) led to the improvement of kinetic parameters and enzyme stabilization. Substitutions E149R, V150P (RrАB) improved antineoplastic and cytotoxic activity of the RrA. A64V, E67K substitutions, especially in combination with E149R, V150P (RrАE), considerably destabilized recombinant enzyme.

  16. Behavioral responses of broilers to different gaseous atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Gerritzen, M A; Lambooij, E; Hillebrand, S J; Lankhaar, J A; Pieterse, C

    2000-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in behavioral response of broilers when they come into contact for the first time with gas mixtures that can be used for stunning. The six test groups were divided into four experimental groups that were exposed to gas mixtures used for stunning and two control groups that were exposed to atmospheric air. The different gas mixtures and their concentrations were a) air, no flow (control-); b) circulating air, flowing (control+); c) >90% Ar in air; d) 60% CO2 in air; e) 40% CO2 and 30% O2 in air; and f) 70% Ar and 30% CO2 in air. The behavior of the broilers before entering the gas tunnel, the number of birds that moved into the gas mixture, and the behavior in the gas mixture were recorded on video and analyzed afterward. No differences among the groups were observed in the number of broilers that walked into the gas tunnel or in the number of birds that tried to return to the cage. Exposure of broilers to the 70% Ar and 30% CO2 mixture resulted in the fastest loss of posture. The number of broilers exhibiting headshaking and gasping was least in the >90% Ar in air mixture. Convulsions were rarely seen in the 40% CO2 and 30% O2 mixture; the other gas mixtures resulted in severe convulsions. The experiment did not indicate that broilers could detect or avoid increased CO2 or decreased O2 levels when they come into contact with such atmospheres for the first time.

  17. cGMP Binding Sites on Photoreceptor Phosphodiesterase: Role in Feedback Regulation of Visual Transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Rick H.; Deric Bownds, M.; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.

    1994-05-01

    A central step in vertebrate visual transduction is the rapid drop in cGMP levels that causes cGMP-gated ion channels in the photoreceptor cell membrane to close. It has long been a puzzle that the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) whose activation causes this decrease contains not only catalytic sites for cGMP hydrolysis but also noncatalytic cGMP binding sites. Recent work has shown that occupancy of these noncatalytic sites slows the rate of PDE inactivation. We report here that PDE activation induced by activated transducin lowers the cGMP binding affinity for noncatalytic sites on PDE and accelerates the dissociation of cGMP from these sites. These sites can exist in three states: high affinity (K_d = 60 nM) for the nonactivated PDE, intermediate affinity (K_d ≈ 180 nM) when the enzyme is activated in a complex with transducin, and low affinity (K_d > 1 μM) when transducin physically removes the inhibitory subunits of PDE from the PDE catalytic subunits. Activation of PDE by transducin causes a 10-fold increase in the rate of cGMP dissociation from one of the two noncatalytic sites; physical removal of the inhibitory subunits from the PDE catalytic subunits further accelerates the cGMP dissociation rate from both sites >50-fold. Because PDE molecules lacking bound cGMP inactivate more rapidly, this suggests that a prolonged cGMP decrease may act as a negative feedback regulator to generate the faster, smaller photoresponses characteristic of light-adapted photoreceptors.

  18. Microfilaricidal efficacy of a single administration of Advocate(®) (Bayer Animal Health) in dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens.

    PubMed

    Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; Traversa, Donato; Simonato, Giulia; Poser, Helen; Danesi, Patrizia; Furnari, Carmelo; Russi, Ilaria; Raele, Donato Antonio; Crisi, Paolo; Pampurini, Fabrizio; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2016-08-15

    The present study evaluated the microfilaricidal efficacy of a single application of the spot-on containing imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% (Advocate(®), Bayer Animal Health) in dogs naturally infected either by Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens. Dogs living in north-eastern and central-southern Italy, endemic for D. immitis and D. repens respectively, were randomly screened. Sixteen animals, eight infected with D. immitis and eight with D. repens, and fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled. Dogs infected with D. immitis received an adulticide treatment prior to the study and Advocate(®) 3 weeks after. The animals were divided in blocks of two (1:1, T1:T2) animals each, where Day 0 (D0) had an interval of 15days to compare T2 vs. T1 dogs during the first fortnight of examination (i.e. T2 dogs acted as control animals at each examination). At baseline (Days -15 and 0 for T2 and T1 dogs, respectively) the animals had a range of microfilaraemia of 180-99.700mff/ml (D. immitis) and 60-750 mff/ml (D. repens). All animals received a topical administration of Advocate(®) at D0 and were examined for microfilariae with microscopic and molecular tests at D15, D30, D60 and D90. All animals scored negative for mff at the first control post-treatment and throughout the study, with the exception of two D. immitis- infected animals that had a 2 mff/ml count at D15, and then become negative from Day 30 onwards. No adverse events were observed. The present study demonstrates the safety and the high microfilaricidal efficacy (99.97% and 100% for D. immitis and D. repens, respectively) of a single dose of moxidectin contained in Advocate(®) in naturally infected dogs.

  19. Low, medium, and high heat tolerant strains of Listeria monocytogenes and increased heat stress resistance after exposure to sublethal heat.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qian; Jangam, Priyanka M; Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, Wes; Silva, Juan L

    2014-08-01

    A group of 37 strains representing all 13 serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes with an initial cell density of 10(7) CFU/ml were analyzed for their heat tolerance at 60°C for 10 min. These L. monocytogenes strains were categorized into three heat tolerance groups: low (<2 log CFU/ml survival), medium (2 to 4 log CFU/ml survival), and high (4 to 6 log CFU/ml survival). Serotype 1/2a strains had relatively low heat tolerance; seven of the eight tested strains were classified as low heat tolerant. Of the two serotype 1/2b strains tested, one was very heat sensitive (not detectable) and the other was very heat resistant (5.4 log CFU/ml survival). Among the 16 serotype 4b strains, survival ranged from not detectable to 4 log CFU/ml. When one L. monocytogenes strain from each heat tolerance group was subjected to sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 30 or 60 min, the survival of heat-stressed cells at 60°C for 10 min increased by 5 log CFU/ml (D60°C-values nearly doubled) compared with the nonstressed control cells. Sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 60 or 90 min increased the lag phase of L. monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract at room temperature by 3 to 5 h compared with nonstressed control cells. The heat stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes was reversed after 2 h at room temperature but was maintained for up to 24 h at 4°C. Our results indicate a high diversity in heat tolerance among strains of L. monocytogenes, and once acquired this heat stress adaptation persists after cooling, which should be taken into account while conducting risk analyses for this pathogen.

  20. PHENIX results on fluctuations and Bose-Einstein correlations in Au + Au collisions from the RHIC Beam Energy Scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Prakhar

    2016-12-01

    The RHIC Beam Energy Scan focuses on mapping the QCD phase diagram and pinpointing the location of a possible critical end point. Bose-Einstein correlations and event-by-event fluctuations of conserved quantities, measured as a function of centrality and collision energy, are promising tools in these studies. Recent lattice QCD and statistical thermal model calculations predict that higher-order cumulants of the fluctuations are sensitive indicators of the phase transition. Products of these cumulants can be used to extract the freeze-out parameters [A. Bazavov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 192302 (2012)] and to locate the critical point [M. A. Stephanov, K. Rajagopal and E. V. Shuryak, Phys. Rev. D 60, 114028 (1999)]. Two-pion interferometry measurements are predicted to be sensitive to potential softening of the equation of state and prolonged emission duration close to the critical point [S. Pratt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1219 (1984)]. We present recent PHENIX results on fluctuations of net-charge using high-order cumulants and their products in Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 7.7- 200 GeV, and measurement of two-pion correlation functions and emission-source radii in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at several beam energies. The extracted source radii are compared to previous measurements at RHIC and LHC in order to study energy dependence of the specific quantities sensitive to expansion velocity and emission duration. Implications for the search of a critical point and baryon chemical potentials at various collision energies are discussed.

  1. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions. Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Absil, O.; Montagnier, G.; Riaud, P.; Surdej, J.; Ducourant, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Röttinger, S.; Girard, J.; Krist, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-infrared window (1-5 μm). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100 Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-infrared. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d < 80 pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Aims: Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by direct imaging. Probing these interesting reservoirs sets additional constraints that we review in this paper by presenting the planet search that we initiated in 2008 around the disk-bearing T Tauri star IM Lup, which is part of the Lupus star forming region (140-190 pc). Methods: We show and discuss why age determination, the choice of evolutionary model for both the central star and the planet, precise knowledge of the host star proper motion, relative or absolute (between different instruments) astrometric accuracy (including plate scale calibration), and patience are the key ingredients for exoplanet searches around more distant young stars. Results: Unfortunately, most of the time, precision and perseverance are not paying off: we discovered a candidate companion around IM Lup in 2008, which we report here to be an unbound background object. We nevertheless review in details the lessons learned from our endeavor, and

  2. Mechanism of Germacradien-4-ol Synthase-Controlled Water Capture

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The sesquiterpene synthase germacradiene-4-ol synthase (GdolS) from Streptomyces citricolor is one of only a few known high-fidelity terpene synthases that convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into a single hydroxylated product. Crystals of unliganded GdolS-E248A diffracted to 1.50 Å and revealed a typical class 1 sesquiterpene synthase fold with the active site in an open conformation. The metal binding motifs were identified as D80DQFD and N218DVRSFAQE. Some bound water molecules were evident in the X-ray crystal structure, but none were obviously positioned to quench a putative final carbocation intermediate. Incubations in H218O generated labeled product, confirming that the alcohol functionality arises from nucleophilic capture of the final carbocation by water originating from solution. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues from both within the metal binding motifs and without identified by sequence alignment with aristolochene synthase from Aspergillus terreus generated mostly functional germacradien-4-ol synthases. Only GdolS-N218Q generated radically different products (∼50% germacrene A), but no direct evidence of the mechanism of incorporation of water into the active site was obtained. Fluorinated FDP analogues 2F-FDP and 15,15,15-F3-FDP were potent noncompetitive inhibitors of GdolS. 12,13-DiF-FDP generated 12,13-(E)-β-farnesene upon being incubated with GdolS, suggesting stepwise formation of the germacryl cation during the catalytic cycle. Incubation of GdolS with [1-2H2]FDP and (R)-[1-2H]FDP demonstrated that following germacryl cation formation a [1,3]-hydride shift generates the final carbocation prior to nucleophilic capture. The stereochemistry of this shift is not defined, and the deuteron in the final product was scrambled. Because no clear candidate residue for binding of a nucleophilic water molecule in the active site and no significant perturbation of product distribution from the replacement of active site residues were

  3. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Cui, L Y; Zhou, Z L; Hou, J F

    2013-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are linked disorders in humans. This study examined the hypothesis that excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. A total of one hundred 63-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 2 treatments and fed either a regular layer diet (control) or a high energy and low protein diet (HE-LP; experimental treatment) for 80 d. Egg production, feed intake, and BW were recorded at various days during the treatment. At d 80, ten randomly chosen birds per treatment group were killed. Abdominal fat weight, liver weight, and liver fat content were determined. Serum levels of total calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tibia length and width were measured using a vernier caliper; density of the right tibias was determined using an x-ray scanner; and mechanical properties of the left tibias were analyzed using a material testing machine. The expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin mRNA in the keel bone was analyzed by real-time PCR. The concentration of osteocalcin protein in the keels was measured using western blot. Compared with control hens, hens fed the HE-LP diet had lower egg production, lower feed intake, greater liver fat content, and greater abdominal fat pad mass (P < 0.05). Feeding the HE-LP diet increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen concentrations (P < 0.05), and decreased the keel osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the serum concentrations of leptin-like protein, estrogen, and osteocalcin regardless of treatment (P < 0.05). The results indicated that HE-LP diet induced a fatty liver disorder in laying hens with an upregulation in bone turnover and exacerbated skeletal damage. The data

  4. Plane of nutrition influences the performance, innate leukocyte responses, and resistance to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge in Jersey calves.

    PubMed

    Ballou, M A; Hanson, D L; Cobb, C J; Obeidat, B S; Sellers, M D; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Carroll, J A; Earleywine, T J; Lawhon, S D

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments investigated how plane of nutrition influences performance, leukocyte responses, and resistance to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge. In experiment 1, 46 (2±1 d of age) calves were randomly assigned to 2 diets: a low (LPN; n=23) and high plane of nutrition (HPN; n=23). The LPN calves were fed 409 g/d of dry matter (DM) of a 20% crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer, whereas HPN calves were fed 610 and 735 g/d of DM of a 28% crude protein and 25% fat milk replacer during wk 1 and 2 to 6, respectively. In experiment 2, 20 bull calves (LPN; n=11 and HPN; n=9) were orally challenged on d 80 with 1.5×10(7) cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC #14028). The HPN calves had a greater incidence (87.5 vs. 45.5%) and duration of days with high fecal scores (5.5 vs. 3.5 d). The LPN calves had greater neutrophil surface expression of L-selectin on d 7, 21, and 42. Following the Salmonella Typhimurium challenge, calf starter DM intake was greater among the HPN calves. The percentage of neutrophils producing an oxidative burst was also greater among HPN calves on d 1 to 5 after the challenge. Similarly, the intensity of the oxidative burst tended to be greater among the HPN calves on d 2 and 3 postchallenge. The secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α from whole-blood cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide tended to be greater on d 1 and was greater on d 5 and 6 among HPN calves. The median ranks of haptoglobin concentrations were greater and plasma zinc concentrations tended to be decreased among LPN calves. These data indicate that feeding a HPN to Jersey calves improved average daily gain and feed efficiency, but increased the incidence of high fecal scores during the first few weeks of life; however, the HPN Jersey calves may be more resistant to Salmonella Typhimurium after weaning.

  5. The Fluid Evolution of a Ductile-To Dextral Shear Zone in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holk, G. J.; Lojasiewicz, I.; Hartman, S. M.; Compton, K.; Paterson, S. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The application of stable isotopes in conjunction with detailed mapping of the dextral Steelhead Lake shear zone (SLSZ) in the central Sierra Nevada reveals a complex fluid history as the system transitioned from ductile-to-brittle behavior at shallow crustal depth in response to cooling of the adjacent Tuolumne Batholith (TB) at ~85 Ma. This system has a multi-stage alteration history that includes: (1) ductiley deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranite dikes, (2) ductile-to-brittle quartz+tourmaline veins, (3) brittle calc-silicate-rich leach zones, and (4) 1-10-m-thick quartz veins with crack-seal textures. High and variable quartz δ18O values (> +13‰) from metasedimentary rocks belonging to the Saddlebag pendant outside the SLSZ indicate metamorphic fluids at low water/rock ratio. Leucogranite dikes associated with the TB have δ18O (plagioclase = +9.5±0.3‰) and δD (~ -80‰) values consistent with magmatic fluids. Quartz+tourmaline veins that record the ductile-to-brittle transition display a range of δ18O values (quartz: +3.4 to +16.4‰; tourmaline: +8.0‰) that indicate a complex fluid system involving magmatic, metamorphic, and meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. Variable mineral δ18O (-1.5 to +11.3‰) and δD (-140 to -77‰) values from the Sawmill Sequence calc-silicates and Koip Sequence metavolcanics are the product of a fluid system with magmatic (TB) and meteoric-hydrothermal end-member sources, with lowest values found within a pull-apart zone and the highest values are outside this zone. Quartz δ18O (-3.2 to +14.5‰) and fluid inclusion δD values (-137 to -79‰) define a mixing line with magmatic (TB) and meteoric-hydrothermal water end members for the crack-seal veins. Detailed studies of one 10-m-thick vein reveal a trend of decreasing isotope values from the margin to the median plane. Most mineral pairs failed to reach isotopic equilibrium, indicating a very complex and short-lived fluid evolution for this system. This study documents

  6. SU-E-T-24: A Dose Volume Comparison in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using Flattened and Un-Flattened Photon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pangam, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Aim of this study is to compare the dose volume characteristics of 6X FFF (flattening Free Filter) Arc and 6X FB (flattened Beam) arc photon plans in SBRT technique. Methods: Eight patients who received linear Accelearator-based SBRT were retrospectively included in this study. A dose of 50 Gy was given to the target in five fractions. Same data set was used to generate plans for both FFF and FB. ITV was generated using maximum intensity projection and critical structures were derived using average intensity projection. PTV obtained by giving 0.5cm margin to ITV. Results: While both modalities can provide satisfactory target dose coverage, the dose to PTV was more heterogeneous in FFF than 6X FB plans in all cases. The doses in all plans were well below institutional constraints for both modalities. Comparing the results of Homogeneity Index(HI), Conformity Index(CI), PTV-D80% volume, D50% volume and D20% volume (Table-1 ) for both techniques, found all the indices are within limits of RTOG guidelines but the 6X FFF is superior in sparing normal tissues in compare with FB. In all cases studied, more treatment time was required for FB treatment delivery for a given prescription. The results indicate that for large dose delivery FFF is preferable as volumetric parameters like HI and CI are better and dose can be delivered in a short span of time. Conclusion: Both Flattened and Unflattened beam SBRT systems can provide adequate dose coverage for target tumor. While the unflattened beams deliver less normal tissue dose than Flattened beams in all cases. The magnitude of differences in normal tissue dose between both modalities was due to beam characterization of the beams. Flattened beam requires more Monitor Units to deliver similar target prescription to the tumor than unflattened beam SBRT systems. The results of this study may provide a general guideline for patient and treatment modality selection based on volumetric, tumor control and normal tissue

  7. Automatic Isolation of Blurred Images from Uav Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieberth, T.; Wackrow, R.; Chandler, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated filtering process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. A "shaking table" was used to create images with known blur during a series of laboratory tests. This platform can be moved in one direction by a mathematical function controlled by a defined frequency and amplitude. The shaking table was used to displace a Nikon D80 digital SLR camera with a user defined frequency and amplitude. The actual camera displacement was measured accurately and exposures were synchronized, which provided the opportunity to acquire images with a known blur effect. Acquired images were processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur, which has been created by the actual shaking table function. Once determined

  8. The cold veil of the Milky Way stellar halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deason, A. J.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; Koposov, S. E.; Cooke, R. J.; Peñarrubia, J.; Laporte, C. F. P.; Fellhauer, M.; Walker, M. G.; Olszewski, E. W.

    2012-10-01

    We build a sample of distant (D > 80 kpc) stellar halo stars with measured radial velocities. Faint (20 < g < 22) candidate blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars were selected using the deep, but wide, multi-epoch Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Follow-up spectroscopy for these A-type stars was performed using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) instrument. We classify stars according to their Balmer line profiles, and find that seven are bona fide BHB stars and 31 are blue stragglers (BS). Owing to the magnitude range of our sample, even the intrinsically fainter BS stars can reach out to D ˜ 90 kpc. We complement this sample of A-type stars with intrinsically brighter, intermediate-age, asymptotic giant branch stars. A set of four distant cool carbon stars is compiled from the literature and we perform spectroscopic follow-up on a further four N-type carbon stars using the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) Intermediate dispersion Spectrograph and Imaging System (ISIS) instrument. Altogether, this provides us with the largest sample to date of individual star tracers out to r ˜ 150 kpc. We find that the radial velocity dispersion of these tracers falls rapidly at large distances and is surprisingly cold (σr ≈ 50-60 km s-1) between 100 and 150 kpc. Relating the measured radial velocities to the mass of the Milky Way requires knowledge of the (unknown) tracer density profile and anisotropy at these distances. Nonetheless, by assuming the stellar halo stars between 50 and 150 kpc have a moderate density fall-off (with power-law slope α < 5) and are on radial orbits (σt2/σr2<1), we infer that the mass within 150 kpc is less than 1012 M⊙ and suggest it probably lies in the range (5-10) × 1011 M⊙. We discuss the implications of such a low mass for the Milky Way. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 085.B-0567(A) and

  9. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope geochemistry of Ascension Island lavas and granites: variation with crystal fractionation and interaction with sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Simon M. F.; Harris, Chris

    1985-09-01

    Lavas and pyroclastics on Ascension Island contain plutonic blocks that include fluid-inclusion-bearing peralkaline-granite. 18O/16O ratios, F and Cl have been analysed on whole rocks and/or minerals for lavas and granites, and D/H ratios and H2O+ for comenditic obsidians and granites. Whole rock 18O/16O ratios of fresh alkali-basalt, hawaiite, trachyandesite, trachyte and comendite range from 6.0 to 6.9‰ with 18O tending to increase with increase in SiO2. The δ 18O values of the granites are from 0.0 to 0.3‰ depleted in 18O relative to the comendites. Comenditic obsidians have δD= -80±4‰ and H2O+ ˜0.3 wt.% while amphiboles from the granites have δD= -56±2‰ The O-isotope trend of the lavas is consistent with a crystal fractionation model. Fresh igneous rocks with δ 18O values greater than 7‰ involve processes in addition to crystal fractionation of a basaltic magma. The D/H ratios and Cl contents (˜ 3,000 ppm) of the H2O-poor comenditic obsidians represent undegassed primary magmatic values. The H-isotope compositions and low H2O and Cl (167 ppm) contents of the granites are consistent with the major degassing (loss of >90% of initial H2O) of an H2Osaturated magma derived from the interaction of sea (or possibly meteoric) water with the H2O-undersaturated comenditic melt. It is proposed that, associated with caldera subsidence and stoping, water was sucked in around the residual magma before the system had time to be sealed up. The H2O-undersaturated magma consumed this H2O with possibly some minor partial dehydration and dewatering of the hydrated volcanic roof blocks, at a pressure of about 1.5 kb. The granites are the plutonic equivalents of rhyolitic pyroclastics and not directly of the comendites. Granites from oceanic islands may, in general, be a result of generating an H2O-saturated acid melt by such direct or indirect crustal water-magma interaction processes.

  10. Conformational changes in the selectivity filter of the open-state KcsA channel: an energy minimization study.

    PubMed

    Miloshevsky, Gennady V; Jordan, Peter C

    2008-10-01

    Potassium channels switch between closed and open conformations and selectively conduct K(+) ions. There are at least two gates. The TM2 bundle at the intracellular site is the primary gate of KcsA, and rearrangements at the selectivity filter (SF) act as the second gate. The SF blocks ion flow via an inactivation process similar to C-type inactivation of voltage-gated K(+) channels. We recently generated the open-state conformation of the KcsA channel. We found no major, possibly inactivating, structural changes in the SF associated with this massive inner-pore rearrangement, which suggests that the gates might act independently. Here we energy-minimize the open state of wild-type and mutant KcsA, validating in silico structures of energy-minimized SFs by comparison with crystallographic structures, and use these data to gain insight into how mutation, ion depletion, and K(+) to Na(+) substitution influence SF conformation. Both E71 or D80 protonations/mutations and the presence/absence of protein-buried water molecule(s) modify the H-bonding network stabilizing the P-loops, spawning numerous SF conformations. We find that the inactivated state corresponds to conformations with a partially unoccupied or an entirely empty SF. These structures, involving modifications in all four P-loops, are stabilized by H-bonds between amide H and carbonyl O atoms from adjacent P-loops, which block ion passage. The inner portions of the P-loops are more rigid than the outer parts. Changes are localized to the outer binding sites, with innermost site S4 persisting in the inactivated state. Strong binding by Na(+) locally contracts the SF around Na(+), releasing ligands that do not participate in Na(+) coordination, and occluding the permeation pathway. K(+) selectivity primarily appears to arise from the inability of the SF to completely dehydrate Na(+) ions due to basic structural differences between liquid water and the "quasi-liquid" SF matrix.

  11. Are superheavy stable quark clusters viable candidates for the dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borštnik, Norma Mankoč; Rosina, Mitja

    2015-08-01

    The explanation for the origin of families of quarks and leptons and their properties is one of the most promising ways to understand the assumptions of the Standard Model. The Spin-Charge-Family theory [N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Lett. B 292 (1992) 25; J. Math. Phys. 34 (1993) 3731; Int. J. Theor. Phys. 40 (2001) 315; Mod. Phys. Lett. A 10 (1995) 587; J. Modern Phys. 4 (2013) 823; arXiv:1312.15; Phys. Rev. D 91 (2015) 065004; [arXiv:1409.7791; arXiv:1312.1542; arXiv:1502.06786v1, http://arXiv.org/abs/1409.4981; A. Borštnik and N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Rev. D 74 (2006) 073013, arXiv:hep-ph/0512062, arXiv:hep-ph/0401043, arXiv:hep-ph/0401055, arXiv:hep-ph/0301029; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, arXiv:1412.5866; G. Bregar et al., New J. Phys. 10 (2008) 093002; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, arXiv:1502.06786v1, arXiv:1412.5866; N. S. M. Borštnik, Proc. 13th Workshop "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models", Bled, 12-22 July 2010, eds. N. S. M. Borštnik et al., DMFA Založništvo, Ljubljana, December 2010, pp. 105-129], which does propose the mechanism for the appearance of families and offers an explanation for all the assumptions of the Standard Model, predicts two decoupled groups of four families. The lightest of the upper four families has stable members, which are correspondingly candidates to constitute the dark matter [G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 083534, arXiv:1412.5866]. In this paper, we study the weak and the "nuclear" (determined by the color interaction among the heavy fifth family quarks) scattering of such a very heavy baryon by ordinary nucleons in order to show that the cross-section is very small and consistent with the observation in most experiments so far, provided that the quark mass of this baryon is about 100TeV or above.

  12. Inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 in a selection of low moisture foods.

    PubMed

    Rachon, Grzegorz; Peñaloza, Walter; Gibbs, Paul A

    2016-08-16

    The aims of this study were to obtain data on survival and heat resistance of cocktails of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and the surrogate Enterococcus faecium (NRRL B-2354) in four low moisture foods (confectionery formulation, chicken meat powder, pet food and savoury seasoning) during storage before processing. Inoculated samples were stored at 16°C and cell viability examined at day 0, 3, 7 and 21. At each time point, the heat resistance at 80°C was determined. The purpose was to determine a suitable storage time of inoculated foods that can be applied in heat resistance studies or process validations with similar cell viability and heat resistance characteristics. The main inactivation study was carried out within 7days after inoculation, the heat resistance of each bacterial cocktail was evaluated in each low moisture food heated in thermal cells exposed to temperatures between 70 and 140°C. The Weibull model and the first order kinetics (D-value) were used to express inactivation data and calculate the heating time to achieve 5 log reduction at each temperature. Results showed that the pathogens Salmonella and L. monocytogenes and the surrogate E. faecium NRRL B-2354, can survive well (maximum reduction <0.8 log) in low moisture foods maintained at 16°C, as simulation of warehouse raw material storage in winter and before processing. The D80 value of the pathogens and surrogate did not significantly change during the 21day storage (p>0.05). The inactivation kinetics of the pathogens and surrogate at temperatures between 70 and 140°C, were different between each organism and product. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was a suitable Salmonella surrogate for three of the low moisture foods studied, but not for the sugar-containing confectionery formulation. Heating low moisture food in moisture-tight environments (thermal cells) to 111.2, 105.3 or 111.8°C can inactivate 5 log of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes or E. faecium NRRL B-2354 respectively.

  13. Using automated feeders to wean calves fed large amounts of milk according to their ability to eat solid feed.

    PubMed

    de Passillé, Anne Marie; Rushen, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    Dairy calves weaned off milk at an early age show signs of hunger and can lose weight. We examined whether using automated feeders to wean calves according to individual voluntary solid feed intake reduced the effects of weaning. Female Holstein calves were housed in groups of 5 to 9. All calves were fed 12 L/d milk and ad libitum grain starter and hay from automated feeders immediately after grouping, and were allocated to 3 weaning strategies: (1) early-weaned (EW; n=14): weaning began on d 40, and milk allowance gradually decreased until weaning was complete on d 48; (2) late-weaned (LW; n=14): weaning began on d 80 and was completed on d 89; (3) weaned by starter intake (WSI; n=28): weaning began when calves consumed 200g/d of starter and was completed when the calves consumed 1,400g/d. Each day, the automated feeders recorded quantities of milk, starter, and hay eaten by all calves, as well as the frequency of visits to the milk feeder; we used unrewarded visit frequency as a sign of hunger. Body weights (BW) were recorded weekly. We estimated daily digestible energy (DE) intake for each calf based on the milk, hay, and starter consumed. Average daily gains (ADG) were expressed as percent of BW. For calves in WSI, weaning began at 54.7±18.9 d (mean ± SD) of age, the duration of weaning was 21.1±10.6 d, and weaning ended at 75.8±10.7 d of age. Both LW and WSI calves had better ADG from wk 3 to 13 than EW calves. Calves in the WSI group drank less milk and ate more starter than LW calves but had similar ADG. During the period of weaning, EW calves made more unrewarded visits to the milk feeder than LW and WSI calves. Three EW calves lost weight during weaning, whereas all LW and WSI calves gained weight. Calves differ greatly in when they begin to eat solid feed and how quickly they increase the intake in response to a decrease in milk allowance. An advantage of automated feeders is that calves can be weaned at variable ages depending on their ability and

  14. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Morse, D.; Raterman, K.

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  15. Glucocorticoids induce glutamine synthetase in folliculostellate cells of rat pituitary glands in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    SHIRASAWA, NOBUYUKI; YAMANOUCHI, HIROSHI

    1999-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a glucocorticoid-inducible enzyme that has a key role for glutamate metabolism in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this study GS activity was measured and the amount of immunoreactive GS (ir-GS) cells in the rat anterior pituitary gland was quantified as a function of age. In addition, the effects of GS inhibitors, glucocorticoid administration, and adrenalectomy on GS activity were examined. Some of the ir-GS cells were also immunoreactive for S100 protein (ir-S100) which is a known marker for folliculostellate cells (FS) in the anterior pituitary. FS cells expressing GS were first detected in 3-d-old rats, and this cell population, expressed as the immunostained cell area divided by a standard unit area, increased as a function of age. The percentages of FS cells also expressing GS were 0.2, 6.4, 25 and 74% at 3 d, 30 d, 60 d and 2 y of age, respectively. GS enzyme activity also increased in parallel with the increase of ir-GS cell population maturation. The subcutaneous injection of methionine sulphoximine, a GS and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, reduced pituitary GS activity by 83%, but increased the population of ir-GS cells 3.5-fold in 30-d-old rats. Buthionine sulphoximine, a specific inhibitor of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, had little effect on GS activity or the ir-GS cell population. Neither methionine sulphoximine nor buthionine sulphoximine changed the population of ir-S100 protein cells (FS cells). Dexamethasone and hydrocortisone increased the population of ir-GS cells by 3.1 and 4.2-fold, respectively, within 12 h after administration. A significant increase of GS activity due to the injection of glucocorticoids was observed in the anterior pituitary, but not in the brain, retina or liver of immature rats. Adrenalectomy did not cause decrease of pituitary GS activity, and dexamethasone administration increased GS activity in both adrenalectomised and intact rats. In the monolayer culture of

  16. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P < 0.001) with additional DOF, and ADG and G:F decreased (linear; P < 0.001). Total cost of gain was quadratic (P < 0.001), and incremental cost of gain rose at an increasing rate (quadratic; P < 0.001) with increased DOF. With increasing DOF, HCW importance decreased from 58 to 21%; MS was variable, ranging from 18 to 23%; and YG and DMI were minor contributors to profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing

  17. Effect of pregnancy and embryonic mortality on milk production in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Nagy, P; Faigl, V; Reiczigel, J; Juhasz, J

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to compare milk production in pregnant versus nonpregnant dromedary camels. In addition, we described the effect of embryonic mortality on lactation and measured serum progesterone levels until d 60 to 90 of gestation. Twenty-five multiparous camels were selected in midlactation for 2 studies in consecutive years. Camels were mated naturally when the size of the dominant follicle reached 1.2 to 1.5cm. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and progesterone determination. In the first experiment (Exp 1), 8 of 11 animals conceived at 284±21.5d postpartum. Three pregnant dromedaries were given PGF2α to induce luteolysis and pregnancy loss on d 62 and spontaneous embryonic loss was detected in 2 camels (on d 27 and 60). Animals were allotted to 3 groups retrospectively: nonpregnant camels (group 1, n=4), pregnant camels (group 2; n=3), and camels with embryonic loss after d 55 (group 3; n=4). In the second study (Exp 2), 14 dromedaries were mated during midlactation. Seven of them failed to conceive (group 1) and 7 became pregnant (group 2). No embryonic loss was detected in Exp 2. Turning points in milk production were identified by change point analysis. In nonpregnant dromedaries (group 1), milk decreased slowly over time without significant change point. In pregnant camels (group 2), a gradual decline until 4 wk after mating was followed by a sudden drop, and the change point model resulted in one breakpoint at d 28±7 and 35±3 of gestation in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. In camels with embryonic mortality (group 3, Exp 1), milk yield started to decline similarly as in pregnant animals, but milk production increased gradually after embryonic loss and reached similar levels as in their nonpregnant herdmates. Change point analysis for group 3 resulted in 2 turning points at 30±4 and 48±4d after conception. Mean length of lactation was shorter by 230 (34.2%) and by 249d (37.6%) and mean total lactation production

  18. Associations between inflammation-related biomarkers and depressive symptoms in individuals with recently diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Herder, Christian; Fürstos, Jan-Felix; Nowotny, Bettina; Begun, Alexander; Strassburger, Klaus; Müssig, Karsten; Szendroedi, Julia; Icks, Andrea; Roden, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Depressive disorders represent a frequent comorbidity of both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inflammation-related processes have been implicated in the development of both diabetes and depression. This study aimed to investigate whether biomarkers of subclinical inflammation were associated with depressive symptoms in individuals with recently diagnosed diabetes and if such associations differed by diabetes type. This cross-sectional study was based on 295 individuals with T2D (67% men, mean age 53years) and 139 individuals with T1D (60% men, mean age 36years) of the German Diabetes Study. The main inclusion criterion was a known disease duration of <1year. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Allgemeine Depressionsskala, Langversion (ADS-L) questionnaire, the German version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) questionnaire. Associations between biomarkers of subclinical inflammation and the ADS-L as continuous score were assessed using multiple linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, HbA1c, lipids, hypertension, medication and comorbidities. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and the ratio of high-molecular-weight (HMW)/total adiponectin were positively associated with ADS-L in T2D (both P<0.01), but not in T1D. In contrast, serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 were positively associated with ADS-L only in T1D (P=0.035). The latter association was significantly different between both diabetes types (Pinteraction=0.036). No associations were observed for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18 and soluble E-selectin. Only the association between HMW/total adiponectin and ADS-L in T2D remained significant after correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, our study shows that the ratio HMW/total adiponectin is associated with depressive symptoms in individuals with recently diagnosed T2D. It also provides suggestive evidence that further biomarkers of subclinical

  19. Structural investigation of BaOsbnd B2O3sbnd P2O5 glasses by NMR and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, Ladislav; Kalenda, Petr; Mošner, Petr; Černošek, Zdeněk; Montagne, Lionel; Revel, Bertrand

    2016-09-01

    Glasses of the ternary system BaOsbnd B2O3sbnd P2O5 were prepared and studied in broad concentration limits covering the whole vitrification domain: 20-50 mol% BaO, 0-40 mol% B2O3 and 20-60 mol% P2O5. Their structure was studied with combinations of Raman spectroscopy, 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy and 11B MAS NMR spectroscopy. The obtained results are discussed in several compositional lines A: (100-x)Ba(PO3)2sbnd xB2O3, B: 40BaOsbnd yB2O3sbnd (60-y)P2O5, C: (50-z)BaOsbnd zB2O3sbnd 50P2O5, D: (60-w)BaOsbnd wB2O3sbnd 40P2O5 and E: uBaOsbnd 40B2O3sbnd (60-u)P2O5. Boron oxide incorporates into the phosphate network in the form of BO4 and BO3 groups and increases their glass transition temperature. Nevertheless, the increase in Tg is only steep within the region of 0-20 mol% B2O3 reaching a maximum at the glasses with ∼30 mol% B2O3. In the lines A, B and E a decrease in the P2O5 and an increase of B2O3 content results in the shortening of phosphate chains with decreasing P2O5 content; these changes are most pronounced in line B with a constant BaO content. In lines C and D with a constant P2O5 content a decrease in the BaO content results, in contrast, in the reverse transformation of phosphate structural units in the direction Q1 → Q2 → Q3 as detected from Raman spectra and 31P MAS NMR spectra. 11B MAS NMR spectra revealed that only BO4 units are present in the glasses with 0-20 mol% B2O3. In the glasses of the E series the fraction of BO3 units increases with a decreasing P2O5 content. By the decomposition of the 11B MAS NMR spectra it is possible to estimate the fractions of basic structural units formed by boron - B(OP)3O, B(OP)2O2 and BO3 in all the glasses of the glass forming region.

  20. How many people have ever lived on earth?

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1995-02-01

    An estimate of the total number of persons who have ever lived on earth depends on two factors: 1) the length of time humans have been on earth; and 2) the average size of human populations at different periods. According to the United Nations' "Determinants and Consequences of Population Trends," modern Homo sapiens appeared about 50,000 B.C. At the dawn of agriculture, about 8000 B.C., the world's population was around 5 million. By 1 A.D., the population had reached 300 million, which indicates a growth rate of 0.0512% per year. Life expectancy at birth averaged 10 years for most of human history. The birth rate would have to be about 80 per 1000 just for the species to survive. Infant mortality in the early days of human life would be high, probably 500 infant deaths per 1000. Children were probably economic liabilities in hunter-gatherer societies; this might have led to infanticide, which in turn would require a disproportionately high birth rate to maintain population growth. By 1650, the world's population had risen to 500 million, although the Black Plague, which began in 542 A.D. in western Asia and killed 50% of the Byzantine Empire in the sixth century (a total of 100 million deaths), had slowed the rate of growth. By 1800, the world's population passed 1 billion and continued to grow to its current total of 5.7 billion. Estimating the number of people ever born requires selecting population sizes for different points from antiquity to the present and applying assumed birth rates to each period. Assuming a constant growth rate and birth rates of 80 per 1000 through 1 A.D., 60 per 1000 from 2 A.D. to 1750, and the low 30s per 1000 by modern times, 105 billion people have lived on earth, of whom 5.5% are alive today. The assumption of constant population growth in the earliest period may have resulted in an underestimate, while an earlier date of the appearance of humans on earth would raise the number. A table of Population Reference Bureau statistics is

  1. Icariin Attenuates High-cholesterol Diet Induced Atherosclerosis in Rats by Inhibition of Inflammatory Response and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanwu; Sun, Bo; Liu, Kai; Yan, Mengtong; Zhang, Yang; Miao, Chunsheng; Ren, Liqun

    2016-02-01

    Icariin is a flavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Epimedium brevicornum Maxim and has been reported to be effective for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of icariin on atherosclerosis (AS) using a high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced rat model. Seventy male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: 20 in the control group, 20 in the AS group, 10 in the simvastatin group, 10 in the low-dose icariin group, and 10 in the high-dose icariin group. A HCD and vitamin D3 were administered to establish AS rat model. The five groups of rats received daily intragastric administration of normal saline, simvastatin, or icariin (30 mg/kg/d, 60 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks. The levels of blood lipids, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA) were measured. The mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, and the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using ELISA kit. In addition, the expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK was detected by Western blot analysis. The results indicated that AS rat models were successfully constructed. In the AS group, the levels of blood lipids including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and MDA were significantly increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and SOD were significantly decreased, compared with those in the control group. However, icariin succeeded in improving these biochemical parameters towards the normal values in the control group. In the simvastatin group and the icariin groups, the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the related tissue mRNA levels, as well as the expression of p-p38 MAPK, were markedly reduced compared with the AS group. In conclusion, the present study indicated that icariin inhibited the HCD-induced dyslipidemia in rats, the mechanisms may be

  2. Extreme AO: The future of high-contrast imaging with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, B.

    2001-05-01

    Title: Extreme AO: The future of high-contrast-imaging with adaptive optics. Adaptive optics (AO) partially cancels wavefront aberrations caused by atmospheric turbulence and can allow ground-basd telescope to reach their full diffraction-limited resolution. A fundamental limitation of all AO systems is that they have little effect on the atmospheric scattered light halo beyond a control radius roughly given by the wavelength of interest divided by the effective actuator spaceing d; for typical modern AO systems, d=60 cm and the control radius is about 0.6 arcseconds at H band. AO can still enhance contrast even beyond this radius, especially for point-source companions, by concentrating the light from the companion into a diffraction-limited spike, but the residual light remains a limitation on our ability to carry out high-contrast imaging from the ground. We will discuss potential improvements to AO over the next decade and the science they will enable. First, in the near term, high-order AO systems will soon be operational on most 8-10 m telescopes; such systems are theoretically capable of directly detecting extrasolar planets in wide (20-150 AU) orbits, and the capabilities and limitations of these systems will be discussed. Second, in the moderate term, new instrument technologies could substantially increase the performance of these systems, including exotic phase-based coronagraphs or "dark speckle" techniques. Third, it will soon be possible to construct "extreme" adaptive optics (EAO) systems, with many thousand actuators and d=5-20cm, capable of more deeply surpressing the atmospheric halo out to a much larger radius than current systems. Coronagraphs and EAO will substantially increase our sensitivity to diffuse circumstellar dust and could conceivably reach the contrast levels necessary to see giant plants around a handful of nearby stars. Finally, within a decade construction should be underway on next-generation extremely large (25-100 m) telescopes

  3. Effects of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and reproductive parameters of lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Ranches, J; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated milk production, serum progesterone and insulin, and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows receiving or not receiving Ca salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or receiving Ca salts of PUFA at different daily frequencies. In experiment 1, 1,125 cows randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns were enrolled. Barns were assigned randomly to receive a high-concentrate diet containing (PF) or not containing (control, CON) 1.1% (dry matter basis) Ca salts of PUFA. Diets were offered 6 times daily, whereas the Ca salts of PUFA were included in the PF treatment in the first feeding of the day. In experiment 2, 1,572 cows were randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns, which were assigned randomly to receive a diet similar to PF, but with Ca salts of PUFA included only in the first feeding of the day (PF1X), or equally distributed across all 6 feedings (PF6X). During both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated 12 h after the onset of estrus. Once per month, cows that did not conceive to artificial insemination were assigned to a fixed-time embryo transfer protocol. Pregnancy was determined via transrectal ultrasonography 28 and 60 d after expected ovulation. Pregnancy loss was considered in cows that were pregnant on d 28 but nonpregnant on d 60. During both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected concurrently with embryo transfer. During experiment 1, feed intake was similar between treatments. Compared with CON, PF cows had greater milk yield (37.8 vs. 35.3 kg/d), and reduced milk fat content (3.41 vs. 3.55%). However, PF cows had reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with CON (12.6 vs. 18.3%). Serum progesterone was greater and serum insulin tended to be greater in primiparous cows receiving PF compared with CON cohorts (4.50 vs. 3.67 ng of progesterone/mL, and 10.4 vs. 7.5 µUI of insulin/mL). During experiment 2, no treatment

  4. Geophysical Characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, Southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Paul, C.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Clement, W.; Liberty, L.; Myers, R.; Donaldson, P.

    2003-12-01

    We are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system as part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs, is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. As a result of Basin and Range extension, the Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We are using several geophysical techniques to generate both basin-wide and high-resolution local characterizations of the Alvord Basin and the BLHS. To date we have completed two scales of seismic reflection surveys: an east-west trending basin scale survey and a shallow (~10 - 300 m depth) 3D survey of the BLHS. The basin scale seismic survey consists of 11 km of 2D, 60 fold CMP data acquired with a 200 lb accelerated weight drop. We acquired the 3D survey of the BLHS using a 7.62x39 mm SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The 3D patch covers ~ 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. Additionally, we have completed a regional total-field magnetic survey for a large portion of the Alvord Basin and a 3D transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey of the BLHS. The 3D TEM survey covers the central portion of the 3D seismic survey. Initial results from the regional magnetic and seismic surveys indicate a mid-basin basement high. The basement high appears to correlate with the northeast trending BLHS. Additionally, the cross-basin seismic profile clearly shows that recent deformation has primarily been along an eastward dipping normal fault that bounds the basement high to the east. This suggests that both spatial and temporal characteristics of deformation control hydrothermal activity

  5. Nutritional Supplementation Is a Necessary Complement to Dietary Counseling among Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis-HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bacelo, Adriana Costa; Ramalho, Andrea; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel; Cople-Rodrigues, Cláudia dos Santos; Georg, Ingebourg; Paiva, Eliane; Argolo, Sheila Vasques Leandro; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization recommend dietary counseling for patients with malnutrition during tuberculosis treatment. Patients under tuberculosis therapy (infected and not infected with HIV) were followed-up to evaluate the effectiveness of dietary counseling. Objective: describe the nutritional status of patients with tuberculosis. Methods: an observational follow-up study over a 180-day period of tuberculosis therapy in adults was conducted. Subjects were assessed for body composition (using BMI, TSF and MUAC parameters), serum biomarkers and offered dietary counseling. The data obtained at each visit (D15, D30, D60, D90, D120, D150, and D180) were analyzed, showing trajectories over time and central tendencies each time. Results: at baseline, the mean age was 41.1 (±13.4) years; they were predominantly male, with income lower than a local minimum wage and at least six years of schooling. Patients showed predominantly pulmonary tuberculosis. At baseline, all patients suffered from malnutrition. The overall energy malnutrition prevalence was of 70.6%. Anemia at baseline was observed in both groups (63.2%), however, it was significantly more pronounced in the HIV+. At the end, energy malnutrition was reduced to 57.1% (42.9% of HIV- and 71.4% of the HIV+). Micronutrients malnutrition was evident in 71.4% of the HIV- patients and 85.7% of HIV+ patients at the end of tuberculosis therapy. Using BMI (≤18.5 kg/m2cutoff) as an index of malnutrition, it was detected in 23.9% of the HIV- and 27.3% of the HIV+ patients at baseline, with no evident improvement over time; using TSF (≤11.4mm as cutoff) or MUAC (≤28.5cm as cutoff), malnutrition was detected in 70.1% and 85.3% of all patients, respectively. Nevertheless, combining all biomarkers, at the end of follow-up, all patients suffered from malnutrition. Conclusion: Although with a limited number of patients, the evidence does not support that dietary counseling is effective

  6. Polidocanol versus glucose in the treatment of telangiectasia of the lower limbs (PG3T)

    PubMed Central

    Bertanha, Matheus; de Camargo, Paula Angeleli Bueno; Moura, Regina; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti; Pimenta, Rafael Elias Farres; Mariúba, Jamil Victor de Oliveira; Alcantara, Giovana Piteri; de Paula, Dênia Reis; Sobreira, Marcone Lima

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Telangiectasias are defined as small venules abnormally dilated, located in the intradermal portion of the skin, of reddish or bluish tinge, their diameter not exceeding 1 mm; they are classified by the American Venous Forum as mild venous disease CEAP C1. Conventional treatment consists of chemical sclerotherapy, considered a minimally invasive technique with rapid clinical recovery. A wide variety of sclerosing solutions can be used for this purpose. Methods/design: This project intends to include 96 patients that will be randomized to a triple-blind study. Inclusion criteria are women between 18 and 65 years, with telangiectasia on the lateral thigh. Male patients, female patients with chronic venous disease CEAP 2 to 6, women with allergies, pregnant, breastfeeding, with any type of skin problems or any decompensated clinical disease will be excluded. All patients included will be submitted to venous ultrasound mapping in order to rule out venous disease not clinically visible, deep venous system insufficiency, and insufficiency of the ostial valve of the great saphenous vein. One group will be treated with glucose 75% solution and the other will receive polidocanol 0.2% diluted in glucose 70%. Each patient will receive only 1 treatment session in 1 single member. The volume of sclerosing solution will not exceed 5 mL and the treatment area will be limited to a region of 150 cm2 on the lateral thigh. Clinical follow-up will be: 1 initial visit, when the clinical report will be filled; photographic record and treatment with sclerotherapy (D0); follow-up visits after 7 and 60 days (D7 and D60, respectively), always with clinical and photographic documentation. Discussion: The project intends to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sclerotherapy in eliminating telangiectasia in a predetermined area in order to establish efficacy and safety parameters for the treatments presented. Conclusion: This protocol for clinical trial will provide

  7. Camelina meal and crude glycerin as feed supplements for developing replacement beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Nayigihugu, V; Cappellozza, B I; Gonçalves, E P; Krall, J M; Foulke, T; Cammack, K M; Hess, B W

    2011-12-01

    Angus × Gelbvieh rotationally crossbred yearling heifers (n = 99, yr 1; n = 105, yr 2) were used in a 2-yr randomized complete block design experiment with repeated measures to determine the effect of feeding camelina biodiesel coproducts (meal and crude glycerin) on serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose, as well as on growth and reproductive performance. Heifers were assigned to 1 of 15 pens, and pens were assigned initially to receive 7.03 k·•heifer(-1)·d(-1) of bromegrass hay plus 0.95 kg·heifer(-1)·d(-1) of 1 of 3 supplements for 60 d before breeding: 1) control (50% ground corn and 50% soybean meal, as-fed basis); 2) mechanically extracted camelina meal; or 3) crude glycerin (50% soybean meal, 33% ground corn, 15% crude glycerin, 2% corn gluten meal; as-fed basis). Preprandial blood samples were collected via the jugular vein on d 0, 30, and 60 of the feeding period. A 2-injection PGF(2α) protocol (d 60 and 70 of the study) was used to synchronize estrus. Heifers were artificially inseminated 12 h after estrus was first detected. Heifers not detected in estrus within 66 h received a GnRH injection and were artificially inseminated. Dietary treatment × sampling period interactions were not detected (P = 0.17 to 0.87). Dietary treatment did not affect BW (P = 0.44 to 0.59) or serum concentrations of thyroxine (P = 0.96), β-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.46), glucose (P = 0.59), or insulin (P = 0.44). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were greater (P = 0.05) in heifers fed camelina meal. Additionally, dietary treatment did not affect the percentage of heifers detected in estrus before timed AI (P = 0.83), first-service pregnancy rates of those heifers detected in estrus (P = 0.97), or overall first-service pregnancy rates (P = 0.58). Heifers fed camelina meal, however, had greater (P = 0.05) first-service pregnancy rates to timed AI than did heifers fed the control and crude glycerin supplements

  8. The Role of Subsurface Ice in Rampart Crater Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, S. T.; O'Keefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

    2000-10-01

    We quantify the effects of interstitial H2O ice on Martian rampart crater formation and conclude that sufficient quantities of ice may be melted to form fluidized ejecta blankets. We calculate the composition of the ejecta blankets as a function of rampart crater diameter and subsurface distribution of ice. For small volume fractions of subsurface ice (φ < ~0.20), rocky projectiles impacting at 10 km/s vaporize and melt interstitial ice up to 2 and 7 projectile radii (Rp), respectively. Ice is partially melted to 16 Rp, well outside the final crater diameter. We calculate the amount of melted ice excavated and ballistically emplaced in the continuous ejecta blanket. From our hydrocode simulations of impact in a φ =0.15 ice-rock mixture, the ejecta excavation angle is nearly constant at 70\\arcdeg in the melted ice zone, decreasing outside the melted ice zone to 45\\arcdeg near the crater rim. The mixture excavation angle is steeper compared to impacts into pure rock resulting in a larger volume of excavated material landing near the crater compared to dry Lunar craters. The ice is shocked to higher temperatures than the rock, experiencing transient shock temperatures above 10,000 K in the vaporized zone and a few 1000 K in the melted zone. After releasing from the shock, most of the water in the ejecta blanket will be boiling. The ejecta is emplaced from the crater rim outward with the outer material preferentially containing more water. The continuous ejecta blanket is laid down within minutes, with a lateral velocity component of 10s-100s m/s. High lateral velocities are required for the observed ejecta flow morphologies, including cases of flow over and around pre-existing topography. For exponentially decreasing ice content with depth, z, of the form φ (z km)=0.15e-z/2, the fraction of the ejecta blanket containing melted ice peaks for craters with D=5-25 km and becomes negligible by D=60 km. This range agrees with the observed size distribution of rampart

  9. Effects of rubber flooring during the first 2 lactations on production, locomotion, hoof health, immune functions, and stress.

    PubMed

    Eicher, S D; Lay, D C; Arthington, J D; Schutz, M M

    2013-06-01

    Some housing systems on dairy farms can result in long-term chronic pain. The effects of acute pain on immunity have been explored, but chronic pain's influence on immune responses is still poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine chronic effects of flooring on immune responses and production in freestall housing for dairy cows. Thirty heifers were studied from before calving as first-calf heifers until d 180 of their second lactation. Treatments were rubber (Kraiburg; Agromatic Inc., Fond du Lac, WI) flooring or concrete with diamond grooves in a freestall barn, each in 2 quadrants of the barn. Heifers entered the treatments after calving, so the system was dynamic and each cow was considered an experimental unit. At the end of the first lactation, cows were housed in a bedded pack barn with pasture access until calving was imminent. At that time, they returned to their assigned treatment, but not necessarily into the same quadrant. Production, reproduction, cortisol, acute-phase proteins, and health data were recorded throughout lactation 1, locomotion was scored weekly, and hoof scoring and care was conducted on d 60 and 180 of lactations 1 and 2, and quantitative real-time-PCR of blood leukocytes was analyzed in mid lactation of lactation 1. Mature-equivalent milk fat, milk protein, and protein percentages during the first lactation were greater for cows on the rubber flooring. Hoof and leg therapy treatments per cow were fewer for rubber floor-housed cows. Locomotion scores were less for cows housed on rubber during the second lactation. White blood cell counts were less for cows housed on rubber, and caused by greater lymphocyte counts for cows housed on concrete. The possibility of chronic inflammation was substantiated by less IL-1β and more IL-1 receptor antagonists for cows housed on rubber at d 150 in the second lactation. Cortisol and acute-phase proteins did not differ between the treatments. Interferon-γ, IL-12

  10. Fish meal supplementation increases bovine plasma and luteal tissue omega-3 fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    White, N R; Burns, P D; Cheatham, R D; Romero, R M; Nozykowski, J P; Bruemmer, J E; Engle, T E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty acid composition and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2α) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty acid content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty acid content and reduces available arachidonic acid content, the precursor for PGF(2α). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty acids may reduce PGF(2α) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle.

  11. Novel phospholipase A2 inhibitors from python serum are potent peptide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Thwin, Maung Maung; Stiles, Brad G; Satyanarayana-Jois, Seetharama; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Sikka, Sakshi; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina Hsiu Kim

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a vital role in defense against resistant bacteria. In this study, eight different AMPs synthesized from Python reticulatus serum protein were tested for bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW and TES strains), and Proteus vulgaris) using a disc-diffusion method (20 μg/disc). Among the tested peptides, phospholipase A2 inhibitory peptide (PIP)-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], D-Ala66-PNT.II, and D60,65E-PIP[59-67] displayed the most potent bactericidal activity against all tested pathogens in a dose-dependent manner (100-6.8 μg/ml), with a remarkable activity noted against S. aureus at 6.8 μg/ml dose within 6 h of incubation. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by a micro-broth dilution method at 100-3.125 μg/ml revealed that PIP-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides exerted a potent inhibitory effect against S. aureus and B. pseudomallei (KHW) (MICs 3.125 μg/ml), while a much less inhibitory potency (MICs 12.5 μg/ml) was noted for β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides against B. pseudomallei (TES). Higher doses of peptides had no effect on the other two strains (i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Overall, PIP-18[59-76] possessed higher antimicrobial activity than that of chloramphenicol (CHL), ceftazidime (CF) and streptomycin (ST) (30 μg/disc). When the two most active peptides, PIP-18[59-76] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], were applied topically at a 150 mg/kg dose for testing wound healing activity in a mouse model of S. aureus infection, the former accelerates faster wound healing than the latter peptide at 14 days post-treatment. The western blot data suggest that the topical application of peptides (PIP-18[59-67] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67]) modulates NF-kB mediated wound repair in mice with relatively little haemolytic (100-1.56 μg/ml) and cytotoxic (1000

  12. Emerging organic contaminant removal depending on primary treatment and operational strategy in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of redox.

    PubMed

    Avila, Cristina; Reyes, Carolina; Bayona, Josep María; García, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the influence of primary treatment (hydrolytic upflow sludge blanket (HUSB) reactor vs. conventional settling) and operational strategy (alternation of saturated/unsaturated phases vs. permanently saturated) on the removal of various emerging organic contaminants (i.e. ibuprofen, diclofenac, acetaminophen, tonalide, oxybenzone, bisphenol A) in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. For that purpose, a continuous injection experiment was carried out in an experimental treatment plant for 26 days. The plant had 3 treatment lines: a control line (settler-wetland permanently saturated), a batch line (settler-wetland operated with saturate/unsaturated phases) and an anaerobic line (HUSB reactor-wetland permanently saturated). In each line, wetlands had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium D(60) = 7.3 mm, and were planted with common reed. During the study period the wetlands were operated at a hydraulic and organic load of 25 mm/d and about 4.7 g BOD/m(2)d, respectively. The injection experiment delivered very robust results that show how the occurrence of higher redox potentials within the wetland bed promotes the elimination of conventional quality parameters as well as emerging microcontaminants. Overall, removal efficiencies were always greater for the batch line than for the control and anaerobic lines, and to this respect statistically significantly differences were found for ibuprofen, diclofenac, oxybenzone and bisphenol A. As an example, ibuprofen, whose major removal mechanism has been reported to be biodegradation under aerobic conditions, showed a higher removal in the batch line (85%) than in the control (63%) and anaerobic (52%) lines. Bisphenol A showed also a great dependence on the redox status of the wetlands, finding an 89% removal rate for the batch line, as opposed to the control and anaerobic lines (79 and 65%, respectively). Furthermore, diclofenac showed a greater

  13. Behavior, reproduction, and immunity of crated pregnant gilts: effects of high dietary fiber and rearing environment.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J; Fullwood, S D

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of increased gut fill and diverse developing environments on pregnant gilts' behavior and physiology. Gilts were cross-fostered at 1 d of age and transferred to either an indoor or outdoor production unit. Littermate gilts remained in their different environments during development and were moved into individual gestation crates in an indoor gestation unit. Of the 42 gilts, 19 were fed a control diet of fortified sorghum-soybean meal and 23 were fed the same diet with 25% beet pulp (high fiber). Control sows ate 2.0 kg/d and high-fiber sows ate 2.67 kg/d in a large pellet (thus resulting in approximately equal energy intake and differing total dietary intakes). Pregnant gilts had behavior and immune measures sampled at 30, 60, and 90 d of gestation. The day x diet interaction was significant (P = 0.01) for duration of standing: sows fed high-fiber diets stood less on d 30, but on d 60 and 90 they and the control sows stood for a similar duration. Sham chewing duration and frequency showed significant (P < 0.05) effects of gestation stage x diet x environment. Gilts reared outdoors and fed high fiber increased sham chewing over gestation, whereas all other treatment groups decreased this behavior over time. Outdoor-reared gilts had greater (P < 0.05) frequency and duration of drinking behavior than indoor-reared gilts. White blood cell numbers were higher (P < 0.05) for gilts fed high-fiber diets than for gilts fed the control diet. Immune (humoral and cellular systems) and reproductive measures (farrowing rate and litter size) and plasma cortisol concentrations were generally not influenced (P > 0.10) by diets and rearing environments, suggesting that in spite of significant changes in behavior and feed intake gilts' immune systems were not suppressed or enhanced. Behavioral data alone suggested that indoor-reared gilts showed fewer behavioral adaptations to the crates than outdoor-reared gilts. However, immune

  14. Physical and numerical modeling of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a worldwide problem caused, among others factors, by aquifer overexploitation, rising sea levels, and climate changes. To limit the deterioration of both surface water and groundwater quality caused by saline intrusion, in recent years many research studies have been developed to identify possible countermeasures, mainly consisting of underground barriers. In this context, physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of general solutions to contain the salt wedge. This work presents a laboratory experiment where seawater intrusion was reproduced in a specifically designed sand-box. The physical model, built at the University of Padova, represents the terminal part of a coastal aquifer and consists of a flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 49 cm with glass beads characterized by a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10 ≈ 1.5. The resulting porous media is homogeneous, with porosity of about 0.37 and hydraulic conductivity of about 1.3×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank filled by freshwater provides the recharge to the aquifer. The downstream tank simulates the sea and red food dye is added to the saltwater to easily visualize the salt wedge. The volume of the downstream tank is about five times the upstream one, and, due to the small filtration discharge, salt concentration variations (i.e., water density variations) due to the incoming freshwater flow are negligible. The hydraulic gradient during the tests is constant, due to the fixed water level in the two tanks. Water levels and discharged flow rate are continuously monitored. The experiment presented here had a duration of 36 h. For the first 24 h, the saltwater wedge was let to evolve until quasi stationary condition was obtained. In the last 12 h, water withdrawal was carried out at a

  15. Salmonella isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg products: Thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Hinton, Arthur; Bailey, Rebecca B; Cray, William C; Meinersmann, Richard J; Ball, Takiyah A; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-08-03

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by food manufacturers or the FSIS and may be present as a result of either pasteurization-resistant bacteria or post-processing contamination. In this study, seventeen strains of Salmonella isolated from pasteurized egg products and three heat-resistant control strains were compared for the following attributes: thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (LWE) at 60 °C, enzymatic profiles, and serotyping and phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, fatty acid analysis and strain morphological variation evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were serotyped as Heidelberg (4 isolates), Widemarsh, Mbandaka, Cerro, Thompson, 4,12:i:-, and Enteritidis (8 isolates). All 20 isolates were sensitive to all 14 antibiotics tested for. The D60 values in LWE ranged from 0.34 to 0.58 min. All 20 strains were recovered from LWE inoculated with 8.5 logCFU/mL of Salmonella and pasteurized at 60 °C for 3.5 min; however, some isolates were not recovered from pasteurized LWE that had been inoculated with only 4.5 logCFU/mL Salmonella and treated at 60 °C for 3.5 min. Although some strains exhibited atypical enzymatic activity (e.g., reduction of adonitol, hydrolysis of proline nitroanilide or p-n-p-beta-glucuronide, and nonreduction of melibiose), differences in biochemical reactions could not be correlated with differences in thermal resistance. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis revealed that differences insaturate/unsaturated profiles may be correlated with differences in heat resistance, in two instances. One heat resistant strain (#13, Enteritidis) had the statistically lowest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 39%. However, one heat sensitive strain (#3, serovar 4,12:i:-) had the

  16. Evaluation of a sequencing batch reactor sewage treatment rig for investigating the fate of radioactively labelled pharmaceuticals: Case study of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Popple, T; Williams, J B; May, E; Mills, G A; Oliver, R

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in the aquatic environment, and have potentially damaging effects. Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are major sources of these substances. The use of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) STPs, involving cycling between aerobic and anoxic conditions to promote nitrification and denitrification, is increasing but these have yet to be understood in terms of removal of pharmaceutical residues. This study reports on the development of a laboratory rig to simulate a SBR. The rig was used to investigate the fate of radiolabelled propranolol. This is a commonly prescribed beta blocker, but with unresolved fate in STPs. The SBR rig (4.5 L) was operated on an 8 h batch cycle with settled sewage. Effective treatment was demonstrated, with clearly distinct treatment phases and evidence of nitrogen removal. Radiolabelled (14)C-propranolol was dosed into both single (closed) and continuous (flow-through) simulations over 13 SBR cycles. Radioactivity in CO2 off-gas, biomass and liquid was monitored, along with the characteristics of the sewage. This allowed apparent rate constants and coefficients for biodegradation and solid:water partitioning to be determined. Extrapolation from off-gas radioactivity measurements in the single dose 4-d study suggested that propranolol fell outside the definitions of being readily biodegradable (DegT50 = 9.1 d; 60% biodegradation at 12.0 d). During continuous dosing, 63-72% of propranolol was removed in the rig, but less than 4% of dose recovered as (14)CO2, suggesting that biodegradation was a minor process (Kbiol(M) L kg d(-1) = 22-49) and that adsorption onto solids dominated, giving rise to accumulations within biomass during the 17 d solid retention time in the SBR. Estimations of adsorption isotherm coefficients were different depending on which of three generally accepted denominators representing sorption sites was used (mixed liquor suspended solids, reactor COD or mass of waste

  17. A Virtual Observatory Census to Address Dwarfs Origins (AVOCADO). I. Science goals, sample selection, and analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Amorín, R.; García-Vargas, M.; Gomes, J. M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Mollá, M.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Rodrigo, C.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Solano, E.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Even though they are by far the most abundant of all galaxy types, the detailed properties of dwarf galaxies are still only poorly characterised - especially because of the observational challenge that their intrinsic faintness and weak clustering properties represent. Aims: AVOCADO aims at establishing firm conclusions on the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies by constructing and analysing a homogeneous, multiwavelength dataset for a statistically significant sample of approximately 6500 nearby dwarfs (Mi - 5 log h100 > - 18 mag). The sample is selected to lie within the 20 < D < 60 h100-1 Mpc volume covered by the SDSS-DR7 footprint, and is thus volume-limited for Mi - 5 log h100 < -16 mag dwarfs - but includes ≈1500 fainter systems. We will investigate the roles of mass and environment in determining the current properties of the different dwarf morphological types - including their structure, their star formation activity, their chemical enrichment history, and a breakdown of their stellar, dust, and gas content. Methods: We present the sample selection criteria and describe the suite of analysis tools, some of them developed in the framework of the Virtual Observatory. We use optical spectra and UV-to-NIR imaging of the dwarf sample to derive star formation rates, stellar masses, ages, and metallicities - which are supplemented with structural parameters that are used to classify them morphologically. This unique dataset, coupled with a detailed characterisation of each dwarf's environment, allows for a fully comprehensive investigation of their origins and enables us to track the (potential) evolutionary paths between the different dwarf types. Results: We characterise the local environment of all dwarfs in our sample, paying special attention to trends with current star formation activity. We find that virtually all quiescent dwarfs are located in the vicinity (projected distances ≲ 1.5 h100-1 Mpc) of ≳ L∗ companions, consistent with

  18. Simultaneous analysis of six amphetamines and analogues in hair, blood and urine by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Application to the determination of MDMA after low ecstasy intake.

    PubMed

    Chèze, Marjorie; Deveaux, Marc; Martin, Claire; Lhermitte, Michel; Pépin, Gilbert

    2007-08-06

    A rapid and sensitive method using LC-MS/MS triple stage quadrupole for the determination of traces of amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy"), 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA), and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB) in hair, blood and urine has been developed and validated. Chromatography was carried out on an Uptisphere ODB C(18) 5 microm, 2.1 mm x 150 mm column (Interchim, France) with a gradient of acetonitrile and formate 2 mM pH 3.0 buffer. Urine and blood were extracted with Toxitube A (Varian, France). Segmented scalp hair was treated by incubation 15 min at 80 degrees C in NaOH 1M before liquid-liquid extraction with hexane/ethyl acetate (2/1, v/v). The limits of quantification (LOQ) in blood and urine were at 0.1 ng/mL for all analytes. In hair, LOQ was <5 pg/mg for MA, MDMA, MDEA and MBDB, at 14.7 pg/mg for AP and 15.7 pg/mg for MDA. Calibration curves were linear in the range 0.1-50 ng/mL in blood and urine; in the range 5-500 pg/mg for MA, MDMA, MDEA and MBDB, and 20-500 pg/mg for AP and MDA. Inter-day precisions were <13% for all analytes in all matrices. Accuracy was <20% in blood and urine at 1 and 50 ng/mL and <10% in hair at 20 and 250 pg/mg. This method was applied to the determination of MDMA in a forensic case of single administration of ecstasy to a 16-year-old female without her knowledge during a party. She suffered from hyperactivity, sweating and agitation. A first sample of urine was collected a few hours after (T+12h) and tested positive to amphetamines by immunoassay by a clinical laboratory. Blood and urine were sampled for forensic purposes at day 8 (D+8) and scalp hair at day 60 (D+60). No MDMA was detected in blood, but urine and hair were tested positive, respectively at 0.42 ng/mL and at 22 pg/mg in hair only in the segment corresponding to the period of the offence, while no MDA was detectable. This method allows

  19. Iron absorption after introducing and discontinuation of iron and zinc supplementation in rats.

    PubMed

    Januszko, Olga; Madej, Dawid; Brzozowska, Anna; Kaluza, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in iron apparent absorption (IAA%) during and after iron and zinc supplementation in rats. The study was conducted on 6-week old male Wistar rats in 3 stages: 4-week period of adaptation to the control (C) and iron deficient (D) diets (stage I); 4-week period of supplementation with 10-time more iron (CSFe, DSFe), zinc (CSZn, DSZn) or both iron and zinc (CSFeZn, DSFeZn) compared to C diet (stage II); 2-week of post-supplementation period (rats were fed the same diets as in the adaptation period, stage III). IAA% was measured in five consecutive days directly after introducing and discontinuation of iron and zinc supplementation as well as in the end of stage II (days: 22-24th) and stage III (days: 8-10th). Overall in the second day after introducing and in the fifth day after discontinuation of iron or iron and zinc supplementation, the IAA% had undergone to the level compatible with the values in the end of each stage. At the end of stage II, IAA% in CSFeZn (54.1 ± 2.7%) rats was not different from the IAA% in CSFe rats (53.9 ± 1.9%), but in DSFeZn group IAA% (49.4 ± 2.1%) was significantly lower than in DSFe (57.4 ± 2.3%) group. Moreover, IAA% after stage II and stage III in DSZn group was significantly lower (39.2 ± 2.8% and 38.6 ± 2.6%, respectively) than in group D (60.7 ± 1.9% and 54.3 ± 3.0%, respectively). In conclusion, zinc administered simultaneously with iron (Zn:Fe weight ratio=1:1) decreased IAA% in adult rats fed on iron deficient diet, but not in rats fed on control diet. IAA% reduction by zinc supplementation has been extended to 10 days after discontinuation of the treatment. Adaptation of the rats to high doses of iron or iron and zinc and also to the cessation of these treatments was relatively fast. However, IAA% was stabilized faster after introducing the supplementation than it's discontinuation.

  20. A randomized trial to evaluate the effect of a trace mineral premix on the incidence of active digital dermatitis lesions in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Bernardoni, N; Rieman, J; Dusick, A; Hartshorn, R; Read, D H; Socha, M T; Cook, N B; Döpfer, D

    2014-10-01

    A balanced, parallel-group, single-blinded randomized efficacy study divided into 2 periods was conducted to evaluate the effect of a premix containing higher than typically recommended levels of organic trace minerals and iodine (HOTMI) in reducing the incidence of active digital dermatitis (DD) lesions acquired naturally and induced by an experimental infection challenge model. For the natural exposure phase of the study, 120 healthy Holstein steers 5 to 7 mo of age without signs of hoof disease were randomized into 2 groups of 60 animals. The control group was fed a standard trace mineral supplement and the treatment group was fed the HOTMI premix, both for a period of 60 d. On d 60, 15 steers free of macroscopic DD lesions were randomly selected from each group for the challenge phase and transported to an experimental facility, where they were acclimated and then challenged within a DD infection model. The same diet group allocation was maintained during the 60 d of the challenge phase. The primary outcome measured was the development of an active DD lesion greater than 20mm in diameter across its largest dimension. No lesions were identified during the natural exposure phase. During the challenge phase, 55% (11/20) and 30% (6/20) of feet were diagnosed with an active DD lesion in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Diagnosis of DD was confirmed by histopathologic demonstration of invasive Treponema spp. within eroded and hyperplastic epidermis and ulcerated papillary dermis. All DD confirmed lesions had dark-field microscopic features compatible with DD and were positive for Treponema spp. by PCR. As a secondary outcome, the average DD lesion size observed in all feet was also evaluated. Overall mean (standard deviation) lesion size was 17.1 (2.36) mm and 11.1 (3.33) mm for the control and treatment groups, respectively, with this difference being driven by acute DD lesions >20mm. A trend existed for the HOTMI premix to reduce the total DD

  1. FGF-1 affixation stimulates ePTFE endothelialization without intimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gray, J L; Kang, S S; Zenni, G C; Kim, D U; Kim, P I; Burgess, W H; Drohan, W; Winkles, J A; Haudenschild, C C; Greisler, H P

    1994-11-01

    The affixation of FGF-1 to porous vascular grafts has been reported to stimulate capillary ingrowth and surface endothelialization. The current study further characterizes responses to fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 affixation to 30-cm-long grafts followed 140 days. ePTFE grafts (30 cm x 8 mm i.d.), 60 microns internodal distance, were impregnated with fibrin glue (FG) suspensions containing FGF-1 and heparin. Two negative control groups were treated either with FG with heparin alone or left untreated. Grafts were explanted from the canine thoracoabdominal aortic position after 10, 30, or 140 days (n = 3/time/group) 10 hr after im injection of tritiated thymidine (0.5 muCi/kg). Specimens were studied by light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, morphometric analyses, and cross-sectional autoradiography. RNA preparations from inner capsule tissues were used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of FGF-1, FGF-2, transforming growth factor-beta 1, (TGF-beta 1) and FGF receptor mRNA species. Inner capsule collagen was quantitated by hydroxyproline colorimetry. Histologic analyses of perianastomotic regions were performed for comparison purposes. All explants were patent and without intimal hyperplasia. Progressive capillarization of the internodal spaces occurred over time and was significantly more extensive in the FGF-1-treated group. Endothelialization of the luminal surface increased with time, at 140 days covering 86.7 +/- 11.6% of the FGF-1 explants vs 46.1 +/- 7.5% and 48.1 +/- 13.3% in the other groups, P < 0.007 and P < 0.04, respectively. Inner capsule thickness at 140 days differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the FGF-1 group (138.8 microns) vs either control group (93 and 67 microns, respectively), which did not significantly differ from each other. Cross-sectional autoradiography demonstrated an FGF-1-induced mitotic index increase at 30 days, 9.6 +/- 4.4% compared to 2.5 +/- 1.0 and 0 +/- 0%, respectively

  2. Effect of heat stress during late gestation on immune function and growth performance of calves: isolation of altered colostral and calf factors.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, A P A; Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Dahl, G E

    2014-10-01

    Calves born to cows exposed to heat stress during the dry period and fed their dams' colostrum have compromised passive and cell-mediated immunity compared with calves born to cows cooled during heat stress. However, it is unknown if this compromised immune response is caused by calf or colostrum intrinsic factors. Two studies were designed to elucidate the effects of colostrum from those innate to the calf. The objective of the first study was to evaluate the effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on calf-specific factors related to immune response and growth performance. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: heat stress (HT; n=18) or cooling (CL; n=18). Cows of the CL group were housed with sprinklers, fans and shade, whereas cows of HT group had only shade. After calving, the cows were milked and their colostrum was frozen for the subsequent study. Colostrum from cows exposed to a thermoneutral environment during the dry period was pooled and stored frozen (-20 °C). Within 4h of birth, 3.8L of the pooled colostrum from thermoneutral cows was fed to calves born to both HT and CL cows. Day of birth was considered study d 0. All calves were exposed to the same management and weaned at d 49. Blood samples were collected before colostrum feeding, 24h after birth and twice weekly up to d 28. Total serum IgG concentrations were determined. Body weight was recorded at birth and at d 15, 30, 45, and 60. Relative to CL calves, HT calves were lighter at birth (38.3 vs. 43.1 kg), but no difference in weight gain was observed at d 60. Additionally, HT calves had lower apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (26.0 vs. 30.2%), but no differences were observed for total IgG concentration. The objective of the second study was to evaluate the isolated effect of the colostrum from HT cows on calf immune response and growth performance. The experimental design was identical to the first study, but all calves were

  3. A Comprehensive Statistical Assessment of Star-Planet Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason Thomas

    2015-08-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interactions between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (Mp/a^2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (Lx or Lx/Lbol). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with Mp/a^2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with Mp/a^2 > 450 Mjup/AU^2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in Lx. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence. Finally, we discuss ongoing and future X-ray studies investigating the impact of stellar coronal activity on planetary atmospheres, and potential dynamo disruption in mid F stars experiencing particularly extreme tidal

  4. WE-D-BRE-02: BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY) - Radiogenomic Modeling of Normal Tissue Toxicities in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Hypofractionated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, J; Jeyaseelan, K; Ybarra, N; David, M; Faria, S; Souhami, L; Cury, F; Duclos, M; Naqa, I El

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: It has been realized that inter-patient radiation sensitivity variability is a multifactorial process involving dosimetric, clinical, and genetic factors. Therefore, we explore a new framework to integrate physical, clinical, and biological data denoted as radiogenomic modeling. In demonstrating the feasibility of this work, we investigate the association of genetic variants (copy number variations [CNVs] and single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) with radiation induced rectal bleeding (RB) and erectile dysfunction (ED) while taking into account dosimetric and clinical variables in prostate cancer patients treated with curative irradiation. Methods: A cohort of 62 prostate cancer patients who underwent hypofractionated radiotherapy (66 Gy in 22 fractions) was retrospectively genotyped for CNV and SNP rs25489 in the xrcc1 DNA repair gene. Dosevolume metrics were extracted from treatment plans of 54 patients who had complete dosimetric profiles. Treatment outcomes were considered to be a Result of functional mapping of radiogenomic input variables according to a logit transformation. Model orders were estimated using resampling by leave-one out cross-validation (LOO-CV). Radiogenomic model performance was evaluated using area under the ROC curve (AUC) and LOO-CV. For continuous univariate dosimetric and clinical variables, Spearmans rank coefficients were calculated and p-values reported accordingly. In the case of binary variables, Chi-squared statistics and contingency table calculations were used. Results: Ten patients were found to have three copies of xrcc1 CNV (RB: χ2=14.6 [p<0.001] and ED: χ2=4.88[p=0.0272]) and twelve had heterozygous rs25489 SNP (RB: χ2=0.278[p=0.599] and ED: χ2=0.112[p=0.732]). LOO-CV identified penile bulb D60 as the only significant QUANTEC predictor (rs=0.312 [p=0.0145]) for ED. Radiogenomic modeling yielded statistically significant, cross-validated NTCP models for RB (rs=0.243[p=0.0443], AUC=0.665) and ED (rs=0.276[p=0

  5. Effects of anti-phospholipase A(2) antibody supplementation on dry matter intake feed efficiency, acute phase response, and blood differentials of steers fed forage- and grain-based diets.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, V R G; Waters, K M; Marquezini, G H L; Henry, D D; Ciriaco, F M; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lamb, G C

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether supplementation of anti-phospholipase A antibody (aPLA) would alter voluntary DMI, feed efficiency (FE), acute-phase protein concentration, and blood differentials (BD) due to a change in diet from a forage-based to a grain-based diet, individual daily DMI was measured on 80 cross-bred steers during a 141-d period. On d 0, steers were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to receive a growing forage diet containing 1) no additive (CON; = 20), 2) inclusion of 30 mg of monensin and 8.8 mg of tylosin per kg of diet DM (MT; = 20), 3) inclusion of an aPLA supplement at 0.4% of the diet DM (0.4% aPLA; = 20), and 4) inclusion of an aPLA supplement at 0.2% of the diet DM (0.2% aPLA; = 20). On d 60, steers were transitioned into a grain-based diet (90% concentrate) over a 21-d "step-up" period while continuing to receive their supplement treatments and were maintained on the high-grain diet until the end of the trial on d 141. On d 0, 60, 81, and 141, individual shrunk BW was recorded. Blood samples were collected on d 60, 63, 65, 67, 70, 72, 74, 77, 79, 81, and 84 for determination of concentration of plasma ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and BD. During the growing forage-diet period, steers from the 0.2% aPLA and 0.4% aPLA treatments had lower ( < 0.05) residual feed intake (RFI; -0.12 ± 0.13 and -0.22 ± 0.13 kg/d, respectively) than steers from the CON treatment (0.31 ± 0.13 kg/d). During the grain-based diet period, the 0.2% aPLA (-0.12 ± 0.10 kg/d), 0.4% aPLA (0.36 ± 0.10 kg/d), and MT (0.10 ± 0.10 kg/d) steers had greater ( = 0.04) RFI than CON steers (-0.37 ± 0.10 kg/d). During the transition phase, white blood cell counts were greater ( = 0.04) for the 0.2% aPLA treatment (13.61 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 cells/μL) than the 0.4% aPLA and MT treatments (12.16 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 and 12.37 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 cells/μL, respectively) and concentrations of lymphocytes also were greater ( = 0.01) for the 0.2% aPLA treatment (7.66 × 10 ± 0.28 × 10

  6. Effects of packaging atmospheres on beef instrumental tenderness, fresh color stability, and internal cooked color.

    PubMed

    Grobbel, J P; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Milliken, G A

    2008-05-01

    Fresh meat color is a major factor influencing the purchase of meat products by consumers, whereas tenderness is the primary trait determining overall eating satisfaction of consumers. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of packaging atmosphere on fresh beef color stability, cooked color, and tenderness. Longissimus lumborum muscles (n = 14 pairs) from USDA Select, A-maturity carcasses were assigned to either 14-d tenderness measurement or to display and then to 18-d [80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)] or 28-d [vacuum package (VP) and ultra low (ULO(2)) plus CO MAP blends] tenderness measurement. Loins were then fabricated on d 7 postmortem into 2.54-cm-thick steaks. Steaks 8 to 10 caudal to the first 7 steaks were bisected, assigned to a packaging treatment, and used for internal cooked color. One full steak was used for initial tenderness. Packaging treatments were as follows: vacuum-packaging (VP); 80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)); 0.4% CO, 35% CO(2), 64.6%N(2) (ULO(2)CO); 0.4% CO, 99.6% CO(2) (ULO(2)COCO(2)); 0.4% CO, 99.6% N(2) (ULO(2)CON(2)); or 0.4% CO, 99.6% Ar (ULO(2)COAr). Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were in dark storage (2 degrees C) for 4 d, and all other steaks were in dark storage for 14 d. Steaks were displayed under fluorescent lighting (2,153 lx; 3,000 K) for 7 d, with instrumental color measured on d 0 and 7 of display. Trained color panelists (n = 10) assigned color scores. Steaks for Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooked color were cooked to 70 degrees C. Steaks packaged in the 4 ULO(2) MAP blends with CO had no change (P > 0.05) or increased (P < 0.05) a* values for fresh color. Steaks packaged in VP or the 4 ULO(2) MAP blends with CO had little or no surface discoloration. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP discolored faster (P < 0.05) and 56% more (P < 0.05) than those in any other packaging treatment. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force on d 14 postmortem

  7. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    collected by the PWSB, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 20.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L), median nitrite concentration was 0.002 mg/L as nitrogen (N), median nitrate concentration was 0.01 mg/L as N, median orthophosphate concentration was 0.07 mg/L as phosphorus, and median concentrations of total coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were 33 and 23 colony forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100mL), respectively. The medians of the median daily loads (and yields) of chloride, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, and total coliform and E. coli bacteria were 230 kilograms per day (kg/d) (80 kilograms per day per square mile (kg/d/mi2)); 10 grams per day (g/d) (6.3 grams per day per square mile (g/d/mi2)); 110 g/d (29 g/d/mi2); 610 g/d (270 g/d/mi2); 4,600 million colony forming units per day (CFUx106/d) (2,500 CFUx106/d/mi2); and 1,800 CFUx106/d (810 CFUx106/d/mi2), respectively.

  8. Characterizing aerodynamic roughness length (z0) for a debris-covered glacier: aerodynamic inversion and SfM-derived microtopographic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Evan; Steiner, Jakob; Brun, Fanny; Detert, Martin; Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    ) regression-fits based on topographic metrics produced intermediate values. A tower of wind and temperature sensors was installed in the depression in October 2014. Using an iterative method to derive friction velocity and temperature scale, we derive the Monin-Obukov length and subsequently surface roughness values for each data pair (Garratt 1992, Hogstrom 1988, Brock 2006). Values range from 0.01 to 0.2 m over the observation period for this single location. Clearly, the surface of debris-covered glaciers is extremely variable spatially and temporally, so what should be used in models? Our results suggest z0 varies between 0.004 m (smooth cobbles) to 0.5m (large boulders), and that 0.015m is a reasonable central value for Lirung Glacier. As the grain-size distributions closely reproduce the distribution of obstacle sizes determined by the zero-up-crossing method, and d80 preserves the plot ranking of z0 magnitudes, it may be possible to develop a representative z0 lookup table based on grain sizes, which would provide a straightforward method to roughly vary z0 across the debris surface for energy-balance modelling applications.

  9. Abelian anomaly and neutral pion production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Craig

    2011-04-01

    The process γ* γ -->π0 is fascinating because in order to explain the associated transition form factor within the Standard Model on the full domain of momentum transfer, one must combine, using a single internally-consistent framework, an explanation of the essentially nonperturbative Abelian anomaly with the features of perturbative QCD. The case for attempting this has received a significant boost with the publication of data from the BaBar Collaboration [Phys. Rev. D 80, 052002 (2009)] because, while they agree with earlier experiments on their common domain of squared-momentum-transfer [CELLO - Z. Phys. C 49, 401 (1991); CLEO - Phys. Rev. D 57, 33 (1998)], the BaBar data are unexpectedly far above the prediction of perturbative QCD at larger values of Q2. I will elucidate the sensitivity of the γ* γ -->π0 transition form factor, Gγ* γπ(Q2) , to the pointwise behaviour of the interaction between quarks; and use existing Dyson-Schwinger equation calculations of this and the kindred γ*γ* -->π0 form factor to characterize the Q2-dependence of Gγ* γπ(Q2) . It will become apparent that in fully-self-consistent treatments of pion: static properties; and elastic and transition form factors, the asymptotic limit of the product Q2Gγ* γπ0(Q2) , which is determined a priori by the interaction employed, is not exceeded at any finite value of spacelike momentum transfer: the product is a monotonically-increasing concave function. Studies exist which interpret the BaBar data as an indication that the pion's distribution amplitude, φπ(x) , deviates dramatically from its QCD asymptotic form, indeed, that φπ(x) = constant, or is at least flat and nonvanishing at x = 0 , 1 . I will explain that such a distribution amplitude characterises an essentially-pointlike pion; and show that, when used in a fully-consistent treatment, it produces results for pion elastic and transition form factors that are in striking disagreement with experiment. A bound-state pion

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    combined contribution from both traffic and atmospheric circulation accounted for observed spatiotemporal variability in PM2.5 concentrations. Based on these experimental and quantitative analyses, a three-dimensional model is proposed for contaminant's transport in highly urbanized Cincinnati region. Furthermore this dissertation explored implications on roadside pollutant evaluation, and on the risk analysis of future fuel substitution using biodiesel. The Gaussian-type models are poor in determining the effective emission factor particularly under nocturnal thermal inversion for which the effective emission factor is a function of lapse rate in the morning. The Gaussian models are applicable in daytime after the breakdown of thermal inversion. Lastly, among three types of fuels examined, the proposed butanol-added biodiesel-diesel blend (D80B15Bu5) yielded a good compromise between black carbon and NOx emissions while maintaining proper combustion properties. It is also found that the emission contained less black carbon and had higher organic carbon (OC) and elemental (EC) ratio than tested petroleum diesel. As demonstrated in other parts of this study, the OC-enriched emission will likely affect the black carbon occurrence and PM concentrations in the urban environments. Overall, it is suggested that urban formation and biofuel usage define the environmental impacts of black carbon, and are the focus for climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  11. [Analysis of health insurance data on home nursing care in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Cs Horváth, Zoltán; Sebestyén, Andor; Molics, Bálint; Ágoston, István; Endrei, Dóra; Oláh, András; Betlehem, József; Imre, László; Bagosi, Gabriella; Boncz, Imre

    2014-04-13

    Bevezetés: Az otthoni szakápolás 1996 végén indult meg Magyarországon. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja a magyar otthoni szakápolási rendszer egészségbiztosítási és igénybevételi mutatóinak bemutatása. Módszer: Az elemzésben szereplő adatok az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár finanszírozási adatbázisából (2001–2012) származnak. Elemezték a betegszámokat, a vizitszámokat, a szakápolási és szakirányú terápiás tevékenységek (gyógytorna, fizioterápia, logopédia) arányát. Eredmények: Az ellátott betegek száma a 2001. évi 36 560-ról 2012-re 51 647-re nőtt, 41,3%-kal emelkedett. A teljesített vizitek száma ugyanezen időszak alatt 841 715-ről 1 194 670-re, 41,9%-kal nőtt. A szakápolási és szakirányú terápiás tevékenységek, valamint az ápolási fokozatok vonatkozásában jelentős megyék közötti eltéréseket figyeltek meg. A szakápolásra kifizetett összegek aránya a legmagasabb volt Nógrád (80,4%), Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (79,7%) és Komárom-Esztergom (74,6%) megyékben, míg a legalacsonyabb Zala (53,0%) és Csongrád (52,7%) megyékben, illetve Budapesten (47,9%). Következtetések: Az otthoni szakápolásban jelentős területi egyenlőtlenségek mutatkoznak, amelyek mérsékléséhez olyan szakmai irányelvek fejlesztésére van szükség, amelyek az otthoni szakápolás speciális vonatkozásait szabályozzák. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(15), 597–603.

  12. Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions of a Ruthenium Imidazole Complex: Hydrogen Tunneling and the Applicability of the Marcus Cross Relation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Adam; Mayer, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of RuII(acac)2(py-imH) (RuIIimH) with TEMPO• (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl radical) in MeCN quantitatively gives RuIII(acac)2(py-im) (RuIIIim) and the hydroxylamine TEMPO-H by transfer of H• (H+ + e−) (acac = 2,4-pentanedionato, py-imH = 2-(2′-pyridyl)imidazole). Kinetic measurements of this reaction by UV-vis stopped-flow techniques indicate a bimolecular rate constant k3H = 1400 ± 100 M−1 s−1 at 298 K. The reaction proceeds via a concerted hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism, as shown by ruling out the stepwise pathways of initial proton or electron transfer due to their very unfavorable thermochemistry (ΔG°). Deuterium transfer from RuII(acac)2(py-imD) (RuIIimD) to TEMPO• is surprisingly much slower at k3D = 60 ± 7 M−1 s−1, with k3H/k3D = 23 ± 3 at 298 K. Temperature dependent measurements of this deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) show a large difference between the apparent activation energies, Ea3D − Ea3H = 1.9 ± 0.8 kcal mol−1. The large k3H/k3D and ΔEa values appear to be greater than the semi-classical limits and thus suggest a tunneling mechanism. The self-exchange HAT reaction between RuIIimH and RuIIIim, measured by 1H NMR line broadening, occurs with k4H = (3.2 ± 0.3) × 105 M−1 s−1 at 298 K and k4H/k4D = 1.5 ± 0.2. Despite the small KIE, tunneling is suggested by the ratio of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, log(A4H/A4D) = −0.5 ± 0.3. These data provide a test of the applicability of the Marcus cross relation for H and D transfers, over a range of temperatures, for a reaction that involves substantial tunneling. The cross relation calculates rate constants for RuIIimH(D) + TEMPO• that are greater than those observed: k3H,calc/k3H = 31 ± 4 and k3D,calc/k3D = 140 ± 20 at 298 K. In these rate constants and in the activation parameters, there is a better agreement with the Marcus cross relation for H than for D transfer, despite the greater prevalence of tunneling for H. The cross

  13. Patterns of circulating serotonin and related metabolites in multiparous dairy cows in the peripartum period.

    PubMed

    Moore, S A E; Laporta, J; Crenshaw, T D; Hernandez, L L

    2015-06-01

    Dairy cows are challenged to maintain Ca and glucose homeostasis during the transition period. Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine that modulates Ca and glucose homeostasis in rodents. Serotonin is positively correlated with Ca and glucose status in dairy cows on d 1 of lactation. However, the pattern of circulating concentrations of 5-HT over the course of a 305-d lactation is unknown. In this observational, longitudinal study, we examined the metabolite patterns of 5-HT, Ca, glucose, parathyroid hormone-related protein, and β-hydroxybutyrate on 2 commercial dairy farms in south-central Wisconsin. Cows sampled on farm 1 were multiparous Jersey cows (n=30) that calved within a 23-d period; cows on farm 2 were multiparous Holstein cows (n=35) that calved within a 20-d period. Blood samples were collected daily between d -5 and d 10 relative to parturition and on d 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300 of lactation. Farms 1 and 2 were analyzed individually because of the presence of a farm effect in the initial analysis; a time effect was present on both farms. Concentrations of 5-HT decreased near parturition compared with prepartum by 57.9 and 29.5% on farm 1 and 2, respectively. Transition period 5-HT nadirs were observed on d 1 on farm 1, and on d 1 and 9 on farm 2. Serotonin recovered to prepartum concentrations by d 5 on farm 1. On farm 2, 5-HT recovered to prepartum concentrations by d 4, with a subsequent decrease of 34.6% on d 9 to a level similar to that observed on d 1. Furthermore, 5-HT increased markedly in cows on both farms near peak lactation (d 60, 90, and 150) and decreased on d 300. Compared with prepartum concentrations, Ca decreased by 34.2 and 11.2% on farms 1 and 2, respectively. Circulating total Ca nadir was observed on d 1 on both farms. Circulating 5-HT and circulating Ca were positively correlated during the early lactation period (d 1 to 5 and d 6 to 10) on farm 1 (r=0.31 and r=0.22, respectively) and d 6 to 10 on farm 2 (r=0.16). Circulating 5-HT and

  14. DEM generation from digital photographs using computer vision: Accuracy and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2012-12-01

    Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, and offer the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of this approach and, using imagery of the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise, compare the precisions obtained with those from formal close range photogrammetry. The surface reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initially un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Application of SfM-MVS is demonstrated using images taken from a microlight aircraft over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (courtesy of B. van Wyk de Vries). 133 images, collected with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm fixed focus lens, were

  15. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management systems on growth performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; McCann, M A; Gerrard, D E; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-08-01

    Brahman × British crossbred steers (n = 40 and 38 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf management systems following early weaning (EW) on growth performance, muscle gene expression, and carcass characteristics. On the day of EW (d 0), steers were stratified by BW and age (95 ± 14 kg; 74 ± 14 d) and randomly assigned to a control treatment that was normally weaned (NW) on d 180 (n = 10 steers/yr) or to 1 of 3 EW treatments: 1) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 steers/yr), 2) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 90 and then grazed on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 steers/yr), or 3) EW and grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 steers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 steers) and then on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). Early-weaned steers on ryegrass and bahiagrass pastures were supplemented with high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) until d 180. From d 180 to 270 (yr 1), all EW steers remained in their respective treatments, whereas NW steers were provided high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) on bahiagrass pastures. In yr 1, feedlot finishing period began on d 270. In yr 2, the study was terminated on d 180. In both years, EW180 steers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. On d 180 of yr 1, EWRG steers were lightest (P < 0.0001) and EW90 steers were heavier (P = 0.05) than NW steers, whereas EW90, EWRG, and NW steers had similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.14). On d 90, muscle PPARγ mRNA expression tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for EW180 steers and was greater (P = 0.008) for EW90 vs. EWRG steers but similar (P = 0.25) between EW180 and NW steers. On d 180, PPARγ mRNA was greater (P ≤ 0.06) for EW180 vs. NW, EW90, and EWRG steers. From d 274 to 302, EW180 steers had the least ADG (P ≤ 0.09), whereas EW90 steers had similar (P = 0.19) ADG

  16. Effects of tribasic copper chloride versus copper sulfate provided in corn-and molasses-based supplements on forage intake and copper status of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplemental tribasic copper chloride (Cu(2)(OH(3))Cl; TBCC) vs. Cu sulfate (CuSO(4)) on Cu status and voluntary forage DMI in growing heifers. Two 90-d experiments were conducted using 48 non-pregnant, crossbred heifers (24 heifers/experiment; 355 +/- 10.7 and 309 +/- 9.9 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). In each experiment, 3 supplemental Cu treatments were randomly allocated to heifers in individual pens consisting of (1) 100 mg of Cu/d from CuSO(4), (2) 100 mg of Cu/d from TBCC, or (3) 0 mg of Cu/d. The 2 experiments differed by the form of supplement used to deliver the Cu treatments (corn- vs. molasses-based supplements for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). Supplements were formulated and fed to provide equivalent amounts of CP and TDN daily but differed in their concentration of the Cu antagonists, Mo (0.70 vs. 1.44 mg/kg), Fe (113 vs. 189 mg/kg), and S (0.18 vs. 0.37%) for corn- and molasses-based supplements, respectively. All heifers were provided free-choice access to ground stargrass (Cynodon spp.) hay. Jugular blood and liver biopsy samples were collected on d 0, 30, 60, and 90 of each experiment. Heifer BW was collected on d 0 and 90. Heifer ADG was not affected by Cu treatment (average = 0.22 +/- 0.11 and 0.44 +/- 0.05 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively; P > 0.20). In Exp. 1, heifers provided supplemental Cu, independent of source, had greater (P < 0.05) liver Cu concentrations on d 60 and 90 compared with heifers provided no supplemental Cu. In Exp. 2, average liver Cu concentrations were greater (P = 0.04) for heifers receiving supplemental Cu compared with heifers receiving no Cu; however, all treatments experienced a decrease in liver Cu concentration over the 90-d treatment period. Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations did not differ in Exp. 1 (P = 0.83) but were greater (P = 0.04) in Exp. 2 for heifers receiving supplemental Cu compared with heifers receiving no Cu. In Exp. 1, voluntary

  17. The accuracy of photo-based structure-from-motion DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2012-04-01

    resulting surface model was compared with data collected by a Riegl LMS-Z210ii terrestrial laser scanner. Differences between the surfaces were dominated by the varying effects of occlusions on the techniques, and systematic distortion of the SfM-MVS model along the length of the cliff could not be resolved over the ±15 mm precision of the TLS data. For a larger-scale example, a ~1.6 km wide region over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano was reconstructed using 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm prime lens, from a microlight aircraft (with a representative viewing distance of 1.0 km). In this case, the resulting DEM showed an RMS error of 1.0 m when compared with the results from traditional photogrammetry and some areas of systematic error were evident. Such errors were minimised by reprocessing the SfM-MVS results with a more sophisticated camera model than is integrated into the reconstruction pipeline. In combination, the results indicate that, with a good, convergent image set, SfM-MVS can be anticipated to deliver relative precisions of 1:1000 or better, for geomorphological applications. However, under certain conditions, the restricted camera model used can result in detectable error. We highlight the requirement for new network design tools that will help optimise image collection, facilitate error visualisation and allow a user to determine whether their image network is fit for purpose.

  18. Creating Live Interactions to Mitigate Barriers (CLIMB): A Mobile Intervention to Improve Social Functioning in People With Chronic Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Danielle; Nahum, Mor

    2016-01-01

    /27). Of all the iPads used, 95% (22/23) were returned undamaged at the end of the intervention. Participants on average attended 84% of the group therapy sessions, completed a median of 9.5 hours of SCT, and posted a median of 5.2 messages per week on the group text chat. Participants rated CLIMB in the medium range in usability, acceptability, enjoyment, and perceived benefit. Participants showed significant improvements in emotion identification abilities for prosodic happiness (P=.001), prosodic happiness intensity (P=.04), and facial anger (P=.04), with large within-group effect sizes (d=.60 to d=.86). Trend-level improvements were observed on aspects of quality of life (P values less than .09). No improvements were observed for symptoms. Conclusions It is feasible and acceptable to remotely deliver an intervention aimed at enhancing social functioning in people with CPD using mobile devices. This approach may represent a scalable method to increase treatment access and adherence. Our pilot data also demonstrate within-group gains in some aspects of social cognition after 6 weeks of CLIMB. Future randomized controlled studies in larger samples should evaluate the extent to which CLIMB significantly improves social cognition, symptoms, and quality of life in CPD. PMID:27965190

  19. The effect of restricted milk feeding through conventional or step-down methods with or without forage provision in starter feed on performance of Holstein bull calves.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, D; Khorvash, M; Ghasemi, E; Mahdavi, A H; Moshiri, B; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether step-down (STP) milk feeding method together with forage provision would improve performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites, and structural growth of calves. Holstein bull calves ( = 40) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were 1) conventional (COV) milk feeding without forage provision (COV-NF), 2) COV milk feeding with forage provision, 3) STP milk feeding without forage provision, and 4) STP milk feeding with forage provision. Calves in the COV method ( = 20) received 5.5 L/d milk until d 56 of age followed by 2 L/d milk from d 56 to 59 of age. Calves in the STP method ( = 20) received 7 L/d milk until d 35, 4 L/d milk from d 35 to 48, and 2 L/d milk from d 50 to 59 of age. All the calves received the starter ration from d 3 of the study until d 74 of age. Forage-supplemented calves ( = 10/milk feeding method) received 15% alfalfa hay mixed with finely ground starter as a total mixed ration. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age and remained in the study until d 74. Regardless of the milk feeding method, the final BW (92.54 vs. 83.14 kg/d), starter intake (0.90 vs. 0.65 kg/d), total DMI (1.43 vs. 1.17 kg/d), and ADG (0.73 vs. 0.60 kg/d) were greater ( < 0.01) in forage-supplemented calves than those that received no forage during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. Milk feeding method had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA, acetate, or acetate:propionate ratio as well as body measurements. Ruminal pH and the molar proportions of acetate were greater ( < 0.05) in the forage-supplemented calves than those that received no forage during the pre- and postweaning periods. Regardless of forage provision, STP methods increased ( < 0.05) the postweaning numbers of monocytes and lymphocytes. Overall, there was no interaction between milk feeding methods and forage provision with

  20. Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of acha and fermented soybean paste (okara).

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, I E; Uchendu, N O

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast cereals was formulated from blends of acha and fermented okara (soybean residue). Acha grains were cleaned, winnowed, washed, dried (at 50 °C for 4 h) and milled into flour. Okara was processed from soybean seed through the stepwise procedure of cleaning, soaking, washing, milling and sieving. The residue was divided into five portions, fermented differently for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and then dried at 50 °C for 6 h. Acha flour (UFAC) was milled and blended at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 % ratio with milled okara flour. Functional properties (bulk density, water absorption capacity, swelling capacity, wettability, viscosity and particle size distribution, microbial load, and proximate composition were carried out on the individual flour samples. The blended flours were conditioned, partially heat treated (for 10 min), aged (4 °C for 6 h), cut, toasted (120 °C for 1 h), cooled and packaged. The different toasted breakfast cereals, TBFC, were subjected to sensory evaluation, proximate composition, micronutrient composition (vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc) and microbial analyses (mould count and total viable count). The proximate composition of the unfermented okara (UFOK) and fermented okara (FEOK 1, 2, 3, and 4 fermented at 12, 24, 36, 48 h respectively) flour samples showed that fermentation increased moisture from 4.71 ± 0.06 to 6.11 ± 0.05, crude fibre from 36.62 ± 0.01 to 46.18 ± 0.55, and carbohydrate from 2.50 ± 0.18 to 2.71 ± 0.34 contents. There was a decrease in the fat content from 16.29 ± 0.04 to 13.27 ± 0.22, ash from 1.41 ± 0.17 to 6.36 ± 0.17 and crude protein from 30.32 ± 0.21 to 33.53 ± 0.11 contents. From the sensory evaluation, the result showed that 70:30 acha-unfermented okara TBFC, FEOK 1D 60:40 acha-12 h FEOK TBFC, 70:30 acha-24 h FEOK TBFC, 50:50 acha-36 h FEOK TBFC, and 70:30 acha-48 h FEOK TBFC had the best overall acceptability

  1. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is

  2. Environmental regulation of pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations during late pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Thompson, I M; Tao, S; Branen, J; Ealy, A D; Dahl, G E

    2013-01-01

    differences were detected in plasma concentrations of PSPB (ng/mL) among LDPP, SDPP, or SDPP+PRL groups on d -60 (41.5), -32 (51.7), -18 (58.5), -7 (532.9), -3 (838.2), and 0 (729.4) relative to parturition. Photoperiodic PRL concentrations were 10.81, 7.84, and 4.22 ng/mL for LDPP, SDPP+ PRL, and SDPP, respectively. Results indicate that HT alters PSPB concentrations in late pregnancy, suggesting that placental activity is altered in cows exposed to excessive elevated temperatures around the time of calving. However, the mechanism involved likely is not associated with changes in PRL secretion.

  3. Long-term performance of visual and electronic identification devices in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Carné, S; Caja, G; Ghirardi, J J; Salama, A A K

    2009-04-01

    Dairy goat kids born during a 3-yr period (n = 97) and their mothers (n = 29) were used for a long-term evaluation of the performance of 9 types of identification (ID) devices. Kids wore multiple ID devices: visual ear tags (V1, tip-tag, n = 47; V2, official, n = 50), electronic ear tags (E1, button-button, n = 46; E2, flag-button, n = 46), electronic rumen boluses (B1, mini-bolus 14 g, n = 92; B2, mini-bolus 20 g, n = 28; B3, standard bolus 75 g, n = 34) and glass-encapsulated transponders injected in the forefeet (T1, 15 mm, n = 75; T2, 12 mm, n = 100). Visual ear tags were applied at birth and removed in yearlings, whereas electronic ear tags were applied after bolusing with B1 (6.7 kg BW and 30 d, on average); B2 were administered in the event of a B1 loss, and B3 in case of a B2 loss and in goat does. At d 60 of age, kids were allocated into 2 groups to evaluate the effects of rearing system on ID. Treatments were: weaned (n = 46), and not weaned (n = 46) where kids suckled a milk substitute until d 150. Readability of ID devices (read/readable x 100) was monitored from 1 to 3 yr of age, depending on device and year of birth. Long-term readability was analyzed using a nonparametric survival analysis. A total of 3.3% infections and 6.5% tissue reactions were reported for electronic ear tags, but ears were fully healed in yearlings. Weaning numerically reduced B1 losses at d 150 (weaned, 84.8% vs. not weaned, 73.3%). Readability of visual ear tags in yearlings (V1, 82.9%; V2, 94.0%) was lower than for electronic ear tags (E1 and E2, 100%). Mini-bolus readability in yearlings did not differ by type (B1, 71.4%; B2, 84.6%) or with visual ear tags. No effect of inject type was reported (T1, 92.0%; T2, 96.0%). Survival analysis after yr 3 gave the greatest readability value for E1 (100%), which did not differ from B3 (96.8%). The lowest readability was estimated for B1 (66.3%), followed by E2 (79.8%), B2 (81.4%), and T1 (90.4%). In conclusion, button

  4. Mexican Infrared-Optical New Technology Telescope: The TIM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, L.

    1998-11-01

    The scientific goals for TIM are an image quality of 0.25", consistent with the seeing at our site, optimization for the infrared as many scientific programs are going in that region of the spectrum, a M1 diameter in excess of 6.5 meters and a field of view limited to 10 arc minutes. Practical reasons, such as the limited funding available and the requirement of mexican financial agencies that the telescope should be built and installed in Mexico, lead us to decide for a segmented telescope, with a single secondary mirror, a single cassegrain focus and a light high stifness tubular structure. ALthough we are still working on the conceptual design of the telescope, there are some concepts that we are pursuing. The optical desing (M1+M2) is Ritchey-Cretien type with an hyperbolic primary 7.8 m od F/1.5 and a 0.9 m diameter f/15 secondary mirror. This will give a plate scale of 1.7 "/mm. This is 0.03 "/pix in direct mode, enough for AO goals. As for direct imaging, a factor of 5 reduction with 20 cm diam optical components would be able to produce 5' fields on a 2048, 20 microns type detector with 0.17"/pix. This implies that, with the use of auxiliary optics which is a common need for each particular instrument anyway, a wide variety of needs can be accomodated with a single secondary mirror. Choping for infrared observations would however introduce a additional cost in the secondary mirror. Alternatively the use of cold tertiary choping mirror is currently under study. The M1+M2 design currently aquires d80 of 0.17" in a 5' field without correction and 1" in a 10' field, that would require a field correcting lens. The M1 mirror will be segmented into 19 1.8 m diameter segments. There are 4 kinds of segments, the central, which we have kept to provide a reference for phasing, 6 more segments for the first ring and 12 in the outer ring, of two different kinds. The spacing between the segments is 5 mm, enough to reduce the inter-segment thermal background to half a

  5. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-11-01

    464004 [14] Sousa J S and Puech V 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464005 [15] Takeda K et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464006 [16] Vallade J and Massines F 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464007 [17] Wang C and Wu W 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464008 [18] Schröter S et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464009 [19] Rusterholtz D L et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464010 [20] Huang B-D et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464011 [21] Pothiraja R et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464012 [22] Marinov I et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464013 [23] Akishev Y et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464014 [24] Brandenburg R et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464015 [25] Houlahan T J Jret al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464016 [26] Benedikt J et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464017 [27] McKay K et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464018 [28] Selected papers from the 2nd International Workshop on Microplasmas 2005 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38 1633-759 [29] Special issue: 3rd International Workshop on Microplasmas 2007 Control. Plasma Phys. 47 3-128 [30] Cluster issue on Microplasmas: 4th International Workshop on Microplasmas 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 1904001 [31] Microplasmas: scientific challenges and technological opportunities 2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 60 437-608 [32] Becker K H, Schoenbach K H and Eden J G 2006 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 R55 [33] Iza F, Kim G J, Lee S M, Lee J K, Walsh J L, Zhang Y T and Kong M G 2008 Plasma Process. Polym. 5 322-44 [34] Tachibana K 2006 Trans. Electr. Electron. Eng. 1 145-55 [35] Samukawa S et al 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 253001