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Sample records for d-60 swasconol d-80

  1. Corrected Article: Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory [Phys. Rev. D 80, 104033 (2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio

    2010-05-15

    Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are studied within the framework of Einstein-Born-Infeld theory. We analyze the exotic matter content, and find that for certain values of the Born-Infeld parameter the amount of exotic matter on the shell can be reduced in relation with the Maxwell case. We also examine the mechanical stability of the wormhole configurations under radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry.

  2. CYP2D60 and Clinical Response to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, David; Read, Holly A.; Ruff, Dustin D.; Witcher, Jennifer; Zhang, Shuyu; McCracken, James

    2007-01-01

    Background: Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is metabolized through the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme pathway, which is genetically polymorphic in humans. Variations in plasma atomoxetine exposures can occur because of genetic variation…

  3. Hydrogen Isotope Evidence for Giant Meteoric-Hydrothermal Systems Associated with Extension and Magmatism in the Southern Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holk, G. J.; McCarthy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Over 400 published mineral and fluid inclusion δD values from the southern Canadian Cordillera and our new data from the Eocene Penticton Group Volcanics and Coryell Intrusive Suite of the Southern Omineca Belt and the Western Metamorphic Belt of the Central Coast Orogen are compiled using GIS. δDH2O is estimated using published D/H fractionation factors at 400°C; the error is ±20‰, small enough to distinguish deep magmatic/metamorphic fluids from meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. Histogram plots of δDH2O values estimated from minerals reveal peaks at δD = -60‰ (deep fluid) and ­-110‰ (Early Cenozoic meteoric-hydrothermal fluid); this provides a clear distinction between the two kinds of fluid. Our analysis reveals that syn-extensional meteoric-hydrothermal systems (δDH2O < -80‰) affected the eastern margin of the Coast Ranges Batholith between latitude 49° and 55° and the Omineca Belt between latitude 49° and 52°45'; both regions were affected by detachment faulting during late stages of magmatism in the Early Cenozoic (e.g., Parrish et al., 1988; Crawford et al., 2009). Zones that escaped the effects of meteoric-hydrothermal systems, preserving the D/H signature of deep fluids (δD > -80‰), include the Western Metamorphic Belt, the Western and Central Coast Ranges Batholith, the belt of Jurassic metamorphism that extends from the Cariboo Mountains to the Purcell Mountains, and the deepest structural levels of the Shuswap Metamorphic Core Complex; most of these samples have quartz-feldspar 18O/16O fractionations indicative of magmatic temperatures. High δDH2O values (> -50‰) suggest seawater alteration of the plutons of Vancouver Island (Magaritz and Taylor, 1986). Histogram plots of vein quartz fluid inclusion δD values (Nesbitt and Muehlenbachs, 1995) reveal three peaks that include the two produced by the mineral δD values, but these data are dominated by a large peak at δD = -150, a value similar to modern meteoric waters in the region

  4. 42 CFR 433.10 - Rates of FFP for program services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... increased FMAP equal to: (A) 100 percent, for calendar quarters in calendar years (CYs) 2014 through 2016... quarters in CY 2016; (D) 80 percent, for calendar quarters in CY 2017; (E) 90 percent, for...

  5. Mutation of a zinc-binding residue in the glycine receptor α1 subunit changes ethanol sensitivity in vitro and alcohol consumption in vivo.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Lindsay M; Blednov, Yuri A; Trudell, James R; Benavidez, Jillian M; Betz, Heinrich; Harris, R Adron

    2013-02-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug, yet an understanding of its sites and mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Among the protein targets of ethanol are glycine receptors (GlyRs), which are potentiated by millimolar concentrations of ethanol. In addition, zinc ions also modulate GlyR function, and recent evidence suggests that physiologic concentrations of zinc enhance ethanol potentiation of GlyRs. Here, we first built a homology model of a zinc-bound GlyR using the D80 position as a coordination site for a zinc ion. Next, we investigated in vitro the effects of zinc on ethanol action at recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant α1 GlyRs containing the D80A substitution, which eliminates zinc potentiation. At D80A GlyRs, the effects of 50 and 200 mM ethanol were reduced as compared with WT receptors. Also, in contrast to what was seen with WT GlyRs, neither adding nor chelating zinc changed the magnitude of ethanol enhancement of mutant D80A receptors. Next, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the D80A substitution by using heterozygous Glra1(D80A) knock-in (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased ethanol consumption and preference, and they displayed increased startle responses compared with their WT littermates. Other behavioral tests, including ethanol-induced motor incoordination and strychnine-induced convulsions, revealed no differences between the KI and WT mice. Together, our findings indicate that zinc is critical in determining the effects of ethanol at GlyRs and suggest that zinc binding at the D80 position may be important for mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol action at GlyRs.

  6. Heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in vegetables: evaluation of blanching processes.

    PubMed

    Mazzotta, A S

    2001-03-01

    The heat resistance of a Listeria monocytogenes composite (serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) was determined in fresh broccoli florets, sweet green peppers, onions, mushrooms, and peas using an end-point procedure in polyester pouches. The heat resistance of L. monocytogenes was higher in peas (D(60 degrees C) = 1.0 min) and mushrooms (D(60 degrees C) = 0.7 min) than in other vegetables tested (D(60 degrees C) in onions = 0.2 min) and was highest when cells were subjected to starvation before the thermal death time experiments (D(60 degrees C) of starved L. monocytogenes in mushrooms = 1.6 min). The results showed that blanching can be used as an antilisterial treatment (inactivation of 5 logs of L. monocytogenes) when the cold spot of vegetables is treated for at least 10 s at 75 degrees C or instantaneously (<1 s) at temperatures above 82 degrees C.

  7. Addendum to: Implications of the measurements of B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing on SUSY models

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, P.; Park, Jae-hyeon

    2010-12-01

    This is an addendum to the previous publication, [P. Ko and J.-h. Park, Phys. Rev. D 80, 035019 (2009).]. The semileptonic charge asymmetry in B{sub s} decays is discussed in the context of the general minimal supersymmetric standard model with gluino-mediated flavor and CP violation in light of the recent measurements at the Tevatron.

  8. Effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis PT 30 in wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Smith, Danielle F; Marks, Bradley P

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella is able to survive in low-moisture environments and is known to be more heat resistant as product water activity (aw) decreases. However, it is unknown how rapidly the resistance changes if product aw is altered rapidly, as can occur in certain processes. Therefore, the objective was to determine the effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on Salmonella thermal resistance. Two dynamic moisture treatments were compared with two static moisture treatments to determine the effect of time-at-moisture on the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 (PT 30) in wheat flour. After inoculation, two static moisture groups were equilibrated to 0.3 and 0.6 aw over 4 to 7 days, and two dynamic moisture groups then were rapidly (<4 min) desiccated from 0.6 to 0.3 aw or hydrated from 0.3 to 0.6 aw. Samples then were subjected to isothermal (80°C) heat treatments, and Salmonella thermal resistance was compared via decimal reduction times (i.e., D80°C-values). The D80°C-value in flour that was rapidly desiccated from 0.6 to 0.3 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw, but both were greater (P < 0.05) than the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. Similarly, the D80°C-value in flour rapidly hydrated from 0.3 to 0.6 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw, and both were less than the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw. Therefore, Salmonella in the rapidly desiccated flour (0.3 aw) was as thermally resistant as that which previously had been equilibrated to 0.3 aw, and Salmonella in the rapidly hydrated flour (0.6 aw) responded similarly to that in the flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. These results suggest that the response period to new aw is negligible, which is critically important in applying thermal resistance data or parameters to industrial

  9. R&D ERL: Magnetic measurements of the ERL magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.

    2010-08-01

    The magnet system of ERL consists of G5 solenoids, 6Q12 quadrupoles with 0.58 T/m gradient, 3D60 dipoles with 0.4 T central field, 15 and 30 degree Z-bend injection line dipole/quadrupole combined function magnets, and extraction line magnets. More details about the magnets can be found in a report by G. Mahler. Field quality in all the 6Q12 quadrupoles, 3D60 dipoles and the injection line magnets has been measured with either a rotating coil, or a Hall probe mapper. This report presents the results of these magnetic measurements.

  10. (S)-2-Amino-6-nitrohexanoic Acid Binds to Human Arginase I through Multiple Nitro−Metal Coordination Interactions in the Binuclear Manganese Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharian, T.; Di Costanzo, L; Christianson, D

    2008-01-01

    The binding affinity of (S)-2-amino-6-nitrohexanoic acid to human arginase I was studied using surface plasmon resonance (K{sub d} = 60 {mu}M), and the X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme-inhibitor complex was determined at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution to reveal multiple nitro-metal coordination interactions.

  11. 76 FR 16823 - Robert L. Dougherty, M.D.; Denial of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... prescribing of controlled substances to three patients. Id. (citing 60 FR 55047). More specifically, the Show... treatment record of Patient 1 could have ultimately jeopardized that patient's welfare.'' 60 FR at 55051. \\2... previously held a DEA Certificate of Registration as a practitioner. Robert L. Dougherty, Jr., M.D., 60...

  12. Switching Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  13. Copper metabolism of holstein and jersey cows and heifers fed diets high in cupric sulfate or copper proteinate.

    PubMed

    Du, Z; Hemken, R W; Harmon, R J

    1996-10-01

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey primiparous cows (3 d postcalving) and 8 Holstein and 8 Jersey growing heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 treatments in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement to compare Cu metabolism between Holsteins and Jerseys and the bioavailabilities of Cu in Cu proteinate and CuSO4. The variables were Holstein or Jersey, Cu supplementation at 5 or 80 mg/kg of DM, and supplements of CuSO4 or Cu proteinate. Jerseys had higher hepatic Cu concentrations than did Holsteins on d 60 (346 vs. 303 micrograms/g of DM). At the high Cu supplementation, hepatic Cu increased more rapidly, and content was higher in Jerseys than in Holsteins by d 60 (520 vs. 439 micrograms/g of DM). On d 0, plasma Cu concentrations were 0.99 and 0.80 microgram/ml, and, on d 60, concentrations were 0.96 and 0.88 microgram/ml for Jerseys and Holsteins, respectively. Overall, serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity was greater for Jerseys than for Holsteins. Jersey cows and heifers also had greater hepatic Fe (208 vs. 173 micrograms/g of DM) and lower hepatic Zn (82 vs. 91 micrograms/g of DM) than did Holstein cows and heifers at d 60. The bioavailability of Cu in Cu proteinate and CuSO4 was the same. Plasma Cu concentration and ceruloplasmin have limited value as indicators of Cu status and availability to dairy cows and heifers.

  14. 78 FR 50429 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ..., training and quality assurance, and relationships with primary partners and stakeholders. The EBP Self... relevant dimensions of PSH. The estimated number of grantees who will complete the PSH Self-Assessment is...\\ 175 1 175 1.5 262.5 Evaluator Interview \\d\\ 60 1 60 1 60 Client Focus Group \\e\\ 300 1 300 1.5 450...

  15. Fracture Toughness of Thin Plates by the Double-Torsion Test Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Radovic, Miladin; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Nelson, George

    2006-01-01

    Double torsion testing can produce fracture toughness values without crack length measurement that are comparable to those measured via standardized techniques such as the chevron-notch, surface-crack-in-flexure and precracked beam if the appropriate geometry is employed, and the material does not exhibit increasing crack growth resistance. Results to date indicate that 8 < W/d < 80 and L/W > 2 are required if crack length is not considered in stress intensity calculations. At L/W = 2, the normalized crack length should be 0.35 < a/L < 0.65; whereas for L/W = 3, 0.2 < a/L < 0.75 is acceptable. In addition, the load-points need to roll to reduce friction. For an alumina exhibiting increasing crack growth resistance, values corresponding to the plateau of the R-curve were measured. For very thin plates (W/d > 80) nonlinear effects were encountered.

  16. AKARI/AcuA PHYSICAL STUDIES OF THE CYBELE ASTEROID FAMILY

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Mueller, Thomas G.; Ishiguro, Masateru

    2012-06-15

    We present a study of 107 Cybele asteroids based on the archival database 'Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA)' taken by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite. The database provides diameters D > 10 km, geometric albedos, and taxonomic information (75%) of the Cybeles. We find taxonomic diversity (mainly C-, D-, and P-type) in the population of 78 small Cybeles with diameters 10 km <D < 80 km. Their cumulative power-law size distribution index shows a shallow value of 0.86 {+-} 0.03. By contrast, 29 large Cybeles with D > 80 km are mostly classified as C- or P-types (90%), with a power-law index of 2.39 {+-} 0.18. The total mass of Cybele asteroids is estimated to be {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Earth}. We also discuss the origin and formation process of the Cybele asteroid family.

  17. Reproductive Status of Onchocerca volvulus after Ivermectin Treatment in an Ivermectin-Naïve and a Frequently Treated Population from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Bopda, Jean; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Njiokou, Flobert; Prichard, Roger K.; Wanji, Samuel; Kamgno, Joseph; Boussinesq, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background For two decades, onchocerciasis control has been based on mass treatment with ivermectin (IVM), repeated annually or six-monthly. This drug kills Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (mf) present in the skin and the eyes (microfilaricidal effect) and prevents for 3–4 months the release of new mf by adult female worms (embryostatic effect). In some Ghanaian communities, the long-term use of IVM was associated with a more rapid than expected skin repopulation by mf after treatment. Here, we assessed whether the embryostatic effect of IVM on O. volvulus has been altered following frequent treatment in Cameroonian patients. Methodology Onchocercal nodules were surgically removed just before (D0) and 80 days (D80) after a standard dose of IVM in two cohorts with different treatment histories: a group who had received repeated doses of IVM over 13 years, and a control group with no history of large-scale treatments. Excised nodules were digested with collagenase to isolate adult worms. Embryograms were prepared with females for the evaluation of their reproductive capacities. Principal Findings Oocyte production was not affected by IVM. The mean number of intermediate embryos (morulae and coiled mf) decreased similarly in the two groups between D0 and D80. In contrast, an accumulation of stretched mf, either viable or degenerating, was observed at D80. However, it was observed that the increase in number of degenerating mf between D0 and D80 was much lower in the frequently treated group than in the control one (Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.63; p = 0.003), which may indicate a reduced sequestration of mf in the worms from the frequently treated group. Conclusion/Significance IVM still had an embryostatic effect on O. volvulus, but the effect was reduced in the frequently treated cohort compared with the control population. PMID:24762816

  18. Quasiconformality and mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Dennis D.

    2010-09-15

    We identify universal quasiconformal (walking) behavior in non-Abelian gauge field theories based on the mass-dependent all-order {beta} function introduced in [D. D. Dietrich, Phys. Rev. D 80, 065032 (2009)]. We find different types of walking behavior in the presence of (partially) massive species. We employ our findings to the construction of candidate theories for dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by walking technicolor.

  19. Oxygen and strontium isotopic studies of basaltic lavas from the Snake River plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeman, William P.; Whelan, Joseph F.

    1983-01-01

    The Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton of the southern Snake Range crops out over an area of about 30 km2, about 60 km southeast of Ely, Nev. This Jurassic intrusion displays large and systematic chemical and mineralogical zonation over a horizontal distance of 5 km. Major-element variations compare closely with Dalyls average andesite-dacite-rhyolite over an SiO2 range of 63 to 76 percent. For various reasons it was originally thought that assimilation played a dominant role in development of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton. However, based on modeling of more recently obtained trace element and isotopic data, we have concluded that the zonation is the result of in-situ fractional crystallization, with little assimilation at the level of crystallization. This report summarizes data available for each of the mineral species present in the zoned intrusion. Special attention has been paid to trends We present oxygen and strontium isotopic data for olivine tholeiites, evolved (that is, differentiated and (or) contaminated) lavas, rhyolites, and crustal- derived xenoliths from the Snake River Plain. These data show that the olivine tholeiites are fairly uniform in d80 (5.1 to 6.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7056 to 0.7076) and reveal no correlation between these ratios. The tholeiites are considered representative of mantle-derived magmas that have not interacted significantly with crustal material or meteoric water. The evolved lavas display a wider range in d 80 (5.6 to 7.6) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.708 to 0.717) with positive correlations between these ratios in some suites but not in others. Crustal xenoliths have high and variable 8?Sr/86Sr (0.715 to 0.830) and d80 values that vary widely (6.7 to 9.2) and are a few permil greater than d80 values of the Snake River basalts. Thus, isotopic data for the evolved lavas are permissive of small degrees of contamination by crustal rocks similar to the most d80-depleted xenoliths. The d80 enrichments in some evolved lavas also are

  20. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to gestation and lactation diets on the expression of immune related genes in white blood cells of lactating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-nine first parity sows (BW of 197.7 ± 2.5 kg and BF of 14.87 ± 0.21 mm) were used in this study. On d 60 of gestation, pregnant gilts were assigned to one of two dietary treatments which consisted of either a corn-soy meal basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 1% Fertilium™ (Uni...

  1. High Power Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hower, P. L.; Kao, Y. C.; Carnahan, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Improved switching transistors handle 400-A peak currents and up to 1,200 V. Using large diameter silicon wafers with twice effective area as D60T, form basis for D7 family of power switching transistors. Package includes npn wafer, emitter preform, and base-contact insert. Applications are: 25to 50-kilowatt high-frequency dc/dc inverters, VSCF converters, and motor controllers for electrical vehicles.

  2. High Voltage TAL Erosion Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Extended operation of a D-80 anode layer thruster at high voltage was investigated. The thruster was operated for 1200 hours at 700 Volts and 4 Amperes. Laser profilometry was employed to quantify the erosion of the thruster's graphite guard rings and electrodes at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 hours. Thruster performance and electrical characteristics were monitored over the duration of the investigation. The guard rings exhibited asymmetric erosion that was greatest in the region of the cathode. Erosion of the guard rings exposed the magnet poles between 600 to 900 hours of operation.

  3. Correction to Thermodynamic Characterization of a Thermostable Antibiotic Resistance Enzyme, the Aminoglycoside Nucleotidyltransferase (4').

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaomin; Wright, Edward; Bible, Amber N; Peterson, Cynthia B; Alexandre, Gladys; Bruce, Barry D; Serpersu, Engin H

    2015-08-18

    Biochemistry 2012, 51 (45), 9147−9155. DOI: 10.1021/bi301126g. Page 9148. A corrected version of the Figure 2 legend appears here: Figure 2. Backbone of the ANT D80Y variant in ribbon representation. Two monomer subunits are colored red and green. Bound kanamycin A molecules are colored blue, and Mg-AMPCPP molecules are colored yellow (Protein Data Bank entry 1KNY).14 Page 9148 (last line). The sentence should read, “A thermostable variant of ANT, T130K, was obtained from thermophilic cyanobacterium T. elongatus.” PMID:26252172

  4. Manufacture of Passive Dynamic ankle-foot orthoses using selective laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Faustini, Mario C; Neptune, Richard R; Crawford, Richard H; Stanhope, Steven J

    2008-02-01

    Ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) designs vary in size, shape, and functional characteristics depending on the desired clinical application. Passive Dynamic (PD) Response ankle-foot orthoses (PD-AFOs) constitute a design that seeks to improve walking ability for persons with various neuromuscular disorders by passively (like a spring) providing variable levels of support during the stance phase of gait. Current PD-AFO manufacturing technology is either labor intensive or not well suited for the detailed refinement of PD-AFO bending stiffness characteristics. The primary objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using a rapid freeform prototyping technique, selective laser sintering (SLS), as a PD-AFO manufacturing process. Feasibility was determined by replicating the shape and functional characteristics of a carbon fiber AFO (CF-AFO). The study showed that a SLS-based framework is ideally suited for this application. A second objective was to determine the optimal SLS material for PD-AFOs to store and release elastic energy; considering minimizing energy dissipation through internal friction is a desired material characteristic. This study compared the mechanical damping of the CF-AFO to PD-AFOs manufactured by SLS using three different materials. Mechanical damping evaluation ranked the materials as Rilsan D80 (best), followed by DuraForm PA and DuraForm GF. In addition, Rilsan D80 was the only SLS material able to withstand large deformations. PMID:18270017

  5. Mapping the iron binding site(s) on the small tetraheme cytochrome of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yufeng; Paquete, Catarina M; Louro, Ricardo O; Ross, Daniel E; Labelle, Edward; Bond, Daniel R; Tien, Ming

    2011-07-19

    In the model microbe Shewanella oneidensis, multi-heme proteins are utilized for respiratory metabolism where metals serve as the terminal electron acceptor. Among those is the periplasm-localized small tetraheme cytochrome (STC). STC has been extensively characterized structurally and electrochemically to which electron flow in and out of the protein has been modeled. However, until the present work, no kinetic studies have been performed to probe the route of electron flow or to determine the iron-binding site on STC. Using iron chelated by EDTA, NTA, or citrate, we have used chemical modification, site-directed mutagenesis along with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and stopped-flow measurements to identify the iron binding site of STC. Chemical modifications of STC revealed that carboxyl groups on STC are involved in binding of EDTA-Fe(3+). Scanning mutagenesis was performed on Asp and Glu to probe the putative iron-binding site on STC. Two STC mutants (D21N; D80N) showed ∼70% decrease in observed electron transfer rate constant with EDTA-Fe(3+) from transient-state kinetic measurements. The impaired reactivity of STC (D80N/D21N) with EDTA-Fe(3+) was further confirmed by a significant decrease (>10-fold) in iron binding affinity.

  6. Adversity and Adjustment in Children in Institutions, Family Foster Care, and Adoption.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Morago, Jesús M; León, Esperanza; Román, Maite

    2015-06-22

    This study's objective was to identify the adversity profiles of children in different childcare placements, and to analyze their relationship with subsequent psychological adjustment. We studied a group of 230 children 4 to 10 years old indifferent childcare placements (international adoption, institutional care, non-kin foster care, and kinship care), as well as a control group. Information was collected from parent or caregiver interviews and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The results showed that children in the child welfare system had experienced significant adversity before their current placement, especially among institutional care cases and international adoptees. Meanwhile, children in kinship care had experienced less adversity (p .50 to d > .80). After a period of time in their respective placements, children's psychological adjustment was generally positive, but children living in institutional care exhibited the most problems and difficulties, followed by non-kin foster care cases (p .50 to d > .80). Finally, we found that children's early adversity levels (p < .05; r = .16), age of current placement (p < .01; r = .23), and duration of current placement (p < .05: r = -.19) were all tied to current psychological adjustment.

  7. Binary and ternary recombination of H2D(+) and HD2(+) ions with electrons at 80 K.

    PubMed

    Dohnal, Petr; Kálosi, Ábel; Plašil, Radek; Roučka, Štěpán; Kovalenko, Artem; Rednyk, Serhiy; Johnsen, Rainer; Glosík, Juraj

    2016-08-24

    The recombination of deuterated trihydrogen cations with electrons has been studied in afterglow plasmas containing mixtures of helium, argon, hydrogen and deuterium. By monitoring the fractional abundances of H3(+), H2D(+), HD2(+) and D3(+) as a function of the [D2]/[H2] ratio using infrared absorption observed in a cavity ring down absorption spectrometer (CRDS), it was possible to deduce effective recombination rate coefficients for H2D(+) and HD2(+) ions at a temperature of 80 K. From pressure dependences of the measured effective recombination rate coefficients the binary and the ternary recombination rate coefficients for both ions have been determined. The inferred binary and ternary recombination rate coefficients are: αbinH2D(80 K) = (7.1 ± 4.2) × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1), αbinHD2(80 K) = (8.7 ± 2.5) × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1), KH2D(80 K) = (1.1 ± 0.6) × 10(-25) cm(6) s(-1) and KHD2(80 K) = (1.5 ± 0.4) × 10(-25) cm(6) s(-1). PMID:27506912

  8. Oxygen enhancement ratio for d(800) + (Be + Ta) and d(800) + (Ta + Be) neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, G.H.; Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K.

    1980-07-01

    Specialized experiments were performed to determine whether the neutron oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) changes significantly as the mean energy increases above 25 MeV. The experimental design called for OER measurements at two energies in the same experiment. The neutron production reaction d(80) + (Be + Ta) generated a beam with mean energy 38 MeV; upon rotation of the target, d(80) + (Ta + Be) neutrons were generated with mean energy 25 MeV. Suspensions of the bacterium Serratia marcesens were irradiated in oxic-hypoxic pairs, alternately with high- and lower-energy neutrons. Replicate experiments yielded OER values and 95% confidence limits of 2.25 (2.05, 2.50) at 25 MeV and 1.67 (1.57, 1.79) at 38 MeV. The x-ray OER was 3.3 (3.1, 3.5). The significant decrease in OER supports our results with Vicia faba showing OER values of 1.7, 1.4, and 2.6 for 25- and 38-MeV neutrons and for x rays, respectively. The yield of spallation products with mass number 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11 arising from neutrons interacting in tissue was analyzed. The tissue kerma from such product contribute kerma equal to 15 to 30% of the recoil proton kerma and thus may provide the physical basis for the observed OER reduction at high neutron energies.

  9. Fetal programming: prenatal androgen disrupts positive feedback actions of estradiol but does not affect timing of puberty in female sheep.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tejinder Pal; Herkimer, Carol; West, Christine; Ye, Wen; Birch, Rachel; Robinson, Jane E; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2002-04-01

    We studied the impact of prenatal androgen exposure on the timing of onset of puberty, maintenance of cyclicity in the first breeding season, and the LH surge mechanism in female sheep. Pregnant sheep were injected with testosterone propionate (100 mg i.m.) twice each week from Day 30 to Day 90 (D30-90) or from Day 60 to Day 90 (D60-90) of gestation (term = 147 days). Concentrations of plasma progesterone and gonadotropins were measured in blood samples collected twice each week from control (n = 10), D60-90 (n = 13), and D30-90 (n = 3) animals. Rate of weight gain and initiation of estrous behavior were also monitored. After the first breeding season, when the animals entered anestrus, competency of the gonadotropin surge system to respond to estradiol positive feedback was tested in the absence or presence of progesterone priming for 12 days. Prenatally androgenized females had similar body weight gain and achieved puberty (start of first progestogenic cycle) at the same time as controls. Duration of the breeding season and the number of cycles that occurred during the first breeding season were similar between control and prenatally androgenized sheep. In contrast, prenatal exposure to androgens compromised the positive feedback effects of estradiol. Onset of LH/FSH surges following the estradiol stimulus was delayed in both groups of androgenized ewes compared with the controls in both the absence and presence of progesterone priming. In addition, the magnitude of LH and FSH surges in the two animals that surged in the D30-90 group were only one third and one half, respectively, of the magnitudes observed in the control and D60-90 groups. The present findings indicate that disruption of the surge system can account for the fertility problems that occur during adulthood in prenatally androgenized sheep.

  10. The protective effect of some food ingredients on Staphylococcus aureus MF31.

    PubMed

    Hurst, A; Hughes, A

    1983-08-01

    The upper limiting temperature of growth of Staphylococcus aureus MF31 in heart infusion broth (HI) was about 44 degrees C but addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and soy sauce permitted the organism to grow above this temperature. This effect is similar to that of NaCl. Tomato ketchup, Worcestershire and HP sauces added to HI did not allow growth at the non-permissive temperature of 46 degrees C but death was delayed. Staphylococcus aureus died in unsupplemented chicken meat slurry at 46 degrees C but grew at 48 degrees C in slurry supplemented with 5.8% NaCl and survived incubation for 18 h at 50 degrees C in slurry supplemented with 5.8% NaCl and 5% MSG. Cultures grown at 37 degrees C had a D60 value of 2 min in 50 mmol/l Tris (pH 7.2) buffer. Cultures grown at 46 degrees C in HI containing 5.8% NaCl had a D60 value of 8 min in Tris buffer. Addition of 5.8% NaCl plus 5% MSG to the buffer increased the D60 by a factor of about 7 for both cultures. In storage experiments at room temperature, the culture grown at 37 degrees C and at 46 degrees C plus 5.8% NaCl died at about the same rate in salami. In milk powder, however, the count of 37 degrees C culture decreased from 10% g to 10(6)/g in 5 weeks while the count of 46 degrees C culture remained unchanged. In cottage cheese, freeze-dried rice and macaroni, the 37 degrees C cultures also died more rapidly. It is suggested that cultures grown at 46 degrees C plus 5.8% NaCl may be suitable for experiments with artificially contaminated foods. PMID:6619020

  11. [The third and new face of Chagas disease].

    PubMed

    Pays, J-F

    2016-08-01

    After the publication of the results of the BENEFIT study concluding that the benznidazole (5 mg/kg/d/60 d) is ineffective to stop the progression of the established Chagas' cardiomyopathy in adults, the author evokes the new experiences and the new challenges of 2016 regarding Chagas disease while speculating on its future and by calling back some elements little known of his history, in particular the fact that it is Chagas who invented about it to some extent the concept of "neglected disease".

  12. [The third and new face of Chagas disease].

    PubMed

    Pays, J-F

    2016-08-01

    After the publication of the results of the BENEFIT study concluding that the benznidazole (5 mg/kg/d/60 d) is ineffective to stop the progression of the established Chagas' cardiomyopathy in adults, the author evokes the new experiences and the new challenges of 2016 regarding Chagas disease while speculating on its future and by calling back some elements little known of his history, in particular the fact that it is Chagas who invented about it to some extent the concept of "neglected disease". PMID:27376642

  13. Classical predictability and coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker's map

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Artur; Soklakov, Andrei N.; Schack, Ruediger

    2006-06-15

    We investigate how classical predictability of the coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker's map depends on the character of the coarse-graining. Our analysis extends earlier work by Brun and Hartle [Phys. Rev. D 60, 123503 (1999)] to the case of a chaotic map. To quantify predictability, we compare the rate of entropy increase for a family of coarse-grainings in the decoherent histories formalism. We find that the rate of entropy increase is dominated by the number of scales characterizing the coarse-graining.

  14. Spectroscopy of the hydrogen 1 S -3 S transition with chirped laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, D. C.; Matveev, A.; Grinin, A.; Peters, E.; Maisenbacher, L.; Beyer, A.; Pohl, R.; Kolachevsky, N.; Khabarova, K.; Hänsch, T. W.; Udem, Th.

    2016-04-01

    We identify a systematic present in two-photon direct frequency comb spectroscopy (DFCS) which is a result of chirped laser pulses and is a manifestation of the first-order Doppler effect. We carefully analyze this systematic and propose methods for its mitigation within the context of our measurement of the hydrogen 1 S -3 S transition. We also report on our determination of the absolute frequency of this transition, which is comparable to a previous measurement using continuous-wave spectroscopy [O. Arnoult et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 60, 243 (2010), 10.1140/epjd/e2010-00249-6], but was obtained with a different experimental method.

  15. Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, R W; Zakzanis, K K

    1998-07-01

    The neurocognitive literature on test performance in schizophrenia is reviewed quantitatively. The authors report 22 mean effect sizes from 204 studies to index schizophrenia versus control differences in global and selective verbal memory, nonverbal memory, bilateral and unilateral motor performance, visual and auditory attention, general intelligence, spatial ability, executive function, language, and interhemispheric tactile-transfer test performance. Moderate to large raw effect sizes (d > .60) were obtained for all 22 neurocognitive test variables, and none of the associated confidence intervals included zero. The results indicate that schizophrenia is characterized by a broadly based cognitive impairment, with varying degrees of deficit in all ability domains measured by standard clinical tests. PMID:9673998

  16. 7 CFR 42.109 - Sampling plans for normal condition of container inspection, Tables I and I-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CA 6,000 or less Single 126 0 1 84 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 10 13 14 Double 1st 36 (*) (*) 0 2 0 3 0... 14 14 19 2d 162 2d 60 Total 336 1 2 Total 180 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC 12,001-36,000 Single 500 2 3 315 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Double 1st 252 0 3 1st 168 0 3 0 4 1 5 2 7...

  17. 7 CFR 42.109 - Sampling plans for normal condition of container inspection, Tables I and I-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CA 6,000 or less Single 126 0 1 84 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 10 13 14 Double 1st 36 (*) (*) 0 2 0 3 0... 14 14 19 2d 162 2d 60 Total 336 1 2 Total 180 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC 12,001-36,000 Single 500 2 3 315 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Double 1st 252 0 3 1st 168 0 3 0 4 1 5 2 7...

  18. 7 CFR 42.109 - Sampling plans for normal condition of container inspection, Tables I and I-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CA 6,000 or less Single 126 0 1 84 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 10 13 14 Double 1st 36 (*) (*) 0 2 0 3 0... 14 14 19 2d 162 2d 60 Total 336 1 2 Total 180 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC 12,001-36,000 Single 500 2 3 315 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Double 1st 252 0 3 1st 168 0 3 0 4 1 5 2 7...

  19. Phenotypic correlations between ovum pick-up in vitro production traits and pregnancy rates in Zebu cows.

    PubMed

    Vega, W H O; Quirino, C R; Serapião, R V; Oliveira, C S; Pacheco, A

    2015-07-03

    The growth of the Gyr breed in Brazil in terms of genetic gain for milk, along with conditions for market, has led to the use of ovum pick-up in vitro production (OPU-IVP) as a leader in biotechnology for the multiplication of genetic material. The aim of this study was to investigate phenotypic correlations between OPU-IVP-linked characteristics and pregnancy rates registered in an embryo transfer program using Gyr cows as oocyte donors. Data collected from 211 OPU sessions and 298 embryo transfers during the years 2012 and 2013 were analyzed and statistical analysis was performed. Estimates of simple Pearson correlations were calculated for NVcoc and PVcoc (number and proportion of viable cumulus-oocyte complexes, respectively); NcleavD4 and PcleavD4 (number and proportion of cleaved embryos on day 4 of culture, respectively); NTembD7 and PTembD7 (number and proportion of transferable embryos on day 7 of culture, respectively); NPrD30 and PPrD30 (number and proportion of pregnancies 30 days after transfer, respectively); and NPrD60 and PPrD60 (number and proportion of pregnancies 60 days after transfer, respectively). Moderate to moderately high correlations were found for all numerical characteristics, suggesting these as the most suitable parameters for selection of oocyte donors in Gyr programs. NVcoc is proposed as a selection trait due to positive correlations with percentage traits and pregnancy rates 30 and 60 days after transfer.

  20. In vivo multiphoton imaging of human skin: assessment of topical corticosteroid-induced epidermis atrophy and depigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait El Madani, Hassan; Tancrède-Bohin, Emmanuelle; Bensussan, Armand; Colonna, Anne; Dupuy, Alain; Bagot, Martine; Pena, Ana-Maria

    2012-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged in the past decade as a promising tool for noninvasive skin imaging. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of multiphoton microscopy to detect topical corticosteroids side effects within the epidermis and to provide new insights into their dynamics. Healthy volunteers were topically treated with clobetasol propionate on a small region of their forearms under overnight occlusion for three weeks. The treated region of each patient was investigated at D0, D7, D15, D22 (end of the treatment), and D60. Our study shows that multiphoton microscopy allows for the detection of corticoid-induced epidermis modifications: thinning of stratum corneum compactum and epidermis, decrease of keratinocytes size, and changes in their morphology from D7 to D22. We also show that multiphoton microscopy enables in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative assessment of melanin content. We observe that melanin density decreases during treatment and almost completely disappears at D22. Moreover, these alterations are reversible as they are no longer present at D60. Our study demonstrates that multiphoton microscopy is a convenient and powerful tool for noninvasive 3-D dynamical studies of skin integrity and pigmentation.

  1. Structural sequences are conserved in the genes coding for the alpha, alpha' and beta-subunits of the soybean 7S seed storage protein.

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, M A; Ladin, B F; Pollaco, J C; Freyer, G; Beachy, R N

    1982-01-01

    Cloned DNAs encoding four different proteins have been isolated from recombinant cDNA libraries constructed with Glycine max seed mRNAs. Two cloned DNAs code for the alpha and alpha'-subunits of the 7S seed storage protein (conglycinin). The other cloned cDNAs code for proteins which are synthesized in vitro as 68,000 d., 60,000 d. or 53,000 d. polypeptides. Hybrid selection experiments indicate that, under low stringency hybridization conditions, all four cDNAs hybridize with mRNAs for the alpha and alpha'-subunits and the 68,000 d., 60,000 d. and 53,000 d. in vitro translation products. Within three of the mRNA, there is a conserved sequence of 155 nucleotides which is responsible for this hybridization. The conserved nucleotides in the alpha and alpha'-subunit cDNAs and the 68,000 d. polypeptide cDNAs span both coding and noncoding sequences. The differences in the coding nucleotides outside the conserved region are extensive. This suggests that selective pressure to maintain the 155 conserved nucleotides has been influenced by the structure of the seed mRNA. RNA blot hybridizations demonstrate that mRNA encoding the other major subunit (beta) of the 7S seed storage protein also shares sequence homology with the conserved 155 nucleotide sequence of the alpha and alpha'-subunit mRNAs, but not with other coding sequences. Images PMID:6897678

  2. The N-terminus of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nonstructural protein 2 modulates viral genome RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wu, Rui; Zheng, Fengwei; Zhao, Cheng; Pan, Zishu

    2015-12-01

    Pestivirus nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) is a multifunctional, hydrophobic protein with an important but poorly understood role in viral RNA replication and infectious virus production. In the present study, based on sequence analysis, we mutated several representative conserved residues within the N-terminus of NS2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and investigated how these mutations affected viral RNA replication and infectious virus production. Our results demonstrated that the mutation of two aspartic acids, NS2/D60A or NS2/D60K and NS2/D78K, in the N-terminus of NS2 abolished infectious virus production and that the substitution of arginine for alanine at position 100 (NS2/R100A) resulted in significantly decreased viral titer. The serial passage of cells containing viral genomic RNA molecules generated the revertants NS2/A60D, NS2/K60D and NS2/K78D, leading to the recovery of infectious virus. In the context of the NS2/R100A mutant, the NS2/I90L mutation compensated for infectious virus production. The regulatory roles of the indicated amino acid residues were identified to occur at the viral RNA replication level. These results revealed a novel function for the NS2 N-terminus of CSFV in modulating viral RNA replication. PMID:26232654

  3. Deep eutectic solvent (DES) as a pretreatment for oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) in production of sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, Nur Atikah Md; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Hassan, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) at different parameters to enable a highest yield of sugar. DES is a combination of two or more cheap and safe components to form a eutectic mixture through hydrogen bond interaction, which has a melting point lower than that of each component. DES can be used to replace ionic liquids (ILs), which are more expensive and toxic. In this study, OPEFB was pretreated with DES mixture of choline chloride: urea in 1:2 molar ratio. The pretreatment was performed at temperature 110°C and 80°C for 4 hours and 1 hour. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour). Enzymatic hydrolysis was done by using the combination of two enzymes, namely, Cellic Ctec2 and Cellic Htec2. The treated fiber is tested for crystallinity using XRD and functional group analysis using FTIR, to check the effect of the pretreatment on the fiber and compared it with the untreated fiber. From XRD analysis, DES successfully gave an effect towards degree of crystallinity of cellulose. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours) and B (110°C, 1 hour) successfully reduce the percentage of crystallinity while pretreatment C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) increased the percentage of crystallinity. From FTIR analysis, DES cannot remove the functional group of lignin and hemicellulose but it is believed that DES can expose the structure of cellulose. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, DES-treated fiber successfully produced sugar but not significantly when compared with raw. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) produced glucose at the amount of 60.47 mg/ml, 66.33 mg/ml, 61.96 mg/ml and 59.12 mg/ml respectively. However, pretreatment C gave the highest xylose (70.01 mg/ml) production compared to other DES pretreatments.

  4. Performance results of the Tom Smith double shell residence, Lake Tahoe, California

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.; Hollingsworth, E.; Holmes, W.; Maloney, J.; Pedersen, K.; Sash, R.; Thorp, J.; Wang, M.

    1980-01-01

    Performance data for a ten day period in January of 1980 was collected for the purpose of attempting to clarify some of the questions surrounding the method of operation of double shell structures. Temperature data are recorded at various key locations throughout the Smith residence as well as ambient temperature data. Solar insolation levels are also recorded. Perhaps of greatest interest is air flow information within the air plenum chamber which separates the inner and outer shells. A DISA 55D-80/81 airflow meter was used to perform the measurements. A direct correlation between air flow magnitude and direction with solar insolation lvels has been found. In addition, the measurements indicate that little actual heat is actually transferred to the storage area located in the rock and dirt beneath the structure.

  5. Mg II Spectra of Late Type Stars Used to Probe the LISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, J. E.; Crivellari, L.; Franco, M.; Molaro, P.; Vladilo, G.

    1984-01-01

    IUE spectra of Mg II h and k in late type dwarfs and giants were used to detect and measure absorption components due to the LISM. This technique gives a method of probing the awkward range from d = 3 pc to d = 80 pc from the Sun. In spite of interpretational uncertainties the HI component of the LISM can be plotted well enough to confirm it as a cloud some 20 to 30 pc in extent, peaking sharply in density towards l(II)-25 deg., moving towards the Sun from l(II)-25 deg, b(II) = + 10 deg., at 28 Km/sec. The hole towards l(II) = 150 deg is confirmed, suggesting a solar position close to the cloud's edge in this direction.

  6. The use of neural networks to predict the particle-size distribution of coal ground in the PETC PRF hammermill

    SciTech Connect

    McKeegan, D.

    1996-04-01

    Sieve-analysis data obtained pursuant to grinding several types of coal using various settings of adjustable parameters on a hammer mill in PETC`s Process Research Facility were input to a neural-network simulation program in a variety of ways. The quality of the resulting particle-size predictions were tabulated and analyzed to determine which approach yielded the most accurate results. The simplicity of each approach was considered as a secondary factor. The most successful approaches yielded errors averaging 10 percent or less in the prediction of characteristic particle sizes such as the D-80 point. Generally speaking, the simpler approaches worked better, in that complicated manipulations of the input data produced either less accurate predictions or such small improvements in predictions that the extra effort seemed unjustified. Likely reasons for the success or failure of each approach are discussed. The methodology described could also prove useful for predicting coal particle sizes resulting from more complex grinding configurations.

  7. Water, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, carbon-13, and oxygen-18 content of selected lunar material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; O'Neil, J.R.; Adami, L.H.; Gleason, J.D.; Hardcastle, K.

    1970-01-01

    The water content of the breccia is 150 to 455 ppm, with a ??D from -580 to -870 per mil. Hydrogen gas content is 40 to 53 ppm with a ??D of -830 to -970 per mil. The CO2 is 290 to 418 ppm with S 13C = + 2.3 to + 5.1 per mil and ??18O = 14.2 to 19.1 per mil. Non-CO2 carbon is 22 to 100 ppm, ??18C = -6.4 to -23.2 per mil. Lunar dust is 810 ppm H2O (D = 80 ppm) and 188 ppm total carbon (??13C = -17.6 per mil). The 18O analyses of whole rocks range from 5.8 to 6.2 per mil. The temperature of crystallization of type B rocks is 1100?? to 1300??C, based on the oxygen isotope fractionation between coexisting plagioclase and ilmenite.

  8. Quantum Interference of Surface States in Bismuth Nanowires in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, L. A.; Huber, T. E.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Burceacov, L. A.

    2013-06-01

    We report the results of studies of the magnetoresistance (MR) and electric field effect (EFE) of single-crystal Bi nanowires with diameter d<80 nm at low temperatures. Single-crystal nanowire samples were prepared by the Taylor-Ulitovsky technique; they were cylindrical single crystals with the (10bar{1}1) orientation along the wire axis where the C 3 axis was inclined at an angle of 70∘ to the wire axis. According to theory of S. Murakami, bismuth bilayers can exhibit the quantum spin Hall effect. A Bi crystal can be viewed as a stacking of bilayers with a honeycomblike lattice structure along the [111] direction. An interpretation of transverse MR oscillations with using this theory is presented.

  9. Thermodynamics of black branes in asymptotically Lifshitz spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Gaetano; Burrington, Benjamin A.; Peet, Amanda W.

    2009-12-01

    Recently, a class of gravitational backgrounds in 3+1 dimensions have been proposed as holographic duals to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in 2+1 dimensions with critical exponent z≥1. We continue our earlier work [G. Bertoldi, B. A. Burrington, and A. Peet, preceding Article, Phys. Rev. D 80, 126003 (2009).], exploring the thermodynamic properties of the “black brane” solutions with horizon topology R2. We find that the black branes satisfy the relation E=(2)/(2+z)Ts where E is the energy density, T is the temperature, and s is the entropy density. This matches the expected behavior for a 2+1 dimensional theory with a scaling symmetry (x1,x2)→λ(x1,x2), t→λzt.

  10. B{yields}X{sub s{gamma}} rate and CP asymmetry within the aligned two-Higgs-doublet model

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Martin; Pich, Antonio; Tuzon, Paula

    2011-04-01

    In the two-Higgs-doublet model the alignment of the Yukawa matrices in flavor space guarantees the absence of flavor-changing neutral currents at tree level, while introducing new sources for CP violation parametrized in a very economical way [Antonio Pich and Paula Tuzon, Phys. Rev. D 80, 091702 (2009)]. This implies a potentially large influence in a number of processes, b{yields}s{gamma} being a prominent example where rather high experimental and theoretical precision meet. We analyze the CP rate asymmetry in this inclusive decay and determine the resulting constraints on the model parameters. We demonstrate the compatibility with previously obtained limits [Martin Jung, Antonio Pich, and Paula Tuzon, J. High Energy Phys. 11 (2010) 003]. Moreover, we extend the phenomenological analysis of the branching ratio, and examine the influence of resulting correlations on the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry in B decays.

  11. Solid-state NMR study and assignments of the KcsA potassium ion channel of S. lividans.

    PubMed

    Varga, Krisztina; Tian, Lin; McDermott, Ann E

    2007-12-01

    The extraordinary efficiency and selectivity of potassium channels have made them ideal systems for biophysical and functional studies of ion conduction. We carried out solid-state NMR studies of the selectivity filter region of the protein. Partial site-specific assignments of the NMR signals were obtained based on high field multidimensional solid-state NMR spectra of uniformly (13)C, (15)N enriched KcsA potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans. Both backbone and sidechain atoms were assigned for residues V76-D80 and P83-L90, in and near the selectivity filter region of the protein; this region exhibits good dispersion and useful chemical shift fingerprints. This study will enable structure, dynamic and mechanistic studies of ion conduction by NMR.

  12. Roberge-Weiss endpoint in N{sub f}=2 QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bonati, Claudio; Cossu, Guido; D'Elia, Massimo; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    We present the results of extensive simulations regarding the critical behavior at the endpoint of the Roberge-Weiss transition for N{sub f}=2 QCD. We confirm early evidence, presented in Ref. [M. D'Elia and F. Sanfilippo, Phys. Rev. D 80, 111501(R) (2009).], according to which the Roberge-Weiss endpoint is first order in the limit of large or small quark masses, and second order for intermediate masses. A systematic study of the transition strength as a function of the quark mass in the first order regions, permits us to estimate the tricritical values of the quark mass separating the second order region from the first order ones.

  13. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases

  14. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases

  15. Predicting the Next Eye Pathogen: Analysis of a Novel Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christopher M.; Zhou, Xiaohong; Rajaiya, Jaya; Yousuf, Mohammad A.; Singh, Gurdeep; DeSerres, Joshua J.; Walsh, Michael P.; Wong, Sallene; Seto, Donald; Dyer, David W.; Chodosh, James; Jones, Morris S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT For DNA viruses, genetic recombination, addition, and deletion represent important evolutionary mechanisms. Since these genetic alterations can lead to new, possibly severe pathogens, we applied a systems biology approach to study the pathogenicity of a novel human adenovirus with a naturally occurring deletion of the canonical penton base Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) loop, thought to be critical to cellular entry by adenoviruses. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a new highly recombinant species D human adenovirus (HAdV-D60). A synthesis of in silico and laboratory approaches revealed a potential ocular tropism for the new virus. In vivo, inflammation induced by the virus was dramatically greater than that by adenovirus type 37, a major eye pathogen, possibly due to a novel alternate ligand, Tyr-Gly-Asp (YGD), on the penton base protein. The combination of bioinformatics and laboratory simulation may have important applications in the prediction of tissue tropism for newly discovered and emerging viruses. PMID:23572555

  16. Radiation effects on power transistor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasca, Albert J.

    1987-01-01

    The D60T, D62T, and D75T transistors in the nuclear reactor were irradiated with bias voltage and high current I sub c vs. V sub ec curves were obtained to evaluate gain degradation at high power levels. Pre- and post-irradiation high current switching tests were performed to evaluate the response. The gamma ray damage work done at Sandia was correlated with the neutron work done at the O.S.U. reactor with the above specified transistors. Theoretical analyses of damage and electrical performance were conducted in terms of semiconductor physics. The experimental high current pulser was improved in order to measure switching time changes which are less than one microsecond at currents of 100 to 200 amperes for in-situ testing.

  17. Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in minced beef under laboratory conditions and in sous-vide prepared minced and solid beef cooked in a commercial retort.

    PubMed

    Bolton, D J; McMahon, C M; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A; Blair, I S; Harrington, D

    2000-04-01

    D-values were obtained for Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica at 50, 55 and 60 degrees C in vacuum-packed minced beef samples heated in a laboratory water-bath. The experiment was repeated using vacutainers, which allowed heating of the beef to the desired temperature before inoculation. D-values of between 0.15 and 36.1 min were obtained for L. monocytogenes. Pre-heating the beef samples significantly affected (P < 0.05) the D60 value only. D-values for Y. enterocolitica ranged from 0.55 to 21.2 min and all the D-values were significantly different (P < 0.05) after pre-heating. In general, the D-values obtained for core inoculated solid beef samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those generated in minced beef when heated in a Barriquand Steriflow commercial retort. PMID:10792520

  18. Structure of Physarum polycephalum cytochrome b 5 reductase at 1.56 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Suga, Michihiro; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Ikegami, Terumi; Minami, Yoshiko; Yubisui, Toshitsugu; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2007-01-01

    Physarum polycephalum cytochrome b 5 reductase catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome b 5 by NADH. The structure of P. polycephalum cytochrome b 5 reductase was determined at a resolution of 1.56 Å. The molecular structure was compared with that of human cytochrome b 5 reductase, which had previously been determined at 1.75 Å resolution [Bando et al. (2004 ▶), Acta Cryst. D60, 1929–1934]. The high-resolution structure revealed conformational differences between the two enzymes in the adenosine moiety of the FAD, the lid region and the linker region. The structural properties of both proteins were inspected in terms of hydrogen bonding, ion pairs, accessible surface area and cavity volume. The differences in these structural properties between the two proteins were consistent with estimates of their thermostabilities obtained from differential scanning calorimetry data. PMID:17401193

  19. Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumit; Chandra, Rakesh; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar, Navin

    2016-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction ( V f) and aspect ratio ( l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0% to 16%. The aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d = 5 to l/d = 100. Results show that, with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E 11 increases 748%. Increase in E 22 is much less in comparison to the increase in E 11. With the increase in the CNF aspect ratio ( l/d) up to l/d = 60, the longitudinal loss factor ( η 11) decreases rapidly. The results of this study have been compared with those available in the literature.

  20. Meta-analysis of progesterone supplementation during timed artificial insemination programs in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Lean, I J; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-04-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effects of progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during timed artificial insemination (AI) programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. A total of 25 randomized controlled studies including 8,285 supplemented cows and 8,398 untreated controls were included in the meta-analysis. Information regarding the presence of corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the synchronization protocol was available for 6,883 supplemented cows and 6,879 untreated controls in 21 experiments. Studies were classified based on service number (first AI vs. resynchronized AI), use of presynchronization (yes vs. no), and insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol (inseminated in estrus and timed AI vs. timed AI only). Reproductive outcomes of interest were pregnancy per AI (P/AI) measured on d 32 (27 to 42) and 60 (41 to 71) after AI, and pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted and treatment effect was summarized into a pooled risk ratio with the Knapp-Hartung modification (RRK+H). The effect of moderator variables was assessed using meta-regression analyses. Progesterone supplementation increased the risk of pregnancy on d 32 [RRK+H = 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.14] and 60 after AI (RRK+H = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). The benefit of progesterone supplementation was observed mainly in cows lacking a CL at the initiation of the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.07-1.30) rather than those with CL (d 60: RRK+H = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.99-1.12). Progesterone supplementation benefited P/AI in studies in which all cows were inseminated at timed AI (d 60: RRK+H = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), but not in studies in which cows could be inseminated in estrus during the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.92-1.16). Progesterone supplementation tended to reduce the risk of

  1. 7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Double 1st 120 0 2 0 2 0 3 2 5 2 6 3 7 6 10 10 14 14 19 2d 60 Total 180 1 2 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC Single 315 1 2 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Table III-A—Sampling Plans for... 3 1 4 2 5 2d 18 Total 36 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 CA 6,001-36,000 Single 84 1 2 1 2 1 2...

  2. T Cells Development Is Different between Thymus from Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetus at Different Gestational Stage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Weizong; Lai, Changhua

    2013-03-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the development of T cells in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) piglets at different gestational stages, and tentatively explore the relationship between T cells development and the Notch signaling pathway. A total of 18 crossbred (Landrace×Large white) primiparous sows were mated at similar weights and estruses and euthanized at d 60, 90 and 110 of gestation with six replicates for each time point. One IUGR and one normal fetus were picked from each litter. The T-cell subsets, mRNA expression of Delta-like1, Delta-like4, Jagged1, and Notch2 genes in the thymus were investigated. Compared to normal piglets, CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(+) cells in IUGR fetuses at d 90 was 0.13% lower (p<0.05). At d 110 of gestation CD8(+) T cells in IUGR fetuses was 0.19% lower (p<0.05). The percentage of CD8(+) T cells was 3.14% lower (p<0.05) of the total T cells in IUGR pigs at d 60. The abundance of Notch2 and Delta-like4 mRNA at d 110 was 20.93% higher and 0.77% (p<0.05) lower, and Delta-like1 mRNA at d 90 was 0.19% (p<0.05) higher compared to normal pigs. These results suggested that normal fetuses had a greater proportion of T-cell subsets at earlier gestation periods, and the Notch signaling pathway was likely partially responsible for these differences to some degree.

  3. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Volante, Andrea; Soberón, Nora E.; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (δ2) and ParB-like (ω2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (ω:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (δ:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell’s nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (δ:CFP)2 or δ2 bound to the nucleoid with (ω:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ω2 promotes redistribution of (δ:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (δ:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (δD60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ω2, (δD60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (δ:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ω2-parS might generate (δ:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  4. Developmental changes in polyamines and autophagic marker levels in normal and growth-restricted fetal pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y H; Lin, G; Dai, Z L; Zhou, T J; Yuan, T L; Feng, C P; Chen, F; Wu, G Y; Wang, J J

    2015-07-01

    Polyamines are essential for embryonic and fetal survival, growth, and development. Additionally, polyamines may induce autophagy in mammalian cells. However, little is known about the availability of polyamines or autophagy in the porcine conceptus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The present study was performed to evaluate the developmental changes of polyamine concentrations in IUGR and normal porcine fetuses as well as autophagic marker levels in the fetal intestinal mucosa during the second half of gestation when most fetal growth occurs. Allantoic fluid (ALF), amniotic fluid (AMF), umbilical vein, and the small-intestinal mucosa were obtained from both IUGR and normal fetal pigs at d 60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Concentrations of polyamines in fetal fluids as well as protein abundances of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B), an autophagic marker, in the fetal small-intestinal mucosa were determined. Concentrations of polyamines varied greatly in different fetal compartments and changed substantially with advancing gestation. Concentrations of polyamines in IUGR fetal fluids and the small-intestinal mucosa were markedly different from those in their normal counterparts at d 60 and 90 of gestation, whereas most of the differences were not detected by late (d 110) gestation. Specifically, polyamine levels were lower in the umbilical vein plasma but higher in ALF and AMF from IUGR fetuses. Furthermore, enhanced levels of an autophagic marker were observed in the small-intestinal mucosa of IUGR fetuses throughout mid and late gestation in association with abnormal spermidine levels in fetal plasma. These findings support the notion that enhanced autophagy may be an important survival mechanism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings provide a new framework for future studies to define the roles for polyamines in the prevention and treatment of IUGR in both human medicine and animal production.

  5. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Ryan G.; Zheng, Jinshui; Garcia-Hernandez, Rigoberto; Ruan, Lifang; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli. PMID:26441869

  6. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  7. Irradiance-dependent photobleaching and pain in δ-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of superficial basal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, W.J.; Paquette, A.D.; Keymel, K.R.; Foster, T.H.; Oseroff, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose In superficial basal cell carcinomas (sBCC) treated with photodynamic therapy with topical δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) we examined effects of light irradiance on photodynamic efficiency and pain. The rate of singlet oxygen production depends on the product of irradiance and photosensitizer and oxygen concentrations. High irradiance and/or photosensitizer levels cause inefficient treatment from oxygen depletion in preclinical models. Experimental Design Self-sensitized photobleaching of PpIX fluorescence was used as a surrogate metric for photodynamic dose. We developed instrumentation measuring fluorescence and reflectance from lesions and margins during treatment at 633nm with various irradiances. When PpIX was 90% bleached, irradiance was increased to 150 mW cm−2 until 200 J cm−2 were delivered. Pain was monitored. Results In 33 sBCC in 26 patients, photobleaching efficiency decreased with increasing irradiance above 20 mW cm−2, consistent with oxygen depletion. Fluences bleaching PpIX fluorescence 80% (D80) were 5.7±1.6, 4.5±0.3, 7.5±0.8, 7.4±0.3, 12.4±0.3 and 28.7±7.1 J cm−2, respectively, at 10, 20, 40, 50, 60 and 150 mW cm−2. At 20–150 mW cm−2, D80 doses required 2.5–3.5 min; times for the total 200 J cm−2 were 22.2–25.3 min. No significant pain occurred up to 50 mW cm−2; pain was not significant when irradiance then increased. Clinical responses were comparable to continuous150 mW cm−2 treatment. Conclusions ALA-PDT using ~40 mW cm−2 at 633nm is photodynamically efficient with minimum pain. Once PpIX is largely photobleached, higher irradiances allow efficient, rapid delivery of additional light. Optimal fluence at a single low irradiance is yet to be determined. PMID:18628462

  8. Testing Modified Gravity with Gravitational-Wave Observations from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Yunes, Nicolas

    The inspiral of stellar compact objects into massive black holes sitting at galactic centers, usually known as extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs), is one of the most important sources of gravitational radiation for the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), an ESA-NASA mission. It is expected that LISA will determine the physical parameters of these sources with a high precision. These precise measurements open the possibility of making robust tests of the existence of black holes, of their geometry, and even of the gravitational interaction. In relation to this, intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs) are also of interest to advance ground-based gravitational-wave observatories. In this talk, we discuss how modifications to the gravitational interaction can affect the signals emitted by EMRIs and the detectability of these modifications by LISA. To that end, we present results from an study of a particular modification of General Relativity (GR): Chern-Simons modified gravity, a theory that emerges in different quantum gravitational approaches and where spinning black holes have a geometry different from the Kerr geometry predicted by GR. References: C. F. Sopuerta and N. Yunes "Extreme and Intermediate-Mass Ratio Inspirals in Dynamical Chern-Simons Modified Gravity" Physical Review D80, 064006 (2009). e-Print: arXiv:0904.4501 [gr-qc

  9. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and children's emotion dysregulation: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; Garcia, Alexis

    2016-06-01

    While executive functioning deficits have been central to cognitive theories of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), recent work has suggested that emotion dysregulation may also play a key role in understanding the impairments suffered by youth with ADHD. However, given the multiple processes involved in emotion dysregulation, the extent to which youth with ADHD are impaired across multiple domains of emotion dysregulation including: emotion recognition/understanding (ERU), emotion reactivity/negativity/lability (ERNL), emotion regulation (EREG), and empathy/callous-unemotional traits (ECUT) remains unclear. A meta-analysis of 77 studies (n=32,044 youths) revealed that youth with ADHD have the greatest impairment on ERNL (weighted ES d=.95) followed by EREG (weighted ES d=.80). Significantly smaller effects were observed for ECUT (weighted ES d=.68) and ERU (weighted ES d=.64). Moderation analyses indicated that the association between ADHD and ERNL was stronger among studies that had a sample containing older youth (no other demographic factors were significant). Additionally, the association between ADHD and ECUT was significantly weaker among studies that controlled for co-occurring conduct problems. Co-occurring conduct problems did not moderate the link between ADHD and any other emotion dysregulation domain. Lastly, the association between ADHD and ERNL was significantly weaker when controlling for youth's cognitive functioning. Cognitive functioning did not moderate the link between ADHD and ERU, EREG, or ECUT, respectively. Theoretical/practical implications for the study of emotional dysregulation in youth with ADHD are discussed. PMID:27180913

  10. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  11. Monte Carlo dose calculation in dental amalgam phantom.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Mohd Zahri Abdul; Yusoff, A L; Osman, N D; Abdullah, R; Rabaie, N A; Salikin, M S

    2015-01-01

    It has become a great challenge in the modern radiation treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment delivery in electron beam therapy. Tissue inhomogeneity has become one of the factors for accurate dose calculation, and this requires complex algorithm calculation like Monte Carlo (MC). On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) images used in treatment planning system need to be trustful as they are the input in radiotherapy treatment. However, with the presence of metal amalgam in treatment volume, the CT images input showed prominent streak artefact, thus, contributed sources of error. Hence, metal amalgam phantom often creates streak artifacts, which cause an error in the dose calculation. Thus, a streak artifact reduction technique was applied to correct the images, and as a result, better images were observed in terms of structure delineation and density assigning. Furthermore, the amalgam density data were corrected to provide amalgam voxel with accurate density value. As for the errors of dose uncertainties due to metal amalgam, they were reduced from 46% to as low as 2% at d80 (depth of the 80% dose beyond Zmax) using the presented strategies. Considering the number of vital and radiosensitive organs in the head and the neck regions, this correction strategy is suggested in reducing calculation uncertainties through MC calculation.

  12. Spectral imaging using consumer-level devices and kernel-based regression.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Ville; Cámara, Clara; Hirvonen, Tapani; Penttinen, Niko

    2016-06-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance factor image estimations were performed in the 400-700 nm wavelength range using a portable consumer-level laptop display as an adjustable light source for a trichromatic camera. Targets of interest were ColorChecker Classic samples, Munsell Matte samples, geometrically challenging tempera icon paintings from the turn of the 20th century, and human hands. Measurements and simulations were performed using Nikon D80 RGB camera and Dell Vostro 2520 laptop screen as a light source. Estimations were performed without spectral characteristics of the devices and by emphasizing simplicity for training sets and estimation model optimization. Spectral and color error images are shown for the estimations using line-scanned hyperspectral images as the ground truth. Estimations were performed using kernel-based regression models via a first-degree inhomogeneous polynomial kernel and a Matérn kernel, where in the latter case the median heuristic approach for model optimization and link function for bounded estimation were evaluated. Results suggest modest requirements for a training set and show that all estimation models have markedly improved accuracy with respect to the DE00 color distance (up to 99% for paintings and hands) and the Pearson distance (up to 98% for paintings and 99% for hands) from a weak training set (Digital ColorChecker SG) case when small representative training data were used in the estimation. PMID:27409436

  13. Effect of Thermal Shock on Grindability of Oleic Adsorbed Flotation Placer Sillimanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxmi, T.; Bhima Rao, R.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal shock is one of the most effective techniques in size reduction. The present investigation deals with the effect of thermal shock treatment on grindability and grinding characteristics of sillimanite minerals and also an attempt has been made on the overall energy saving for preparation of sillimanite flour by using ball mill. This attempt is made due to a fine dry grinding of sillimanite minerals to produce sillimanite flour, which is an energy intensive operation. It is observed from the present investigation that the particle sizes at d50 and d80 passing size in microns for thermally treated sillimanite is slightly lower than that of natural sillimanite. The study of grinding kinetics using ball mill indicate that the slope value obtained for thermally treated sillimanite is lower than the natural sillimanite, which shows that the sample responded to higher rate of grinding. The result of grindability studies reveal that the power required for thermal treatment of sillimanite is 395.36 hp and the total energy saving in the order of 8.9 % is achieved by thermal treatment of sillimanite at 900 °C for period of half an hour heating time due to development of numerous micro-cracks and fractures within the mineral grains. Hence, it is recommended to use thermally treated sillimanite for preparation of sillimanite flour (<75 µm particle size) which reduces power consumption of 8.9 %.

  14. Biochemical characterization of the soluble alkaline phosphatase isolated from the venomous snake W. aegyptia.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Saad S M

    2002-12-01

    A soluble form of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been identified and purified from Walterinnesia aegyptia venom using an HPLC system Gold 126/1667 equipped with Protein PAK 125 and Protein PAK 60 columns. The enzyme was purified 3.4 fold over crude venom with a yield of 37.3%. On SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions the purified enzyme showed three bands of 212 kD, 80 kD, and 55 kD. However, under reducing conditions, the enzyme showed two bands of 80 kD and 55 kD. The specific activity of ALP was 24 U/mg with p-nitrophenylephosphate as the substrate. During isoelectric focusing experiments the ALP exhibited two bands focused at pH 6.2 and 6.8, which suggests that either the enzyme exists as two different isoforms or the two bands in IEF may be two subunits of 80 kD and 55 kD. The kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and IC50 of ALP inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, imidazole, caffeine, orthophosphate and permanganate were also investigated in the present study. Zinc and cyanide ions at a concentration of 15 mM and 10 mM, respectively, completely inhibited the activity of W. aegyptia ALP. PMID:12503880

  15. Berry's phase manifestation in Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in single Bi nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitsu, D. V.; Huber, T. E.; Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.

    2009-02-01

    Here we report on Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of magnetoresistance (MR) of the single Bi nanowires with diameter d<80 nm. The samples were prepared by Ulitovsky technique and represented cylindrical single crystals with the 1011 orientation along the wire axis. Due to semimetal-to-semiconductor transformation and big density of surface states with strong spin-orbit interactions Bi nanowire should effectively become a conducting tube. The equidistant oscillations of the MR have been observed in a wide range of magnetic fields up to 14 T at various temperatures (1.5 K< T< 4.2 K) and angles θ (0< θ < 90°) of the sample orientation relative to the magnetic field. We have obtained longitudinal MR oscillations with periods ΔB1=Φ0/S and ΔB2=Φ0/2S, where Φ0=h/e is the flux quantum and S is the wire cross section. From B approx 8 T down to B=0 the extremums of Φ0/2S oscillations are shifted up to 3π at B=0 which is the manifestation of Berry phase shift due to carriers moving in inhomogeneous magnetic field. An interpretation of the MR oscillations in terms of a subband structure in the surface state band caused by quantum interference is presented.

  16. Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality in an Inpatient Setting: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Thomas E.; Green, Kelly L.; Allen, Jon G.; Jobes, David A.; Nadorff, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Patients hospitalized for psychiatric reasons exhibit significantly elevated risk of suicide, yet the research literature contains very few outcome studies of interventions designed for suicidal inpatients. This pilot study examined the inpatient feasibility and effectiveness of The Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS), a structured evidence-based method for risk assessment and treatment planning (Jobes, 2006). The study used an open-trial, case-focused design to assess an inpatient adaptation of CAMS, spread over a period averaging 51 days. The intervention was provided via individual therapy to a convenience sample of 20 patients (16 females and four males, average age 36.9) who were hospitalized with recent histories of suicidal ideation and behavior. Results showed statistically and clinically significant reductions in depression, hopelessness, suicide cognitions, and suicidal ideation, as well as improvement on factors considered “drivers” of suicidality. Treatment effect sizes were in the large range (Cohen’s d > .80) across several outcome measures, including suicidal ideation. Although these findings must be considered preliminary due to the lack of a randomized control group, they merit attention from clinicians working with patients at risk for suicide. This study also supports the feasibility of implementing a structured, suicide-specific intervention for at-risk patients in inpatient settings. PMID:22369081

  17. Rigidification of the autolysis loop enhances Na[superscript +] binding to thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Raymond; Chen, Zhiwei; Bah, Alaji; Di Cera, Enrico

    2011-09-20

    Binding of Na{sup +} to thrombin ensures high activity toward physiological substrates and optimizes the procoagulant and prothrombotic roles of the enzyme in vivo. Under physiological conditions of pH and temperature, the binding affinity of Na{sup +} is weak due to large heat capacity and enthalpy changes associated with binding, and the K{sub d} = 80 mM ensures only 64% saturation of the site at the concentration of Na{sup +} in the blood (140 mM). Residues controlling Na{sup +} binding and activation have been identified. Yet, attempts to improve the interaction of Na{sup +} with thrombin and possibly increase catalytic activity under physiological conditions have so far been unsuccessful. Here we report how replacement of the flexible autolysis loop of human thrombin with the homologous rigid domain of the murine enzyme results in a drastic (up to 10-fold) increase in Na{sup +} affinity and a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Rigidification of the autolysis loop abolishes the heat capacity change associated with Na{sup +} binding observed in the wild-type and also increases the stability of thrombin. These findings have general relevance to protein engineering studies of clotting proteases and trypsin-like enzymes.

  18. Application of Anova on Fly Ash Leaching Kinetics for Value Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Ranjita; Mohapatro, Rudra Narayana; Bhima Rao, Raghupatruni

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash is a major problem in power plant sectors as it is dumped at the plant site. Fly ash generation increases day to day due to rapid growth of steel industries. Ceramic/refractory industries are growing rapidly because of more number of steel industries. The natural resources of the ceramic/refractory raw materials are depleting with time due to its consumption. In view of this, fly ash from thermal power plant has been identified for use in the ceramic/refractory industries after suitable beneficiation. In this paper, sample was collected from the ash pond of Vedanta. Particle size (d80 passing size) of the sample is around 150 micron. The chemical analysis of the sample shows that 3.9 % of Fe2O3 and CaO is more than 10 %. XRD patterns show that the fly ash samples consist predominantly of the crystalline phases of quartz, hematite and magnetite in a matrix of aluminosilicate glass. Leaching of iron oxide is 98.3 % at 3 M HCl concentration at 90 °C for 270 min of leaching time. Kinetic study on leaching experiment was carried out. ANOVA software is utilized for curve fitting and the process is optimized using MATLAB 7.1. The detailed study of properties for ceramic material is compared with the standard ceramic materials. The product contains 0.3 % of iron. The other properties of the product have established the fact that the product obtained can be a raw material for ceramic industries.

  19. Nonchaotic evolution of triangular configuration due to gravitational radiation reaction in the three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kei; Asada, Hideki

    2016-04-01

    Continuing work initiated in an earlier publication [H. Asada, Phys. Rev. D 80, 064021 (2009)], the gravitational radiation reaction to Lagrange's equilateral triangular solution of the three-body problem is investigated in an analytic method. The previous work is based on the energy balance argument, which is sufficient for a two-body system because the number of degrees of freedom (the semimajor axis and the eccentricity in quasi-Keplerian cases, for instance) equals that of the constants of motion such as the total energy and the orbital angular momentum. In a system with three (or more) bodies, however, the number of degrees of freedom is more than that of the constants of motion. Therefore, the present paper discusses the evolution of the triangular system by directly treating the gravitational radiation reaction force to each body. The perturbed equations of motion are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. It is found that the triangular configuration is adiabatically shrinking and is kept in equilibrium by increasing the orbital frequency due to the radiation reaction if the mass ratios satisfy the Newtonian stability condition. Long-term stability involving the first post-Newtonian corrections is also discussed.

  20. Relation between tungsten deposits and isotopic alteration patterns in the Idaho batholith

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Past work on the Idaho batholith by Criss and Taylor (1983) documents a regional stable isotopic (hydrogen and oxygen) alteration pattern related to large meteoric hydrothermal convective systems. From this work the batholith may divided into three zones. In one both hydrogen and oxygen isotopes have been depleted (deltaD<-80 per thousand, delta/sup 18/0<+8 per thousand). Roughly surrounding this zone is another in which only the hydrogen has been depleted. The final zone shows no significant alteration of either hydrogen or oxygen. Within the batholith are various areas of tungsten mineralization, the best known being the quartz-scheelite veins in the Yellow Pine district. The spatial relation of tungsten containing occurrences in the southern part of the batholith to the regional hydrothermal alteration can be examined by plotting the occurrences with respect to the isotopic alteration zones. Assuming that at least some of these deposits are related to the hydrothermal fluids responsible for the isotopic alteration, then the tungsten was deposited from low w/r ratio hydrothermal solutions. This spatial correlation of tungsten deposits and low w/r ratio alteration supports the model proposed by Campbell et al. (1984) for the deposition of tungsten mineralization at San Cristobal, Peru, by low w/r ratio solutions.

  1. Scanning SQUID microscopy of local superconductivity in inhomogeneous combinatorial ceramics.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, Mitra; Stir, Manuela; Kirtley, John R; Hulliger, Jürg

    2014-11-24

    Although combinatorial solid-state chemistry promises to be an efficient way to search for new superconducting compounds, the problem of determining which compositions are strongly diamagnetic in a mixed-phase sample is challenging. By means of reactions in a system of randomly mixed starting components (Ca, Sr, Ba, La, Y, Pb, Bi, Tl, and Cu oxides), samples were produced that showed an onset of diamagnetic response above 115 K in bulk measurements. Imaging of this diamagnetic response in ceramic samples by scanning SQUID microscopy (SSM) revealed local superconducting areas with sizes down to as small as the spatial resolution of a few micrometers. In addition, locally formed superconducting matter was extracted from mixed-phase samples by magnetic separation. The analysis of single grains (d<80 μm) by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and bulk SQUID measurements allowed Tl2Ca3Ba2Cu4O12, TlCaBaSrCu2O(7-δ), BaPb(0.5)Bi(0.25)Tl(0.25)O(3-δ), TlBa2Ca2Cu3O9, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8, and YBa2Cu3O7 phases to be identified. SSM, in combination with other diagnostic techniques, is therefore shown to be a useful instrument to analyze inhomogeneous reaction products in the solid-state chemistry of materials showing magnetic properties.

  2. Topological methods for the comparison of structures using LDR-brachytherapy of the prostate as an example.

    PubMed

    Schiefer, H; von Toggenburg, F; Seelentag, W W; Plasswilm, L; Ries, G; Schmid, H-P; Leippold, T; Krusche, B; Roth, J; Engeler, D

    2009-08-21

    The dose coverage of low dose rate (LDR)-brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer is monitored 4-6 weeks after intervention by contouring the prostate on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging sets. Dose parameters for the prostate (V100, D90 and D80) provide information on the treatment quality. Those depend strongly on the delineation of the prostate contours. We therefore systematically investigated the contouring process for 21 patients with five examiners. The prostate structures were compared with one another using topological procedures based on Boolean algebra. The coincidence number C(V) measures the agreement between a set of structures. The mutual coincidence C(i, j) measures the agreement between two structures i and j, and the mean coincidence C(i) compares a selected structure i with the remaining structures in a set. All coincidence parameters have a value of 1 for complete coincidence of contouring and 0 for complete absence. The five patients with the lowest C(V) values were discussed, and rules for contouring the prostate have been formulated. The contouring and assessment were repeated after 3 months for the same five patients. All coincidence parameters have been improved after instruction. This shows objectively that training resulted in more consistent contouring across examiners. PMID:19641239

  3. A meta-analytic investigation of neurocognitive deficits in bipolar illness: profile and effects of clinical state.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Gerraty, Raphael T

    2009-09-01

    A meta-analysis of neuropsychological studies of patients with bipolar disorder comprised of 42 studies of 1,197 patients in euthymia, 13 studies consisting of 314 patients in a manic/mixed phase of illness, and 5 studies of 96 patients in a depressed state. Cohen d values were calculated for each study as the mean difference between patient and control group score on each neuropsychological measure, expressed in pooled SD units. For euthymia, results revealed impairment across all neuropsychological domains, with d values in the moderate-to-large range (d = .5 - .8) for the vast majority of measures. There was evidence of large effect-size impairment on measures of verbal learning (d = .81), and delayed verbal and nonverbal memory (d = .80 - .92), while effect-size impairment on measures of visuospatial function was small-to-moderate (d

  4. The use of 2D and 3D information in a perceptual-cognitive judgement task.

    PubMed

    Put, Koen; Wagemans, Johan; Spitz, Jochim; Gallardo, Manuel Armenteros; Williams, A Mark; Helsen, Werner F

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the use of three-dimensional (3D) simulations in an off-field offside decision-making task is beneficial compared to the more widely available two-dimensional (2D) simulations. Thirty-three assistant referees, who were all involved in professional football, participated in the experiment. They assessed 40 offside situations in both 2D and 3D formats using a counterbalanced design. A distinction was made between offside situations near (i.e., 15 m) and far (i.e., 30 m) from the touchline. Subsequently, a frame recognition task was performed in which assistant referees were asked to indicate which of the five pictures represented the previous video scene. A higher response accuracy score was observed under 3D (80.0%) compared to 2D (75.0%) conditions, in particular for the situations near the touchline (3D: 81.8%; 2D: 72.7%). No differences were reported between 2D and 3D in the frame recognition task. Findings suggest that in highly dynamic and complex situations, the visual system can benefit from the availability of 3D information, especially for relatively fine, metric position judgements. In the memory task, in which a mental abstraction had to be made from a dynamic situation to a static snapshot, 3D stereo disparities do not add anything over and beyond 2D simulations. The specific task demands should be taken into account when considering the most appropriate format for testing and training. PMID:24857384

  5. Quantum Larmor radiation in a conformally flat universe

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Rampei; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2011-02-15

    We investigate the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an expanding universe based on the framework of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. A theoretical formula for the radiation energy is derived at the lowest order of the perturbation theory with respect to the coupling constant of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the radiation energy on the background universe so that the Minkowski spacetime transits to the Milne universe, in which the equation of motion for the mode function of the free complex scalar field can be exactly solved in an analytic way. Then, the result is compared with the WKB approach, in which the equation of motion of the mode function is constructed with the WKB approximation which is valid as long as the Compton wavelength is shorter than the Hubble horizon length. This demonstrates that the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation of the order e{sup 2}({h_bar}/2{pi}) is determined by a nonlocal integration in time depending on the background expansion. We also compare our result with a recent work by Higuchi and Walker [Phys. Rev. D 80, 105019 (2009)], which investigated the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a charged particle in a nonrelativistic motion in a homogeneous electric field.

  6. Nutrient removal in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds with carbon dioxide addition.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2011-01-01

    The influence of CO2 addition to high rate algal ponds (HRAPS) on nitrogen removal was investigated using two pilot-scale HRAPs operated with different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 4 and 8 days), and was compared to the nitrogen removal by the 8-day HRT pond before CO2 addition was installed. Nitrogen balances were calculated by partitioning total nitrogen into organic and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N), and by separation of the organic nitrogen into particulate (PON) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). PON was further divided into algal organic nitrogen (AON) and bacteria organic nitrogen (BON) to investigate nitrogen mass flow in the HRAPS. This research shows that the proportion of algae in the algal/bacterial biomass in the longer 8-day HRT HRAP8d (55.6%) was appreciably lower than that in the shorter 4-day HRT HRAP4d (80.5%) when CO2 was added to control the maximum pH to <8.0 during the summer. Higher bacterial biomass in the longer 8-day HRT HRAP corresponded with higher nitrification rates, indicating that the longer 8-day HRT in the summer was detrimental for two reasons: lower algal productivity and increased nitrogen loss through nitrification/denitrification. Overall nitrogen removal of approximately 60% in the HRAPS with CO2 addition was mainly achieved by algal assimilation followed by sedimentation in the settling unit.

  7. Dipyrone has no effects on bone healing of tibial fractures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Sansanovicz, Dennis; Ventin, Fernando Carvalho; Paes, Rodrigo Henrique; Quevedo, Francisco Carlos; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dipyrone on healing of tibial fractures in rats. METHODS: Fourty-two Wistar rats were used, with mean body weight of 280g. After being anesthetized, they were submitted to closed fracture of the tibia and fibula of the right posterior paw through manual force. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group that received a daily intraperitoneal injection of saline solution; group D-40, that received saline injection containing 40mg/Kg dipyrone; and group D-80, that received saline injection containing 80mg/Kg dipyrone. After 28 days the rats were sacrificed and received a new label code that was known by only one researcher. The fractured limbs were then amputated and X-rayed. The tibias were disarticulated and subjected to mechanical, radiological and histological evaluation. For statistical analysis the Kruskal-Wallis test was used at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There wasn't any type of dipyrone effect on healing of rats tibial fractures in relation to the control group. CONCLUSION: Dipyrone may be used safely for pain control in the treatment of fractures, without any interference on bone healing. Level of Evidence II, Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:25246852

  8. Alternative approaches to valuing intangible health losses: the evidence for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sloan, F A; Viscusi, W K; Chesson, H W; Conover, C J; Whetten-Goldstein, K

    1998-08-01

    This study uses both risk-risk and risk-dollar approaches to assess intangible health losses associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Using an estimation approach that adjusts for potential perceptional biases that may effect the expressed risk tradeoffs, we estimated parameters of the utility function of persons with and without MS as well as the degree of subjects" overestimation of the probability of obtaining MS. The sample included subjects from the general population and persons with MS. We found that marginal utility of income is lower in the state with MS than without it. However, the difference in marginal in two states was greater for persons without MS than for those with the disease. Persons with MS overestimated the probability of acquiring MS to a greater extent than did persons within MS. Correcting for overestimation of this probability, the value of intangible loss of a statistical case of MS derived from responses of the general population was US$350,000 to US$500.000. Persons with MS were willing to pay somewhat more than this (D80,118,J17).

  9. The use of 2D and 3D information in a perceptual-cognitive judgement task.

    PubMed

    Put, Koen; Wagemans, Johan; Spitz, Jochim; Gallardo, Manuel Armenteros; Williams, A Mark; Helsen, Werner F

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the use of three-dimensional (3D) simulations in an off-field offside decision-making task is beneficial compared to the more widely available two-dimensional (2D) simulations. Thirty-three assistant referees, who were all involved in professional football, participated in the experiment. They assessed 40 offside situations in both 2D and 3D formats using a counterbalanced design. A distinction was made between offside situations near (i.e., 15 m) and far (i.e., 30 m) from the touchline. Subsequently, a frame recognition task was performed in which assistant referees were asked to indicate which of the five pictures represented the previous video scene. A higher response accuracy score was observed under 3D (80.0%) compared to 2D (75.0%) conditions, in particular for the situations near the touchline (3D: 81.8%; 2D: 72.7%). No differences were reported between 2D and 3D in the frame recognition task. Findings suggest that in highly dynamic and complex situations, the visual system can benefit from the availability of 3D information, especially for relatively fine, metric position judgements. In the memory task, in which a mental abstraction had to be made from a dynamic situation to a static snapshot, 3D stereo disparities do not add anything over and beyond 2D simulations. The specific task demands should be taken into account when considering the most appropriate format for testing and training.

  10. Time-dependent evolution of functional vs. remodeling signaling in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induced maturation with biomechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Gwanghyun; Fajardo, Giovanni; Ribeiro, Alexandre J S; Kooiker, Kristina Bezold; Coronado, Michael; Zhao, Mingming; Hu, Dong-Qing; Reddy, Sushma; Kodo, Kazuki; Sriram, Krishna; Insel, Paul A; Wu, Joseph C; Pruitt, Beth L; Bernstein, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are a powerful platform for uncovering disease mechanisms and assessing drugs for efficacy/toxicity. However, the accuracy with which hiPSC-CMs recapitulate the contractile and remodeling signaling of adult cardiomyocytes is not fully known. We used β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling as a prototype to determine the evolution of signaling component expression and function during hiPSC-CM maturation. In "early" hiPSC-CMs (less than or equal to d 30), β2-ARs are a primary source of cAMP/PKA signaling. With longer culture, β1-AR signaling increases: from 0% of cAMP generation at d 30 to 56.8 ± 6.6% by d 60. PKA signaling shows a similar increase: 15.7 ± 5.2% (d 30), 49.8 ± 0.5% (d 60), and 71.0 ± 6.1% (d 90). cAMP generation increases 9-fold from d 30 to 60, with enhanced coupling to remodeling pathways (e.g., Akt and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II) and development of caveolin-mediated signaling compartmentalization. By contrast, cardiotoxicity induced by chronic β-AR stimulation, a major component of heart failure, develops much later: 5% cell death at d 30vs 55% at d 90. Moreover, β-AR maturation can be accelerated by biomechanical stimulation. The differential maturation of β-AR functionalvs remodeling signaling in hiPSC-CMs has important implications for their use in disease modeling and drug testing. We propose that assessment of signaling be added to the indices of phenotypic maturation of hiPSC-CMs.-Jung, G., Fajardo, G., Ribeiro, A. J. S., Kooiker, K. B., Coronado, M., Zhao, M., Hu, D.-Q., Reddy, S., Kodo, K., Sriram, K., Insel, P. A., Wu, J. C., Pruitt, B. L., Bernstein, D. Time-dependent evolution of functionalvs remodeling signaling in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induced maturation with biomechanical stimulation. PMID:26675706

  11. Time-dependent evolution of functional vs. remodeling signaling in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induced maturation with biomechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Gwanghyun; Fajardo, Giovanni; Ribeiro, Alexandre J S; Kooiker, Kristina Bezold; Coronado, Michael; Zhao, Mingming; Hu, Dong-Qing; Reddy, Sushma; Kodo, Kazuki; Sriram, Krishna; Insel, Paul A; Wu, Joseph C; Pruitt, Beth L; Bernstein, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are a powerful platform for uncovering disease mechanisms and assessing drugs for efficacy/toxicity. However, the accuracy with which hiPSC-CMs recapitulate the contractile and remodeling signaling of adult cardiomyocytes is not fully known. We used β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling as a prototype to determine the evolution of signaling component expression and function during hiPSC-CM maturation. In "early" hiPSC-CMs (less than or equal to d 30), β2-ARs are a primary source of cAMP/PKA signaling. With longer culture, β1-AR signaling increases: from 0% of cAMP generation at d 30 to 56.8 ± 6.6% by d 60. PKA signaling shows a similar increase: 15.7 ± 5.2% (d 30), 49.8 ± 0.5% (d 60), and 71.0 ± 6.1% (d 90). cAMP generation increases 9-fold from d 30 to 60, with enhanced coupling to remodeling pathways (e.g., Akt and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II) and development of caveolin-mediated signaling compartmentalization. By contrast, cardiotoxicity induced by chronic β-AR stimulation, a major component of heart failure, develops much later: 5% cell death at d 30vs 55% at d 90. Moreover, β-AR maturation can be accelerated by biomechanical stimulation. The differential maturation of β-AR functionalvs remodeling signaling in hiPSC-CMs has important implications for their use in disease modeling and drug testing. We propose that assessment of signaling be added to the indices of phenotypic maturation of hiPSC-CMs.-Jung, G., Fajardo, G., Ribeiro, A. J. S., Kooiker, K. B., Coronado, M., Zhao, M., Hu, D.-Q., Reddy, S., Kodo, K., Sriram, K., Insel, P. A., Wu, J. C., Pruitt, B. L., Bernstein, D. Time-dependent evolution of functionalvs remodeling signaling in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induced maturation with biomechanical stimulation.

  12. Comparison of long-term (10 years) immunogenicity of two- and three-dose regimens of a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beran, Jiri; Kervyn, Diane; Wertzova, Veronika; Hobzova, Lenka; Tichy, Petr; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2010-08-23

    300 adolescents aged 12-15 years were randomised (1:1) into two groups to compare the long-term (10 years) immunogenicity profile of two doses of an Adult formulation [Group HAB_2D: 150; 0-6 months] vs. three doses of a Paediatric formulation [Group HAB_3D: 150; 0-1-6 months] of a combined hepatitis A and B (HAB) vaccine. At Year 10, anti-HAV seropositivity rate was 100% in both groups, while 85.9% and 85.1% subjects in the HAB_2D and HAB_3D groups, respectively, had anti-HBs antibody concentrations > or =10 mIU/mL. The anti-HAV antibody GMCs (HAB_2D: 429.3 mIU/mL; HAB_3D: 335.5 mIU/mL) and anti-HBs antibody GMCs (HAB_2D: 50.6 mIU/mL; HAB_3D: 60.1 mIU/mL) were similar in both groups. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Hence, with respect to long-term antibody persistence, the two-dose schedule of the combined HAB vaccine Adult formulation is an effective alternative to the conventional three-dose schedule of the Paediatric formulation in adolescents.

  13. An Effectiveness Trial of a New Enhanced Dissonance Eating Disorder Prevention Program among Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Butryn, Meghan L.; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Efficacy trials indicate that a dissonance-based prevention program in which female high school and college students with body image concerns critique the thin-ideal reduced risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and future eating disorder onset, but weaker effects emerged from an effectiveness trial wherein high school clinicians recruited students and delivered the program under real-world conditions. The present effectiveness trial tested whether a new enhanced dissonance version of this program produced larger effects when college clinicians recruited students and delivered the intervention using improved procedures to select, train, and supervise clinicians. Method Young women recruited from seven universities across the US (N = 408, M age = 21.6, SD = 5.64) were randomized to the dissonance intervention or an educational brochure control condition. Results Dissonance participants showed significantly greater decreases in risk factors (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect) and eating disorder symptoms versus controls at posttest and 1-year follow-up, resulting in medium average effect size (d = .60). Dissonance participants also reported significant improvements in psychosocial functioning, but not reduced healthcare utilization or unhealthy weight gain. Conclusions This novel multisite effectiveness trial with college clinicians found that the enhanced dissonance version of this program and the improved facilitator selection/training procedures produced average effects that were 83% larger than effects observed in the high school effectiveness trial. PMID:24189570

  14. The effect of pressure on the surface plasmon absorption spectra of colloidal gold and silver particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coffer, J.L.; Shapley, J.R.; Drickamer, H.G. )

    1990-05-09

    The first measurements of the effect of pressure on the peak position ({omega}{sub sp}) and line width (fwhm) of the surface plasmon absorption in several Au and Ag hydrosols have been recorded up to 10 kbar. Red shifts of the plasmon peak with increasing pressure are observed for relatively large metal particles prepared by the citrate procedure (Au, {anti d} = 265 {angstrom}; Ag, {anti d} = 230 {angstrom}). The shift for silver is over twice that of gold ({minus}420 cm{sup {minus}1} vs {minus} 200 cm{sup {minus}1}). These red shifts are interpreted in terms of pressure-induced volume changes within the context of a free-electron model. In contrast, particles prepared by the Faraday method (Au, {anti d} = 54 {angstrom}; Ag, d{anti d} = 60 {angstrom}) show initial blue shifts with pressure, with the magnitude again larger for silver. Upon aging (as well as upon heating in the case of Au), the Au and Ag Faraday sols exhibit an increase in their average particle size and degree of aggregation. Correspondingly, the pressure response of their plasmon absorption approaches that of the citrate sols.

  15. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Morris, E Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2011-09-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle.

  16. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E. Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  17. Radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert J; Wood, Simon P; Hutchinson, John R; Weller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. Here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). Computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. A single foot deemed free of pathology was radiographed using a range of different projections and exposures to determine the best protocol. 3D models were produced from the CT images and were displayed with the real radiographs to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros pes. An optimal radiographic projection was determined for each bone in the rhinoceros pes focusing on highlighting areas where pathology has been previously described. The projections deemed to be most useful were D60Pr-PlDiO (digit III), D45Pr45M-PlDiLO (digit II), and D40Pr35L-PlDiLO (digit IV). The primary beam was centered 5-7 cm proximal to the cuticle on the digit of interest. Articular surfaces, ridges, grooves, tubercles, processes and fossae were identified. The radiographic protocol we have developed along with the normal radiographic anatomy we have described will allow for more accessible and effective diagnosis of white rhinoceros foot osteopathologies.

  18. Analysis of Stage-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in the Uterine Endometrium during Pregnancy in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mingoo; Seo, Heewon; Choi, Yohan; Yoo, Inkyu; Seo, Minseok; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Heebal; Ka, Hakhyun

    2015-01-01

    The uterine endometrium plays a critical role in regulating the estrous cycle and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammalian species. Many studies have investigated the expression and function of genes in the uterine endometrium, but the global expression pattern of genes and relationships among genes differentially expressed in the uterine endometrium during gestation in pigs remain unclear. Thus, this study investigated global gene expression profiles using microarray in pigs. Diverse transcriptome analyses including clustering, network, and differentially expressed gene (DEG) analyses were performed to detect endometrial gene expression changes during the different gestation stages. In total, 6,991 genes were found to be differentially expressed by comparing genes expressed on day (D) 12 of pregnancy with those on D15, D30, D60, D90 and D114 of pregnancy, and clustering analysis of detected DEGs distinguished 8 clusters. Furthermore, several pregnancy-related hub genes such as ALPPL2, RANBP17, NF1B, SPP1, and CST6 were discovered through network analysis. Finally, detected hub genes were technically validated by quantitative RT-PCR. These results suggest the complex network characteristics involved in uterine endometrial gene expression during pregnancy and indicate that diverse patterns of stage-specific gene expression and network connections may play a critical role in endometrial remodeling and in placental and fetal development to establish and maintenance of pregnancy in pigs.

  19. Thermal resistance of Saccharomyces yeast ascospores in beers.

    PubMed

    Milani, Elham A; Gardner, Richard C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-01

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are yeasts used to produce top and bottom fermenting beers, respectively. In this research, first the sporulation rate of 12 Saccharomyces strains was studied. Then, the thermal resistance of ascospores of three S. cerevisiae strains (DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, Ethanol Red(®)) and one strain of S. pastorianus (ATCC 9080) was determined in 4% (v/v) ethanol lager beer. D60 °C-values of 11.2, 7.5, 4.6, and 6.0 min and z-values of 11.7, 14.3, 12.4, and 12.7 °C were determined for DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, ATCC 9080, and Ethanol Red(®), respectively. Lastly, experiments with 0 and 7% (v/v) beers were carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol content on the thermal resistance of S. cerevisiae (DSMZ 1848). D55 °C-values of 34.2 and 15.3 min were obtained for 0 and 7% beers, respectively, indicating lower thermal resistance in the more alcoholic beer. These results demonstrate similar spore thermal resistance for different Saccharomyces strains and will assist in the design of appropriate thermal pasteurization conditions for preserving beers with different alcohol contents.

  20. Monte Carlo simulations and radiation dosimetry measurements of peripherally applied HDR 192Ir breast brachytherapy D-shaped applicators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun; Rivard, Mark J

    2009-03-01

    Conformal dose coverage for accelerated partial breast irradiation or radiotherapy boost can be obtained with AccuBoost D-shaped brachytherapy applicators using a flattened surface positioned near the patient. Three D-shaped applicators (D45/D53/D60) were dosimetrically characterized using Monte Carlo methods (MCNP5), air ionization chambers (Farmer and Markus), and radiochromic film (GafChromic EBT) in polystyrene and ICRU 44 breast tissue. HDR 192Ir source dwell times were either constant or optimized to improve skin dose uniformity. Scatter dose decreased as depth decreased. 10 mm beyond the applicator aperture, dose reductions of 90% and 51% were observed at depths of 0 and 30 mm, respectively. Similarly, planar dose uniformity improved as depth decreased and was also due to scatter and applicator geometry. Dose uniformity inside the applicator aperture was approximately 11% and 15% for all three applicators at the skin and 30 mm deep, respectively. Depth dose measurements in polystyrene using ion chamber and radiochromic film agreed with Monte Carlo results within 2%. Discrepancies between film and Monte Carlo dose profiles at 30 mm depth were within 1%.

  1. Heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in vacuum packaged pasteurized fish fillets.

    PubMed

    Ben Embarek, P K; Huss, H H

    1993-11-01

    The heat resistance of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes in sous-vide cooked fillets of cod and salmon was investigated. Fish sticks of 5 g were inoculated, vacuum-packed and heated at different combinations of time and temperature (58-80 degrees C). Time-temperature combinations allowing survival and time-temperature combinations at which the bacteria were destroyed, were used to determine D- and z-values. D-values were in the range of what has been published for other food products. D60-values were between 1.95 and 4.48 min depending on the strain and the fish. Both strains were one-four-times more heat resistant in salmon than in cod, showing the importance of the heating menstruum. This difference may be due to the higher fat content in salmon as compared to cod. Z-values were calculated to be 5.65 and 6.4 degrees C, respectively, for the two strains. The suitability of methods for heat resistance experiments and the survival of L. monocytogenes in sous-vide cooked fish fillets are discussed. PMID:8268058

  2. Effects of charged amino-acid mutation on the solution structure of cytochrome b5 and binding between cytochrome b5 and cytochrome c

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chengmin; Yao, Yong; Ye, Keqiong; Wang, Jinfeng; Tang, Wenxia; Wang, Yunhua; Wang, Wenhu; Lu, Junxia; Xie, Yi; Huang, Zhongxian

    2001-01-01

    The solution structure of oxidized bovine microsomal cytochrome b5 mutant (E48, E56/A, D60/A) has been determined through 1524 meaningful nuclear Overhauser effect constraints together with 190 pseudocontact shift constraints. The final family of 35 conformers has rmsd values with respect to the mean structure of 0.045±0.009 nm and 0.088±0.011 nm for backbone and heavy atoms, respectively. A characteristic of this mutant is that of having no significant changes in the whole folding and secondary structure compared with the X-ray and solution structures of wild-type cytochrome b5. The binding of different surface mutants of cytochrome b5 with cytochrome c shows that electrostatic interactions play an important role in maintaining the stability and specificity of the protein complex formed. The differences in association constants demonstrate the electrostatic contributions of cytochrome b5 surface negatively charged residues, which were suggested to be involved in complex formation in the Northrup and Salemme models, have cumulative effect on the stability of cyt c-cyt b5 complex, and the contribution of Glu48 is a little higher than that of Glu44. Moreover, our result suggests that the docking geometry proposed by Northrup, which is involved in the participation of Glu48, Glu56, Asp60, and heme propionate of cytochrome b5, do occur in the association between cytochrome b5 and cytochrome c. PMID:11714912

  3. Formation and decay of Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    We study various aspects of black holes and gravitational collapse in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Numerical evolution on hyperboloidal surfaces extending to future null infinity is used. We begin by constructing colored and Reissner-Nordström black holes on surfaces of constant mean curvature and analyze their perturbations. These linearly perturbed black holes are then evolved into the nonlinear regime and the masses of the final Schwarzschild black holes are computed as a function of the initial horizon radius. We compare with an information-theoretic bound on the lifetime of unstable hairy black holes derived by Hod. Finally we study critical phenomena in gravitational collapse at the threshold between different Yang-Mills vacuum states of the final Schwarzschild black holes, where the n =1 colored black hole forms the critical solution. The work of Choptuik et al. [Phys. Rev. D 60, 124011 (1999)] is extended by using a family of initial data that includes another region in parameter space where the colored black hole with the opposite sign of the Yang-Mills potential forms the critical solution. We investigate the boundary between the two regions and discover that the Reissner-Nordström solution appears as a new approximate codimension-two attractor.

  4. Brief Motivational Feedback and Cognitive Behavioral Interventions for Prevention of Disordered Gambling: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Larimer, Mary E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lostutter, Ty W.; Whiteside, Ursula; Cronce, Jessica M.; Kaysen, Debra; Walker, Denise D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims The purpose of the current study was to evaluate feasibility and efficacy of two promising approaches to indicated prevention of disordered gambling in a college population. Design Randomized controlled trial with assignment to a Personalized Feedback Intervention (PFI), Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention (CBI), or Assessment-Only Control (AOC). PFI was individually delivered in a single session and included feedback regarding gambling behavior, norms, consequences, and risk-reduction tips, delivered in a motivational interviewing style. CBI was delivered in small groups over 4-6 sessions and included functional analysis, brief cognitive correction, as well as identification of and alternatives for responding to gambling triggers. Setting College campus. Participants At-risk or probable pathological gamblers (N = 147; 65.3% male; group assignment: PFI, n = 52; CBI, n = 44; AOC, n = 51). Measurements Self-reported gambling quantity, frequency, consequences, psychopathology, normative perceptions, and beliefs. Findings Relative to control, results at 6-month follow-up indicated reductions in both interventions for gambling consequences (PFI d = .48; CBI d = .39) and DSM-IV criteria (PFI d=.60; CBI d=.48), reductions in frequency for PFI (d = .48). CBI was associated with reduced illusions of control, whereas PFI was associated with reduced perceptions of gambling frequency norms. Reductions in perceived gambling frequency norms mediated effects of PFI on gambling frequency. Conclusions A single-session Personalized Feedback Intervention and a multi-session Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention may be helpful in reducing disordered gambling in US college students. PMID:22188239

  5. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = 0.57..mu..M. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ = 60..mu..M, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Altered stress-induced cortisol levels in goats exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 126 and PCB 153) during fetal and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Karin E; Gutleb, Arno C; Lyche, Jan L; Dahl, Ellen; Oskam, Irma C; Krogenaes, Anette; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Ropstad, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Short-term stress exposure is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a consequent rise in blood glucocorticoids and catecholamines, from the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. The HPA axis is a potential target for some persistent organic pollutants, among which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found to be modulators of the mammalian endocrine system. PCB are distributed globally in the environment, in food chains, and are transferred to the fetuses of pregnant animals and via mother's milk to suckling offspring. In the present study it was postulated that intrauterine and lactational exposure to either of two single congeners of PCB (PCB 153 and PCB 126, respectively) might affect basal cortisol concentrations, and also the cortisol response to short-term stress in adulthood. Thus, pregnant goats were orally exposed to one of these PCB congeners from d 60 of gestation until delivery, and their offspring studied. Low-dose exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 126 resulted in significantly lower mean basal cortisol concentrations in goat offspring during certain periods of pubertal development and their first breeding season. Male goat kids exposed to either PCB congener showed a greater and more prolonged rise in plasma cortisol levels than controls when animals were subjected to mild stress at 9 mo of age using frequent blood sampling. Neither the basal maternal cortisol plasma level nor goat kid adrenal masses were affected by PCB exposure.

  7. Cassava Stillage Treatment by Thermophilic Anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi

    2010-11-01

    This paper assesses the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in the treatment of cassava stillage under various organic loading rates (OLRs) without suspended solids (SS) separation. The reactor was seeded with mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge, and the OLR increased by increments to 13.80 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 5d) over 80 days. Total COD removal efficiency remained stable at 90%, with biogas production at 18 L/d (60% methane). Increase in the OLR to 19.30 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 3d), however, led to a decrease in TCOD removal efficiency to 79% due to accumulation of suspended solids and incomplete degradation after shortened retention time. Reactor performance subsequently increased after OLR reduction. Alkalinity, VFA and pH levels were not significantly affected by OLR variation, indicating that no additional alkaline or pH adjustment is required. More than half of the SS in the cassava stillage could be digested in the process when HRT was 5 days, which demonstrated the suitability of anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage without SS separation.

  8. Effects of age and dietary soybean oil level on eggshell quality, bone strength and blood biochemistry in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cui, L Y; Hou, J F; Shi, C; Ke, X; Yang, L C; Ma, X P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into three diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). The hens' body weights (BW), egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, BW, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period.

  9. Parathyroid and Calcium Status in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Meenu; Abrol, Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Thirty patients with thalassemia major receiving repeated blood transfusion were studied to see their serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium status. Serum PTH, serum and 24 h urinary calcium, and serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were determined. Half of these patients, in addition to transfusion, were also supplemented with vitamin D (60,000 IU for 10d) and calcium (1500 mg/day for 3 months). Serum PTH, and serum and 24 h urinary calcium concentrations of the patients receiving transfusions were found to be significantly reduced while their serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were not significantly altered when compared to the respective mean values for the control group. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation significantly increased their serum PTH and calcium levels. Supplementations also increased urinary excretion of calcium. The results thus suggest that patients with thalassemia have hypoparathyroidism and reduced serum calcium concentrations that in turn were improved with vitamin D and calcium supplementation. PMID:21966110

  10. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    PubMed Central

    Boucetta, Kenza Qiraouani; Charrouf, Zoubida; Derouiche, Abdelfattah; Rahali, Younes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30) and the control group olive oil (n = 30). Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days’ period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and water content of the epidermis (WCE) on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60) of oils treatment. Results The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023) and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001). The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01) and a significant increase in WCE (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and application of argan oil have improved the skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity. PMID:26327867

  11. Temporally Variable Land Cover Parameterizations for the USGS National Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, R. M.; Viger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover changes can have a substantive effect on hydrologic response. Although land cover can change over time, parameter values that describe aspects of land cover are typically held constant in hydrologic modeling applications. This is often not realistic for periods of simulation that exceed even a relatively short time span of a decade. To address this shortcoming during the development of the US Geological Survey (USGS) National Hydrologic Model (NHM), simulations of historical land cover conditions are used to derive annually-varying sequences of hydrologic modeling parameters to describe the USGS Geospatial Fabric (GF) Feature Set (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/535eda80e4b08e65d60fc834). The GF is used by the NHM as the delineation of the modeling response units and routing network. The presentation will describe spatial and temporal trends in historical land cover and their impact on simulations of streamflow for the conterminous United States. It will also describe the prototype NHM workflow that is used to examine potential improvements in representation of non-stationarity in hydrologically important characteristics, which the authors seek to apply for both historical and future periods of simulation.

  12. Will older sedentary people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus start exercising? A health promotion model.

    PubMed

    Samaras, K; Ashwell, S; Mackintosh, A M; Fleury, A C; Campbell, L V; Chisholm, D J

    1997-08-01

    Exercise and diet are the cornerstones of management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Many older people have difficulty in exercising, missing benefits on glycaemic control, weight, cardiac disease and mood. We report the outcomes of a 6 month structured exercise and support programme based on a health promotion model, on physical activity, glycaemic control and parameters of cardiovascular risk in non-exercisers, compared with standard outpatient clinic education. A total of 26 non-exercising patients were randomised to an intervention or control group (ten men, 16 women; mean age (+/- S.D.) 60 +/- 8 years). Programme participation was not associated with any significant increase in activity. Glycated hemoglobin (HbAtc) levels tended to stabilise in the intervention group during the 6 month programme and to deteriorate in the control group (P = 0.03); by 12 months HbA1C levels deteriorated to a similar level in both. Programme participation did not cause significant change in anthropometric or metabolic parameters. Examining the cohort as a whole, increased activity over 6 months was associated with improvements in weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat and fasting insulin. Activity increases over 12 months were associated with improvements in weight and BMI. These changes could not be attributed to changes in energy intake or dietary composition. We conclude that while exercise can benefit older people with NIDDM, a programme based on a model of health promotion was not effective in increasing physical activity.

  13. Analysis of Stage-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in the Uterine Endometrium during Pregnancy in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mingoo; Seo, Heewon; Choi, Yohan; Yoo, Inkyu; Seo, Minseok; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Heebal; Ka, Hakhyun

    2015-01-01

    The uterine endometrium plays a critical role in regulating the estrous cycle and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammalian species. Many studies have investigated the expression and function of genes in the uterine endometrium, but the global expression pattern of genes and relationships among genes differentially expressed in the uterine endometrium during gestation in pigs remain unclear. Thus, this study investigated global gene expression profiles using microarray in pigs. Diverse transcriptome analyses including clustering, network, and differentially expressed gene (DEG) analyses were performed to detect endometrial gene expression changes during the different gestation stages. In total, 6,991 genes were found to be differentially expressed by comparing genes expressed on day (D) 12 of pregnancy with those on D15, D30, D60, D90 and D114 of pregnancy, and clustering analysis of detected DEGs distinguished 8 clusters. Furthermore, several pregnancy-related hub genes such as ALPPL2, RANBP17, NF1B, SPP1, and CST6 were discovered through network analysis. Finally, detected hub genes were technically validated by quantitative RT-PCR. These results suggest the complex network characteristics involved in uterine endometrial gene expression during pregnancy and indicate that diverse patterns of stage-specific gene expression and network connections may play a critical role in endometrial remodeling and in placental and fetal development to establish and maintenance of pregnancy in pigs. PMID:26580069

  14. A frequency-duty cycle equation for the ACGIH hand activity level

    PubMed Central

    Radwin, Robert G.; Azari, David P.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ulin, Sheryl S.; Armstrong, Thomas J.; Rempel, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective A new equation for predicting the hand activity level (HAL) used in the ACGIH threshold limit value® (TLV®), was based on exertion frequency (F) and percentage duty cycle (D). Background The TLV® includes a table for estimating HAL from F and D originating from data in Latko et al. (1997) and post-hoc adjustments that includes extrapolations outside of the data range. Methods Multimedia video task analysis determined D for two additional jobs from Latko’s study not in the original data set, and a new non-linear regression equation was developed to better fit the data and create a more accurate table. Results The equation, HAL=6.56lnD[F1.311+3.18F1.31], generally matches the TLV® HAL lookup table, and is a substantial improvement over the linear model, particularly for F > 1.25 Hz and D > 60% jobs. Conclusion The equation more closely fits the data and applies the TLV® using a continuous function. Practitioner Summary The original HAL lookup table is limited in resolution, omits values, and extrapolates values outside of the range of data. A new equation and table was developed to address these issues. PMID:25343340

  15. Hydrophilic thermoplastic polyurethanes for the manufacturing of highly dosed oral sustained release matrices via hot melt extrusion and injection molding.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, G; Van Renterghem, J; Van Bockstal, P J; Kasmi, S; De Geest, B G; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-06-15

    Hydrophilic aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane (Tecophilic™ grades) matrices for high drug loaded oral sustained release dosage forms were formulated via hot melt extrusion/injection molding (HME/IM). Drugs with different aqueous solubility (diprophylline, theophylline and acetaminophen) were processed and their influence on the release kinetics was investigated. Moreover, the effect of Tecophilic™ grade, HME/IM process temperature, extrusion speed, drug load, injection pressure and post-injection pressure on in vitro release kinetics was evaluated for all model drugs. (1)H NMR spectroscopy indicated that all grades have different soft segment/hard segment ratios, allowing different water uptake capacities and thus different release kinetics. Processing temperature of the different Tecophilic™ grades was successfully predicted by using SEC and rheology. Tecophilic™ grades SP60D60, SP93A100 and TG2000 had a lower processing temperature than other grades and were further evaluated for the production of IM tablets. During HME/IM drug loads up to 70% (w/w) were achieved. In addition, Raman mapping and (M)DSC results confirmed the homogenous distribution of mainly crystalline API in all polymer matrices. Besides, hydrophilic TPU based formulations allowed complete and sustained release kinetics without using release modifiers. As release kinetics were mainly affected by drug load and the length of the PEO soft segment, this polymer platform offers a versatile formulation strategy to adjust the release rate of drugs with different aqueous solubility. PMID:27113866

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in immune system genes and their association with clinical symptoms persistence in dengue-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Dettogni, Raquel Spinassé; Tristão-Sá, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Marcelo; da Silva, Franciane Figueiredo; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2015-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dengue clinical symptom persistence during 60days of disease follow up, in patients of Espírito Santo state (ES)-Brazil and to evaluate the relation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FcγRIIa, CD209, VDR, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-γ genes with symptom persistence. During 2012-2013, 96 blood samples from individuals diagnosed with symptomatic dengue were collected. Clinical symptom persistence in 60days of follow-up was assessed by a clinical and epidemiological questionnaire filled in 4 interviews. SNP genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In two months of monitoring the dengue infection, we observed that symptoms persisted in 38.5% (37/96) of dengue patients at the end of the first month (D30) and in 11.5% (11/96) of dengue patients at the end of the second month (D60). Our results show an association between FcγRIIa, TNF-α and IL-6 gene SNPs and symptom persistence and an association trend with CD209, IL-4 and IFN-γ gene SNPs. Our findings may increase the knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms of persistent symptoms of infection with the dengue virus (DENV) and thus help the clinical management of patients.

  17. Changing the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio in sow diets alters serum, colostrum, and milk fatty acid profiles, but has minimal impact on reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, L; Leterme, P; Beaulieu, A D

    2014-12-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that reducing the omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratio in sow diets will improve performance, characterized by increased litter size, decreased preweaning mortality, and improved growth performance. Second, we determined if the FA profile in sow and piglet blood, colostrum, and milk are altered when sows are fed diets with varied n-6:n-3 ratios and if the dietary FA ratio impacts circulating concentrations of IgG, IgA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid. Sows (n=150) were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (each divided into gestation and lactation diets) on d 80 of gestation. Period 1 (P1) is defined as d 80 of gestation to weaning and Period 2 (P2) refers to the subsequent breeding to weaning. Diets were wheat and barley based (5% crude fat) and treatments consisted of a control (tallow), 3 diets with plant oil-based n-6:n-3 ratios (9:1P, 5:1P, and 1:1P), and a 5:1 fish oil diet (5:1F). Litter size was unaffected by treatment during P1 and P2 (P>0.10). In P1, birth weight was unaffected by diet (P>0.10); however, weaning weight (P=0.019) and ADG from birth to weaning (P=0.011) were greatest for piglets born to 9:1P and 5:1P sows. During P2, 5:1F sows consumed 10% less feed during lactation (P=0.036), tended to have reduced piglet birth weights (P=0.052), and piglet weaning weight was reduced by 0.8 kg (P=0.040) relative to the other diets. Colostrum and piglet serum IgA and IgG concentrations were unaffected by diet (P>0.10). Serum n-3 FA were greatest in sows (P<0.01) consuming 1:1P and 5:1F diets and in their offspring (P=0.014). Serum α-linolenic acid (ALA) was greatest in 1:1P sows and EPA and DHA were greatest in 5:1F sows (P<0.01). In pre-suckle piglet serum, ALA did not differ among treatment groups (P>0.10). Relative to piglets of sows consuming the control diet, EPA was 2.5-fold greater in the 1:1P group and 4-fold greater in 5:1F group (P<0.01) before suckling. In post-suckle samples

  18. Application of the Minkowski-functionals for automated pattern classification of breast parenchyma depicted by digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Fischer, Tanja; Riosk, Dororthea; Britsch, Stefanie; Reiser, Maximilian

    2008-03-01

    With an estimated life-time-risk of about 10%, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in western societies. Extensive mammography-screening programs have been implemented for diagnosis of the disease at an early stage. Several algorithms for computer-aided detection (CAD) have been proposed to help radiologists manage the increasing number of mammographic image-data and identify new cases of cancer. However, a major issue with most CAD-solutions is the fact that performance strongly depends on the structure and density of the breast tissue. Prior information about the global tissue quality in a patient would be helpful for selecting the most effective CAD-approach in order to increase the sensitivity of lesion-detection. In our study, we propose an automated method for textural evaluation of digital mammograms using the Minkowski Functionals in 2D. 80 mammograms are consensus-classified by two experienced readers as fibrosis, involution/atrophy, or normal. For each case, the topology of graylevel distribution is evaluated within a retromamillary image-section of 512 x 512 pixels. In addition, we obtain parameters from the graylevel-histogram (20th percentile, median and mean graylevel intensity). As a result, correct classification of the mammograms based on the densitometic parameters is achieved in between 38 and 48%, whereas topological analysis increases the rate to 83%. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Compared to features obtained from graylevel histograms and comparable studies, we draw the conclusion that the presented method performs equally good or better. Our future work will be focused on the characterization of the mammographic tissue according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Moreover, other databases will be tested for an in-depth evaluation of the efficiency of our proposal.

  19. Dosimetric analysis and comparison of IMRT and HDR brachytherapy in treatment of localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Murali, V; Kurup, P G G; Mahadev, P; Mahalakshmi, S

    2010-04-01

    Radical radiotherapy is one of the options for the management of prostate cancer. In external beam therapy, 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are the options for delivery of increased radiation dose, as vital organs are very close to the prostate and a higher dose to these structures leads to an increased toxicity. In brachytherapy, low dose rate brachytherapy with permanent implant of radioactive seeds and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) with remote after loaders are available. A dosimetric analysis has been made on IMRT and HDR brachytherapy plans. Ten cases from each IMRT and HDR brachytherapy have been taken for the study. The analysis includes comparison of conformity and homogeneity indices, D100, D95, D90, D80, D50, D10 and D5 of the target. For the organs at risk (OAR), namely rectum and bladder, V100, V90 and V50 are compared. In HDR brachytherapy, the doses to 1 cc and 0.1 cc of urethra have also been studied. Since a very high dose surrounds the source, the 300% dose volumes in the target and within the catheters are also studied in two plans, to estimate the actual volume of target receiving dose over 300%. This study shows that the prescribed dose covers 93 and 92% of the target volume in IMRT and HDR brachytherapy respectively. HDR brachytherapy delivers a much lesser dose to OAR, compared to the IMRT. For rectum, the V50 in IMRT is 34.0cc whilst it is 7.5cc in HDR brachytherapy. With the graphic optimization tool in HDR brachytherapy planning, the dose to urethra could be kept within 120% of the target dose. Hence it is concluded that HDR brachytherapy may be the choice of treatment for cancer of prostate in the early stage.

  20. Development of Evaluation Methods for Lower Limb Function between Aged and Young Using Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Yohei; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Ohya, Tetsuya; Koyama, Hironori; Kawasumi, Masashi

    There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the fall of the aged. The improvement in aged people's the muscular strength of the lower-limb, postural control and walking ability are important for quality of life and fall prevention. The aim of this study was to develop multiple evaluation methods in order to advise for improvement and maintenance of lower limb function between aged and young. The subjects were 16 healthy young volunteers (mean ± S.D: 19.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 healthy aged volunteers (mean ± S.D: 80.6 ± 6.1 years). Measurement items related to lower limb function were selected from the items which we have ever used. Selected measurement items of function of lower are distance of extroversion of the toe, angle of flexion of the toe, maximum width of step, knee elevation, moving distance of greater trochanter, walking balance, toe-gap force and rotation range of ankle joint. Measurement items summarized by the principal component analysis into lower ability evaluation methods including walking ability and muscle strength of lower limb and flexibility of ankle. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.6 greater the assessment score of walking ability compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.4 greater the assessment score of muscle strength of lower limb compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.2 greater the assessment score of flexibility of ankle compared with the aged group. The results suggested that it was possible to assess the lower limb function of aged and young numerically and to advise on their foot function.

  1. Assessment of potential jaw-tracking advantage using control point sequences of VMAT planning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-in; Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; Choi, Chang Heon; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2014-03-06

    This study aims to evaluate the potential jaw-tracking advantage using control point sequences of volume volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning. VMAT plans for patients with prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancers were converted into new static arc (SA) plans. The SA plan consisted of a series of static fields at each control point of the VMAT plan. All other machine parameters of the SA plan were perfectly identical to those of the original VMAT plan. The jaw-tracking static arc (JTSA) plans were generated with fields that closed the jaws of each SA field into the multileaf collimators (MLCs) aperture. The dosimetric advantages of JTSA over SA were evaluated in terms of a dose-volume histogram (DVH) of organ at risk (OAR) after renormalizing both plans to make the same target coverage. Both plans were delivered to the MatriXX-based COMPASS system for 3D volume dose verification. The average jaw size reduction of the JTSA along the X direction was 3.1 ± 0.9 cm for prostate patients and 6.9 ± 1.9 cm for H&N patients. For prostate patients, the organs far from the target showed larger sparing (3.7%-8.1% on average) in JTSA than the organs adjacent to the target (1.1%-1.5%). For the H&N plans, the mean dose reductions for all organs ranged from 4.3% to 11.9%. The dose reductions were more significant in the dose regions of D80, D90, and D95 than the dose regions of D5, D10, and D20 for all patients. Likewise, the deliverability and reproducibility of jaw-tracking plan were validated. The measured dosimetric advantage of JTSA over SA coincided with the calculated one above.

  2. Inactivation of Aspergillus niger in mango nectar by high-pressure homogenization combined with heat shock.

    PubMed

    Tribst, Alline A L; Franchi, Mark A; Cristianini, Marcelo; de Massaguer, Pilar R

    2009-01-01

    This research evaluated the inactivation of a heat-resistant Aspergillus niger conidia in mango nectar by high-pressure homogenization (HPH) combined with heat shock. A. niger were inoculated in mango nectar (10(6) conidia mL(-1)) and subjected to HPH (300 to 100 MPa) and heat shock (80 degrees C for 5 to 20 min) before or after HPH. Processes were evaluated according to number of decimal reductions reached by each isolated or combined process. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe conidia wall after pressure treatment. Pressures below 150 MPa did not inactivate A. niger while pressures of 200 and 300 MPa resulted in 2 and more than 6 log reductions, respectively. D(80 degrees C) of A. niger was determined as 5.03 min. A heat shock of 80 degrees C/15 min, reaching 3 decimal conidia reductions, was applied before or after a 200 MPa pressure treatment to improve the decimal reduction to 5 log cycles. Results indicated that HPH inactivated A. niger in mango nectar at 300 MPa (>6.24 log cycles) and that, with pressure (200 MPa) combined with post heat shock, it was possible to obtain the same decimal reduction, showing a synergistic effect. On the other hand, pre heat shock associated with HPH resulted in an additive effect. The observation of A. niger conidia treated by HPH at 100 and 200 MPa by scanning electron microscopy indicated that HPH promoted intense cell wall damage, which can sensitize the conidia to post heat shock and possibly explain the synergistic effect observed. Practical Application: The results obtained in this paper are relevant to elucidate the mechanism of conidia inactivation in order to develop the application of HPH as an alternative pasteurization process for the fruit nectar industry.

  3. Improved Insulin Sensitivity After Exercise Training is Linked to Reduced Plasma C14:0 Ceramide in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kasumov, Takhar; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Hwang, Calvin; Huang, Hazel; Haus, Jacob M.; Zhang, Renliang; Kirwan, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and plasma ceramides in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Twenty-four adults with obesity and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=14), or diabetes (n=10) were studied before and after a 12-week supervised exercise-training program (5 d/wk, 1 hr/d, 80–85% of maximum heart rate). Changes in body composition were assessed using hydrostatic weighing and computed tomography. Peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity was assessed by a 40 mU/m2/min hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Plasma ceramides (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C20:0, C24:0 and C24:1) were quantified using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after separation with HPLC. Results Plasma ceramides were similar for the obese NGT and subjects with diabetes, despite differences in glucose tolerance. Exercise significantly reduced body weight and adiposity, and increased peripheral insulin sensitivity in both groups (P<0.05). In addition, plasma C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, and C24:0 ceramide levels were reduced in all subjects following the intervention (P<0.05). Decreases in total (r=-0.51, P=0.02) and C14:0 (r=-0.56, P=0.009) ceramide were negatively correlated with the increase in insulin sensitivity. Conclusion Ceramides are linked to exercise training-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity, and plasma C14:0 ceramide may provide a specific target for investigating lipid-related insulin resistance in obesity and T2D. PMID:25966363

  4. MCPI: a sub-minute Monte Carlo dose calculation engine for prostate implants.

    PubMed

    Chibani, Omar; Williamson, Jeffrey F

    2005-12-01

    An accelerated Monte Carlo code [Monte Carlo dose calculation for prostate implant (MCPI)] is developed for dose calculation in prostate brachytherapy. MCPI physically simulates a set of radioactive seeds with arbitrary positions and orientations, merged in a three-dimensional (3D) heterogeneous phantom representing the prostate and surrounding tissue. MCPI uses a phase space data source-model to account for seed self-absorption and seed anisotropy. A "hybrid geometry" model (full 3D seed geometry merged in 3D mesh of voxels) is used for rigorous treatment of the interseed attenuation and tissue heterogeneity effects. MCPI is benchmarked against the MCNP5 code for idealized and real implants, for 103Pd and 125I seeds. MCPI calculates the dose distribution (2-mm voxel mesh) of a 103Pd implant (83 seeds) with 2% average statistical uncertainty in 59 s using a single Pentium 4 PC (2.4 GHz). MCPI is more than 10(3) and 10(4) times faster than MCNP5 for prostate dose calculations using 2- and 1-mm voxels, respectively. To illustrate its usefulness, MCPI is used to quantify the dosimetric effects of interseed attenuation, tissue composition, and tissue calcifications. Ignoring the interseed attenuation effect or slightly varying the prostate tissue composition may lead to 6% decreases of D100, the dose delivered to 100% of the prostate. The presence of calcifications, covering 1%-5% of the prostate volume, decreases D80, D90, and D100 by up to 32%, 37%, and 58%, respectively. In conclusion, sub-minute dose calculations, taking into account all dosimetric effects, are now possible for more accurate dose planning and dose assessment in prostate brachytherapy.

  5. Experimental Study on the Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradients of Air-Oil-Water Three-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20°C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  6. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the

  7. Structural basis for the coupling between activation and inactivation gates in K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Cuello, Luis G.; Jogini, Vishwanath; Cortes, D. Marien.; Pan, Albert C; Gagnon, Dominique G.; Dalmas, Olivier; Cordero-Morales, Julio F.; Chakrapani, Sudha; Roux, Benoit; Perozo, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The coupled interplay between activation and inactivation gating is a functional hallmark of K+ channels1,2. This coupling has been experimentally demonstrated from ion interaction effects3,4, cysteine accessibility1 and is associated with a well-defined boundary of energetically coupled residues2. The structure of KcsA in its fully open conformation, as well as four other partial openings, richly illustrates the structural basis of activation-inactivation gating5. Here, we have identified the mechanistic principles by which movements on the inner bundle gate trigger conformational changes at the selectivity filter, leading to the non-conductive C-type inactivated state. Analysis of a series of KcsA open structures suggests that as a consequence of the hinge bending and rotation of TM2, the aromatic ring of Phe103 tilts towards residues Thr74 and Thr75 in the pore helix as well as Ile100 in the neighboring subunit. This allows the network of hydrogen bonds among residues W67, E71, and D80 to destabilize the selectivity filter6,7, facilitating entry to its non-conductive conformation. Mutations at position 103, affect gating kinetics in a size-dependent way: small side chain substitutions F103A and F103C severely impair inactivation kinetics, while larger side chains (F103W) have more subtle effects. This suggests that the allosteric coupling between the inner helical bundle and the selectivity filter might rely on straightforward mechanical deformation propagated through a network of steric contacts. Average interactions calculated from molecular dynamics simulations show favourable open state interaction-energies between Phe103 and surrounding residues. Similar interactions were probed in the Shaker K-channel where inactivation was impaired in the mutant I470A. We propose that side chain rearrangements at position 103 mechanically couple activation and inactivation in KcsA and a variety of other K channels. PMID:20613845

  8. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research.

  9. TNT transport and fate in contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Comfort, S.D.; Shea, P.J.; Hundal, L.S.

    1995-11-01

    Past disposal practices at munitions production plants have contaminated terrestrial and aquatk ecosystems with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). We determined TNT transport, degradation, and long-term sorption characteristics in soil. Transport experiments were conducted with repacked, unsaturated soil columns containing uncontaminated soil or layers of contaminated and uncontaminated soil. Uncontaminated soil columns received multiple pore volumes (22-50) of a TNT-{sup 3}H{sub 2}O pulse, containing 70 or 6.3 mg TNT L{sup -1} at a constant pore water velocity. TNT breakthrough curves (BTCs) never reached initial solute pulse concentrations. Apex concentrations (C/C{sub o}) were between 0.6 and 0.8 for an initial pulse of 70 mg TNT L{sup -1} and 0.2 to 0.3 for the 6.3 mg TNT L{sup -1} pulse. Earlier TNT breakthrough was observed at the higher pulse concentration. This mobility difference was predicted from the nonlinear adsorption isotherm determined for TNT sorption. In all experiments, a significant fraction of added TNT was recovered as amino degradates of TNT. Mass balance estimates indicated 81% of the added TNT was recovered (as TNT and amino degradates) from columns receiving the 70 mg TNT L{sup -1} pulse compared to 35% from columns receiving the 6.3 mg TNT L{sup -1} pulse. Most of the unaccountable TNT was hypothesized to be unextractable. This was supported by a 168-d sorption experiment, which found that within 14d, 80% of {sup 14}C activity (added as {sup 14}C-TNT) was adsorbed and roughly 40% unextractable. Our observations illustrate that TNT sorption and degradation are concentration-dependent and the assumptions of linear adsorption and adsorption-desorption singularity commonly used in transport modeling, may not be valid for predicting TNT transport in munitions-contaminated soils. 29 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Distribution of cortical granules in bovine oocytes classified by cumulus complex.

    PubMed

    Hosoe, M; Shioya, Y

    1997-11-01

    The present study was conducted to examine distributional changes of cortical granules (CGs) during meiotic maturation and fertilisation in vitro and the developmental ability in bovine oocytes classified by cumulus cells. The oocytes were classified by the morphology of their cumulus cell layers as follows: class A, compact and thick; class B, compact but thin; class C, naked; and class D, expanded. Some of the oocytes were stained with Lens curinalis agglutinin (LCA) before and after maturation in vitro and after insemination, and then stained with orcein to observe their nuclear stages. The others were left in culture. Distributional patterns of the CGs were classified into four types: type I, CGs distributed in clusters; type II, CGs dispersed and partly clustered; type III, all CGs dispersed; and type IV, no CGs. Most of the oocytes before culture showed a type I pattern, but this decreased after maturation culture, whereas type III increased in class A. The oocytes of class B showed similar changes while the oocytes of class C did not. In class C, many oocytes showed type I after culture, indicating that cytoplasmic maturation was not completed. In class D, 80.4% of the oocytes exhibited type III before maturation culture, indicating that their cytoplasmic maturation was different from classes A-C. And about 70% of the class D oocytes were at the nuclear stage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) before culture. The developmental rates to blastocysts in classes A-D were 28.7%, 23.1%, 0.5% and 3.4% respectively. PMID:9563685

  11. Accuracy of Corneal Power Measurements for Intraocular Lens Power Calculation after Myopic Laser In situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Helaly, Hany A.; El-Hifnawy, Mohammad A. M.; Shaheen, Mohamed Shafik; Abou El-Kheir, Amr F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of corneal power measurements for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods: The study evaluated 45 eyes with a history of myopic LASIK. Corneal power was measured using manual keratometry, automated keratometry, optical biometry, and Scheimflug tomography. Different hypothetical IOL power calculation formulas were performed for each case. Results: The steepest mean K value was measured with manual keratometry (37.48 ± 2.86 D) followed by automated keratometry (37.31 ± 2.83 D) then optical biometry (37.06 ± 2.98 D) followed by Scheimflug tomography (36.55 ± 3.08). None of the K values generated by Scheimflug tomography were steeper than the measurements from the other 3 instruments. Using equivalent K reading (EKR) 4 mm with the Double-K SRK/T formula, the refractive outcome generated 97.8% of cases within ± 2 D, 80.0% of cases within ± 1 D, and 42.2% of cases within ± 0.5 D. The best combination of formulas was “Shammas-PL + Double-K SRK/T formula using EKR 4 mm.” Conclusion: Scheimflug tomography imaging using the Holladay EKR 4 mm improved the accuracy of IOL power calculation in post-LASIK eyes. The best option is a combination of formulas. We recommended the use the combined “Shammas-PL ± Double-K SRK/T formula using EKR 4 mm”h for optical outcomes. PMID:26957851

  12. Experimental study on the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flow in horizontal pipes.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M; Shaahid, S M; Tunde, Lukman O; Al-Sarkhi, A

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20 °C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  13. Long-term fate and bioavailability of sediment associated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, R.S.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2000-06-01

    the fate and bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF; 4,6-tritium labeled) was examined over a 3-year period in littoral enclosures in a small oligotrophic lake in the Experimental Lakes Area. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was added as a single dose or as five small multiple additions over a 5-d period in a sediment slurry. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was rapidly redistributed, mainly to bottom sediments reflecting removal on settling particles. Between 0 and 120 d. 80 to 90% of TCDF in the water column was associated with particles (>1 {micro}m). The highest concentration of TCDF in suspended particles was consistently observed in the smallest size fraction (0.22--1 {micro}m) at 326 to 464 d post treatment. Mode of addition had no effect on TCDF concentrations in water or surficial sediments or pore waters throughout the experiment. Mean TCDF concentrations in surficial sediment were 1.830 {+-} 1.180 pg/g whereas they averaged 1.260 {+-} 596 pg/g OC from 318 to 851 d post treatment. Increasing concentrations of TCDE in lower sediment layers at 952 d suggests that TCDF was either diffusing into the sediment or undergoing burial. Fugacity (f) calculations indicated that the TCDF in enclosures shifted from disequilibrium favoring the water column to a disequilibrium with respect to bottom sediments from day 21 onward. Initially, TCDF was more bioavailable to filtering and deposit feeders (mussels, Chironomidae, Hexagenia sp., and zooplankton) in enclosures receiving multiple additions; however, differences were rarely statistically significant. Concentrations of TCDF in all organisms were initially high, and they decreased in later sampling periods. Biota--sediment-accumulation factors (BSAFs) in mussels and crayfish were >1 in the early sampling periods, which reflected greater bioavailability of the added particle-borne TCDF. By 851 d, BSAFs had declined to 0.02 to 0.04, reflecting removal of TCDF from the water column and from surficial sediments.

  14. Effect of essential fatty acid and zinc supplementation during pregnancy on birth intervals, neonatal piglet brain myelination, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality.

    PubMed

    Vallet, J L; Rempel, L A; Miles, J R; Webel, S K

    2014-06-01

    Omega fatty acids and zinc contribute to physiological pathways that could affect the farrowing process, stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and postweaning return to estrus. To determine effects of omega fatty acids and zinc on these reproductive traits, gilts were mated and fed either a control diet, a diet supplemented with 1.09% Gromega, a diet supplemented with 0.07% zinc sulfate, or a diet supplemented with both Gromega and zinc sulfate from d 80 of gestation until farrowing. Farrowings were video recorded to obtain birth intervals for each piglet, and the number of live and stillborn piglets was recorded. On d 1 after farrowing, piglets were weighed, and the smallest piglet in each litter was sacrificed. A blood sample was collected to measure the immunoglobulin immunocrit ratio, and brain, cerebellum, brain stem, full and empty stomach (to calculate stomach content weight), and heart weights were recorded. Because myelination of specific brain regions may affect preweaning mortality, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord tissues were measured for content of myelin basic proteins and myelin lipids. For remaining piglets, survival to weaning and weaning weights were recorded. Results indicated a weak positive correlation (r = 0.23, P < 0.05) between immunocrit values and brain stem high molecular weight myelin basic protein. There was also a Gromega × zinc supplementation interaction (P < 0.05) on brain stem high molecular weight myelin basic protein in which the combined treatment was greater than the control or each supplement alone. Zinc treatment decreased stillbirth rate during prolonged farrowing and subsequent preweaning survival of low birth weight piglets. Gromega increased overall stillbirth rate and increased the stillbirth rate during prolonged farrowing. There were no relationships between myelin measurements and preweaning survival. In conclusion, combined Gromega and zinc supplementation appeared to improve myelination, but zinc alone improved

  15. The Effect of Rocktape on Rating of Perceived Exertion and Cycling Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael G; Michael, Timothy J; Nicholson, Karrie S; Petro, Rebecca V; Hanson, Nicholas J; Prater, Daryl R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Rocktape (RT), a type of kinesiology tape, on perceived exertion and cycling efficiency. Eighteen recreational cyclists volunteered as subjects for this study. Four experimental conditions were used: (a) 60% VO2peak with RT, (b) 60% VO2peak without RT, (c) 80% VO2peak with RT, and (d) 80% VO2peak without RT. The Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was used to evaluate subjective exertion during the cycling bouts. Overall RPE and leg, arm, and chest RPEs were obtained (RPE-O, RPE-L, RPE-A, and RPE-C, respectively). Gross cycling efficiency was determined by calculating the ratio of the amount of work performed to the energy expended. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to investigate the differences between the 2 intensities and 2 tape conditions. There were main effects of intensity (p < 0.001) and tape (p = 0.02) found for the RPE-O, with RPE-C showing similar results for intensity (p < 0.001) and tape (p = 0.02). Similar findings were present for the RPE-C, and main effects of intensity (p < 0.001) and tape (p = 0.02) were discovered. A significant main effect of intensity was found for efficiency (p = 0.03), with the 80% intensity condition showing a greater level of efficiency than the 60% intensity condition. However, the use of RT did not increase gross efficiency (p = 0.61). The main finding in this study was that subjects reported a lower level of exertion overall and at the chest, which may lead to increases in overall performance of these athletes. The use of RT before athletic events should not be discouraged.

  16. Prevalence, Specificity and Titration of Red Cell Alloantibodies in Multiparous Antenatal Females at a Tertiary Care Centre from North India.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Meena; Bala, Renu; Akhtar, Naveen; Sawhney, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    Screening and detection of clinically significant antibodies among antenatal women plays an important role in transfusion safety and preventing hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn. Routine screening of antenatal women for antibodies is not done in all blood centres of our country and so immunization rates are not known in pregnant women. We studied the prevalence of alloantibodies and titration of Anti D among antenatal multiparous women in Jammu region. In present prospective study, 750 antenatal multiparous women attending antenatal clinics were typed for ABO and D antigens. Alloantibody screening was done, if positive, specificity of alloantibody was ascertained by using commercially available red cell panel by tube method. Rate of alloimmunization was correlated with Rh D status, gravida, previous transfusion history and bad obstetric history. Titration of alloantibody D was done in first and third trimester of pregnancy. In present study most common blood group detected was B positive (38.4 %). Rh D negative cases constituted 7.6 % of total cases. Rate of alloimmunization was 2 %. A significant correlation was seen between Rh D-negative and alloimmunization (21 % in D-negative and 0.45 % in D-positive). There is significant increasing degree of alloimmunization with increase in Gravida. Alloimmunization in females with bad obstetric history was high (4.41 %) as compared to females with no bad obstetric history showing only 1.76 %. Alloantibodies detected were Anti-D, Anti-E, Anti-C and Anti-K. Anti-D constituted 80 % of all alloantibodies detected. Six women in their third trimester had raised titers of anti-D. Most common alloantibody detected was anti-D (80 %). Alloantibodies to other Rh antigens and Kell blood group systems were also identified. To minimize alloimmunization in Rh D negative women, proper Anti D immunoprophylaxis should be implemented.

  17. Neutron suppression in polarized dd fusion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.S.; Liu, K.F.; Shuy, G.W.

    1999-11-01

    We report a model-independent partial-wave analysis of polarized dd fusion reactions at low energies. The radial transition amplitudes, designated by the central, spin-orbit, and tensor forces, are determined by fitting angular distributions of the tensor and vector analyzing powers A{sub XZ}({theta}), A{sub ZZ}({theta}), A{sub XX-YY}({theta}), and A{sub Y}({theta}), and the unpolarized cross section {sigma}{sub 0}({theta}). The polarized fusion cross section {sigma}{sub 1,1}({theta}) is then predicted from these radial transition amplitudes. We stress that this is feasible only when these amplitudes are separated according to the tensor rank of the interaction. This study includes the {ital D}-state components of the deuteron, triton, and {sup 3}He, and the partial-wave expansion is done up to the {ital d} wave for both the entrance and exit channels. Experimental data at E{sub lab}=30, 50, 70, and 90 keV for the d(d,p)t reaction are very well fitted with this method. It is found that the ratio of polarized to unpolarized cross sections is about 86{percent} at 30 keV and goes down to 22{percent} at 90 keV. The implication of the suppression of a polarized dd fusion reaction is discussed in the context of the neutron-lean fusion reactor with polarized {ital D}-{sup 3}He fuel. It turns out that the important range of energy for suppressing the d(d,p)t and d(d,n){sup 3}He reactions at the plasma temperature T=60 keV is E{sub d}=80{endash}600 keV. More experimental data are needed in this range to make a detailed study of the neutron suppression. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Use of ion-pairing reagent for improving iodine speciation analysis in seaweed by pressure-driven capillary electrophoresis and ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiannan; Wang, Dan; Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanchao; Xu, Zigang

    2015-01-30

    This study achieved resolution improvement for iodine speciation in the presence of an ion-pairing reagent by a pressure-driven capillary electrophoresis (CE) system. Addition of 0.01mM tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide (TBAH) as the ion-pairing reagent into the electrophoretic buffer resulted in the complete separation of four iodine species (I(-), IO3(-), mono-iodothyrosine-MIT and di-iodothyrosine-DIT), because of the electrostatic interaction between TBAH and the negatively charged analytes. A +16kV separation voltage was applied along the separation capillary (50μm i.d., 80cm total and 60cm effective) with the inlet grounded. The detection wavelength was fixed at 210nm, and the pressure-driven flow rate was set at 0.12mLmin(-1) with an injected volume of 2μL. The optimal electrolyte consisted of 2mM borate, 2mM TBAH and 80% methanol with pH adjusted to 8.5. Baseline separation of iodine species was achieved within 7min. The detection limits for I(-), IO3(-), MIT and DIT were 0.052, 0.040, 0.032 and 0.025mgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations of peak heights and areas were all below 3% for 5mgL(-1) and 5% for 1mgL(-1). Application of the proposed method was demonstrated by speciation analysis of iodine in two seaweed samples. The developed method offered satisfactory recoveries in the 91-99% range and good precisions (<5%). Good agreement between the determined values by the proposed CE method and the HPLC-ICP-MS method was also obtained. All results proved its great potential in routine analysis of iodine speciation in environmental, food and biological samples.

  19. Dot arrays of L1{sub 1} type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films

    SciTech Connect

    Shimatsu, T.; Mitsuzuka, K.; Aoi, H.; Sato, H.; Kataoka, H.; Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic properties of dot arrays of L1{sub 1} type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films were studied. L1{sub 1}-Co-Pt films with a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} of the order of 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} were fabricated at a substrate temperature of 360 deg. C using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition. Dot patterns with dot diameters of 70-200 nm were made using high resolution e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The values of K{sub u} were measured by the GST method using the Anomalous Hall Effect; we observed the averaged signals of 6000 dots. The values of K{sub u} for dot arrays of 10-nm-thick L1{sub 1}-Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} films deposited on MgO(111) substrates (single crystal films) and glass disks (polycrystalline films) were nearly the same as those of the original films independent of D, indicating no significant etching damage by the RIE process. Magnetic force microscopy images revealed that all dots were single domains in the present D region. The coercivity H{sub c} of the dot arrays was 25.0 kOe [MgO(111) substrate, D=70 nm] and 14.3 kOe (glass disks, D=80 nm). The switching field distribution {sigma}/H{sub c} was relatively small, {sigma}/H{sub c}=0.15, even for dot arrays fabricated on glass disks, indicating the homogeneous formation of a L1{sub 1} type ordered structure in the Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} layers.

  20. [Experimental Study of PMI Foam Composite Properties in Terahertz].

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-yun; Cui, Hong-liang; Shi, Chang-cheng; Han, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Zi-yin; Li, Wei; Ma, Yu-ting; Zheng, Yan; Zhang, Song-nian

    2015-12-01

    Polymethacrylimide (PMI) foam composite has many excellent properties. Currently, PMI is heat-resistant foam, with the highest strength and stiffness. It is suitable as a high-performance sandwich structure core material. It can replace the honeycomb structure. It is widely used in aerospace, aviation, military, marine, automotive and high-speed trains, etc. But as new sandwich materials, PMI performance testing in the THz band is not yet visible. Based on the Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy technique, we conducted the transmission and reflection experiments, got the time domain waveforms and power density spectrum. And then we analyzed and compared the signals. The MATALB and Origin 8. 0 was used to calculate and obtain the transmittance (transfer function), absorptivity Coefficient, reflectance and the refractive index of the different thickness Degussa PMI (Model: Rohacell WF71), which were based on the application of the time-domain and frequency-domain analysis methods. We used the data to compared with the THz refractive index and absorption spectra of a domestic PMI, Baoding Meiwo Technology Development Co. , Ltd. (Model: SP1D80-P-30). The result shows that the impact of humidity on the measurement results is obvious. The refractive index of PMI is about 1. 05. The attenuation of power spectrum is due to the signal of the test platform is weak, the sample is thick and the internal scattering of PMI foam microstructure. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the THz band applications in the composite PMI. It also made a good groundwork for THz NDT (Non-Destructive Testing, NDT) technology in terms of PMI foam composites. PMID:26964202

  1. Experimental and numerical investigations on PDE performance augmentation by means of an ejector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canteins, G.; Franzetti, F.; Zocłońska, E.; Khasainov, B. A.; Zitoun, R.; Desbordes, D.

    2006-06-01

    To improve the performance of pulse detonation engines, a 48 cm long cylindrical combustion chamber of 5cm internal diameter (i.d.) is fitted with an ejector of constant section. The role of the ejector is (i) to provide partial confinement of the detonation products escaping from the chamber and (ii) to suck in fresh air and then to increase the mass ejected compared to the ejection of burned gases alone. The combustion chamber is fully filled with a stoichiometric ethylene/oxygen mixture at ambient conditions. Three parameters of the ejector are varied: the i.d. D, the length L, and the position d relative to the thrust wall of the combustion chamber. For various configurations, the specific impulse ( I sp) is determined in single shot experiments. The maximum operating frequency ( f max) and the maximum thrust are then deduced. I sp is measured by means of the ballistic pendulum method, and f max is derived from the pressure signal recorded on the combustion chamber thrust wall. The addition of an ejector increases the specific impulse up to 60% in the best configuration tested, from 164s without ejector to 260s with ejector. The specific impulse can be represented by a single curve using suitable dimensionless parameters. The thrust results for the main ejector studied ( D = 80mm) indicate an optimal ( L, d) configuration that provides a 28% thrust gain. For the same ejector, f max remains constant and equal to the frequency obtained without ejector in a large range of ( L, d) values, before decreasing. Two-dimensional unsteady numerical computations agree reasonably with the experiments, slightly overestimating the experimental values. The results indicate that 80% of the I sp gain comes from the action of the expanding detonation products on the annular end surface of the combustion chamber, governed by the tube wall thickness.

  2. Experimental study on the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flow in horizontal pipes.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M; Shaahid, S M; Tunde, Lukman O; Al-Sarkhi, A

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20 °C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed.

  3. Postweaning growth and reproduction characteristics of heifers sired by bulls of seven breeds and raised on different levels of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Freetly, H C; Cundiff, L V

    1997-11-01

    Heifers produced from sires of seven breeds (Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Piedmontese, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli) and Angus, Hereford, and MARC III (four-breed composite) cows were evaluated. Weaned heifers were placed in three treatment groups of moderate nutrition (15.8 Mcal ME/d), 80% of moderate nutrition (12.6 Mcal ME/d), or fed as a mixed-breed group (16.3 Mcal ME/d). Average daily gain (ADG) from 228 d of age through breeding was measured. There was a sire breed x group interaction (P < .0001) for ADG in the drylot. Sire breeds differed in their 365-d BW (P < .0001), and 365-d BW of heifers in the low group (315 +/- 4 kg) were lighter (P < .0001) than those of heifers in the high group (346 +/- 4 kg). During breeding, heifers that had been in the low group in the drylot had a higher ADG (.58 +/- .02 kg/d) than heifers in the high group (.39 +/- .03 kg/d). Age of heifers at puberty did not differ (P = .06) between the low (362 +/- 5 d) and high groups (357 +/- 5 d). Heifers from MARC III (358 +/- 5 d) and Angus (358 +/- 6 d) dams reached puberty at a younger age than did heifers with Hereford dams (380 +/- 9 d). Age at which puberty was expressed differed with sire breed (P < .001). The proportion of heifers that were pregnant at palpation (.90) did not differ between sire breeds (P = .24), dam breeds (P = .40), or group (P = .56). Breed differences in postweaning ADG and in the manner in which the population expresses puberty allow for selection of breed types that will optimize cow herd performance. PMID:9374295

  4. Dosimetric analysis and comparison of IMRT and HDR brachytherapy in treatment of localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murali, V.; Kurup, P. G. G.; Mahadev, P.; Mahalakshmi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Radical radiotherapy is one of the options for the management of prostate cancer. In external beam therapy, 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are the options for delivery of increased radiation dose, as vital organs are very close to the prostate and a higher dose to these structures leads to an increased toxicity. In brachytherapy, low dose rate brachytherapy with permanent implant of radioactive seeds and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) with remote after loaders are available. A dosimetric analysis has been made on IMRT and HDR brachytherapy plans. Ten cases from each IMRT and HDR brachytherapy have been taken for the study. The analysis includes comparison of conformity and homogeneity indices, D100, D95, D90, D80, D50, D10 and D5 of the target. For the organs at risk (OAR), namely rectum and bladder, V100, V90 and V50 are compared. In HDR brachytherapy, the doses to 1 cc and 0.1 cc of urethra have also been studied. Since a very high dose surrounds the source, the 300% dose volumes in the target and within the catheters are also studied in two plans, to estimate the actual volume of target receiving dose over 300%. This study shows that the prescribed dose covers 93 and 92% of the target volume in IMRT and HDR brachytherapy respectively. HDR brachytherapy delivers a much lesser dose to OAR, compared to the IMRT. For rectum, the V50 in IMRT is 34.0cc whilst it is 7.5cc in HDR brachytherapy. With the graphic optimization tool in HDR brachytherapy planning, the dose to urethra could be kept within 120% of the target dose. Hence it is concluded that HDR brachytherapy may be the choice of treatment for cancer of prostate in the early stage. PMID:20589121

  5. Revealing equilibrium and rate constants of weak and fast noncovalent interactions.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Gleb G; Okhonin, Victor; Gorelsky, Serge I; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2011-03-15

    Rate and equilibrium constants of weak noncovalent molecular interactions are extremely difficult to measure. Here, we introduced a homogeneous approach called equilibrium capillary electrophoresis of equilibrium mixtures (ECEEM) to determine k(on), k(off), and K(d) of weak (K(d) > 1 μM) and fast kinetics (relaxation time, τ < 0.1 s) in quasi-equilibrium for multiple unlabeled ligands simultaneously in one microreactor. Conceptually, an equilibrium mixture (EM) of a ligand (L), target (T), and a complex (C) is prepared. The mixture is introduced into the beginning of a capillary reactor with aspect ratio >1000 filled with T. Afterward, differential mobility of L, T, and C along the reactor is induced by an electric field. The combination of differential mobility of reactants and their interactions leads to a change of the EM peak shape. This change is a function of rate constants, so the rate and equilibrium constants can be directly determined from the analysis of the EM peak shape (width and symmetry) and propagation pattern along the reactor. We proved experimentally the use of ECEEM for multiplex determination of kinetic parameters describing weak (3 mM > K(d) > 80 μM) and fast (0.25 s ≥ τ ≥ 0.9 ms) noncovalent interactions between four small molecule drugs (ibuprofen, S-flurbiprofen, salicylic acid and phenylbutazone) and α- and β-cyclodextrins. The affinity of the drugs was significantly higher for β-cyclodextrin than α-cyclodextrin and mostly determined by the rate constant of complex formation.

  6. Structural Analysis of β-Fructofuranosidase from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous Reveals Unique Features and the Crucial Role of N-Glycosylation in Oligomerization and Activity.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Escudero, Mercedes; Gimeno-Pérez, María; González, Beatriz; Linde, Dolores; Merdzo, Zoran; Fernández-Lobato, María; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2016-03-25

    Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhousβ-fructofuranosidase (XdINV)is a highly glycosylated dimeric enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose and releases fructose from various fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and fructans. It also catalyzes the synthesis of FOS, prebiotics that stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in human gut. In contrast to most fructosylating enzymes, XdINV produces neo-FOS, which makes it an interesting biotechnology target. We present here its three-dimensional structure, which shows the expected bimodular arrangement and also a long extension of its C terminus that together with anN-linked glycan mediate the formation of an unusual dimer. The two active sites of the dimer are connected by a long crevice, which might indicate its potential ability to accommodate branched fructans. This arrangement could be representative of a group of GH32 yeast enzymes having the traits observed in XdINV. The inactive D80A mutant was used to obtain complexes with relevant substrates and products, with their crystals structures showing at least four binding subsites at each active site. Moreover, two different positions are observed from subsite +2 depending on the substrate, and thus, a flexible loop (Glu-334-His-343) is essential in binding sucrose and β(2-1)-linked oligosaccharides. Conversely, β(2-6) and neo-type substrates are accommodated mainly by stacking to Trp-105, explaining the production of neokestose and the efficient fructosylating activity of XdINV on α-glucosides. The role of relevant residues has been investigated by mutagenesis and kinetics measurements, and a model for the transfructosylating reaction has been proposed. The plasticity of its active site makes XdINV a valuable and flexible biocatalyst to produce novel bioconjugates. PMID:26823463

  7. Simulation of corona at lightning-triggering wire: Current, charge transfer, and the field-reduction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2011-11-01

    = 60 m is about 17, 26, 31, 40, and 52% relative to the background value of 5.5 kV/m for r = 0.27, 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, respectively, while the corresponding reduction of Ez at d = 360 m in all cases is only 1% or less. The calculated results for r ≈ 4 to 16 m agree reasonably well with Ez variations measured at d = 60 and 350 m from the triggering wire by Biagi et al. (2011). This indicates that the electric field reduction in the vicinity of triggering wire, prior to lightning initiation, is primarily caused by the presence of corona space charge emanated from the wire to a radius of about 4 m or more, as opposed to the presence of wire alone. The total charge transfer from the ground to the wire (whose top is at an altitude of 200 m) is 1.2, 4.5, 6.6, 9.5, and 14 mC for r = 0.27, 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, respectively. The corresponding currents flowing in the wire are 2.1, 7.9, 11, 15, and 22 mA. The model-predicted charges and currents for r = 2 to 4 m are consistent with limited measurements available in the literature, smaller than the values based on the field-reduction calculations, but still of the order of meters. The radial electric field near the top of 200 m high cylindrical conductor can exceed 400 kV/m (which is sufficient for positive streamer propagation) when its radius is up to 8 m, confirming corona sheath radii of the order of meters inferred from the field-reduction and wire charge/current analyses.

  8. Effect of insemination after estrous detection on pregnancy per artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, S; Haimerl, P; Heuwieser, W

    2016-03-01

    Presynchronization of cows with 2 injections of prostaglandin administered 14d apart (Presynch-Ovsynch) is a widely adopted procedure to increase pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) for the first service. In a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, 2 different management strategies can be observed. Either all cows receive timed artificial insemination (onlyTAI) or cows detected in estrus after the second PGF2α injection are inseminated and the remaining cows without signs of estrus will be subject to timed AI (EDAI+TAI). A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection during a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol for the first service on fertility in lactating dairy cows. Two statistical approaches were conducted using either a fixed or a random effects meta-analysis based on the heterogeneity among the experimental groups. Reproductive outcomes of interest were P/AI measured on d32 (d 28 to 42) and pregnancy loss between d32 and 60 (d 42 to 74) of gestation. In approach 1, 3 randomized controlled studies including 1,689 cows with the primary objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. The incorporation of insemination after estrous detection decreased the odds of pregnancy by 35% [odds ratio=0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53-0.80] on d32 after AI using a fixed effects model. We detected no effect on pregnancy loss on d60 of gestation (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI=0.55-1.43). There was no heterogeneity among the 3 studies regarding P/AI and pregnancy loss. In approach 2, cows from approach 1 and cohorts from another 17 experimental groups including 8,124 cows submitted to first AI using a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. Information regarding pregnancy loss was available for 5,200 cows. In the random effects model, the overall proportion of P/AI was 30.9% (95% CI=26.71-35.28; n=2,400) and 41.7% (95% CI=39.76-42.01; n=7

  9. On the feasibility of cirrus cloud thinning: Dependence of homo- and heterogeneous ice nucleation on latitude and season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, David; Garnier, Anne; Avery, Melody

    2015-04-01

    While GCM testing of cirrus cloud climate engineering (CE) reveals some advantages over stratospheric aerosol injection, cirrus CE will not work when ice is primarily formed through heterogeneous nucleation for T < -38°C. Field campaigns have shown that ice in cold cirrus is generally produced heterogeneously, but these campaigns have not addressed the cirrus at high latitudes that would determine the effectiveness of cirrus CE. This presentation introduces a new understanding of the satellite retrieved "effective absorption optical depth ratio", or βeff, based on the 12.05 and 10.60 μm channels of the imaging infrared radiometer (IIR) aboard the CALIPSO satellite. Using βeff calculations from in situ data, it is found that βeff is tightly related to the N/IWC ratio, where N = ice particle number concentration and IWC = ice water content. This is because N is primarily determined by the smallest ice particles, and βeff is primarily due to differences in wave resonance (i.e. photon tunneling) absorption, a process that is only significant when ice particle maximum dimension D < ~ 60 μm (i.e. when wavelength and effective particle size are comparable). Thus βeff is a measure of the concentration of small (D < 60 μm) ice crystals relative to the concentration of larger ice particles. Since homogeneous ice nucleation generally results in N > 500 liter-1, with a relatively high concentration of small ice crystals, βeff may be used to determine when homogeneous nucleation dominates in a region for T < -38°C. Satellite retrievals of βeff from anvil cirrus having N > 500 liter-1 (based on co-located/coincident in situ measurements) suggest that homogeneous nucleation dominates when βeff > 1.15 ± 0.05. A global analysis of βeff was conducted for the boreal summer (July-Aug.) and winter (Jan.-Feb.) of 2007 and 2008, respectively. Using βeff to discriminate between regions of homo- and heterogeneous ice nucleation for cirrus clouds having emissivities between

  10. Thermal inactivation profiles of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in lamb skeletal muscle homogenate fluid.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Waldron, Anna; Warne, Darian

    2010-01-31

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease in livestock and there is a debate about its role in humans in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders such as Crohn's disease, but the relationship remains unproven. Nevertheless livestock health authorities in many countries aim to lower the prevalence of this infection to reduce potential contamination of the human food supply. MAP may occur in bovine milk and data on thermal inactivation suggest pasteurisation is an effective process. Recently MAP has been identified in skeletal muscle of cattle and sheep but there are no data on its thermal inactivation in these substrates. In this study the inactivation of MAP was studied in a fluid homogenate of lamb skeletal muscle at temperatures previously identified as being relevant to cooking processes applied by domestic consumers. A PCR thermocycler was used to ensure accurate temperatures and rapid heat exchange, while radiometric culture was used to ensure sensitive detection of viable MAP for determination of D and z values. Among the two predominant strains of MAP, S and C, D(55) ranged from 56 to 89 min, D(60) was 8 to 11 min, D(65) was 26 to 35s while D(70) was 1.5 to 1.8s. Values for z were 4.21C degrees for the S strain and 4.51C degrees for the C strain. At temperatures of 65-70 degrees C, MAP appeared to be less heat tolerant in skeletal muscle fluid than in previous reports using milk as the medium. The total thermal exposure of MAP during baking of a sample of 16 leg-of-lamb roasts in domestic ovens was determined to result in more than 20 log reductions in most cases, that is the product was microbiologically safe. Based on the models used in this study, there is a low probability of survival of MAP provided that red meat is cooked to recommended standards. PMID:19896745

  11. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A or methoxychlor on reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Astapova, Olga; Evans, Neil P; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-12-01

    Increased occurrence of reproductive disorders has raised concerns regarding the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on reproductive health, especially when such exposure occurs during fetal life. Prenatal testosterone (T) treatment leads to growth retardation, postnatal hypergonadotropism, compromised estradiol-positive feedback, polycystic ovaries, and infertility in the adult. Prenatal dihydrotestosterone treatment failed to affect ovarian morphology or estradiol-positive feedback, suggesting that effects of prenatal T may be facilitated via conversion of T to estradiol, thus raising concerns regarding fetal exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals. This study tested whether fetal exposure to methoxychlor (MXC) or bisphenol A (BPA) would disrupt cyclicity in the ewe. Suffolk ewes were administered MXC (n=10), BPA (n=10) (5 mg/kg.d sc in cotton seed oil) or the vehicle (C; n=16) from d 30 to 90 of gestation. On d 60 of treatment, maternal MXC concentrations in fat tissue and BPA in blood averaged approximately 200 microg/g fat and 37.4+/-3.3 ng/ml, respectively. Birth weights of BPA offspring were lower (P<0.05) relative to C. There was no difference in the time of puberty between groups. BPA females were hypergonadotropic during early postnatal life and ended their breeding season later, compared with C. Characterization of cyclic changes after synchronization with prostaglandin F2alpha in five C, six MXC, and six BPA females found that the onset of the LH surge was delayed in MXC (P<0.05) and the LH surge magnitude severely dampened (P<0.05) in BPA sheep. These findings suggest that prenatal BPA and MXC exposure have long-term differential effects on a variety of reproductive endocrine parameters that could impact fertility.

  12. Generalized Polynomial Chaos Based Uncertainty Quantification for Planning MRgLITT Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenholtz, S.; Stafford, R. J.; Maier, F.; Hazle, J. D.; Fuentes, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) method is used to incorporate constitutive parameter uncertainties within the Pennes representation of bioheat transfer phenomena. The stochastic temperature predictions of the mathematical model are critically evaluated against MR thermometry data for planning MR-guided Laser Induced Thermal Therapies (MRgLITT). Methods Pennes bioheat transfer model coupled with a diffusion theory approximation of laser tissue interaction was implemented as the underlying deterministic kernel. A probabilistic sensitivity study was used to identify parameters that provide the most variance in temperature output. Confidence intervals of the temperature predictions are compared to MR temperature imaging (MRTI) obtained during phantom and in vivo canine (n=4) MRgLITT experiments. The gPC predictions were quantitatively compared to MRTI data using probabilistic linear and temporal profiles as well as 2-D 60 °C isotherms. Results Within the range of physically meaningful constitutive values relevant to the ablative temperature regime of MRgLITT, the sensitivity study indicated that the optical parameters, particularly the anisotropy factor, created the most variance in the stochastic model's output temperature prediction. Further, within the statistical sense considered, a nonlinear model of the temperature and damage dependent perfusion, absorption, and scattering is captured within the confidence intervals of the linear gPC method. Multivariate stochastic model predictions using parameters with the dominant sensitivities show good agreement with experimental MRTI data. Conclusions Given parameter uncertainties and mathematical modeling approximations of the Pennes bioheat model, the statistical framework demonstrates conservative estimates of the therapeutic heating and has potential for use as a computational prediction tool for thermal therapy planning. PMID:23692295

  13. Wide-ranging effects of eight cytochalasins and latrunculin A and B on intracellular motility and actin filament reorganization in characean internodal cells.

    PubMed

    Foissner, Ilse; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2007-04-01

    Numerous forms of cytochalasins have been identified and, although they share common biological activity, they may differ considerably in potency. We investigated the effects of cytochalasins A, B, C, D, E, H and J and dihydrocytochalasin B in an ideal experimental system for cell motility, the giant internodal cells of the characean alga Nitella pseudoflabellata. Cytochalasins D (60 microM) and H (30 microM) were found to be most suited for fast and reversible inhibition of actin-based motility, while cytochalasins A and E arrested streaming at lower concentrations but irreversibly. We observed no clear correlation between the ability of cytochalasins to inhibit motility and the actual disruption of the subcortical actin bundle tracks on which myosin-dependent motility occurs. Indeed, the actin bundles remained intact at the time of streaming cessation and disassembled only after one to several days' treatment. Even when applied at concentrations lower than that required to inhibit cytoplasmic streaming, all of the cytochalasins induced reorganization of the more labile cortical actin filaments into actin patches, swirling clusters or short rods. Latrunculins A and B arrested streaming only after disrupting the subcortical actin bundles, a process requiring relatively high concentrations (200 microM) and very long treatment periods of >1 d. Latrunculins, however, worked synergistically with cytochalasins. A 1 h treatment with 15 nM latrunculin A and 4 microM cytochalasin D induced reversible fragmentation of subcortical actin bundles and arrested cytoplasmic streaming. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which cytochalasins and latrunculins interfere with characean actin to inhibit motility.

  14. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-28

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid.

  15. Experiences with a top layer of gravel to enhance the performance of vertical flow constructed wetlands at cold temperatures.

    PubMed

    Langergraber, Guenter; Pressl, Alexander; Leroch, Klaus; Rohrhofer, Roland; Haberl, Raimund

    2009-01-01

    In a first phase of this study it was shown that the Austrian effluent standards for organic matter could not be met in winter for vertical flow (VF) beds designed for and loaded with 27 g COD.m(-2).d(-1) (3 m2 per person equivalent). The aim of this second phase of the study was to investigate, if the performance of a constructed wetland can be enhanced, i.e. if the effluent requirements can be met, when an additional gravel layer (15 cm, 4-8 mm) is added on top of the main layer of the VF bed. The hypothesis was that this top layer would increase the thermal insulation and consequently the temperatures in the filter bed during cold periods, thus resulting in higher removal efficiencies during winter. Two VF beds were operated in parallel; one bed with such a 15 cm top layer, one without. Otherwise the construction of both beds was identical: surface area of about 20 m2, 50 cm main layer (grain size 0.06-4 mm, d10=0.2 mm; d60=0.8 mm), planted with common reed (Phragmites australis). The beds were intermittently loaded 4 times per day with mechanically pre-treated wastewater (hydraulic loading: 47 mm.d(-1); median value of the influent concentration: 505 mg COD.L(-1)). Despite a better performance during the first winter, the bed with additional top layer showed in general a very unstable performance. It is assumed that the main reason for this was that the oxygen transfer was reduced by the additional top layer so far that suspended organic matter could not any longer be degraded in between loadings. Therefore clogging of the filter occurred.

  16. Relationship between polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule and beta-endorphin- or gonadotropin releasing hormone-containing neurons during activation of the gonadotrope axis in short daylength in the ewe.

    PubMed

    Chalivoix, S; Malpaux, B; Dufourny, L

    2010-09-01

    Morphological plasticity has been demonstrated between breeding and anestrous seasons in the ewe hypothalamus, particularly for the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system. We sought to determine the impact of a photoperiodic transition, from long days (LD, 16 h light/24 h) to short days (SD; 8 h light/24 h), on the association between a marker of cerebral plasticity, the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), and two diencephalic populations: the GnRH and beta-endorphin (beta-END) neurons, the latter being potent inhibitors of GnRH neuronal activity. We also estimated the number of contacts on GnRH neurons after the passage to SD, using synaptophysin as a marker for synaptic buttons. Those parameters were evaluated in ovariectomized estradiol-replaced ewes using double immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy at different times after the transition to SD: day 0 (D0), D30, D45, D60 and D112. Luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion was recorded throughout the experiment. High LH levels were observed only at D112. Significantly more PSA-NCAM was found in the GnRH neuron perimeters in the D112 group than in the other groups. This increase was not associated with any change in the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive contacts on GnRH neurons. The beta-END peri-neuronal space was affected negatively by the transition to SD: the percentage of PSA-NCAM on beta-END neurons decreased between D45 and D112 in the posterior two thirds of the arcuate nucleus (ARC). These results suggest that photoperiod may reorganize cell interactions in different hypothalamic areas, ultimately reactivating GnRH neurons, in our model of ovariectomized-estradiol replaced ewes.

  17. Incidence of Febrile Neutropenia in Korean Female Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Preoperative or Postoperative Doxorubicin/Cyclophosphamide Followed by Docetaxel Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Gon; Sohn, Joohyuk; Chon, Hongjae; Kim, Joo Hoon; Heo, Su Jin; Cho, Hyunsoo; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel chemotherapy (AC-D) is an intermediate risk factor (incidence of 10%–20%) for febrile neutropenia (FN) in breast cancer. However, the reported incidence of FN while using this regimen was obtained mostly from Western breast cancer patients, with little data available from Asian patients. This study aimed to assess the incidence of FN in Korean breast cancer patients and to describe clinical variables related to FN. Methods From September 2010 to February 2013, data from the Yonsei Cancer Center registry of breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with four cycles of AC-D (60 mg/m2 doxorubicin, 600 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks for four cycles followed by 75 mg/m2 or 100 mg/m2 docetaxel every 3 weeks for four cycles) were analyzed. The incidence of FN, FN associated complications, dose reduction/delays, and relative dose intensity (RDI) were investigated. Results Among the 254 patients reported to the registry, the FN incidence after AC-D chemotherapy was 29.5% (75/254), consisting of 25.2% (64/254) events during AC and 4.7% (12/254) during docetaxel chemotherapy. Dose reductions, delays, and RDI less than 85.0% during AC were observed in 16.5% (42/254), 19.5% (47/254), and 11.0% (28/254) of patients, respectively. Patients with FN events frequently experienced dose reduction/delays, which eventually led to a decreased RDI. Conclusion The incidence of FN during AC-D neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was higher than expected in Korean breast cancer patients. Whether these patients should be classified as a high-risk group for FN warrants future prospective studies. PMID:27064666

  18. Cross-Laboratory Comparative Study of the Impact of Experimental and Regression Methodologies on Salmonella Thermal Inactivation Parameters in Ground Beef.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Ian M; Marks, Bradley P; Juneja, Vijay K; Osoria, Marangeli; Hall, Nicole O; Ryser, Elliot T

    2016-07-01

    Isothermal inactivation studies are commonly used to quantify thermal inactivation kinetics of bacteria. Meta-analyses and comparisons utilizing results from multiple sources have revealed large variations in reported thermal resistance parameters for Salmonella, even when in similar food materials. Different laboratory or regression methodologies likely are the source of methodology-specific artifacts influencing the estimated parameters; however, such effects have not been quantified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laboratory and regression methodologies on thermal inactivation data generation, interpretation, modeling, and inherent error, based on data generated in two independent laboratories. The overall experimental design consisted of a cross-laboratory comparison using two independent laboratories (Michigan State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center [ERRC] laboratories), both conducting isothermal Salmonella inactivation studies (55, 60, 62°C) in ground beef, and each using two methodologies reported in prior studies. Two primary models (log-linear and Weibull) with one secondary model (Bigelow) were fitted to the resultant data using three regression methodologies (two two-step regressions and a one-step regression). Results indicated that laboratory methodology impacted the estimated D60°C- and z-values (α = 0.05), with the ERRC methodology yielding parameter estimates ∼25% larger than the Michigan State University methodology, regardless of the laboratory. Regression methodology also impacted the model and parameter error estimates. Two-step regressions yielded root mean square error values on average 40% larger than the one-step regressions. The Akaike Information Criterion indicated the Weibull as the more correct model in most cases; however, caution should be used to confirm model robustness in application to real-world data. Overall, the

  19. Carry-over effects of periparturient endocrine changes on postpartum reproductive function of Holstein heifers bred to genetically different service sires.

    PubMed

    Guilbault, L A; Thatcher, W W; Collier, R J; Wilcox, C J; Drost, M

    1985-12-01

    Effects of fetal sire on postpartum reproductive changes of the dam were studied in 21 Holstein heifers whose pregnancy had been initiated by either Angus (n = 7), Holstein (n = 7) or Brahman (n = 7) bulls. After parturition, all heifers were managed uniformly. Heifers in each service-sire-breed group were bled via jugular venipuncture thrice weekly from d 160 to 265 of pregnancy, daily thereafter until 15 d postpartum, and three times per week until d 60 postpartum. Ability of heifers to release prolactin (PRL) and luteinizing hormone (LH) was evaluated on d 10 postpartum after a simultaneous injection of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH; 100 micrograms) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 100 micrograms). Between d 5 and 60 postpartum, the reproductive tract of each heifer was examined rectally thrice weekly after collection of blood samples. Basal concentrations of LH from d 1 to 10 postpartum, as well as ability of the pituitary gland to release LH and PRL after the GnRH-TRH challenge, did not differ between service-sire-breed groups (P greater than .1). Means and profiles of progesterone concentrations during the first 60 d postpartum did not differ between service-sire-breed groups (P greater than .1). However, increases in progesterone concentrations following the GnRH-TRH challenge were synchronized more precisely in Angus (P less than .02) than in Holstein- and Brahman-service-sire groups. Daily rates of reduction in cervical and uterine horn diameters were higher (P less than .01) in Holstein- and Brahman- than in Angus-service-sire groups and were associated with higher profiles of postpartum 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM) concentrations. Within-cow PGFM concentrations were correlated positively with cervical (r = .36) and uterine horn (r = .32) diameters. Postpartum ovarian responsiveness and uterine involution in Holstein heifers may be affected by genotypes of the conceptus they bore during pregnancy. PMID:4086401

  20. Bright light therapy to promote sleep in mothers of low-birth-weight infants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Aycock, Dawn M; Moloney, Margaret F

    2013-10-01

    Having a low-birth-weight (LBW) infant in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can intensify a mother's sleep disturbances due to both stress and the dim lighting in the ICU setting, which desynchronizes circadian rhythms. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a 3-week bright light therapy intervention on sleep and health outcomes of mothers with LBW infants in the NICU. Controlled stratified randomization was used to assign 30 mothers to a treatment or control group. Data were collected at pretreatment (second week postpartum) and after the 3-week intervention. Sleep data were assessed by wrist actigraph (total sleep time [TST], circadian activity rhythms [CARs]) and the General Sleep Disturbance scale. Other outcome variables were measured by the Lee's Fatigue scale, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression scale, and the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36, version 2. Mothers averaged 26.6 (SD = 6.3) years of age, and the majority were Black (73%). The mean gestational age for the infants was 27.7 (SD = 2.0) weeks. Small to large effect sizes were found when comparing the pre- to posttreatment differences between groups. Although none of the differences were statistically significant in this small sample, for mothers in the treatment group nocturnal TST (d = .33), CAR (d = 1.06), morning fatigue (d = .22), depressive symptoms (d = .40), physical health-related quality of life (d = .33), and mental health-related quality of life (d = .60) all improved compared to the control group. Bright light therapy is feasible for mothers with infants in an NICU. Clinically significant improvements have been evidenced; a larger-scale trial of effectiveness is needed. PMID:22593231

  1. Effect of dietary cobalt supplementation on cobalt metabolism and performance of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, R L; Lefebvre, L E; Cronrath, J D; Socha, M T; Johnson, A B

    2003-04-01

    Three studies were conducted with dairy cattle fed diets with added Co. The first study examined cow age and added dietary Co on Co in liver and blood. Nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein cows were blocked by age (2.5 or 6.5 yr) and assigned to either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 9 mg Co per day. The Co concentration of liver, taken on d 60, was not affected by dietary Co but was higher in the younger cows. The cytosolic fraction of liver contained the most Co, and the subcellular distribution of Co was not affected by total Co in liver. In a second study, Holstein cows were assigned to one of three treatments of dietary Co from 21 d prepartum until 120 d postpartum. There was an interaction of time x treatment x parity such that milk yield response to Co supplementation differed between multiparous cows and primiparous cows. Supplemental Co did not increase Co in serum, colostrum, milk, or liver. Primiparous cows secreted colostrum and milk with higher Co concentrations than did multiparous cows. Likewise, serum B12 levels were higher in primiparous than multiparous cows and declined with increasing days in milk (DIM). Serum Co also decreased from 7 to 120 DIM. In a final study, a Co supplement in the starter diet did not affect Co in serum or liver of young calves. In conclusion, supplemental dietary Co did not affect secretion of Co in milk, tissue retention, or subcellular distribution of Co within the liver. Primiparous and multiparous cows differed in their milk yield response to dietary Co supplementation.

  2. Functional Assessment of Residues in the Amino- and Carboxyl-Termini of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) in the Mud Crab Scylla olivacea Using Point-Mutated Peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Jing; Huang, Shiau-Shan; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Yun-Ru; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    To assess functional importance of the residues in the amino- and carboxyl-termini of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Sco-CHH), both wild-type and point-mutated CHH peptides were produced with an amidated C-terminal end. Spectral analyses of circular dichroism, chromatographic retention time, and mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant peptides indicate that they were close in conformation to native CHH and were produced with the intended substitutions. The recombinant peptides were subsequently used for an in vivo hyperglycemic assay. Two mutants (R13A and I69A rSco-CHH) completely lacked hyperglycemic activity, with temporal profiles similar to that of vehicle control. Temporal profiles of hyperglycemic responses elicited by 4 mutants (I2A, F3A, D12A, and D60A Sco-CHH) were different from that elicited by wild-type Sco-CHH; I2A was unique in that it exhibited significantly higher hyperglycemic activity, whereas the remaining 3 mutants showed lower activity. Four mutants (D4A, Q51A, E54A, and V72A rSco-CHH) elicited hyperglycemic responses with temporal profiles similar to those evoked by wild-type Sco-CHH. In contrast, the glycine-extended version of V72A rSco-CHH (V72A rSco-CHH-Gly) completely lost hyperglycemic activity. By comparing our study with previous ones of ion-transport peptide (ITP) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) using deleted or point-mutated mutants, detail discussion is made regarding functionally important residues that are shared by both CHH and ITP (members of Group I of the CHH family), and those that discriminate CHH from ITP, and Group-I from Group-II peptides. Conclusions summarized in the present study provide insights into understanding of how functional diversification occurred within a peptide family of multifunctional members.

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF STAR-PLANET INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Pearson, Elliott G.; Wright, Jason T.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether ''hot Jupiter'' hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (M {sub P}/a {sup 2} or 1/a) versus coronal activity (L {sub X} or L {sub X}/L {sub bol}). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (∼99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with M {sub P}/a {sup 2}. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with M {sub P}/a {sup 2} > 450 M {sub Jup} AU{sup –2}, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in L {sub X}. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

  4. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, L.H.; Zhu, X.Z.; Ma, M.; Ouyang, Y.; Dong, M.; Zhu, W.L.; Luo, S.M.

    2008-08-15

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D-60 and uniformity coefficient (K-60) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  5. In vitro selection of state-specific peptide modulators of G protein signaling using mRNA display.

    PubMed

    Ja, William W; Roberts, Richard W

    2004-07-20

    The G protein regulatory (GPR) motif is a approximately 20-residue conserved domain that acts as a guanine dissociation inhibitor (GDI) for G(i/o)(alpha) subunits. Here, we describe the isolation of peptides derived from a GPR consensus sequence using mRNA display selection libraries. Biotinylated G(i)(alpha)(1), modified at either the N or C terminus, serves as a high-affinity binding target for mRNA-displayed GPR peptides. In vitro selection using mRNA display libraries based on the C terminus of the GPR motif revealed novel peptide sequences with conserved residues. Surprisingly, selected peptides contain mutations to a highly conserved Arg in the GPR motif, previously shown to be crucial for binding and inhibition activities. The dominant peptide from the selection, R6A, and a minimal 9-mer peptide, R6A-1, do not contain Arg residues yet retain high affinity (K(D) = 60 and 200 nM, respectively) and specificity for the GDP-bound state of G(i)(alpha)(1), as measured by surface plasmon resonance. The selected peptides also maintain GDI activity for G(i)(alpha)(1), inhibiting both the exchange of GDP in GTPgammaS binding assays and the AlF(4)(-)-stimulated enhancement of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The kinetics of GDI activity, however, are different for the selected peptides and demonstrate biphasic kinetics, suggesting a complex mechanism for inhibition. Like the GPR motif, the R6A and R6A-1 peptides compete with G(betagamma) subunits for binding to G(i)(alpha)(1), suggesting their use as activators of G(betagamma) signaling. PMID:15248784

  6. Systemic lupus erythematosus and primary fibromyalgia can be distinguished by testing for cell-bound complement activation products

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Daniel J; Silverman, Stuart L; Conklin, John; Barken, Derren; Dervieux, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Objective We sought to establish the performance of cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs) as a diagnostic tool to distinguish primary fibromyalgia (FM) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods A total of 75 SLE and 75 primary FM adult subjects who fulfilled appropriate classification criteria were enrolled prospectively. CB-CAPs (erythrocyte-C4d (EC4d) and B-lymphocyte-C4d (BC4d)) were determined by flow cytometry. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were determined using indirect immunofluorescence while other autoantibodies were determined by solid-phase assays. The CB-CAPs in a multi-analyte assay with algorithm (MAAA) relied on two consecutive tiers of analysis that was reported as an overall positive or negative assessment. Test performance was assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR). Results ANAs yielded 80% positives for SLE and 33% positives for FM. High CB-CAP expression (EC4d >14 units or BC4d >60 units) was 43% sensitive and 96% specific for SLE. The CB-CAPs in MAAA assessment was evaluable in 138 of the 150 subjects enrolled (92%) and yielded 60% sensitivity (CI 95% 48% to 72%) for SLE with no FM patient testing positive (100% specificity). A positive test result was associated with a strong positive LR for SLE (>24, CI 95%; 6 to 102), while a negative test result was associated with a moderate negative LR (0.40; CI 95% 0.30 to 0.54). Conclusion Our data indicate that CB-CAPs in MAAA can distinguish FM from SLE. PMID:26870391

  7. Dynamic expression of calcium-regulatory molecules, TRPV6 and S100G, in the uterine endometrium during pregnancy in pigs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yohan; Seo, Heewon; Kim, Mingoo; Ka, Hakhyun

    2009-12-01

    Calcium ions have been implicated in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, but the regulatory mechanisms of calcium ions in the uterine endometrium and conceptus are not well understood in pigs. Recently, we showed that TRPV6, a calcium ion channel protein associated with cellular entry of calcium ions, is highly expressed in the uterine endometrium during the implantation period in pigs. In the present study, we investigated spatial and temporal expression and regulation of TRPV6 and S100G, an intracellular calcium-regulatory molecule, in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs. TRPV6 expression was maintained at significantly higher levels in the uterine endometrium during pregnancy compared with levels during the estrous cycle. TRPV6 transcripts and proteins were localized mainly to luminal epithelial cells (LE) and weakly to glandular epithelial cells (GE) and chorionic membrane (CM) during pregnancy. TRPV6 expression was also detected in conceptuses on Day (D) 12 and D15. TRPV6 mRNA levels in the endometrium were increased by estrogen treatment. S100G expression showed a biphasic pattern of increases on D12 of pregnancy and from D60 to term pregnancy, and it localized primarily to LE during early pregnancy and to LE, GE, and CM from D30 to term pregnancy. These results indicate that spatial and temporal expression of TRPV6 and S100G is dynamically regulated in the uterine endometrium during pregnancy and that endometrial regulation of calcium ion concentration by TRPV6 and S100G may be critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in pigs.

  8. Low, medium, and high heat tolerant strains of Listeria monocytogenes and increased heat stress resistance after exposure to sublethal heat.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qian; Jangam, Priyanka M; Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, Wes; Silva, Juan L

    2014-08-01

    A group of 37 strains representing all 13 serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes with an initial cell density of 10(7) CFU/ml were analyzed for their heat tolerance at 60°C for 10 min. These L. monocytogenes strains were categorized into three heat tolerance groups: low (<2 log CFU/ml survival), medium (2 to 4 log CFU/ml survival), and high (4 to 6 log CFU/ml survival). Serotype 1/2a strains had relatively low heat tolerance; seven of the eight tested strains were classified as low heat tolerant. Of the two serotype 1/2b strains tested, one was very heat sensitive (not detectable) and the other was very heat resistant (5.4 log CFU/ml survival). Among the 16 serotype 4b strains, survival ranged from not detectable to 4 log CFU/ml. When one L. monocytogenes strain from each heat tolerance group was subjected to sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 30 or 60 min, the survival of heat-stressed cells at 60°C for 10 min increased by 5 log CFU/ml (D60°C-values nearly doubled) compared with the nonstressed control cells. Sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 60 or 90 min increased the lag phase of L. monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract at room temperature by 3 to 5 h compared with nonstressed control cells. The heat stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes was reversed after 2 h at room temperature but was maintained for up to 24 h at 4°C. Our results indicate a high diversity in heat tolerance among strains of L. monocytogenes, and once acquired this heat stress adaptation persists after cooling, which should be taken into account while conducting risk analyses for this pathogen.

  9. Microfilaricidal efficacy of a single administration of Advocate(®) (Bayer Animal Health) in dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens.

    PubMed

    Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; Traversa, Donato; Simonato, Giulia; Poser, Helen; Danesi, Patrizia; Furnari, Carmelo; Russi, Ilaria; Raele, Donato Antonio; Crisi, Paolo; Pampurini, Fabrizio; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2016-08-15

    The present study evaluated the microfilaricidal efficacy of a single application of the spot-on containing imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% (Advocate(®), Bayer Animal Health) in dogs naturally infected either by Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens. Dogs living in north-eastern and central-southern Italy, endemic for D. immitis and D. repens respectively, were randomly screened. Sixteen animals, eight infected with D. immitis and eight with D. repens, and fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled. Dogs infected with D. immitis received an adulticide treatment prior to the study and Advocate(®) 3 weeks after. The animals were divided in blocks of two (1:1, T1:T2) animals each, where Day 0 (D0) had an interval of 15days to compare T2 vs. T1 dogs during the first fortnight of examination (i.e. T2 dogs acted as control animals at each examination). At baseline (Days -15 and 0 for T2 and T1 dogs, respectively) the animals had a range of microfilaraemia of 180-99.700mff/ml (D. immitis) and 60-750 mff/ml (D. repens). All animals received a topical administration of Advocate(®) at D0 and were examined for microfilariae with microscopic and molecular tests at D15, D30, D60 and D90. All animals scored negative for mff at the first control post-treatment and throughout the study, with the exception of two D. immitis- infected animals that had a 2 mff/ml count at D15, and then become negative from Day 30 onwards. No adverse events were observed. The present study demonstrates the safety and the high microfilaricidal efficacy (99.97% and 100% for D. immitis and D. repens, respectively) of a single dose of moxidectin contained in Advocate(®) in naturally infected dogs.

  10. Biphasic Thermal Inactivation Kinetics in Salmonella enteritidis PT4

    PubMed Central

    Humpheson, L.; Adams, M. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Cole, M. B.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella enteritidis PT4 between 49 and 60°C were investigated. Using procedures designed to eliminate methodological artifacts, we found that the death kinetics deviated from the accepted model of first-order inactivation. When we used high-density stationary-phase populations and sensitive enumeration, the survivor curves at 60°C were reproducibly biphasic. The decimal reduction time at 60°C (D60°C) of the tail subpopulation was more than four times that of the majority population. This difference decreased with decreasing temperature; i.e., the survivor curves became more linear, but the proportion of tail cells remained a constant proportion of the initial population, about 1 in 104 to 105. Z plots (log D versus temperature) for the two populations showed that the D values coincided at 51°C, indicating that the survivor curves should be linear at this temperature, and this was confirmed experimentally. Investigations into the nature of the tails ruled out genotypic differences between the populations and protection due to leakage from early heat casualties. Heating of cells at 59°C in the presence of 5 or 100 μg of chloramphenicol per ml resulted in reductions in the levels of tailing. These reductions were greatest at the higher chloramphenicol concentration. Our results indicate that de novo protein synthesis of heat shock proteins is responsible for the observed tailing. Chemostat-cultured cells heated at 60°C also produced biphasic survivor curves in all but one instance. Cells with higher growth rates were more heat sensitive, but tailing was comparable with batch cultures. Starved cells (no dilution input) displayed linear inactivation kinetics, suggesting that during starvation a rapid heat shock response cannot be initiated. PMID:9464380

  11. Thermal inactivation profiles of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in lamb skeletal muscle homogenate fluid.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Waldron, Anna; Warne, Darian

    2010-01-31

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease in livestock and there is a debate about its role in humans in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders such as Crohn's disease, but the relationship remains unproven. Nevertheless livestock health authorities in many countries aim to lower the prevalence of this infection to reduce potential contamination of the human food supply. MAP may occur in bovine milk and data on thermal inactivation suggest pasteurisation is an effective process. Recently MAP has been identified in skeletal muscle of cattle and sheep but there are no data on its thermal inactivation in these substrates. In this study the inactivation of MAP was studied in a fluid homogenate of lamb skeletal muscle at temperatures previously identified as being relevant to cooking processes applied by domestic consumers. A PCR thermocycler was used to ensure accurate temperatures and rapid heat exchange, while radiometric culture was used to ensure sensitive detection of viable MAP for determination of D and z values. Among the two predominant strains of MAP, S and C, D(55) ranged from 56 to 89 min, D(60) was 8 to 11 min, D(65) was 26 to 35s while D(70) was 1.5 to 1.8s. Values for z were 4.21C degrees for the S strain and 4.51C degrees for the C strain. At temperatures of 65-70 degrees C, MAP appeared to be less heat tolerant in skeletal muscle fluid than in previous reports using milk as the medium. The total thermal exposure of MAP during baking of a sample of 16 leg-of-lamb roasts in domestic ovens was determined to result in more than 20 log reductions in most cases, that is the product was microbiologically safe. Based on the models used in this study, there is a low probability of survival of MAP provided that red meat is cooked to recommended standards.

  12. Evaluation of actual and estimated hydraulic conductivity of sands with different gradation and shape.

    PubMed

    Cabalar, Ali Firat; Akbulut, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of sands with different gradation and grain shape were estimated experimentally at a relative density (Dr) of about 40 % and a 22 ± 2 °C of constant temperature. Narli Sand (NS) with 0.67 of sphericity (S) and 0.72 of roundness (R), and Crushed Stone Sand (CSS) with 0.55 of S and 0.15 of R values were artificially graded into sixteen different grain-size fractions (4.75-2, 2-1.18, 1.18-0.6, 0.6-0.425, 0.425-0.3, 0.3-0.075, 4.75-0.075, 2-0.075, 1.18-0.075, 0.6-0.075, 0.425-0.075, 4.75-0.6, 2-0.6, 4.75-0.425, 2-0.425, 1.18-0.425 mm). Hydraulic conductivities of the NS estimated by use of constant head test ranged from 1.61 to 0.01 cm/s, whilst those of the CSS estimated by the same test ranged from 2.45 to 0.012 cm/s. It was observed that the hydraulic conductivity values of the NS are lower than those of the CSS samples, which is likely to be the result of differences in shape, particularly in R values. The results clearly demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity can be significantly influenced by grading characteristics (d10, d20, d30, d50, d60, cu, cc, n, Io). Furthermore, comparisons between results obtained in the present study and hydraulic conductivity estimated with other formulas available in the literature were made. The comparisons indicated that the best estimation of hydraulic conductivity changes based on the gradation and shape properties of the sands tested.

  13. Effects and side effects associated with the non-nutritional use of tryptophan by humans.

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, John D

    2012-12-01

    The daily nutritional requirement for L-tryptophan (Trp) is modest (5 mg/kg). However, many adults choose to consume much more, up to 4-5 g/d (60-70 mg/kg), typically to improve mood or sleep. Ingesting L-Trp raises brain tryptophan levels and stimulates its conversion to serotonin in neurons, which is thought to mediate its actions. Are there side effects from Trp supplementation? Some consider drowsiness a side effect, but not those who use it to improve sleep. Though the literature is thin, occasional side effects, seen mainly at higher doses (70-200 mg/kg), include tremor, nausea, and dizziness, and may occur when Trp is taken alone or with a drug that enhances serotonin function (e.g., antidepressants). In rare cases, the "serotonin syndrome" occurs, the result of too much serotonin stimulation when Trp is combined with serotonin drugs. Symptoms include delirium, myoclonus, hyperthermia, and coma. In 1989 a new syndrome appeared, dubbed eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS), and was quickly linked to supplemental Trp use. Key symptoms included debilitating myalgia (muscle pain) and a high peripheral eosinophil count. The cause was shown not to be Trp but a contaminant in certain production batches. This is not surprising, because side effects long associated with Trp use were not those associated with the EMS. Over 5 decades, Trp has been taken as a supplement and as an adjunct to medications with occasional modest, short-lived side effects. Still, the database is small and largely anecdotal. A thorough, dose-related assessment of side effects remains to be conducted. PMID:23077193

  14. Effect of climatic conditions, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of two experimental constructed wetlands in different regions of Spain.

    PubMed

    Garfí, Marianna; Pedescoll, Anna; Bécares, Eloy; Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; García, Joan

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of climate, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of constructed wetlands implemented in Mediterranean and continental-Mediterranean climate region of Spain. To this end, two experimental horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands located in Barcelona and León (Spain) were compared. The two constructed wetland systems had the same experimental set-up. Each wetland had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium of D(60)=7.3 mm, and was planted with Phragmites australis. Both systems were designed in order to operate with a maximum organic loading rate of 6 g(DBO) m(-2) d(-1). Experimental systems operated with a hydraulic loading rate of 28.5 and 98 mm d(-1) in Barcelona and León, respectively. Total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium mass removal efficiencies followed seasonal trends, with higher values in the summer (97.4% vs. 97.8%; 97.1% vs. 96.2%; 99.9% vs. 88.9%, in Barcelona and León systems, respectively) than in the winter (83.5% vs. 74.4%; 73.2% vs. 60.6%; 19% vs. no net removal for ammonium in Barcelona and León systems, respectively). During the cold season, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal were significantly higher in Barcelona system than in León, as a result of higher temperature and redox potential in Barcelona. During the warm season, statistical differences were observed only for ammonium removal. Results showed that horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland is a successful technology for both regions considered, even if winter seemed to be a critical period for ammonium removal in continental climate regions.

  15. Functional Assessment of Residues in the Amino- and Carboxyl-Termini of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) in the Mud Crab Scylla olivacea Using Point-Mutated Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Jing; Huang, Shiau-Shan; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Yun-Ru; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    To assess functional importance of the residues in the amino- and carboxyl-termini of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Sco-CHH), both wild-type and point-mutated CHH peptides were produced with an amidated C-terminal end. Spectral analyses of circular dichroism, chromatographic retention time, and mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant peptides indicate that they were close in conformation to native CHH and were produced with the intended substitutions. The recombinant peptides were subsequently used for an in vivo hyperglycemic assay. Two mutants (R13A and I69A rSco-CHH) completely lacked hyperglycemic activity, with temporal profiles similar to that of vehicle control. Temporal profiles of hyperglycemic responses elicited by 4 mutants (I2A, F3A, D12A, and D60A Sco-CHH) were different from that elicited by wild-type Sco-CHH; I2A was unique in that it exhibited significantly higher hyperglycemic activity, whereas the remaining 3 mutants showed lower activity. Four mutants (D4A, Q51A, E54A, and V72A rSco-CHH) elicited hyperglycemic responses with temporal profiles similar to those evoked by wild-type Sco-CHH. In contrast, the glycine-extended version of V72A rSco-CHH (V72A rSco-CHH-Gly) completely lost hyperglycemic activity. By comparing our study with previous ones of ion-transport peptide (ITP) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) using deleted or point-mutated mutants, detail discussion is made regarding functionally important residues that are shared by both CHH and ITP (members of Group I of the CHH family), and those that discriminate CHH from ITP, and Group-I from Group-II peptides. Conclusions summarized in the present study provide insights into understanding of how functional diversification occurred within a peptide family of multifunctional members. PMID:26261986

  16. cGMP Binding Sites on Photoreceptor Phosphodiesterase: Role in Feedback Regulation of Visual Transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Rick H.; Deric Bownds, M.; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.

    1994-05-01

    A central step in vertebrate visual transduction is the rapid drop in cGMP levels that causes cGMP-gated ion channels in the photoreceptor cell membrane to close. It has long been a puzzle that the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) whose activation causes this decrease contains not only catalytic sites for cGMP hydrolysis but also noncatalytic cGMP binding sites. Recent work has shown that occupancy of these noncatalytic sites slows the rate of PDE inactivation. We report here that PDE activation induced by activated transducin lowers the cGMP binding affinity for noncatalytic sites on PDE and accelerates the dissociation of cGMP from these sites. These sites can exist in three states: high affinity (K_d = 60 nM) for the nonactivated PDE, intermediate affinity (K_d ≈ 180 nM) when the enzyme is activated in a complex with transducin, and low affinity (K_d > 1 μM) when transducin physically removes the inhibitory subunits of PDE from the PDE catalytic subunits. Activation of PDE by transducin causes a 10-fold increase in the rate of cGMP dissociation from one of the two noncatalytic sites; physical removal of the inhibitory subunits from the PDE catalytic subunits further accelerates the cGMP dissociation rate from both sites >50-fold. Because PDE molecules lacking bound cGMP inactivate more rapidly, this suggests that a prolonged cGMP decrease may act as a negative feedback regulator to generate the faster, smaller photoresponses characteristic of light-adapted photoreceptors.

  17. Crystal Structures of Aspergillus japonicus Fructosyltransferase Complex with Donor/Acceptor Substrates Reveal Complete Subsites in the Active Site for Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Hsieh, Chih-Yu; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Hsieh, Yi-You; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Tien, Yueh-Chu; Chen, Chung-De; Chiang, Chien-Min; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Fructosyltransferases catalyze the transfer of a fructose unit from one sucrose/fructan to another and are engaged in the production of fructooligosaccharide/fructan. The enzymes belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 32 (GH32) with a retaining catalytic mechanism. Here we describe the crystal structures of recombinant fructosyltransferase (AjFT) from Aspergillus japonicus CB05 and its mutant D191A complexes with various donor/acceptor substrates, including sucrose, 1-kestose, nystose, and raffinose. This is the first structure of fructosyltransferase of the GH32 with a high transfructosylation activity. The structure of AjFT comprises two domains with an N-terminal catalytic domain containing a five-blade β-propeller fold linked to a C-terminal β-sandwich domain. Structures of various mutant AjFT-substrate complexes reveal complete four substrate-binding subsites (−1 to +3) in the catalytic pocket with shapes and characters distinct from those of clan GH-J enzymes. Residues Asp-60, Asp-191, and Glu-292 that are proposed for nucleophile, transition-state stabilizer, and general acid/base catalyst, respectively, govern the binding of the terminal fructose at the −1 subsite and the catalytic reaction. Mutants D60A, D191A, and E292A completely lost their activities. Residues Ile-143, Arg-190, Glu-292, Glu-318, and His-332 combine the hydrophobic Phe-118 and Tyr-369 to define the +1 subsite for its preference of fructosyl and glucosyl moieties. Ile-143 and Gln-327 define the +2 subsite for raffinose, whereas Tyr-404 and Glu-405 define the +2 and +3 subsites for inulin-type substrates with higher structural flexibilities. Structural geometries of 1-kestose, nystose and raffinose are different from previous data. All results shed light on the catalytic mechanism and substrate recognition of AjFT and other clan GH-J fructosyltransferases. PMID:20466731

  18. A Comprehensive Statistical Assessment of Star-Planet Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason T.; Pearson, Elliott G.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (M P/a 2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (L X or L X/L bol). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with M P/a 2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with M P/a 2 > 450 M Jup AU-2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in L X. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

  19. A comprehensive statistical assessment of star-planet interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Pearson, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d<60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (Mp/a^2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (Lx or Lx/Lbol). In contrast, a sample of 198 vetted FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with Mp/a^2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with Mp/a^2>450 Mjup/AU^2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in Lx. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

  20. Evaluation of actual and estimated hydraulic conductivity of sands with different gradation and shape.

    PubMed

    Cabalar, Ali Firat; Akbulut, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of sands with different gradation and grain shape were estimated experimentally at a relative density (Dr) of about 40 % and a 22 ± 2 °C of constant temperature. Narli Sand (NS) with 0.67 of sphericity (S) and 0.72 of roundness (R), and Crushed Stone Sand (CSS) with 0.55 of S and 0.15 of R values were artificially graded into sixteen different grain-size fractions (4.75-2, 2-1.18, 1.18-0.6, 0.6-0.425, 0.425-0.3, 0.3-0.075, 4.75-0.075, 2-0.075, 1.18-0.075, 0.6-0.075, 0.425-0.075, 4.75-0.6, 2-0.6, 4.75-0.425, 2-0.425, 1.18-0.425 mm). Hydraulic conductivities of the NS estimated by use of constant head test ranged from 1.61 to 0.01 cm/s, whilst those of the CSS estimated by the same test ranged from 2.45 to 0.012 cm/s. It was observed that the hydraulic conductivity values of the NS are lower than those of the CSS samples, which is likely to be the result of differences in shape, particularly in R values. The results clearly demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity can be significantly influenced by grading characteristics (d10, d20, d30, d50, d60, cu, cc, n, Io). Furthermore, comparisons between results obtained in the present study and hydraulic conductivity estimated with other formulas available in the literature were made. The comparisons indicated that the best estimation of hydraulic conductivity changes based on the gradation and shape properties of the sands tested. PMID:27390660

  1. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lihua; Zhu, Xizhen; Ma, Mei; Ouyang, Ying; Dong, Mei; Zhu, Wenling; Luo, Shiming

    2008-08-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D(60) and uniformity coefficient (K(60)) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  2. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic

    PubMed Central

    Eštoková, Adriana; Palaščáková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices) of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in the cements ranged from 8.58–19.1 Bq·kg−1, 9.78–26.3 Bq·kg−1 and 156.5–489.4 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radiological parameters in cement samples were calculated as follows: mean radium equivalent activity Raeq = 67.87 Bq·kg−1, gamma index Iγ = 0.256, alpha index Iα = 0.067, the absorbed gamma dose rate D = 60.76 nGy·h−1, external hazard index Hex = 0.182 and internal hazard index Hin was 0.218. The radionuclide activity in composites ranged from 6.84–10.8 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 13.1–20.5 Bq·kg−1 for 232Th and 250.4–494.4 Bq·kg−1 for 40K. The calculated radiological parameters of cements were lower than calculated radiological parameters of cement composites. PMID:24351739

  3. Combined use of a transformed red mud reactive barrier and electrokinetics for remediation of Cr/As contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Muntoni, A; Spiga, D; Zijlstra, J J P

    2012-01-01

    A reactive barrier (RB) of transformed red mud (TRM), a by-product of the refinement of bauxite in alumina production, was placed adjacent to the anode of an electrokinetic (EK) system with the aim of enhancing removal of chromium or arsenic, added singly to a low permeability clayey soil, and favouring entrapment. The innovative study focused on evaluation of the synergic interaction between the EK system and the RB, and of the efficiency when compared to traditional EK remediation (control tests). The results obtained underlined the successful outcome of treatment of the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. In presence of the TRM RB, 19.4% wt. of total Cr content was detected in the anolyte and 20.6% wt. trapped in the anodic RB after 6d, versus 6.6% wt. in the anolyte and 8.8% wt. in the soil adjacent to the anode following the control run without RB. On increasing duration of treatment up to 12d, 60.8% wt. of total initial Cr was found in the anolyte and 25.5% wt. trapped in the RB, versus 9.1% wt. and 5.3% wt., respectively, after a control run of the same duration. Finally, on increasing the mass of TRM in the RB, 60.6% wt. of initial Cr content was found to have accumulated in the RB, with Cr being completely absent from the anodic chamber. Conversely, combined treatment was much less effective on As contaminated soil, at least under the operative conditions applied. Low initial As concentration and interference with iron oxides in the soil were likely the reasons underlying low efficiency while attempting As decontamination.

  4. Effect of low-level diode laser on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Fahimeh S.; Torshabi, Maryam; Mojahedi Nasab, Masoud; Khosraviani, Keikhosro; Khojasteh, Arash

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). DPSCs were exposed to 810 nm laser light (0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 J cm-2) for 7 d (60 s daily). The negative control group (cells in regular medium) and positive control group (cells in osteogenic medium (OM)) were not lased. One group of cells in OM was irradiated with laser operated at 0.2 J cm-2. Cell viability was evaluated at 24 h and one week after the last day of laser irradiation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and alizarin Red S staining. Cell proliferation was not affected by laser irradiation at 24 h except in one group (cells in OM exposed to laser at 0.2 J cm-2). However, one week after the last day of laser irradiation, it was significantly increased in groups exposed to laser at 0.1 or 0.2 J cm-2 and decreased in groups containing OM (P  <  0.05). Osteoblast marker expression was observed in groups containing OM. LLLI at 0.2 J cm-2 dramatically enhanced cell differentiation. Laser at 0.3 J cm-2 increased bone sialoprotein (BSP) and decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Mineralized nodules were only observed in groups containing OM. Considering these findings, LLLI may be used as a novel approach for preconditioning of DPSCs in vitro prior to bone tissue engineering.

  5. Microfilaricidal efficacy of a single administration of Advocate(®) (Bayer Animal Health) in dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens.

    PubMed

    Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; Traversa, Donato; Simonato, Giulia; Poser, Helen; Danesi, Patrizia; Furnari, Carmelo; Russi, Ilaria; Raele, Donato Antonio; Crisi, Paolo; Pampurini, Fabrizio; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2016-08-15

    The present study evaluated the microfilaricidal efficacy of a single application of the spot-on containing imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% (Advocate(®), Bayer Animal Health) in dogs naturally infected either by Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens. Dogs living in north-eastern and central-southern Italy, endemic for D. immitis and D. repens respectively, were randomly screened. Sixteen animals, eight infected with D. immitis and eight with D. repens, and fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled. Dogs infected with D. immitis received an adulticide treatment prior to the study and Advocate(®) 3 weeks after. The animals were divided in blocks of two (1:1, T1:T2) animals each, where Day 0 (D0) had an interval of 15days to compare T2 vs. T1 dogs during the first fortnight of examination (i.e. T2 dogs acted as control animals at each examination). At baseline (Days -15 and 0 for T2 and T1 dogs, respectively) the animals had a range of microfilaraemia of 180-99.700mff/ml (D. immitis) and 60-750 mff/ml (D. repens). All animals received a topical administration of Advocate(®) at D0 and were examined for microfilariae with microscopic and molecular tests at D15, D30, D60 and D90. All animals scored negative for mff at the first control post-treatment and throughout the study, with the exception of two D. immitis- infected animals that had a 2 mff/ml count at D15, and then become negative from Day 30 onwards. No adverse events were observed. The present study demonstrates the safety and the high microfilaricidal efficacy (99.97% and 100% for D. immitis and D. repens, respectively) of a single dose of moxidectin contained in Advocate(®) in naturally infected dogs. PMID:27514879

  6. Buoyancy effects in steeply inclined air-water bubbly shear flow in a rectangular channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaullah, K.; Arshad, M.; Khan, A.; Chughtai, I. R.

    2015-07-01

    We report measurements of two-dimensional ( B/ D = 5) fully turbulent and developed duct flows (overall length/depth, L/ D = 60; D-based Reynolds number Re > 104) for inclinations to 30° from vertical at low voidages (< 5 % sectional average) representative of disperse regime using tap water bubbles (4-6 mm) and smaller bubbles (2 mm) stabilised in ionic solution. Pitot and static probe instrumentation, primitive but validated, provided adequate (10 % local value) discrimination of main aspects of the mean velocity and voidage profiles at representative streamwise station i.e L/ D = 40. Our results can be divided into three categories of behaviour. For vertical flow (0°) the evidence is inconclusive as to whether bubbles are preferentially trapped within the wall-layer as found in some, may be most earlier experimental works. Thus, the 4-mm bubbles showed indication of voidage retention but the 2-mm bubbles did not. For nearly vertical flow (5°) there was pronounced profiling of voidage especially with 4-mm bubbles but the transverse transport was not suppressed sufficiently to induce any obvious layering. In this context, we also refer to similarities with previous work on one-phase vertical and nearly vertical mixed convection flows displaying buoyancy inhibited mean shear turbulence. However, with inclined flow (10+ degrees) a distinctively layered pattern was invariably manifested in which voidage confinement increased with increasing inclination. In this paper we address flow behavior at near vertical conditions. Eulerian, mixed and VOF models were used to compute voidage and mean velocity profiles.

  7. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  8. Evolving the [Myoglobin, Cytochrome b5] Complex from Dynamic Toward Simple Docking: Charging the Electron-Transfer Reactive Patch

    PubMed Central

    Trana, Ethan N.; Nocek, Judith M.; Knutson, Amanda K.; Hoffman, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe photo-initiated electron transfer (ET) from a suite of Zn-substituted myoglobin (1Mb) variants to cytochrome b5 (b5). An electrostatic interface redesign strategy has led to the introduction of positive charges in the vicinity of the heme edge through D/E → K charge-reversal mutation combinations at `hotspot' residues (D44, D60, E85), augmented by the elimination of negative charges from Mb or b5 by neutralization of heme propionates. These variations create an unprecedentedly large range in the product of the ET partners' total charges: −5 < −qMbqb5 < 40. The binding affinity (Ka) increases a thousand-fold as −qMbqb5 increases through this range, and exhibits a surprisingly simple, exponential dependence on −qMbqb5. This is explained in terms of electrostatic interactions between a `charged reactive patch' (crp) on each partner's surface, defined as a compact region around the heme edge that (i) contains the total protein charge of each variant, and (ii) encompasses a major fraction of the `reactive region' (Rr) comprising surface atoms with large matrix elements for electron tunneling to the heme. As −qMbqb5 increases, the complex undergoes a transition from fast to slow exchange dynamics on the triplet ET timescale, with a correlated progression in the rate constants for intracomplex (ket) and bimolecular (k2) ET. This progression is analyzed by integrating the crp and Rr descriptions of ET into the textbook steady-state treatment of reversible binding between partners that undergo intracomplex ET, and found to encompass the full range of behaviors predicted by the model. The generality of this approach is demonstrated by applying it to the extensive body of data for the ET complex between the photosynthetic reaction center and cytochrome c2. Deviations from this model also are discussed. PMID:23067206

  9. Inferring Cirrus Size Distributions Through Satellite Remote Sensing and Microphysical Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, David; D'Entremont, Robert P.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Since cirrus clouds have a substantial influence on the global energy balance that depends on their microphysical properties, climate models should strive to realistically characterize the cirrus ice particle size distribution (PSD), at least in a climatological sense. To date, the airborne in situ measurements of the cirrus PSD have contained large uncertainties due to errors in measuring small ice crystals (D<60 m). This paper presents a method to remotely estimate the concentration of the small ice crystals relative to the larger ones using the 11- and 12- m channels aboard several satellites. By understanding the underlying physics producing the emissivity difference between these channels, this emissivity difference can be used to infer the relative concentration of small ice crystals. This is facilitated by enlisting temperature-dependent characterizations of the PSD (i.e., PSD schemes) based on in situ measurements. An average cirrus emissivity relationship between 12 and 11 m is developed here using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument and is used to retrieve the PSD based on six different PSD schemes. The PSDs from the measurement-based PSD schemes are compared with corresponding retrieved PSDs to evaluate differences in small ice crystal concentrations. The retrieved PSDs generally had lower concentrations of small ice particles, with total number concentration independent of temperature. In addition, the temperature dependence of the PSD effective diameter De and fall speed Vf for these retrieved PSD schemes exhibited less variability relative to the unmodified PSD schemes. The reduced variability in the retrieved De and Vf was attributed to the lower concentrations of small ice crystals in the retrieved PSD.

  10. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes: A 1-year, open-label randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects prevents the development of diabetes is a matter of debate, and the results are inconsistent. This open-label, randomized study in subjects with prediabetes evaluated the effect of 12 months of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes in an ethnically homogeneous Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 subjects were diagnosed as prediabetes out of which 137 subjects were randomized to receive in addition to standard lifestyle measures, either Vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks and then 60,000 IU monthly (n = 69) or no Vitamin D (n = 68). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels were estimated at 0, 6 and 12 months. Changes in FPG, 2-h plasma glucose, A1C level and the proportion of subjects developing diabetes were assessed among 129 subjects. Results: At 12 months, A1C levels were significantly lesser (5.7% ± 0.4%) in the Vitamin D supplemented group when compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented (6.0% ± 0.3%). Similarly, FPG (97 ± 7) and 2-h plasma glucose (132 ± 16) were significantly less in Vitamin D supplemented group as compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented group (FPG = 116 ± 6 and 2-h plasma glucose = 157 ± 25) at 12 months. Nine out of 65 in non-Vitamin D supplemented and seven out of 64 in the Vitamin D supplemented group developed diabetes. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects significantly lowered FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels. PMID:25932396

  11. Evaluation of Flexural Strength of Thermocycled Interim Resin Materials Used in Prosthetic Rehabilitation- An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Krishna Kishore; Anne, Gopinadh; Anche, Sampath Chowdary; Chiramana, Sandeep; Muvva, Suresh Babu; Zakkula, Srujana; Jyothula, Ravi Rakesh Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provisional restoration is an analytical component of fixed prosthodontics serving as a ground plan for the design of fixed dental prosthesis. Flexural strength is critical in case of long standing fixed dental prosthesis, to appreciate success of full mouth rehabilitation cases and temporomandibular joint dysfunction therapies. Aim The present study was to evaluate the flexural strength of different provisional restorative resins used for prosthetic rehabilitation. Materials and Methods Forty identical samples (n=10 for each material) measuring 25mm×2mm×2mm according to ADA/ANSI specification no. 27 were fabricated using autopolymerizing Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) (Group A); heat activated PMMA (Group B); autopolymerizing Bis-GMA composite resin (Group C) and light activated Urethane Dimethacrylate Resin (UDMA) (Group D). For 14 days all these samples were stored in artificial saliva. Ten samples from each material were subjected to thermal cycling for 2500 cycles (5°C to 55°C). Later, a standard three point bending test was conducted on all the specimens with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.75mm/min. Statistical analysis used included Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results The mean flexural strength of specimens confirmed higher flexural strength for Group C (102.98 Mpa) followed by Group B (91.86 Mpa), Group A (79.13 Mpa) and Group D (60.01 Mpa). There were significant differences between any two materials tested (p <0.05). Comparison between mean flexural strength values between four groups revealed significant difference between the interim materials (p <0.05). Conclusion The greatest flexural strength was observed for Bis-GMA composite resins followed by heat cure methacrylate resins, autopolymerizing methacrylate resins and was least for light cure resins. While fabricating provisional restorations, these greater values should be considered for better outcome of the treatment. PMID:27790588

  12. Evaluation of preferable insertion routes for esophagogastroduodenoscopy using ultrathin endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Yu; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Nakayama, Chiemi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Rie; Hirayama-Asada, Itsuko; Tsuji, Yosuke; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Ozeki, Atsuko; Matsumoto, Lumine; Ohike, Yumiko; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the discomfort associated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) using an ultrathin endoscope through different insertion routes. METHODS: This study (January 2012-March 2013) included 1971 consecutive patients [male/female (M/F), 1158/813, 57.5 ± 11.9 years] who visited a single institute for annual health checkups. Transnasal EGD was performed in 1394 patients and transoral EGD in 577. EGD-associated discomfort was assessed using a visual analog scale score (VAS score: 0-10). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed gender (M vs F: 4.02 ± 2.15 vs 5.06 ± 2.43) as the only independent predictor of the VAS score in 180 patients who underwent EGD for the first time; whereas it revealed gender (M vs F 3.60 ± 2.20 vs 4.84 ± 2.37), operator, age group (A: < 39 years; B: 40-49 years; C: 50-59 years; D: 60-69 years; E: > 70 years; A/B/C/D/E: 4.99 ± 2.32/4.34 ± 2.49/4.19 ± 2.31/3.99 ± 2.27/3.63 ± 2.31), and type of insertion as independent predictors in the remaining patients. Subanalysis for gender, age group, and insertion route revealed that the VAS score decreased with age regardless of gender and insertion route, was high in female patients regardless of age and insertion route, and was low in males aged over 60 years who underwent transoral insertion. CONCLUSION: Although comprehensive analysis revealed that the insertion route may not be an independent predictor of the VAS score, transoral insertion may reduce EGD-associated discomfort in elderly patients. PMID:24803817

  13. Sensitivity to trauma-associated cues is restricted to vulnerable traumatized rats and reinstated after extinction by yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Le Dorze, Claire; Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale

    2016-10-15

    While post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom is mainly characterized by re-experiencing the traumatic event, the reactivity to trauma-associated cues in resilient and vulnerable subjects has not been extensively studied. Using an animal model of PTSD induced by a single prolonged stress (SPS), the responses of traumatized Vulnerable and Resilient rats to PTSD-like symptom tests and to trauma-associated cues were investigated. In addition, the implication of the noradrenergic system in "re-experiencing" was explored. Rats received either a SPS, combining a 2h restraint stress, a 20min forced-swim followed by a 15min rest, and a loss of consciousness produced by inhaling CO2 emissions, delivered in the presence of particular cues (tone and odor), or a control procedure. PTSD-like symptoms and reactivity to various trauma-associated cues (specific, contextual, or predictive) were tested from D15 to D60 after the SPS. Rats were then divided into Resilient and Vulnerable on the basis of three main symptom tests, including the elevated plus maze, the light-dark and the acoustic startle response tests. Although Resilient rats behaved like Controls rats, Vulnerable rats developed long-term PTSD-like symptoms on the main symptoms tests (anxiety and alteration of arousal), as well as other PTSD-like outcomes (such as anhedonia and avoidance to trauma-associated cues). These Vulnerable rats were also the only ones to demonstrate strong reactivity to trauma-associated cues. In addition, the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, Yohimbine (i.p., 1.5mg/kg/ml), was able to reinstate fear responses to an extinguished trauma-associated odor. Our results established clear relationships between Vulnerability to trauma and reactivity to trauma-associated cues and further suggest an involvement of the noradrenergic system. PMID:27392642

  14. Short communication: Inactivation of microbial contaminants in raw milk La Serena cheese by high-pressure treatments.

    PubMed

    Arqués, J L; Garde, S; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    2006-03-01

    La Serena cheese, a Spanish variety made from Merino ewes' raw milk, has a high pH value, low salt content, and high moisture, conditions that are all favorable for growth and survival of contaminating microorganisms, including pathogens. To improve its microbiological quality and safety, high-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa for 10 min at 10 degrees C were applied to 2 batches of La Serena cheese on d 2 or 50 of ripening. Cheese treated on d 2 at 300 MPa showed viable aerobic counts that were 0.99 log units lower than those for control cheese on d 3 and showed counts of enterococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms that were 2.05, 0.49, 3.14, and 4.13 log units lower, respectively, than control cheese. For cheese treated on d 2 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 2.02, 2.68, 1.45, 3.96, and 5.50 log units. On d 60, viable aerobic counts in cheese treated on d 50 at 300 MPa were 0.50 log units lower than those in control cheese, and counts of enterococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms were 1.37, 2.30, and 4.85 log units lower, respectively. For cheese treated on d 50 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 1.29, 1.98, 4.47, and > 5 log units. High-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa on d 2 or 50 reduced significantly the counts of undesirable microorganisms, improving the microbiological quality and safety of La Serena cheese immediately after treatment and at the end of the ripening period.

  15. Growth temperature alters Salmonella Enteritidis heat/acid resistance, membrane lipid composition and stress/virulence related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yishan; Khoo, Wei Jie; Zheng, Qianwang; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2014-02-17

    The influence of growth temperature (10, 25, 37, and 42 °C) on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in simulated gastric fluid (SGF; pH=2.0) and during heat treatment (54, 56, 58, and 60 °C), on the membrane fatty acid composition, as well as on stress-/virulence-related gene expression was studied. Cells incubated at temperatures lower or higher than 37 °C did not increase their acid resistance, with the maximum D-value of 3.07 min in cells grown at 37 °C; while those incubated at higher temperature increased their heat resistance, with the maximum D60 °C-values of 1.4 min in cells grown at 42 °C. A decrease in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids was observed as the growth temperature increased. Compared to the control cells grown at 37 °C, the expression of rpoS was 16.5- and 14.4-fold higher in cells cultivated at 10 and 25 °C, respectively; while the expression of rpoH was 2.9-fold higher in those cultivated at 42 °C. The increased expression of stress response gene rpoH and the decreased ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids correlated with the greater heat resistance of bacteria grown at 42 °C; while the decreased expression of stress response gene rpoS at 42 °C might contribute to the decrease in acid resistance. Virulence related genes-spvR, hilA, avrA-were induced in cells cultivated at 42 °C, except sefA which was induced in the control cells. This study indicates that environmental temperature may affect the virulence potential of S. Enteritidis, thus temperature should be well controlled during food storage.

  16. Cold shock induction of thermal sensitivity in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Miller, A J; Bayles, D O; Eblen, B S

    2000-10-01

    Cold shock at 0 to 15 degrees C for 1 to 3 h increased the thermal sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes. In a model broth system, thermal death time at 60 degrees C was reduced by up to 45% after L. monocytogenes Scott A was cold shocked for 3 h. The duration of the cold shock affected thermal tolerance more than did the magnitude of the temperature downshift. The Z values were 8.8 degrees C for controls and 7.7 degrees C for cold-shocked cells. The D values of cold-shocked cells did not return to control levels after incubation for 3 h at 28 degrees C followed by heating at 60 degrees C. Nine L. monocytogenes strains that were cold shocked for 3 h exhibited D(60) values that were reduced by 13 to 37%. The D-value reduction was greatest in cold-shocked stationary-phase cells compared to cells from cultures in either the lag or exponential phases of growth. In addition, cold-shocked cells were more likely to be inactivated by a given heat treatment than nonshocked cells, which were more likely to experience sublethal injury. The D values of chloramphenicol-treated control cells and chloramphenicol-treated cold-shocked cells were no different from those of untreated cold-shocked cells, suggesting that cold shock suppresses synthesis of proteins responsible for heat protection. In related experiments, the D values of L. monocytogenes Scott A were decreased 25% on frankfurter skins and 15% in ultra-high temperature milk if the inoculated products were first cold shocked. Induction of increased thermal sensitivity in L. monocytogenes by thermal flux shows potential to become a practical and efficacious preventative control method.

  17. Cross-Laboratory Comparative Study of the Impact of Experimental and Regression Methodologies on Salmonella Thermal Inactivation Parameters in Ground Beef.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Ian M; Marks, Bradley P; Juneja, Vijay K; Osoria, Marangeli; Hall, Nicole O; Ryser, Elliot T

    2016-07-01

    Isothermal inactivation studies are commonly used to quantify thermal inactivation kinetics of bacteria. Meta-analyses and comparisons utilizing results from multiple sources have revealed large variations in reported thermal resistance parameters for Salmonella, even when in similar food materials. Different laboratory or regression methodologies likely are the source of methodology-specific artifacts influencing the estimated parameters; however, such effects have not been quantified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laboratory and regression methodologies on thermal inactivation data generation, interpretation, modeling, and inherent error, based on data generated in two independent laboratories. The overall experimental design consisted of a cross-laboratory comparison using two independent laboratories (Michigan State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center [ERRC] laboratories), both conducting isothermal Salmonella inactivation studies (55, 60, 62°C) in ground beef, and each using two methodologies reported in prior studies. Two primary models (log-linear and Weibull) with one secondary model (Bigelow) were fitted to the resultant data using three regression methodologies (two two-step regressions and a one-step regression). Results indicated that laboratory methodology impacted the estimated D60°C- and z-values (α = 0.05), with the ERRC methodology yielding parameter estimates ∼25% larger than the Michigan State University methodology, regardless of the laboratory. Regression methodology also impacted the model and parameter error estimates. Two-step regressions yielded root mean square error values on average 40% larger than the one-step regressions. The Akaike Information Criterion indicated the Weibull as the more correct model in most cases; however, caution should be used to confirm model robustness in application to real-world data. Overall, the

  18. Bright light therapy to promote sleep in mothers of low-birth-weight infants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Aycock, Dawn M; Moloney, Margaret F

    2013-10-01

    Having a low-birth-weight (LBW) infant in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can intensify a mother's sleep disturbances due to both stress and the dim lighting in the ICU setting, which desynchronizes circadian rhythms. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a 3-week bright light therapy intervention on sleep and health outcomes of mothers with LBW infants in the NICU. Controlled stratified randomization was used to assign 30 mothers to a treatment or control group. Data were collected at pretreatment (second week postpartum) and after the 3-week intervention. Sleep data were assessed by wrist actigraph (total sleep time [TST], circadian activity rhythms [CARs]) and the General Sleep Disturbance scale. Other outcome variables were measured by the Lee's Fatigue scale, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression scale, and the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36, version 2. Mothers averaged 26.6 (SD = 6.3) years of age, and the majority were Black (73%). The mean gestational age for the infants was 27.7 (SD = 2.0) weeks. Small to large effect sizes were found when comparing the pre- to posttreatment differences between groups. Although none of the differences were statistically significant in this small sample, for mothers in the treatment group nocturnal TST (d = .33), CAR (d = 1.06), morning fatigue (d = .22), depressive symptoms (d = .40), physical health-related quality of life (d = .33), and mental health-related quality of life (d = .60) all improved compared to the control group. Bright light therapy is feasible for mothers with infants in an NICU. Clinically significant improvements have been evidenced; a larger-scale trial of effectiveness is needed.

  19. Copper absorption and copper balance during consecutive periods for rats fed varying levels of dietary copper

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, M.A.; Johnson, P.E.

    1986-06-01

    Copper (Cu) balance and absorption were studied to determine the extent to which absorption is dependent on dietary Cu. Over 12 consecutive 5-d metabolic periods, Cu balance was determined for four groups of young growing rats (n = 8) fed modified AIN-76 diets having different levels of added Cu (2.5, 5.0, 10 or 20 micrograms/g). Among groups, mean body weights did not differ over time (P greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups for liver, heart or plasma Cu. Rats in all groups were in positive Cu balance throughout the study. After consuming the experimental diets for 10 d, rats eating 10 or 20 micrograms Cu/g diet showed a more positive Cu balance than did rats in the other groups. This trend continued until d 60. For rats eating 20 micrograms Cu/g diet, balance varied significantly over time. Three test meals labeled with stable 65Cu were fed at d 10, 40 and 50, respectively. Apparent Cu absorption, as determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu, did not change appreciably over time for rats eating 2.5 or 5.0 micrograms Cu/g diet. A test meal labeled with radioactive 67Cu was fed at d 40. For rats eating 2.5 micrograms Cu/g diet, apparent absorption was higher (31%) than that for all other groups (5.0, 23%; 10, 19%; 20, 16%; P less than 0.05). Absorption values determined by whole-body retention of 67Cu were similar to those determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu.

  20. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-28

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid. PMID:26806592

  1. A Geospatial Fabric (GF) for National Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viger, R.; Bock, A.

    2014-12-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) supports the USGS National Hydrologic Model (NHM) by defining a minimally sufficient, nationally consistent set of geographic information needed to simulate streamflow at almost 60,000 points of interest (POIs). POIs primarily are defined based on: (a) a high quality set of USGS stream gages (Gages-II), (b) National Weather Service forecast nodes, (c) the USGS National Water Quality Assessment's modeling network, (d) at inlets and outlets of selected water bodies, and (e) at confluences. Each POI is associated with a stream segment which typically has two adjacent land surface areas, referred to as hydrologic response units (HRUs). Parameter tables, largely based on the National Land Cover Databases, the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO), and the geometry of the spatial data, have been derived for these features. Configurations of GF features and attribute tables are defined and made available through the USGS ScienceBase (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/537b7327e4b0929ba496f66f). Data are organized into 20 ESRI file geodatabases, each covering a different region of the United States (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/535edb4ae4b08e65d60fc837). Future releases will include additional realizations of NHM parameter tables. These will serve to assess the impact of alternate data sources and processing methodologies on simulated streamflows. Tools for dynamically subsetting geodatabases and model inputs based on custom watersheds are currently being prototyped. The GF is a versatile framework for data integration because it maintains feature-level indexing back to NHDPlus and the National Hydrography Dataset, which is used in many water resource studies. In addition, the GF will help to ensure a minimum initial quality of parameter information, reduce the time of developing hydrological modeling applications in the United States, and generally improve the accuracy and scientific impact of

  2. Detergency stability and particle characterization of phosphate-free spray dried detergent powders incorporated with palm C16 methyl ester sulfonate (C16MES).

    PubMed

    Siwayanan, Parthiban; Aziz, Ramlan; Bakar, Nooh Abu; Ya, Hamdan; Jokiman, Ropien; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate-free spray dried detergent powders (SDDP) comprising binary anionic surfactants of palm C16 methyl ester sulfonate (C16MES) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid (LABSA) were produced using a 5 kg/h-capacity co-current pilot spray dryer (CSD). Six phosphate-free detergent (PFD) formulations comprising C16MES/LABSA in various ratios under pH 7-8 were studied. Three PFD formulations having C16MES/LABSA in respective ratios of 0:100 (control), 20:80 and 40:60 ratios were selected for further evaluation based on their optimum detergent slurry concentrations. The resulting SDDP from these formulations were analysed for its detergency stability (over nine months of storage period) and particle characteristics. C16MES/LABSA of 40:60 ratio was selected as the ideal PFD formulation since its resulting SDDP has consistent detergency stability (variation of 2.3% in detergency/active over nine months storage period), excellent bulk density (0.37 kg/L), fine particle size at 50% cumulative volume percentage (D50 of 60.48 μm), high coefficient of particle size uniformity (D60/D10 of 3.86) and large spread of equivalent particle diameters. In terms of surface morphology, the SDDP of the ideal formulation were found to have regular hollow particles with smooth spherical surfaces. Although SDDP of the ideal formulation have excellent characteristics, but in terms of flowability, these powders were classified as slightly less free flowing (Hausner ratio of 1.27 and Carr's index of 21.3).

  3. PIV measurements of near wake behind a U-grooved cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.-C.; Lee, S.-J.

    2003-08-01

    The flow structure around a circular cylinder with U-grooved surfaces has been investigated experimentally. The results were compared with that of a smooth cylinder having the same diameter. Drag force and turbulence statistics of wake behind each cylinder were measured for Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter (/D=60mm) in the range ReD=8×103-1.4×105. At ReD=1.4×105, the U-type grooves reduce the drag coefficient acting on the cylinder by 18.6%, compared with that of smooth cylinder. The flow characteristics of wake behind the U-grooved cylinder have been analyzed using two kinds of particle image velocimetry (PIV) velocity measurement techniques, cinematic PIV and high-resolution PIV. Consecutive instantaneous velocity fields were measured using the cinematic PIV technique at time interval of 5ms, corresponding to about 1% of the vortex shedding frequency of the wake. The instantaneous velocity fields measured with the high-resolution PIV technique were ensemble-averaged to get the spatial distributions of turbulent statistics including turbulent intensities and turbulent kinetic energy. For the case of smooth cylinder, large-scale vortices formed behind the cylinder maintain round shape and do not spread out noticeably in the near wake. However, for the case of U-grooved cylinder, the vortices are largely distorted and spread out significantly as they go downstream. The longitudinal grooves seem to shift the location of spanwise vortices toward the cylinder, reducing the vortex formation region, compared with the smooth cylinder. The sharp peaks of longitudinal U-shaped grooves also suppress the formation of large-scale secondary streamwise vortices. The secondary vortices are broken into smaller eddies, reducing turbulent kinetic energy in the near-wake region.

  4. The change in heat shock protein expression in avermectin induced neurotoxicity of the pigeon (Columba livia) both in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Wang, Xian-Song; Xu, Feng-Ping; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu

    2014-12-01

    The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30d, 60d and 90d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for King pigeon neurons is between 15μgL(-1) and 20μgL(-1). Following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent.

  5. Combined use of a transformed red mud reactive barrier and electrokinetics for remediation of Cr/As contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Muntoni, A; Spiga, D; Zijlstra, J J P

    2012-01-01

    A reactive barrier (RB) of transformed red mud (TRM), a by-product of the refinement of bauxite in alumina production, was placed adjacent to the anode of an electrokinetic (EK) system with the aim of enhancing removal of chromium or arsenic, added singly to a low permeability clayey soil, and favouring entrapment. The innovative study focused on evaluation of the synergic interaction between the EK system and the RB, and of the efficiency when compared to traditional EK remediation (control tests). The results obtained underlined the successful outcome of treatment of the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. In presence of the TRM RB, 19.4% wt. of total Cr content was detected in the anolyte and 20.6% wt. trapped in the anodic RB after 6d, versus 6.6% wt. in the anolyte and 8.8% wt. in the soil adjacent to the anode following the control run without RB. On increasing duration of treatment up to 12d, 60.8% wt. of total initial Cr was found in the anolyte and 25.5% wt. trapped in the RB, versus 9.1% wt. and 5.3% wt., respectively, after a control run of the same duration. Finally, on increasing the mass of TRM in the RB, 60.6% wt. of initial Cr content was found to have accumulated in the RB, with Cr being completely absent from the anodic chamber. Conversely, combined treatment was much less effective on As contaminated soil, at least under the operative conditions applied. Low initial As concentration and interference with iron oxides in the soil were likely the reasons underlying low efficiency while attempting As decontamination. PMID:22119416

  6. Charge-Disproportionation Symmetry Breaking Creates a Heterodimeric Myoglobin Complex with Enhanced Affinity and Rapid Intracomplex Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Trana, Ethan N; Nocek, Judith M; Woude, Jon Vander; Span, Ingrid; Smith, Stephen M; Rosenzweig, Amy C; Hoffman, Brian M

    2016-09-28

    We report rapid photoinitiated intracomplex electron transfer (ET) within a "charge-disproportionated" myoglobin (Mb) dimer with greatly enhanced affinity. Two mutually supportive Brownian Dynamics (BD) interface redesign strategies, one a new "heme-filtering" approach, were employed to "break the symmetry" of a Mb homodimer by pairing Mb constructs with complementary highly positive and highly negative net surface charges, introduced through D/E → K and K → E mutations, respectively. BD simulations using a previously developed positive mutant, Mb(+6) = Mb(D44K/D60K/E85K), led to construction of the complementary negative mutant Mb(-6) = Mb(K45E, K63E, K95E). Simulations predict the pair will form a well-defined complex comprising a tight ensemble of conformations with nearly parallel hemes, at a metal-metal distance ∼18-19 Å. Upon expression and X-ray characterization of the partners, BD predictions were verified through ET photocycle measurements enabled by Zn-deuteroporphyrin substitution, forming the [ZnMb(-6), Fe(3+)Mb(+6)] complex. Triplet ET quenching shows charge disproportionation increases the binding constant by no less than ∼5 orders of magnitude relative to wild-type Mb values. All progress curves for charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) are reproduced by a generalized kinetic model for the interprotein ET photocycle. The intracomplex ET rate constants for both CS and CR are increased by over 5 orders of magnitude, and their viscosity independence is indicative of true interprotein ET, rather than dynamic gating as seen in previous studies. The complex displays an unprecedented timecourse for CR of the CS intermediate I. After a laser flash, I forms through photoinduced CS, accumulates to a maximum concentration, then dies away through CR. However, before completely disappearing, I reappears without another flash and reaches a second maximum before disappearing completely. PMID:27646786

  7. Corn grain and liquid feed as nonfiber carbohydrate sources in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, M L; Lefeld, A H; Eilenfeld, A M; Gott, P N; Bowen, W S; Firkins, J L

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of sources and processing methods for nonstructural carbohydrates may affect the efficiency of animal production. Five rumen-cannulated cows in late lactation were placed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed experimental diets for 2 wk. In the production trial, 54 cows were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk beginning at d 60 in milk. Diets contained 24% corn silage and 22% hay, averaging 20% alfalfa and 2% grass but being adjusted as needed to maintain dietary concentrations of 36% neutral detergent fiber. The control diet contained steam-flaked corn (SFC) and the other diets contained either finely (FGC; 0.8 mm) or coarsely ground corn (CGC; 1.9 mm), factorialized with or without 3.5% liquid feed (LF). The LF diets provided 1.03% of dietary dry matter as supplemental sugar. The FGC decreased rumen pH and concentration of NH(3)N compared with CGC. The SFC and FGC tended to increase the molar percentage of ruminal propionate and decrease the acetate:propionate ratio. The LF increased molar percentage of ruminal butyrate with FGC but not CGC. The LF tended to decrease starch digestibility with the CGC but not with the FGC. As expected, the SFC and FGC increased total tract starch digestibility. The DMI and milk yield were similar among dietary treatments. Compared with ground corn diets, the SFC tended to decrease milk fat percentage; thus, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and feed efficiency were decreased with SFC. The LF decreased milk protein percentage but had no effect on milk protein yield. The SFC compared with dry ground corn decreased the concentration of milk urea nitrogen. Sugar supplementation using LF appeared to be more beneficial with FGC than CGC. Increasing the surface area by finely grinding corn is important for starch digestibility and optimal utilization of nutrients.

  8. Structural and functional characterization of a ketosteroid transcriptional regulator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Adam M; Stogios, Peter J; Casabon, Israël; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei; Eltis, Lindsay D

    2015-01-01

    Catabolism of host cholesterol is critical to the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is a potential target for novel therapeutics. KstR2, a TetR family repressor (TFR), regulates the expression of 15 genes encoding enzymes that catabolize the last half of the cholesterol molecule, represented by 3aα-H-4α(3'-propanoate)-7aβ-methylhexahydro-1,5-indane-dione (HIP). Binding of KstR2 to its operator sequences is relieved upon binding of HIP-CoA. A 1.6-Å resolution crystal structure of the KstR2(Mtb)·HIP-CoA complex reveals that the KstR2(Mtb) dimer accommodates two molecules of HIP-CoA. Each ligand binds in an elongated cleft spanning the dimerization interface such that the HIP and CoA moieties interact with different KstR2(Mtb) protomers. In isothermal titration calorimetry studies, the dimer bound 2 eq of HIP-CoA with high affinity (K(d) = 80 ± 10 nm) but bound neither HIP nor CoASH. Substitution of Arg-162 or Trp-166, residues that interact, respectively, with the diphosphate and HIP moieties of HIP-CoA, dramatically decreased the affinity of KstR2(Mtb) for HIP-CoA but not for its operator sequence. The variant of R162M that decreased the affinity for HIP-CoA (ΔΔG = 13 kJ mol(-1)) is consistent with the loss of three hydrogen bonds as indicated in the structural data. A 24-bp operator sequence bound two dimers of KstR2. Structural comparisons with a ligand-free rhodococcal homologue and a DNA-bound homologue suggest that HIP-CoA induces conformational changes of the DNA-binding domains of the dimer that preclude their proper positioning in the major groove of DNA. The results provide insight into KstR2-mediated regulation of expression of steroid catabolic genes and the determinants of ligand binding in TFRs.

  9. Low cost attitude and heading sensors in terrestrial photogrammetry - calibration and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecki, J.; Kuras, P.

    2011-12-01

    Most of the contemporary terrestrial mobile mapping systems (MMSs) use tactical or navigation grade inertial measurement units (IMU) to determine the approximated angular exterior orientation (EO) elements of images. Navigation grade IMUs, usually integrated with GNSS receivers, are also used to determine the projection center coordinates. Recent researches show that using also a low-cost attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) or a low-cost IMU, satisfies the demands of certain photogrammetric applications. Our researches aim to evaluate the accuracy of low-cost devices suitable for constructing small, low-cost photogrammetric MMS. During our research two low-cost devices, providing information about image attitude and heading, were tested. The first one is the calibrated Ricoh G700SE GPS camera with an electronic compass and a level indicator. The second device is the Xsens MTi AHRS unit, comprising 3 MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) gyros, 3 MEMS accelerometers and 3 magnetometers. For the testing purposes the AHRS was combined with the calibrated Nikon D80 SLR camera. The 3D AHRS magnetometer calibration was carried out using the manufacturer's software to compensate for the soft and hard iron effects. The images of three test fields were taken. The images of the first test field with signalized control points were used to determine the boresight rotation matrix of the AHRS. The bundle adjustment was solved separately for each camera and each test field to determine the true (reference) angular exterior orientation parameters. The differences between measured and calculated angles allowed to evaluate the accuracy of the measured angles. The tests results for the GPS camera show high residuals of measured azimuths, however its level indicator allows camera levelling with subdegree accuracy. The results obtained for the low-cost AHRS unit were significantly better, however over 2° residuals for yaw angle were also observed. The results prove the

  10. Inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 in a selection of low moisture foods.

    PubMed

    Rachon, Grzegorz; Peñaloza, Walter; Gibbs, Paul A

    2016-08-16

    The aims of this study were to obtain data on survival and heat resistance of cocktails of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and the surrogate Enterococcus faecium (NRRL B-2354) in four low moisture foods (confectionery formulation, chicken meat powder, pet food and savoury seasoning) during storage before processing. Inoculated samples were stored at 16°C and cell viability examined at day 0, 3, 7 and 21. At each time point, the heat resistance at 80°C was determined. The purpose was to determine a suitable storage time of inoculated foods that can be applied in heat resistance studies or process validations with similar cell viability and heat resistance characteristics. The main inactivation study was carried out within 7days after inoculation, the heat resistance of each bacterial cocktail was evaluated in each low moisture food heated in thermal cells exposed to temperatures between 70 and 140°C. The Weibull model and the first order kinetics (D-value) were used to express inactivation data and calculate the heating time to achieve 5 log reduction at each temperature. Results showed that the pathogens Salmonella and L. monocytogenes and the surrogate E. faecium NRRL B-2354, can survive well (maximum reduction <0.8 log) in low moisture foods maintained at 16°C, as simulation of warehouse raw material storage in winter and before processing. The D80 value of the pathogens and surrogate did not significantly change during the 21day storage (p>0.05). The inactivation kinetics of the pathogens and surrogate at temperatures between 70 and 140°C, were different between each organism and product. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was a suitable Salmonella surrogate for three of the low moisture foods studied, but not for the sugar-containing confectionery formulation. Heating low moisture food in moisture-tight environments (thermal cells) to 111.2, 105.3 or 111.8°C can inactivate 5 log of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes or E. faecium NRRL B-2354 respectively. PMID:27174678

  11. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions. Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Absil, O.; Montagnier, G.; Riaud, P.; Surdej, J.; Ducourant, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Röttinger, S.; Girard, J.; Krist, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-infrared window (1-5 μm). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100 Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-infrared. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d < 80 pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Aims: Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by direct imaging. Probing these interesting reservoirs sets additional constraints that we review in this paper by presenting the planet search that we initiated in 2008 around the disk-bearing T Tauri star IM Lup, which is part of the Lupus star forming region (140-190 pc). Methods: We show and discuss why age determination, the choice of evolutionary model for both the central star and the planet, precise knowledge of the host star proper motion, relative or absolute (between different instruments) astrometric accuracy (including plate scale calibration), and patience are the key ingredients for exoplanet searches around more distant young stars. Results: Unfortunately, most of the time, precision and perseverance are not paying off: we discovered a candidate companion around IM Lup in 2008, which we report here to be an unbound background object. We nevertheless review in details the lessons learned from our endeavor, and

  12. Effects of acclimation to handling on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred heifers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Austin, B R; Yelich, J V

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to handling on growth, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and cortisol, temperament, and reproductive performance of Brahman-crossbred heifers. Over 2 consecutive years, 37 Braford and 43 Brahman x Angus heifers were initially evaluated, within 30 d after weaning, for BW and puberty status via transrectal ultrasonography and plasma P4 concentrations (d 0 and 10), and for temperament by measurements of chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (d 10 only). On d 11, heifers were stratified by breed, puberty status, temperament score, BW, and age and randomly assigned to receive or not (control) the acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were exposed to a handling process 3 times weekly (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) for 4 wk (d 11 to 39 of the experiment). The acclimation treatment was applied individually to heifers by processing them through a handling facility, whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma P4 concentrations and transrectal ultrasonography, and BW were assessed again on d 40 and 50, d 80 and 90, and d 120 and 130. Blood samples collected before (d 10) and at the end of the acclimation period (d 40) were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol. Heifer temperament was assessed again on d 40 of the study. No interactions containing the effects of treatment, breed, and year were detected. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P < 0.01) ADG compared with control heifers (0.50 vs. 0.58 kg/d, respectively). Attainment of puberty and pregnancy, however, was hastened (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively) in acclimated heifers compared with control. Acclimated heifers had reduced chute score (P < 0.01) and concentrations of cortisol (P < 0.01) and P4 (P = 0.03; prepubertal heifers only) compared with control heifers after the acclimation period (1.37 vs. 1.84 for chute score; 37.8 vs. 50.5 ng/mL of cortisol; 0.52 vs

  13. Effect of precalving and postcalving dietary energy level on performance and blood metabolite concentrations of dairy cows throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    Law, R A; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Kilpatrick, D J; Wylie, A R G; Ingvarsten, K L; Hameleers, A; McCoy, M A; Mayne, C S; Ferris, C

    2011-02-01

    The effects of the level of energy intake (high E and low E) offered before and after calving on body condition score at calving, production performance, and energy status in the first 250 d of lactation were evaluated in a 2 × 2 factorial design experiment involving 80 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals (40 primiparous and 40 multiparous). From d 80 until d 21 precalving, primiparous animals were offered either high or low pasture allowances. Thereafter, these animals were housed and had ad libitum access to a high energy density diet (high E) or restricted access [6 kg of dry matter (DM) per d] to a low energy density diet (low E), respectively, until calving. From d 100 until d 42 precalving, multiparous animals were offered either ad libitum or restricted (10 kg of DM/d) access to a late lactation diet, and thereafter, had ad libitum access to a high E diet or restricted access (7 kg of DM complete diet/d) to a low E diet, respectively, until calving. The forage to concentrate (F:C) ratios (DM basis) of these high E and low E diets [d 42 (d 21 in primiparous animals) until calving] were 64:36 and 83:17, respectively. Cows offered high E and low E precalving diets were allocated to either a high E or low E postcalving diet [F:C ratio (DM basis) of 30:70 and 70:30, respectively] and remained on these diets until d 250 of lactation. Multiparous animals offered a high E diet precalving had a significantly higher body condition score at calving than those offered the low E diet precalving. This effect was not evident in primiparous animals. Precalving diet had no significant effect on plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the last 3 wk precalving in primi- or multiparous animals. Primiparous animals offered a high E diet precalving had significantly higher postcalving plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acid, suggesting greater mobilization of body reserves. Primi- and multiparous animals offered a high E diet postcalving had a significantly

  14. Growth and development of the ovine conceptus.

    PubMed

    Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E; Thatcher, W W

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize development of the ovine conceptus throughout gestation to establish the temporal relationships in metabolites, electrolytes, fluid volumes within the placenta, and hormonal changes with fetal growth. Length and weight of placentae, weight of cotyledons, and uterine weight increased between d 25 and 80 of gestation in advance of increases in fetal growth between d 80 and 140 of gestation. Allantoic fluid volumes changed (P < 0.01) between d 25 (21 mL) and 40 (91 mL), decreased to d 70 (32 mL), and then increased to d 140 (438 mL). Concentrations and total amounts of proteins in allantoic fluid were reduced between d 25 and 50, but total protein increased (P < 0.01) from d 40 (63 mg) to d 140 (2,991 mg). Concentrations of fructose in allantoic fluid varied between 2 and 6 mg/mL throughout gestation, but total fructose increased (P < 0.01) between d 25 (46 mg) and d 120 (679 mg). Concentrations of glucose ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/mL, and total glucose increased (P < 0.05) from d 25 (3 mg) to d 140 (63 mg) of gestation. Amniotic fluid volume increased (P < 0.01) between d 30 and 140. Concentrations of estrogens in allantoic fluid, maternal uterine artery, and uterine vein increased (P < 0.01) with advancing pregnancy, and concentrations of progesterone in allantoic fluid (P < 0.07) and plasma (P < 0.05) were affected by day of gestation. Concentrations of glucose were greater (P < 0.05) in uterine artery than uterine vein, but concentrations of electrolytes and osmolarity of plasma were not affected by day of gestation. Increases in weights of fetal organs were proportional to increases in fetal weight during gestation. Results of the present study of conceptus growth and development highlight areas of needed research and provide benchmarks for comparisons when evaluating effects of various treatments, environmental conditions, and epigenetics on successful outcomes of pregnancy in sheep.

  15. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Morse, D.; Raterman, K.

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  16. Mechanism of Germacradien-4-ol Synthase-Controlled Water Capture.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Daniel J; Chen, Mengbin; González, Verónica; Leoni, Stefano; Miller, David J; Christianson, David W; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2016-04-12

    The sesquiterpene synthase germacradiene-4-ol synthase (GdolS) from Streptomyces citricolor is one of only a few known high-fidelity terpene synthases that convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into a single hydroxylated product. Crystals of unliganded GdolS-E248A diffracted to 1.50 Å and revealed a typical class 1 sesquiterpene synthase fold with the active site in an open conformation. The metal binding motifs were identified as D(80)DQFD and N(218)DVRSFAQE. Some bound water molecules were evident in the X-ray crystal structure, but none were obviously positioned to quench a putative final carbocation intermediate. Incubations in H2(18)O generated labeled product, confirming that the alcohol functionality arises from nucleophilic capture of the final carbocation by water originating from solution. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues from both within the metal binding motifs and without identified by sequence alignment with aristolochene synthase from Aspergillus terreus generated mostly functional germacradien-4-ol synthases. Only GdolS-N218Q generated radically different products (∼50% germacrene A), but no direct evidence of the mechanism of incorporation of water into the active site was obtained. Fluorinated FDP analogues 2F-FDP and 15,15,15-F3-FDP were potent noncompetitive inhibitors of GdolS. 12,13-DiF-FDP generated 12,13-(E)-β-farnesene upon being incubated with GdolS, suggesting stepwise formation of the germacryl cation during the catalytic cycle. Incubation of GdolS with [1-(2)H2]FDP and (R)-[1-(2)H]FDP demonstrated that following germacryl cation formation a [1,3]-hydride shift generates the final carbocation prior to nucleophilic capture. The stereochemistry of this shift is not defined, and the deuteron in the final product was scrambled. Because no clear candidate residue for binding of a nucleophilic water molecule in the active site and no significant perturbation of product distribution from the replacement of active site residues

  17. Automatic Isolation of Blurred Images from Uav Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieberth, T.; Wackrow, R.; Chandler, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated filtering process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. A "shaking table" was used to create images with known blur during a series of laboratory tests. This platform can be moved in one direction by a mathematical function controlled by a defined frequency and amplitude. The shaking table was used to displace a Nikon D80 digital SLR camera with a user defined frequency and amplitude. The actual camera displacement was measured accurately and exposures were synchronized, which provided the opportunity to acquire images with a known blur effect. Acquired images were processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur, which has been created by the actual shaking table function. Once determined

  18. Mechanism of Germacradien-4-ol Synthase-Controlled Water Capture

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The sesquiterpene synthase germacradiene-4-ol synthase (GdolS) from Streptomyces citricolor is one of only a few known high-fidelity terpene synthases that convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into a single hydroxylated product. Crystals of unliganded GdolS-E248A diffracted to 1.50 Å and revealed a typical class 1 sesquiterpene synthase fold with the active site in an open conformation. The metal binding motifs were identified as D80DQFD and N218DVRSFAQE. Some bound water molecules were evident in the X-ray crystal structure, but none were obviously positioned to quench a putative final carbocation intermediate. Incubations in H218O generated labeled product, confirming that the alcohol functionality arises from nucleophilic capture of the final carbocation by water originating from solution. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues from both within the metal binding motifs and without identified by sequence alignment with aristolochene synthase from Aspergillus terreus generated mostly functional germacradien-4-ol synthases. Only GdolS-N218Q generated radically different products (∼50% germacrene A), but no direct evidence of the mechanism of incorporation of water into the active site was obtained. Fluorinated FDP analogues 2F-FDP and 15,15,15-F3-FDP were potent noncompetitive inhibitors of GdolS. 12,13-DiF-FDP generated 12,13-(E)-β-farnesene upon being incubated with GdolS, suggesting stepwise formation of the germacryl cation during the catalytic cycle. Incubation of GdolS with [1-2H2]FDP and (R)-[1-2H]FDP demonstrated that following germacryl cation formation a [1,3]-hydride shift generates the final carbocation prior to nucleophilic capture. The stereochemistry of this shift is not defined, and the deuteron in the final product was scrambled. Because no clear candidate residue for binding of a nucleophilic water molecule in the active site and no significant perturbation of product distribution from the replacement of active site residues were

  19. Structural peculiarities and Raman spectra of TeO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}-based glasses: A fresh look at the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodsky, Andreie; Colas, Maggy; Smirnov, Mikhael; Merle-Mejean, Therese; El-Mallawany, Raouf; Thomas, Philippe

    2012-06-15

    Ideas currently dominating the field of structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses are critically considered. A new physically and chemically consistent approach to the constitution of binary TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses is proposed, in which the reasoning coming from the Raman spectra reexamination are correlated with the basic principles of thermodynamics. Separation into two phases is suggested in such glasses. One phase is TeO{sub 2}, and another is Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} consisting of tetrahedral [WO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} anions and of Te{sup 4+} cations. Supplementary M{sub n}O{sub k} oxides added to the glasses are found incorporated in the former phase, thus producing solid solutions (for M=Ti, Nb) or tellurite compounds (for M=Nd). - Graphical abstract: Raman scattering spectra of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses with the following compositions (mol%): (a) pure TeO{sub 2}, (b) 85TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}, (c) 80TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2} ,(d) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, (e) 80TeO{sub 2}-12WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-3 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (f) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses are critically considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxide glass formation is analyzed from Raman spectra and thermodynamic principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation into two phases, TeO{sub 2} and Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}, is intrinsic in such glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce a tellurite compound.

  20. The Fluid Evolution of a Ductile-To Dextral Shear Zone in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holk, G. J.; Lojasiewicz, I.; Hartman, S. M.; Compton, K.; Paterson, S. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The application of stable isotopes in conjunction with detailed mapping of the dextral Steelhead Lake shear zone (SLSZ) in the central Sierra Nevada reveals a complex fluid history as the system transitioned from ductile-to-brittle behavior at shallow crustal depth in response to cooling of the adjacent Tuolumne Batholith (TB) at ~85 Ma. This system has a multi-stage alteration history that includes: (1) ductiley deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranite dikes, (2) ductile-to-brittle quartz+tourmaline veins, (3) brittle calc-silicate-rich leach zones, and (4) 1-10-m-thick quartz veins with crack-seal textures. High and variable quartz δ18O values (> +13‰) from metasedimentary rocks belonging to the Saddlebag pendant outside the SLSZ indicate metamorphic fluids at low water/rock ratio. Leucogranite dikes associated with the TB have δ18O (plagioclase = +9.5±0.3‰) and δD (~ -80‰) values consistent with magmatic fluids. Quartz+tourmaline veins that record the ductile-to-brittle transition display a range of δ18O values (quartz: +3.4 to +16.4‰; tourmaline: +8.0‰) that indicate a complex fluid system involving magmatic, metamorphic, and meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. Variable mineral δ18O (-1.5 to +11.3‰) and δD (-140 to -77‰) values from the Sawmill Sequence calc-silicates and Koip Sequence metavolcanics are the product of a fluid system with magmatic (TB) and meteoric-hydrothermal end-member sources, with lowest values found within a pull-apart zone and the highest values are outside this zone. Quartz δ18O (-3.2 to +14.5‰) and fluid inclusion δD values (-137 to -79‰) define a mixing line with magmatic (TB) and meteoric-hydrothermal water end members for the crack-seal veins. Detailed studies of one 10-m-thick vein reveal a trend of decreasing isotope values from the margin to the median plane. Most mineral pairs failed to reach isotopic equilibrium, indicating a very complex and short-lived fluid evolution for this system. This study documents

  1. Effects of acclimation to handling on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred heifers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Austin, B R; Yelich, J V

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to handling on growth, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and cortisol, temperament, and reproductive performance of Brahman-crossbred heifers. Over 2 consecutive years, 37 Braford and 43 Brahman x Angus heifers were initially evaluated, within 30 d after weaning, for BW and puberty status via transrectal ultrasonography and plasma P4 concentrations (d 0 and 10), and for temperament by measurements of chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (d 10 only). On d 11, heifers were stratified by breed, puberty status, temperament score, BW, and age and randomly assigned to receive or not (control) the acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were exposed to a handling process 3 times weekly (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) for 4 wk (d 11 to 39 of the experiment). The acclimation treatment was applied individually to heifers by processing them through a handling facility, whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma P4 concentrations and transrectal ultrasonography, and BW were assessed again on d 40 and 50, d 80 and 90, and d 120 and 130. Blood samples collected before (d 10) and at the end of the acclimation period (d 40) were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol. Heifer temperament was assessed again on d 40 of the study. No interactions containing the effects of treatment, breed, and year were detected. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P < 0.01) ADG compared with control heifers (0.50 vs. 0.58 kg/d, respectively). Attainment of puberty and pregnancy, however, was hastened (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively) in acclimated heifers compared with control. Acclimated heifers had reduced chute score (P < 0.01) and concentrations of cortisol (P < 0.01) and P4 (P = 0.03; prepubertal heifers only) compared with control heifers after the acclimation period (1.37 vs. 1.84 for chute score; 37.8 vs. 50.5 ng/mL of cortisol; 0.52 vs

  2. Are superheavy stable quark clusters viable candidates for the dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borštnik, Norma Mankoč; Rosina, Mitja

    2015-08-01

    The explanation for the origin of families of quarks and leptons and their properties is one of the most promising ways to understand the assumptions of the Standard Model. The Spin-Charge-Family theory [N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Lett. B 292 (1992) 25; J. Math. Phys. 34 (1993) 3731; Int. J. Theor. Phys. 40 (2001) 315; Mod. Phys. Lett. A 10 (1995) 587; J. Modern Phys. 4 (2013) 823; arXiv:1312.15; Phys. Rev. D 91 (2015) 065004; [arXiv:1409.7791; arXiv:1312.1542; arXiv:1502.06786v1, http://arXiv.org/abs/1409.4981; A. Borštnik and N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Rev. D 74 (2006) 073013, arXiv:hep-ph/0512062, arXiv:hep-ph/0401043, arXiv:hep-ph/0401055, arXiv:hep-ph/0301029; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, arXiv:1412.5866; G. Bregar et al., New J. Phys. 10 (2008) 093002; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, arXiv:1502.06786v1, arXiv:1412.5866; N. S. M. Borštnik, Proc. 13th Workshop "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models", Bled, 12-22 July 2010, eds. N. S. M. Borštnik et al., DMFA Založništvo, Ljubljana, December 2010, pp. 105-129], which does propose the mechanism for the appearance of families and offers an explanation for all the assumptions of the Standard Model, predicts two decoupled groups of four families. The lightest of the upper four families has stable members, which are correspondingly candidates to constitute the dark matter [G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 083534, arXiv:1412.5866]. In this paper, we study the weak and the "nuclear" (determined by the color interaction among the heavy fifth family quarks) scattering of such a very heavy baryon by ordinary nucleons in order to show that the cross-section is very small and consistent with the observation in most experiments so far, provided that the quark mass of this baryon is about 100TeV or above.

  3. The cold veil of the Milky Way stellar halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deason, A. J.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; Koposov, S. E.; Cooke, R. J.; Peñarrubia, J.; Laporte, C. F. P.; Fellhauer, M.; Walker, M. G.; Olszewski, E. W.

    2012-10-01

    We build a sample of distant (D > 80 kpc) stellar halo stars with measured radial velocities. Faint (20 < g < 22) candidate blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars were selected using the deep, but wide, multi-epoch Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Follow-up spectroscopy for these A-type stars was performed using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) instrument. We classify stars according to their Balmer line profiles, and find that seven are bona fide BHB stars and 31 are blue stragglers (BS). Owing to the magnitude range of our sample, even the intrinsically fainter BS stars can reach out to D ˜ 90 kpc. We complement this sample of A-type stars with intrinsically brighter, intermediate-age, asymptotic giant branch stars. A set of four distant cool carbon stars is compiled from the literature and we perform spectroscopic follow-up on a further four N-type carbon stars using the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) Intermediate dispersion Spectrograph and Imaging System (ISIS) instrument. Altogether, this provides us with the largest sample to date of individual star tracers out to r ˜ 150 kpc. We find that the radial velocity dispersion of these tracers falls rapidly at large distances and is surprisingly cold (σr ≈ 50-60 km s-1) between 100 and 150 kpc. Relating the measured radial velocities to the mass of the Milky Way requires knowledge of the (unknown) tracer density profile and anisotropy at these distances. Nonetheless, by assuming the stellar halo stars between 50 and 150 kpc have a moderate density fall-off (with power-law slope α < 5) and are on radial orbits (σt2/σr2<1), we infer that the mass within 150 kpc is less than 1012 M⊙ and suggest it probably lies in the range (5-10) × 1011 M⊙. We discuss the implications of such a low mass for the Milky Way. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 085.B-0567(A) and

  4. Administration of antioxidant peptide SS-31 attenuates transverse aortic constriction-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hung-i; Huang, Tien-hung; Sung, Pei-hsun; Chen, Yung-lung; Chua, Sarah; Chai, Han-yan; Chung, Sheng-ying; Liu, Chu-feng; Sun, Cheuk-kwan; Chang, Hsueh-wen; Zhen, Yen-yi; Lee, Fan-yen; Yip, Hon-kan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Antioxidant peptide SS-31 is a class of cell-permeable small peptides, which selectively resides on the inner mitochondrial membrane and possesses intrinsic mitochondrial protective capacities. In this study we investigated the therapeutic effects of antioxidant peptide SS-31 on transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a murine model. Methods: Adult male mice were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated mice, TAC mice, and TAC+SS-31 mice that underwent TAC surgery and received SS-31 (2 mg/d, ip) for 60 d. The right ventricular systolic blood pressure (RVSBP) was measured on d 60 prior to sacrificing the mice; then their right heart and lung tissues were collected for histological and biochemical examinations. Lung injury scores were defined by the increased crowded area and decreased number of alveolar sacs. Results: TAC mice showed significantly higher RVSBP compared with sham-operated mice, the elevation was substantially suppressed in TAC+SS-31 mice. The same pattern of changes was found in pulmonary levels of oxidative stress proteins (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized proteins), cytosolic cytochrome c, biomarkers related to inflammation (MMP-9/TNF-α/iNOS), calcium overload index (TRPC1, 2, 4, 6), apoptosis (mitochondrial BAX, cleaved caspase 3/PARP), fibrosis (Smad3/TGF-β), hypoxic (HIF-1α), DNA damage (γ-H2AX) and endothelial function (eNOS/ET-1R), as well as in lung injury score, number of muscularized vessels in lungs, number of TRPC1+ and HIF-1α+ cells in pulmonary artery, and number of γ-H2AX+ and Ki-67+ cells in lung parenchyma. An opposite pattern of changes was observed in pulmonary anti-fibrotic markers (Smad1/5, BMP-2), number of small vessels, and number of alveolar sacs. In contrast, the levels of antioxidant proteins (HO-1/NQO-1/GR/GPx) in lung parenchyma were progressively and significantly increased from sham-operated mice, TAC mice to TAC+SS-31 mice. Conclusion: Antioxidant peptide SS-31 administration

  5. MART-1 peptide vaccination plus IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) in patients receiving autologous PBMCs after lymphodepletion: results of a Phase I trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy offers a promising novel approach for the treatment of cancer and both adoptive T-cell transfer and immune modulation lead to regression of advanced melanoma. However, the potential synergy between these two strategies remains unclear. Methods We investigated in 12 patients with advanced stage IV melanoma the effect of multiple MART-1 analog peptide vaccinations with (n = 6) or without (n = 6) IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) as an adjuvant in combination with lymphodepleting chemotherapy and adoptive transfer of autologous PBMCs at day (D) 0 (Trial registration No: NCT00324623). All patients were selected on the basis of ex vivo detectable MART-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses and immunized at D0, 8, 15, 22, 28, 52, and 74 post-reinfusion. Results After immunization, a significant expansion of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells was measured in 83% (n = 5/6) and 17% (n = 1/6) of patients from the IMP321 and control groups, respectively (P < 0.02). Compared to the control group, the mean fold increase of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells in the IMP321 group was respectively >2-, >4- and >6-fold higher at D15, D30 and D60 (P < 0.02). Long-lasting MART-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses were significantly associated with IMP321 (P < 0.02). At the peak of the response, MART-1-specific CD8 T cells contained higher proportions of effector (CCR7− CD45RA+/−) cells in the IMP321 group (P < 0.02) and showed no sign of exhaustion (i.e. were mostly PD1−CD160−TIM3−LAG3−2B4+/−). Moreover, IMP321 was associated with a significantly reduced expansion of regulatory T cells (P < 0.04); consistently, we observed a negative correlation between the relative expansion of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells and of regulatory T cells. Finally, although there were no confirmed responses as per RECIST criteria, a transient, 30-day partial response was observed in a patient from the IMP321 group. Conclusions Vaccination with IMP321 as an

  6. Effect of heat stress during late gestation on immune function and growth performance of calves: isolation of altered colostral and calf factors.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, A P A; Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Dahl, G E

    2014-10-01

    Calves born to cows exposed to heat stress during the dry period and fed their dams' colostrum have compromised passive and cell-mediated immunity compared with calves born to cows cooled during heat stress. However, it is unknown if this compromised immune response is caused by calf or colostrum intrinsic factors. Two studies were designed to elucidate the effects of colostrum from those innate to the calf. The objective of the first study was to evaluate the effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on calf-specific factors related to immune response and growth performance. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: heat stress (HT; n=18) or cooling (CL; n=18). Cows of the CL group were housed with sprinklers, fans and shade, whereas cows of HT group had only shade. After calving, the cows were milked and their colostrum was frozen for the subsequent study. Colostrum from cows exposed to a thermoneutral environment during the dry period was pooled and stored frozen (-20 °C). Within 4h of birth, 3.8L of the pooled colostrum from thermoneutral cows was fed to calves born to both HT and CL cows. Day of birth was considered study d 0. All calves were exposed to the same management and weaned at d 49. Blood samples were collected before colostrum feeding, 24h after birth and twice weekly up to d 28. Total serum IgG concentrations were determined. Body weight was recorded at birth and at d 15, 30, 45, and 60. Relative to CL calves, HT calves were lighter at birth (38.3 vs. 43.1 kg), but no difference in weight gain was observed at d 60. Additionally, HT calves had lower apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (26.0 vs. 30.2%), but no differences were observed for total IgG concentration. The objective of the second study was to evaluate the isolated effect of the colostrum from HT cows on calf immune response and growth performance. The experimental design was identical to the first study, but all calves were

  7. Physical and numerical modeling of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a worldwide problem caused, among others factors, by aquifer overexploitation, rising sea levels, and climate changes. To limit the deterioration of both surface water and groundwater quality caused by saline intrusion, in recent years many research studies have been developed to identify possible countermeasures, mainly consisting of underground barriers. In this context, physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of general solutions to contain the salt wedge. This work presents a laboratory experiment where seawater intrusion was reproduced in a specifically designed sand-box. The physical model, built at the University of Padova, represents the terminal part of a coastal aquifer and consists of a flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 49 cm with glass beads characterized by a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10 ≈ 1.5. The resulting porous media is homogeneous, with porosity of about 0.37 and hydraulic conductivity of about 1.3×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank filled by freshwater provides the recharge to the aquifer. The downstream tank simulates the sea and red food dye is added to the saltwater to easily visualize the salt wedge. The volume of the downstream tank is about five times the upstream one, and, due to the small filtration discharge, salt concentration variations (i.e., water density variations) due to the incoming freshwater flow are negligible. The hydraulic gradient during the tests is constant, due to the fixed water level in the two tanks. Water levels and discharged flow rate are continuously monitored. The experiment presented here had a duration of 36 h. For the first 24 h, the saltwater wedge was let to evolve until quasi stationary condition was obtained. In the last 12 h, water withdrawal was carried out at a

  8. Periparturient endocrine changes of conceptus and maternal units in Holstein heifers bearing genetically different conceptuses.

    PubMed

    Guilbault, L A; Thatcher, W W; Collier, R J; Wilcox, C J

    1985-12-01

    Holstein heifers (n = 21) were balanced across sires and assigned to three service-sire-breed groups in which heifers were inseminated artificially to either purebred Angus (n = 7), Holstein (n = 7) or Brahman (n = 7) bulls. Semen from four bulls was used for each service sire-breed group. Blood samples were collected from a jugular vein thrice weekly from d 160 to 265 of pregnancy, daily thereafter until 15 d postpartum, and then thrice weekly until d 60 postpartum. Concentrations of progesterone, estrone, estradiol, and estrone sulfate from 23 d prepartum to parturition, and of 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM) from 2 d prepartum to d 15 postpartum were measured by radioimmunoassay. Heifers within the Brahman-service-sire group had longer gestations (P less than .05) than those of Holstein- or Angus-service-sire groups (285.0 vs 278.7), 279.0 d). Calf birth weight was lower (P less than .05) in Angus- than Holstein- and Brahman-service-sire groups (30.6 vs 36.1, 43.4 kg). Daily trends of prepartum maternal progesterone concentrations were approximately 1 ng/ml lower (P less than .01) in Angus- than Holstein- or Brahman-service-sire groups until luteolysis occurred. Heifers bearing crossbred Angus conceptuses had lower daily trends of prepartum estrogens concentrations (P less than .01), whereas heifers of the Holstein- and, even more dramatically, of the Brahman-service-sire groups had a higher magnitude and greater rise of plasma estrogens concentrations between d -10 and -1 prepartum (less than .01). Postpartum mean concentrations (P less than .05) and response curves of PGFM were lower (P less than .01) in the Angus- than in the Holstein- or Brahman-service-sire groups. Calf birth weights were correlated with least-squares means for maternal concentrations of prepartum estrone (r = .57), estradiol (r = .59) and estrone sulfate (r = .64) and postpartum maternal concentrations of PGFM (r = .56). Functional responses of the conceptus (e

  9. A randomized trial to evaluate the effect of a trace mineral premix on the incidence of active digital dermatitis lesions in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Bernardoni, N; Rieman, J; Dusick, A; Hartshorn, R; Read, D H; Socha, M T; Cook, N B; Döpfer, D

    2014-10-01

    A balanced, parallel-group, single-blinded randomized efficacy study divided into 2 periods was conducted to evaluate the effect of a premix containing higher than typically recommended levels of organic trace minerals and iodine (HOTMI) in reducing the incidence of active digital dermatitis (DD) lesions acquired naturally and induced by an experimental infection challenge model. For the natural exposure phase of the study, 120 healthy Holstein steers 5 to 7 mo of age without signs of hoof disease were randomized into 2 groups of 60 animals. The control group was fed a standard trace mineral supplement and the treatment group was fed the HOTMI premix, both for a period of 60 d. On d 60, 15 steers free of macroscopic DD lesions were randomly selected from each group for the challenge phase and transported to an experimental facility, where they were acclimated and then challenged within a DD infection model. The same diet group allocation was maintained during the 60 d of the challenge phase. The primary outcome measured was the development of an active DD lesion greater than 20mm in diameter across its largest dimension. No lesions were identified during the natural exposure phase. During the challenge phase, 55% (11/20) and 30% (6/20) of feet were diagnosed with an active DD lesion in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Diagnosis of DD was confirmed by histopathologic demonstration of invasive Treponema spp. within eroded and hyperplastic epidermis and ulcerated papillary dermis. All DD confirmed lesions had dark-field microscopic features compatible with DD and were positive for Treponema spp. by PCR. As a secondary outcome, the average DD lesion size observed in all feet was also evaluated. Overall mean (standard deviation) lesion size was 17.1 (2.36) mm and 11.1 (3.33) mm for the control and treatment groups, respectively, with this difference being driven by acute DD lesions >20mm. A trend existed for the HOTMI premix to reduce the total DD

  10. A study on the characteristics of upward air-water two-phase flow in a large diameter pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xiuzhong; Saito, Yasushi; Mishima, Kaichiro; Nakamura, Hideo

    2006-10-15

    An adiabatic upward co-current air-water two-phase flow in a vertical large diameter pipe (inner diameter, D: 0.2m, ratio of pipe length to diameter, L/D: 60.5) was experimentally investigated under various inlet conditions. Flow regimes were visually observed, carefully analyzed and classified into five, i.e. undisturbed bubbly, agitated bubbly, churn bubbly, churn slug and churn froth. Void fraction, bubble frequency, Sauter mean diameter, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and interfacial direction were measured with four-sensor optical probes. Both the measured void fraction and the measured IAC demonstrated radial core-peak distributions in most of the flow regimes and radial wall peak in the undisturbed bubbly flow only. The bubble frequency also showed a wall-peak radial distribution only when the bubbles were small in diameter and the flow was in the undisturbed bubbly flow. The Sauter mean diameter of bubbles did not change much in the radial direction in undisturbed bubbly, agitated bubbly and churn bubbly flows and showed a core-peak radial distribution in the churn slug flow due to the existence of certain amount of large and deformed bubbles in this flow regime. The measurements of interfacial direction showed that the main and the secondary bubbly flow could be displayed by the main flow peak and the secondary flow peak, respectively, in the probability density function (PDF) of the interfacial directional angle between the interfacial direction and the z-axis, {eta}{sub zi}. The local average {eta}{sub zi }at the bubble front or rear hemisphere ({eta}{sub zi}{sup F} and {eta}{sub zi}{sup R}) reflected the local bubble movement and was in direct connection with the flow regimes. Based on the analysis, the authors classified the flow regimes in the vertical large diameter pipe quantitatively by the cross-sectional area-averaged {eta}{sub zi }at bubbly front hemisphere ({eta}{sub zi}{sup F}-bar). Bubbles in the undisturbed bubbly flow moved in a

  11. In Vivo Activities of Evernimicin (SCH 27899) against Vancomycin-Susceptible and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Experimental Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Souli, Maria; Thauvin-Eliopoulos, Claudie; Eliopoulos, George M.

    2000-01-01

    To assess the potential efficacy of evernimicin (SCH 27899) against serious enterococcal infections, we used a rat model of aortic valve endocarditis established with either a vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis or a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strain. Animals infected with either one of the test strains were assigned to receive no treatment (controls) or 5-day therapy with one of the following regimens: evernimicin 60-mg/kg of body weight intravenous (i.v.) bolus once daily, 60-mg/kg i.v. bolus twice daily (b.i.d.), 60 mg/kg/day i.v. by continuous infusion, or 120 mg/kg/day i.v. by continuous infusion. These regimens were compared with vancomycin at 150 mg/kg/day. In animals infected with E. faecalis, evernimicin at 120 mg/kg/day by continuous infusion significantly reduced bacterial counts in vegetations (final density, 5.75 ± 3.38 log10 CFU/g) compared with controls (8.51 ± 1.11 log10 CFU/g). In animals infected with 0.5 ml of an 8 × 107-CFU/ml inoculum of the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, both 60-mg/kg bolus once a day and b.i.d. dose regimens of evernimicin were very effective (viable counts, 3.45 ± 1.44 and 3.81 ± 1.98 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Vancomycin was unexpectedly active against infections induced with that inoculum. In animals infected with a 109-CFU/ml inoculum of the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, the evernimicin 60-mg/kg i.v. bolus b.i.d. reduced viable counts in vegetations compared with controls (6.27 ± 1.63 versus 8.34 ± 0.91 log10 CFU/g; P < 0.05), whereas vancomycin was ineffective. Although resistant colonies could be selected in vitro, we were not able to identify evernimicin-resistant clones from cardiac vegetations. An unexplained observation from these experiments was the great variability in final bacterial densities within cardiac vegetations from animals in each of the evernimicin treatment groups. PMID:10991853

  12. Evaluation of a sequencing batch reactor sewage treatment rig for investigating the fate of radioactively labelled pharmaceuticals: Case study of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Popple, T; Williams, J B; May, E; Mills, G A; Oliver, R

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in the aquatic environment, and have potentially damaging effects. Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are major sources of these substances. The use of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) STPs, involving cycling between aerobic and anoxic conditions to promote nitrification and denitrification, is increasing but these have yet to be understood in terms of removal of pharmaceutical residues. This study reports on the development of a laboratory rig to simulate a SBR. The rig was used to investigate the fate of radiolabelled propranolol. This is a commonly prescribed beta blocker, but with unresolved fate in STPs. The SBR rig (4.5 L) was operated on an 8 h batch cycle with settled sewage. Effective treatment was demonstrated, with clearly distinct treatment phases and evidence of nitrogen removal. Radiolabelled (14)C-propranolol was dosed into both single (closed) and continuous (flow-through) simulations over 13 SBR cycles. Radioactivity in CO2 off-gas, biomass and liquid was monitored, along with the characteristics of the sewage. This allowed apparent rate constants and coefficients for biodegradation and solid:water partitioning to be determined. Extrapolation from off-gas radioactivity measurements in the single dose 4-d study suggested that propranolol fell outside the definitions of being readily biodegradable (DegT50 = 9.1 d; 60% biodegradation at 12.0 d). During continuous dosing, 63-72% of propranolol was removed in the rig, but less than 4% of dose recovered as (14)CO2, suggesting that biodegradation was a minor process (Kbiol(M) L kg d(-1) = 22-49) and that adsorption onto solids dominated, giving rise to accumulations within biomass during the 17 d solid retention time in the SBR. Estimations of adsorption isotherm coefficients were different depending on which of three generally accepted denominators representing sorption sites was used (mixed liquor suspended solids, reactor COD or mass of waste

  13. Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB6 protein participates in formation of VirB7 and VirB9 complexes required for type IV secretion.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Simon J; Krishnamoorthy, Vidhya; Christie, Peter J

    2003-05-01

    This study characterized the contribution of Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB6, a polytopic inner membrane protein, to the formation of outer membrane VirB7 lipoprotein and VirB9 protein multimers required for type IV secretion. VirB7 assembles as a disulfide cross-linked homodimer that associates with the T pilus and a VirB7-VirB9 heterodimer that stabilizes other VirB proteins during biogenesis of the secretion machine. Two presumptive VirB protein complexes, composed of VirB6, VirB7, and VirB9 and of VirB7, VirB9, and VirB10, were isolated by immunoprecipitation or glutathione S-transferase pulldown assays from detergent-solubilized membrane extracts of wild-type A348 and a strain producing only VirB6 through VirB10 among the VirB proteins. To examine the biological importance of VirB6 complex formation for type IV secretion, we monitored the effects of nonstoichiometric VirB6 production and the synthesis of VirB6 derivatives with 4-residue insertions (VirB6.i4) on VirB7 and VirB9 multimerization, T-pilus assembly, and substrate transfer. A virB6 gene deletion mutant accumulated VirB7 dimers at diminished steady-state levels, whereas complementation with a plasmid bearing wild-type virB6 partially restored accumulation of the dimers. VirB6 overproduction was correlated with formation of higher-order VirB9 complexes or aggregates and also blocked substrate transfer without a detectable disruption of T-pilus production; these phenotypes were displayed by cells grown at 28 degrees C, a temperature that favors VirB protein turnover, but not by cells grown at 20 degrees C. Strains producing several VirB6.i4 mutant proteins assembled novel VirB7 and VirB9 complexes detectable by nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and two strains producing the D60.i4 and L191.i4 mutant proteins translocated IncQ plasmid and VirE2 effector protein substrates in the absence of a detectable T pilus. Our findings support a model that VirB6 mediates

  14. Endocrine factors and ovarian follicles are influenced by body condition and somatotropin in postpartum beef cows.

    PubMed

    Flores, R; Looper, M L; Rorie, R W; Hallford, D M; Rosenkrans, C F

    2008-06-01

    Multiparous beef (1/4 to 3/8 Bos indicus; n = 99) cows were managed to achieve low (BCS = 4.3 +/- 0.1; n = 50) or moderate (BCS = 6.1 +/- 0.1; n = 49) body condition (BC) to determine the influence of bovine (b) ST on the number of follicles, diameter of largest follicle, and serum concentrations of IGF-I, triiodothy-ronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and prolactin. Beginning 32 d postpartum, cows within each BC were assigned randomly to treatment with or without bST. Non-bST-treated cows received no treatment, and treated cows were administered bST (Posilac, 500 mg, s.c.) on d 32, 46, and 60 postpartum. On d 60, all cows received a controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) device for 7 d and PGF(2alpha) at CIDR removal (CIDR-PGF(2alpha)). Blood samples (7 mL) were collected at each bST treatment and d 39 and 67 postpartum. Ultrasound was performed 1 d after CIDR-PGF(2alpha) to determine the number of small (2 to 9 mm) and large (>/=10 mm) follicles and the diameter of largest follicle. Cows treated with bST in low BC had increased (P < 0.05) IGF-I vs. low-BC non-bST-treated cows on d 39, 46, 60, and 67 postpartum. Prolactin and T3 were greater (P < 0.05) in moderate-BC than in low-BC cows on all sample dates. Thyroxine was greater (P < 0.001) in moderate-BC cows on d 46, 60, and 67 compared with low-BC cows. On d 67, bST-treated cows had greater (P < 0.05) T4 compared with non-bST-treated cows. Diameter of the largest follicle 1 d after CIDR-PGF(2alpha) was greater (P < 0.01) in anestrous cows treated with bST than for non-bST-treated anestrous cows. Diameter of the largest follicle was correlated with concentrations of IGF-I (r >/= 0.18; P /= 0.17; P /= 0.20; P

  15. Effects of diets containing grape seed, linseed, or both on milk production traits, liver and kidney activities, and immunity of lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Nudda, A; Correddu, F; Marzano, A; Battacone, G; Nicolussi, P; Bonelli, P; Pulina, G

    2015-02-01

    G on d 60 and SFT in ewes fed GS suggests an immunomodulatory effect of this residue. The limited variation in milk and hematological and metabolic parameters suggests that GS and LIN can be included, alone or in combination, in the diet of dairy ewes without adverse effects on milk production and health status.

  16. WE-D-BRE-02: BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY) - Radiogenomic Modeling of Normal Tissue Toxicities in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Hypofractionated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, J; Jeyaseelan, K; Ybarra, N; David, M; Faria, S; Souhami, L; Cury, F; Duclos, M; Naqa, I El

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: It has been realized that inter-patient radiation sensitivity variability is a multifactorial process involving dosimetric, clinical, and genetic factors. Therefore, we explore a new framework to integrate physical, clinical, and biological data denoted as radiogenomic modeling. In demonstrating the feasibility of this work, we investigate the association of genetic variants (copy number variations [CNVs] and single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) with radiation induced rectal bleeding (RB) and erectile dysfunction (ED) while taking into account dosimetric and clinical variables in prostate cancer patients treated with curative irradiation. Methods: A cohort of 62 prostate cancer patients who underwent hypofractionated radiotherapy (66 Gy in 22 fractions) was retrospectively genotyped for CNV and SNP rs25489 in the xrcc1 DNA repair gene. Dosevolume metrics were extracted from treatment plans of 54 patients who had complete dosimetric profiles. Treatment outcomes were considered to be a Result of functional mapping of radiogenomic input variables according to a logit transformation. Model orders were estimated using resampling by leave-one out cross-validation (LOO-CV). Radiogenomic model performance was evaluated using area under the ROC curve (AUC) and LOO-CV. For continuous univariate dosimetric and clinical variables, Spearmans rank coefficients were calculated and p-values reported accordingly. In the case of binary variables, Chi-squared statistics and contingency table calculations were used. Results: Ten patients were found to have three copies of xrcc1 CNV (RB: χ2=14.6 [p<0.001] and ED: χ2=4.88[p=0.0272]) and twelve had heterozygous rs25489 SNP (RB: χ2=0.278[p=0.599] and ED: χ2=0.112[p=0.732]). LOO-CV identified penile bulb D60 as the only significant QUANTEC predictor (rs=0.312 [p=0.0145]) for ED. Radiogenomic modeling yielded statistically significant, cross-validated NTCP models for RB (rs=0.243[p=0.0443], AUC=0.665) and ED (rs=0.276[p=0

  17. Emerging organic contaminant removal depending on primary treatment and operational strategy in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of redox.

    PubMed

    Avila, Cristina; Reyes, Carolina; Bayona, Josep María; García, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the influence of primary treatment (hydrolytic upflow sludge blanket (HUSB) reactor vs. conventional settling) and operational strategy (alternation of saturated/unsaturated phases vs. permanently saturated) on the removal of various emerging organic contaminants (i.e. ibuprofen, diclofenac, acetaminophen, tonalide, oxybenzone, bisphenol A) in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. For that purpose, a continuous injection experiment was carried out in an experimental treatment plant for 26 days. The plant had 3 treatment lines: a control line (settler-wetland permanently saturated), a batch line (settler-wetland operated with saturate/unsaturated phases) and an anaerobic line (HUSB reactor-wetland permanently saturated). In each line, wetlands had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium D(60) = 7.3 mm, and were planted with common reed. During the study period the wetlands were operated at a hydraulic and organic load of 25 mm/d and about 4.7 g BOD/m(2)d, respectively. The injection experiment delivered very robust results that show how the occurrence of higher redox potentials within the wetland bed promotes the elimination of conventional quality parameters as well as emerging microcontaminants. Overall, removal efficiencies were always greater for the batch line than for the control and anaerobic lines, and to this respect statistically significantly differences were found for ibuprofen, diclofenac, oxybenzone and bisphenol A. As an example, ibuprofen, whose major removal mechanism has been reported to be biodegradation under aerobic conditions, showed a higher removal in the batch line (85%) than in the control (63%) and anaerobic (52%) lines. Bisphenol A showed also a great dependence on the redox status of the wetlands, finding an 89% removal rate for the batch line, as opposed to the control and anaerobic lines (79 and 65%, respectively). Furthermore, diclofenac showed a greater

  18. Evaluation of a sequencing batch reactor sewage treatment rig for investigating the fate of radioactively labelled pharmaceuticals: Case study of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Popple, T; Williams, J B; May, E; Mills, G A; Oliver, R

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in the aquatic environment, and have potentially damaging effects. Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are major sources of these substances. The use of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) STPs, involving cycling between aerobic and anoxic conditions to promote nitrification and denitrification, is increasing but these have yet to be understood in terms of removal of pharmaceutical residues. This study reports on the development of a laboratory rig to simulate a SBR. The rig was used to investigate the fate of radiolabelled propranolol. This is a commonly prescribed beta blocker, but with unresolved fate in STPs. The SBR rig (4.5 L) was operated on an 8 h batch cycle with settled sewage. Effective treatment was demonstrated, with clearly distinct treatment phases and evidence of nitrogen removal. Radiolabelled (14)C-propranolol was dosed into both single (closed) and continuous (flow-through) simulations over 13 SBR cycles. Radioactivity in CO2 off-gas, biomass and liquid was monitored, along with the characteristics of the sewage. This allowed apparent rate constants and coefficients for biodegradation and solid:water partitioning to be determined. Extrapolation from off-gas radioactivity measurements in the single dose 4-d study suggested that propranolol fell outside the definitions of being readily biodegradable (DegT50 = 9.1 d; 60% biodegradation at 12.0 d). During continuous dosing, 63-72% of propranolol was removed in the rig, but less than 4% of dose recovered as (14)CO2, suggesting that biodegradation was a minor process (Kbiol(M) L kg d(-1) = 22-49) and that adsorption onto solids dominated, giving rise to accumulations within biomass during the 17 d solid retention time in the SBR. Estimations of adsorption isotherm coefficients were different depending on which of three generally accepted denominators representing sorption sites was used (mixed liquor suspended solids, reactor COD or mass of waste

  19. Effects of rubber flooring during the first 2 lactations on production, locomotion, hoof health, immune functions, and stress.

    PubMed

    Eicher, S D; Lay, D C; Arthington, J D; Schutz, M M

    2013-06-01

    Some housing systems on dairy farms can result in long-term chronic pain. The effects of acute pain on immunity have been explored, but chronic pain's influence on immune responses is still poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine chronic effects of flooring on immune responses and production in freestall housing for dairy cows. Thirty heifers were studied from before calving as first-calf heifers until d 180 of their second lactation. Treatments were rubber (Kraiburg; Agromatic Inc., Fond du Lac, WI) flooring or concrete with diamond grooves in a freestall barn, each in 2 quadrants of the barn. Heifers entered the treatments after calving, so the system was dynamic and each cow was considered an experimental unit. At the end of the first lactation, cows were housed in a bedded pack barn with pasture access until calving was imminent. At that time, they returned to their assigned treatment, but not necessarily into the same quadrant. Production, reproduction, cortisol, acute-phase proteins, and health data were recorded throughout lactation 1, locomotion was scored weekly, and hoof scoring and care was conducted on d 60 and 180 of lactations 1 and 2, and quantitative real-time-PCR of blood leukocytes was analyzed in mid lactation of lactation 1. Mature-equivalent milk fat, milk protein, and protein percentages during the first lactation were greater for cows on the rubber flooring. Hoof and leg therapy treatments per cow were fewer for rubber floor-housed cows. Locomotion scores were less for cows housed on rubber during the second lactation. White blood cell counts were less for cows housed on rubber, and caused by greater lymphocyte counts for cows housed on concrete. The possibility of chronic inflammation was substantiated by less IL-1β and more IL-1 receptor antagonists for cows housed on rubber at d 150 in the second lactation. Cortisol and acute-phase proteins did not differ between the treatments. Interferon-γ, IL-12

  20. Origin of hydrous fluids at seismogenic depth: Constraints from natural and experimental fault rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittempergher, Silvia; Dallai, Luigi; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Renard, François; Di Toro, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Fluids control the mechanical behavior of fault zones during the seismic cycle. We used geochemical, mineralogical, microstructural, hydrogen isotope compositions and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) investigations to characterize the origin of hydrous fluids involved in ductile and brittle shear zones at the bottom of the seismogenic crust. Natural samples were collected from exhumed mylonitic shear zones and cataclasite-pseudotachylyte bearing faults in the northern Adamello (Italian Southern Alps), which were active at 9-11 km depth. Pseudotachylytes, solidified coseismic friction-induced melts, testify to ancient seismogenic behavior of the faults. Natural pseudotachylytes were compared with artificial pseudotachylytes produced in high velocity friction experiments simulating seismic slip. Mylonites have mineralogical, elemental and hydrogen isotope compositions (-80‰<δD<-78‰) similar to the host tonalite (-77‰<δD<-73‰), within the analytical error of ±5‰. Cataclasites have instead mineralogical (chlorite, epidote, K-feldspar, no biotite), major and trace elements (enrichment in K2O, Ba, Rb; depletion in CaO, Na2O, SiO2) and hydrogen isotope (-69‰<δD<-60‰) compositions suggesting interactions with a crustal metamorphic fluid. Pseudotachylytes are composed of high temperature minerals (plagioclase, biotite, dmisteinbergite, cordierite, and scapolite) and have elemental compositions resulting from mixing of tonalite and cataclasite. Pseudotachylytes have complex microstructures, including: (i) microlitic domains, with well crystallized micrometric biotite, which have hydrogen isotope composition (-81‰<δD<-59‰) similar to cataclasites and tonalite; and (ii) cryptocrystalline domains, with poorly crystallized biotite, which have very high water content, release water upon heating at T>50 °C and have low δD value (-93‰). The hydrogen isotope composition of bulk samples is dominated by the composition of cryptocrystalline domains (-103

  1. A study of asteroid pole-latitude distribution based on an extended set of shape models derived by the lightcurve inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; Ďurech, J.; Brož, M.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; Stephens, R.; Oey, J.; Bernasconi, L.; Casulli, S.; Behrend, R.; Polishook, D.; Henych, T.; Lehký, M.; Yoshida, F.; Ito, T.

    2011-06-01

    for possible correlations between various physical parameters with an emphasis on the spin vector. We present the observed and de-biased distributions of ecliptic latitudes with respect to different size ranges of asteroids as well as a simple theoretical model of the latitude distribution and then compare its predictions with the observed distributions. From this analysis we find that the latitude distribution of small asteroids (D < 30 km) is clustered towards ecliptic poles and can be explained by the YORP thermal effect while the latitude distribution of larger asteroids (D > 60 km) exhibits an evident excess of prograde rotators, probably of primordial origin. Tables 3-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Behavior, reproduction, and immunity of crated pregnant gilts: effects of high dietary fiber and rearing environment.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J; Fullwood, S D

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of increased gut fill and diverse developing environments on pregnant gilts' behavior and physiology. Gilts were cross-fostered at 1 d of age and transferred to either an indoor or outdoor production unit. Littermate gilts remained in their different environments during development and were moved into individual gestation crates in an indoor gestation unit. Of the 42 gilts, 19 were fed a control diet of fortified sorghum-soybean meal and 23 were fed the same diet with 25% beet pulp (high fiber). Control sows ate 2.0 kg/d and high-fiber sows ate 2.67 kg/d in a large pellet (thus resulting in approximately equal energy intake and differing total dietary intakes). Pregnant gilts had behavior and immune measures sampled at 30, 60, and 90 d of gestation. The day x diet interaction was significant (P = 0.01) for duration of standing: sows fed high-fiber diets stood less on d 30, but on d 60 and 90 they and the control sows stood for a similar duration. Sham chewing duration and frequency showed significant (P < 0.05) effects of gestation stage x diet x environment. Gilts reared outdoors and fed high fiber increased sham chewing over gestation, whereas all other treatment groups decreased this behavior over time. Outdoor-reared gilts had greater (P < 0.05) frequency and duration of drinking behavior than indoor-reared gilts. White blood cell numbers were higher (P < 0.05) for gilts fed high-fiber diets than for gilts fed the control diet. Immune (humoral and cellular systems) and reproductive measures (farrowing rate and litter size) and plasma cortisol concentrations were generally not influenced (P > 0.10) by diets and rearing environments, suggesting that in spite of significant changes in behavior and feed intake gilts' immune systems were not suppressed or enhanced. Behavioral data alone suggested that indoor-reared gilts showed fewer behavioral adaptations to the crates than outdoor-reared gilts. However, immune

  3. Hepatitis B Virus Core Promoter Mutations in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Bucharest, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Ileana; Dinu, Andrei-Antoniu; Boscaiu, Voicu; Niculescu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accurate and personalized molecular virological diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is crucial for individualized selection of patients for antiviral therapy in Romania. Objectives: We aimed to investigate HBV mutations in Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection, also to match HBV genotypes with HBV mutations identified and clinical outcomes. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 484 Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated. This was performed in Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania during January 2005 to August 2010. HBsAg positive patients with chronic HBV infection admitted to Fundeni Clinical Institute were randomly enrolled in the study. Analysis was performed in the Centre for Immunogenetics and Virology, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania. Indirect diagnosis was performed with enhanced chemiluminescence method using Architect i2000SR and HBV-DNA was quantified with COBAS TaqMan HBV PCR. Direct sequencing of the PCR-products was performed with the PCR-product sequencing kit. HBV genotyping was performed with INNO-LiPA DR Amplification and INNO-LiPA HBV precore-core. Results: We detected two HBV genotypes; A (8.1%) and D (60.5%), and a mixture of genotypes A and D (31.4%) (P < 0.001). Basal core promoter (BCP) A1762T/G1764A and precore (PC) G1896A mutations were detected in these Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection. HBV chronic carriers had mainly genotype D (54.4%) and HBV WT (64.0%). BCP A1762T, G1764A and PC G1896A were significantly associated with HCC-tissue HBV sequencing (75.3%) (P < 0.001). PC G1896A alone was detected in HCC-serum HBV sequencing group (66.7%). Conclusions: Genotype D was the main genotype detected in Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection. Genotype D presented both BCP and PC mutations more frequently. PMID:25477976

  4. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of microencapsulated octreotide acetate in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Miller, T F; Prasad, P; Lee, J; Krauss, J; Miscik, K; Kalafsky, G; McLeod, J F

    2000-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of the marketed formulation of microencapsulated octreotide acetate were evaluated in an open-label study in 22 healthy cholecystectomized subjects. Each subject received a single 30 mg dose of microencapsulated octreotide acetate intramuscularly (i.m.). Concentrations of octreotide, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as well as clinical safety were evaluated over a period of 112 days (16 weeks). After the injection, mean serum octreotide concentration initially increased rapidly, reached the maximum (Cmax, day 1 = 0.96 +/- 0.25 ng/ml) approximately 1.5 hours after dosing, and declined thereafter until 24 hours postdose (Cmin, 24 h = 0.088 +/- 0.093 ng/ml). The octreotide concentration then increased and started a sustained release from day 7 onward. Plateau concentrations were maintained through day 70 and gradually declined to below the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) by day 112. The plateau height (Cplateau (2-112d, 60%)) was 1.68 +/- 0.88 ng/ml, and the duration (delta plateau, 60%) was 30.2 +/- 15.7 days. The integrated concentration-time curve, AUC0-112d, was 2819 +/- 782 (ng.h/ml), and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was 169 hours. To assess the variability, the drug concentrations were determined hourly for 8 hours on day 28, and the mean octreotide concentration, Cavg, day 28' was 1.55 +/- 1.26 ng/ml. The suppression of IGF-1 was statistically significant compared to the baseline (p < 0.05) through day 63; however, there were no appreciable changes in GH and IGFBP-3 concentrations after a single injection of microencapsulated octreotide acetate. Simulation of a 28-day dose schedule suggested that steady-state octreotide concentrations would be reached by the third injection with steady-state concentrations about twofold greater than the first injection. There were no serious adverse events or clinically meaningful changes

  5. Novel phospholipase A2 inhibitors from python serum are potent peptide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Thwin, Maung Maung; Stiles, Brad G; Satyanarayana-Jois, Seetharama; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Sikka, Sakshi; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina Hsiu Kim

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a vital role in defense against resistant bacteria. In this study, eight different AMPs synthesized from Python reticulatus serum protein were tested for bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW and TES strains), and Proteus vulgaris) using a disc-diffusion method (20 μg/disc). Among the tested peptides, phospholipase A2 inhibitory peptide (PIP)-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], D-Ala66-PNT.II, and D60,65E-PIP[59-67] displayed the most potent bactericidal activity against all tested pathogens in a dose-dependent manner (100-6.8 μg/ml), with a remarkable activity noted against S. aureus at 6.8 μg/ml dose within 6 h of incubation. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by a micro-broth dilution method at 100-3.125 μg/ml revealed that PIP-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides exerted a potent inhibitory effect against S. aureus and B. pseudomallei (KHW) (MICs 3.125 μg/ml), while a much less inhibitory potency (MICs 12.5 μg/ml) was noted for β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides against B. pseudomallei (TES). Higher doses of peptides had no effect on the other two strains (i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Overall, PIP-18[59-76] possessed higher antimicrobial activity than that of chloramphenicol (CHL), ceftazidime (CF) and streptomycin (ST) (30 μg/disc). When the two most active peptides, PIP-18[59-76] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], were applied topically at a 150 mg/kg dose for testing wound healing activity in a mouse model of S. aureus infection, the former accelerates faster wound healing than the latter peptide at 14 days post-treatment. The western blot data suggest that the topical application of peptides (PIP-18[59-67] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67]) modulates NF-kB mediated wound repair in mice with relatively little haemolytic (100-1.56 μg/ml) and cytotoxic (1000

  6. Propagation of atmospheric aerosol and the area of representativeness of its measurements in the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vana, Marko; Tamm, Eduard

    Area of representativeness (AR) of atmospheric aerosol measurements and horizontal dimensions of a cloud of particles are estimated by time series of aerosol particle size number spectrum measured simultaneously at two locations. The distances between sampling points are varied, 7, 30, 50, 100 or 375 km. The spectrum in form of 12 fraction concentrations is measured every 10 or 15 min during five 2-4 week measurement campaigns in Estonia. During one measurement campaign one measurement point was in Estonia (Tahkuse) and the other in Finland (Hyytiälä). Two electrical aerosol spectrometers (EAS) designed at University of Tartu, having diameter range 10 nm-10 μm, were used. At Hyytiälä, the particle size spectrum ( d=3-500 nm ) was measured by two Hauke type differential mobility analysers (DMA). The transport of the submicron fraction ( d=60 nm -1 μm ) of atmospheric aerosol is investigated during the time intervals when an air mass moves from the one measurement point towards the other or crosswise to this direction. Sample cross-correlation functions (SCCF) are calculated between prewhitened time series. The time lag corresponding to the mode of these functions are found to be 3-5 h for upwind-downwind case and zero for crosswind case. This time lag should indicate the mean time of pollution transport for upwind-downwind case. A certain minimal distance between sampling points should exist, when statistically significant correlation between the time series cannot be found. Considering this circumstance, the half-width of the AR is estimated. It is found to be more than 100 km but less than 375 km when the sampling points are located on the same line with the wind direction; and more than 50 km but less than 100 km when the sampling points are located on a straight line crosswise to the wind direction. The pollutant concentrations in the limits of AR are estimated by regression analysis. To support these results, the dispersion calculations by HYSPLIT (Hybrid

  7. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of Tetraphenylarsonium Tetrachloro(oxalato)rhenate(IV) and Bis(2,2'-bipyridine)tetrachloro(&mgr;-oxalato)copper(II)rhenium(IV).

    PubMed

    Chiozzone, Raúl; González, Ricardo; Kremer, Carlos; De Munno, Giovanni; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Faus, Juan

    1999-10-18

    Two new rhenium(IV) compounds of formula (AsPh(4))(2)[ReCl(4)(ox)] (1) and [ReCl(4)(&mgr;-ox)Cu(bipy)(2)] (2) (AsPh(4) = tetraphenylarsonium cation, ox = oxalate anion, and bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic system, space groups P2(1)/c and P2(1)/n, respectively, with a = 22.250(5) Å, b = 11.245(3) Å, c = 19.089(4) Å, beta = 96.59(2) degrees, and Z = 4 for 1 and a = 9.421(2) Å, b = 16.909(4) Å, c = 16.179(4) Å, beta = 93.97(2) degrees, and Z = 4 for 2. The structure of 1 is made up of [ReCl(4)(ox)](2)(-) anions and AsPh(4)(+) cations held united by electrostatic forces. Rhenium(IV) is hexacoordinate, with two oxygens of a chelating ox and four chlorine atoms building a distorted octahedron around the metal atom. There is no contact between the [ReCl(4)(ox)](2)(-) anions, the shortest Re.Re and Cl.Cl distances being 10.345 and 7.209 Å, respectively. This anionic complex is coordinated to a [Cu(bipy)(2)](2+) cation in 2, through one oxalate-oxygen, giving a neutral heterometallic dinuclear unit. The Cu(II) ion shows a very distorted five-coordinated geometry, four bipy-nitrogens occuping the equatorial positions and the oxygen atom the apical one. The basal plane geometry is distorted toward the tetrahedron, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two bipy ligands is 37.6(2) degrees. These [ReCl(4)(&mgr;-ox)Cu(bipy)(2)] units are arranged in such a way that a chlorine atom of one of them points toward the copper atom of the neighboring one, forming helicoid chains. The intrachain Re.Cu distances through chloro and oxalato bridges are 4.658 and 4.798 Å, respectively. The magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 has been investigated over the temperature range 1.8-300 K. 1 is a magnetically diluted Re(IV) complex, the great value of zero-field splitting of the ground level (D = 60 cm(-)(1)) accounting for the variation of chi(M)T with T in

  8. Genotypic Resistance Analysis of the Virological Response to Fosamprenavir-Ritonavir in Protease Inhibitor-Experienced Patients in CONTEXT and TRIAD Clinical Trials▿

    PubMed Central

    Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Flandre, Philippe; Molina, Jean-Michel; Katlama, Christine; Yeni, Patrick; Raffi, Francois; Antoun, Zeina; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Calvez, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease mutations associated with virological response (VR) to fosamprenavir-ritonavir (FPV/r) in 113 protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced patients randomized in both CONTEXT and TRIAD clinical trials and receiving the same dose (700/100 mg twice daily) of FPV/r. The impact of each protease mutation on the VR to FPV/r, defined as the decrease in HIV RNA at week 12, was investigated with nonparametric analyses. A step-by-step procedure was done using a Jonckheere-Terpstra (JT) test that retains the group of mutations most strongly associated with the VR. Mutations at the following 14 codons were associated with a reduced VR to FPV/r: 10, 15, 33, 46, 54, 60, 62, 63, 72, 73, 82, 84, 89, and 90. The JT procedure led to selecting the CONTEXT/TRIAD genotypic set of mutations, I15V, M46I/L, I54L/M/V, D60E, L63P/T, and I84V, as providing the strongest association with the VR (P = 1.45 × 10−11). In the nine patients with zero mutations within this set, the median decrease in HIV RNA was −2.63 log copies/ml, and was −2.22 (n = 45), −1.50 (n = 26), −0.58 (n = 23), −0.47 (n = 6), −0.13 (n = 3), and 0.04 (n = 1) log copies/ml in those with one, two, three, four, five, and six mutations, respectively. This study identified six mutations associated with VR to FPV/r. Some of these mutations are shared with the current FPV/r Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS) resistance score, which has been cross-validated in the CONTEXT/TRIAD data set, suggesting that the current ANRS FPV/r score is a useful tool for the prediction of VR to FPV/r in PI-experienced patients. PMID:18852278

  9. Structural investigation of BaOsbnd B2O3sbnd P2O5 glasses by NMR and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, Ladislav; Kalenda, Petr; Mošner, Petr; Černošek, Zdeněk; Montagne, Lionel; Revel, Bertrand

    2016-09-01

    Glasses of the ternary system BaOsbnd B2O3sbnd P2O5 were prepared and studied in broad concentration limits covering the whole vitrification domain: 20-50 mol% BaO, 0-40 mol% B2O3 and 20-60 mol% P2O5. Their structure was studied with combinations of Raman spectroscopy, 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy and 11B MAS NMR spectroscopy. The obtained results are discussed in several compositional lines A: (100-x)Ba(PO3)2sbnd xB2O3, B: 40BaOsbnd yB2O3sbnd (60-y)P2O5, C: (50-z)BaOsbnd zB2O3sbnd 50P2O5, D: (60-w)BaOsbnd wB2O3sbnd 40P2O5 and E: uBaOsbnd 40B2O3sbnd (60-u)P2O5. Boron oxide incorporates into the phosphate network in the form of BO4 and BO3 groups and increases their glass transition temperature. Nevertheless, the increase in Tg is only steep within the region of 0-20 mol% B2O3 reaching a maximum at the glasses with ∼30 mol% B2O3. In the lines A, B and E a decrease in the P2O5 and an increase of B2O3 content results in the shortening of phosphate chains with decreasing P2O5 content; these changes are most pronounced in line B with a constant BaO content. In lines C and D with a constant P2O5 content a decrease in the BaO content results, in contrast, in the reverse transformation of phosphate structural units in the direction Q1 → Q2 → Q3 as detected from Raman spectra and 31P MAS NMR spectra. 11B MAS NMR spectra revealed that only BO4 units are present in the glasses with 0-20 mol% B2O3. In the glasses of the E series the fraction of BO3 units increases with a decreasing P2O5 content. By the decomposition of the 11B MAS NMR spectra it is possible to estimate the fractions of basic structural units formed by boron - B(OP)3O, B(OP)2O2 and BO3 in all the glasses of the glass forming region.

  10. Salmonella isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg products: Thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Hinton, Arthur; Bailey, Rebecca B; Cray, William C; Meinersmann, Richard J; Ball, Takiyah A; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-08-01

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by food manufacturers or the FSIS and may be present as a result of either pasteurization-resistant bacteria or post-processing contamination. In this study, seventeen strains of Salmonella isolated from pasteurized egg products and three heat-resistant control strains were compared for the following attributes: thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (LWE) at 60 °C, enzymatic profiles, and serotyping and phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, fatty acid analysis and strain morphological variation evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were serotyped as Heidelberg (4 isolates), Widemarsh, Mbandaka, Cerro, Thompson, 4,12:i:-, and Enteritidis (8 isolates). All 20 isolates were sensitive to all 14 antibiotics tested for. The D60 values in LWE ranged from 0.34 to 0.58 min. All 20 strains were recovered from LWE inoculated with 8.5 logCFU/mL of Salmonella and pasteurized at 60 °C for 3.5 min; however, some isolates were not recovered from pasteurized LWE that had been inoculated with only 4.5 logCFU/mL Salmonella and treated at 60 °C for 3.5 min. Although some strains exhibited atypical enzymatic activity (e.g., reduction of adonitol, hydrolysis of proline nitroanilide or p-n-p-beta-glucuronide, and nonreduction of melibiose), differences in biochemical reactions could not be correlated with differences in thermal resistance. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis revealed that differences insaturate/unsaturated profiles may be correlated with differences in heat resistance, in two instances. One heat resistant strain (#13, Enteritidis) had the statistically lowest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 39%. However, one heat sensitive strain (#3, serovar 4,12:i:-) had the

  11. Flow control of a circular cylinder with O-rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hee-Chang; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2004-08-01

    The flow around a circular cylinder is controlled by attaching O-rings to reduce drag force acting on the cylinder. Wind tunnel experiments on the flow around a circular cylinder with and without ring type surface protrusions are carried out to investigate the flow characteristics of the controlled wake. Four experimental models are tested in this study; one smooth cylinder of diameter D (60 mm) and three cylinders fitted with longitudinal O-rings of diameters d=0.0167D, 0.05D and 0.067 D with various pitches. The drag force, mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles in the near wake behind the cylinders are measured for Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter in the range of ReD=7.8×10 3˜1.2×10 5. Flow field around the cylinders is visualized using a smoke-wire technique to see the flow structure qualitatively. The results are compared with those for a smooth cylinder having the same diameter. At ReD=1.2×10 5, the cylinder fitted with O-rings of d=0.0167 D in a pitch interval of 0.165 D shows the maximum drag reduction of about 9%, compared with the smooth cylinder. The drag reduction effect of O-rings of d=0.067 D is not so high and it has nearly the same value as that of the smooth cylinder. For the O-ring circular, as the Reynolds number increases, the location of peak turbulence intensity shifts downstream and the peak magnitude is decreased. In addition, the vortex shedding frequency has nearly same value as that of the smooth cylinder up to a Reynolds number of 3.2×10 4. Thereafter, the shedding frequency increases and finally disappears as the Reynolds number increases. The visualized flow for the smooth cylinder does not show distinct spanwise variation of flow pattern. However, the size of vortices and vortex formation region formed behind the O-ring cylinder are smaller, compared with the smooth cylinder. In addition, the instantaneous topological flow image shows spanwise variation of V-shaped flow pattern. Consequently, the simple

  12. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P < 0.001) with additional DOF, and ADG and G:F decreased (linear; P < 0.001). Total cost of gain was quadratic (P < 0.001), and incremental cost of gain rose at an increasing rate (quadratic; P < 0.001) with increased DOF. With increasing DOF, HCW importance decreased from 58 to 21%; MS was variable, ranging from 18 to 23%; and YG and DMI were minor contributors to profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing

  13. A Virtual Observatory Census to Address Dwarfs Origins (AVOCADO). I. Science goals, sample selection, and analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Amorín, R.; García-Vargas, M.; Gomes, J. M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Mollá, M.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Rodrigo, C.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Solano, E.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Even though they are by far the most abundant of all galaxy types, the detailed properties of dwarf galaxies are still only poorly characterised - especially because of the observational challenge that their intrinsic faintness and weak clustering properties represent. Aims: AVOCADO aims at establishing firm conclusions on the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies by constructing and analysing a homogeneous, multiwavelength dataset for a statistically significant sample of approximately 6500 nearby dwarfs (Mi - 5 log h100 > - 18 mag). The sample is selected to lie within the 20 < D < 60 h100-1 Mpc volume covered by the SDSS-DR7 footprint, and is thus volume-limited for Mi - 5 log h100 < -16 mag dwarfs - but includes ≈1500 fainter systems. We will investigate the roles of mass and environment in determining the current properties of the different dwarf morphological types - including their structure, their star formation activity, their chemical enrichment history, and a breakdown of their stellar, dust, and gas content. Methods: We present the sample selection criteria and describe the suite of analysis tools, some of them developed in the framework of the Virtual Observatory. We use optical spectra and UV-to-NIR imaging of the dwarf sample to derive star formation rates, stellar masses, ages, and metallicities - which are supplemented with structural parameters that are used to classify them morphologically. This unique dataset, coupled with a detailed characterisation of each dwarf's environment, allows for a fully comprehensive investigation of their origins and enables us to track the (potential) evolutionary paths between the different dwarf types. Results: We characterise the local environment of all dwarfs in our sample, paying special attention to trends with current star formation activity. We find that virtually all quiescent dwarfs are located in the vicinity (projected distances ≲ 1.5 h100-1 Mpc) of ≳ L∗ companions, consistent with

  14. Physiological and metabolic responses of gestating Brahman cows to repeated transportation.

    PubMed

    Price, D M; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2015-02-01

    This study characterized physiological responses to repeated transportation (TRANS) of gestating cows of differing temperaments. Cows were classified as Calm (C; = 10), Intermediate (I; = 28), or Temperamental (T; = 10). Based on artificial insemination date and pregnancy confirmation, cows were TRANS for 2 h on d 60 (TRANS1), 80 (TRANS2), 100 (TRANS3), 120 (TRANS4), and 140 (TRANS5) ± 5 d of gestation. Indwelling vaginal temperature (VT) monitoring devices were inserted 24 h before each TRANS with VT recorded from 2 h before TRANS and averaged into 5-min intervals through 30 min after TRANS. Serum samples were collected before loading and on unloading from the trailer to determine concentrations of cortisol, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis in SAS. Serum cortisol concentrations were affected by temperament ( < 0.001), with T cows having the greater concentrations of cortisol before each TRANS event. All cows (100%) regardless of temperament exhibited elevations in cortisol following each TRANS event. Peak VT was greater ( < 0.001) at TRANS1 relative to all other TRANS events regardless of cow temperament. During TRANS, the T cows tended ( < 0.09) to have greater peak VT (39.86 ± 0.15°C) compared to C (39.41 ± 0.16°C) and I cows (39.55 ± 0.08°C). Area under the VT curve decreased ( = 0.002) from TRANS1 through TRANS5. Pre-TRANS serum glucose concentration at TRANS1 was greater ( < 0.03) for T (68.13 ± 4.31mg/dL) compared to I (53.42 ± 2.78 mg/dL) and C cows (52.76 ± 4.60 mg/dL). The C and I cows had greater changes in NEFA concentration between pre- and post-transport, and T cows showed the least change ( < 0.001). Cow VT and serum glucose concentration decreased in all temperaments ( < 0.01) with repeated TRANS; however, serum NEFA concentration post-TRANS did not vary ( > 0.10) with repeated TRANS events. Serum glucose concentrations were affected ( < 0.02) by a TRANS event by temperament

  15. A Comprehensive Statistical Assessment of Star-Planet Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason Thomas

    2015-08-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interactions between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (Mp/a^2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (Lx or Lx/Lbol). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with Mp/a^2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with Mp/a^2 > 450 Mjup/AU^2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in Lx. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence. Finally, we discuss ongoing and future X-ray studies investigating the impact of stellar coronal activity on planetary atmospheres, and potential dynamo disruption in mid F stars experiencing particularly extreme tidal

  16. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (−17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (−24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (−21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  17. Geophysical Characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, Southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Paul, C.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Clement, W.; Liberty, L.; Myers, R.; Donaldson, P.

    2003-12-01

    We are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system as part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs, is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. As a result of Basin and Range extension, the Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We are using several geophysical techniques to generate both basin-wide and high-resolution local characterizations of the Alvord Basin and the BLHS. To date we have completed two scales of seismic reflection surveys: an east-west trending basin scale survey and a shallow (~10 - 300 m depth) 3D survey of the BLHS. The basin scale seismic survey consists of 11 km of 2D, 60 fold CMP data acquired with a 200 lb accelerated weight drop. We acquired the 3D survey of the BLHS using a 7.62x39 mm SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The 3D patch covers ~ 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. Additionally, we have completed a regional total-field magnetic survey for a large portion of the Alvord Basin and a 3D transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey of the BLHS. The 3D TEM survey covers the central portion of the 3D seismic survey. Initial results from the regional magnetic and seismic surveys indicate a mid-basin basement high. The basement high appears to correlate with the northeast trending BLHS. Additionally, the cross-basin seismic profile clearly shows that recent deformation has primarily been along an eastward dipping normal fault that bounds the basement high to the east. This suggests that both spatial and temporal characteristics of deformation control hydrothermal activity

  18. Physical and numerical modeling of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a worldwide problem caused, among others factors, by aquifer overexploitation, rising sea levels, and climate changes. To limit the deterioration of both surface water and groundwater quality caused by saline intrusion, in recent years many research studies have been developed to identify possible countermeasures, mainly consisting of underground barriers. In this context, physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of general solutions to contain the salt wedge. This work presents a laboratory experiment where seawater intrusion was reproduced in a specifically designed sand-box. The physical model, built at the University of Padova, represents the terminal part of a coastal aquifer and consists of a flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 49 cm with glass beads characterized by a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10 ≈ 1.5. The resulting porous media is homogeneous, with porosity of about 0.37 and hydraulic conductivity of about 1.3×10‑3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank filled by freshwater provides the recharge to the aquifer. The downstream tank simulates the sea and red food dye is added to the saltwater to easily visualize the salt wedge. The volume of the downstream tank is about five times the upstream one, and, due to the small filtration discharge, salt concentration variations (i.e., water density variations) due to the incoming freshwater flow are negligible. The hydraulic gradient during the tests is constant, due to the fixed water level in the two tanks. Water levels and discharged flow rate are continuously monitored. The experiment presented here had a duration of 36 h. For the first 24 h, the saltwater wedge was let to evolve until quasi stationary condition was obtained. In the last 12 h, water withdrawal was carried out at

  19. The Eastern Part Of Gediz Graben Determination Methods Of Tectonic Movements Gps And Ps-Insar; The First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyraz, Fatih; Özgür Hastaoğlu, Kemal; Tiryakioğlu, İbrahim; Tatar, Orhan; Gürsoy, Önder; Koçbulut, Fikret; Türk, Tarık; Demirel, Mehmet; Duman, Hüseyin; Faruk Ciğer, Ahmet; Birdal, Anıl Can

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in Aegean Horst-Graben system, bordered by Alaşehir and Sarıgöl in the eastern part of Gediz Graben. Gediz Graben extends from Manisa to Pamukkale and has a length of approximately 200 km. The main fault of the graben lies along the southern edge. The antithetic components of this fault are located from place to place in the north. The earthquake of Alaşehir whose magnitude was M=6.5 occurred in the graben on March 28, 1969. The main fault separating the neogene sediments of the Gediz Graben from metamorphic basements (Menderes Masifi) is called the southern boundary fault (Seyitoğlu and Scott, 1996), or The Karadut fault (Emre, 1996). Many civilizations were developed in the place where The Western Anatolia affected by a lot of destructive earthquakes throughout history. The existence of about 13 earthquakes occurred at the historical period in the zone encompassing the study area are known. The vast majority of these historical earthquakes are concentrated around the Gediz graben. The existence of earthquakes whose magnitude is bigger than VII are known in the western area of the Graben in B.C. 17, 1592, 1850, 1862 years, and in Denizli region at the intersection of the Great Menderes Graben, at the eastern area of the Graben in A.D. 60, 494 years. Later than the specified dates, 1969 Alaşehir earthquake is known to occur in the eastern area of the graben. Within the study, two different spatial geodetic technology, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry and GPS (Global Positioning System) will be used. Results which will be obtained by both methods have advantages with respect to each other. While basis point measurements made with GPS(cm sensivity) is susceptible on horizontal component of terrestrial deformation (vertical error is about twice bigger than the horizontal errors), spatial measurements get with InSAR on the level of cm is effective to determine displacements in the vertical direction. In this study, it has

  20. Iron absorption after introducing and discontinuation of iron and zinc supplementation in rats.

    PubMed

    Januszko, Olga; Madej, Dawid; Brzozowska, Anna; Kaluza, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in iron apparent absorption (IAA%) during and after iron and zinc supplementation in rats. The study was conducted on 6-week old male Wistar rats in 3 stages: 4-week period of adaptation to the control (C) and iron deficient (D) diets (stage I); 4-week period of supplementation with 10-time more iron (CSFe, DSFe), zinc (CSZn, DSZn) or both iron and zinc (CSFeZn, DSFeZn) compared to C diet (stage II); 2-week of post-supplementation period (rats were fed the same diets as in the adaptation period, stage III). IAA% was measured in five consecutive days directly after introducing and discontinuation of iron and zinc supplementation as well as in the end of stage II (days: 22-24th) and stage III (days: 8-10th). Overall in the second day after introducing and in the fifth day after discontinuation of iron or iron and zinc supplementation, the IAA% had undergone to the level compatible with the values in the end of each stage. At the end of stage II, IAA% in CSFeZn (54.1 ± 2.7%) rats was not different from the IAA% in CSFe rats (53.9 ± 1.9%), but in DSFeZn group IAA% (49.4 ± 2.1%) was significantly lower than in DSFe (57.4 ± 2.3%) group. Moreover, IAA% after stage II and stage III in DSZn group was significantly lower (39.2 ± 2.8% and 38.6 ± 2.6%, respectively) than in group D (60.7 ± 1.9% and 54.3 ± 3.0%, respectively). In conclusion, zinc administered simultaneously with iron (Zn:Fe weight ratio=1:1) decreased IAA% in adult rats fed on iron deficient diet, but not in rats fed on control diet. IAA% reduction by zinc supplementation has been extended to 10 days after discontinuation of the treatment. Adaptation of the rats to high doses of iron or iron and zinc and also to the cessation of these treatments was relatively fast. However, IAA% was stabilized faster after introducing the supplementation than it's discontinuation.

  1. [Analysis of health insurance data on home nursing care in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Cs Horváth, Zoltán; Sebestyén, Andor; Molics, Bálint; Ágoston, István; Endrei, Dóra; Oláh, András; Betlehem, József; Imre, László; Bagosi, Gabriella; Boncz, Imre

    2014-04-13

    Bevezetés: Az otthoni szakápolás 1996 végén indult meg Magyarországon. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja a magyar otthoni szakápolási rendszer egészségbiztosítási és igénybevételi mutatóinak bemutatása. Módszer: Az elemzésben szereplő adatok az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár finanszírozási adatbázisából (2001–2012) származnak. Elemezték a betegszámokat, a vizitszámokat, a szakápolási és szakirányú terápiás tevékenységek (gyógytorna, fizioterápia, logopédia) arányát. Eredmények: Az ellátott betegek száma a 2001. évi 36 560-ról 2012-re 51 647-re nőtt, 41,3%-kal emelkedett. A teljesített vizitek száma ugyanezen időszak alatt 841 715-ről 1 194 670-re, 41,9%-kal nőtt. A szakápolási és szakirányú terápiás tevékenységek, valamint az ápolási fokozatok vonatkozásában jelentős megyék közötti eltéréseket figyeltek meg. A szakápolásra kifizetett összegek aránya a legmagasabb volt Nógrád (80,4%), Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (79,7%) és Komárom-Esztergom (74,6%) megyékben, míg a legalacsonyabb Zala (53,0%) és Csongrád (52,7%) megyékben, illetve Budapesten (47,9%). Következtetések: Az otthoni szakápolásban jelentős területi egyenlőtlenségek mutatkoznak, amelyek mérsékléséhez olyan szakmai irányelvek fejlesztésére van szükség, amelyek az otthoni szakápolás speciális vonatkozásait szabályozzák. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(15), 597–603.

  2. Characterizing aerodynamic roughness length (z0) for a debris-covered glacier: aerodynamic inversion and SfM-derived microtopographic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Evan; Steiner, Jakob; Brun, Fanny; Detert, Martin; Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    ) regression-fits based on topographic metrics produced intermediate values. A tower of wind and temperature sensors was installed in the depression in October 2014. Using an iterative method to derive friction velocity and temperature scale, we derive the Monin-Obukov length and subsequently surface roughness values for each data pair (Garratt 1992, Hogstrom 1988, Brock 2006). Values range from 0.01 to 0.2 m over the observation period for this single location. Clearly, the surface of debris-covered glaciers is extremely variable spatially and temporally, so what should be used in models? Our results suggest z0 varies between 0.004 m (smooth cobbles) to 0.5m (large boulders), and that 0.015m is a reasonable central value for Lirung Glacier. As the grain-size distributions closely reproduce the distribution of obstacle sizes determined by the zero-up-crossing method, and d80 preserves the plot ranking of z0 magnitudes, it may be possible to develop a representative z0 lookup table based on grain sizes, which would provide a straightforward method to roughly vary z0 across the debris surface for energy-balance modelling applications.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    combined contribution from both traffic and atmospheric circulation accounted for observed spatiotemporal variability in PM2.5 concentrations. Based on these experimental and quantitative analyses, a three-dimensional model is proposed for contaminant's transport in highly urbanized Cincinnati region. Furthermore this dissertation explored implications on roadside pollutant evaluation, and on the risk analysis of future fuel substitution using biodiesel. The Gaussian-type models are poor in determining the effective emission factor particularly under nocturnal thermal inversion for which the effective emission factor is a function of lapse rate in the morning. The Gaussian models are applicable in daytime after the breakdown of thermal inversion. Lastly, among three types of fuels examined, the proposed butanol-added biodiesel-diesel blend (D80B15Bu5) yielded a good compromise between black carbon and NOx emissions while maintaining proper combustion properties. It is also found that the emission contained less black carbon and had higher organic carbon (OC) and elemental (EC) ratio than tested petroleum diesel. As demonstrated in other parts of this study, the OC-enriched emission will likely affect the black carbon occurrence and PM concentrations in the urban environments. Overall, it is suggested that urban formation and biofuel usage define the environmental impacts of black carbon, and are the focus for climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  4. Deliquescence, efflorescence, and phase miscibility of mixed particles of ammonium sulfate and isoprene-derived secondary organic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. L.; Bertram, A. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2012-10-01

    The hygroscopic phase transitions of ammonium sulfate mixed with isoprene-derived secondary organic material were investigated in aerosol experiments. The organic material was produced by isoprene photo-oxidation at 40% and 60% relative humidity. The low volatility fraction of the photo-oxidation products condensed onto ammonium sulfate particles. The particle-phase organic material had oxygen-to-carbon ratios of 0.67 to 0.74 (±0.2) for mass concentrations of 20 to 30 μg m-3. The deliquescence, efflorescence, and phase miscibility of the mixed particles were investigated using a dual arm tandem differential mobility analyzer. The isoprene photo-oxidation products induced deviations in behavior relative to pure ammonium sulfate. Compared to an efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of 30 to 35% for pure ammonium sulfate, efflorescence was eliminated for aqueous particles having organic volume fractions ϵ of 0.6 and greater. Compared to a deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of 80% for pure ammonium sulfate, the DRH steadily decreased with increasing ϵ, approaching a DRH of 40% for ϵ of 0.9. Parameterizations of the DRH(ϵ) and ERH(ϵ) curves were as follows: DRH(ϵ)= ∑i ci,d ϵi valid for 0 ≤ ϵ ≤0.86 and ERH(ϵ)= ∑ i ci,e ϵi valid for 0 ≤ ϵ ≤ 0.55 for the coefficients c0,d= 80.67, c0,e = 28.35, c1,d = -11.45, c1,e = -13.66, c2,d = 0, c2,e = 0, c3,d = 57.99, c3,e = -83.80, c4,d = -106.80, and c4,e = 0. The molecular description that is thermodynamically implied by these strongly sloped DRH(ϵ) and ERH(ϵ) curves is that the organic isoprene photo-oxidation products, the inorganic ammonium sulfate, and water form a miscible liquid phase even at low relative humidity. This phase miscibility is in contrast to the liquid-liquid separation that occurs for some other types of secondary organic material. These differences

  5. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    collected by the PWSB, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 20.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L), median nitrite concentration was 0.002 mg/L as nitrogen (N), median nitrate concentration was 0.01 mg/L as N, median orthophosphate concentration was 0.07 mg/L as phosphorus, and median concentrations of total coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were 33 and 23 colony forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100mL), respectively. The medians of the median daily loads (and yields) of chloride, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, and total coliform and E. coli bacteria were 230 kilograms per day (kg/d) (80 kilograms per day per square mile (kg/d/mi2)); 10 grams per day (g/d) (6.3 grams per day per square mile (g/d/mi2)); 110 g/d (29 g/d/mi2); 610 g/d (270 g/d/mi2); 4,600 million colony forming units per day (CFUx106/d) (2,500 CFUx106/d/mi2); and 1,800 CFUx106/d (810 CFUx106/d/mi2), respectively.

  6. Hormonal stimulation and oocyte maturational competence in prepuberal Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Presicce, Giorgio Antonio; Senatore, Elena Maria; De Santis, Giuseppe; Stecco, Romana; Terzano, Giuseppina Maria; Borghese, Antonio; De Mauro, Guillermo Javier

    2002-04-15

    control group (P < 0.05; Group B: 28.7 +/- 16.8, Group C: 16.3 +/- 5.9 and Group D: 27.1 +/- 16.9 versus Group A: 6.2 +/- 6). A higher oocyte maturational competence (P < 0.05) was found in Groups A, B and D (80.8 +/- 7.9, 87.5 +/- 8.2, and 86.5 +/- 4.3, respectively) compared to Group C (60 +/- 26.2). In conclusion, in prepuberal buffalo calves combined gonadotrophin stimulation protocols yielded higher numbers of medium to large size follicles compared to a control group. A high number of good quality oocytes were recovered by transvaginal ultrasound follicle aspiration, and a high rate of metaphase II progression was reached after in vivo and in vitro maturation.

  7. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management systems on growth performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; McCann, M A; Gerrard, D E; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-08-01

    Brahman × British crossbred steers (n = 40 and 38 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf management systems following early weaning (EW) on growth performance, muscle gene expression, and carcass characteristics. On the day of EW (d 0), steers were stratified by BW and age (95 ± 14 kg; 74 ± 14 d) and randomly assigned to a control treatment that was normally weaned (NW) on d 180 (n = 10 steers/yr) or to 1 of 3 EW treatments: 1) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 steers/yr), 2) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 90 and then grazed on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 steers/yr), or 3) EW and grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 steers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 steers) and then on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). Early-weaned steers on ryegrass and bahiagrass pastures were supplemented with high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) until d 180. From d 180 to 270 (yr 1), all EW steers remained in their respective treatments, whereas NW steers were provided high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) on bahiagrass pastures. In yr 1, feedlot finishing period began on d 270. In yr 2, the study was terminated on d 180. In both years, EW180 steers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. On d 180 of yr 1, EWRG steers were lightest (P < 0.0001) and EW90 steers were heavier (P = 0.05) than NW steers, whereas EW90, EWRG, and NW steers had similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.14). On d 90, muscle PPARγ mRNA expression tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for EW180 steers and was greater (P = 0.008) for EW90 vs. EWRG steers but similar (P = 0.25) between EW180 and NW steers. On d 180, PPARγ mRNA was greater (P ≤ 0.06) for EW180 vs. NW, EW90, and EWRG steers. From d 274 to 302, EW180 steers had the least ADG (P ≤ 0.09), whereas EW90 steers had similar (P = 0.19) ADG

  8. Long-term performance of visual and electronic identification devices in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Carné, S; Caja, G; Ghirardi, J J; Salama, A A K

    2009-04-01

    Dairy goat kids born during a 3-yr period (n = 97) and their mothers (n = 29) were used for a long-term evaluation of the performance of 9 types of identification (ID) devices. Kids wore multiple ID devices: visual ear tags (V1, tip-tag, n = 47; V2, official, n = 50), electronic ear tags (E1, button-button, n = 46; E2, flag-button, n = 46), electronic rumen boluses (B1, mini-bolus 14 g, n = 92; B2, mini-bolus 20 g, n = 28; B3, standard bolus 75 g, n = 34) and glass-encapsulated transponders injected in the forefeet (T1, 15 mm, n = 75; T2, 12 mm, n = 100). Visual ear tags were applied at birth and removed in yearlings, whereas electronic ear tags were applied after bolusing with B1 (6.7 kg BW and 30 d, on average); B2 were administered in the event of a B1 loss, and B3 in case of a B2 loss and in goat does. At d 60 of age, kids were allocated into 2 groups to evaluate the effects of rearing system on ID. Treatments were: weaned (n = 46), and not weaned (n = 46) where kids suckled a milk substitute until d 150. Readability of ID devices (read/readable x 100) was monitored from 1 to 3 yr of age, depending on device and year of birth. Long-term readability was analyzed using a nonparametric survival analysis. A total of 3.3% infections and 6.5% tissue reactions were reported for electronic ear tags, but ears were fully healed in yearlings. Weaning numerically reduced B1 losses at d 150 (weaned, 84.8% vs. not weaned, 73.3%). Readability of visual ear tags in yearlings (V1, 82.9%; V2, 94.0%) was lower than for electronic ear tags (E1 and E2, 100%). Mini-bolus readability in yearlings did not differ by type (B1, 71.4%; B2, 84.6%) or with visual ear tags. No effect of inject type was reported (T1, 92.0%; T2, 96.0%). Survival analysis after yr 3 gave the greatest readability value for E1 (100%), which did not differ from B3 (96.8%). The lowest readability was estimated for B1 (66.3%), followed by E2 (79.8%), B2 (81.4%), and T1 (90.4%). In conclusion, button

  9. Expression of estrus improves fertility and decreases pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows that receive artificial insemination or embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate if expression of estrus by dairy cattle altered fertility in timed artificial insemination (AI; n=5,430) or timed embryo transfer (ET; n=2,003) programs that used estradiol and progesterone (P4) to synchronize ovulation. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed on d 0 (time of AI) and 7 to determine ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation. Only cows with a visible corpus luteum on d 7 were used in this study. At the time of controlled internal drug release removal, all cows received a tail-head device for detection of estrus and were considered in estrus when the paint of the device was completely removed by d 0. Circulating P4 concentrations were evaluated on d 7. Pregnancies per AI (P/AI) or ET (P/ET) were determined by ultrasonography on d 32 and 60. At d-32 pregnancy diagnosis, cows with expression of estrus had increased P/AI [no estrus=25.5% (222/846) vs. estrus=38.9% (1,785/4,584)] and P/ET [no estrus=32.7% (193/606) vs. estrus=46.2% (645/1,397)]. Similarly, at d-60 pregnancy diagnosis, expression of estrus increased P/AI [no estrus=20.1% (179/846) vs. estrus=33.3% (1,530/4,584)] and P/ET [no estrus=25.1% (150/606) vs. estrus=37.5% (525/1,397)]. Pregnancy loss was lower in cows that expressed estrus in timed AI [TAI; no estrus=20.1% (43/222) vs. estrus 14.4% (255/1,785)] and timed ET [TET; no estrus=22.7% (43/193) vs. estrus=18.6% (120/645)] compared with cows with no estrus. Independent of expression of estrus cows ovulating either too small or too large of follicles had lower P/AI. No effect of ovulatory follicle diameter on P/ET was noted in cows that expressed estrus; although, cows that did not express estrus tended to have lower P/ET if they ovulated larger follicles. In cows that showed estrus, follicle diameter did not affect pregnancy loss, but cows that did not show estrus and ovulated larger follicles tended to have greater pregnancy loss after TAI and had greater pregnancy loss on TET. A positive effect of d-7 P4

  10. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is

  11. DEM generation from digital photographs using computer vision: Accuracy and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2012-12-01

    Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, and offer the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of this approach and, using imagery of the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise, compare the precisions obtained with those from formal close range photogrammetry. The surface reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initially un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Application of SfM-MVS is demonstrated using images taken from a microlight aircraft over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (courtesy of B. van Wyk de Vries). 133 images, collected with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm fixed focus lens, were

  12. Effects of chronic heat stress on plasma concentration of secreted heat shock protein 70 in growing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, J B; Bonner, S L; Loxton, I; Mader, T L

    2013-01-01

    Sixty Angus steers (449.2±11.0 kg) with implanted body temperature (BT) transmitters were used in a 110-d study to determine the effect of chronic stress (housing, diet, and climate) on extracellular heat shock protein 70 (eHsp70) concentration in plasma. The steers were a subset of a larger study involving 164 steers. Before the start of the study (d -31), 63 steers were implanted with a BT transmitter between the internal abdominal muscle and the peritoneum at the right side flank. Steers were housed in 20 pens (10 with shade and 10 without). Within each pen, 3 steers had a transmitter, and BT was recorded at 30-min intervals throughout the study. On d 0, 30, 60, 90, and 110, steers were weighed, BCS assessed (1 to 9 scale in which 1=emaciated and 9=obese), and 10 mL of blood from the coccygeal vein was collected for determination of inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) concentration by ELISA. Climatic variables (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, black globe temperature, and wind speed) were obtained every 30 min from an on-site weather station. The relationship between the climatic variables and Hsp70 concentration were examined. As we failed to detect an effect of shade, all data were pooled. Mean BT over the duration of the study was 39.6±0.10°C. Mean BT was lowest (38.7±0.10°C) on d 0 and highest on d 110 (40.2°C±0.10). The Hsp70 concentration was least on d 0 (2.33±0.47 ng/mL) and greatest on d 30 (8.08±0.78 ng/mL). The Hsp70 concentration decreased from d 30 but remained above the d-0 concentrations on d 60, 90, and 110. There was a strong relationship between Hsp70 concentration and ambient temperature (r2=0.86; P<0.0001) and Hsp70 concentration and photoperiod (r2=0.94; P<0.0001) and no relationship with BT (r2=0.06; P<0.0001). When assessed with both BCS and BT, the relationship was moderate (r2=0.48; P<0.001). The relationship between Hsp70 and change in BT (BTΔ) above 38.6°C was also moderate (r2=0.54; P<0

  13. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management system on growth and reproductive performance of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-07-01

    Brahman × British crossbred heifers (n = 40 and 38 heifers in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management system on growth and reproductive performance. On d 0, heifers were ranked by BW (89 ± 16 kg) and age (72 ± 13 d) and randomly assigned to a conventional management group that was normally weaned on d 180 (NW; n = 10 heifers annually) or early weaned (EW) on d 0 and 1) limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as fed) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 heifers annually), 2) limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as fed) in drylot until d 90, then grazed on Bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 heifers annually), or 3) grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 heifers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 heifers), then on Bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). On d 180, all heifers were grouped by treatment and rotated on Bahiagrass pastures until d 390. Grazing heifers were supplemented at 1.0% BW until d 180 and at 1.5% BW from d 180 to 390. From d 0 to 90, EW180 and EW90 heifers were heavier (P ≤ 0.02) than NW and EWRG heifers, whereas NW heifers tended (P = 0.09) to be heavier on d 90 than EWRG heifers. In yr 1 and 2, EW180 heifers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. In yr 1, EWRG heifers were lightest (P < 0.0001), whereas EW90 and NW heifers had similar BW (P = 0.58). Conversely, EW90, EWRG, and NW heifers achieved similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.18). Positive correlations were detected (P ≤ 0.05) between liver IGF-1 mRNA abundance on d 90 and ADG from d 0 to 90 and between liver IGF-1 mRNA abundance on d 180 and ADG from d 90 to 180. The EW180 heifers were youngest (P ≤ 0.01) at puberty. From d 260 to 340, the percentage of pubertal heifers was greater (P ≤ 0.03) for EW90 vs. NW heifers but did not differ (P ≥ 0.15) between EWRG and NW heifers. The ADG from d 0 to 90 and the plasma IGF-1 on d 90 and 180 explained approximately 34% of the

  14. The accuracy of photo-based structure-from-motion DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2012-04-01

    resulting surface model was compared with data collected by a Riegl LMS-Z210ii terrestrial laser scanner. Differences between the surfaces were dominated by the varying effects of occlusions on the techniques, and systematic distortion of the SfM-MVS model along the length of the cliff could not be resolved over the ±15 mm precision of the TLS data. For a larger-scale example, a ~1.6 km wide region over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano was reconstructed using 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm prime lens, from a microlight aircraft (with a representative viewing distance of 1.0 km). In this case, the resulting DEM showed an RMS error of 1.0 m when compared with the results from traditional photogrammetry and some areas of systematic error were evident. Such errors were minimised by reprocessing the SfM-MVS results with a more sophisticated camera model than is integrated into the reconstruction pipeline. In combination, the results indicate that, with a good, convergent image set, SfM-MVS can be anticipated to deliver relative precisions of 1:1000 or better, for geomorphological applications. However, under certain conditions, the restricted camera model used can result in detectable error. We highlight the requirement for new network design tools that will help optimise image collection, facilitate error visualisation and allow a user to determine whether their image network is fit for purpose.

  15. Effects of energy supplementation frequency and forage quality on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of replacement beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Vendramini, J M B; Arthington, J D

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare performance, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers consuming forages differing in nutritional quality and offered a low-starch energy supplement at 2 different frequencies. Forty-eight Brahman × British heifers (initial age = 294 ± 3 d) were allocated into 1 of 16 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen) which were randomly assigned to receive, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) low-quality hay [LQ; stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) with 8% CP and 81% NDF, DM basis] and daily supplementation (S7); 2) LQ and supplementation 3 times weekly (S3); 3) medium-quality hay [MQ; bermudagrass (C. dactylon) with 12% CP and 74% NDF, DM basis] and S7; and 4) MQ and S3. Throughout the study (d 0 to 120), hay was offered in amounts to ensure ad libitum access, and a supplement based on soybean hulls and wheat middlings was offered at weekly rates of 15.8 and 7.9 kg/heifer (DM basis) for LQ and MQ, respectively. Forage and total DMI were evaluated daily, from d 20 to 26, d 34 to 40, and d 48 to 54. Blood samples were collected weekly for determination of plasma progesterone to evaluate puberty attainment. Blood samples were also collected daily, from d 13 to 16, d 27 to 30, d 41 to 44, and d 55 to 58 for determination of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and NEFA. On d 60, heifers were reallocated by treatment into 4 paddocks and exposed to Angus bulls (1:12 bull:heifer ratio) until d 120. Date of conception was estimated retrospectively by subtracting gestation length (286 d) from the calving date. Heifers receiving S7 had similar (P = 0.52) ADG compared with S3 heifers (0.27 vs. 0.25 kg/d). Heifers provided S7 had less daily variation in hay DMI and plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, and IGF-I compared with S3 cohorts (supplementation frequency × day interaction; P < 0.01). Similarly, heifers offered MQ and LQ and receiving S7 had less daily variation in total DMI, energy and protein

  16. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management systems on growth performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; McCann, M A; Gerrard, D E; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-08-01

    Brahman × British crossbred steers (n = 40 and 38 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf management systems following early weaning (EW) on growth performance, muscle gene expression, and carcass characteristics. On the day of EW (d 0), steers were stratified by BW and age (95 ± 14 kg; 74 ± 14 d) and randomly assigned to a control treatment that was normally weaned (NW) on d 180 (n = 10 steers/yr) or to 1 of 3 EW treatments: 1) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 steers/yr), 2) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 90 and then grazed on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 steers/yr), or 3) EW and grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 steers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 steers) and then on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). Early-weaned steers on ryegrass and bahiagrass pastures were supplemented with high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) until d 180. From d 180 to 270 (yr 1), all EW steers remained in their respective treatments, whereas NW steers were provided high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) on bahiagrass pastures. In yr 1, feedlot finishing period began on d 270. In yr 2, the study was terminated on d 180. In both years, EW180 steers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. On d 180 of yr 1, EWRG steers were lightest (P < 0.0001) and EW90 steers were heavier (P = 0.05) than NW steers, whereas EW90, EWRG, and NW steers had similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.14). On d 90, muscle PPARγ mRNA expression tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for EW180 steers and was greater (P = 0.008) for EW90 vs. EWRG steers but similar (P = 0.25) between EW180 and NW steers. On d 180, PPARγ mRNA was greater (P ≤ 0.06) for EW180 vs. NW, EW90, and EWRG steers. From d 274 to 302, EW180 steers had the least ADG (P ≤ 0.09), whereas EW90 steers had similar (P = 0.19) ADG

  17. Increased prenatal IGF2 expression due to the porcine intron3-G3072A mutation may be responsible for increased muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Clark, D L; Clark, D I; Beever, J E; Dilger, A C

    2015-05-01

    A SNP (IGF2 G3072A) within intron 3 of disrupts a binding site for the repressor zinc finger BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6), leading to increased carcass lean yields in pigs. However, the relative contributions of prenatal as opposed to postnatal increased IGF2 expression are unclear. As muscle fiber number is set at birth, prenatal and neonate skeletal muscle development is critical in determining mature growth potential. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the contributions of hyperplasia and hypertrophy to increased muscle mass and to delineate the effect of the mutation on the expression of myogenic genes during prenatal and postnatal growth. Sows (IGF2 A/A) were bred to a single heterozygous (IGF2 A/G) boar. For fetal samples, sows were euthanized at 60 and 90 d of gestation (d60 and d90) to obtain fetuses. Male and female offspring were also euthanized at birth (0d), weaning (21d), and market weight of approximately 130 kg (176d). At each sampling time, the LM, psoas major (PM), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were weighed. Samples of the LM were used to quantify the expression of IGF family members, myogenic regulatory factors (MRF), myosin heavy chain isoforms, and growth factors, myostatin, and . Liver samples were used to quantify and expression. At 176d, weights of LM, PM, and ST muscles were all increased approximately 8% to 14% (P < 0.01) in pigs with paternal A (A(Pat)) alleles compared with those with paternal G (G(Pat)) alleles. Additionally, total muscle fiber number in the ST at 176d tended to be greater (P = 0.10), whereas muscle fiber cross-sectional area tended to be reduced ( P= 0.08) in A(Pat) pigs compared with G(Pat) pigs. In addition to the expected 2.7- to 4.5-fold increase (P ≤ 0.02) in expression in the LM in A(Pat) compared with G(Pat) pigs at postnatal sampling times (21d and 176d), IGF2 expression was also increased (P ≤ 0.06) 1.4- to 1.5-fold at d90 of gestation and at birth. At d90, expression of myogenic

  18. Zonation of Hydrothermal Alteration in the Central Uplift of the Puchezh-Katunki Astrobleme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, M. V.

    1993-07-01

    The giant (D = 80 km) Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme [1,2] is the site of widespread hydrothermal alteration. It occurs mainly in the central uplift composed of brecciated archean rocks and overlain by allogenic breccia, suevites, and coptomict gravelites (the latter is the lowest bed of crater-lake deposits). Distribution and vertical zonation of secondary minerals is controlled by the thermal gradient during cooling of authigenic breccia massif, while the degree of alteration depends on the intensity of brecciation and fracturing of basement rocks. Three types of hydrothermal mineralization are distinguished on the basis of different crystallization conditions: (1) mixed hydrothermal-diagenetic, in coptomict gravelites; (2) metasomatic, including formation of Fe-Mg hydrous phyllosilicates in shocked and thermally altered gneisses and amphibolites; and (3) veins, represented by mineral associations filling fractures and voids in basement rocks, allogenic breccia, and suevites. The second and third types occur together and each displays characteristic zonations, thus several zones may be distinguished in vertical section (zones 2-4 below). The uppermost zone corresponds to mixed hydrothermal-diagenetic conditions described in (1) above. In general, four zones are distinguished, from top downward, as follows. 1. Zone of hydrothermal-diagenetic alteration in coptomict gravelites. In this zone, replacement of impact glass fragments by assemblage of montmorillonite, calcite, and pyrite, and formation of alkali zeolites and calcite as a cement are observed establishing a temperature of alteration of less than 100 degrees C. 2. Zone of low-temperature (100 degrees-200 degrees C) mineralization comosed of suevites, allogenic breccia, and the upper part of authigenic breccia down to 2.5 km. Fe-saponite develops in shocked and recrystallized basement rocks, and various zeolites, apophylite, calcite, anhydrite, and pyrite fill vugs and fractures; in addition, calcite

  19. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-11-01

    464004 [14] Sousa J S and Puech V 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464005 [15] Takeda K et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464006 [16] Vallade J and Massines F 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464007 [17] Wang C and Wu W 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464008 [18] Schröter S et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464009 [19] Rusterholtz D L et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464010 [20] Huang B-D et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464011 [21] Pothiraja R et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464012 [22] Marinov I et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464013 [23] Akishev Y et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464014 [24] Brandenburg R et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464015 [25] Houlahan T J Jret al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464016 [26] Benedikt J et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464017 [27] McKay K et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464018 [28] Selected papers from the 2nd International Workshop on Microplasmas 2005 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38 1633-759 [29] Special issue: 3rd International Workshop on Microplasmas 2007 Control. Plasma Phys. 47 3-128 [30] Cluster issue on Microplasmas: 4th International Workshop on Microplasmas 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 1904001 [31] Microplasmas: scientific challenges and technological opportunities 2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 60 437-608 [32] Becker K H, Schoenbach K H and Eden J G 2006 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 R55 [33] Iza F, Kim G J, Lee S M, Lee J K, Walsh J L, Zhang Y T and Kong M G 2008 Plasma Process. Polym. 5 322-44 [34] Tachibana K 2006 Trans. Electr. Electron. Eng. 1 145-55 [35] Samukawa S et al 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 253001