Science.gov

Sample records for d1 environmental change

  1. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  2. Comparison of D1´- and D1-containing PS II reaction centre complexes under different environmental conditions in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Tim S; Hanning, Kyrin R; Chua, Jocelyn P S; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Summerfield, Tina C

    2016-08-01

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, the D1 protein of Photosystem II is the primary target of photodamage and environmental stress can accelerate this process. The cyanobacterial response to stress includes transcriptional regulation of genes encoding D1, including low-oxygen-induction of psbA1 encoding the D1´ protein in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The psbA1 gene is also transiently up-regulated in high light, and its deletion has been reported to increase ammonium-induced photoinhibition. Therefore we investigated the role of D1´-containing PS II centres under different environmental conditions. A strain containing only D1´-PS II centres under aerobic conditions exhibited increased sensitivity to ammonium chloride and high light compared to a D1-containing strain. Additionally a D1´-PS II strain was outperformed by a D1-PS II strain under normal conditions; however, a strain containing low-oxygen-induced D1´-PS II centres was more resilient under high light than an equivalent D1 strain. These D1´-containing centres had chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics indicative of altered forward electron transport and back charge recombination with the donor side of PS II. Our results indicate D1´-PS II centres are important in the reconfiguration of thylakoid electron transport in response to high light and low oxygen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Adolescent Changes in Dopamine D1 Receptor Expression in Orbitofrontal Cortex and Piriform Cortex Accompany an Associative Learning Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Garske, Anna K.; Lawyer, Chloe R.; Peterson, Brittni M.; Illig, Kurt R.

    2013-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and piriform cortex are involved in encoding the predictive value of olfactory stimuli in rats, and neural responses to olfactory stimuli in these areas change as associations are learned. This experience-dependent plasticity mirrors task-related changes previously observed in mesocortical dopamine neurons, which have been implicated in learning the predictive value of cues. Although forms of associative learning can be found at all ages, cortical dopamine projections do not mature until after postnatal day 35 in the rat. We hypothesized that these changes in dopamine circuitry during the juvenile and adolescent periods would result in age-dependent differences in learning the predictive value of environmental cues. Using an odor-guided associative learning task, we found that adolescent rats learn the association between an odor and a palatable reward significantly more slowly than either juvenile or adult rats. Further, adolescent rats displayed greater distractibility during the task than either juvenile or adult rats. Using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical methods, we observed that the behavioral deficit in adolescence coincides with a significant increase in D1 dopamine receptor expression compared to juvenile rats in both the OFC and piriform cortex. Further, we found that both the slower learning and increased distractibility exhibited in adolescence could be alleviated by experience with the association task as a juvenile, or by an acute administration of a low dose of either the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-38393 or the D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride. These results suggest that dopaminergic modulation of cortical function may be important for learning the predictive value of environmental stimuli, and that developmental changes in cortical dopaminergic circuitry may underlie age-related differences in associative learning. PMID:23437091

  4. Sensitivities of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor radioligands to changes in synaptic dopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, A.N.; Gatley, S.J.; Shea, C.

    1996-05-01

    Prior studies have shown that the in vivo binding of D2 radioligands such as raclopride and IBZM is subject to competition with synaptic DA. D2 radioligands can thus be used to evaluate both direct effects of drugs at DAergic synapses, and indirect effects at these synapses mediated via neurotransmitter interactions. Competition with DA must also be a potential confounding factor in studies designed to evaluate changes in D2 receptor number. We evaluated the sensitivity of the D1 radioligands for susceptibility to alterations in synaptic DA. We evaluated the sensitivity of the D1 radioligand SCH 23390 using three different models: rat brain slices in which DA release is controlled by electrically simulation, ex vivo mouse brain uptake, and PET in the baboon brain. In slices, the order of sensitivity of DA system radioligands to synaptic DA was D1>D2>DA transporter, and the sensitivity of the low affinity (Kd = 1 nM) D2 ligand, [H-3]raclopride, was greater than that of the high affinity (Kd = 0.05 nM) D2 ligand, [I-123]epidepride (Gifford et al., Synapse, in press). In mice, striatal [H-3]SCH 23390 was decreased after administration of the DA transporter blocker RTI-55 ({beta}-CIT, 0.5 mg/kg, i/v), to a similar extent as that of co-administered [I-123]epidepride. In these experiments RTI-55 was given four hours after injection of radiotracers, after peak striatal radioactivity, to avoid the effects of the increase in delivery of radiotracer to the brain caused by RTI-55. In PET experiments, striatal binding of the D1 radioligand [C-11]SCH23390 was less sensitive to challenge with the DA transporter blocker methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg, 7-10 min before radiotracer) than is [C-11]raclopride. Our results together indicate that SCH 23390 is not very sensitive to pharmacological challenges which decrease the in vivo binding of labeled raclopride.

  5. Global Environmental Change Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan M.

    The global environmental warming issue has been catapulted to the forefront of media attention as a result of the drought of 1988 and extremely warm temperatures. NASA scientist James Hansen testified last year that the warming trend has begun and that part of the temperature rise is due to gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluro-carbons (CFCs) being released into the atmosphere by human activity.In response to recent scientific speculation on the issue, the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., hosted the symposium Global Environmental Change April 24 as part of their annual meeting. Speakers included Bert Bolin, University of Stockholm; Robert White, National Academy of Engineering; Stephen Schneider, National Center for Atmospheric Research; and Peter Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden. Moderator was Russell Train, World Wildlife Fund.

  6. Environmental Pollution and Climatic Change,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    anthropogenic modification of global climage , numerical experiment of climatic change , cooling in the northern hemisphere, environmental influence on the Japan...The paper discusses environmental pollution and climatic change . Discussions begin on atmospheric pollution on a global scale, followed by

  7. Global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Corell, R.W.; Anderson, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty years ago the buzz words in science were [open quotes]atomic energy,[close quotes] and the general mood of the public, in those more naive days, was that the earth is so large that it could take any kind of human abuse. The advance of science and technology since then has proved that this is not the case. It is now common sense, even to the layperson, that the earth's environment is delicate and needs careful protection if future generations are to enjoy it. The buzz words now are [open quotes]global change.[close quotes] This book is the outcome of the Workshop on the Science of Global Environmental Change sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is one of the NATO's Advanced Science Institute Series books. It is essentially a collection of the lectures given in the workshop. The workshop was apparently not intended for in-depth scientific discussions but to review the overall current research situation and to identify future research needs. Accordingly, the papers collected in this volume are basically of this nature.

  8. Alterations in photosynthetic pigments and amino acid composition of D1 protein change energy distribution in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Yokono, Makio; Tomo, Tatsuya; Nagao, Ryo; Ito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Ayumi; Akimoto, Seiji

    2012-05-01

    The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus accumulates divinyl chlorophylls instead of monovinyl chlorophylls to harvest light energy. As well as this difference in its chromophore composition, some amino acid residues in its photosystem II D1 protein were different from the conserved amino acid residues in other photosynthetic organisms. We examined PSII complexes isolated from mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, in which chromophore and D1 protein were altered (Hisashi Ito and Ayumi Tanaka, 2011) to clarify the effects of chromophores/D1 protein composition on the excitation energy distribution. We prepared the mutants accumulating divinyl chlorophyll (DV mutant). The amino acid residues of V205 and G282 in the D1 protein were substituted with M205 and C282 in the DV mutant to mimic Prochlorococcus D1 protein (DV-V205M/G282C mutant). Isolated PSII complexes were analyzed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Energy transfer in CP47 was interrupted in PSII containing divinyl chlorophylls. The V205M/G282C mutation did not recover the energy transfer pathway in CP47, instead, the mutation allowed the excitation energy transfer from CP43 to CP47, which neighbors in the PSII dimer. Mutual orientation of the subcomplexes of PSII might be affected by the substitution. The changes of the energy transfer pathways would reduce energy transfer from antennae to the PSII reaction center, and allow Prochlorococcus to acquire light tolerance.

  9. Environmentalism and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiemann, Adrian R.

    A high level of individual concern with environmental issues characterizes the ecological crisis of the 1970s. In spite of this increased public involvement, however, many basic problems facing humans as they interact with the environment have remained constant throughout history. For example, the sometimes conflicting concepts of scarcity,…

  10. Ecological effects of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Luque, Gloria M; Hochberg, Michael E; Holyoak, Marcel; Hossaert, Martine; Gaill, Françoise; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-05-01

    This Special Issue of Ecology Letters presents contributions from an international meeting organised by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Ecology Letters on the broad theme of ecological effects of global environmental change. The objectives of these articles are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the ecological effects of environmental change drivers and their interactions, including habitat loss and fragmentation, pollution, invasive species and climate change. A range of disciplines is represented, including stoichiometry, cell biology, genetics, evolution and biodiversity conservation. The authors emphasise the need to account for several key ecological factors and different spatial and temporal scales in global change research. They also stress the importance of ecosystem complexity through approaches such as functional group and network analyses, and of mechanisms and predictive models with respect to environmental responses to global change across an ecological continuum: population, communities and ecosystems. Lastly, these articles provide important insights and recommendations for environmental conservation and management, as well as highlighting future research priorities.

  11. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-03-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict.

  12. Residential characteristics predict changes in Der p 1, Fel d 1 and ergosterol but not fungi over time.

    PubMed

    Matheson, M C; Dharmage, S C; Forbes, A B; Raven, J M; Woods, R K; Thien, F C K; Guest, D I; Rolland, J M; Haydn Walters, E; Abramson, M J

    2003-09-01

    Allergen and fungal exposures are important risk factors for asthma. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of allergen levels in Melbourne homes between 1996 and 1998 to examine the effects of changing residential characteristics on allergen and fungal levels. We also examined the changes in levels of indoor allergens. The subjects were participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) in Melbourne. In 1996, 485 subjects participated in a follow-up study, which involved both home and laboratory visits. Dust and air samples were collected from participants' bedrooms and a validated residential questionnaire was administered. In 1998, 360 participants underwent further follow-up. House dust mite (Der p 1) and cat allergens (Fel d 1) and ergosterol were measured in dust. We observed moderate within home correlations between 1996 and 1998 in floor Der p 1 (intraclass correlation ICC=0.48), bed Der p 1 (ICC=0.61), Fel d 1 (kappa=0.53) and ergosterol (ICC=0.28) levels. We found that the floor Der p 1 levels decreased from 1996 to 1998 in the homes of participants who moved to an attached home, moved their bedrooms to the first floor, removed fitted carpet or central heating. Replacing or vacuuming the mattress more than twice per year reduced levels of Der p 1 in the bed. Ergosterol levels were reduced by removing visible mould and fitted carpet. These findings provide evidence to support current advice with regard to allergen avoidance in patients with dust mite and fungal allergies.

  13. Coffee polyphenols change the expression of STAT5B and ATF-2 modifying cyclin D1 levels in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oleaga, Carlota; Ciudad, Carlos J; Noé, Véronique; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of its chemopreventive effects remain unknown. To identify differentially expressed genes upon incubation of HT29 colon cancer cells with instant caffeinated coffee (ICC) or caffeic acid (CA) using whole-genome microarrays. ICC incubation of HT29 cells caused the overexpression of 57 genes and the underexpression of 161, while CA incubation induced the overexpression of 12 genes and the underexpression of 32. Using Venn-Diagrams, we built a list of five overexpressed genes and twelve underexpressed genes in common between the two experimental conditions. This list was used to generate a biological association network in which STAT5B and ATF-2 appeared as highly interconnected nodes. STAT5B overexpression was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. For ATF-2, the changes in mRNA levels were confirmed for both ICC and CA, whereas the decrease in protein levels was only observed in CA-treated cells. The levels of cyclin D1, a target gene for both STAT5B and ATF-2, were downregulated by CA in colon cancer cells and by ICC and CA in breast cancer cells. Coffee polyphenols are able to affect cyclin D1 expression in cancer cells through the modulation of STAT5B and ATF-2.

  14. Environmental change in moorland landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J.; Shotbolt, L.; Bonn, A.; Burt, T. P.; Chapman, P. J.; Dougill, A. J.; Fraser, E. D. G.; Hubacek, K.; Irvine, B.; Kirkby, M. J.; Reed, M. S.; Prell, C.; Stagl, S.; Stringer, L. C.; Turner, A.; Worrall, F.

    2007-05-01

    Moorlands are unique environments found in uplands of the temperate zone including in the UK, New Zealand and Ireland, and in some high altitude tropical zones such as the Andean páramos. Many have been managed through grazing, burning or drainage practices. However, there are a number of other environmental and social factors that are likely to drive changes in management practice over the next few decades. Some moorlands have been severely degraded and in some countries conservation and restoration schemes are being attempted, particularly to revegetate bare soils. Native or non-native woodland planting may increase in some moorland environments while atmospheric deposition of many pollutants may also vary. Moorland environments are very sensitive to changes in management, climate or pollution. This paper reviews how environmental management change, such as changes in grazing or burning practices, may impact upon moorland processes based on existing scientific understanding. It also reviews the impacts of changes in climate and atmospheric deposition chemistry. The paper focuses on the UK moorlands as a case study of moorland landscapes that are in different states of degradation. Future research that is required to improve our understanding of moorland processes is outlined. The paper shows that there is a need for more holistic and spatial approaches to understanding moorland processes and management. There is also a need to develop approaches that combine understanding of interlinked social and natural processes.

  15. Medical responsibility and global environmental change.

    PubMed

    McCally, M; Cassel, C K

    1990-09-15

    Global environmental change threatens the habitability of the planet and the health of its inhabitants. Toxic pollution of air and water, acid rain, destruction of stratospheric ozone, waste, species extinction and, potentially, global warming are produced by the growing numbers and activities of human beings. Progression of these environmental changes could lead to unprecedented human suffering. Physicians can treat persons experiencing the consequences of environmental change but cannot individually prevent the cause of their suffering. Physicians have information and expertise about environmental change that can contribute to its slowing or prevention. Work to prevent global environmental change is consistent with the social responsibility of physicians and other health professionals.

  16. Changes in apomorphine-induced stereotypy as a result of subacute neuroleptic treatment correlates with increased D-2 receptors, but not with increases in D-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Fleminger, S; Rupniak, N M; Hall, M D; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1983-10-01

    Administration of haloperidol (5 mg/kg i.p.), cis-flupenthixol (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) or sulpiride (2 X 100 mg/kg i.p.) daily for 21 days followed by a 3-day drug withdrawal period caused equivalent cerebral dopamine receptor supersensitivity as judged by enhanced apomorphine-induced stereotypy. These treatments also produced equivalent rises in the number of adenylate cyclase-independent dopamine receptors (D-2) in both striatal and mesolimbic tissue as assessed by specific [3H]spiperone and [3H]N,n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) binding. No change in the dissociation constant (KD) was apparent in response to neuroleptic treatment. However, only repeated administration of cis-flupenthixol caused an increase in the number of adenylate cyclase-linked dopamine receptors (D-1) in striatum as assessed by enhanced [3H]piflutixol binding and increased dopamine-stimulated cyclic AMP formation. The dissociation constant for [3H]piflutixol binding was unchanged by cis-flupenthixol administration. No change in D-1 receptor numbers or dopamine stimulation of adenylate cyclase occurred in mesolimbic tissue. Repeated treatment with sulpiride or haloperidol was without effect on either [3H]piflutixol binding to D-1 receptors or cyclic AMP formation. In conclusion, increased apomorphine-induced stereotypy following subacute neuroleptic treatment correlates with changes in D-2 receptor numbers, but not with changes in D-1 receptors.

  17. Environmental insurance adapts to changing needs

    SciTech Connect

    Vuono, M. )

    1995-03-01

    No longer simply a specialty service niche, environmental insurance has become an increasingly important asset to businesses worldwide. Companies of all sizes are using insurance as a proactive tool for prudent environmental risk management. During the last five years, the environmental insurance industry has matured to meet the ever-changing environmental insurance needs of business. A broad range of policies and programs offers coverage against damages caused by chemical spills, hazardous material and related environmental contaminants. Securing environmental insurance coverage has become as customary for many businesses as acquiring general liability and automobile insurance.

  18. Environmental Education: A Time of Change, a Time for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Matt; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    We join the authors in this special issue in their call to embrace a culture of evaluation. Obstacles to change are formidable. Educators debate their purpose--provide knowledge or achieve environmental goals--and we have limited evidence of the effectiveness of environmental programs and policies. Change requires collaboration across…

  19. Environmental Education: A Time of Change, a Time for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Matt; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    We join the authors in this special issue in their call to embrace a culture of evaluation. Obstacles to change are formidable. Educators debate their purpose--provide knowledge or achieve environmental goals--and we have limited evidence of the effectiveness of environmental programs and policies. Change requires collaboration across…

  20. Global environmental change: Its nature and impact

    SciTech Connect

    Hidore, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    This book is intended as an entry-level textbook on environmental science for nonscience majors. Twenty chapters address topics from historical geology and climatic change to population dynamics, land-use, water pollution, ozone depletion and biodiversity, global warming.

  1. Environmental education: a time of change, a time for change.

    PubMed

    Keene, Matt; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2010-05-01

    We join the authors in this special issue in their call to embrace a culture of evaluation. Obstacles to change are formidable. Educators debate their purpose--provide knowledge or achieve environmental goals--and we have limited evidence of the effectiveness of environmental programs and policies. Change requires collaboration across organizations and disciplines, targeted capacity building, and building systems of assessment into programs that enable more sophisticated evaluations. As in other fields, an evidence-based movement will increase the credibility and effectiveness of environmental education. A culture of evaluation offers educators a solid platform to collaboratively and efficiently achieve society's environmental goals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Environmental changes in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeton, Alfred M.

    1961-01-01

    Comparison of data compiled during the past 60 years with those from recent studies shows that major changes have occurred in the bottom and fish faunas of Lake Erie. The bottom fauna was formerly dominated by the nymphs of Hexagenia, but at present midge larvae and oligochaetes are most abundant. Blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum) and cisco (Coregonus artedii), which formerly dominated the commercial catch, are scarce, while other species are more plentiful than formerly. The concentrations of various major ions have increased as much as 10 p.p.m. The mean annual water temperatures are approximately 2° F. warmer today than during the 1918-28 period. Low levels of dissolved oxygen have been observed several times since 1930, and recently very low concentrations were found in the bottom waters covering many square miles of the central basin. Although similar conditions may have existed in the past, it appears that greater areas are involved at the present.

  3. Environmental Change in Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Vance, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is strong evidence that subsurface oceans could exist within several of the outer solar system's ice-rich moons, at Jupiter (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), Saturn (Enceladus and Titan), and Neptune (Triton). If liquid water is indeed available in these subsurface environments, then the availability of chemical energy becomes the greatest limitation on whether icy worlds could harbor life. Of these moons, the largest (Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan) are expected to harbor oceans deep within, and high-pressure H2O ice phases are expected farther beneath those deep oceans. In contrast, the oceans of smaller icy worlds—Europa, Enceladus, and Triton—are plausibly in direct contact with rock below. Given that serpentinization or other water-rock geochemical activity could supply reductants directly to their oceans, these icy worlds have the greatest chance to support present-day microbial life. Each of these three icy worlds displays spectacular resurfaced terrains that are very young (crater retention ages ~10s Myr and younger), with their internal activity linked to extremes in tidal heating today and/or in the geologically recent past. However, the degree of their tidal heating may have changed greatly over time. Europa is believed to experience cyclical tidal heating and activity; Enceladus may have experienced cyclical activity or a geologically recent pulse of activity; Triton may have experienced extreme tidal heating upon its capture and orbital circularization. Such dynamic pasts would pose challenges for any life within. We consider the possible effects of severe swings in the activity level of icy worlds, specifically the implications for delivery of chemical energy to their subsurface oceans.

  4. Forest declines in response to environmental change

    Treesearch

    Philip M. Wargo; Allan N.D. Auclair

    2000-01-01

    Decline diseases are intimately linked to stress and environmental change. There is strong evidence that, as a category, decline diseases have increased significantly in response to the climate, air chemistry, and other changes documented in the northeastern United States over the past century, and particularly the last two decades. No other forest response to...

  5. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change

    Treesearch

    Michael M. Hansen; Isabelle Olivieri; Donald M. Waller; Einar E. Nielsen; F. W. Allendorf; M. K. Schwartz; C. S. Baker; D. P. Gregovich; J. A. Jackson; K. C. Kendall; L. Laikre; K. McKelvey; M. C. Neel; N. Ryman; R. Short Bull; J. B. Stetz; D. A. Tallmon; C. D. Vojta; R. S. Waples

    2012-01-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how to use genetic monitoring to study adaptive responses via repeated analysis...

  6. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF D1, D2, OR NMDA RECEPTORS DURING WITHDRAWAL FROM BRIEF OR EXTENDED DAILY ACCESS TO IV COCAINE

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Keeley, Patrick; Cook, Mariana; Brake, Wayne; Joyce, Megan; Nyffeler, Myriel; Heston, Rebecca; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that brief (1 hr), but not extended (6 hrs), daily access to cocaine results in a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine and in elevated c-Fos immunoreactivity and DAT binding in the nucleus accumbens (N.Acc) core. In order to better our understanding of the neural adaptations mediating the transition from controlled drug-use to addiction, the current experiments were set to further explore the neural adaptations resulting from these two access conditions. Rats received either brief daily access to saline or cocaine, or brief daily access followed by extended daily access, to cocaine. Subjects were then sacrificed either 20 minutes, or 14 or 60 days, after the last self-administration session. Samples of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), N.Acc core and shell, dorsal striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were taken for analysis of D1 ([3H]SCH-23390), D2 ([3H]Spiperone), and NMDA ([3H]MK-801) receptor binding (using the method of receptor autoradiography). At 20 minutes into withdrawal D2 receptors were elevated and NMDA receptors were reduced in the mPFC of the brief access animals while D1 receptors were elevated in the N.Acc shell of the extended access animals, compared to saline controls. D2 receptors were reduced in the N.Acc shell of the brief access animals compared to saline controls after 14 days, and compared to extended access animals after 60 days of withdrawal. In summary, extended access to cocaine resulted in only transient changes in D1 receptors binding. These results suggest that the development of compulsive drug use is largely unrelated to changes in total binding of D2 or NMDA receptors. PMID:17161392

  7. [Subjective causal scenarios for global environmental change].

    PubMed

    Böhm, G; Mader, S

    1998-01-01

    Two studies are presented that investigate the assumptions that risk evaluation is based on subjective causal scenarios, and that the cognitive representation of global environmental risks is structured according to five causal levels: human attitudes, human activities, emissions or pollutions, environmental changes, and negative consequences. In study 1, 30 subjects listed in free-response format causes, consequences, and remedial measures for 14 environmental risks. Differences between predictive and diagnostic inferences were found: whereas subjects tend to assign immediate rather than mediated causes, they predominantly assign negative consequences for humans, irrespective of the length of the causal chain that leads to these consequences. In study 2, 41 subjects judged the overall similarity between 25 environmental risks. A multidimensional scaling analysis of these similarity judgments replicates the theoretically assumed five causal levels. Results of both studies support the assumptions that risk evaluation is based on implicit causal hypotheses and that the proposed five-level structure adequately describes the cognitive representation of environmental risks.

  8. Effects of environmental change on wildlife health

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Duffus, Amanda L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental change has negatively affected most biological systems on our planet and is becoming of increasing concern for the well-being and survival of many species. At an organism level, effects encompass not only endocrine disruptions, sex-ratio changes and decreased reproductive parameters, but also include teratogenic and genotoxic effects, immunosuppression and other immune-system impairments that can lead directly to disease or increase the risk of acquiring disease. Living organisms will strive to maintain health by recognizing and resolving abnormal situations, such as the presence of invading microorganisms or harmful peptides, abnormal cell replication and deleterious mutations. However, fast-paced environmental changes may pose additional pressure on immunocompetence and health maintenance, which may seriously impact population viability and persistence. Here, we outline the importance of a functional immune system for survival and examine the effects that exposure to a rapidly changing environment might exert on immunocompetence. We then address the various levels at which anthropogenic environmental change might affect wildlife health and identify potential deficits in reproductive parameters that might arise owing to new immune challenges in the context of a rapidly changing environment. Throughout the paper, a series of examples and case studies are used to illustrate the impact of environmental change on wildlife health. PMID:19833653

  9. Modeling crop responses to environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Potential biophysical responses of crops to climate change are studied focusing on the primary environmental variables which define the limits to agricultural crop growth and production, and the principal methods for predicting climate change impacts on crop geography and production. It is concluded that the principal uncertainties in the prediction of the impacts of climate change on agriculture reside in the contribution of the direct effects of increasing CO2, in potential changes inclimate variability, and the effects of adjustments mechanisms in the context of climatic changes.

  10. Pleiotrophin overexpression regulates amphetamine-induced reward and striatal dopaminergic denervation without changing the expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors: Implications for neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Rojo Gonzalez, Loreto; Gramage, Esther; Fernández-Calle, Rosalía; Chen, Ying; Pérez-García, Carmen; Ferrer-Alcón, Marcel; Uribarri, María; Bailey, Alexis; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2016-11-01

    It was previously shown that mice with genetic deletion of the neurotrophic factor pleiotrophin (PTN-/-) show enhanced amphetamine neurotoxicity and impair extinction of amphetamine conditioned place preference (CPP), suggesting a modulatory role of PTN in amphetamine neurotoxicity and reward. We have now studied the effects of amphetamine (10mg/kg, 4 times, every 2h) in the striatum of mice with transgenic PTN overexpression (PTN-Tg) in the brain and in wild type (WT) mice. Amphetamine caused an enhanced loss of striatal dopaminergic terminals, together with a highly significant aggravation of amphetamine-induced increase in the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes, in the striatum of PTN-Tg mice compared to WT mice. Given the known contribution of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors to the neurotoxic effects of amphetamine, we also performed quantitative receptor autoradiography of both receptors in the brains of PTN-Tg and WT mice. D1 and D2 receptors binding in the striatum and other regions of interest was not altered by genotype or treatment. Finally, we found that amphetamine CPP was significantly reduced in PTN-Tg mice. The data demonstrate that PTN overexpression in the brain blocks the conditioning effects of amphetamine and enhances the characteristic striatal dopaminergic denervation caused by this drug. These results indicate for the first time deleterious effects of PTN in vivo by mechanisms that are probably independent of changes in the expression of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. The data also suggest that PTN-induced neuroinflammation could be involved in the enhanced neurotoxic effects of amphetamine in the striatum of PTN-Tg mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Marked change in microRNA expression during neuronal differentiation of human teratocarcinoma NTera2D1 and mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hohjoh, Hirohiko Fukushima, Tatsunobu

    2007-10-19

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, with a length of 19-23 nucleotides, which appear to be involved in the regulation of gene expression by inhibiting the translation of messenger RNAs carrying partially or nearly complementary sequences to the miRNAs in their 3' untranslated regions. Expression analysis of miRNAs is necessary to understand their complex role in the regulation of gene expression during the development, differentiation and proliferation of cells. Here we report on the expression profile analysis of miRNAs in human teratocarcinoma NTere2D1, mouse embryonic carcinoma P19, mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a and rat pheochromocytoma PC12D cells, which can be induced into differentiated cells with long neuritic processes, i.e., after cell differentiation, such that the resultant cells look similar to neuronal cells. The data presented here indicate marked changes in the expression of miRNAs, as well as genes related to neuronal development, occurred in the differentiation of NTera2D1 and P19 cells. Significant changes in miRNA expression were not observed in Neuro2a and PC12D cells, although they showed apparent morphologic change between undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Of the miRNAs investigated, the expression of miRNAs belonging to the miR-302 cluster, which is known to be specifically expressed in embryonic stem cells, and of miR-124a specific to the brain, appeared to be markedly changed. The miR-302 cluster was potently expressed in undifferentiated NTera2D1 and P19 cells, but hardly in differentiated cells, such that miR-124a showed an opposite expression pattern to the miR-302 cluster. Based on these observations, it is suggested that the miR-302 cluster and miR-124a may be useful molecular indicators in the assessment of degree of undifferentiation and/or differentiation in the course of neuronal differentiation.

  12. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’) and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’) or applied by the management (‘From’). Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may

  13. Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Tilman, D; Fargione, J; Wolff, B; D'Antonio, C; Dobson, A; Howarth, R; Schindler, D; Schlesinger, W H; Simberloff, D; Swackhamer, D

    2001-04-13

    During the next 50 years, which is likely to be the final period of rapid agricultural expansion, demand for food by a wealthier and 50% larger global population will be a major driver of global environmental change. Should past dependences of the global environmental impacts of agriculture on human population and consumption continue, 10(9) hectares of natural ecosystems would be converted to agriculture by 2050. This would be accompanied by 2.4- to 2.7-fold increases in nitrogen- and phosphorus-driven eutrophication of terrestrial, freshwater, and near-shore marine ecosystems, and comparable increases in pesticide use. This eutrophication and habitat destruction would cause unprecedented ecosystem simplification, loss of ecosystem services, and species extinctions. Significant scientific advances and regulatory, technological, and policy changes are needed to control the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion.

  14. Monitoring environmental change with color slides

    Treesearch

    Arthur W. Magill

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring human impact on outdoor recreation sites and view landscapes is necessary to evaluate influences which may require corrective action and to determine if management is achieving desired goals. An inexpensive method to monitor environmental change is to establish camera points and use repeat color slides. Successful monitoring from slides requires the observer...

  15. Future generations, environmental ethics, and global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    The elements of a methodology to be employed by the global community to investigate the consequences of global environmental change upon future generations and global ecosystems are outlined in this paper. The methodology is comprised of two major components: A possible future worlds model; and a formal, citizen-oriented process to judge whether the possible future worlds potentially inheritable by future generations meet obligational standards. A broad array of descriptors of future worlds can be encompassed within this framework, including survival of ecosystems and other species and satisfaction of human concerns. The methodology expresses fundamental psychological motivations and human myths journey, renewal, mother earth, and being-in-nature-and incorporates several viewpoints on obligations to future generations-maintaining options, fairness, humility, and the cause of humanity. The methodology overcomes several severe drawbacks of the economic-based methods most commonly used for global environmental policy analysis.

  16. Human impact: man's role in environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Goudie, A.

    1982-01-01

    Drawing upon worldwide examples, the author traces mankind's interaction with nature and examines human interference with environmental systems at various stages of social development. Succeeding chapters take up man's specific impact on vegetation, animals, the soil, the waters, landforms, climate, and the atmosphere. With the aid of maps, diagrams, and graphs, the book analyzes the causes and consequences of environmental changes associated with such large-scale events as agricultural expansion, domestication, deforestation, and urbanization, including the spread of salination, extinction, erosion, and pollution. Interrelations, often dynamic and unpredictable, between these phenomena make it difficult to isolate the causes of changes and to determine the resiliency of natural systems to change. 505 references, 82 figures, 97 tables.

  17. Global Environmental Change: Modelling and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, John J.

    The second half of the 20th century was a period of unprecedented and rapid change in the global population, the biosphere, the world economy and society. Recent inquiry related to the environmental effects has focused on the complexities of how the Earth behaves as a system, with connectivity linking its oceans, land, atmosphere, living, and non-living components. The search for delineation of natural and human causes and effects of global change has ushered in new mathematical approaches to the pursuit of a global environmental system science. Judging from the reports of several international conferences—for example, The Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change, 2000—a consistent theme has emerged, calling for the development of an effective ethical framework of global stewardship and strategies (modeling and monitoring) for Earth system management.

  18. Environmental change makes robust ecological networks fragile

    PubMed Central

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Complex ecological networks appear robust to primary extinctions, possibly due to consumers' tendency to specialize on dependable (available and persistent) resources. However, modifications to the conditions under which the network has evolved might alter resource dependability. Here, we ask whether adaptation to historical conditions can increase community robustness, and whether such robustness can protect communities from collapse when conditions change. Using artificial life simulations, we first evolved digital consumer-resource networks that we subsequently subjected to rapid environmental change. We then investigated how empirical host–parasite networks would respond to historical, random and expected extinction sequences. In both the cases, networks were far more robust to historical conditions than new ones, suggesting that new environmental challenges, as expected under global change, might collapse otherwise robust natural ecosystems. PMID:27511722

  19. Environmental change makes robust ecological networks fragile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Complex ecological networks appear robust to primary extinctions, possibly due to consumers’ tendency to specialize on dependable (available and persistent) resources. However, modifications to the conditions under which the network has evolved might alter resource dependability. Here, we ask whether adaptation to historical conditions can increase community robustness, and whether such robustness can protect communities from collapse when conditions change. Using artificial life simulations, we first evolved digital consumer-resource networks that we subsequently subjected to rapid environmental change. We then investigated how empirical host–parasite networks would respond to historical, random and expected extinction sequences. In both the cases, networks were far more robust to historical conditions than new ones, suggesting that new environmental challenges, as expected under global change, might collapse otherwise robust natural ecosystems.

  20. NOVELTY DETECTION UNDER CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    H. SOHN; K. WORDER; C. R. FARRAR

    2001-04-01

    The primary objective of novelty detection is to examine a system's dynamic response to determine if the system significantly deviates from an initial baseline condition. In reality, the system is often subject to changing environmental and operation conditions that affect its dynamic characteristics. Such variations include changes in loading, boundary conditions, temperature, and moisture. Most damage diagnosis techniques, however, generally neglect the effects of these changing ambient conditions. Here, a novelty detection technique is developed explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indications of true system changes. Auto-associative neural networks are employed to discriminate system changes of interest such as structural deterioration and damage from the natural variations of the system.

  1. Novelty detection under changing environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Hoon; Worden, Keith; Farrar, Charles R.

    2001-07-01

    The primary objective of novelty detection is to examine a system's dynamic response to determine if the system significantly deviates from an initial baseline condition. In reality, the system is often subject to changing environmental and operation conditions that affect its dynamic characteristics. Such variations include changes in loading, boundary conditions, temperature, and moisture. Most damage diagnosis techniques, however, generally neglect the effects of these changing ambient conditions. Here, a novelty detection technique is developed explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indications of true system changes. Auto-associative neural networks are employed to discriminate system changes of interest such as structural deterioration and damage from the natural variations of the system.

  2. Neurochemical evidence supporting dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromers in the striatum of the long-tailed macaque: changes following dopaminergic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Rico, Alberto J; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Sucunza, Diego; Pignataro, Diego; Roda, Elvira; Marín-Ramos, David; Labandeira-García, José L; George, Susan R; Franco, Rafael; Lanciego, José L

    2017-05-01

    Although it has long been widely accepted that dopamine receptor types D1 and D2 form GPCR heteromers in the striatum, the presence of D1-D2 receptor heteromers has been recently challenged. In an attempt to properly characterize D1-D2 receptor heteromers, here we have used the in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) in striatal sections comprising the caudate nucleus, the putamen and the core and shell territories of the nucleus accumbens. Experiments were carried out in control macaques as well as in MPTP-treated animals (with and without dyskinesia). Obtained data support the presence of D1-D2 receptor heteromers within all the striatal subdivisions, with the highest abundance in the accumbens shell. Dopamine depletion by MPTP resulted in an increase of D1-D2 density in caudate and putamen which was normalized by levodopa treatment. Two different sizes of heteromers were consistently found, thus suggesting that besides individual heteromers, D1-D2 receptor heteromers are sometimes organized in macromolecular complexes made of a number of D1-D2 heteromers. Furthermore, the PLA technique was combined with different neuronal markers to properly characterize the identities of striatal neurons expressing D1-D2 heteromers. We have found that striatal projection neurons giving rise to either the direct or the indirect basal ganglia pathways expressed D1-D2 heteromers. Interestingly, macromolecular complexes of D1-D2 heteromers were only found within cholinergic interneurons. In summary, here we provide overwhelming proof that D1 and D2 receptors form heteromeric complexes in the macaque striatum, thus representing a very appealing target for a number of brain diseases involving dopamine dysfunction.

  3. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    SciTech Connect

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  4. Spacelab D-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1990-01-01

    The Spacelab D-1 (Deutchland Eins) Mission is discussed from the points of view of safety, materials handling, and toxic materials; the laboratory and equipment used; and some of the different philosophies utilized on this flight. How to enhance scientific return at the same time as being safe was examined.

  5. Adaptation Strategies for Global Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Corell, R.

    2007-12-01

    The global environmental challenges society faces today are unheralded due to the pace at which human activities are affecting the earth system. The rates of energy consumption, nitrogen use and production, and water use increases each year leading to greater global environmental changes affecting warming of the earth system and loss of ecosystem services. The challenge we face today as a society is the manner and speed at which we can adapt to these changes affecting the ecosystem services we depend upon. Innovative strategies are needed to develop the adaptive management tools to integrate the sectors and science necessary to deal with the complexity of effects. Developing strategies to better guide decision making related to climate change trends into changing weather patterns at meaningful temporal and spatial scales are needed, observations and prognostic analyses of climate related triggers of threshold events in ecosystem dynamics, and transfer of knowledge between science, technology, and decision makers. These strategies need to better integrate science (physical, biological, and social knowledge), engineering, policy, and economics interests to create a framework to develop strategies for adaptation and mitigation to global change and to create bridges with institutions and organizations that deal with these issues as a governmental agency or private sector enterprise.

  6. Nodule performance within a changing environmental context.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; Molero, Gemma

    2014-07-15

    Global climate models predict that future environmental conditions will see alterations in temperature, water availability and CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in the atmosphere. Climate change will reinforce the need to develop highly productive crops. For this purpose it is essential to identify target traits conditioning plant performance in changing environments. N2 fixing plants represent the second major crop of agricultural importance worldwide. The current review provides a compilation of results from existing literature on the effects of several abiotic stress conditions on nodule performance and N2 fixation. The environmental factors analysed include water stress, salinity, temperature, and elevated [CO2]. Despite the large number of studies analysing [CO2] effects in plants, frequently they have been conducted under optimal growth conditions that are difficult to find in natural conditions where different stresses often occur simultaneously. This is why we have also included a section describing the current state of knowledge of interacting environmental conditions in nodule functioning. Regardless of the environmental factor considered, it is evident that some general patterns of nodule response are observed. Nodule carbohydrate and N compound availability, together with the presence of oxygen reactive species (ROS) have proven to be the key factors modulating N2 fixation at the physiological/biochemical levels. However, with the exception of water availability and [CO2], it should also be considered that nodule performance has not been characterised in detail under other limiting growth conditions. This highlights the necessity to conduct further studies considering these factors. Finally, we also observe that a better understanding of these metabolic effects of changing environment in nodule functioning would require an integrated and synergistic investigation based on widely used and novel protocols such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and

  7. Environmental change, phenotypic plasticity, and genetic compensation.

    PubMed

    Grether, Gregory F

    2005-10-01

    When a species encounters novel environmental conditions, some phenotypic characters may develop differently than in the ancestral environment. Most environmental perturbations of development are likely to reduce fitness, and thus selection would usually be expected to favor genetic changes that restore the ancestral phenotype. I propose the term "genetic compensation" to refer to this form of adaptive evolution. Genetic compensation is a subset of genetic accommodation and the reverse of genetic assimilation. When genetic compensation has occurred along a spatial environmental gradient, the mean trait values of populations in different environments may be more similar in the field than when representatives of the same populations are raised in a common environment (i.e., countergradient variation). If compensation is complete, genetic divergence between populations may be cryptic, that is, not detectable in the field. Here I apply the concept of genetic compensation to three examples involving carotenoid-based sexual coloration and then use these and other examples to discuss the concept in a broader context. I show that genetic compensation may lead to a cryptic form of reproductive isolation between populations evolving in different environments, may explain some puzzling cases in which heritable traits exposed to strong directional selection fail to show the expected evolutionary response, and may complicate efforts to monitor populations for signs of environmental deterioration.

  8. Environmental change drove macroevolution in cupuladriid bryozoans

    PubMed Central

    O'Dea, Aaron; Jackson, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Most macroevolutionary events are correlated with changes in the environment, but more rigorous evidence of cause and effect has been elusive. We compiled a 10 Myr record of origination and extinction, changes in mode of reproduction, morphologies and abundances of cupuladriid bryozoan species, spanning the time when primary productivity collapsed in the southwestern Caribbean as the Isthmus of Panama closed. The dominant mode of reproduction shifted dramatically from clonal to aclonal, due in part to a pulse of origination followed by extinction that was strongly selective in favour of aclonal species. Modern-day studies predict reduced clonality in increasingly oligotrophic conditions, thereby providing a mechanistic explanation supporting the hypothesis that the collapse in primary productivity was the cause of turnover. However, whereas originations were synchronous with changing environments, extinctions lagged 1–2 Myr. Extinct species failed to become more robust and reduce their rate of cloning when the new environmental conditions arose, and subsequently saw progressive reductions in abundance towards their delayed demise. Environmental change is therefore established as the root cause of macroevolutionary turnover despite the lag between origination and extinction. PMID:19640882

  9. Collective behaviour, uncertainty and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; O'Brien, Michael J

    2015-11-28

    A central aspect of cultural evolutionary theory concerns how human groups respond to environmental change. Although we are painting with a broad brush, it is fair to say that prior to the twenty-first century, adaptation often happened gradually over multiple human generations, through a combination of individual and social learning, cumulative cultural evolution and demographic shifts. The result was a generally resilient and sustainable population. In the twenty-first century, however, considerable change happens within small portions of a human generation, on a vastly larger range of geographical and population scales and involving a greater degree of horizontal learning. As a way of gauging the complexity of societal response to environmental change in a globalized future, we discuss several theoretical tools for understanding how human groups adapt to uncertainty. We use our analysis to estimate the limits of predictability of future societal change, in the belief that knowing when to hedge bets is better than relying on a false sense of predictability.

  10. Environmental change drove macroevolution in cupuladriid bryozoans.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Aaron; Jackson, Jeremy

    2009-10-22

    Most macroevolutionary events are correlated with changes in the environment, but more rigorous evidence of cause and effect has been elusive. We compiled a 10 Myr record of origination and extinction, changes in mode of reproduction, morphologies and abundances of cupuladriid bryozoan species, spanning the time when primary productivity collapsed in the southwestern Caribbean as the Isthmus of Panama closed. The dominant mode of reproduction shifted dramatically from clonal to aclonal, due in part to a pulse of origination followed by extinction that was strongly selective in favour of aclonal species. Modern-day studies predict reduced clonality in increasingly oligotrophic conditions, thereby providing a mechanistic explanation supporting the hypothesis that the collapse in primary productivity was the cause of turnover. However, whereas originations were synchronous with changing environments, extinctions lagged 1-2 Myr. Extinct species failed to become more robust and reduce their rate of cloning when the new environmental conditions arose, and subsequently saw progressive reductions in abundance towards their delayed demise. Environmental change is therefore established as the root cause of macroevolutionary turnover despite the lag between origination and extinction.

  11. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services.

  12. Environmental health implications of global climate change.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert T; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J; Parson, Edward A; Vincent, James H

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and--associated with all the preceding--the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem.

  13. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P; Thorne, M; Egan, M; Calvez, M; Kautsky, U

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example.

  14. Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns

    PubMed Central

    Olascoaga, María J.; Haller, George

    2012-01-01

    The lack of reliable forecasts for the spread of oceanic and atmospheric contamination hinders the effective protection of the ecosystem, society, and the economy from the fallouts of environmental disasters. The consequences can be dire, as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. We present a methodology to predict major short-term changes in environmental contamination patterns, such as oil spills in the ocean and ash clouds in the atmosphere. Our approach is based on new mathematical results on the objective (frame-independent) identification of key material surfaces that drive tracer mixing in unsteady, finite-time flow data. Some of these material surfaces, known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), turn out to admit highly attracting cores that lead to inevitable material instabilities even under future uncertainties or unexpected perturbations to the observed flow. These LCS cores have the potential to forecast imminent shape changes in the contamination pattern, even before the instability builds up and brings large masses of water or air into motion. Exploiting this potential, the LCS-core analysis developed here provides a model-independent forecasting scheme that relies only on already observed or validated flow velocities at the time the prediction is made. We use this methodology to obtain high-precision forecasts of two major instabilities that occurred in the shape of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This is achieved using simulated surface currents preceding the prediction times and assuming that the oil behaves as a passive tracer. PMID:22411824

  15. Changing Learner Behavior through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; Volk, Trudi L.

    1990-01-01

    Addressed is the effectiveness of environmental education for promoting responsible citizenship behavior. A model of environmental citizenship behavior is presented. Goals for instruction in environmental education are discussed. (CW)

  16. Structural changes upon excitation of D1-D2-Cyt b559 photosystem II reaction centers depend on the beta-carotene content.

    PubMed

    Losi, Aba; Yruela, Inmaculada; Reus, Michael; Holzwarth, Alfred R; Braslavsky, Silvia E

    2003-07-01

    Different preparations of D1-D2-Cyt b559 complexes from spinach with different beta-carotene (Car) content [on average from <0.5 to 2 per reaction center (RC)] were studied by means of laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy. phiP680(+)Pheo(-) does not depend on the preparation (or on the Car content) inasmuch as the magnitude of the prompt heat (produced within 20 ns) does not vary for the different samples upon excitation at 675 and 620 nm. The energy level of the primary charge-separated state, P680(+)Pheo(-), was determined as EP680(+)Pheo(-) = 1.55 eV. Thus, an enthalpy change accompanying charge separation from excited P680 of deltaH*P680Pheo-->P680(+)Pheo(-) = -0.27 eV is obtained. Calculations using the heat evolved during the time-resolved decay of P680(+)Pheo(-) (< or = 100 ns) affords a triplet (3[P680Pheo]) quantum yield phi3[P680Pheo] = 0.5 +/- 0.14. The structural volume change, deltaV1, corresponding to the formation of P680(+)Pheo(-), strongly depends on the Car content; it is ca. -2.5 A3 molecule(-1) for samples with <0.5 Car on average, decreases (in absolute value) to -0.5 +/- 0.2 A3 for samples with an average of 1 Car, and remains the same for samples with two Cars per RC. This suggests that the Car molecules induce changes in the ground-state RC conformation, an idea which was confirmed by preferential excitation of Car with blue light, which produced different carotene triplet lifetimes in samples with 2 Car compared to those containing less carotene. We conclude that the two beta-carotenes are not structurally equivalent. Upon blue-light excitation (480 nm, preferential carotene absorption) the fraction of energy stored is ca. 60% for the 9Chl-2Car sample, whereas it is 40% for the preparations with one or less Cars on average, indicating different paths of energy distribution after Car excitation in these RCs with remaining chlorophyll antennae.

  17. Amphibians as models for studying environmental change.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William A

    2007-01-01

    The use of amphibians as models in ecological research has a rich history. From an early foundation in studies of amphibian natural history sprang generations of scientists who used amphibians as models to address fundamental questions in population and community ecology. More recently, in the wake of an environment that human disturbances rapidly altered, ecologists have adopted amphibians as models for studying applied ecological issues such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, and global climate change. Some of the characteristics of amphibians that make them useful models for studying these environmental problems are highlighted, including their trophic importance, environmental sensitivity, research tractability, and impending extinction. The article provides specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate how studies on amphibians have been instrumental in guiding scientific thought on a broad scale. Included are examples of how amphibian research has transformed scientific disciplines, generated new theories about global health, called into question widely accepted scientific paradigms, and raised awareness in the general public that our daily actions may have widespread repercussions. In addition, studies on amphibian declines have provided insight into the complexity in which multiple independent factors may interact with one another to produce catastrophic and sometimes unpredictable effects. Because of the complexity of these problems, amphibian ecologists have been among the strongest advocates for interdisciplinary research. Future studies of amphibians will be important not only for their conservation but also for the conservation of other species, critical habitats, and entire ecosystems.

  18. Introduction to Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. J.; Diekmann, B.; Jones, V. J.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    This volume brings together a collection of papers on Holocene environmental change in the Kamchatka Peninsula, in the Russian Far East. Much of the work that appears in these papers was completed under the auspices of two major research activities: a UK NERC-funded project Influence of global teleconnections on Holocene climate in Kamchatka, which dealt with the analysis of lake records collected during the Swedish Beringia 2005 expedition organised by the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat; and a Russian-German multidisciplinary research project KALMAR - Kurile-Kamchatka and Aleutian Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems: Geodynamic and Climate Interaction in Space and Time, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

  19. Environmental groups fault climate-change plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zurer, P.

    1994-05-09

    The Clinton Administration's Climate Change Action Plan will fall far short of its goal for stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions, according to critics from environmental groups. But the White House defends its approach to global warming as a unique partnership between industry and government. The plan, unveiled by President Clinton last fall, aims to limit US emissions of greenhouse gases to no greater than 1990 levels by 2000. It relies on mostly voluntary programs and increased support for renewable energy sources to cut emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and other gases that contribute to global warming. The Clinton Administration's plan relies for the most part on pledges by industry and utilities to cut emissions. It will save energy and save businesses money while creating jobs.

  20. Indicators of recent environmental change in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, G.C.; D`Arrigo, R.D.; Juday, G.

    1997-12-31

    Climate models predict that global warming due to the effects of increasing trace gases will be amplified in northern high latitude regions, including Alaska. Several environmental indicators, including tree-ring based temperature reconstructions, borcal forest growth measurements and observations of glacial retreat all indicate that the general warming of the past century has been significant relative to prior centuries to millenia. The tree-ring records for central and northern Alaska indicate that annual temperature increased over the past century, peaked in the 1940s, and are still near the highest level for the past three centuries (Jacoby and D`Arrigo 1995). The tree-ring analyses also suggest that drought stress may now be a factor limiting growth at many northern sites. The recent warming combined with drier years may be altering the response of tree growth to climate and raising the likelihood of forest changes in Alaska and other boreal forests. Other tree-ring and forest data from southern and interior Alaska provide indices of the response of vegetation to extreme events (e.g., insect outbreaks, snow events) in Alaska (Juday and marler 1996). Historical maps, field measurements and satellite imagery indicate that Alaskan glaciers have receded over the past century (e.g., Hall and Benson 1996). Severe outbreaks of bark beetles may be on the increase due to warming, which can shorten their reproductive cycle. Such data and understanding of causes are useful for policy makers and others interested in evaluation of possible impacts of trace-gas induced warming and environmental change in the United States.

  1. Conclusions: environmental change, wildlife conservation and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Holt, William V; Brown, Janine L; Comizzoli, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Our intention when planning this book was to explore the diverse ways that reproductive science is inextricably tied to many aspects of biodiversity conservation, using the opportunity to present a vast amount of specialised information in a way that forms a coherent and important body of work. Some of the chapters were therefore concerned with understanding how taxonomic groups and species are being affected by globally important environmental changes, mostly caused through anthropogenic influences. Others were more focused on monitoring and understanding the physiology of wild species, with the aim of better understanding mechanisms underlying responses to captive conditions and environmental change, in both wild and captive animals. We also wanted to review advances in technological measures that are being actively developed to support the breeding and management of wildlife. In a few cases we have presented specific case studies that highlight the amount of effort required for the successful development of assisted reproductive technologies for wild species. Viewed overall, the outcome is spectacular; the last decade has seen enormous progress in many aspects of the sciences and technologies relevant to the topic. It is also clear that the boundaries between different scientific disciplines are becoming ever more blurred, and it is no longer easy or even possible to remain focused on a highly specialized topic in reproduction or conservation, without having at least some understanding of allied subjects. Here we present a few concluding comments about what we have learnt, and how the various topics interact with each other. We also emphasize that, as far as we know, no similarly comprehensive consideration of the contribution of reproductive science to wildlife conservation has been published within the last decade.

  2. Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka: A synopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. J.; Diekmann, B.; Jones, V. J.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present a synthesis of the results of a multiproxy, multisite, palaeoecological study of Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka, Far East Russia, details of which are presented elsewhere in the volume. We summarise the results of the analyses of pollen, diatom, chironomid, and testate amoebae assemblages, together with stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon, and sediment characteristics from the sediments of five lakes and a peat succession on a latitudinal gradient of the Kamchatka Peninsula, to infer environmental change and establish the major climate forcers and climatic teleconnections. There are synchronous shifts in the assemblage composition of most of the biota and across most sites at 6.5-6.2 ka BP, 5.2 ka BP, 4.0 ka BP, and 3.5 ka BP, suggesting a response to strong regional climate forcing at these times. These dates correspond to the warmest part of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) (6.5-6.2 ka BP), the beginning of the Neoglacial cooling (5.2 ka BP), the coolest and wettest part of the Neoglacial (4.0 ka BP), and a switch to warmer and drier conditions at 3.5 ka BP. Our results provide evidence for the penetration and domination of different air masses at different periods during the Holocene. Cool and dry periods in winter (e.g., at 6.0 ka BP) were driven by a relatively weak pressure gradient between the Siberian High and the Aleutian Low, whereas cool, wet periods in winter (e.g., the Neoglacial and during the LIA) developed when these two systems increased in strength. Warm, dry, continental periods in summer (e.g., at 2.5 ka BP) were driven by a weakening of the Siberian High. We find that the timing of the HTM in Kamchatka is later than in the Eurasian arctic but similar to northern Europe and the sub-arctic part of eastern Siberia. This progressive onset of the HTM was due to the effects of postglacial ice-sheet decay that modulated the routes of westerly storm tracks in Eurasia. A major ecosystem driver was the Siberian dwarf pine Pinus

  3. Spatiotemporal changes in Cx30 and Cx43 expression during neuronal differentiation of P19 EC and NT2/D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Carthur K; O'Carroll, Simon J; Kim, Sue-Ling; Green, Colin R; Nicholson, Louise F B

    2013-12-01

    While connexins (Cxs) are thought to be involved in differentiation, their expression and role has yet to be fully elucidated. We investigated the temporal expression of Cx30, Cx36 and Cx43 in two in vitro models of neuronal differentiation: human NT2/D1 and murine P19 cells, and the spatial localisation of Cx30 and Cx43 in these models. A temporal Cx43 downregulation was confirmed in both cell lines during RA-induced neuronal differentiation using RT-PCR (P < 0.05) preceding an increase in neuronal doublecortin protein. RT-PCR showed Cx36 was upregulated twofold in NT2/D1 cells (P < 0.05) and sixfold in P19 cells (P < 0.001) during neuronal differentiation. Cx30 exhibited a transient peak in expression midway through the timecourse of differentiation increasing threefold in NT2/D1 cells (P < 0.001) and eightfold in P19 cells (P < 0.01). Qualitative immunocytochemistry was used to examine spatiotemporal patterns of Cx protein distribution alongside neuronal differentiation markers. The temporal immunolabelling pattern was similar to that seen using RT-PCR. Cx43 was observed intracellularly and on cell surfaces, while Cx30 was seen as puncta. Spatially Cx43 was seen on doublecortin-negative cells, which may indicate Cx43 downregulation is requisite for differentiation in these models. Conversely, Cx30 puncta were observed on doublecortin-positive and -negative cells in NT2/D1 cells and examination of the Cx30 peak showed puncta also localized to nestin-positive cells, with few puncta on MAP2-positive cells. In P19 cells Cx30 was localized on clusters of cells surrounded by MAP2- and doublecortin-positive processes. The expression pattern of Cx30 indicates a role in neuronal differentiation; the nature of that role warrants future investigation.

  4. Global environmental change: Modifying human contributions through education

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    The 1995 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Science report concludes that evidence now available {open_quotes}points toward a discernible human influence on global climate{close_quotes}. Reductions in emissions will require changes in human behavior. Knowledge, often through education, is an important moderator of human environmental behavior. This study assessed whether gains in global environmental change knowledge would lead to changes in human behaviors that could be deemed environmentally responsible.

  5. ISCCP D1 NAT

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-12

    ... Errors Frequently Asked Questions New Algorithm: Summary of Changes - (C-series to D-series) Join ... that precisely represent the global climate.       Stars Clouds Crops           Stars' brightness influences planting ...

  6. Forest environmental investments and implications for climate change mitigation.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; Lucas S. Bair

    2006-01-01

    Forest environmental conditions are affected by climate change, but investments in forest environmental quality can be used as part of the climate change mitigation strategy. A key question involving the potential use of forests to store more carbon as part of climate change mitigation is the impact of forest investments on the timing and quantity of forest volumes...

  7. National Environmental Change Information System Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference

  8. Environmental variation and population responses to global change.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Callum R; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in order to design effective strategies to conserve biodiversity under global change. Here, we review recent theoretical and empirical studies to assess: (1) how populations respond to changes in environmental variance, and (2) how environmental variance affects population responses to changes in mean conditions. Contrary to frequent claims, empirical studies show that increases in environmental variance can increase as well as decrease long-term population growth rates. Moreover, environmental variance can alter and even reverse the effects of changes in the mean environment, such that even if environmental variance remains constant, omitting it from population models compromises their ability to predict species' responses to changes in mean conditions. Drawing on theory relating these effects of environmental variance to the curvatures of population growth responses to the environment, we outline how species' traits such as phylogenetic history and body mass could be used to predict their responses to global change under future environmental variability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Environmental Education for Behaviour Change: Which Actions Should Be Targeted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2012-01-01

    One aim of environmental education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their environmental behaviour; this is particularly significant with environmental problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global warming. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's…

  10. Environmental Education for Behaviour Change: Which Actions Should Be Targeted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2012-01-01

    One aim of environmental education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their environmental behaviour; this is particularly significant with environmental problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global warming. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's…

  11. Environmental change: Federal courts and the EPA

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, R.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents the findings of a four-year study of the impact of federal court decisions on the policies and administration of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in all seven of its major statutory areas: clean air, clean water, hazardous waste cleanup, controlled pesticide use, resource conservation and recovery, safe drinking water, and control of toxic substances. The author use the Lexis and Westlaw legal data bases to generate a list of all cases in which the EPA was either a plaintiff or a defendant in each of the agency's seven major statutory areas. The author verified these data and at times supplemented them with EPA records and with environmental reporters published by the Bureau of National Affairs and the Environmental Law Institute. She derived settlement agreements from the EPA, the Department of Justice, and the courts.

  12. Comprehension of climate change and environmental attitudes across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Degen, C; Kettner, S E; Fischer, H; Lohse, J; Funke, J; Schwieren, C; Goeschl, T; Schröder, J

    2014-08-01

    Given the coincidence of the demographic change and climate change in the upcoming decades the aging voter gains increasing importance in climate change mitigation and adaptation processes. It is generally assumed that information status and comprehension of complex processes underlying climate change are prerequisites for adopting pro-environmental attitudes and taking pro-environmental actions. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated in how far (1) environmental knowledge and comprehension of feedback processes underlying climate change and (2) pro-environmental attitudes change as a function of age. Our sample consisted of 92 participants aged 25-75 years (mean age 49.4 years, SD 17.0). Age was negatively related to comprehension of system structures inherent to climate change, but positively associated with level of fear of consequences and anxiousness towards climate change. No significant relations were found between environmental knowledge and pro-environmental attitude. These results indicate that, albeit understanding of relevant structures of the climate system is less present in older age, age is not a limiting factor for being engaged in the complex dilemma of climate change. Results bear implications for the communication of climate change and pro-environmental actions in aging societies.

  13. Paleoecology: An Untapped Resource for Teaching Environmental Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raper, Diana J.; Zander, Holli

    2009-01-01

    Global warming and climate change have become hot topics that incite debate, inspire scientific research, and influence international policy. However, the scientific research that provides the past climate and environmental information upon which contemporary environmental change is measured, receives little attention in high school curriculum.…

  14. Continental diatoms as indicators of long-term environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J. Platt

    1999-01-01

    It is curious that diatoms, whose short lifespans and capacity for rapid regeneration make them especially suitable for short-term paleoenvironmental studies, would also have a significant role as indicators of long-term environmental change. This chapter explores the nature of long diatom records, their relation to global environmental changes, guidelines for their interpretation, and problems common to such records.

  15. Color and Change, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires very little teacher preparation. The philosophy of the series is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages students to work independently and at their own speeds. This particular unit is designed…

  16. World Wind Tools Reveal Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed under NASA's Learning Technologies program as a tool to engage and inspire students, World Wind software was released under the NASA Open Source Agreement license. Honolulu, Hawaii based Intelesense Technologies is one of the companies currently making use of the technology for environmental, public health, and other monitoring applications for nonprofit organizations and Government agencies. The company saved about $1 million in development costs by using the NASA software.

  17. Environmental change and Antarctic seabird populations.

    PubMed

    Croxall, J P; Trathan, P N; Murphy, E J

    2002-08-30

    Recent changes in Antarctic seabird populations may reflect direct and indirect responses to regional climate change. The best long-term data for high-latitude Antarctic seabirds (Adélie and Emperor penguins and snow petrels) indicate that winter sea-ice has a profound influence. However, some effects are inconsistent between species and areas, some in opposite directions at different stages of breeding and life cycles, and others remain paradoxical. The combination of recent harvest driven changes and those caused by global warming may produce rapid shifts rather than gradual changes.

  18. The potential impact of global environmental change on population health.

    PubMed

    Tong, S

    2000-10-01

    Due to rapid industrial changes and increased pressure of people on fragile ecosystems, large-scale environmental perturbations have been occurring on Earth. Major current environmental problems that can be expected to have a substantial effect on human health include human-induced climate change and stratosphere ozone depletion, because they threaten the ecological support systems on which human life depends. The most serious potential consequence of global environmental change is the erosion of Earth's life-support systems. The public health assessments of the present and future anthropogenic damage to the biosphere have important implications for human health and wellbeing. Medical practitioners have an important role to play in this field.

  19. Monitoring environmental change in an ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gámez, M; López, I; Molnár, S

    2008-09-01

    The monitoring and analysis of the processes taking place in an ecosystem is a key issue for a sustainable human activity. A system of populations, as the biotic component of a complex ecosystem is usually affected by the variation of its abiotic environment. Even in nearly natural ecosystems an abiotic effect like climatic implications of global warming may cause important changes in the dynamics of the population system. In ecosystems involving field cultivation or any industrial activity; the abiotic parameter in question may be the concentration of a substance, changing, e.g. as a result of pollution, application of a pesticide, or a fertilizer, etc. In many cases the observation of the densities of each population may be technically complicated or expensive, therefore the question arises whether from the observation of the densities of certain (indicator) populations, the whole state process of the population system can be uniquely recovered. The paper is aimed at a methodological development of the state monitoring, under the conditions of a changing environment. It is shown, how the technique of mathematical systems theory can be applied not only for the approximate calculation of the state process on the basis of the observed data, even under the effect of an exogene abiotic change with known dynamics; but in certain cases, also for the estimation of the unknown biological effect of the change of an abiotic parameter. The proposed methodology is applied to simple illustrative examples concerning a three-species predator-prey system.

  20. Determining molecular responses to environmental change in soybeans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As the global climate changes, plants will be challenged by environmental stresses that are more extreme and more frequent. The average yield loss due to environmental stresses is currently estimated to be more than 50% for major crop species and is the major limitation to world food production. The...

  1. Cellular modes of adaptation to environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckle, William R.

    2001-10-01

    Eukaryotic cells are remarkably adaptable entities. Whether embedded in solid tissues or freely suspended in blood or other fluids, cells principally exist in an aqueous environment but maintain a hydrophobic barrier, the plasma membrane, across which changes in the environment are detected. Utilizing specialized macromolecular components, cells can sense changes in temperature, hydrostatic pressure, oxygen tension, shear, shape, osmolarity, pH, electrical potential, electromagnetic radiation, and the concentrations of specific chemical compounds. Modes of response are equally varied, ranging from rapid secretion of stored substances to irreversible functional differentiation to self-destruction. Recent research has elucidated many of the enzymatic and genetic programs that accomplish these adaptations and suggests novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

  2. Assessing stream temperature response to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R. J.; Boon, S.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Stream temperature controls aquatic ecosystem function by directly influencing water quality, ecosystem productivity, and the physiological functioning of aquatic organisms. To date, there are limited studies of the impacts of environmental disturbance on stream temperature, particularly on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. This region provides key habitat for native salmonid species such as westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), which are listed as ‘threatened’ and ‘species of special concern’, respectively. Increases in stream temperature could limit habitat availability, reduce competitive advantage, and potentially increase mortality rates for these native species. This study uses field data collected at high spatiotemporal resolution to develop a spatial stream temperature model that simulates the mass and energy balance of the stream system. Preliminary field results demonstrate the high spatial and temporal variability in processes governing stream temperature in three study stream reaches. Groundwater/surface water interactions, topographic setting, and local meteorological conditions all contribute in determining stream thermal regimes. This work discusses how these primary drivers of stream temperature can be incorporated into a physically based spatial model, and demonstrates how depending on the scale of interest, the temperature of a stream can be governed by very different contributing factors.

  3. Environmental and policy change to support healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Rebecca H; Sykes, Kathy; Lowman, Sarah G; Duncan, Richard; Satariano, William A; Belza, Basia

    2011-10-01

    Given the growing evidence of the influence of the environment on older adult health, the need to design and implement effective environmental policy around healthy and vital aging is urgent. This article describes issues amenable to improvement through policy change, evidence supporting specific policy approaches and outcomes, and promising strategies for implementing those approaches. Key areas of focus are neighborhood design and safety, housing, transportation, and mobility. Strategies to build capacity for policy change are also addressed. Our goals are to foster greater attention to environmental change in support of healthy aging and to illuminate directions for policy change.

  4. Environmentally induced heritable changes in flax.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cory; Moss, Tiffanie; Cullis, Christopher

    2011-01-26

    Some flax varieties respond to nutrient stress by modifying their genome and these modifications can be inherited through many generations. Also associated with these genomic changes are heritable phenotypic variations. The flax variety Stormont Cirrus (Pl) when grown under three different nutrient conditions can either remain inducible (under the control conditions), or become stably modified to either the large or small genotroph by growth under high or low nutrient conditions respectively. The lines resulting from the initial growth under each of these conditions appear to grow better when grown under the same conditions in subsequent generations, notably the Pl line grows best under the control treatment indicating that the plants growing under both the high and low nutrients are under stress. One of the genomic changes that are associated with the induction of heritable changes is the appearance of an insertion element (LIS-1) while the plants are growing under the nutrient stress. With respect to this insertion event, the flax variety Stormont Cirrus (Pl) when grown under three different nutrient conditions can either remain unchanged (under the control conditions), have the insertion appear in all the plants (under low nutrients) and have this transmitted to the next generation, or have the insertion (or parts of it) appear but not be transmitted through generations (under high nutrients). The frequency of the appearance of this insertion indicates that it is under positive selection, which is also consistent with the growth response in subsequent generations. Leaves or meristems harvested at various stages of growth are used for DNA and RNA isolation. The RNA is used to identify variation in expression associated with the various growth environments and/or t he presence/absence of LIS-1. The isolated DNA is used to identify those plants in which the insertion has occurred.

  5. Reintroducing Environmental Change Drivers in Biodiversity-Ecosystem Functioning Research.

    PubMed

    De Laender, Frederik; Rohr, Jason R; Ashauer, Roman; Baird, Donald J; Berger, Uta; Eisenhauer, Nico; Grimm, Volker; Hommen, Udo; Maltby, Lorraine; Meliàn, Carlos J; Pomati, Francesco; Roessink, Ivo; Radchuk, Viktoriia; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-12-01

    For the past 20 years, research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (B-EF) has only implicitly considered the underlying role of environmental change. We illustrate that explicitly reintroducing environmental change drivers in B-EF research is needed to predict the functioning of ecosystems facing changes in biodiversity. Next we show how this reintroduction improves experimental control over community composition and structure, which helps to provide mechanistic insight on how multiple aspects of biodiversity relate to function and how biodiversity and function relate in food webs. We also highlight challenges for the proposed reintroduction and suggest analyses and experiments to better understand how random biodiversity changes, as studied by classic approaches in B-EF research, contribute to the shifts in function that follow environmental change.

  6. Plant ecology. Anthropogenic environmental changes affect ecosystem stability via biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Yann; Tilman, David; Isbell, Forest; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Reich, Peter B

    2015-04-17

    Human-driven environmental changes may simultaneously affect the biodiversity, productivity, and stability of Earth's ecosystems, but there is no consensus on the causal relationships linking these variables. Data from 12 multiyear experiments that manipulate important anthropogenic drivers, including plant diversity, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, fire, herbivory, and water, show that each driver influences ecosystem productivity. However, the stability of ecosystem productivity is only changed by those drivers that alter biodiversity, with a given decrease in plant species numbers leading to a quantitatively similar decrease in ecosystem stability regardless of which driver caused the biodiversity loss. These results suggest that changes in biodiversity caused by drivers of environmental change may be a major factor determining how global environmental changes affect ecosystem stability.

  7. Healthy Cities, local environmental action and climate change.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Michael

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports results of a study that explored the relationship between the local environmental actions of Healthy Cities programs and the adverse health impacts of climate change. The analysis is primarily based on a limited literature review of climate change and health, with particular attention to the relationships between Healthy Cities and climate change, and on documentary analysis of information from organization reports and website content associated with Healthy Cities programs in Europe and Australia. Four semi-structured interviews with key people in two Healthy Cities programs in Europe and Australia were conducted to provide information to supplement and complement the published information and to verify theme identification. The main findings of this study are that, although there is no explicit connection between the local activities of Healthy Cities programs and the potential (or actual) adverse health impacts of climate change, Healthy Cities programs are involved in many local environmental actions and some of these actions, for example, those relating to improving air quality and reducing pollution, are linked implicitly to the health impacts of climate change. Through their local relationships and their participation in regional networks, Healthy Cities are able to make connections between local environmental actions and the health impacts of climate change. Furthermore, expanding Healthy Cities to include eco-social sustainability as a central aim not only has the potential to strengthen the links between local environmental actions and climate change, but also presents a relevant health development setting for exploring the social and environmental sustainability of cities.

  8. Linking degradation status with ecosystem vulnerability to environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Baho, Didier L.; Allen, Craig R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental change can cause regime shifts in ecosystems, potentially threatening ecosystem services. It is unclear if the degradation status of ecosystems correlates with their vulnerability to environmental change, and thus the risk of future regime shifts. We assessed resilience in acidified (degraded) and circumneutral (undegraded) lakes with long-term data (1988–2012), using time series modeling. We identified temporal frequencies in invertebrate assemblages, which identifies groups of species whose population dynamics vary at particular temporal scales. We also assessed species with stochastic dynamics, those whose population dynamics vary irregularly and unpredictably over time. We determined the distribution of functional feeding groups of invertebrates within and across the temporal scales identified, and in those species with stochastic dynamics, and assessed attributes hypothesized to contribute to resilience. Three patterns of temporal dynamics, consistent across study lakes, were identified in the invertebrates. The first pattern was one of monotonic change associated with changing abiotic lake conditions. The second and third patterns appeared unrelated to the environmental changes we monitored. Acidified and the circumneutral lakes shared similar levels and patterns of functional richness, evenness, diversity, and redundancy for species within and across the observed temporal scales and for stochastic species groups. These similar resilience characteristics suggest that both lake types did not differ in vulnerability to the environmental changes observed here. Although both lake types appeared equally vulnerable in this study, our approach demonstrates how assessing systemic vulnerability by quantifying ecological resilience can help address uncertainty in predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change across ecosystems.

  9. Environmental Change and Out-Migration: Evidence from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and activists have hypothesized a connection between environmental change and out-migration. In this paper we test this hypothesis using data from Nepal. We operationalize environmental change in terms of declining land cover, rising times required to gather organic inputs, increasing population density, and perceived declines in agricultural productivity. In general, environmental change is more strongly related to short- than long-distance moves. Holding constant the effects of other social and economic variables, we find that local moves are predicted by perceived declines in productivity, declining land cover, and increasing time required to gather firewood. Long-distance moves are predicted by perceived declines in productivity, but the effect is weaker than in the model of short-distance mobility. We also show that effects of environmental change vary by gender and ethnicity, with women being more affected by changes in the time required to gather fodder and men by changes in the time to gather firewood, and high caste Hindus generally being less affect than others by environmental change. PMID:21350676

  10. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  11. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  12. Relationship between climate change and environmental risk's of forestry technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécsinger, Judit; Polgár, András

    2017-04-01

    Environmental risk analysis of the technological aspects of forestry is an important complement to the climate research. Commonly used forestry technologies, like cleaning cutting or final harvest, causes various environmental effects which presents different environmental risks. Based on their material and energy deductions and emissions, they can contribute in different ways to global environmental problems such as climate change. Using environmental risk assessment we explored the newly emerging environmental hazards of the typical forestry technologies due to climate change. These hazards are known in terms of their properties (eg. aridification, toxic load etc), but the spatial appearance is novel. We investigated the possible stressor-response relationships, then estimated the expected exposure. In the risk characterization, we summarized information received in the previous steps. As a result we set up the risk matrices of the working systems of intermediate cutting and final harvest in the stands of beech, oak and spruce. In the matrices, the technologies ranked by values of Global Warming Potential (GWP 100 years) were placed in relation of the average temperature change (dT [° C]) of climate change scenarios. We defined the environmental risks in text form, specifying classes of risks: - I. Class: high risk - II. Class: medium risk - III. Class: low risk. The use of a risk matrix is an important complement to climate change decision-making when selecting the forestry technologies. It serves as a guideline for both foresters and decision makers. Keywords: climate change / environmental risk / risk assessment / forest technology's risk matrix Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by the Agroclimate.2 VKSZ_12-1- 2013-0034 project.

  13. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition of agricultural land use and changes more accurately than present methods. Species and ages of grasses in pasture were identified and soils were classified into several types. The actual land cover and ecological environment were remarkably changeable at the rapidly industrialized area by the urbanization in the flat plane and also by the forest works and road construction in the mountainous area. The practical use of the recognition results was proved as the base map of the field survey or the retouching work of the vegetation and land use. There was a 10% cut in cost, labor, and time. Vegetation cover in Tokyo districts was estimated by both the multiregression model and the parametric model. Multicorrelation coefficient between observed value and estimated value was 0.87 and standard deviation was + or - 15%. Vegetation cover in Tokyo was mapped into five levels with equal intervals of 20%.

  14. Environmentalism unbound: reconnecting and re-envisioning movements for change.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, R

    2001-01-01

    Disputes over environmental discourse have generated divergent pathways and discordant messages over the last three decades. An examination of them becomes a study of environmentalism s roots. The workplace is shown as a hidden and often discounted arena of debate about what constitutes an environmental issue. The triumph of the productionist and limitless consumption views helped to establish a focus on environmental change as a form of consumer action. Since the 1970s though, new forms of environmental discourse and action both community- and production-related have sought to shift the terrain. The possibility of becoming a broader, more socially inclusive movement capable of challenging the very structure and logic of capitalist social order is possible again, including the ability to identify new strategies for action. Overcoming the work/environment divide is perhaps the most contentious question facing the future of the environmental and labor movements. New approaches, including developing a community of interests, revaluing work, and developing an ethic of place (with urban, industrial, and global forms), require that the social and the ecological become joined in the construction of a common vision. When any environmental issue can be seen as socially determined, then environmentalism s great task will be to see itself as a primary agent of social change.

  15. Changes in metabolic modules under environmental variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaas, Eivind

    2006-03-01

    During the last few years, network approaches have shown great promise as a tool to both analyze and provide understanding of complex systems as disparate as the world-wide web and cellular metabolism. Much effort has been focused on characterizing topological properties of such systems. However, in order to develop detailed descriptions of complex networks, we need to look beyond their topology and incorporate dynamical aspects. The cellular metabolism, where nodes correspond to metabolites and links indicate chemical reactions, is an excellent model system where theoretical predictions can be compared with experimental results. I will present recent insights into the principles governing the modular utilization of the cellular metabolism [1,2,3]. We find that, while most metabolic reactions have small fluxes, the metabolism's activity is dominated by an interconnected sub-network of reactions with very high fluxes [1]. For the bacteria H. pylori and E. coli and the yeast S. cerevisiae, the metabolism responds to changes in growth conditions by reorganizing the rates of select reactions predominantly within this high-flux backbone. Furthermore, these networks are organized around the metabolic core -- a set of reactions that are always in use [2]. Strikingly, the activity of the metabolic core reactions is highly synchronized, and the core reactions are significantly more essential and evolutionary conserved than the non-core ones. [1] E. Almaas, B. Kovacs, T. Vicsek, Z.N. Oltvai and A.-L. Barabasi. Nature 427, 839 (2004). [2] E. Almaas, Z.N. Oltvai and A.-L. Barabasi. PLoS Comput. Biol. In press (2005). 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0010068.eor [3] P.J. Macdonald, E. Almaas and A.-L. Barabasi. Europhys. Lett. 72, 308 (2005).

  16. Reconstructing Environmental Change Using Lake Varves as a Climate Proxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Christopher; Bodzin, Alec; Cirucci, Lori; Anastasio, David; Sahagian, Dork

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an investigative activity in which their eighth-grade students reconstructed past environmental change in the New England area using data from lake varves in central Vermont to examine evidence of climate change. The investigation uses an authentic paleoclimate record (Ridge 2011) from the Pleistocene epoch,…

  17. Environmental Sustainability Change Management in SMEs: Learning from Sustainability Champions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadee, Doren; Wiesner, Retha; Roxas, Banjo

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the change management processes involved in undertaking environmental sustainability (ES) initiatives within Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) and relate these to the main attributes of learning organisations. Using case study techniques, the study draws from the change management experiences of a sample of 12 ES…

  18. Environmental Sustainability Change Management in SMEs: Learning from Sustainability Champions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadee, Doren; Wiesner, Retha; Roxas, Banjo

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the change management processes involved in undertaking environmental sustainability (ES) initiatives within Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) and relate these to the main attributes of learning organisations. Using case study techniques, the study draws from the change management experiences of a sample of 12 ES…

  19. Reconstructing Environmental Change Using Lake Varves as a Climate Proxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Christopher; Bodzin, Alec; Cirucci, Lori; Anastasio, David; Sahagian, Dork

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an investigative activity in which their eighth-grade students reconstructed past environmental change in the New England area using data from lake varves in central Vermont to examine evidence of climate change. The investigation uses an authentic paleoclimate record (Ridge 2011) from the Pleistocene epoch,…

  20. D1 Mission Project Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Gunther

    1982-02-01

    The mission D1 is the first complete SL mission in the framework of the German Manned Space Program. This Mission will be under the mission management responsibility of the German Space Agency DFVLR. Its primary objective is to support basic and applied research in the following fields: materials processing, fluid physics, medicine, biology, botany. A further mission objective is to test: instrument reflyability (reuse of FSLP equipment, efficiency of crew operations in space and economies possible in crew operations. An important spin-off will be establishment of the management capability to implement and control complex manned space programs. This paper describes how the D1 project is implemented under German mission management responsibility. The major project tasks as they will be performed using German facilities, in particular all D1 unique aspects, will be addressed.

  1. Topological strings in d < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Verlinde, Herman; Verlinde, Erik

    1991-03-01

    We calculate correlation functions in minimal topological field theories. These twisted versions of N = 2 minimal models have recently been proposed to describe d < 1 matrix models, once coupled to topological gravity. In our calculation we make use of the Landau-Ginzburg formulation of the N = 2 models, and we find a direct relation between the Landau-Ginzburg superpotential and the KdV differential operator. Using this correspondence we show that the minimal topological models are in perfect agreement with the matrix models as solved in terms of the KdV hierarchy. This proves the equivalence at tree-level of topological and ordinary string thoery in d < 1.

  2. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their

  3. Environmental and Water Decision-Making in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Shaleen; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2006-04-01

    Understanding and responding to the impacts of climate variability and change on water and environmental systems requires analysis, modeling methodologies, and tools that accommodate incomplete knowledge and uncertainty that themselves evolve over time. The broad scope of this problem necessitates a multidimensional dialogue among research and policy groups that span disciplinary boundaries. Integration of this knowledge is required to develop adaptive capacity (i.e., necessary knowledge, preparedness, and reliable decision-making capacity to act by all partners in the information chain) and resilience. In this context, resilience can be taken to mean the degree to which the environmental system can absorb both abrupt and gradual changes and build capacity for learning and adaptation. As part of the 2005 AGU Fall Meeting, the session ``Integrated environmental and water decision-making in a changing climate'' was convened under the primary sponsorship of the Global Environmental Change Focus Group, with cosponsorship from other sections. The session served as a venue for a discussion of case studies, conceptual frameworks, and modeling that examined one or more components of the connected climate-water-environmental systems on local, regional, and continental scales. Combining analyses of historical hydroclimatic variations and trends with 21st-century climate change scenarios to quantify uncertainties and associated geographical sensitivities was also a key area of interest.

  4. Predicting the response of populations to environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, A.R.

    1995-04-01

    When subject to long-term directional environmental perturbations, changes in population densities depend on the positive and negative feedbacks operating through interactions within and among species in a community. This paper develops techniques to predict the long-term responses of population densities to environmental changes using data on short-term population fluctuations driven by short-term environmental variability. In addition to giving quantitative predictions, the techniques also reveal how different qualitative patterns of species interactions either buffer or accentuate population responses to environmental trends. All of the predictions are based on regression coefficients extracted from time series data, and they can therefore be applied with a minimum of mathematical and statistical gymnastics. 48 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. New frontiers for environmental epidemiology in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Tonne, Cathryn; Basagaña, Xavier; Chaix, Basile; Huynen, Maud; Hystad, Perry; Nawrot, Tim S; Slama, Remy; Vermeulen, Roel; Weuve, Jennifer; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2017-07-01

    In the next 25years, transformative changes, in particular the rapid pace of technological development and data availability, will require environmental epidemiologists to prioritize what should (rather than could) be done to most effectively improve population health. In this essay, we map out key driving forces that will shape environmental epidemiology in the next 25years. We also identify how the field should adapt to best take advantage of coming opportunities and prepare for challenges. Future environmental epidemiologists will face a world shaped by longer lifespans but also larger burdens of chronic health conditions; shifting populations by region and into urban areas; and global environmental change. Rapidly evolving technologies, particularly in sensors and OMICs, will present opportunities for the field. How should it respond? We argue, the field best adapts to a changing world by focusing on healthy aging; evidence gaps, especially in susceptible populations and low-income countries; and by developing approaches to better handle complexity and more formalized analysis. Environmental epidemiology informing disease prevention will continue to be valuable. However, the field must adapt to remain relevant. In particular, the field must ensure that public health importance drives research questions, while seizing the opportunities presented by new technologies. Environmental epidemiologists of the future will require different, refined skills to work effectively across disciplines, ask the right questions, and implement appropriate study designs in a data-rich world. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Global Environmental Change: Modifying Human Contributions Through Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Lynne M.

    1998-12-01

    The 1995 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1996) Science report concludes that evidence now available "points toward a discernible human influence on global climate" (p. 439). Reductions in emissions will require changes in human behavior. This study assessed whether gains in global environmental change knowledge would lead to changes in human behaviors that could be deemed environmentally responsible. The study assessed the impact on participant behavior of a two-and-one-half day National Informal Educators Workshop and Videoconference held November 14-16, 1994. The workshops were located in seven down-link sites around the continental U.S. and Hawaii. The program utilized a variety of pedagogical techniques during five hours of satellite programming with national expertise on global change topics (natural variability, greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, ecosystem response, and population and resource distribution) and applications of that information with local experts in regional workshops. Participants implemented many personal and professional behavior changes after participation in this program. Six behavior change scales were created from assessment of survey responses (four coefficient alphas were above .7, one was .68, and one was .58). Personal behavior changes grouped into three categories: Use of Fewer Resources (acts of everyday life generally under volitional control), Purchasing Choices/Options (less frequent acts, not under total volitional control, with significant environmental effect over the lifetime of the decision, e.g., an automobile) and Increased Awareness and Discussion (indicating changes in "habits of mind"). The professional behavior changes also grouped into three categories: Curriculum Development (developing/revising curricula including new knowledge); Networking (with colleagues from the program); and Office Procedures (reflecting environmentally responsible behavior). The statistically significant behavior changes

  7. Mathematical classification of regulatory logics for compound environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reiko J; Kimura, Hidenori

    2008-03-21

    This paper is concerned with biological regulatory mechanisms in response to the simultaneous occurrence of a huge number of environmental changes. The restricted resources of cells strictly limit the number of their regulatory methods; hence, cells must adopt, as compensation, special mechanisms to deal with the simultaneous occurrence of environmental changes. We hypothesize that cells use various control logics to integrate information about independent environmental changes related to a cell task and represent the resulting effects of the different ways of integration by logical functions. Using the notion of equivalence classes in set theory, we describe the mathematical classification of the effects into biologically unequivalent ones realized by different control logics. Our purely mathematical and systematic classification of logical functions reveals three elementary control logics with different biological relevance. To better understand their biological significance, we consider examples of biological systems that use these elementary control logics.

  8. Assessing and managing freshwater ecosystems vulnerable to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R; Birgé, Hannah E; Drakare, Stina; McKie, Brendan G; Johnson, Richard K

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are important for global biodiversity and provide essential ecosystem services. There is consensus in the scientific literature that freshwater ecosystems are vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change, which may trigger irreversible regime shifts upon which biodiversity and ecosystem services may be lost. There are profound uncertainties regarding the management and assessment of the vulnerability of freshwater ecosystems to environmental change. Quantitative approaches are needed to reduce this uncertainty. We describe available statistical and modeling approaches along with case studies that demonstrate how resilience theory can be applied to aid decision-making in natural resources management. We highlight especially how long-term monitoring efforts combined with ecological theory can provide a novel nexus between ecological impact assessment and management, and the quantification of systemic vulnerability and thus the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

  9. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-05-21

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture-environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence.

  10. Can environmental change affect host/parasite-mediated speciation?

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska S; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Parasitism can be a driver of species divergence and thereby significantly alter species formation processes. While we still need to better understand how parasite-mediated speciation functions, it is even less clear how this process is affected by environmental change. Both rapid and gradual changes of the environment can modify host immune responses, parasite virulence and the specificity of their interactions. They will thereby change host-parasite evolutionary trajectories and the potential for speciation in both hosts and parasites. Here, we summarise mechanisms of host-parasite interactions affecting speciation and subsequently consider their susceptibility to environmental changes. We mainly focus on the effects of temperature change and nutrient input to ecosystems as they are major environmental stressors. There is evidence for both disruptive and accelerating effects of those pressures on speciation that seem to be context-dependent. A prerequisite for parasite-driven host speciation is that parasites significantly alter the host's Darwinian fitness. This can rapidly lead to divergent selection and genetic adaptation; however, it is likely preceded by more short-term plastic and transgenerational effects. Here, we also consider how these first responses and their susceptibility to environmental changes could lead to alterations of the species formation process and may provide alternative pathways to speciation.

  11. Effects of extreme environmental changes on population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Falco, I.; Della Cioppa, A.; Tarantino, E.

    2006-09-01

    The effects of periodic environmental fluctuations on the adaptive behavior and on the survival chance of a population of individuals are investigated as a function of both the genotypes carried, i.e., haploid or diploid. Only extreme and exogenous changes have been taken into account in order not to complicate the model under investigation. Moreover, different rates of both environmental changes and mutation have been considered. The analysis has been performed by discussing the evolutionary dynamics exhibited by the population in terms of adaptation, density and, finally, survival probability.

  12. Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change': A Traveling Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, E. M.; Hakala, J. S.; Gearheard, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Inuit of Nunavut, Canada, have an intimate relationship with their surroundings. As a culture that relies on knowledge of sea ice, snow, and weather conditions for success in hunting, fishing, and healthy wellbeing, Inuit have observed and studied environmental patterns for generations. An ongoing study into their traditional knowledge and their observations of environmental change is being conducted by researcher Dr. Shari Gearheard, who has worked with Inuit communities in Nunavut for over a decade. The results of the research have been published in scientific journals, and to communicate the results to a broader audience, Dr. Gearheard designed an interactive CD-ROM displaying photographs, maps, and interview videos of Inuit Elders' perspectives on the changes they have witnessed. Receiving immediate popularity since its release in 2004, copies of `When the Weather is Uggianaqtuq: Inuit Observations of Environmental Change' have been distributed worldwide, to indigenous peoples, social science and climate change researchers, teachers, students, and the general public. To further disseminate the information contained on the CD-ROM, the National Snow and Ice Data Center and the Museum of Natural History, both of the University of Colorado, are partnering to create an exhibition which will open at the Museum during the International Polar Year in April 2008. The exhibit, tentatively titled `Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change,' will feature photographs, graphics, and text in both English and Inuktitut describing environmental change in the North. The goals are to make the information and interpretation contained on the CD-ROM available and more accessible to a broad audience and to raise awareness about Arctic climate change and the important contribution of Inuit knowledge. Following exhibition at the Museum, the exhibit will travel throughout the United States, Alaska, and Nunavut, through a network of museums, schools, libraries, tribal

  13. Coastal geoindicators of environmental change in the humid tropics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The primary geoindicators appropriate for monitoring environmental changes in the humid tropics are transitory surface water levels, shoreline position, wetlands distribution, coral reefs, landforms, and sediment sequence and composition. Lateral zonations and temporal successions of vegetation also can be used as geoindicators of riverine and shoreline changes. All of these coastal geoindicators are sensitive to regional tectonic processes and anthropogenic alterations and they typically reflect significant changes in coastal conditions such as fluvial processes, coastal energy, water quality, relative sea level, and sediment supply. Where humid tropical coasts coincide with active tectonic margins, indicators of seismic activity are critical to understanding Coastal changes associated with co-seismic subsidence or uplift, tsunamis, and liquefaction of coastal sediments. Coastal landforms and sedimentary deposits that record late Quaternary environmental changes include perched fluvial and marine terraces, delta-plain morphologies, crevassesplay deposits, peats and other paleosols, beach ridges, mud capes, and mud volcanoes. Although these features and deposits typically reflect environmental changes spanning more than 100 years, they are relevant to modern processes, management of coastal lands and resources, and prediction of future conditions. In some regions of the humid tropics, large coastal areas are unaffected by hurricanes or typhoons. Nevertheless, these tropical coasts are vulnerable to other non-storm processes, such as El Nin??o events, tsunamis, and monsoons that increase water levels, and cause widespread flooding and beach erosion. The environmental and political significance of coastal geoindicators increases when they are integrated and applied to issues of human safety and health such as hazards mapping, risk assessment, and dispersion of contaminated sediments. However, to be relevant, those socio-environmental applications demand accurate

  14. Delivering Global Environmental Change Science Through Documentary Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodgson, K.; Byrne, J. M.; Graham, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Communicating authentic science to society presents a significant challenge to researchers. This challenge stems from unfortunate misrepresentation and misunderstanding in the mainstream media, particularly in relation to science on global environmental change. This has resulted in a lower level of confidence and interest amongst audiences in regards to global environmental change and anthropogenic climate change discussions. This project describes a new form of documentary film that aspires to break this trend and increase audiences’ interest, reinvigorating discussion about global environmental change. The documentary film adopts a form that marries traditional scientific presentation with the high entertainment value of narrative storytelling. This format maintains the authenticity of the scientific message and ensures audience engagement throughout the entire presentation due to the fact that a sense of equality and intimacy between the audience and the scientists is achieved. The film features interviews with scientists studying global environmental change and opens with a comparison of authentic scientific information and the mainstream media’s presentation, and subsequent public opinion. This enables an analysis of the growing disconnect between society and the scientific community. Topics investigated include: Arctic ice melt, coastal zone hypoxia, tropical cyclones and acidification. Upon completion of the film, public and private screenings with predetermined audience demographics will be conducted using a short, standardized survey to gain feedback regarding the audience’s overall review of the presentation. In addition to the poster, this presentation features an extended trailer for the documentary film.

  15. Environmental water demand assessment under climate change conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarzaeim, Parisa; Bozorg-Haddad, Omid; Fallah-Mehdipour, Elahe; Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2017-07-01

    Measures taken to cope with the possible effects of climate change on water resources management are key for the successful adaptation to such change. This work assesses the environmental water demand of the Karkheh river in the reach comprising Karkheh dam to the Hoor-al-Azim wetland, Iran, under climate change during the period 2010-2059. The assessment of the environmental demand applies (1) representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and (2) downscaling methods. The first phase of this work projects temperature and rainfall in the period 2010-2059 under three RCPs and with two downscaling methods. Thus, six climatic scenarios are generated. The results showed that temperature and rainfall average would increase in the range of 1.7-5.2 and 1.9-9.2%, respectively. Subsequently, flows corresponding to the six different climatic scenarios are simulated with the unit hydrographs and component flows from rainfall, evaporation, and stream flow data (IHACRES) rainfall-runoff model and are input to the Karkheh reservoir. The simulation results indicated increases of 0.9-7.7% in the average flow under the six simulation scenarios during the period of analysis. The second phase of this paper's methodology determines the monthly minimum environmental water demands of the Karkheh river associated with the six simulation scenarios using a hydrological method. The determined environmental demands are compared with historical ones. The results show that the temporal variation of monthly environmental demand would change under climate change conditions. Furthermore, some climatic scenarios project environmental water demand larger than and some of them project less than the baseline one.

  16. Climate change and environmental concentrations of POPs: A review.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Martí; Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse; Domingo, José L

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the climate change impact on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has become a topic of notable concern. Changes in environmental conditions such as the increase of the average temperature, or the UV-B radiation, are likely to influence the fate and behavior of POPs, ultimately affecting human exposure. The state of the art of the impact of climate change on environmental concentrations of POPs, as well as on human health risks, is here reviewed. Research gaps are also identified, while future studies are suggested. Climate change and POPs are a hot issue, for which wide attention should be paid not only by scientists, but also and mainly by policy makers. Most studies reported in the scientific literature are focused on legacy POPs, mainly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. However, the number of investigations aimed at estimating the impact of climate change on the environmental levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is scarce, despite of the fact that exposure to PAHs and photodegradation byproducts may result in adverse health effects. Furthermore, no data on emerging POPs are currently available in the scientific literature. In consequence, an intensification of studies to identify and mitigate the indirect effects of the climate change on POP fate is needed to minimize the human health impact. Furthermore, being this a global problem, interactions between climate change and POPs must be addressed from an international perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Education for Behaviour Change: Which actions should be targeted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2012-07-01

    One aim of environmental education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their environmental behaviour; this is particularly significant with environmental problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global warming. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's general environmental attitudes and knowledge, and his or her willingness to undertake pro-environmental actions, so this study focuses on some specific issues. Using survey methods to produce quantitative data about students' beliefs concerning the usefulness of specific actions and their willingness to adopt them, novel indices have been constructed that indicate the potential of education to increase students' willingness to undertake those actions. The findings imply that altering a student's belief about certain issues will have little effect on their willingness to act. This can be because most students, even those with only a weak belief in the efficacy, are prepared to take action anyway. Conversely, it can be because a majority, including those convinced about the efficacy, are not prepared to take action. Education about such actions, where there is only a weak link between believed effectiveness and willingness to act, may be ineffective in terms of changing practice, because other factors such as social norms and situational influences dominate. For such actions other strategies may be required. For another set of actions, however, the benefits of education in changing practice seemed more positive; increasing recycling, reducing the use of artificial fertilisers and planting more trees are examples.

  18. Exploring environmental identity and behavioral change in an Environmental Science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-06-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures, impact the environmental identity and behavior of students. In this investigation, the identity theory of emotion of Stryker (2004) from the field of sociology is utilized in the interpretation of students' reactions to classroom experiences as they proceed through the Environmental Science course. The participants in this study are an Environmental Science teacher and the 10-12th grade students in her Environmental Science elective course. The researcher collected data for a period of six months, attending class on a daily basis. Data was collected through participant observation, videotaping, interviews, and cogenerative dialogues. The results of this study inform science educators by illuminating important elements, such as students' emotional responses to activities in class, conflicting elements of students' identities, and students' openness and willingness to critically reflect upon new information, which contribute to whether a student is likely to change their views towards the environment and pro-environmental behaviors.

  19. Social vulnerability and environmental change along urban-rural interfaces

    Treesearch

    John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson

    2012-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly urbanized and interconnected, the distinction between urban and rural areas is diminishing. Creation of new urban–rural interface areas causes immediate changes in local natural and social environments, and theseareas are also susceptible to both short-term and long-term environmental changes. Different groups of people...

  20. Environmental change challenges decision-making during post-market environmental monitoring of transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-12-01

    The ability to decide what kind of environmental changes observed during post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops represent environmental harm is an essential part of most legal frameworks regulating the commercial release of GM crops into the environment. Among others, such decisions are necessary to initiate remedial measures or to sustain claims of redress linked to environmental liability. Given that consensus on criteria to evaluate 'environmental harm' has not yet been found, there are a number of challenges for risk managers when interpreting GM crop monitoring data for environmental decision-making. In the present paper, we argue that the challenges in decision-making have four main causes. The first three causes relate to scientific data collection and analysis, which have methodological limits. The forth cause concerns scientific data evaluation, which is controversial among the different stakeholders involved in the debate on potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This results in controversy how the effects of GM crops should be valued and what constitutes environmental harm. This controversy may influence decision-making about triggering corrective actions by regulators. We analyse all four challenges and propose potential strategies for addressing them. We conclude that environmental monitoring has its limits in reducing uncertainties remaining from the environmental risk assessment prior to market approval. We argue that remaining uncertainties related to adverse environmental effects of GM crops would probably be assessed in a more efficient and rigorous way during pre-market risk assessment. Risk managers should acknowledge the limits of environmental monitoring programmes as a tool for decision-making.

  1. Challenges to professionalism: Social accountability and global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David; Walpole, Sarah; Barna, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve.This article addresses the following questions: • How do we reconcile ideas of medical professionalism with the demands of creating a more equal, just, sustainable and socially inclusive society? • What new challenges do or will we face in relation to environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, ecosystem health and climate change? • How can medical schools best teach social and environmental responsiveness within a framework of professionalism? • How do medical schools ensure that tomorrow's doctors possess the knowledge, skills and attitude to adapt to the challenges they will face in future roles?We offer ideas about why and how medical educators can change, recommendations to strengthen the teaching of professionalism and social accountability and suggestions about the contribution of an emerging concept, that of "environmental accountability".

  2. People and Environmental Changes. Teacher's Guide. Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A.

    "People and Environmental Changes" is one of the "Preparing for Tomorrow's World" (PTW) program modules. PTW is an interdisciplinary, future-oriented program which incorporates information from the sciences and social sciences and addresses societal concerns which interface science/technology/society. The program promotes…

  3. People and Environmental Changes. [Student's Guide.] Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A.; And Others

    The intent of this module is to engage students (grades 9-11) in an examination of issues that arise as a result of human activities in the physical environment. Activities are organized into two sections: the first focusing on weather modification and construction of dams as examples of planned environmental change and the second focusing on…

  4. Water balance changes across environmental gradients in Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Y.; Lyon, S. W.; Vercauteren, N.; Destouni, G.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change, land use change and an increasing use of water for irrigation, industry, hydro power and consumption alter the water balance of many catchments. Such changes affect the water availability for ecosystems and humans but also affect hydrological conditions in downstream lakes and coastal zones. In the Baltic Sea region, for example, an increase in precipitation in Northern Sweden may reduce sea water salinity, while increasing evapotranspiration in the South, which is dominated by agriculture, may reduce nutrient leaching. Both changes will affect the Baltic Sea ecosystem. It thus is important to identify, for each region in Sweden, the dominant drivers for change to understand and anticipate future hydrological conditions in the Baltic Sea. In this study we have analyzed long term changes in the water balance for 250 catchments in Sweden. By quantifying the spatial correlation of these changes between catchments we were able to constrain measurement uncertainty in precipitation, discharge and catchment area. This allowed us to create reliable regional estimates of changes in precipitation, discharge and evapotranspiration for the period 1960-2010. The Bodyko framework was used to translate these water balance changes to water use efficiency trajectories across environmental gradients (latitude, elevation, agriculture and population). These trajectories in Bodyko-space help to identify the contributions of climate change and changes in water use efficiency to observed changes in the water balance. We show that within Sweden distinctly different trajectories of hydrological change occur and that these differences should be accounted for in climate change adaptation strategies.

  5. Drastic environmental change and its effects on a planetary biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N.; Fairén, Alberto G.

    2013-07-01

    Environmental conditions can change drastically and rapidly during the natural history of a planetary body. These changes affect the biosphere and can spur evolution via the mechanism of directional selection leading to the innovation of new processes and forms of life, or alternatively leading to the extinction of certain life forms. Based on the natural history of Earth, the effect on a planet's biosphere depends on three factors: (1) the nature and time scale of change, (2) the composition of the biosphere prior to change, and (3) the nature of the environment following the change. Though Earth has undergone various periods of drastic environmental change, life has shown an enormous resiliency and became more diverse and complex as a consequence of these events. Mars and Venus have undergone even larger environmental changes, both from habitable conditions under which the origin of life (or transfer of life from Earth) seem plausible, to a dry and cold planet punctuated by wetter conditions, and a hyperthermic greenhouse, respectively. Given its planetary history, life on Mars could have retreated to a psychrophilic lifestyle in the deep subsurface or to environmental near-surface niches, such as hydrothermal regions and caves. Further, strong directional selection could have pushed putative martian life to evolve alternating cycles between active and dormant forms, as well as the innovation of new traits adapted to challenging near-surface conditions. Life in the subsurface or on the surface of Venus seems impossible today, but microorganisms may have adapted to thrive in the lower cloud layer, possibly using a biochemical strategy analogous to Photosystem I and chemoautotrophic sulfur metabolism, and employing cycloocta sulfur for UV protection.

  6. Consideration of climate change on environmental impact assessment in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro; Martín-Aranda, Rosa M.; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén

    2016-02-15

    Most of the projects subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA) are closely related to climate change, as they contribute to or are affected by it. The growing certainty about climate change and its impacts makes its consideration an essential part of the EIA process, as well as in strategic environmental assessment (SEA). This paper examines how climate change (CC) has been taken into account in EIA in Spain through the analysis of 1713 environmental records of decision (RODs) of projects submitted for EIA. In 2013 Spain approved one of the most advanced laws in terms of CC consideration in environmental assessment, although it had not yet accumulated extensive practice on the issue. This contrasts with the situation of countries like Canada or the USA, which have a significant body of experience without specific legal requirements. Only 14% of the RODs analysed included references to CC, and in more than half of the cases it was a mere citation. Thermal power plants, which are subject to specific GHG regulations, show the highest consideration, while transport infrastructures, which are important contributors to CC, show a very low consideration. Almost all the references are related to their contribution to CC, while consideration of the effects of CC is minimal. The increasingly common incorporation of CC into SEA, should not imply its exclusion from EIA, because both processes have different aims and uses. Including the obligation to consider CC in the EIA regulations is highly desirable, but probably not enough without other measures, such as practical guidance, training and motivational programmes for practitioners and evaluators. But even these actions cannot ensure effective and adequate assessments of CC. Probably more resources should be spent on creating greater awareness in all the agents involved in EIA. - Highlights: • We analyse how the climate change is considered in EIA in Spain. • Few projects seriously assess climate change.

  7. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  8. Environmental change at Kartchner Caverns: trying to separate natural and anthropogenic changes

    Treesearch

    Rickard S. Toomey; Ginger Nolan

    2005-01-01

    Cave temperature and moisture levels are important factors in the environmental health of Kartchner Caverns. Monitoring indicates the cave has warmed and moisture levels have fallen over the past 14 years. Timing and patterns of change within the cave suggest that changes are due to development as a show cave. However, changes in other caves, surface temperature and...

  9. Assessing future changes in pan-European environmental flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laize, C.; Hannah, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    The potential river flow-driven impact of change on aquatic and riparian ecosystems at the pan-European scale under various climatological and development scenarios was assessed using a methodology based conceptually on the Range of Variability Approach (RVA) using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA): a desk-top technique for assessing if environmental flow requirements. This paper presents an adaptation of the IHA approach using monthly flows. European and Mediterranean river networks were modelled as ~35,000 cells (0.5° longitude x 0.5° latitude). For each cell, modelled monthly flows were generated for an ensemble of 10 future climate change scenarios. These scenarios consist of combinations of two climate scenarios (IPCM4 and MIMR) and four socio-economic water-use scenarios (each with a main driver of economy, policy, security, or sustainability), projected for 2050s. IHA-styled statistics were calculated. By tailoring the RVA, acceptable baseline environmental flow ranges and departures from these of the projected hydrological regimes were assessed and coded using a traffic-light system (green for environmental flows met, amber minor variation, red major variation). For the first time, the results show spatial patterns of flow change and associated potential river ecosystem impacts across the wider European continent. Importantly, the findings indicate that climate change may be a more influential driver than water-use change in determining future river ecosystem health . Patterns were also investigated against broad basin types to identify which are most or least at risk.

  10. Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.

    PubMed

    Bay, Rachael A; Rose, Noah; Barrett, Rowan; Bernatchez, Louis; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Lasky, Jesse R; Brem, Rachel B; Palumbi, Stephen R; Ralph, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Rapid environmental change currently presents a major threat to global biodiversity and ecosystem functions, and understanding impacts on individual populations is critical to creating reliable predictions and mitigation plans. One emerging tool for this goal is high-throughput sequencing technology, which can now be used to scan the genome for signs of environmental selection in any species and any system. This explosion of data provides a powerful new window into the molecular mechanisms of adaptation, and although there has been some success in using genomic data to predict responses to selection in fields such as agriculture, thus far genomic data are rarely integrated into predictive frameworks of future adaptation in natural populations. Here, we review both theoretical and empirical studies of adaptation to rapid environmental change, focusing on areas where genomic data are poised to contribute to our ability to estimate species and population persistence and adaptation. We advocate for the need to study and model evolutionary response architectures, which integrate spatial information, fitness estimates, and plasticity with genetic architecture. Understanding how these factors contribute to adaptive responses is essential in efforts to predict the responses of species and ecosystems to future environmental change.

  11. Intestinal microbiota is a plastic factor responding to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Candela, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Maccaferri, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2012-08-01

    Traditionally regarded as stable through the entire lifespan, the intestinal microbiota has now emerged as an extremely plastic entity, capable of being reconfigured in response to different environmental factors. In a mutualistic context, these microbiome fluctuations allow the host to rapidly adjust its metabolic and immunologic performances in response to environmental changes. Several circumstances can disturb this homeostatic equilibrium, inducing the intestinal microbiota to shift from a mutualistic configuration to a disease-associated profile. A mechanistic comprehension of the dynamics involved in this process is needed to deal more rationally with the role of the human intestinal microbiota in health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic responses.

    PubMed

    Gienapp, P; Teplitsky, C; Alho, J S; Mills, J A; Merilä, J

    2008-01-01

    Rapid climate change is likely to impose strong selection pressures on traits important for fitness, and therefore, microevolution in response to climate-mediated selection is potentially an important mechanism mitigating negative consequences of climate change. We reviewed the empirical evidence for recent microevolutionary responses to climate change in longitudinal studies emphasizing the following three perspectives emerging from the published data. First, although signatures of climate change are clearly visible in many ecological processes, similar examples of microevolutionary responses in literature are in fact very rare. Second, the quality of evidence for microevolutionary responses to climate change is far from satisfactory as the documented responses are often - if not typically - based on nongenetic data. We reinforce the view that it is as important to make the distinction between genetic (evolutionary) and phenotypic (includes a nongenetic, plastic component) responses clear, as it is to understand the relative roles of plasticity and genetics in adaptation to climate change. Third, in order to illustrate the difficulties and their potential ubiquity in detection of microevolution in response to natural selection, we reviewed the quantitative genetic studies on microevolutionary responses to natural selection in the context of long-term studies of vertebrates. The available evidence points to the overall conclusion that many responses perceived as adaptations to changing environmental conditions could be environmentally induced plastic responses rather than microevolutionary adaptations. Hence, clear-cut evidence indicating a significant role for evolutionary adaptation to ongoing climate warming is conspicuously scarce.

  13. Causes of Climate and Environmental Changes: The Need for Environmental-Friendly Education Policy in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankwoala, H. N. L.

    2015-01-01

    Man cannot naturally be detached from his environment. From time to time, changes in climate and environmental conditions occur as a result of natural and human factors. Obviously, the natural factors are almost beyond human control. But, the human factors are to a very large extent under human control. Thus, this paper tried to discover natural…

  14. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of dendrochronology to promote understanding of environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Cynthia Stager

    The purpose of this research was to determine how dendrochronology can be used in an experiential unit to enhance high school students' understanding of environmental change. Dendrochronology, the visual examination of tree ring cross sections provides opportunities to relate environmental change to growth patterns of trees and can be used to show the students both how scientists can investigate the past and how the environment can affect trees. Students engaged in a 10-day unit that employed a variety of constructivist learning activities to investigate environmental change, climate change, and tree growth. The culminating activity was student-created experiments that investigated various aspects of the relationship of trees to their environment. This research was a mixed method design and was conducted at a small public high school in the Deep South. The school is a Title One school on a four by four block schedule and is located in a rural area where forestry is one of the major industries. Twenty five juniors and seniors who were members of two environmental science classes were the participants in the research. As evaluated by the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed rank test, students scored significantly higher on the posttest (P < .01) than on the pretest with average scores of 9.52 on the pretest and 18.76 on the posttest. Most of these gains were in questions that evaluated the students understanding of climate change, tree anatomy and statistical analyses of tree growth data. The qualitative components of the research supported that these were the areas of greatest growth and revealed that the students greatly enjoyed participating in investigations of their own.

  16. Rethinking Environmental Protection: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World.

    PubMed

    Burke, Thomas A; Cascio, Wayne E; Costa, Daniel L; Deener, Kacee; Fontaine, Thomas D; Fulk, Florence A; Jackson, Laura E; Munns, Wayne R; Orme-Zavaleta, Jennifer; Slimak, Michael W; Zartarian, Valerie G

    2017-03-01

    From climate change to hydraulic fracturing, and from drinking water safety to wildfires, environmental challenges are changing. The United States has made substantial environmental protection progress based on media-specific and single pollutant risk-based frameworks. However, today’s environmental problems are increasingly complex and new scientific approaches and tools are needed to achieve sustainable solutions to protect the environment and public health. In this article, we present examples of today’s environmental challenges and offer an integrated systems approach to address them. We provide a strategic framework and recommendations for advancing the application of science for protecting the environment and public health. We posit that addressing 21st century challenges requires transdisciplinary and systems approaches, new data sources, and stakeholder partnerships. To address these challenges, we outline a process driven by problem formulation with the following steps: a) formulate the problem holistically, b) gather and synthesize diverse information, c) develop and assess options, and d) implement sustainable solutions. This process will require new skills and education in systems science, with an emphasis on science translation. A systems-based approach can transcend media- and receptor-specific bounds, integrate diverse information, and recognize the inextricable link between ecology and human health.

  17. Rethinking Environmental Protection: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Thomas A.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Costa, Daniel L.; Deener, Kacee; Fontaine, Thomas D.; Fulk, Florence A.; Jackson, Laura E.; Munns, Wayne R.; Orme-Zavaleta, Jennifer; Slimak, Michael W.; Zartarian, Valerie G.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: From climate change to hydraulic fracturing, and from drinking water safety to wildfires, environmental challenges are changing. The United States has made substantial environmental protection progress based on media-specific and single pollutant risk-based frameworks. However, today’s environmental problems are increasingly complex and new scientific approaches and tools are needed to achieve sustainable solutions to protect the environment and public health. In this article, we present examples of today’s environmental challenges and offer an integrated systems approach to address them. We provide a strategic framework and recommendations for advancing the application of science for protecting the environment and public health. We posit that addressing 21st century challenges requires transdisciplinary and systems approaches, new data sources, and stakeholder partnerships. To address these challenges, we outline a process driven by problem formulation with the following steps: a) formulate the problem holistically, b) gather and synthesize diverse information, c) develop and assess options, and d) implement sustainable solutions. This process will require new skills and education in systems science, with an emphasis on science translation. A systems-based approach can transcend media- and receptor-specific bounds, integrate diverse information, and recognize the inextricable link between ecology and human health. PMID:28248180

  18. EDITORIAL: Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yongwei; Yao, Tandong

    2009-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is one of the Earth's most sensitive regions in responding to climate change due to its extremely high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The cryosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere of the plateau have been undergoing significant changes. Due to the low human population density, environmental changes on the plateau are largely driven by natural processes. Thus, the plateau provides a unique and comprehensive site for global change studies. This focus issue on Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau aims to address both paleo and recent environmental changes across the plateau to facilitate our understanding of this remote and under-studied area. We invited a wide spectrum of contributions to address climate change, permafrost degradation, glacier/snow/ice dynamics, lake dynamics, land- cover/land-use changes, and their interactions on the plateau. Collectively, the diverse contributions in this special issue are expected to present the recent advancement of the above topics and beyond. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau Contents Does a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range exist in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau? Qinglong You, Shichang Kang, Wolfgang-Albert Flügel, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Yuping Yan, Yanwei Xu and Jie Huang Diurnal variations of summertime precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau in relation to orographically-induced regional circulations Xiaodong Liu, Aijuan Bai and Changhai Liu Lake-level fluctuations since the Last Glaciation in Selin Co (lake), Central Tibet, investigated using optically stimulated luminescence dating of beach ridges Dewen Li, Yingkui Li, Baoqi Ma, Guocheng Dong, Liqiang Wang and Junxiang Zhao Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery Koji Fujita, Akiko Sakai, Takayuki Nuimura, Satoru Yamaguchi and Rishi R Sharma Changes

  19. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  20. Changing climate, human evolution, and the revival of environmental determinism.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, David N

    2012-01-01

    The role of climatic change in determining the shape of human evolution, a theme that came to prominence during the early years of the twentieth century, has resurfaced with renewed vigor. The author examines the rise and resurgence of the modern history of the idea that hominid evolutionary pathways have been trigged by climatic causes to illustrate the continuing vitality of environmental determinism and to highlight some continuities between early-twentieth-century and contemporary archaeoanthropology.

  1. Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this

  2. Habitat complexity, environmental change and personality: A tropical perspective.

    PubMed

    Pamela Delarue, Emma Michelle; Kerr, Sarah Emily; Lee Rymer, Tasmin

    2015-11-01

    Tropical rainforests are species-rich, complex ecosystems. They are increasingly being negatively affected by anthropogenic activity, which is rapidly and unpredictably altering their structure and complexity. These changes in habitat state may expose tropical animals to novel and unpredictable conditions, potentially increasing their extinction risk. However, an animal's ability to cope with environmental change may be linked to its personality. While numerous studies have investigated environmental influences on animal personalities, few are focused on tropical species. In this review, we consider how behavioural syndromes in tropical species might facilitate coping under, and adapting to, increasing disturbance. Given the complexity of tropical rainforests, we first discuss how habitat complexity influences personality traits and physiological stress in general. We then explore the ecological and evolutionary implications of personality in the tropics in the context of behavioural flexibility, range expansion and speciation. Finally, we discuss the impact that anthropogenic environmental change may have on the ecological integrity of tropical rainforests, positing scenarios for species persistence. Maintaining tropical rainforest complexity is crucial for driving behavioural flexibility and personality type, both of which are likely to be key factors facilitating long term persistence in disturbed habitats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  4. Using oligochaeta assemblages as an indicator of environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Behrend, R D L; Takeda, A M; Gomes, L C; Fernandes, S E P

    2012-11-01

    We designed a field survey (the entire river length; not dammed: First and Second plateaus; dammed: Third Plateau) to test the hypothesis that the cascade of reservoirs promoted a reduction in species richness and changed the composition of Oligochaeta assemblage along the Iguaçu River. Changes in environmental variables and in richness and composition of Oligochaeta were summarized by Canonic Correspondence Analysis. Along the Iguaçu River, conductivity, and altitude decreased, whereas temperature increased. Oligochaeta composition showed a significant spatial variation, with higher abundances of the family Tubificidae and the genus Dero (Naididae) occurring in the First Plateau. In the Second and Third plateaus, few species were dominant, with increases in the presence of species of Naididae below dams. We found a clear decrease in species richness along the Iguaçu River. Moreover, we found that Oligochaeta assemblage was influenced by some environmental variables such as altitude, conductivity, substrate type and temperature, and by anthropogenic activities (human occupation and damming). The results supported the use of Oligochaeta as surrogate taxa to predict environmental changes along impacted (dammed and eutrophic) rivers. The validity of this was indicated by the strong and significant gradient registered, from the headwater to mouth of the Iguaçu River.

  5. Middle Holocene rapid environmental changes and human adaptation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lespez, Laurent; Glais, Arthur; Lopez-Saez, José-Antonio; Le Drezen, Yann; Tsirtsoni, Zoï; Davidson, Robert; Biree, Laetitia; Malamidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    Numerous researchers discuss of the collapse of civilizations in response to abrupt climate change in the Mediterranean region. The period between 6500 and 5000 cal yr BP is one of the least studied episodes of rapid climate change at the end of the Late Neolithic. This period is characterized by a dramatic decline in settlement and a cultural break in the Balkans. High-resolution paleoenvironmental proxy data obtained in the Lower Angitis Valley enables an examination of the societal responses to rapid climatic change in Greece. Development of a lasting fluvio-lacustrine environment followed by enhanced fluvial activity is evident from 6000 cal yr BP. Paleoecological data show a succession of dry events at 5800-5700, 5450 and 5000-4900 cal yr BP. These events correspond to incursion of cold air masses to the eastern Mediterranean, confirming the climatic instability of the middle Holocene climate transition. Two periods with farming and pastural activities (6300-5600 and 5100-4700 cal BP) are evident. The intervening period is marked by environmental changes, but the continuous occurrence of anthropogenic taxa suggests the persistence of human activities despite the absence of archaeological evidence. The environmental factors alone were not sufficient to trigger the observed societal changes.

  6. The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Turner, B. L.; Lambin, Eric F.; Reenberg, Anette

    2007-01-01

    Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research. This interdisciplinary field seeks to understand the dynamics of land cover and land use as a coupled human–environment system to address theory, concepts, models, and applications relevant to environmental and societal problems, including the intersection of the two. The major components and advances in land change are addressed: observation and monitoring; understanding the coupled system—causes, impacts, and consequences; modeling; and synthesis issues. The six articles of the special feature are introduced and situated within these components of study. PMID:18093934

  7. The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Turner, B L; Lambin, Eric F; Reenberg, Anette

    2007-12-26

    Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research. This interdisciplinary field seeks to understand the dynamics of land cover and land use as a coupled human-environment system to address theory, concepts, models, and applications relevant to environmental and societal problems, including the intersection of the two. The major components and advances in land change are addressed: observation and monitoring; understanding the coupled system-causes, impacts, and consequences; modeling; and synthesis issues. The six articles of the special feature are introduced and situated within these components of study.

  8. Multidecadal Fluvial Sediment Fluxes to Deltas under Environmental Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Frances; Darby, Stephen; Nicholls, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Sediment delivery is vital to sustain delta environments on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Due to factors such as subsidence and sea level rise, deltas sink relative to sea level if sediment is not delivered to and retained on their surfaces. Deltas which sink relative to sea level experience flooding, land degradation and loss, which endangers anthropogenic activities and populations. The future of fluvial sediment fluxes, a key mechanism for sediment delivery to deltas, is uncertain due to complex environmental changes which are predicted to occur over the coming decades. This research investigates fluvial sediment fluxes under environmental changes in order to assess the sustainability of delta environments under potential future scenarios up to 2100. Global datasets of climate change, reservoir construction, and population and GDP as proxies for anthropogenic influence through land use changes are used to drive the catchment numerical model WBMsed, which is being used to investigate the effects of these environmental changes on fluvial sediment delivery. This process produces fluvial sediment fluxes under multiple future scenarios which will be used to assess the future sustainability of a selection of 8 vulnerable deltas, although the approach can be applied to deltas worldwide. By modelling potential future scenarios of fluvial sediment flux, this research contributes to the prognosis for delta environments. The future scenarios will inform management at multiple temporal scales, and indicate the potential consequences for deltas of various anthropogenic activities. This research will both forewarn managers of potentially unsustainable deltas and indicate those anthropogenic activities which encourage or hinder the creation of sustainable delta environments.

  9. Moving past framing climate change as an environmental issue (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    Continuing to frame climate change as an environmental issue can limit understanding by decision-makers and the public of the magnitude of the challenges faced by human and natural systems as the climate continues to change. Environmental issues are typically researched and managed using methods and tools that have been effective in dealing with other environmental concerns, from tropospheric ozone to lead exposure. Risk assessment is a commonly used approach to understanding the risk(s) posed by an agent, with four basic steps: (1) hazard identification; (2) dose-response assessment; (3) exposure assessment; and (4) risk characterization. This framing does not fully capture the complex interrelationships and feedbacks that often characterize the risks of climate change; understanding these can lead to better-informed decisions. Challenges with using traditional risk assessment to understand the health risks of climate change, for example, include the 'exposure' can range from increases in the mean and/or variance of temperature, precipitation, and other weather variables, to ocean acidification. Each is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, with many associations indirect and/or nonlinear. Further, uncertainty about the magnitude, timing, and nature of changes in the climate system results in a need to estimate the potential impacts under a range of possible scenarios. In addition, most climate-sensitive health outcomes have multiple, contributing causes that may be interrelated, making it difficult to single out the influence of climate change against a backdrop of other risk factors, including socioeconomic factors, that also will change over time. In short, the primary assumption underlying traditional risk assessment -- that a defined exposure to a specific agent causes an adverse health outcome to identifiable exposed populations -- does not apply to climate change. Climate literacy can be improved by moving the framing from a relatively linear

  10. Host manipulation in the face of environmental changes: Ecological consequences

    PubMed Central

    Labaude, Sophie; Rigaud, Thierry; Cézilly, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Several parasite species, particularly those having complex life-cycles, are known to induce phenotypic alterations in their hosts. Most often, such alterations appear to increase the fitness of the parasites at the expense of that of their hosts, a phenomenon known as “host manipulation”. Host manipulation can have important consequences, ranging from host population dynamics to ecosystem engineering. So far, the importance of environmental changes for host manipulation has received little attention. However, because manipulative parasites are embedded in complex systems, with many interacting components, changes in the environment are likely to affect those systems in various ways. Here, after reviewing the ecological importance of manipulative parasites, we consider potential causes and consequences of changes in host manipulation by parasites driven by environmental modifications. We show that such consequences can extend to trophic networks and population dynamics within communities, and alter the ecological role of manipulative parasites such as their ecosystem engineering. We suggest that taking them into account could improve the accuracy of predictions regarding the effects of global change. We also propose several directions for future studies. PMID:26835252

  11. The dynamics of niche evolution upon abrupt environmental change.

    PubMed

    Gallet, Romain; Latour, Yasmin; Hughes, Bradley S; Lenormand, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Abrupt environmental changes are of particular interest to understand how species can quickly evolve at the boundary of their current niche. In particular the "sliding niche" model, wherein a niche shifts globally toward the new condition, has been used in understanding and modeling this process. Here, we investigate the dynamics of relative fitness change in four evolutionary replicates of Escherichia coli populations exposed to an extreme pH shift. We analyzed these changes at generations 500, 1000, and 2000 to determine whether niche global deformations fully capture the temporal dynamics of niche evolution. Strikingly, this analysis reveals that fitness variations can indeed be attributed to simple and global deformation of an underlying simple niche template. Analysis from two experimental replicates displays a transient increase in niche width, consistent with recent theory considering plasticity evolution in the context of an abrupt environmental change. We term this scenario the "sidestep niche model." © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of Valanginian environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2017-01-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous) includes an episode of significant environmental changes, which are well defined by a positive δ13C excursion. This globally recorded excursion indicates important perturbations in the carbon cycle, which has tentatively been associated with a pulse in volcanic activity and the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP). Uncertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental changes. Here we report that in Valanginian sediments recovered from a drill core in Wąwał (Polish Basin, Poland), and from outcrops in the Breggia Gorge (Lombardian Basin, southern Switzerland), and Orpierre and Angles (Vocontian Basin, SE France), intervals at or near the onset of the positive δ13C excursion are significantly enriched in mercury (Hg). The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC, Hg/phyllosilicate, and Hg/Fe ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals or hydrous iron oxides only played a limited role. Volcanic outgassing was most probably the primary source of the Hg enrichments, which demonstrate that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental perturbations.

  13. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of Valanginian environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2017-01-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous) includes an episode of significant environmental changes, which are well defined by a positive δ13C excursion. This globally recorded excursion indicates important perturbations in the carbon cycle, which has tentatively been associated with a pulse in volcanic activity and the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP). Uncertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental changes. Here we report that in Valanginian sediments recovered from a drill core in Wąwał (Polish Basin, Poland), and from outcrops in the Breggia Gorge (Lombardian Basin, southern Switzerland), and Orpierre and Angles (Vocontian Basin, SE France), intervals at or near the onset of the positive δ13C excursion are significantly enriched in mercury (Hg). The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC, Hg/phyllosilicate, and Hg/Fe ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals or hydrous iron oxides only played a limited role. Volcanic outgassing was most probably the primary source of the Hg enrichments, which demonstrate that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental perturbations. PMID:28106091

  14. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of Valanginian environmental change.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B

    2017-01-20

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous) includes an episode of significant environmental changes, which are well defined by a positive δ(13)C excursion. This globally recorded excursion indicates important perturbations in the carbon cycle, which has tentatively been associated with a pulse in volcanic activity and the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP). Uncertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental changes. Here we report that in Valanginian sediments recovered from a drill core in Wąwał (Polish Basin, Poland), and from outcrops in the Breggia Gorge (Lombardian Basin, southern Switzerland), and Orpierre and Angles (Vocontian Basin, SE France), intervals at or near the onset of the positive δ(13)C excursion are significantly enriched in mercury (Hg). The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC, Hg/phyllosilicate, and Hg/Fe ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals or hydrous iron oxides only played a limited role. Volcanic outgassing was most probably the primary source of the Hg enrichments, which demonstrate that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental perturbations.

  15. Late Holocene Environmental Changes from NY-NJ Estuaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy M.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution records of environmental change in the lower Hudson estuary are quite rare. We present preliminary data from several marshes in the New York- New Jersey region in order to understand the late Holocene environmental history of this region. Our project includes salt marsh cores from Hackensack, Piermont, Staten Island, and Jamaica Bay. Our preliminary research has focused on a 11.15 m sediment core from Piermont Marsh, New York (40 deg N, 74 deg W) in an attempt to document the Holocene environmental history of the region. Lithology, loss -on -ignition (LOI), pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal, and foraminifera were analyzed. Core lithology consists of peat, silts, and clays that vary in color and texture. The base of the core is AMS C-14 dated to 4190 yr BP. Preliminary low-resolution analysis of the core to date includes sampling at the 1-meter interval throughout the core. LOI of the sediments ranges from 1% to 85%. Average rate of deposition is about .26 cm/yr. Major changes in pollen percentages are visible throughout the core.

  16. Late Holocene Environmental Changes from NY-NJ Estuaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy M.; Wong, Jennifer K.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution records of environmental change in the lower Hudson estuary are quite rare. We present preliminary data from several marshes in the New York- New Jersey region in order to understand the late Holocene environmental history of this region. Our project includes salt marsh cores from Hackensack, Piermont, Staten Island, and Jamaica Bay. Our preliminary research has focused on a 11.15 m. sediment core from Piermont Marsh, New York (40 N, 74 W) in an attempt to document the Holocene environmental history of the region. Lithology, loss-on-ignition (LOI), pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal, and foraminifera were analyzed. Core lithology consists of peat, silts, and clays that vary in color and texture. The base of the core is AMS C-14 dated to 4190 yr BP. Preliminary low-resolution analysis of the core to date includes sampling at the 1-meter interval throughout the core. LOI of the sediments ranges from 1% to 85%. Average rate of deposition is about .26 cm/yr. Major changes in pollen percentages are visible throughout the core.

  17. Late Holocene Environmental Changes from NY-NJ Estuaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy M.; Wong, Jennifer K.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution records of environmental change in the lower Hudson estuary are quite rare. We present preliminary data from several marshes in the New York- New Jersey region in order to understand the late Holocene environmental history of this region. Our project includes salt marsh cores from Hackensack, Piermont, Staten Island, and Jamaica Bay. Our preliminary research has focused on a 11.15 m. sediment core from Piermont Marsh, New York (40 N, 74 W) in an attempt to document the Holocene environmental history of the region. Lithology, loss-on-ignition (LOI), pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal, and foraminifera were analyzed. Core lithology consists of peat, silts, and clays that vary in color and texture. The base of the core is AMS C-14 dated to 4190 yr BP. Preliminary low-resolution analysis of the core to date includes sampling at the 1-meter interval throughout the core. LOI of the sediments ranges from 1% to 85%. Average rate of deposition is about .26 cm/yr. Major changes in pollen percentages are visible throughout the core.

  18. Late Holocene Environmental Changes from NY-NJ Estuaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy M.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution records of environmental change in the lower Hudson estuary are quite rare. We present preliminary data from several marshes in the New York- New Jersey region in order to understand the late Holocene environmental history of this region. Our project includes salt marsh cores from Hackensack, Piermont, Staten Island, and Jamaica Bay. Our preliminary research has focused on a 11.15 m sediment core from Piermont Marsh, New York (40 deg N, 74 deg W) in an attempt to document the Holocene environmental history of the region. Lithology, loss -on -ignition (LOI), pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal, and foraminifera were analyzed. Core lithology consists of peat, silts, and clays that vary in color and texture. The base of the core is AMS C-14 dated to 4190 yr BP. Preliminary low-resolution analysis of the core to date includes sampling at the 1-meter interval throughout the core. LOI of the sediments ranges from 1% to 85%. Average rate of deposition is about .26 cm/yr. Major changes in pollen percentages are visible throughout the core.

  19. Benthic foraminifera and environmental changes in Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, E.; Gapotchenko, T.; Varekamp, J.C.; Mecray, E.I.; Buchholtz ten Brink, M. R.

    2000-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal faunas in Long Island Sound (LIS) in the 1940s and 1960s were of low diversity, and dominated by species of the genus Elphidium, mainly Elphidium excavatum clavatum, with common Buccella frigida and Eggerella advena. The distribution of these species was dominantly correlated with depth, but it was not clear which depth-related environmental variable was most important. Differences between faunas collected in 1996 and 1997, and in the 1940s and 1960s include a strong decrease in relative abundance of Eggerella advena over all LIS, an increase in relative abundance of Ammonia beccarii in western LIS, and a decrease in species diversity. The decreased diversity suggests that environmental stress caused the faunal changes. Oxygen isotope data for E. excavatum clavatum indicate that a change in salinity is not a probable cause. Carbon isotope data suggest that the supply of organic matter to the benthos increased since the early 1960s, with a stronger increase in western LIS where algal blooms have occurred since the early 1970s, possibly as a result of nutrient input by waste water treatment plants. These blooms or the resulting episodes of anoxia/hypoxia may have played a role in the increased relative abundance of A. beccarii. There is no clear explanation for the decreased abundance of E. advena, but changes in the phytoplankton composition (thus food supply) are a possible cause. Benthic foraminiferal faunal and stable isotope data have excellent potential as indicators of physicochemical environmental changes and their effects on the biota in LIS.

  20. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  1. Avoiding climate change uncertainties in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Driscoll, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies ‘reduction’ and ‘resilience’, ‘denying’, ‘ignoring’ and ‘postponing’. Second, 151 Danish SEAs are analysed with a focus on the extent to which climate change uncertainties are acknowledged and presented, and the empirical findings are discussed in relation to the model. The findings indicate that despite incentives to do so, climate change uncertainties were systematically avoided or downplayed in all but 5 of the 151 SEAs that were reviewed. Finally, two possible explanatory mechanisms are proposed to explain this: conflict avoidance and a need to quantify uncertainty.

  2. Environmental context change affects memory for performed actions.

    PubMed

    Sahakyan, Lili

    2010-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of environmental context change between the study and test on the recall of action phrases that either were performed during encoding (subject-performed tasks, SPTs) or were verbally encoded (verbal tasks, VTs). Both SPTs and VTs showed the same magnitude of impaired recall when the study and test contexts mismatched. Furthermore, changing the context between the two study lists reduced cross-list intrusion errors compared to encoding the lists in the same context. Both SPTs and VTs benefited from studying the lists in different contexts as evidenced by reduced intrusions. Taken together, the results suggest that SPTs are integrated with their context because they suffered when context changed between the study and test, and they also benefited when they were performed in two environments versus the same environment.

  3. Ecosystem Services Connect Environmental Change to Human Health Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bayles, Brett R.; Brauman, Kate A.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Allan, Brian F.; Ellis, Alicia M.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Golden, Christopher D.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Myers, Samuel S.; Osofsky, Steven A.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Ristaino, Jean B.

    2016-06-29

    Global environmental change, driven in large part by human activities, profoundly impacts the structure and functioning of Earth’s ecosystems (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). We are beginning to push beyond planetary boundaries (Steffan et al. 2015), and the consequences for human health remain largely unknown (Myers et al. 2013). Growing evidence suggests that ecological transformations can dramatically affect human health in ways that are both obvious and obscure (Myers and Patz 2009; Myers et al. 2013). The framework of ecosystem services, designed to evaluate the benefits that people derive from ecosystem products and processes, provides a compelling framework for integrating the many factors that influence the human health response to global change, as well as for integrating health impacts into broader analyses of the impacts of this change

  4. (Meeting on human dimensions of global environmental change)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1990-12-18

    Traveler attended the meeting of the Standing Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change of the International Social Science Council (ISSC) and the Scientific Symposium organized by the Standing Committee. The purpose of the meeting and symposium was to discuss the Draft Framework and the Workplan of the Standing Committee prior to its presentation to the 1990 Congress of the ISSC on November 28--30, 1990. The meetings indicate that ORNL Global Environmental Studies Center is on the international leading edge of human dimensions research, except in the area of human dimensions data systems. This weakness could be rectified by close collaboration with the efforts of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) in Michigan.

  5. Changes in Lignin and Polysaccharide Components in 13 Cultivars of Rice Straw following Dilute Acid Pretreatment as Studied by Solution-State 2D 1H-13C NMR

    PubMed Central

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Oshima, Tomoko; Aikawa, Shimpei; Matsuda, Fumio; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    A renewable raw material, rice straw is pretreated for biorefinery usage. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13 C hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to analyze 13 cultivars of rice straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment, to characterize general changes in the lignin and polysaccharide components. Intensities of most (15 of 16) peaks related to lignin aromatic regions, such as p-coumarate, guaiacyl, syringyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, and cinnamyl alcohol, and methoxyl, increased or remained unchanged after pretreatment. In contrast, intensities of most (11 of 13) peaks related to lignin aliphatic linkages or ferulate decreased. Decreased heterogeneity in the intensities of three peaks related to cellulose components in acid-insoluble residues resulted in similar glucose yield (0.45–0.59 g/g-dry biomass). Starch-derived components showed positive correlations (r = 0.71 to 0.96) with glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and formate concentrations in the liquid hydrolysates, and negative correlations (r = –0.95 to –0.97) with xylose concentration and acid-insoluble residue yield. These results showed the fate of lignin and polysaccharide components by pretreatment, suggesting that lignin aromatic regions and cellulose components were retained in the acid insoluble residues and starch-derived components were transformed into glucose, 5-HMF, and formate in the liquid hydrolysate. PMID:26083431

  6. Human-induced geomorphic change across environmental gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacker, V.; Molina, A.; Bellin, N.; Christl, M.

    2016-12-01

    Human-induced land cover changes are causing important adverse effects on the ecological services rendered by mountain ecosystems, and the number of case-studies of the impact of humans on soil erosion and sediment yield has mounted rapidly. Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation can profoundly alter the physical, chemical and biological processes within soils. Rapid removal of topsoil during intense farming can result in an imbalance between soil production through chemical weathering and physical soil erosion, with direct implications on nutrient cycling, soil fertility and agricultural production. In this study, we present a conceptual model for assessing human-induced erosion for a wide variety of environmental settings and pose that human-induced geomorphic change cannot be assessed solely based on modern erosion rates as natural or baseline erosion rates can be important in e.g. mountainous terrain. As such, we assess the vulnerability of a given ecosystem to human-induced land cover change by quantifying the change in catchment-wide erosion rates resulting from anthropogenic changes in vegetation cover. Human-induced erosion is here approximated by the ratio of the total specific sediment yield to the natural erosional mass flux, and is dimensionless. The conceptual model is applied to three contrasting environmental settings where data on soil production, physical soil erosion and long-term denudation are available: the tropical Andes, subtropical southern Brazil, and semi-arid Spanish Cordillera. The magnitude of human-induced geomorphic change strongly differs between the three regions. The data suggest that the sensitivity to human-induced erosion is ecosystem dependent, and related to soil erosivity and potential vegetation cover disturbances as a result of human impact. It may therefore be expected that the potential for erosion regulation is larger in well-vegetated ecosystem where strong differences may exist in vegetation cover between

  7. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wende, Wolfgang; Bond, Alan; Bobylev, Nikolai; Stratmann, Lars

    2012-01-15

    Countries are implementing CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 Degree-Sign C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO{sub 2} reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  8. Environmental NGOs in Ecuador: an economic analysis of institutional change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C A

    1993-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Latin America have grown more rapidly than has our understanding of the economic and political implications of this major institutional change. In Ecuador, between 1984 and late 1992, at least 24 new environmental NGOs emerged. An economist does a case study of them, especially Fundacion Natura (FN) in Ecuador, to understand their role and behavior which are a large part of environmental politics in Latin America. NGOs are successful because the public sector cannot meet the countries' needs and donors want to help NGOs, thereby providing the demand. For example, FN has received funding from USAID, World Wildlife Fund, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and other groups. FN charges donors 15% to cover administrative costs while many other NGOs do not receive international funding for administrative costs. FN is well connected with the public sector which is supportive and beneficial. FN activities complement the public sector's efforts in the environment. Further, it is well connected with private industry from whom it receives financial support. It has been criticized for supporting industry on some environmental issues, however. In fact, its Cuenca chapter split from FN in 1984 to form Tierra Viva, because FN sided with industry when industry wanted to build on agricultural land in Cuenca. FN's relationship with USAID is strained. FN is successful because it employs quality personnel who are committed to FN objectives. Yet FN and other NGOs do not have the monetary incentives for efficient production. Most other NGOs are financially strapped and depend on volunteers. The more radical environmental NGOs do not accept donations from the private sector and do not want to work with government. Despite the influence donors have on NGOs, the NGOs' powerful presence and their environmental education programs have consequences beyond donor control (e.g., FN and USAID).

  9. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  10. Forest environmental investments and implications for climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Alig, Ralph J; Bair, Lucas S

    2006-01-01

    Forest environmental conditions are affected by climate change, but investments in forest environmental quality can be used as part of the climate change mitigation strategy. A key question involving the potential use of forests to store more carbon as part of climate change mitigation is the impact of forest investments on the timing and quantity of forest volumes that affect carbon storage. Using an economic optimization model, we project levels of U.S. forest volumes as indicators of carbon storage for a wide range of private forest investment scenarios. Results show that economic opportunities exist to further intensify timber management on some hectares and reduce the average timber rotation length such that the national volume of standing timber stocks could be reduced relative to projections reflecting historical trends. The national amount of timber volume is projected to increase over the next 50 yr, but then is projected to decline if private owners follow an economic optimization path, such as with more forest type conversions and shorter timber rotations. With perfect foresight, future forest investments can affect current timber harvest levels, with intertemporal linkages based on adjustments through markets. Forest investments that boost regenerated timber yields per hectare would act to enhance ecosystem services (e.g., forest carbon storage) if they are related to the rate of growth and extent of growing stock inventory.

  11. Coastal Aquifer Response to Environmental Change - Implications for Future Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, V.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal aquifers are important resources for water supply, and are increasingly stressed by population increase and the growing water demand for irrigation and other uses. Concern exists that these current pressures will be compunded by the adverse impacts of future environmental change, in particular sea-level rise. Numerous studies have investigated the effect of the expected sea-level rise durring the 21st century on the salintiy distribution in coastal groundwater systems. In many of these studies, the predicted changes due to an increase in sea level are typically seen as a departure from a steady-state situation. But many other studies have provided abundant evidence that groundwater systems in coastal areas are not in equilibrium with the present-day boundary conditions, i.e., coastline configuration and climate. This is borne out by, for example, the salinity distribution of groundwater, which does not obey the classical configuration of an intruded wedge of seawater extending inland from the coastline. This paper will argue that coastal aquifers systems are in a continuous state of transition. The relevance of future environmental change within the context of long-term trends will be discussed and exemplified by case studies of coastal aquifers in different parts of the world. It will be argued that the conceptualization of coastal groundwater systems, and in particular the connection between their onshore and offshore parts, is a major source of uncertainty in studies that aim to quantify the impact of sea-level rise on coastal groundwater resources.

  12. Predicting changes in the distribution and abundance of species under environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ehrlén, Johan; Morris, William F

    2015-03-01

    Environmental changes are expected to alter both the distribution and the abundance of organisms. A disproportionate amount of past work has focused on distribution only, either documenting historical range shifts or predicting future occurrence patterns. However, simultaneous predictions of abundance and distribution across landscapes would be far more useful. To critically assess which approaches represent advances towards the goal of joint predictions of abundance and distribution, we review recent work on changing distributions and on effects of environmental drivers on single populations. Several methods have been used to predict changing distributions. Some of these can be easily modified to also predict abundance, but others cannot. In parallel, demographers have developed a much better understanding of how changing abiotic and biotic drivers will influence growth rate and abundance in single populations. However, this demographic work has rarely taken a landscape perspective and has largely ignored the effects of intraspecific density. We advocate a synthetic approach in which population models accounting for both density dependence and effects of environmental drivers are used to make integrated predictions of equilibrium abundance and distribution across entire landscapes. Such predictions would constitute an important step forward in assessing the ecological consequences of environmental changes. © 2015 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  13. Anticipation of periodic environmental changes in an amoeba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saigusa, Tetsu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2007-07-01

    The amoeboid organism of true slime mold, the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, had capacity of memorizing a periodic event. The organism showed vigorous locomotion in the favorite conditions. When stimulation of the unfavorable conditions was given in a pulse-like regime and was repeated three times at interval of 60 minutes, the amoeba reduced the locomotion speed in response to each pulse. Even though the favorite conditions were kept to be constant after the periodic pulses, the amoeba spontaneously reduced the locomotion speed at the timing of next pulse (after 60 minutes). This means that the amoeba anticipated the next environmental change.

  14. Planetary Habitability and Rapid Environmental Change: The Biological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, D.; Fairen, A.; Irwin, L.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental conditions can change drastically and rapidly during the natural history of a planetary body. We have detailed evidence of these dramatic events from Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. Most of these occurrences seem to be triggered by astronomical events such as asteroid impacts or supernova explosions; others are triggered by the planet or moon itself (e.g., supervolcano eruptions). The associated question is always how these events affect the habitability of a planet, particularly the origin and presence of life. Under what conditions would such a drastic event be so catastrophic that it would prohibit the origin of life or be so devastating to existing organisms, that life would not be able to recover and be all but extinguished from a planet? Under what conditions would such an event be positive for the evolution of life, for example spurring life via mass extinctions and associated vacant habitats to the invention of new body plans and higher complexity? Here, we provide insights of what we can learn from the natural history of our own planet, which experienced many environmental disasters and abrupt climate changes, from the impact event that created the Moon to the extinction of the dinosaurs. We apply these insights to other planetary bodies and the question about the presence of life. One example is Mars, which underwent drastic environmental changes at the end of the Noachian period. Assuming that microbial life became established on Mars, could it have survived, perhaps by retreating to environmental niches? Life just starting out would have certainly been more vulnerable to extinction. But how far would it have to have evolved to be more resistant to potential extinction events? Would it have to be global in distribution to survive? Another example is Venus. Should Venus be seen as an example where life, which possibly arose in the first few hundred million years when the planet was still in the habitable zone, would have had no chance to

  15. Environmental changes and vulnerability in the Gharbi Island (Kerkennah, Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, L.; Bouaziz, R.; Dahech, S.; Daoud, A.; Beltrando, G.

    2012-04-01

    Most reliable models of climatic observation and forecast show that the south of the Mediterranean perimeter is threatened by important variations of environmental conditions. The Gharbi Island that belongs to the Kerkennah archipelago is located 20 km away from the Sfax coast and is likely to undergo the consequences of these regional-scale evolutions. In addition, the socio-economic changes that started in the 80's may have an impact on land use. Indeed, marine conditions changed and overfishing causes the decrease of fish quantity and the leaving of the fisher in favor of agriculture. To enlighten changes of various natures and understand the mechanisms of their origin or development, we performed a comparison of land use on 4 dates over the last 50 years, using photointerpretation on two high resolution images (1963: aerial photography and 2010: Spot image; 2,5m resolution) and remote sensing on two Landsat 5 TM images (1984 and 2011). To support and complete our large scale observations, we also added photographic data gathered during two field campaigns. The first change we observed is a urban extension (stakes) predominantly imputed to the construction of holiday resort for Tunisian citizen, and for a minority to international tourism. We also found that the number of agricultural parcels (stakes) has been multiplied during the past decades in response of changes on agricultural practices, and that an irrigated zone has been created in response to the increase of hydric stress and of farmers. Finally, we describe an enlargement of sebkhas (low, salty and liable to flooding areas (hazard)) that might likely be caused by climatic and environmental evolution like sea level rise and subsidence. We conclude one the one hand that vulnerability and also risks of salinization and loss of farmland around the sebkhas and in the irrigated zone have increase and on the other hand that human infrastructures that are very close or in the sebkhas are vulnerable to sea

  16. Cyclin D1 regulates hepatic estrogen and androgen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Lisa K; Hanse, Eric A; Romano, Andrea; Blomquist, Charles H; Mason, J Ian; Delvoux, Bert; Anttila, Chelsea; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2010-06-01

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle control protein that plays an important role in regenerating liver and many types of cancer. Previous reports have shown that cyclin D1 can directly enhance estrogen receptor activity and inhibit androgen receptor activity in a ligand-independent manner and thus may play an important role in hormone-responsive malignancies. In this study, we examine a distinct mechanism by which cyclin D1 regulates sex steroid signaling, via altered metabolism of these hormones at the tissue and cellular level. In male mouse liver, ectopic expression of cyclin D1 regulated genes involved in the synthesis and degradation of sex steroid hormones in a pattern that would predict increased estrogen and decreased androgen levels. Indeed, hepatic expression of cyclin D1 led to increased serum estradiol levels, increased estrogen-responsive gene expression, and decreased androgen-responsive gene expression. Cyclin D1 also regulated the activity of several key enzymatic reactions in the liver, including increased oxidation of testosterone to androstenedione and decreased conversion of estradiol to estrone. Similar findings were seen in the setting of physiological cyclin D1 expression in regenerating liver. Knockdown of cyclin D1 in HuH7 cells produced reciprocal changes in steroid metabolism genes compared with cyclin D1 overexpression in mouse liver. In conclusion, these studies establish a novel link between the cell cycle machinery and sex steroid metabolism and provide a distinct mechanism by which cyclin D1 may regulate hormone signaling. Furthermore, these results suggest that increased cyclin D1 expression, which occurs in liver regeneration and liver diseases, may contribute to the feminization seen in these settings.

  17. Long-term Environmental Observatories as Predictors of Regional Environmental Change: An Oregon Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenas, L.; Gregory, S.; van Sickle, J.

    2005-05-01

    Predictions of future environmental change often rest on long-term datasets collected in reference areas. However, many current landscape conversions occur on very different portions of the landscape than these sites. Can information from localized reference sites be used to predict regional environmental changes? We compared results from three nested watersheds: a small reference basin, the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (a Long-Term Ecological Research site, 64 km2), the McKenzie (3465 km2) and the Willamette (29727 km2) for past (1850, pre-Euroamerican settlement), present, and three alternate futures in 2050. Based on empirical field studies, we modeled changes to aquatic and riparian indicators, such as numbers and potential habitat of cutthroat trout, and riparian cover type. The relatively small, homogenous reference observatory was a poor predictor of more complex landscapes. For example, between 1850 and 1990, cutthroat trout habitat declined 50% in the Willamette, 19% in the McKenzie, but only 10% in the H.J. Andrews. Regional networks of observatories ideally should consist of (1) relatively pristine reference areas used to elucidate fundamental local ecological processes, (2) extensively altered sites, and (3) locations on the periphery of rapidly changing portions of the landscape where future intensive impacts, such as landscape conversion, are probable.

  18. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline

  19. Records of urbanism, imperialism, & environmental change in southeastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, K.

    2012-04-01

    Assessing the "human footprint" on the landscape since prehistory requires some comparison of the degree and pace of such changes, and the cause-and-effect, as well as the ability to resolve the anthropogenic signal from from patterns of "natural" environmental variation. The deep archaeological record provides valuable insights regarding the timeframe prior to the European industrial revolution; studies at specific localities may help resolve differences between anthropogenically-mediated changes and "natural" climatic changes. Results of various archaeological and palaeoecological archives across the Fertile Crescent indicates that rapid changes on landforms and biota have occurred since the beginnings of agriculture and urbanization. Work at key localities suggests that periods of imperialism such as the Neo-Assyrian ~9th century BCE are synchronous with sediment disturbances and deforestation in southeastern Turkey. New findings from geomorphic and archaeological survey and investigation in the Tigris watershed near Diyarbakir are correlated with various records across the broader region (e.g., Lake Van, Konya lakes, etc) in order to assess the spatial and temporal changes brought about by human population growth and increased exploitation of natural resources during phases of empire-building.

  20. A Novel Tropical Dry Forests: A Response to Environmental Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A. E.; Molina, S.

    2015-12-01

    Dry Forest environments are favorable to human settlement and activities, leading to deforestation, agricultural enterprises, land degradation, and abandonment. As a result, tropical dry forests are vulnerable and experience a high rate of cover loss, which often requires restoration activities. We have studied the natural regeneration of dry forests in Puerto Rico following a variety of human activities including farming, cattle pasturing, charcoal production, and human dwellings. Our results show a high level of forest resilience to anthropogenic disturbances but also a change of species composition relative to undisturbed native forests. This novelty of forest composition represents a natural response to environmental changes induced by human activity and pre-adapts forests to conditions in the Anthropocene.

  1. South Polar Residual Cap Geomorphology and Inferred Environmental Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A.; Pathare, A.

    2003-12-01

    The CO2 southern residual cap (SRC) both controls circulation patterns regionally and buffers the atmospheric pressure globally. In turn this CO2 deposit is affected by changes in environmental conditions wrought by external forces such as dust storm activity. Mars Global Surveyor data of this area have revealed a rich variety of geomorphic features (1) of which there are several distinct classes. These different classes may be end members of the same basic process of insolation driven ablation. We are currently investigating two types of SRC features. Swiss-cheese features (SCF) are depressions characterized by flat floors and steep walls, which retreat 1-3 meters each Martian year (2). In some regions they have a definite symmetry axis along the north-south direction (3). After the seasonal frost disappears the residual ice exposed in the walls has a lower albedo (4). Previously (5) we modeled the evolution and growth of these depressions as a hole in a layer of CO2 ice underlain by water ice, which best explains their morphologic and thermal properties. The observed thickness of the CO2 slab can be as high as 8 meters but in general is much lower. Larger SCF?s commonly possess a raised central island of CO2 surrounded by a moat that penetrates to the underlying water ice (3). The fast rate of wall retreat observed (2) combined with the small sizes of the SCF?s indicate that all SCF?s visible today were created geologically recently. Within a particular region the size distribution is quite narrow (3): no larger (older) or smaller (younger) features were seen indicating that some relatively abrupt change in environmental conditions initiated the growth of this particular population of features. Fingerprint terrain (1) are areas with evenly spaced parallel ridges, which are steeper on one side. These ridges may have small areas of water ice exposed in the intervening troughs. Their wavelength is on the order of 70-90m with the steep edges facing northeast although

  2. Self-organizing change? On drivers, causes and global environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Elverfeldt, Kirsten; Embleton-Hamann, Christine; Slaymaker, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Within global environmental change research, certain external drivers generally are assumed to cause the environmental system to change. The most commonly considered drivers are relief, sea level, hydroclimate, and/or people. However, complexity theory and self-organizing systems provide a very different framework and means of explanation. Self-organization - understood as the aggregate processes internal to an environmental system that lead to a distinctive spatial, temporal, or other organization - reduces the possibility of implicating a specific process as being causal. The principle of equifinality, whereby two or more different drivers can generate the same form, has long been recognized within a process-response framework, as well as the concept of divergence, which states that similar causes or processes result in different effects. Both ideas differ from self-organization in that they (i) deal with drivers external to the system and (ii) imply concrete cause-and-effect relations that might be difficult to discern. The assumption is, however, that careful study will eventually lead to the true causes and processes. Studies of self-organization deal with the ways in which internal processes interact and may drive a system toward an instability threshold, the so-called bifurcation point. At this point, the system develops by chance and no single external or internal cause for the change can be defined. For research into environmental change this is a crucial theory for two reasons:

  3. Coping with global environmental change -- role of science and democracy.

    PubMed

    Menon, M G

    The world's population increased form about 3 billion in 1960 to 4 billion in 1974, to 5 billion in 1987, and it is projected to grow to 6 billion by 1991 and to 8 billion by 1992. Finite, nonrenewable resources have to satisfy the increased need for sustenance of this population excess in a sustainable economic development mold. Human activity has upset natural processes with negative environmental effects: Minamata disease in Japan caused by heavy metal pollution, global deforestation, and acid rain. The 1972 Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm dealt with industrial pollution. The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) was established subsequently. The theory of global warming caused by emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and halogens as predicted by a Swedish scientist decades ago is accumulating a body of evidence. The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) of the International Council of Scientific Unions attempt to explore the Earth's physical, chemical, and biological processes to predict global environmental changes. Success mandates data availability. Paleoclimatic evidence indicates previous cataclysms caused by climate change, thus agriculture could be affected massively by global warming. Improved scientific analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and crop simulation models for major agricultural areas are needed. The North-South dialogue in UN forums has been acrimonious without much success, although international cooperation has been fruitful with the adoption of the Montreal Protocol on phasing out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. Such cooperation is needed on energy consumption and sources.

  4. Interactions between environmental changes and brain plasticity in birds.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Anat

    2009-09-01

    Neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment occur in many vertebrates, including humans. Most of the new neurons die before reaching their destination. Those which survive migrate to various brain regions, replace older ones and connect to existing circuits. Evidence suggests that this replacement is related to acquisition of new information. Therefore, neuronal replacement can be seen as a form of brain plasticity that enables organisms to adjust to environmental changes. However, direct evidence of a causal link between replacement and learning remains elusive. Our hypothesis is that increased neuronal recruitment is associated with increase in memory load. Moreover, since neuronal recruitment is part of a turnover process, we assume that the same conditions that favor survival of some neurons induce the death of others. I present studies that investigated the effect of various behaviors and environmental conditions (food-hoarding, social change, reproductive cycle) on neuronal recruitment and survival in adult avian brains, and discuss how these phenomena relate to the life of animals. I offer a frame and rationale for comparing neuronal replacement in the adult brain, in order to uncover the pressures, rules, and mechanisms that govern its constant rejuvenation. The review emphasizes the importance of using various approaches (behavioral, anatomical, cellular and hormonal) in neuroethological research, and the need to study natural populations, in order to fully understand how neurogenesis and neuronal replacement contribute to life of animals. Finally, the review indicates to future directions and ends with the hope that a better understanding of adult neuronal replacement will lead to medical applications.

  5. Dispersal governs the reorganization of ecological networks under environmental change.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Patrick L; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2017-05-08

    Ecological networks, such as food webs, mutualist webs and host-parasite webs, are reorganizing as species abundances and spatial distributions shift in response to environmental change. Current theoretical expectations for how this reorganization will occur are available for competition or for parts of interaction networks, but these may not extend to more complex networks. Here we use metacommunity theory to develop new expectations for how complex networks will reorganize under environmental change, and show that dispersal is crucial for determining the degree to which networks will retain their composition and structure. When dispersal between habitat patches is low, all types of species interactions act as a strong determinant for whether species can colonize suitable habitats. This colonization resistance drives species turnover, which breaks apart current networks and leads to the formation of new networks. However, when dispersal rates are increased, colonists arrive in high abundance in habitats where they are well adapted, so interactions with resident species contribute less to colonization success. Dispersal ensures that species associations are maintained as they shift in space, so networks retain similar composition and structure. The crucial role of dispersal reinforces the need to manage habitat connectivity to sustain species and interaction diversity into the future.

  6. Correlative changes in life-history variables in response to environmental change in a model organism.

    PubMed

    Smallegange, Isabel M; Deere, Jacques A; Coulson, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Global change alters the environment, including increases in the frequency of (un)favorable events and shifts in environmental noise color. However, how these changes impact the dynamics of populations, and whether these can be predicted accurately has been largely unexamined. Here we combine recently developed population modeling approaches and theory in stochastic demography to explore how life history, morphology, and average fitness respond to changes in the frequency of favorable environmental conditions and in the color of environmental noise in a model organism (an acarid mite). We predict that different life-history variables respond correlatively to changes in the environment, and we identify different life-history variables, including lifetime reproductive success, as indicators of average fitness and life-history speed across stochastic environments. Depending on the shape of adult survival rate, generation time can be used as an indicator of the response of populations to stochastic change, as in the deterministic case. This work is a useful step toward understanding population dynamics in stochastic environments, including how stochastic change may shape the evolution of life histories.

  7. Holocene environmental changes from Dicksonfjorden sediments of western Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Young Ji; Nam, Seung-Il; Son, Yeong Ju; Forwick, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    our hypothesis regarding environmental changes in the west Spitsbergen on additional sediment cores recovered from the adjacent fjords. Ultimately, this study aims to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental changes since the last deglaciation in the Arctic fjords complex system.

  8. Carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon trading namely the reduction of future carbon dioxide levels has been widely touted as a solution needed to counter the problem of climate change. However, there are enormous risks involved as the measure tackles only one of the causes of climate change and may prove to be ineffective. This presentation highlights ten points relevant to the discussion on carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth for increasing public awareness. They include: (1) Climate has changed throughout Earth’s history. (2) The present level of about 388 parts per million level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has already exceeded the maximum level of the past 800,000 years. This value is obtained from air bubbles trapped within the ice in Antarctica but the consequence of further increases remains uncertain. (3) Earth scientists do not have an overwhelming consensus on whether carbon trading alone is an effective measure in mitigating climate change. (4) The present state of the Earth’s demise is largely the result of human actions including population growth and the mismanagement of the Earth. (5) The latest evidence on sea-level changes in the South China Sea a far-field region unaffected by glacial isostatic readjustment is not in support of a ‘rapid’ rate of future sea-level rise through global warming. (6) Volcanic eruptions have an important role in driving the Earth’s climate. Examples of temperature lowering as well as abnormally wet and dry years can both be found in the instrumental record. (7) Humans have drastically modified the ‘natural’ water cycle. This is however not a well recognized cause of climate change compared to the emission of greenhouse gases through fossil fuel consumption. (8) The bulk (~75%) of the rise in mean annual temperature of about 1oC observed at the Hong Kong Observatory Station since record began in 1884 is best explained by the thermal heat island effect. (9) No evidence has been found

  9. Strategies for sustainable management of renewable resources during environmental change.

    PubMed

    Lindkvist, Emilie; Ekeberg, Örjan; Norberg, Jon

    2017-03-15

    As a consequence of global environmental change, management strategies that can deal with unexpected change in resource dynamics are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we undertake a novel approach to studying resource growth problems using a computational form of adaptive management to find optimal strategies for prevalent natural resource management dilemmas. We scrutinize adaptive management, or learning-by-doing, to better understand how to simultaneously manage and learn about a system when its dynamics are unknown. We study important trade-offs in decision-making with respect to choosing optimal actions (harvest efforts) for sustainable management during change. This is operationalized through an artificially intelligent model where we analyze how different trends and fluctuations in growth rates of a renewable resource affect the performance of different management strategies. Our results show that the optimal strategy for managing resources with declining growth is capable of managing resources with fluctuating or increasing growth at a negligible cost, creating in a management strategy that is both efficient and robust towards future unknown changes. To obtain this strategy, adaptive management should strive for: high learning rates to new knowledge, high valuation of future outcomes and modest exploration around what is perceived as the optimal action. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Adjusting Behavior to Changing Environmental Demands with Development

    PubMed Central

    Lourenco, Frederico; Casey, BJ

    2013-01-01

    Plasticity refers to changes in the brain that enable an organism to adapt its behavior in the face of changing environmental demands. The evolutionary role of plasticity is to provide the cognitive flexibility to learn from experiences, to monitor the world based on learned predictions, and adjust actions when these predictions are violated. Both progressive (myelination) and regressive (synaptic pruning) brain changes support this type of adaptation. Experience-driven changes in neural connections underlie the ability to learn and update thoughts and behaviors throughout life. Many cognitive and behavioral indices exhibit nonlinear life-span trajectories, suggesting the existence of specific sensitive developmental periods of heightened plasticity. We propose that age-related differences in learning capabilities and behavioral performance reflect the distinct maturational timetable of subcortical learning systems and modulatory prefrontal regions. We focus specifically on the developmental transition of adolescence, during which individuals experience difficulty flexibly adjusting their behavior when confronted with unexpected and emotionally salient events. In this article, we review the findings illustrating this phenomenon and how they vary by individual. PMID:23518271

  11. Changes in environmental impacts of major crops in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Suh, Sangwon

    2015-09-01

    As with life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in general, agricultural LCAs often rely on static and outdated inventory data, but literature suggests that agricultural systems may be highly dynamic. Here, we applied life cycle impact assessment methods to investigate the trends and underlying drivers of changes in non-global environmental impacts of major crops in the US. The results show that the impact per hectare corn and cotton generated on the ecological health of freshwater systems decreased by about 50% in the last decade. This change is mainly due to the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which has reduced the application of insecticides and relatively toxic herbicides such as atrazine. However, the freshwater ecotoxicity impact per hectare soybean production increased by 3-fold, mainly because the spread of an invasive species, soybean aphid, has resulted in an increasing use of insecticides. In comparison, other impact categories remained relatively stable. By evaluating the relative ecotoxicity potential of a large number of pesticides, our analysis offers new insight into the benefits associated with GM crops. Our study also implies that because different impact categories show different degrees of changes, it is worthwhile focusing on the rapidly changing categories when updating agricultural LCA databases under time and resource constraints.

  12. Observations of environmental change in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.; Valdez, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Few scientific data have been collected on pre-dam conditions of the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon National Park. Using historical diaries, interviews with pre-dam river runners (referred to as the ?Old Timers?), and historical scientific data and observations, we compiled anecdotal information on environmental change in Grand Canyon. The most significant changes are the: lowering of water temperature in the river, near-elimination of heavily sediment-laden flows, erosion of sand bars, invasion of non-native tamarisk trees, reduction in driftwood, development of marshes, increase in non-native fish at the expense of native fishes, and increase in water bird populations. In addition, few debris flows were observed before closure of Glen Canyon Dam, which might suggests that the frequency of debris flows in Grand Canyon has increased. Other possible changes include decreases in bat populations and increases in swallow and bighorn sheep populations, although the evidence is anecdotal and inconclusive. These results provide a perspective on managing the Colorado River that may allow differentiation of the effects of Glen Canyon Dam from other processes of change.

  13. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of the Valanginian environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl

    2017-04-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous, ˜137-132 Ma) recorded an episode of pronounced palaeoenvironmental change, which is marked by a globally recorded positive δ13C excursion of 1.5 to 2‰ amplitude, also known as the "Weissert event or episode". Its onset near the early/late Valanginian boundary (B. campylotoxus-S. verrucosum ammonite Zones) coincides with a phase of warmer climate conditions associated with enhanced humidity, major changes in the evolution of marine plankton, and the drowning of tropical and subtropical marine shallow-water carbonate ecosystems. The globally recorded excursion indicates important transformations in the carbon cycle, which have tentatively been associated with Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP) volcanic activity. Incertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental change. Since very recently, mercury (Hg) chemostratigraphy offers the possibly to evaluate the role of LIP activity during major palaeoenvironmental perturbations. In this study we investigate the distribution of Hg contents in four Valanginian reference sections located in pelagic and hemipelagic environments in the Central Tethyan Realm (Lombardian Basin, Breggia section), the northern Tethyan margin (Vocontian Basin, Orpierre and Angles sections), and the narrow seaway connecting the Tethyan and Boreal Oceans (Polish Basin, Wawal core). All records show an enrichment in Hg concentrations at or near the onset of the Weissert Episode, with maximal values of 70.5 ppb at Angles, 59.5 ppb at Orpierre, 69.9 ppb at Wawal, and 17.0 ppb at Breggia. The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC and Hg/phyllosilicate ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals only played a limited role.We propose that volcanic outgassing was the primary source of the Hg enrichment and conclude that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental

  14. Pyrite sulfur isotopes reveal glacial-interglacial environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquier, Virgil; Sansjofre, Pierre; Rabineau, Marina; Revillon, Sidonie; Houghton, Jennifer; Fike, David A.

    2017-06-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle plays a key role in regulating Earth’s surface redox through diverse abiotic and biological reactions that have distinctive stable isotopic fractionations. As such, variations in the sulfur isotopic composition (δ34S) of sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases over Earth history can be used to infer substantive changes to the Earth’s surface environment, including the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Such inferences assume that individual δ34S records reflect temporal changes in the global sulfur cycle; this assumption may be well grounded for sulfate-bearing minerals but is less well established for pyrite-based records. Here, we investigate alternative controls on the sedimentary sulfur isotopic composition of marine pyrite by examining a 300-m drill core of Mediterranean sediments deposited over the past 500,000 y and spanning the last five glacial-interglacial periods. Because this interval is far shorter than the residence time of marine sulfate, any change in the sulfur isotopic record preserved in pyrite (δ34Spyr) necessarily corresponds to local environmental changes. The stratigraphic variations (>76‰) in the isotopic data reported here are among the largest ever observed in pyrite, and are in phase with glacial-interglacial sea level and temperature changes. In this case, the dominant control appears to be glacial-interglacial variations in sedimentation rates. These results suggest that there exist important but previously overlooked depositional controls on sedimentary sulfur isotope records, especially associated with intervals of substantial sea level change. This work provides an important perspective on the origin of variability in such records and suggests meaningful paleoenvironmental information can be derived from pyrite δ34S records.

  15. Holocene sedimentation processes and environmental changes along the Namibian coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüller, Irka; Belz, Lukas; Wilkes, Heinz; Wehrmann, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The regional oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns strongly control environmental conditions in southern Africa. Changes in the system may have significant consequences on climate and related processes. The hyper arid coast of Namibia is mainly influenced by (1) the cold Benguela upwelling, (2) the Benguela current and (3) the Angola current. The Benguela current transports the cool, upwelling water from south to north and interacts with the warm, contrary flowing Angola current at the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF). Today the ABF is located around the Namibian-Angolan border with minor seasonal changes. Therefore, climate and environment at the Namibian coast are affected by the cold water conditions. It is known evidently that the location of the ABF changed during the Holocene over several latitudes and enabled warm water species to expand their range farther south. Several (paleo-) lagoons (coastal salt pans) exist along the Namibian coastline. Most of them are already barred and filled by longshore sediment transport processes. Tidal flooding and active sedimentation processes are restricted to the southernmost lagoons. Two different types of sediments occur. The northern pans contain well sorted, siliciclastic medium sands. Fine-layered alternation refers to changes in mineral composition. The southern pans are dominated by typical tidal sediments with a high amount of benthic fauna (mainly bivalves and gastropods). At Cape Cross the distinct shift between both facies is documented in the cores. Age determinations of core material prove a very fast sediment filling of the distinct lagoons with high sedimentation rates. However, the age of closure differs from lagoon to lagoon. Northern pan sediments are much older (Cape Cross: ~ 5000 a BP) than southern (Sandwich Bay and Conception Bay: 1800 - 300 a BP). Additional information are supported by river clay deposits (~ 36600 a BP) and fossil reed systems (~ 47900 a BP) in Conception Bay and peat deposits at

  16. Water loss in insects: an environmental change perspective.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L; Sørensen, Jesper G; Terblanche, John S

    2011-08-01

    In the context of global environmental change much of the focus has been on changing temperatures. However, patterns of rainfall and water availability have also been changing and are expected to continue doing so. In consequence, understanding the responses of insects to water availability is important, especially because it has a pronounced influence on insect activity, distribution patterns, and species richness. Here we therefore provide a critical review of key questions that either are being or need to be addressed in this field. First, an overview of insect behavioural responses to changing humidity conditions and the mechanisms underlying sensing of humidity variation is provided. The primary sensors in insects belong to the temperature receptor protein superfamily of cation channels. Temperature-activated transient receptor potential ion channels, or thermoTRPs, respond to a diverse range of stimuli and may be a primary integrator of sensory information, such as environmental temperature and moisture. Next we touch briefly on the components of water loss, drawing attention to a new, universal model of the water costs of gas exchange and its implications for responses to a warming, and in places drying, world. We also provide an overview of new understanding of the role of the sub-elytral chamber for water conservation, and developments in understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in preventing water loss. Because of an increasing focus on the molecular basis of responses to dehydration stress we touch briefly on this area, drawing attention to the role of sugars, heat shock proteins, aquaporins, and LEA proteins. Next we consider phenotypic plasticity or acclimation responses in insect water balance after initial exposures to altered humidity, temperature or nutrition. Although beneficial acclimation has been demonstrated in several instances, this is not always the case. Laboratory studies show that responses to selection for enhanced ability to

  17. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations.

    PubMed

    Pyhälä, Aili; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Lehvävirta, Hertta; Byg, Anja; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Thornton, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    Global environmental change (GEC) is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC- particularly in small-scale societies-and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management) based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014) that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i) cognition, (ii) culture and knowledge, and (iii) possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  18. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    PubMed Central

    Pyhälä, Aili; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Lehvävirta, Hertta; Byg, Anja; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Thornton, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental change (GEC) is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC— particularly in small-scale societies—and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management) based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014) that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i) cognition, (ii) culture and knowledge, and (iii) possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a “meta-language” around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies. PMID:27695479

  19. Predicting effects of environmental change on river inflows to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estuarine river watersheds provide valued ecosystem services to their surrounding communities including drinking water, fish habitat, and regulation of estuarine water quality. However, the provisioning of these services can be affected by changes in the quantity and quality of river water, such as those caused by altered landscapes or shifting temperatures or precipitation. We used the ecohydrology model, VELMA, in the Trask River watershed to simulate the effects of environmental change scenarios on estuarine river inputs to Tillamook Bay (OR) estuary. The Trask River watershed is 453 km2 and contains extensive agriculture, silviculture, urban, and wetland areas. VELMA was parameterized using existing spatial datasets of elevation, soil type, land use, air temperature, precipitation, river flow, and water quality. Simulated land use change scenarios included alterations in the distribution of the nitrogen-fixing tree species Alnus rubra, and comparisons of varying timber harvest plans. Scenarios involving spatial and temporal shifts in air temperature and precipitation trends were also simulated. Our research demonstrates the utility of ecohydrology models such as VELMA to aid in watershed management decision-making. Model outputs of river water flow, temperature, and nutrient concentrations can be used to predict effects on drinking water quality, salmonid populations, and estuarine water quality. This modeling effort is part of a larger framework of

  20. Soil carbon responses to environmental change across temporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Carlos; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Different biotic and abiotic factors modify the rates of soil carbon cycling at a variety of temporal scales, posing challenges in determining appropriate model abstractions to represent soil carbon dynamics in the context of global environmental change. Although a large variety of models of soil organic matter dynamics have been proposed previously, it is difficult to compare different model structures and their scale of application. We present here a mathematical framework that can be used to synthesize models with different structure, i.e. number of distinctive pools, their cycling rates and their connection. This framework can also be used to identify the scale of operability of a model and how carbon stocks and respiration fluxes would respond to external perturbations. In this contribution, we present the main concepts behind our mathematical framework and how through eigenvalue analyses we can identify the scale of operability of a model. We also present an analysis of the potential sensitivity of soil carbon stocks to changes in temperature and moisture, and identify regions with larger sensitivities to climate change. Although different models provide very diverse responses, we predict larger sensitivities of soil C stocks in humid tropical regions to increases in temperature and decreases in soil moisture.

  1. Capacity of old trees to respond to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Nathan G; Buckley, Thomas N; Tissue, David T

    2008-11-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] has increased dramatically within the current life spans of long-lived trees and old forests. Consider that a 500-year-old tree in the early twenty-first century has spent 70% of its life growing under pre-industrial levels of [CO2], which were 30% lower than current levels. Here we address the question of whether old trees have already responded to the rapid rise in [CO2] occurring over the past 150 years. In spite of limited data, aging trees have been shown to possess a substantial capacity for increased net growth after a period of post-maturity growth decline. Observations of renewed growth and physiological function in old trees have, in some instances, coincided with Industrial Age increases in key environmental resources, including [CO2], suggesting the potential for continued growth in old trees as a function of continued global climate change.

  2. Predicting effects of environmental change on a migratory herbivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stillman, R A; Wood, K A; Gilkerson, Whelan; Elkinton, E; Black, J. M.; Ward, David H.; Petrie, M.

    2015-01-01

    for which birds were disturbed. We discuss the consequences of these predictions for Black Brant conservation. A wide range of migratory species responses are expected in response to environmental change. Process-based models are potential tools to predict such responses and understand the mechanisms which underpin them.

  3. Environmental monitoring in peat bog areas by change detection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulrich; Mildes, Wiebke

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing image analysis systems and geographic information systems (GIS) show great promise for the integration of a wide variety of spatial information supporting tasks such as urban and regional planning, natural resource management, agricultural studies and topographic or thematic mapping. Current and future remote sensing programs are based on a variety of sensors that will provide timely and repetitive multisensor earth observation on a global scale. GIS offer efficient tools for handling, manipulating, analyzing and presenting spatial data that are required for sensible decision making in various areas. The Environmental Monitoring project may serve as a convincing example of the operational use of integrated GIS/remote sensing technologies. The overall goal of the project is to assess the capabilities of satellite remote sensing for the analysis of land use changes, especially in moor areas. These areas are recognized as areas crucial to the mission of the Department of Environment and, therefore, to be placed under an extended level of protection. It is of critical importance, however, to have accurate and current information about the ecological and economic state of these sensitive areas. In selected pasture and moor areas, methods for multisensor data fusion have being developed and tested. The results of this testing show which techniques are useful for pasture and moor monitoring at an operational level. A hierarchical method is used for extracting bog land classes with respect to the environmental protection goals. A highly accurate classification of the following classes was accomplished: deciduous- and mixed forest, coniferous forest, water, very wet areas, meadowland/farmland with vegetation, meadowland/farmland with partly vegetation, meadowland/ farmland without vegetation, peat quarrying with maximum of 50% vegetation, de- and regeneration stages. In addition, a change detection analysis is performed in comparison with the existing

  4. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    High Northern Hemisphere latitudes are undergoing rapid and significant change associated with climate warming. Climatic change in this region interacts with and affects the rate of the global change through atmospheric circulation, biogeophysical, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Changes in the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle, and carbon budget feedback to regional and global weather and climate systems. Two-thirds of the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land mass resides in Northern Eurasia (~20% of the global land mass), and this region has undergone sweeping socio-economic change throughout the 20th century. How this carbon-rich, cold region component of the Earth system functions as a regional entity and interacts with and feeds back to the greater global system is to a large extent unknown. To mitigate the deficiencies in understanding these feedbacks, which may in turn hamper our understanding of the global change rates and patterns, an initiative was formed. Three years ago the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was established to address large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change in this region. The NEESPI Science Plan and its Executive Summary have been published at the NEESPI web site (neespi.org). Since 2004, NEESPI participants have been able to seed several waves of research proposals to international and national funding agencies and institutions and also contribute to the International Polar Year. Currently, NEESPI is widely recognized and endorsed by several Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) programmes and projects: the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Research Programme through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Climate and Cryosphere Projects, the Global Water System Project, Global Carbon Project, Global Land Project, and the Integrated Land Ecosystem—Atmosphere Processes Study. Through NEESPI, more than 100 individually

  5. Characterization of SH2D1A missense mutations identified in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease patients.

    PubMed

    Morra, M; Simarro-Grande, M; Martin, M; Chen, A S; Lanyi, A; Silander, O; Calpe, S; Davis, J; Pawson, T; Eck, M J; Sumegi, J; Engel, P; Li, S C; Terhorst, C

    2001-09-28

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by extreme susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus. The XLP disease gene product SH2D1A (SAP) interacts via its SH2 domain with a motif (TIYXXV) present in the cytoplasmic tail of the cell-surface receptors CD150/SLAM, CD84, CD229/Ly-9, and CD244/2B4. Characteristically, the SH2D1A three-pronged interaction with Tyr(281) of CD150 can occur in absence of phosphorylation. Here we analyze the effect of SH2D1A protein missense mutations identified in 10 XLP families. Two sets of mutants were found: (i) mutants with a marked decreased protein half-life (e.g. Y7C, S28R, Q99P, P101L, V102G, and X129R) and (ii) mutants with structural changes that differently affect the interaction with the four receptors. In the second group, mutations that disrupt the interaction between the SH2D1A hydrophobic cleft and Val +3 of its binding motif (e.g. T68I) and mutations that interfere with the SH2D1A phosphotyrosine-binding pocket (e.g. C42W) abrogated SH2D1A binding to all four receptors. Surprisingly, a mutation in SH2D1A able to interfere with Thr -2 of the CD150 binding motif (mutant T53I) severely impaired non-phosphotyrosine interactions while preserving unaffected the binding of SH2D1A to phosphorylated CD150. Mutant T53I, however, did not bind to CD229 and CD224, suggesting that SH2D1A controls several critical signaling pathways in T and natural killer cells. Because no correlation is present between identified types of mutations and XLP patient clinical presentation, additional unidentified genetic or environmental factors must play a strong role in XLP disease manifestations.

  6. Response diversity determines the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akira S; Furukawa, Takuya; Sasaki, Takehiro

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem stability and the maintenance of optimal ecosystem functionality. Conservation measures are thus essential to safeguard the ecosystem services that biodiversity provides and human society needs. Current anthropogenic threats may lead to detrimental (and perhaps irreversible) ecosystem degradation, providing strong motivation to evaluate the response of ecological communities to various anthropogenic pressures. In particular, ecosystem functions that sustain key ecosystem services should be identified and prioritized for conservation action. Traditional diversity measures (e.g. 'species richness') may not adequately capture the aspects of biodiversity most relevant to ecosystem stability and functionality, but several new concepts may be more appropriate. These include 'response diversity', describing the variation of responses to environmental change among species of a particular community. Response diversity may also be a key determinant of ecosystem resilience in the face of anthropogenic pressures and environmental uncertainty. However, current understanding of response diversity is poor, and we see an urgent need to disentangle the conceptual strands that pervade studies of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Our review clarifies the links between response diversity and the maintenance of ecosystem functionality by focusing on the insurance hypothesis of biodiversity and the concept of functional redundancy. We provide a conceptual model to describe how loss of response diversity may cause ecosystem degradation through decreased ecosystem resilience. We explicitly explain how response diversity contributes to functional compensation and to spatio-temporal complementarity among species, leading to long-term maintenance of ecosystem multifunctionality. Recent quantitative studies suggest that traditional diversity measures may often be uncoupled from

  7. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  8. Applications of Satellite Geodesy in Environmental and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qian

    Satellite geodesy plays an important role in earth observation. This dissertation presents three applications of satellite geodesy in environmental and climate change. Three satellite geodesy techniques are used: high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS), the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). In the first study, I use coastal uplift observed by GPS to study the annual changes in mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. The data show both spatial and temporal variations of coastal ice mass loss and suggest that a combination of warm atmospheric and oceanic condition drove these variations. In the second study, I use GRACE monthly gravity change estimates to constrain recent freshwater flux from Greenland. The data show that Arctic freshwater flux started to increase rapidly in the mid-late 1990s, coincident with a decrease in the formation of dense Labrador Sea Water, a key component of the deep southward return flow od the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Recent freshening of the polar oceans may be reducing formation of Labrador Sea Water and hence may be weakening the AMOC. In the third study, I use InSAR to monitor ground deformation caused by CO2 injection at an enhanced oil recovery site in west Texas. Carbon capture and storage can reduce CO 2 emitted from power plants, and is a promising way to mitigate anthropogenic warming. From 2007 to 2011, ~24 million tons of CO2 were sequestered in this field, causing up to 10 MPa pressure buildup in a reservoir at depth, and surface uplift up to 10 cm. This study suggests that surface displacement observed by InSAR is a cost-effective way to estimate reservoir pressure change and monitor the fate of injected fluids at waste disposal and CO2 injection sites.

  9. Surface monitoring measurements of materials on environmental change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornari, Vivi; Bernikola, Eirini; Bellendorf, Paul; Bertolin, Chiara; Camuffo, Dario; Kotova, Lola; Jacobs, Daniela; Zarnic, Roko; Rajcic, Vlatka; Leissner, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Climate Change is one of the most critical global challenges of our time and the burdened cultural heritage of Europe is particularly vulnerable to be left unprotected. Climate for Culture2 project exploits the damage impact of climate change on cultural heritage at regional scale. In this paper the progress of the study with in situ measurements and investigations at cultural heritage sites throughout Europe combined with laboratory simulations is described. Cultural works of art are susceptible to deterioration with environmental changes causing imperceptibly slow but steady accumulation of damaging effects directly impacted on structural integrity. Laser holographic interference method is employed to provide remote non destructive field-wise detection of the structural differences occurred as climate responses. The first results from climate simulation of South East Europe (Crete) are presented. A full study in regards to the four climate regions of Europe is foreseen to provide values for development of a precise and integrated model of thermographic building simulations for evaluation of impact of climate change. Development of a third generation user interface software optimised portable metrology system (DHSPI II) is designed to record in custom intervals the surface of materials witnessing reactions under simulated climatic conditions both onfield and in laboratory. The climate conditions refer to real data-loggers readings representing characteristic historical building in selected climate zones. New generation impact sensors termed Glass Sensors and Free Water Sensors are employed in the monitoring procedure to cross-correlate climate data with deformation data. In this paper results from the combined methodology are additionally presented.

  10. Environmental Changes in the pre-Messinian Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayser, J. P.; Marzocchi, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Pancost, R. D.; Sierro, F. J.; Flecker, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) is an extreme event which occurred in the Mediterranean Basin at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) resulting in thick evaporite deposits. There is evidence of restriction of the Atlantic-Mediterranean corridor several million years before the first evaporites. These pre-MSC successions are dominated by precession-controlled lithological variations which are putative responses to changing fluvial runoff. Recent climate simulations indicate that runoff into the Eastern Mediterranean is influenced by monsoonal precipitation from the North African continent. The Sorbas Basin in Spain and the Pissouri Section on Cyprus both contain pre-MSC successions from the margins of the Mediterranean Basin. We analysed biomarkers in conjunction with existing faunal records to understand whether simulated runoff changes were manifested in the sedimentological record and organic matter assemblages. This multi-proxy dataset allows us to compare the environmental evolution of the western vs. eastern basins prior to the MSC and allows us to test both climate models for Messinian climate variabitly and conceptual models for sedimentation. In the Sorbas Basin, pronounced orbital changes in faunal assemblages reflect Mediterrannean influences into the local Sorbas system; however, these are not manifested in biomarker assemblages, which are likely governed by more local hydrological processes, which in the Western Mediterranean lacked a strong precessional control. In the Pissouri Basin, however, terrigeous OM inputs sources exhibit strong orbital variations, suggesting a close link to precessionally driven changes in rainfall. Together, these results validate the sapropel formation hypothesis in the Mediterranean and confirm a strong precessional control on the African monsoon during the late Miocene; however, they also reveal the complex controls on the hydrology and sedimentology of marginal Mediterranean basins, such as the Sorbas Basin.

  11. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency.

  12. Mangrove response to environmental change in Australia's Gulf of Carpentaria.

    PubMed

    Asbridge, Emma; Lucas, Richard; Ticehurst, Catherine; Bunting, Peter

    2016-04-20

    Across their range, mangroves are responding to coastal environmental change. However, separating the influence of human activities from natural events and processes (including that associated with climatic fluctuation) is often difficult. In the Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia (Leichhardt, Nicholson, Mornington Inlet, and Flinders River catchments), changes in mangroves are assumed to be the result of natural drivers as human impacts are minimal. By comparing classifications from time series of Landsat sensor data for the period 1987-2014, mangroves were observed to have extended seawards by up to 1.9 km (perpendicular to the coastline), with inland intrusion occurring along many of the rivers and rivulets in the tidal reaches. Seaward expansion was particularly evident near the mouth of the Leichhardt River, and was associated with peaks in river discharge with LiDAR data indicating distinct structural zones developing following each large rainfall and discharge event. However, along the Gulf coast, and particularly within the Mornington Inlet catchment, the expansion was more gradual and linked to inundation and regular sediment supply through freshwater input. Landward expansion along the Mornington Inlet catchment was attributed to the combined effects of sea level rise and prolonged periods of tidal and freshwater inundation on coastal lowlands. The study concluded that increased amounts of rainfall and associated flooding and sea level rise were responsible for recent seaward and landward extension of mangroves in this region.

  13. Teaching global and local environmental change through Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Emanuela Paola; Rossi, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Human beings perceive the world primarily through their sense of sight. This can explain why the use of images is so important and common in educational materials, in particular for scientific subjects. The development of modern technologies for visualizing the scientific features of the Earth has provided new opportunities for communicating the increasing complexity of science both to the public and in school education. In particular, the use of Earth observation satellites for civil purposes, which started in the 70s, has opened new perspectives in the study of natural phenomena and human impact on the environment; this is particularly relevant for those processes developing on a long term period and on a global scale. Instruments for Remote Sensing increase the power of human sight, giving access to additional information about the physical world, which the human eye could not otherwise perceive. The possibility to observe from a remote perspective significant processes like climate change, ozone depletion, desertification, urban development, makes it possible for observers to better appreciate and experience the complexity of environment. Remote Sensing reveals the impact of human activities on ecosystems: this allows students to understand important concepts like global and local change in much more depth. This poster describes the role and effectiveness of Remote Sensing imagery in scientific education, and its importance towards a better global environmental awareness.

  14. Environmental change drives accelerated adaptation through stimulated copy number variation.

    PubMed

    Hull, Ryan M; Cruz, Cristina; Jack, Carmen V; Houseley, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is rife in eukaryotic genomes and has been implicated in many human disorders, particularly cancer, in which CNV promotes both tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistance. CNVs are considered random mutations but often arise through replication defects; transcription can interfere with replication fork progression and stability, leading to increased mutation rates at highly transcribed loci. Here we investigate whether inducible promoters can stimulate CNV to yield reproducible, environment-specific genetic changes. We propose a general mechanism for environmentally-stimulated CNV and validate this mechanism for the emergence of copper resistance in budding yeast. By analysing a large cohort of individual cells, we directly demonstrate that CNV of the copper-resistance gene CUP1 is stimulated by environmental copper. CNV stimulation accelerates the formation of novel alleles conferring enhanced copper resistance, such that copper exposure actively drives adaptation to copper-rich environments. Furthermore, quantification of CNV in individual cells reveals remarkable allele selectivity in the rate at which specific environments stimulate CNV. We define the key mechanistic elements underlying this selectivity, demonstrating that CNV is regulated by both promoter activity and acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56ac) and that H3K56ac is required for CUP1 CNV and efficient copper adaptation. Stimulated CNV is not limited to high-copy CUP1 repeat arrays, as we find that H3K56ac also regulates CNV in 3 copy arrays of CUP1 or SFA1 genes. The impact of transcription on DNA damage is well understood, but our research reveals that this apparently problematic association forms a pathway by which mutations can be directed to particular loci in particular environments and furthermore that this mutagenic process can be regulated through histone acetylation. Stimulated CNV therefore represents an unanticipated and remarkably controllable pathway

  15. Drivers and Dynamics of Global Environmental Change in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, Graham; Munishi, Subira; Kunz, Richard; Viola, Paula

    2010-05-01

    Africa's potential to provide food, fuel, fibre and fodder for future global food and energy security has made it a target for a myriad investors from developed and developing countries alike. In many places, land grants and purchases have led to the establishment of huge monoculture production areas for food, fuel, fibre (maize, sugar cane, jatropha, plantation forestry etc) often preceded by deforestation and large scale utilisation and modification of available water resources. This coupled with the likelihood of rapid urbanisation in Africa over the next forty years and associated impacts linked to the high concentrations of inhabitants utilising and ultimately degrading available natural resources (e.g. wood for charcoal; water quality) have made Africa's ecosystems and people amongst the most vulnerable to global environmental change. Key questions that arise are how available scientific knowledge can best be utilized to reduce this vulnerability, where key gaps in knowledge in understanding the inter-linkages between societal needs and Food- Fibre-Energy-Water supply exist and how to best address the necessary complexity of considering these at different spatial and temporal scales. Drawing on the Ecosystem Goods and Services approach, we present key messages from ongoing research activities in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Tanzania and report on progress in applying management tools and systems to support decision making in these areas where development needs are critical. We also highlight lessons drawn from situations where unintended consequences have resulted from well meaning or politically expedient initiatives linked to large donor or foreign investment schemes, such as "outgrower" programmes, and where major environmental damage and ultimately the permanent loss of productivity of some landscapes has occurred.

  16. Deciphering transcriptional regulations coordinating the response to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Vicente; Aravena, Andrés; Guziolowski, Carito; Eveillard, Damien; Siegel, Anne; Maass, Alejandro

    2016-01-16

    Gene co-expression evidenced as a response to environmental changes has shown that transcriptional activity is coordinated, which pinpoints the role of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs). Nevertheless, the prediction of TRNs based on the affinity of transcription factors (TFs) with binding sites (BSs) generally produces an over-estimation of the observable TF/BS relations within the network and therefore many of the predicted relations are spurious. We present LOMBARDE, a bioinformatics method that extracts from a TRN determined from a set of predicted TF/BS affinities a subnetwork explaining a given set of observed co-expressions by choosing the TFs and BSs most likely to be involved in the co-regulation. LOMBARDE solves an optimization problem which selects confident paths within a given TRN that join a putative common regulator with two co-expressed genes via regulatory cascades. To evaluate the method, we used public data of Escherichia coli to produce a regulatory network that explained almost all observed co-expressions while using only 19 % of the input TF/BS affinities but including about 66 % of the independent experimentally validated regulations in the input data. When all known validated TF/BS affinities were integrated into the input data the precision of LOMBARDE increased significantly. The topological characteristics of the subnetwork that was obtained were similar to the characteristics described for known validated TRNs. LOMBARDE provides a useful modeling scheme for deciphering the regulatory mechanisms that underlie the phenotypic responses of an organism to environmental challenges. The method can become a reliable tool for further research on genome-scale transcriptional regulation studies.

  17. Environmental change drives accelerated adaptation through stimulated copy number variation

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Ryan M.; Cruz, Cristina; Jack, Carmen V.

    2017-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is rife in eukaryotic genomes and has been implicated in many human disorders, particularly cancer, in which CNV promotes both tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistance. CNVs are considered random mutations but often arise through replication defects; transcription can interfere with replication fork progression and stability, leading to increased mutation rates at highly transcribed loci. Here we investigate whether inducible promoters can stimulate CNV to yield reproducible, environment-specific genetic changes. We propose a general mechanism for environmentally-stimulated CNV and validate this mechanism for the emergence of copper resistance in budding yeast. By analysing a large cohort of individual cells, we directly demonstrate that CNV of the copper-resistance gene CUP1 is stimulated by environmental copper. CNV stimulation accelerates the formation of novel alleles conferring enhanced copper resistance, such that copper exposure actively drives adaptation to copper-rich environments. Furthermore, quantification of CNV in individual cells reveals remarkable allele selectivity in the rate at which specific environments stimulate CNV. We define the key mechanistic elements underlying this selectivity, demonstrating that CNV is regulated by both promoter activity and acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56ac) and that H3K56ac is required for CUP1 CNV and efficient copper adaptation. Stimulated CNV is not limited to high-copy CUP1 repeat arrays, as we find that H3K56ac also regulates CNV in 3 copy arrays of CUP1 or SFA1 genes. The impact of transcription on DNA damage is well understood, but our research reveals that this apparently problematic association forms a pathway by which mutations can be directed to particular loci in particular environments and furthermore that this mutagenic process can be regulated through histone acetylation. Stimulated CNV therefore represents an unanticipated and remarkably controllable pathway

  18. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R A; Ravinal, R C; Costa, R S; Lima, M S; Tucci, S; Muglia, V F; Reis, R B dos; Silva, G E B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness.

  19. The interplay between plasticity and evolution in response to human-induced environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Sarah E.; Martin, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    Some populations will cope with human-induced environmental change, and others will undergo extirpation; understanding the mechanisms that underlie these responses is key to forecasting responses to environmental change. In cases where organisms cannot disperse to track suitable habitats, plastic and evolved responses to environmental change will determine whether populations persist or perish. However, the majority of studies consider plasticity and evolution in isolation when in fact plasticity can shape evolution and plasticity itself can evolve. In particular, whether cryptic genetic variation exposed by environmental novelty can facilitate adaptive evolution has been a source of controversy and debate in the literature and has received even less attention in the context of human-induced environmental change. However, given that many studies indicate organisms will be unable to keep pace with environmental change, we need to understand how often and the degree to which plasticity can facilitate adaptive evolutionary change under novel environmental conditions. PMID:28003883

  20. Long-term effects of maternal separation coupled with social isolation on reward seeking and changes in dopamine D1 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens via DNA methylation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Takayo; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Okuda, Akinori; Hashimoto, Takashi; Azuma, Cho; Nishi, Mayumi

    2017-02-22

    Early-life stress has long-lasting effects on the stress response, emotions, and behavior throughout an individual's life. Clinical reports have demonstrated that child abuse victims exhibit impairments in reward-associated behavior; yet, the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. Maternal separation (MS) or MS coupled with social isolation (SI) (MS+SI) is widely used as a model for early-life stress in rodent studies. We employed mice subjected to MS+SI to clarify the long-term effect of early-life stress on reward-seeking involving palatable foods by a conditioned place-preference (CPP) paradigm. Prior MS+SI experience decreased exploration time in a chocolate-paired compartment in adult female mice, but not in male mice. We then focused on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway associated with reward-seeking behavior and measured both mRNA and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). MS+SI female mice had significantly lower D1 receptor mRNA and protein levels than controls, whereas the expression of TH and the D2 receptor was similar in the 2 groups. All mRNA and protein levels were unchanged in MS+SI male mice. When attempting to elucidate the mechanism underlying downregulation of the D1 receptor in the NAc of MS+SI females, we found hypermethylation of the Drd1a promoter region. These results suggest that early-life stress affects reward-seeking behavior in female mice, which may be associated with the downregulation of D1 receptor in the NAc via epigenetic modification of its promoter region.

  1. Behavioral responses to pups in males with different reproductive experiences are associated with changes in central OT, TH and OTR, D1R, D2R mRNA expression in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Yani; Wu, Ruiyong; Zhang, Shuwei; Tai, Fadao

    2015-01-01

    Male rodents behave differently toward pups because of different sexual and/or paternal experiences; however, the mechanisms underlying these responses are not well understood. Using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus) we investigated the behavioral responses of males with different reproductive experiences (virgin males, paired males and new fathers) to new born pups. Central levels of neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), as well as oxytocin receptor (OTR), dopamine 1-type receptor (D1R) and dopamine 2-type receptor (D2R) mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens and medial amygdala were also measured in these males. Our data showed that new fathers exhibited more approaching behavior and contained more OT-immunoreactive and TH-immunoreactive neurons. In addition to increased OTR mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens and medial amygdala, new fathers had higher D1R and D2R mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens, and less D1R and D2R mRNA expression in the medial amygdala than paired males. These results demonstrate that males with different reproductive experiences display different behavioral responses to pups and that these differences are associated with altered OT and dopamine, and their receptors in specific brain regions.

  2. Staff attitude changes after environmental changes on a ward for psychogeriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ingstad, P J; Götestam, K G

    1987-01-01

    On a ward for chronic elderly patients, mostly senile demented patients, several environmental changes were performed to improve the patients' behaviors. Before and after these changes, the staff (N = 12) were asked about their attitudes in relation to different issues, according to a semantic differential scheme. The semantic differential scheme consisted (apart from six distractor pairs) of the following semantic pairs: (a) negative-positive, (b) valueless-valuable, (c) bad-good, (d) onesided-manysided, (e) unimportant-important, and (f) stupid-smart. The object sentences tested with this semantic differential scheme were (1) cleaning the ward, (2) the patients' meals, (3) dressing the patients, and (4) social interaction with patients. The results showed significant positive changes in staff attitudes towards the patients in the three last object sentences. These also corresponded to the interventions made in the environmental program, whereas "cleaning the ward" was not really changed during the program. It is concluded that improvements in patient behaviors on the ward has important positive effects also on the staff attitudes.

  3. 7 CFR 15d.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 15d.1 Section 15d.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES... policy of the United States Department of Agriculture in programs or activities conducted by...

  4. 7 CFR 15d.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose. 15d.1 Section 15d.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES... policy of the United States Department of Agriculture in programs or activities conducted by...

  5. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  6. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  7. Response of Everglades tree islands to environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willard, Debra A.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Holmes, Charles W.; Landacre, Bryan; Marot, Marci E.

    2006-01-01

    Tree islands are centers of biodiversity within the Florida Everglades, USA, but the factors controlling their distribution, formation, and development are poorly understood. We use pollen assemblages from tree islands throughout the greater Everglades ecosystem to reconstruct the timing of tree island formation, patterns of development, and response to specific climatic and environmental stressors. These data indicate that fixed (teardrop-shaped) and strand tree islands developed well before substantial human alteration of the system, with initial tree island vegetation in place between 3500 and 500 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP), depending on the location in the Everglades wetland. Tree island development appears to have been triggered by regional- to global-scale climatic events at 2800 cal yr BP, 1600–1500 cal yr BP, 1200–1000 cal yr BP (early Medieval Warm Period), and 500–200 cal yr BP (Little Ice Age). These periods correspond to drought intervals documented in Central and South America and periods of southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The records indicate a coherence of climate patterns in both subtropical North America and the Northern Hemisphere Neotropics. Water management practices of the 20th century altered plant communities and size of tree islands throughout the Everglades. Responses range from loss of tree islands due to artificially long hydroperiods and deep water to expansion of tree islands after flow reductions. These data provide evidence for the rapidity of tree island response to specific hydrologic change and facilitate prediction of the response to future changes associated with Everglades restoration plans.

  8. Teacher Education Work Force Research Group (TEWFRG) Interim Report to the Legislature on Senate Concurrent Resolution 56 S.D. 1 Requesting the Hawaii Educational Policy Center to Report on the Retention and Change in Assignment of Teachers within the Department of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Educational Policy Center, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Hawai'i State Legislature passed Senate Concurrent Resolution 56 S.D. 1 "Requesting the Hawaii Educational Policy Center to Report on the Retention and Change in Assignment of Teachers Within the Department of Education." The resolution requested a report on the effectiveness and current status of teacher preparation and…

  9. Winter ecology of spectacled eiders: Environmental characteristics and population change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.R.; Douglas, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    We described characteristics of the wintering area used by Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) in the Bering Sea, Alaska, and evaluated these characteristics in relation to long-term population trends. Remoteness, limited daylight, and extreme weather conditions precluded direct observations, so we derived the location of the wintering area from satellite telemetry, ice conditions from remotely sensed data, weather conditions from archived data sets, and benthic communities from the literature. Based on analyses of two indices spanning 1957-2002 and 1988-2002, we identified no single environmental parameter that explained the precipitous decline in nesting populations in western Alaska. In general, we found that the number of days with extreme sea ice in winter, extreme winds, and winds in spring explained the greatest variability in annual indices. These analyses support the conclusion that annual population estimates on the breeding grounds can be negatively impacted by extended periods of dense sea-ice concentration and weather during the previous winter. Examination of population indices did not support the hypothesis that changes in benthic community on the wintering grounds have contributed to the decline or inhibited the recovery of the Spectacled Eider breeding population in western Alaska.

  10. Extreme natural hazards: population growth, globalization and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Herbert E; Sparks, R Stephen J

    2006-08-15

    Mankind is becoming ever more susceptible to natural disasters, largely as a consequence of population growth and globalization. It is likely that in the future, we will experience several disasters per year that kill more than 10,000 people. A calamity with a million casualties is just a matter of time. This situation is mainly a consequence of increased vulnerability. Climate change may also be affecting the frequency of extreme weather events as well as the vulnerability of coastal areas due to sea-level rise. Disastrous outcomes can only increase unless better ways are found to mitigate the effects through improved forecasting and warning, together with more community preparedness and resilience. There are particular difficulties with extreme events, which can affect several countries, while the largest events can have global consequences. The hazards of supervolcanic eruptions and asteroid impacts could cause global disaster with threats to civilization and deaths of billions of people. Although these are very rare events, they will happen and require consideration. More frequent and smaller events in the wrong place at the wrong time could have very large human, environmental and economic effects. A sustained effort is needed to identify places at risk and take steps to apply science before the events occur.

  11. Environmental changes modify the expression of Diazepam withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Mariela F; Maglio, Laura E; Marchesini, Gerardo R; Molina, Juan C; Ramírez, Oscar A

    2002-10-17

    Early results from our laboratory have demonstrated a positive correlation between increased hippocampal synaptic plasticity and development of tolerance to hypolocomotive effect of Diazepam (DZ). We have found recently, that pre-exposure to DZ administration context impairs increase of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in conjunction with tolerance to DZ. These findings have suggested, that the tolerance to DZ is context specific. Furthermore, the hippocampus can be critically involved in the behavioral expression of conditioned tolerance to DZ. The results of the present investigation show that animals chronically treated with DZ for 18 days exhibit withdrawal signs, evaluated as an increased anxiety in an elevated plus maze. These animals also show, a facilitation in the threshold to induce long-term potentiation in the hippocampal formation. These phenomena have a strong dependency on the drug administration context, since both are reversed after the introduction of some changes in the drug administration environment. Furthermore, the alteration of some environmental cues increased the locomotive activity in animals that did not show anxiety as a withdrawal signs. We conclude that a common neural system could underlie the behavioral expression of the conditioned tolerance and dependence on DZ.

  12. Changes in Environmental Conditions Modify Infection Kinetics of Dairy Phages.

    PubMed

    Zaburlin, Delfina; Quiberoni, Andrea; Mercanti, Diego

    2017-04-08

    Latent period, burst time, and burst size, kinetic parameters of phage infection characteristic of a given phage/host system, have been measured for a wide variety of lactic acid bacteria. However, most studies to date were conducted in optimal growth conditions of host bacteria and did not consider variations due to changes in external factors. In this work, we determined the effect of temperature, pH, and starvation on kinetic parameters of phages infecting Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. For kinetics assessment, one-step growth curves were carried out in MRS broth at optimal conditions (control), lower temperature, pH 6.0 and 5.0 (MRS6 and MRS5, respectively), or in medium lacking carbon (MRSN) or nitrogen (MRSC) sources. Phage infection was progressively impaired as environmental conditions were modified from optimal. At lower temperature or pH, infection was delayed, as perceived by longer latent and burst times. Burst size, however, was lower, equal or higher than for controls, but this effect was highly dependent on the particular phage-host system studied. Phage infection was strongly inhibited in MRSC, but only mildly impaired in MRSN. Nevertheless, growth of all the bacterial strains tested was severely compromised by starvation, without significant differences between MRSC and MRSN, indicating that nitrogen compounds are specifically required for a successful phage infection, beyond their influence on bacterial growth.

  13. Environmental and internal controls of tropical cyclone intensity change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desflots, Melicie

    Tropical cyclone (TC) intensity change is governed by internal dynamics and environmental conditions. This study aims to gain a better understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for TC intensity changes with a particular focus to those related to the vertical wind shear and the impact of sea spray on the hurricane boundary layer, by using high resolution, full physics numerical simulations. The coupled model consists of three components: the non-hydrostatic, 5th generation Pennsylvania State University-NCAR mesoscale model (MM5), the NOAA/NCEP WAVEWATCH III (WW3) ocean surface wave model, and the WHOI three-dimensional upper ocean circulation model (3DPWP). Sea spray parameterizations (SSP) were developed at NOAA/ESRL, modified by the author and introduced in uncoupled and coupled simulations. The 0.5 km grid resolution MM5 simulation of Hurricane Lili showed a rapid intensification associated with a contracting eyewall. Hurricane Lili weakened in a 5-10 m s-1 vertical wind shear environment. The simulated storm experienced wind shear direction normal to the storm motion, which produced a strong wavenumber one rainfall asymmetry in the downshear-left quadrant of the storm. The increasing vertical wind shear induced a vertical tilt of the vortex with a time lag of 5-6 hours after the wavenumber one rainfall asymmetry was first observed in the model simulation. Other factors controlling intensity and intensity change in tropical cyclones are the air-sea fluxes. Recent studies have shown that the momentum exchange coefficient levels off at high wind speed. However, the behavior of the exchange coefficient for enthalpy flux in high wind and the potential impact of sea spray on it is still uncertain. The current SSP are closely tied to wind speed and overestimate the mediated heat fluxes by sea spray in the hurricane boundary layer. As the sea spray generation depends on wind speed and the variable wave state, a new SSP based on the surface wave energy

  14. Unconventional politics of unconventional gas: Environmental reframing and policy change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kear, Andrew Robert

    The present Rocky Mountain West natural gas boom, enabled by historic pro-resource-development political, institutional, economic, and cultural structures, is a politically contested battle over values. Volatile political action, unconventional coalitions, and unconventional politics engulf this unconventional gas boom -- especially at the state level. In this comparative case study of natural gas policy in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, I measure and compare these values, expressed as frames, through textual analysis of interest group public documents and state legislative bills and statutes from 1999-2008. By developing a new measure of state legislative framing, I test the relationship between interest group and institutional framing and also provide a viable measure of policy change useful to Narrative Policy Analysis theory. Results show that competing interest group and state legislative framing efforts are dynamic, measurably different, and periodically correlative. Competing interest groups rarely engage each other, except as the conflict matures when status-quo-supporters break their silence and engage the challengers' frames that have gained legislative traction. Environmental and land-use counter-framing ensues, but status-quo-supporters remain vigilant in their economic framing. Economic frames retain their institutional privilege within Wyoming and New Mexico, but natural gas policy undergoes a complete environmental reframe in the Colorado state legislature. Although the historically dominant economy frame based on "Old West" values remains largely intact, the respective state legislatures partially reframe policy (within 4 years) using environment, alternative land-uses, and democracy frames based on "New West" and long-extant but previously marginalized status-quo-challenger definitions. This reframing is not a strictly partisan issue, but rather it is influenced by political context, policy diffusion, and long-term interest group advocacy and

  15. Potential Perils of Changing Environmental Context on Examination Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Wege, Mija; Barry, Leslie A.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental context can affect memory retrieval in a wide range of situations. The authors investigate the relationship between the location of a collegiate final examination and student performance. Although several other studies have looked at the impact of environmental context on test taking, this study does so in a real-world environment,…

  16. Land use changes: economic, social, and environmental impacts

    Treesearch

    JunJie Wu

    2008-01-01

    Land use provides many economic and social benefits but often comes at a substantial cost to the environment. Although most economic costs are figured into land use decisions, most environmental externalities are not. These environmental externalities cause a divergence between private and social costs for some land uses, leading to an inefficient land allocation. For...

  17. Rethinking Environmental Protection: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made great progress in addressing some major environmental problems. These successes were framed within EPA’s statutory mandates which are largely media-specific and receptor-focused and follow a segmented risk-...

  18. Rethinking Environmental Protection: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made great progress in addressing some major environmental problems. These successes were framed within EPA’s statutory mandates which are largely media-specific and receptor-focused and follow a segmented risk-...

  19. Changing Issue Representation among Major United States Environmental Movement Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Histories of the environmental movement have emphasized the importance of a shift in focus from those issues traditionally associated with the movement, such as resource and wildlife protection, towards "new" quality of life issues, such as environmental pollution and its human health effects. Here, time-series data between 1970 and 2000…

  20. Changing Issue Representation among Major United States Environmental Movement Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Histories of the environmental movement have emphasized the importance of a shift in focus from those issues traditionally associated with the movement, such as resource and wildlife protection, towards "new" quality of life issues, such as environmental pollution and its human health effects. Here, time-series data between 1970 and 2000…

  1. The Phospholipase D1 Pathway Modulates Macroautophagy

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Armi, Claudia; Hurtado-Lorenzo, Andres; Tian, Huasong; Morel, Etienne; Nezu, Akiko; Chan, Robin B.; Yu, W. Haung; Robinson, Kimberly S.; Yeku, Oladapo; Small, Scott A.; Duff, Karen; Frohman, Michael A.; Wenk, Markus R.; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    While macroautophagy is known to be an essential degradative process whereby autophagosomes mediate the engulfment and delivery of cytoplasmic components into lysosomes, the lipid changes underlying autophagosomal membrane dynamics are undetermined. Here we show that phospholipase D1 (PLD1), which is primarily associated with the endosomal system, partially relocalizes to the outer membrane of autophagosome-like structures upon nutrient starvation. The localization of PLD1, as well as the starvation-induced increase in PLD activity, are altered by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, suggesting PLD1 may act downstream of Vps34. Pharmacological inhibition of PLD and genetic ablation of PLD1 in the mouse decrease the starvation-induced expansion of LC3-positive compartments, consistent with a role of PLD1 in the regulation of autophagy. Furthermore, inhibition of PLD results in higher levels of tau and p62 aggregates in organotypic brain slices. Our in vitro and in vivo findings establish a novel role for PLD1 in autophagy. PMID:21266992

  2. Paleosols as Archives of Environmental Change in Deep Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Quentin

    2015-04-01

    Paleosols develop at the geosphere-atmosphere interface and potentially provide an archive of environmental conditions at the time of their formation. Although paleosols from deep time can be difficult to recognize due to the masking of pedogenic features by metamorphism and deformation, they may record transient (i.e. time-dependent) events which are often difficult to recognize in other geological proxies. Paleosols from the Archean and Paleoproterozoic are rare and complex to study, but offer an opportunity to gain insight into what may be relatively short-scale temporal variations in the Earth's atmospheric composition. For instance, it is widely believed that atmospheric oxygen saturation rose from <10E-05 present atmospheric level (PAL) in the Archean to >10E-02 PAL at the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at ca. 2.4 Ga. Until recently however, chemical or physical evidence from paleosols for earlier oxygenation events were generally thought to be lacking. Recent studies of paleosols from eastern India (Keonjhar Paleosol, Singhbhum Craton) and South Africa (Nsuze Paleosol, Kaapvaal Craton) have provided chemical evidence for transient Mesoarchean atmospheric oxygenation at ca. 3.0 Ga. These paleosols are considered to preserve the earliest known vestiges of terrestrial oxidative weathering, signifying a transient, early oxygen accumulation in the Earth's atmosphere. This has far-reaching implications from both atmospheric and biological evolutionary perspectives in that chemical signatures preserved in these Mesoarchean paleosols are thought to signify the presence of molecular oxygen at levels higher than those attributable to photo-dissociation of atmospheric water alone. Such elevated levels of atmospheric oxygen could only be due to the presence of a sufficiently large biomass of micro-organisms capable of oxidative photosynthesis. Although the Archean-Paleoproterozoic paleosol geological record is fragmentary and geochemical signatures are not necessarily

  3. Environmental Changes Can Produce Shifts in Chagas Disease Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cordovez, Juan M; Sanabria, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    An epidemiological network contains all the organisms involved (types) in the transmission of a parasite. The nodes of the network represent reservoirs, hosts, and vectors, while the links between the nodes represent the strength and direction of parasite movement. Networks that contain humans are of special interest because they are of concern to public health authorities. Under these circumstances, it is possible, in principle, to identify cycles (closed paths in the network) that include humans and select the ones that carry the maximum probability of human infection. The basic reproduction number R0 in such a network gives the average number of new infections of any type after the introduction of one individual infected by any type. To obtain R0 for complex networks, one can use the next-generation matrix (NGM) approach. Every entry in NGM will average the contribution of each link that connects two types. To tease the contribution of every cycle apart, we define the virulence as the geometric mean of the NGM entries corresponding to the links therein. This approach allows for the quantification of specific cycles of interest while it also makes the computation of the sensitivity and elasticity of the parameters easier. In this work, we compute the virulence for the transmission dynamics of Chagas disease for a typical rural area in Colombia incorporating the effect of environmental changes on the vector population size. We concluded that the highest contribution to human infection comes from humans themselves, which is a surprising and interesting result. In addition, sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing vector population size increases the risk of human infection. PMID:25574142

  4. Environmental changes can produce shifts in chagas disease infection risk.

    PubMed

    Cordovez, Juan M; Sanabria, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    An epidemiological network contains all the organisms involved (types) in the transmission of a parasite. The nodes of the network represent reservoirs, hosts, and vectors, while the links between the nodes represent the strength and direction of parasite movement. Networks that contain humans are of special interest because they are of concern to public health authorities. Under these circumstances, it is possible, in principle, to identify cycles (closed paths in the network) that include humans and select the ones that carry the maximum probability of human infection. The basic reproduction number R 0 in such a network gives the average number of new infections of any type after the introduction of one individual infected by any type. To obtain R 0 for complex networks, one can use the next-generation matrix (NGM) approach. Every entry in NGM will average the contribution of each link that connects two types. To tease the contribution of every cycle apart, we define the virulence as the geometric mean of the NGM entries corresponding to the links therein. This approach allows for the quantification of specific cycles of interest while it also makes the computation of the sensitivity and elasticity of the parameters easier. In this work, we compute the virulence for the transmission dynamics of Chagas disease for a typical rural area in Colombia incorporating the effect of environmental changes on the vector population size. We concluded that the highest contribution to human infection comes from humans themselves, which is a surprising and interesting result. In addition, sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing vector population size increases the risk of human infection.

  5. Evolutionary history of lagomorphs in response to global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ge, Deyan; Wen, Zhixin; Xia, Lin; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Erbajeva, Margarita; Huang, Chengming; Yang, Qisen

    2013-01-01

    Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C(3) plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C(4) (31% species are from Poaceae). The ability of several leporid species to consume C(4) plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C(4) plants in the late Miocene, the so-called 'nature's green revolution', induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major 'ecological opportunities', which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of leporids.

  6. Evolutionary History of Lagomorphs in Response to Global Environmental Change

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Deyan; Wen, Zhixin; Xia, Lin; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Erbajeva, Margarita; Huang, Chengming; Yang, Qisen

    2013-01-01

    Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C3 plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C4 (31% species are from Poaceae). The ability of several leporid species to consume C4 plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C4 plants in the late Miocene, the so-called ‘nature’s green revolution’, induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major ‘ecological opportunities’, which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of leporids

  7. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration “tipping point” between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  8. The forgotten casualties: women, children, and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Cutter, S L

    1995-06-01

    The author posits that women and children bear a disproportionate burden of environmental degradation and are in the worst position to mitigate the consequences of deteriorating environmental conditions. This article discusses the concept of environmental equity or fairness and its sociospatial impacts and the different adjustments made by women and children. Environmental equity is both an outcome and a process. Process equity includes the underlying causes of uneven distributions of resources. The 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development defines 27 specific principles that broadly follow three forms of equity: social equity, generational equity, and procedural equity. Social equity is defined as the role of social, economic, and political forces in resource consumption and environmental degradation. Environmental risk is related to locational criteria such as cheap land and transportation access and by the social geography of places. Hazardous waste dumping is used to illustrate inequitable waste disposal in developing countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, Lebanon, Syria, Venezuela, Zimbabwe, and South Korea. Generational equity is defined as fairness over time. The issue of permanent radioactive waste disposal is a current issue that has implications for future generations. Three strategies are important in assuring generational equity: the maintenance of natural and cultural diversity; a reduction in environmental degradation; and the provision of equal access to resources. Preservation of parkland is a positive strategy and lack of access to health services and reproductive health care is a negative strategy. Procedural equity is defined as the extent to which regulations are applied fairly. The example is given of higher fines for dumping waste in "nice White communities" compared to minority ones. Environmental law regulating hazardous waste exports has been minimally effective. Women and children are affected by particulate pollution and

  9. Crime prevention through social and physical environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Nietzel, Michael T.; Himelein, Melissa J.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to crime prevention where behavior analysts can make important contributions is the modification of environmental opportunities and victim vulnerabilities that are related to higher rates of offending. Examples of environmental crime prevention are discussed in the following areas: (1) modifying physical environments in order to “harden” targets of crime, (2) training victims to be less vulnerable to victimization, (3) eliminating portrayals of certain groups of people that legitimize their victimization, and (4) organizing neighborhoods and communities to strengthen their means of social control. Two implications of environmental crime prevention—the role of individual differences and the scope of prevention—are discussed. PMID:22477962

  10. Climate patriots? Concern over climate change and other environmental issues in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Bruce; Lester, Libby

    2015-12-15

    Echoing the anti-pollution and resource conservation campaigns in the United States in the early-to-mid-twentieth century, some scholars advocate mobilising support for environmental issues by harnessing the notion of environmental patriotism. Taking action to reduce the impact of global warming has also been cast as a patriotic cause. Drawing upon quantitative data from a recent national survey, we examine the link between patriotism and environmental attitudes in Australia, focussing upon climate change. We find that patriotism has a largely neutral association with concern over environmental issues, with the exception of climate change and, to a lesser extent, wildlife preservation. Expressing concern over climate change appears to be unpatriotic for some Australians. Even after controlling for political party identification and other important correlates of environmental issue concerns, patriots are less likely than others to prioritise climate change as their most urgent environmental issue and less likely to believe that climate change is actually occurring.

  11. Resolvin D1 protects periodontal ligament

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Manal; Zarrough, Ahmed; Bolstad, Anne Isine; Lygre, Henning; Mustafa, Kamal; Hasturk, Hatice; Serhan, Charles; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2013-01-01

    Resolution agonists are endogenous mediators that drive inflammation to homeostasis. We earlier demonstrated in vivo activity of resolvins and lipoxins on regenerative periodontal wound healing. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of resolvin D1 (RvD1) on the function of human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts, which are critical for wound healing during regeneration of the soft and hard tissues around teeth. Primary cells were cultured from biopsies obtained from three individuals free of periodontal diseases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by density gradient centrifugation from whole blood of healthy volunteers. PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. The direct impact of RvD1 on PDL fibroblast proliferation was measured and wound closure was analyzed in vitro using a fibroblast culture “scratch assay.” PDL fibroblast function in response to RvD1 was further characterized by basic FGF production by ELISA. IL-1β and TNF-α enhanced the production of PGE2. Treatment of PDL cells and monocytes with 0.1–10 ng/ml RvD1 (0.27–27 M) reduced cytokine induced production of PGE2 and upregulated LXA4 production by both PDL cells and monocytes. RvD1 significantly enhanced PDL fibroblast proliferation and wound closure as well as basic FGF release. The results demonstrate that anti-inflammatory and proresolution actions of RvD1 with upregulation of arachidonic acid-derived endogenous resolution pathways (LXA4) and suggest resolution pathway synergy establishing a novel mechanism for the proresolution activity of the ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolution agonist RvD1. PMID:23864609

  12. Environmental changes affect the assembly of soil bacterial community primarily by mediating stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ximei; Johnston, Eric R; Liu, Wei; Li, Linghao; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Both 'species fitness difference'-based deterministic processes, such as competitive exclusion and environmental filtering, and 'species fitness difference'-independent stochastic processes, such as birth/death and dispersal/colonization, can influence the assembly of soil microbial communities. However, how both types of processes are mediated by anthropogenic environmental changes has rarely been explored. Here we report a novel and general pattern that almost all anthropogenic environmental changes that took place in a grassland ecosystem affected soil bacterial community assembly primarily through promoting or restraining stochastic processes. We performed four experiments mimicking 16 types of environmental changes and separated the compositional variation of soil bacterial communities caused by each environmental change into deterministic and stochastic components, with a recently developed method. Briefly, because the difference between control and treatment communities is primarily caused by deterministic processes, the deterministic change was quantified as (mean compositional variation between treatment and control) - (mean compositional variation within control). The difference among replicate treatment communities is primarily caused by stochastic processes, so the stochastic change was estimated as (mean compositional variation within treatment) - (mean compositional variation within control). The absolute of the stochastic change was greater than that of the deterministic change across almost all environmental changes, which was robust for both taxonomic and functional-based criterion. Although the deterministic change may become more important as environmental changes last longer, our findings showed that changes usually occurred through mediating stochastic processes over 5 years, challenging the traditional determinism-dominated view.

  13. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change Greenhouse Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals ...

  14. The Impact of Globalization and Environmental Change on Health: Challenges for Nurse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Maggie

    2002-01-01

    Nursing education should address the consequences of global environmental change, integrate environmental considerations into clinical practice, and promote sustainable policies. Educators should raise nursing students' awareness of environmental issues and empower them to contribute to policy debates. (Contains 36 references. Includes…

  15. The Effects of the National Environmental Education Development (NEED) Program on Self Concept and Change of Environmental Attitudes of Selected Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert Aura

    Evaluated was the environmental education program conducted at the Tremond Environmental Education Center, Tremond, Tennessee to determine its effectiveness in changing and influencing environmental attitudes and self-concepts of elementary school children. As part of the study, instruments to assess environmental attitudes and attitude change in…

  16. Environmental signaling and evolutionary change: can exposure of pregnant mammals to environmental estrogens lead to epigenetically induced evolutionary changes in embryos?

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Sabat, Pablo; Valladares, Luis

    2005-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic and hereditary mechanisms regulating genetic expression in mammalian cells. In this review, we propose how certain natural agents, through their dietary consumption, could induce changes in physiological aspects in mammalian mothers, leading to alterations in DNA methylation patterns of the developing fetus and to the emergence of new phenotypes and evolutionary change. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that this process would require (i) certain key periods in the ontogeny of the organism where the environmental stimuli could produce effects, (ii) particular environmental agents as such stimuli, and (iii) that a genomic persistent change be consequently produced in a population. Depending on the persistence of the environmental stimuli and on whether the affected genes are imprinted genes, induced changes in DNA methylation patterns could become persistent. Moreover, some fragments could be more frequently methylated than others over several generations, leading to biased base change and evolutionary consequences.

  17. Holocene environmental change at the oasis of Tayma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Max; Brückner, Helmut; Wellbrock, Kai; Pint, Anna; Grottker, Matthias; Voss, Peter; Ginau, Andreas; Klasen, Nicole; Frenzel, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The oasis of Tayma in northwestern Saudi Arabia has a rich cultural heritage comprising a large number of historic buildings and artefacts from the late Neolithic onwards. Extensive groundwater resources and the location at a branch of the Incense Road connecting south Arabia and the eastern Mediterranean determined the site's importance in Antiquity. This paper reports about Holocene environmental change at Tayma setting the frame for the interpretation of the archaeological record. Humid conditions during the early Holocene are inferred for the Arabian Peninsula (AP) based on the investigation of sabkhas, palaeo-lakes, sand dunes, wadis, speleothems and marine sediments. Most of these climate archives are located in the southern and southeastern part of the AP, where a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) triggered increased rainfall at the onset of the Holocene. At Tayma, where the influence of the ITCZ shift can be excluded, the sedimentary infill of a sabkha basin, the micro- and macrofaunal record, a digital elevation model based on DGPS measurements, and 14C-AMS data indicate the presence of a perennial lake with a minimum depth of 13 m, a stored water volume of 1.16 107 m3 and a surface of 18.45 km2 between 10,000-9000 cal BP. Foraminiferal test malformations and the shape of sieve pores on ostracod valves were used to detect trends in palaeo-salinity and ecological stress conditions. Contraction of the lake at least after 8500 cal BP is a response to a long-term aridisation trend subsequent to the early Holocene. Based on the hydrological water balance equation, quantitative data on minimum palaeo-rainfall during the early Holocene humid period were determined. Input parameters for the equation are the minimum lake level, lake surface and lake volume during the peak of the early Holocene humid period as well as palaeo-evapotranspiration, groundwater infiltration, and surface runoff. A perennial lake in the endorheic basin of the

  18. Changes and predictive and prognostic value of the mitotic index, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and cyclo-oxygenase-2 in 710 operable breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Abrial, Catherine; Raoelfils, Inès; Chollet, Philippe; Cayre, Anne; Mouret-Reynier, Marie-Ange; Thivat, Emilie; Mishellany, Florence; Gimbergues, Pierre; Durando, Xavier

    2008-12-01

    The current study expands upon previous work using a database of 710 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. First, we studied phenotypic characteristics of tumors before and after chemotherapy using the following factors: the mitotic index of the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grade, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and cyclo-oxygenase-2. Second, the predictive value of these factors on response was assessed. Third, we measured the prognostic impact of these markers post-therapy in comparison with clinical and pathological responses according to the Chevallier and Sataloff classifications. Patients were treated using different neoadjuvant chemotherapy combinations, mainly in successive prospective phase II trials. They received a median number of six cycles (range, 1-9). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients underwent surgery and radiotherapy. In cases of important residual disease, some received additional courses of chemotherapy. In addition, menopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive tumors received tamoxifen for 5 years. According to our analysis, we found significant variations before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy only for cyclin D1 and the mitotic index. Concerning the predictive value of biomarkers for response, Ki-67 and the mitotic index were predictive on univariate analysis, both for objective clinical and pathological complete responses. Because these two factors were correlated, no multivariate analyses were conducted. We then assessed the prognostic impact of the biopathological factors. When the factors were measured before chemotherapy, all were prognostic. When evaluated after chemotherapy, the mitotic index, objective clinical response, and pathological complete response were prognostic. Because these factors were correlated, no multivariate model was done. The main clinical fact is that there were significant correlations between clinical and pathological responses and variations in the biological factors studied.

  19. Modeling effects of environmental change on wolf population dynamics, trait evolution, and life history.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Tim; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Wayne, Robert K; Smith, Douglas W

    2011-12-02

    Environmental change has been observed to generate simultaneous responses in population dynamics, life history, gene frequencies, and morphology in a number of species. But how common are such eco-evolutionary responses to environmental change likely to be? Are they inevitable, or do they require a specific type of change? Can we accurately predict eco-evolutionary responses? We address these questions using theory and data from the study of Yellowstone wolves. We show that environmental change is expected to generate eco-evolutionary change, that changes in the average environment will affect wolves to a greater extent than changes in how variable it is, and that accurate prediction of the consequences of environmental change will probably prove elusive.

  20. Environmental impact assessment of industrial structure change in a rural region of China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian; Wang, Yanglin; Ye, Minting; Wu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Yuan

    2007-09-01

    As the embodiment of human activities, the change of regional industrial structure is an essential driving factor of global environmental change. Consequently, the research on the change of regional industrial structure and associated effects on the environment is one of the key issues of researches on sustainable development, human-environment relationship, and regional response to global environment change. However, compared to the flourish of researches on environmental impact assessment of industrial departments, few studies have been conducted to assess the environmental impact of regional industrial structure. In this study, based on a synthetic analysis of environmental disturbances of different industrial departments, the environmental impact coefficient of industrial department associated with the index of environmental impact of industrial structure was constructed, so as to make a quantitative assessment of environmental impact of the change of regional industrial structure. And the results of the case study in Lijiang City, a rural region of China, have showed that there are two obvious changes of industrial structure in the study area from 1992 to 2003, associated with a continuous decreasing of the index of environmental impact of industrial structure, which indicated a positive environmental effects of the change of regional industrial structure.

  1. Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do About It Now?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A.; Hu, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon- and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available “planetary health” metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations. PMID:17185267

  2. Global environmental change: what can health care providers and the environmental health community do about it now?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian S; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A; Hu, Howard

    2006-12-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available "planetary health" metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations.

  3. CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-30

    reducing the exposure to the hazard or reducing the vulnerability associated with the hazard. Whereas the reduction of the hazard ( climate change ...of climate change . The grant supports a comparison of historic human responses to environmental change in the Mississippi River and the Nile River...cope with physical or environmental changes . The research is focused on understanding and identifying vulnerabilities in developing regions that

  4. Defensive technology and welfare analysis of environmental quality change with uncertain consumer health impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.K. ); Moffitt, L.J. )

    1993-05-01

    Measuring the ex post losses from environmental quality change is an important issue when environmental contamination creates health risks, liability is assigned, and private compensation efforts are required. This paper proposes a methodology for measuring the ex post welfare impact of environmental quality change using market behavior from defensive expenditures. Conditions under which a defensive technology can provide a bound on welfare estimates are identified.

  5. Evaluation of Public Health Professionals' Capacity to Implement Environmental Changes Supportive of Healthy Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantner, Leigh A.; Olson, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based interventions to promote healthy weights by making environmental and policy changes in communities may be an important strategy in reversing the obesity epidemic. However, challenges faced by local public health professionals in facilitating effective environmental and policy change need to be better understood and addressed. To…

  6. Deforestation: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the second installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. This series teaches students how to gather a wide range of information from pertinent areas of study and encourages them to develop their own opinions…

  7. Deforestation: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the second installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. This series teaches students how to gather a wide range of information from pertinent areas of study and encourages them to develop their own opinions…

  8. Cognitive Structures of University Students about Environmental Education, Climate Change and Consumption Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keles, Özgül; Gilbertson, Kenneth L.; Uzun, Naim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cognitive structures and the retention of knowledge about environmental education, climate change and consumption concepts. The field of Environmental Education is increasingly including both climate change and consumption in the context of sustainability. Thus, this research is investigating the…

  9. Evaluation of Public Health Professionals' Capacity to Implement Environmental Changes Supportive of Healthy Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantner, Leigh A.; Olson, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based interventions to promote healthy weights by making environmental and policy changes in communities may be an important strategy in reversing the obesity epidemic. However, challenges faced by local public health professionals in facilitating effective environmental and policy change need to be better understood and addressed. To…

  10. Biodiversity: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the first installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. It encourages students to weigh a wide range of information from pertinent disciplines and to develop their own opinions in order to make their own…

  11. Biodiversity: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the first installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. It encourages students to weigh a wide range of information from pertinent disciplines and to develop their own opinions in order to make their own…

  12. Wfs1 is expressed in dopaminoceptive regions of the amniote brain and modulates levels of D1-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Tekko, Triin; Lakspere, Triin; Allikalt, Anni; End, Jaanus; Kõlvart, Karl Rene; Jagomäe, Toomas; Terasmaa, Anton; Philips, Mari-Anne; Visnapuu, Tanel; Väärtnõu, Fred; Gilbert, Scott F; Rinken, Ago; Vasar, Eero; Lilleväli, Kersti

    2017-01-01

    During amniote evolution, the construction of the forebrain has diverged across different lineages, and accompanying the structural changes, functional diversification of the homologous brain regions has occurred. This can be assessed by studying the expression patterns of marker genes that are relevant in particular functional circuits. In all vertebrates, the dopaminergic system is responsible for the behavioral responses to environmental stimuli. Here we show that the brain regions that receive dopaminergic input through dopamine receptor D1 are relatively conserved, but with some important variations between three evolutionarily distant vertebrate lines-house mouse (Mus musculus), domestic chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) / common quail (Coturnix coturnix) and red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta). Moreover, we find that in almost all instances, those brain regions expressing D1-like dopamine receptor genes also express Wfs1. Wfs1 has been studied primarily in the pancreas, where it regulates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, cellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and insulin production and secretion. Using radioligand binding assays in wild type and Wfs1-/- mouse brains, we show that the number of binding sites of D1-like dopamine receptors is increased in the hippocampus of the mutant mice. We propose that the functional link between Wfs1 and D1-like dopamine receptors is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role in adjusting behavioral reactions to environmental stimuli.

  13. Developmental Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and Metabolic Changes in Children.

    PubMed

    Russ, Karin; Howard, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other forms of metabolic disease have been rising over the past several decades. Although diet and physical activity play important roles in these trends, other environmental factors also may contribute to this significant public health issue. In this article, we discuss the possibility that widespread exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases in children. We summarize the epidemiological evidence on exposure to environmental chemicals during early development and metabolic outcomes in infants and children. Prenatal exposure to EDCs, particularly the persistent organic pollutant DDT and its metabolite DDE, may influence growth patterns during infancy and childhood. The altered growth patterns associated with EDCs vary according to exposure level, sex, exposure timing, pubertal status, and age at which growth is measured. Early exposure to air pollutants also is linked to impaired metabolism in infants and children. As a result of these and other studies, professional health provider societies have called for a reduction in environmental chemical exposures. We summarize the resources available to health care providers to counsel patients on how to reduce chemical exposures. We conclude with a discussion of environmental policies that address chemical exposures and ultimately aim to improve public health.

  14. Environmental drivers of trait changes in Photorhabdus luminescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control agents have become increasingly important in integrated pest management programs. However, certain traits of these agents that are needed for efficient biocontrol often decrease or are lost during in vitro rearing. Trait deterioration can result from genetic or environmental cause...

  15. Volunteer for Change: A Guide to Environmental Community Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This booklet contains examples of volunteer projects related to solid waste management as developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), whose mission is to protect human health and the natural environment. EPA's Office of Solid Waste (OSW) promotes volunteerism and community service programs for people of all ages. A variety of…

  16. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #7: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This edition focuses on a recent UNEP report entitled, "Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1998 Assessment." Dr. Richard Zepp (ORD/NERL) is one of the Lead Authors of this report. The 1998 assessment focuses on new information produced since 1994. It also includes earlie...

  17. Does ecohydrological connectivity affect sensitivity to environmental change?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our goal is to understand the influences of complex terrain on the sensitivity of carbon and water cycle processes to environmental drivers at different scales. Gravity-driven flowpaths of air and water transport material and energy across and through landscapes, creating connec...

  18. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #7: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This edition focuses on a recent UNEP report entitled, "Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1998 Assessment." Dr. Richard Zepp (ORD/NERL) is one of the Lead Authors of this report. The 1998 assessment focuses on new information produced since 1994. It also includes earlie...

  19. Does ecohydrological connectivity affect sensitivity to environmental change?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our goal is to understand the influences of complex terrain on the sensitivity of carbon and water cycle processes to environmental drivers at different scales. Gravity-driven flowpaths of air and water transport material and energy across and through landscapes, creating connec...

  20. Environmental Education Evaluation: Time to Reflect, Time for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crohn, Kara; Birnbaum, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the "Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning," attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased…

  1. Social Climate Change: A Sociology of Environmental Philosophy

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Manning

    2003-01-01

    Democracy demands that public policy ultimately reflect evolving social thought. However, in the nonmarket realm of public land management, and environmental policy more broadly, where price signals that drive the free-market economy are generally lacking, this requires a concerted effort on the part of social science to measure and monitor societal values and related...

  2. Evolutionary rescue from extinction is contingent on a lower rate of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Haley A; Gallie, Jenna; Taylor, Susan; Kerr, Benjamin

    2013-02-28

    The extinction rate of populations is predicted to rise under increasing rates of environmental change. If a population experiencing increasingly stressful conditions lacks appropriate phenotypic plasticity or access to more suitable habitats, then genetic change may be the only way to avoid extinction. Evolutionary rescue from extinction occurs when natural selection enriches a population for more stress-tolerant genetic variants. Some experimental studies have shown that lower rates of environmental change lead to more adapted populations or fewer extinctions. However, there has been little focus on the genetic changes that underlie evolutionary rescue. Here we demonstrate that some evolutionary trajectories are contingent on a lower rate of environmental change. We allowed hundreds of populations of Escherichia coli to evolve under variable rates of increase in concentration of the antibiotic rifampicin. We then genetically engineered all combinations of mutations from isolates evolved under lower rates of environmental change. By assessing fitness of these engineered strains across a range of drug concentrations, we show that certain genotypes are evolutionarily inaccessible under rapid environmental change. Rapidly deteriorating environments not only limit mutational opportunities by lowering population size, but they can also eliminate sets of mutations as evolutionary options. As anthropogenic activities are leading to environmental change at unprecedented rapidity, it is critical to understand how the rate of environmental change affects both demographic and genetic underpinnings of evolutionary rescue.

  3. Microbial composition alters the response of litter decomposition to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Matulich, Kristin L; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-01-01

    Kecent studies cemonstrate that microorganisms are sensitive to environmental change, and that their community composition influences ecosystem functioning. However, it is unknown whether microbial composition interacts with the environment to affect the response of ecosystem processes to changing abiotic conditions. To investigate the potential for such interactive effects on leaf litter decomposition, we manipulated microbial composition and three environmental factors predicted to change in the future (moisture, nitrogen availability, and temperature). We isolated fungal and bacterial taxa from leaf litter and used them to construct unique communities. Communities were inoculated into microcosms containing sterile leaf litter and exposed to four environmental treatments (control conditions, increased temperature, decreased moisture, and elevated nitrogen availability). Respiration was tracked over 60 days, and communities were pyrosequenced to assess compositional changes. As hypothesized, composition and environmental treatment interacted to influence respiration rates. In particular, microbial composition interacted more strongly with changing nitrogen availability and less so with changing moisture or temperature. Further, the magnitude of a community's response to a particular environmental change was partly. explained by changes in composition over the course of the experiment; microcosms that showed a large change in respiration rate included more taxa whose relative abundance changed as well. Together, these results suggest that information about microbial composition may be more useful for predicting functional responses to some types of environmental changes than others.

  4. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Steven; Kortum, Samuel; Pakes, Ariel

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate “hedonic cost functions” that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices. PMID:8917486

  5. Global environmental change issues in the western Indian ocean region

    SciTech Connect

    Gable, F.J.; Aubrey, D.G.; Gentile, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Global climate change caused by increased atmospheric trace gas loading is expected to cause a variety of direct and indirect impacts. These impacts include rising sea levels, changes in storm climates, changes in precipitation patterns, and alterations of ocean circulation patterns. The purpose of the paper is to place into a regional context for the Western Indian Ocean region the problems arising from changes in global climate. Specifically, the paper will focus on the potential for impacts in the coastal zone, where the indirect pressures of climate change and anthropogenic forcings (e.g. pollution, dredging, coral mining) and policy (land use, coastal zone) collide.

  6. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles.

    PubMed

    Berry, S; Kortum, S; Pakes, A

    1996-11-12

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate "hedonic cost functions" that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices.

  7. Codes of environmental management practice: Assessing their potential as a tool for change

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, J.; Ehrenfeld, J.

    1997-12-31

    Codes of environmental management practice emerged as a tool of environmental policy in the late 1980s. Industry and other groups have developed codes for two purposes: to change the environmental behavior of participating firms and to increase public confidence in industry`s commitment to environmental protection. This review examines five codes of environmental management practice: Responsible Care, the International Chamber of Commerce`s Business Charter for Sustainable Development, ISO 14000, the CERES Principles, and The Natural Step. The first three codes have been drafted and promoted primarily by industry; the others have been developed by non-industry groups. These codes have spurred participating firms to introduce new practices, including the institution of environmental management systems, public environmental reporting, and community advisory panels. The extent to which codes are introducing a process of cultural change is considered in terms of four dimensions: new consciousness, norms, organization, and tools. 94 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Essential conservation of D1 mutant phenotype at the level of individual topographies of behaviour in mice lacking both D1 and D3 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wong, John Y F; Clifford, Jeremiah J; Massalas, Jim S; Kinsella, Anthony; Waddington, John L; Drago, John

    2003-05-01

    In the absence of agonists and antagonists evidencing appropriate selectivities, individual and interactive properties of D(1) and D(3) dopamine receptors would be illuminated most powerfully by their co-deletion. To define and contrast the behavioural phenotype of D(1)/D(3) double knockout mice in comparison with wild types, and with individual D(1) and D(3 )mutants. Behavioural phenotype was characterised using an ethologically based topographical technique. On comparison with wild types, D(1)/D(3) double mutants were characterised topographically as follows: increases in sniffing and locomotion, which evidenced delayed habituation; reductions in rearing free, rearing seated, grooming, chewing and stillness. Though the D(1)/D(3) double mutant ethogram comprised elements of both single mutant D(1) and D(3) lines, this phenotype was largely reflective of the D(1) mutant component. Distinct patterns of initial exploratory behaviour and of temporal change over subsequent habituation were evident across the three genotypes, with particular conservation of the D(1) phenotype in D(1)/D(3 )double mutants. Under the present conditions, there was little systematic evidence for D(1):D(3) interactions in the regulation of these aspects of behaviour.

  9. Combining environmental factors and agriculturalists' observations of environmental changes in the traditional terrace system of the Amalfi coast (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Savo, Valentina; Caneva, Giulia; McClatchey, Will; Reedy, David; Salvati, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Terraces are traditional engineered ecosystems that affect the hydro-geological equilibrium, slope stability, and local communities. The aims of this paper are (i) identifying environmental factors that affect terrace stability in the Amalfi Coast, (ii) defining agriculturalists' observations on environmental changes within that system and (iii) exploring potentiality of these observations to better define conservation strategies. All available data on physical and ecological factors recognized to affect the terrace system were collected and analyzed. Interviews were conducted with agriculturalists to obtain long-term observations on environmental factors that interact with this system. Landslides are more frequent where rainfall is high and during winter. Fires have an uneven annual distribution, with higher frequency during summers. Agriculturalists detailed complex interactions among environmental factors, economic elements, and terraces. These observations represent a valuable resource for defining causes and effects of abandonment and for better addressing conservation strategies.

  10. Environmental education evaluation: time to reflect, time for change.

    PubMed

    Crohn, Kara; Birnbaum, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning, attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased involvement of citizens in environmental issues in their regions. It further is nested in the context of potential political reforms in a stable market democracy where education is but one strategy that can be bundled with regulations and taxes/subsidies. Additional attention is directed to explaining many of the key evaluation theories--utilization-focused evaluation, evaluative capacity building, and program-theory driven evaluation. The final section of this chapter situates the subsequent chapters of this volume based on the demographic target (youth or adult) as well as connection to a particular evaluation theory. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geoscience for Alaska's D-1 Lands: A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Gamble, B.M.; Labay, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of This Report This interim report follows from the June 2006 recommendations to Congress by the BLM concerning disposition of the d-1 lands. That report recommended lifting of a significant number of d-1 PLOs, through the ongoing land management process within the BLM (e.g. resource management planning areas), or through Congressional action. The strategic actions outlined in this document refer only to Federal lands under US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) jurisdiction that 1) are affected by temporary withdrawals from mineral entry and mineral leasing by PLOs made pursuant to the Section 17(d)(1) of the ANCSA; 2) have been identified by the BLM as candidates for possible lifting of these PLOs and restrictions (U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 2006); and 3) lie outside of current Federal parks, preserves, monuments, refuges, reserves, wilderness areas and military installations that are closed to mineral entry, because within those areas the potential lifting of the d-1 restrictions has no practical effect. The resulting lands discussed here comprise approximately 121,000 km2 (29.9 million acres) of Alaska (Table 1) that, pending final resolution of Native and State land claims, will or may remain under Federal (BLM) control, and could be opened to mineral entry. For the purposes of this report, only these 29.9 million acres will hereafter be referred to as 'd-1' lands. This report gives a brief overview of the spatial distribution and physiographic setting, mineral occurrences, and mineral resource potential of the d-1lands. It outlines further geoscience information which could be compiled, collected, and evaluated in order to make a more accurate and comprehensive examination of the potential for undiscovered, locatable mineral resources on these Federal lands. This information is intended to provide guidance to USGS program managers and Federal land managers on matters of future exploration, access needs, and consequences of land status changes.

  12. Protist metabarcoding and environmental biomonitoring: Time for change.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, J; Lejzerowicz, F; Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil, L; Visco, J; Esling, P

    2016-08-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing of environmental DNA and/or RNA proved to be a powerful tool to describe protist diversity. This new approach called also the metabarcoding has totally transformed our view of protist diversity, revealing a large number of novel lineages and expanding the range of protist phylogenetic diversity at almost every taxonomic level. However, until now the objectives of the vast majority of metabarcoding studies were purely academic. Practical applications of protist metabarcoding are surprisingly scarce, despite the fact that several groups of protists are commonly used as bioindicators of environmental impacts in freshwater or marine ecosystems. Here, we are reviewing studies that examine the ecological applications of metabarcoding for two groups of well-known protist bioindicators: diatoms and foraminifera. The results of these studies show that despite some biological and technical biases, molecular data quite faithfully reflect the morphology-based biotic indices and provide a similar assessment of ecosystem status. In view of these results, protist metabarcoding appears as a rapid and accurate tool for the evaluation of the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Hence, we plead for integration of protist metabarcoding in future biomonitoring projects as a complement of traditional methods and a source of new biosensors for environmental impact assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Community Theories of Change: Linking Environmental Justice to Sustainability through Stakeholder Perceptions in Milwaukee, (WI, USA).

    PubMed

    Hornik, Kaitlyn; Cutts, Bethany; Greenlee, Andrew

    2016-09-30

    Environmental justice and sustainability are compatible lenses, yet action toward equity is often missing from urban sustainability initiatives. This study aims to assess the cohesion of these frameworks in practice. To do this, we parse individuals' theories of change, or how they identify and propose to resolve environmental injustices in the pursuit of sustainability. We posit that these theories of change are comprised of three main components: (1) perceived environmental benefits and burdens; (2) the causal pathways of environmental and social injustice; and (3) visions for positive change. Drawing from 35 stakeholder interviews in Milwaukee (WI, USA) we examine individual and institutional perspectives on environmental and social change and their links to the production of injustice. Our findings reveal that participants do not distinguish between environmental and social injustices. Instead, both social and environmental factors are implicated in injustice. Furthermore, we identify two mental maps for how social and economic change reproduce injustice. These findings suggest the need to reorient how urban injustice is considered and make efforts to acknowledge how a diversity of operational theories of change could either be divisive or could bring environmental justice and sustainability initiatives together.

  14. Community Theories of Change: Linking Environmental Justice to Sustainability through Stakeholder Perceptions in Milwaukee (WI, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Kaitlyn; Cutts, Bethany; Greenlee, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Environmental justice and sustainability are compatible lenses, yet action toward equity is often missing from urban sustainability initiatives. This study aims to assess the cohesion of these frameworks in practice. To do this, we parse individuals’ theories of change, or how they identify and propose to resolve environmental injustices in the pursuit of sustainability. We posit that these theories of change are comprised of three main components: (1) perceived environmental benefits and burdens; (2) the causal pathways of environmental and social injustice; and (3) visions for positive change. Drawing from 35 stakeholder interviews in Milwaukee (WI, USA) we examine individual and institutional perspectives on environmental and social change and their links to the production of injustice. Our findings reveal that participants do not distinguish between environmental and social injustices. Instead, both social and environmental factors are implicated in injustice. Furthermore, we identify two mental maps for how social and economic change reproduce injustice. These findings suggest the need to reorient how urban injustice is considered and make efforts to acknowledge how a diversity of operational theories of change could either be divisive or could bring environmental justice and sustainability initiatives together. PMID:27706068

  15. 42 CFR 52d.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants under the Clinical Cancer Education Program authorized by section 404(a)(4) of the Public Health Service Act, to...

  16. 42 CFR 52d.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants under the Clinical Cancer Education Program authorized by section 404(a)(4) of the Public Health Service Act, to...

  17. 42 CFR 52d.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants under the Clinical Cancer Education Program authorized by section 404(a)(4) of the Public Health Service Act, to...

  18. 42 CFR 52d.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants under the Clinical Cancer Education Program authorized by section 404(a)(4) of the Public Health Service Act, to...

  19. 42 CFR 52d.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants under the Clinical Cancer Education Program authorized by section 404(a)(4) of the Public Health Service Act, to...

  20. DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1955-07-27

    DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE MOUNTED IN THE NACA AMES RESEARCH CENTER'S 40X80_FOOT SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL Testing the boundary layer control of the A3D in the 40 x 80 wind tunnel. Boundary layer control was added to increase the lift of the wing for take off from an aircraft carrier.

  1. DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1955-07-27

    DOUGLAS XA3D-1 #413 AIRPLANE MOUNTED IN THE NACA AMES RESEARCH CENTER'S 40X80_FOOT SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL sweptback wing Testing the wing boundary layer control of the A3D in the 40 x 80 wind tunnel. Boundary layer control was added to increase the lift of the wing for aircraft carrier take off and landing.

  2. Environmental Education and Behavioral Change: An Identity-Based Environmental Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness of environmental education (EE) programs at fostering ecologically responsible behavior is analyzed through the lens of psychology. In section 1, a critique of knowledge and attitude appeals is presented using contemporary psychological understandings of these constructs to show why many EE programs have been met…

  3. Rapid ecosystem change challenges the adaptive capacity of Local Environmental Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Luz, Ana C.; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The use of Local Environmental Knowledge has been considered as an important strategy for adaptive management in the face of Global Environmental Change. However, the unprecedented rates at which global change occurs may pose a challenge to the adaptive capacity of local knowledge systems. In this paper, we use the concept of the shifting baseline syndrome to examine the limits in the adaptive capacity of the local knowledge of an indigenous society facing rapid ecosystem change. We conducted semi-structured interviews regarding perceptions of change in wildlife populations and in intergenerational transmission of knowledge amongst the Tsimane’, a group of hunter-gatherers of Bolivian Amazonia (n = 300 adults in 13 villages). We found that the natural baseline against which the Tsimane’ measure ecosystem changes might be shifting with every generation as a result of (a) age-related differences in the perception of change and (b) a decrease in the intergenerational sharing of environmental knowledge. Such findings suggest that local knowledge systems might not change at a rate quick enough to adapt to conditions of rapid ecosystem change, hence potentially compromising the adaptive success of the entire social-ecological system. With the current pace of Global Environmental Change, widening the gap between the temporal rates of on-going ecosystem change and the timescale needed for local knowledge systems to adjust to change, efforts to tackle the shifting baseline syndrome are urgent and critical for those who aim to use Local Environmental Knowledge as a tool for adaptive management. PMID:26097291

  4. Rapid ecosystem change challenges the adaptive capacity of Local Environmental Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Luz, Ana C; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-03-01

    The use of Local Environmental Knowledge has been considered as an important strategy for adaptive management in the face of Global Environmental Change. However, the unprecedented rates at which global change occurs may pose a challenge to the adaptive capacity of local knowledge systems. In this paper, we use the concept of the shifting baseline syndrome to examine the limits in the adaptive capacity of the local knowledge of an indigenous society facing rapid ecosystem change. We conducted semi-structured interviews regarding perceptions of change in wildlife populations and in intergenerational transmission of knowledge amongst the Tsimane', a group of hunter-gatherers of Bolivian Amazonia (n = 300 adults in 13 villages). We found that the natural baseline against which the Tsimane' measure ecosystem changes might be shifting with every generation as a result of (a) age-related differences in the perception of change and (b) a decrease in the intergenerational sharing of environmental knowledge. Such findings suggest that local knowledge systems might not change at a rate quick enough to adapt to conditions of rapid ecosystem change, hence potentially compromising the adaptive success of the entire social-ecological system. With the current pace of Global Environmental Change, widening the gap between the temporal rates of on-going ecosystem change and the timescale needed for local knowledge systems to adjust to change, efforts to tackle the shifting baseline syndrome are urgent and critical for those who aim to use Local Environmental Knowledge as a tool for adaptive management.

  5. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change - Phoenix, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Phoenix doesn’t have many cloudy days, so it’s perfect for studying urban growth with satellite images. Scientists and city planners study population growth and urban expansion in fast-growing cities like Phoenix to determine the changes that have occurred over time and to see how those changes impact the surrounding environment, affect the availability of natural resources such as water, and alter the landscape and how it’s used. That information can help people plan for future changes as cities continue to grow.

  6. Global Environmental Change: Modifying Human Contributions through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lynne M.

    1998-01-01

    Assesses the impact on participant behavior of a 2-1/2 day videoconference. Identifies three categories of personal behavior changes: (1) networking; (2) office procedures; and (3) curriculum development. Contains 34 references. (DDR)

  7. What Is Climate Change? (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Difference Between Global Warming and Climate Change? (National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration) - An explanation of the difference ... voters to remain in office. Climate Kids (National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration) - NASA's Eyes on the Earth ...

  8. Reproductive health, population growth, economic development and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, D W

    1993-01-01

    World population will increase by 1000 million, or by 20%, within 10 years. Ninety-five per cent of this increase will occur in the South, in areas that are already economically, environmentally and politically fragile. Morbidity and mortality associated with reproduction will be greater in the current decade than in any period in human history. Annually, 40-60 million pregnancies will be terminated and 5-10 million children will die within one year of birth. AIDS-related infections, e.g. tuberculosis, will undermine health care in Africa (and elsewhere) and in places AIDS-related deaths will decimate the work-force. The growth in population and associated morbidity will inhibit global economic development and spawn new problems. The key issues are migration, the spread of disease, the supply of water and the degradation of land, and fiscal policies with respect to family planning, pharmaceuticals and Third-World debt. Full education, particularly of women, and more effective family planning in the South have the power to unlock the problem. Failure will see the developed countries, with their 800 million population, swamped by the health, economic and environmental problems of the South, with its projected population of 5400 million people for the year 2000.

  9. Global environmental changes: setting priorities for Latin American coastal habitats.

    PubMed

    Turra, Alexander; Cróquer, Aldo; Carranza, Alvar; Mansilla, Andrés; Areces, Arsenio J; Werlinger, Camilo; Martínez-Bayón, Carlos; Nassar, Cristina Aparecida Gomes; Plastino, Estela; Schwindt, Evangelina; Scarabino, Fabrizio; Chow, Fungyi; Figueroa, Felix Lopes; Berchez, Flávio; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Soto, Luis A; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Copertino, Margareth S; de Széchy, Maria Tereza Menezes; Ghilardi-Lopes, Natalia Pirani; Horta, Paulo; Coutinho, Ricardo; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Leão, Zelinda Margarida de Andrade Nery

    2013-07-01

    As the effects of the Global Climate Changes on the costal regions of Central and South Americas advance, there is proportionally little research being made to understand such impacts. This commentary puts forward a series of propositions of strategies to improve performance of Central and South American science and policy making in order to cope with the future impacts of the Global Climate Changes in their coastal habitats. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Strengthening Multidisciplinary Research on Climate and Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Tom; Li, Jianping; Alverson, Keith

    2014-08-01

    The difficulty with multidisciplinary research is finding common ground for scientists, whose approach to a particular scientific problem can differ radically. For example, there is agreement between the geophysical community and the food science and technology community that food security is an important issue. However, the climate change community sees possible solutions coming from more detailed studies on the links between climate change and agriculture, whereas the food science community sees possible solutions emerging from studies of food logistics and supply chains.

  11. Proceedings, 1995 meeting of the Northern Global Change Program; 1995 March 14-16; Pittsburgh, PA. : Introduction/Environmental Change

    Treesearch

    John Hom; Richard Birdsey; Kelly O' Brian; eds.

    1996-01-01

    Contains articles presented at the 1995 Northern Global Change Program meeting on the following topics: monitoring and predicting regional environmental change, responses of northern tree species to regional stress, responses of ecosystem processes to regional stress, forest and landscape responses to regional stress and management activities, human-forest interactions...

  12. Environmental Health Indicators of Climate Change for the United States: Findings from the State Environmental Health Indicator Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    English, Paul B.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Ross, Zev; Anderson, Henry; Boothe, Vicki; Davis, Christine; Ebi, Kristie; Kagey, Betsy; Malecki, Kristen; Shultz, Rebecca; Simms, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop public health adaptation strategies and to project the impacts of climate change on human health, indicators of vulnerability and preparedness along with accurate surveillance data on climate-sensitive health outcomes are needed. We researched and developed environmental health indicators for inputs into human health vulnerability assessments for climate change and to propose public health preventative actions. Data sources We conducted a review of the scientific literature to identify outcomes and actions that were related to climate change. Data sources included governmental and nongovernmental agencies and the published literature. Data extraction Sources were identified and assessed for completeness, usability, and accuracy. Priority was then given to identifying longitudinal data sets that were applicable at the state and community level. Data synthesis We present a list of surveillance indicators for practitioners and policy makers that include climate-sensitive health outcomes and environmental and vulnerability indicators, as well as mitigation, adaptation, and policy indicators of climate change. Conclusions A review of environmental health indicators for climate change shows that data exist for many of these measures, but more evaluation of their sensitivity and usefulness is needed. Further attention is necessary to increase data quality and availability and to develop new surveillance databases, especially for climate-sensitive morbidity. PMID:20049116

  13. Environmental health indicators of climate change for the United States: findings from the State Environmental Health Indicator Collaborative.

    PubMed

    English, Paul B; Sinclair, Amber H; Ross, Zev; Anderson, Henry; Boothe, Vicki; Davis, Christine; Ebi, Kristie; Kagey, Betsy; Malecki, Kristen; Shultz, Rebecca; Simms, Erin

    2009-11-01

    To develop public health adaptation strategies and to project the impacts of climate change on human health, indicators of vulnerability and preparedness along with accurate surveillance data on climate-sensitive health outcomes are needed. We researched and developed environmental health indicators for inputs into human health vulnerability assessments for climate change and to propose public health preventative actions. We conducted a review of the scientific literature to identify outcomes and actions that were related to climate change. Data sources included governmental and nongovernmental agencies and the published literature. Sources were identified and assessed for completeness, usability, and accuracy. Priority was then given to identifying longitudinal data sets that were applicable at the state and community level. We present a list of surveillance indicators for practitioners and policy makers that include climate-sensitive health outcomes and environmental and vulnerability indicators, as well as mitigation, adaptation, and policy indicators of climate change. A review of environmental health indicators for climate change shows that data exist for many of these measures, but more evaluation of their sensitivity and usefulness is needed. Further attention is necessary to increase data quality and availability and to develop new surveillance databases, especially for climate-sensitive morbidity.

  14. Evolutionary tipping points in the capacity to adapt to environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Botero, Carlos A.; Weissing, Franz J.; Wright, Jonathan; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2015-01-01

    In an era of rapid climate change, there is a pressing need to understand how organisms will cope with faster and less predictable variation in environmental conditions. Here we develop a unifying model that predicts evolutionary responses to environmentally driven fluctuating selection and use this theoretical framework to explore the potential consequences of altered environmental cycles. We first show that the parameter space determined by different combinations of predictability and timescale of environmental variation is partitioned into distinct regions where a single mode of response (reversible phenotypic plasticity, irreversible phenotypic plasticity, bet-hedging, or adaptive tracking) has a clear selective advantage over all others. We then demonstrate that, although significant environmental changes within these regions can be accommodated by evolution, most changes that involve transitions between regions result in rapid population collapse and often extinction. Thus, the boundaries between response mode regions in our model correspond to evolutionary tipping points, where even minor changes in environmental parameters can have dramatic and disproportionate consequences on population viability. Finally, we discuss how different life histories and genetic architectures may influence the location of tipping points in parameter space and the likelihood of extinction during such transitions. These insights can help identify and address some of the cryptic threats to natural populations that are likely to result from any natural or human-induced change in environmental conditions. They also demonstrate the potential value of evolutionary thinking in the study of global climate change. PMID:25422451

  15. Evolutionary tipping points in the capacity to adapt to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Weissing, Franz J; Wright, Jonathan; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2015-01-06

    In an era of rapid climate change, there is a pressing need to understand how organisms will cope with faster and less predictable variation in environmental conditions. Here we develop a unifying model that predicts evolutionary responses to environmentally driven fluctuating selection and use this theoretical framework to explore the potential consequences of altered environmental cycles. We first show that the parameter space determined by different combinations of predictability and timescale of environmental variation is partitioned into distinct regions where a single mode of response (reversible phenotypic plasticity, irreversible phenotypic plasticity, bet-hedging, or adaptive tracking) has a clear selective advantage over all others. We then demonstrate that, although significant environmental changes within these regions can be accommodated by evolution, most changes that involve transitions between regions result in rapid population collapse and often extinction. Thus, the boundaries between response mode regions in our model correspond to evolutionary tipping points, where even minor changes in environmental parameters can have dramatic and disproportionate consequences on population viability. Finally, we discuss how different life histories and genetic architectures may influence the location of tipping points in parameter space and the likelihood of extinction during such transitions. These insights can help identify and address some of the cryptic threats to natural populations that are likely to result from any natural or human-induced change in environmental conditions. They also demonstrate the potential value of evolutionary thinking in the study of global climate change.

  16. Faunal change, environmental variability and late Pliocene hominin evolution.

    PubMed

    Bobe, René; Behrensmeyer, Anna K; Chapman, Ralph E

    2002-04-01

    Global change during the late Pliocene was manifested in declining temperatures, increased amplitude of climate cycles, and shifts in the periodicity of orbital climate forcing. Linking these changes to the evolution of African continental faunas and to hominin evolution requires well-documented fossil evidence that can be examined through substantial periods of time. The Omo sequence of southern Ethiopia provides such a database, and we use it to analyze change in the abundances of mammal taxa at different levels of temporal and taxonomic resolution between 4 and 2 Ma. This study provides new evidence for shifts through time in the ecological dominance of suids, cercopithecids, and bovids, and for a trend from more forested to more open woodland habitats. Superimposed on these long-term trends are two episodes of faunal change, one involving a marked shift in the abundances of different taxa at about 2.8+/-0.1 Ma, and the second the transition at 2.5 Ma from a 200-ka interval of faunal stability to marked variability over intervals of about 100 ka. The first appearance of Homo, the earliest artefacts, and the extinction of non-robust Australopithecus in the Omo sequence coincide in time with the beginning of this period of high variability. We conclude that climate change caused significant shifts in vegetation in the Omo paleo-ecosystem and is a plausible explanation for the gradual ecological change from forest to open woodland between 3.4 and 2.0 Ma, the faunal shift at 2.8 +/-0.1 Ma, and the change in the tempo of faunal variability of 2.5 Ma. Climate forcing in the late Pliocene is more clearly indicated by population shifts within the Omo mammal community than by marked turnover at the species level. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Simulating environmental changes due to marine hydrokinetic energy installations.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Craig A.; James, Scott Carlton; Roberts, Jesse Daniel; Seetho, Eddy

    2010-08-01

    Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) projects will extract energy from ocean currents and tides, thereby altering water velocities and currents in the site's waterway. These hydrodynamics changes can potentially affect the ecosystem, both near the MHK installation and in surrounding (i.e., far field) regions. In both marine and freshwater environments, devices will remove energy (momentum) from the system, potentially altering water quality and sediment dynamics. In estuaries, tidal ranges and residence times could change (either increasing or decreasing depending on system flow properties and where the effects are being measured). Effects will be proportional to the number and size of structures installed, with large MHK projects having the greatest potential effects and requiring the most in-depth analyses. This work implements modification to an existing flow, sediment dynamics, and water-quality code (SNL-EFDC) to qualify, quantify, and visualize the influence of MHK-device momentum/energy extraction at a representative site. New algorithms simulate changes to system fluid dynamics due to removal of momentum and reflect commensurate changes in turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. A generic model is developed to demonstrate corresponding changes to erosion, sediment dynamics, and water quality. Also, bed-slope effects on sediment erosion and bedload velocity are incorporated to better understand scour potential.

  18. Distant storms as drivers of environmental change at Pacific atolls.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jonathan P A; Garton, David W; Collen, John D; Zwartz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The central Pacific Ocean with its many low lying islands and atolls is under threat from sea level rise and increased storm activity. Here, we illustrate how increasing frequency and severity of large scale storm events associated with global climate change may be particularly profound at the local scale for human populations that rely on lagoon systems for provision of a variety of goods and services. In August 2011 a storm originating in the Southern Ocean caused a large amplitude ocean swell to move northward through the Pacific Ocean. Its arrival at Palmyra Atoll coincided with transient elevated sea surface height and triggered turnover of the lagoon water column. This storm-induced change to the lagoon reflects long distance connectivity with propagated wave energy from the Southern Ocean and illustrates the increasing threats generated by climate change that are faced by human populations on most low-lying Pacific islands and atolls.

  19. Distant Storms as Drivers of Environmental Change at Pacific Atolls

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Jonathan P. A.; Garton, David W.; Collen, John D.; Zwartz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The central Pacific Ocean with its many low lying islands and atolls is under threat from sea level rise and increased storm activity. Here, we illustrate how increasing frequency and severity of large scale storm events associated with global climate change may be particularly profound at the local scale for human populations that rely on lagoon systems for provision of a variety of goods and services. In August 2011 a storm originating in the Southern Ocean caused a large amplitude ocean swell to move northward through the Pacific Ocean. Its arrival at Palmyra Atoll coincided with transient elevated sea surface height and triggered turnover of the lagoon water column. This storm-induced change to the lagoon reflects long distance connectivity with propagated wave energy from the Southern Ocean and illustrates the increasing threats generated by climate change that are faced by human populations on most low-lying Pacific islands and atolls. PMID:24498232

  20. The Earth Is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change. Frontiers in Polar Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupnik, Igor, Ed.; Jolly, Dyanna, Ed.

    This book focuses on documenting and understanding the nature of environmental changes observed by indigenous residents of the Arctic. Common themes include increasing variability and unpredictability of the weather and seasonal climatic patterns, as well as changes in the sea ice and the health of wildlife. Nine papers focus on these changes,…

  1. In Search of Excellence: Practical Strategies for Managing Change in Environmental Health Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veninga, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes three methods intended to assist in assessing the attitudes of environmental health organization employees with regard to change. Focuses on ways to bring about orderly organizational change, how to evaluate whether the changes are effective, and how to diminish resistance to new ideas. (Author/TW)

  2. In Search of Excellence: Practical Strategies for Managing Change in Environmental Health Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veninga, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes three methods intended to assist in assessing the attitudes of environmental health organization employees with regard to change. Focuses on ways to bring about orderly organizational change, how to evaluate whether the changes are effective, and how to diminish resistance to new ideas. (Author/TW)

  3. The Earth Is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change. Frontiers in Polar Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupnik, Igor, Ed.; Jolly, Dyanna, Ed.

    This book focuses on documenting and understanding the nature of environmental changes observed by indigenous residents of the Arctic. Common themes include increasing variability and unpredictability of the weather and seasonal climatic patterns, as well as changes in the sea ice and the health of wildlife. Nine papers focus on these changes,…

  4. The Effect of Out-of School Activities on Conceptual Change in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbas, Cagri Ozturk

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determining the change in secondary school students' cognitive structure related to the concepts of environmental problems. There were 21th grades students of two middle schools in Kirsehir. In this research, the students participated in outdoor activities on environmental education programmes during 5 weekends…

  5. The history of environmental change and adaptation in eastern Saloum-Senegal—Driving forces and perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbow, Cheikh; Mertz, Ole; Diouf, Awa; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Reenberg, Anette

    2008-12-01

    Environmental change in the Sahel-Sudan zone of West Africa has been a major issue in development debates over the last decades. Using remote sensing based land cover change analysis, archival data, national and international statistical data, and household interviews, we analyze the drivers of environmental change in Eastern Saloum in Central East Senegal as well as the local perceptions of these changes and adaptation. Being part of the ground nut basin, Eastern Saloum has witnessed rapid environmental degradation caused by the conversion of forest and savanna areas to agricultural land during the last 20-30 years and by a combination of decline in precipitation, soil degradation, a diversity of policies with little concern for the environment, fluctuating markets and population pressure. Farmers perceive the environmental change mainly as land degradation and poor soil fertility, though recent extensification of agriculture counters this effect and has led to increased vegetation cover in marginal areas. They identified erratic climate, agricultural policies, insufficient food production and desire to increase income as the main drivers of change in the area. We conclude that while climate variability has influenced environmental change in the area, various types of State interventions in agriculture and global market fluctuations appear to have been the main underlying causes of environmental degradation.

  6. Pettaquamscutt Cove Salt Marsh: Environmental Conditions and Historical Ecological Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using historic air photos and U.S. Coast Survey maps, historic vegetation changes were identified. Using surveys of vegetation and elevation, we measure elevation of Narrow River salt marshes, and compare it with other salt marshes in Rhode Island and neighboring states. Water ...

  7. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  8. Pettaquamscutt Cove Salt Marsh: Environmental Conditions and Historical Ecological Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using historic air photos and U.S. Coast Survey maps, historic vegetation changes were identified. Using surveys of vegetation and elevation, we measure elevation of Narrow River salt marshes, and compare it with other salt marshes in Rhode Island and neighboring states. Water ...

  9. SPRUCE: Spruce and Peatland Responses under Climatic and Environmental Change

    DOE Data Explorer

    SPRUCE is an experiment to assess the response of northern peatland ecosystems to increases in temperature and exposures to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. It is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a Picea mariana [black spruce] - Sphagnum spp. bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. It is an ecosystem considered especially vulnerable to climate change, and anticipated to be near its tipping point with respect to climate change. Responses to warming and interactions with increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are anticipated to have important feedbacks on the atmosphere and climate, because of the high carbon stocks harbored by such ecosystems.[copied from http://mnspruce.ornl.gov/] While some data files are restricted to access by project members only, others are available for public download now, even as research is being actively conducted.

  10. THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY IN POPULATION DYNAMICS UNDER CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental variability can influence species distributions through changes in
    survival, fecundity, behavior, and metabolic activities. As worldwide coastal populations rise, the associated deforestation and development can increase both quantities and variability in runoff...

  11. Developmental and Geographical Equity in Global Environmental Change: A Framework for Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasperson, Roger E.; Dow, Kirstin M.

    1991-01-01

    Major equity problems in pursuing global environmental change are examined. They arise from the interaction of geographical discontinuities, uncertainty, and international development. A framework is proposed for equity analysis that considers both distributional and procedural equity. (SLD)

  12. Continuing the debate on the role of Quaternary environmental change for macroevolution.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, K D

    2004-01-01

    The Quaternary has been a period of dramatic environmental change for the past 1.8 Myr, with major shifts in distributions and abundances of terrestrial and marine organisms. The evolutionary consequences of this have been debated since the nineteenth century. However, the lack of accurate relative and absolute time-scales for evolutions and environmental change inhibited progress. We do now have an understanding of time-scales. Palaeoecology has demonstrated the individualistic nature of species' response to environmental change, but lacks a means of determining ancestry. DNA characterization of modern populations in relation to their distributions nicely complements palaeoecological results by contributing ancestry. The chance to understand how species originate and the causal factors of speciation (environmental change or otherwise) may be within reach. PMID:15101585

  13. THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY IN POPULATION DYNAMICS UNDER CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental variability can influence species distributions through changes in
    survival, fecundity, behavior, and metabolic activities. As worldwide coastal populations rise, the associated deforestation and development can increase both quantities and variability in runoff...

  14. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  15. Developmental and Geographical Equity in Global Environmental Change: A Framework for Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasperson, Roger E.; Dow, Kirstin M.

    1991-01-01

    Major equity problems in pursuing global environmental change are examined. They arise from the interaction of geographical discontinuities, uncertainty, and international development. A framework is proposed for equity analysis that considers both distributional and procedural equity. (SLD)

  16. Environmental policies to enhance technological change in the electricity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunol Del Rio, Eric

    International agreements on climate change mitigation set quantitative carbon emission reduction targets in a country for a given year with respect to a given base year. A central question is then on what time do the new clean and costly technologies need to start functioning to comply with the agreed targets, and under what incentive does the market implement them. The planner's economic problem is to design an incentive that makes the new clean technology less costly than the vintage polluting facility, at the precise time in order to comply with the agreements at minimum cost. Chapter 1 reviews the literature on efficient allocation of pollution, discussing its validity to explain induced technological change. It then presents a simple model of technological change showing that market power determes the optimal adoption time of a new technology. Chapter 2 analyzes the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change under different paths of technological progress. Furthermore, the paper examines the influence of market conditions. It shows that emission charges do reduce the firm's optimal adoption time when investment cost paths for the new technology are convex. On the contrary, emission charges may delay the optimal the switching time of a technology when the investment cost path is concave. Chapter 3 explores the results of Chapter 2 in an agent-based model. Simulations of firms adjusting their output a la Cournot show that the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change is highly dependant on the number of firms in the market. Moreover, the shape of the technological progress curve is determinant: the effects of carbon charges are not linear on carbon price, and become more uncertain the more concave the investment cost path is. These results show that policies aiming at internalizing pollution costs enhance technological change at very different rates, depending on the actual market conditions in the industry and

  17. Application of Remote Sensing for the Analysis of Environmental Changes in Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasheri, N.; Beqiraj, G.; Bushati, S.; Frasheri, A.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper there is presented a review of remote sensing studies carried out for investigation of environmental changes in Albania. Using, often simple methodologies and general purpose image processing software, and exploiting free Internet archives of satellite imagery, significant results were obtained for hot areas of environmental changes. Such areas include sea coasts experiencing sea transgression, temporal variations of vegetation and aerosols, lakes, landslides and regional tectonics. Internet archives of European Space Agency ESA and USA Geological Service USGS are used.

  18. Through the Eyes of Children: Perceptions of Environmental Change in Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Pellier, Anne-Sophie; Wells, Jessie A.; Abram, Nicola K.; Gaveau, David; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10–15 years) from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated “shifting environmental baselines” do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children through

  19. Through the eyes of children: perceptions of environmental change in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Pellier, Anne-Sophie; Wells, Jessie A; Abram, Nicola K; Gaveau, David; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10-15 years) from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated "shifting environmental baselines" do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children through artistic

  20. Adapting environmental management to uncertain but inevitable change

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Sam; Fuller, Richard A.; Iwamura, Takuya; Chadès, Iadine

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of adaptation actions to protect biodiversity is limited by uncertainty about the future. One reason for this is the fear of making the wrong decisions caused by the myriad future scenarios presented to decision-makers. We propose an adaptive management (AM) method for optimally managing a population under uncertain and changing habitat conditions. Our approach incorporates multiple future scenarios and continually learns the best management strategy from observations, even as conditions change. We demonstrate the performance of our AM approach by applying it to the spatial management of migratory shorebird habitats on the East Asian–Australasian flyway, predicted to be severely impacted by future sea-level rise. By accounting for non-stationary dynamics, our solution protects 25 000 more birds per year than the current best stationary approach. Our approach can be applied to many ecological systems that require efficient adaptation strategies for an uncertain future. PMID:25972463

  1. Using a Web Browser for Environmental and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Stackhouse, Paul; Mangosing, Daniel; Smith, G. Louis

    2002-01-01

    A new web browser for viewing and manipulating meteorological data sets is located on a web server at NASA, Langley Research Center. The browser uses a live access server (LAS) developed by the Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. LAS allows researchers to interact directly with the data to view, select, and subset the data in terms of location (latitude, longitude) and time such as day, month, or year. In addition, LAS can compare two data sets and can perform averages and variances, LAS is used here to show how it functions as an internet/web browser for use by the scientific and educational community. In particular its versatility in displaying and manipulating data sets of atmospheric measurements in the earth s radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, which includes measurements of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation is demonstrated. These measurements are from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment and the surface radiation budget (SRB) experiment.

  2. Using a Web Browser for Environmental and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Stackhouse, Paul; Mangosing, Daniel; Smith, G. Louis

    2005-01-01

    A new web browser for viewing and manipulating meteorological data sets is located on a web server at NASA, Langley Research Center. The browser uses a live access server (LAS) developed by the Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. LAS allows researchers to interact directly with the data to view, select, and subset the data in terms of location (latitude, longitude) and time such as day, month, or year. In addition, LAS can compare two data sets and can perform averages and variances, LAS is used here to show how it functions as an internet/web browser for use by the scientific and educational community. In particular its versatility in displaying and manipulating data sets of atmospheric measurements in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, which includes measurements of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation is demonstrated. These measurements are from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment and the surface radiation budget (SRB) experiment.

  3. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Ayeyarwady Delta—also called the Irrawaddy Delta—is a vast alluvial floodplain. The delta spans over 35,000 km2 (13,500 mi2) and was once home to an extensive tract of mangrove forests, but deforestation has changed the landscape. One scientific study estimated that the delta lost 1,685 km2 (651 mi2) from 1978 to 2011. This 40-year sequence of Landsat images shows the relatively rapid loss of mangrove forest.

  4. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Petermann Glacier, Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This calving is normal, but it’s worth watching Petermann and other Greenland glaciers closely. Petermann is one of the major marine-terminating glaciers of Greenland. Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased recently. An article in Nature concluded that climate change may cause Petermann and other Greenland glaciers to contribute to sea level rise. Landsat helps glaciologists keep a close eye on this remote but significant glacier.

  5. Potential responses of soil organic carbon to global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Trumbore, S E

    1997-08-05

    Recent improvements in our understanding of the dynamics of soil carbon have shown that 20-40% of the approximately 1,500 Pg of C stored as organic matter in the upper meter of soils has turnover times of centuries or less. This fast-cycling organic matter is largely comprised of undecomposed plant material and hydrolyzable components associated with mineral surfaces. Turnover times of fast-cycling carbon vary with climate and vegetation, and range from <20 years at low latitudes to >60 years at high latitudes. The amount and turnover time of C in passive soil carbon pools (organic matter strongly stabilized on mineral surfaces with turnover times of millennia and longer) depend on factors like soil maturity and mineralogy, which, in turn, reflect long-term climate conditions. Transient sources or sinks in terrestrial carbon pools result from the time lag between photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by plants and the subsequent return of C to the atmosphere through plant, heterotrophic, and microbial respiration. Differential responses of primary production and respiration to climate change or ecosystem fertilization have the potential to cause significant interrannual to decadal imbalances in terrestrial C storage and release. Rates of carbon storage and release in recently disturbed ecosystems can be much larger than rates in more mature ecosystems. Changes in disturbance frequency and regime resulting from future climate change may be more important than equilibrium responses in determining the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. Climate change in Australian tropical rainforests: an impending environmental catastrophe.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Stephen E; Bolitho, Elizabeth E; Fox, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that global climate change is affecting many ecosystems around the globe and that its impact is increasing rapidly. Many studies predict that impacts will consist largely of shifts in latitudinal and altitudinal distributions. However, we demonstrate that the impacts of global climate change in the tropical rainforests of northeastern Australia have the potential to result in many extinctions. We develop bioclimatic models of spatial distribution for the regionally endemic rainforest vertebrates and use these models to predict the effects of climate warming on species distributions. Increasing temperature is predicted to result in significant reduction or complete loss of the core environment of all regionally endemic vertebrates. Extinction rates caused by the complete loss of core environments are likely to be severe, nonlinear, with losses increasing rapidly beyond an increase of 2 degrees C, and compounded by other climate-related impacts. Mountain ecosystems around the world, such as the Australian Wet Tropics bioregion, are very diverse, often with high levels of restricted endemism, and are therefore important areas of biodiversity. The results presented here suggest that these systems are severely threatened by climate change. PMID:14561301

  7. Climate change in Australian tropical rainforests: an impending environmental catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen E; Bolitho, Elizabeth E; Fox, Samantha

    2003-09-22

    It is now widely accepted that global climate change is affecting many ecosystems around the globe and that its impact is increasing rapidly. Many studies predict that impacts will consist largely of shifts in latitudinal and altitudinal distributions. However, we demonstrate that the impacts of global climate change in the tropical rainforests of northeastern Australia have the potential to result in many extinctions. We develop bioclimatic models of spatial distribution for the regionally endemic rainforest vertebrates and use these models to predict the effects of climate warming on species distributions. Increasing temperature is predicted to result in significant reduction or complete loss of the core environment of all regionally endemic vertebrates. Extinction rates caused by the complete loss of core environments are likely to be severe, nonlinear, with losses increasing rapidly beyond an increase of 2 degrees C, and compounded by other climate-related impacts. Mountain ecosystems around the world, such as the Australian Wet Tropics bioregion, are very diverse, often with high levels of restricted endemism, and are therefore important areas of biodiversity. The results presented here suggest that these systems are severely threatened by climate change.

  8. Environmental analyse of soil organic carbon stock changes in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koco, Š.; Barančíková, G.; Skalský, R.; Tarasovičová, Z.; Gutteková, M.; Halas, J.; Makovníková, J.; Novákova, M.

    2012-04-01

    The content and quality of soil organic matter is one of the basic soil parameters on which soil production functioning depends as well as it is active in non production soil functions like an ecological one especially. Morphologic segmentation of Slovakia has significant influence of structure in using agricultural soil in specific areas of our territory. Also social changes of early 90´s of 20´th century made their impact on change of using of agricultural soil (transformation from large farms to smaller ones, decreasing the number of livestock). This research is studying changes of development of soil organic carbon stock (SOC) in agricultural soil of Slovakia as results of climatic as well as social and political changes which influenced agricultury since last 40 years. The main goal of this research is an analysis of soil organic carbon stock since 1970 until now at specific agroclimatic regions of Slovakia and statistic analysis of relation between modelled data of SOC stock and soil quality index value. Changes of SOC stock were evaluated on the basis SOC content modeling using RothC-26.3 model. From modeling of SOC stock results the outcome is that in that time the soil organic carbon stock was growing until middle 90´s years of 20´th century with the highest value in 1994. Since that year until new millennium SOC stock is slightly decreasing. After 2000 has slightly increased SOC stock so far. According to soil management SOC stock development on arable land is similar to overall evolution. In case of grasslands after slight growth of SOC stock since 1990 the stock is in decline. This development is result of transformational changes after 1989 which were specific at decreasing amount of organic carbon input from organic manure at grassland areas especially. At warmer agroclimatic regions where mollic fluvisols and chernozems are present and where are soils with good quality and steady soil organic matter (SOM) the amount of SOC in monitored time is

  9. New Trends in Natural Hazards and Global Environmental Change Science Communication and Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays perhaps just as puzzling as the biggest issues at the core of Earth science is the nature of communicating Natural Hazards and Global Environmental Change Science and its relationship to the climate change and food security. During my presentation I will examine the processes of communication necessary in bridging the gap between natural hazards and global environmental change knowledge and public opinion and policy. This contribution is based on the previous research conducted in the fields of science and society; and it will demonstrate some of the most proactive and prescriptive approaches to engaging in communication with the public, the media, and policy makers about the importance of natural hazards and global environmental change science in everyday life. The preliminary research emphasizes communication principles and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new natural hazards global environmental change issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency. This presentation will benefit chiefly natural hazards and environmental professionals, researchers, educators, and policy makers interested in the fields of natural hazards, global environmental and climate change and food security.

  10. Dynamics of molecular evolution in RNA virus populations depend on sudden versus gradual environmental change.

    PubMed

    Morley, Valerie J; Turner, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the dynamics of molecular adaptation is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. While adaptation to constant environments has been well characterized, the effects of environmental complexity remain seldom studied. One simple but understudied factor is the rate of environmental change. Here we used experimental evolution with RNA viruses to investigate whether evolutionary dynamics varied based on the rate of environmental turnover. We used whole-genome next-generation sequencing to characterize evolutionary dynamics in virus populations adapting to a sudden versus gradual shift onto a novel host cell type. In support of theoretical models, we found that when populations evolved in response to a sudden environmental change, mutations of large beneficial effect tended to fix early, followed by mutations of smaller beneficial effect; as predicted, this pattern broke down in response to a gradual environmental change. Early mutational steps were highly parallel across replicate populations in both treatments. The fixation of single mutations was less common than sweeps of associated "cohorts" of mutations, and this pattern intensified when the environment changed gradually. Additionally, clonal interference appeared stronger in response to a gradual change. Our results suggest that the rate of environmental change is an important determinant of evolutionary dynamics in asexual populations.

  11. Assessing the Vulnerability of Eco-Environmental Health to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shilu; Mather, Peter; Fitzgerald, Gerry; McRae, David; Verrall, Ken; Walker, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need to assess the vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. This paper aims to provide an overview of current research, to identify knowledge gaps, and to propose future research needs in this challenging area. Evidence shows that climate change is affecting and will, in the future, have more (mostly adverse) impacts on ecosystems. Ecosystem degradation, particularly the decline of the life support systems, will undoubtedly affect human health and wellbeing. Therefore, it is important to develop a framework to assess the vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change, and to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to minimize the impact of climate change. PMID:20616990

  12. Assessing the vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shilu; Mather, Peter; Fitzgerald, Gerry; McRae, David; Verrall, Ken; Walker, Dylan

    2010-02-01

    There is an urgent need to assess the vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. This paper aims to provide an overview of current research, to identify knowledge gaps, and to propose future research needs in this challenging area. Evidence shows that climate change is affecting and will, in the future, have more (mostly adverse) impacts on ecosystems. Ecosystem degradation, particularly the decline of the life support systems, will undoubtedly affect human health and wellbeing. Therefore, it is important to develop a framework to assess the vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change, and to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to minimize the impact of climate change.

  13. Environmental consequences of geochemical change in hot spring ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems provide a natural laboratory for studying the effects of geochemical change over time, and for testing predictions of how geochemical change will affect microbial ecology. Hot springs in hydrothermal areas that express the results of subsurface boiling, phase separation, and differential movement of liquid phase and vapor phase constituents can fluctuate in temperature and composition. Since 1999 we have sampled several fluctuating hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, and those hat experience large geochemical changes provide opportunities to quantify the effects of fluctuations on chemical energy supplies. Annual samples from Obsidian Pool (Mud Volcano Area) showed that pH increased from 6.5 (in 1999) to 6.8 (’00), steadily decreased to 4.2 (’06), and then increased to 5.2 (’09), with temperature ranging from 76.4 to 85.3°C. Simultaneously the chloride concentration increased by 65% (from 18.5 ppm in 1999 to 30.7 ppm in 2009), indicative of increased hydrothermal input, and the sulfate concentration increased by over 300% (from 50.0 ppm in 2000 to 203.8 ppm in 2009), suggesting an increased gas-phase sulfide input and subsequent oxidation. Several energy yielding reactions at a pH of 6.5 no longer yield energy at pH of 4.2. This suggests that microorganisms that use those pathways had a negative selection pressure with the drop in pH. As an example, the chemical affinity for sulfur reduction to pyrite coupled to iron oxidation to goethite changed from 7.1 (pH = 6.5) to -1.3 kcal/mol e- (pH = 4.2), and once again had a positive value at pH = 5.2. This means that microorganisms using this pathway may once again inhabit the hot spring while many others from when the pH was 6.5 still have a negative selection pressure. The pH of another hot spring in the Sylvan Springs Area steadily increased from 3.7 (’04) to 7.6 (’08) while the temp. decreased from 52.9 to 41.9°C, chloride concentration increased by 32% (from 464 to 614 ppm

  14. Environmental changes define ecological limits to species richness and reveal the mode of macroevolutionary competition.

    PubMed

    Ezard, Thomas H G; Purvis, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Co-dependent geological and climatic changes obscure how species interact in deep time. The interplay between these environmental factors makes it hard to discern whether ecological competition exerts an upper limit on species richness. Here, using the exceptional fossil record of Cenozoic Era macroperforate planktonic foraminifera, we assess the evidence for alternative modes of macroevolutionary competition. Our models support an environmentally dependent macroevolutionary form of contest competition that yields finite upper bounds on species richness. Models of biotic competition assuming unchanging environmental conditions were overwhelmingly rejected. In the best-supported model, temperature affects the per-lineage diversification rate, while both temperature and an environmental driver of sediment accumulation defines the upper limit. The support for contest competition implies that incumbency constrains species richness by restricting niche availability, and that the number of macroevolutionary niches varies as a function of environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hydrochloric acid: an overlooked driver of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Evans, Chris D; Monteith, Don T; Fowler, David; Cape, J Neil; Brayshaw, Susan

    2011-03-01

    Research on the ecosystem impacts of acidifying pollutants, and measures to control them, has focused almost exclusively on sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), although emitted by coal burning, has been overlooked as a driver of ecosystem change because most of it was considered to redeposit close to emission sources rather than in remote natural ecosystems. Despite receiving little regulatory attention, measures to reduce S emissions, and changes in energy supply, have led to a 95% reduction in United Kingdom HCl emissions within 20 years. Long-term precipitation, surface water, and soil solution data suggest that the near-disappearance of HCl from deposition could account for 30-40% of chemical recovery from acidification during this time, affecting both near-source and remote areas. Because HCl is highly mobile in reducing environments, it is a more potent acidifier of wetlands than S or N, and HCl may have been the major driver of past peatland acidification. Reduced HCl loadings could therefore have affected the peatland carbon cycle, contributing to increases in dissolved organic carbon leaching to surface waters. With many regions increasingly reliant on coal for power generation, HCl should be recognized as a potentially significant constituent of resulting emissions, with distinctive ecosystem impacts.

  16. Adapting environmental management to uncertain but inevitable change.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Sam; Fuller, Richard A; Iwamura, Takuya; Chadès, Iadine

    2015-06-07

    Implementation of adaptation actions to protect biodiversity is limited by uncertainty about the future. One reason for this is the fear of making the wrong decisions caused by the myriad future scenarios presented to decision-makers. We propose an adaptive management (AM) method for optimally managing a population under uncertain and changing habitat conditions. Our approach incorporates multiple future scenarios and continually learns the best management strategy from observations, even as conditions change. We demonstrate the performance of our AM approach by applying it to the spatial management of migratory shorebird habitats on the East Asian-Australasian flyway, predicted to be severely impacted by future sea-level rise. By accounting for non-stationary dynamics, our solution protects 25,000 more birds per year than the current best stationary approach. Our approach can be applied to many ecological systems that require efficient adaptation strategies for an uncertain future. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Late Quaternary environmental change in the Bonneville basin, western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madsen, D.B.; Rhode, D.; Grayson, D.K.; Broughton, J.M.; Livingston, S.D.; Hunt, J.; Quade, Jay; Schmitt, D.N.; Shaver, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    Excavation and analyses of small animal remains from stratified raptor deposits spanning the last 11.5 ka, together with collection and analysis of over 60 dated fossil woodrat midden samples spanning the last 50 ka, provide a detailed record of changing climate in the eastern Great Basin during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Sagebrush steppe dominated the northern Bonneville basin during the Full Glacial, suggesting that conditions were cold and relatively dry, in contrast to the southern basin, which was also cold but moister. Limber pine woodlands dominated ???13-11.5 ka, indicating increased dryness and summer temperatures ???6-7??C cooler than present. This drying trend accelerated after ???11.5 ka causing Lake Bonneville to drop rapidly, eliminating 11 species of fish from the lake. From ???11.5-8.2 ka xerophytic sagebrush and shadscale scrub replaced more mesophilic shrubs in a step-wise fashion. A variety of small mammals and plants indicate the early Holocene was ???3??C cooler and moister than at present, not warmer as suggested by a number of climatic models. The diversity of plants and animals changed dramatically after 8.2 ka as many species disappeared from the record. Some of the upland species returned after ???4 ka and Great Salt Lake became fresh enough at ???3.4 and ???1.2 ka to support populations of Utah chub. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Education in Changing Communication in Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2009-12-01

    The “Training and Education” Programme in the European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change ACCENT (www.accent-network.org, 2004-09) has aimed to introduce a shift in the mindset and approach to science communication among early career scientists and a wider audience. Training workshops in science communication organized across Europe and the Far East past the last five years dealt with the question where traditional lines of communication fail and how this can be remedied. In inspiring partnerships with stakeholder groups, opportunities were created for mutual learning and gaining experience in the process of translating air quality and climate change science to non-scientists. The core message is that the next generation of leaders in the field should make sure that the translation is scientifically acceptable, and should stay in control of the translation process. Evolving good practice in science communication education for future leaders in the field of atmospheric sciences in Europe and the Far East is illustrated based on ACCENT experiences.

  19. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of neuroprotectin D1 / protectin D1 and its aspirin-triggered stereoisomer

    PubMed Central

    Petasis, Nicos A.; Yang, Rong; Winkler, Jeremy W.; Zhu, Min; Uddin, Jasim; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroprotectin D1 / protectin D1, a potent anti-inflammatory, proresolving, and neuroprotective lipid mediator derived biosynthetically from docosahexaenoic acid, was prepared in enantiomerically pure form via total organic synthesis. The synthetic strategy is highly stereocontrolled and convergent, featuring epoxide opening of glycidol starting materials for the introduction of the 10(R) and 17(S) hydroxyl groups. The desired alkene Z geometry was secured via the cis-reduction of alkyne precursors, while the conjugated E,E,Z triene was introduced at the end, in order to minimize Z/E isomerization. The same strategy, was also employed for the total synthesis of aspirin-triggered neuroprotectin D1 / protectin D1 having the 17(R)-stereochemistry. Synthetic compounds obtained with the reported method were matched with endogenously derived materials, and helped establish their complete stereochemistry. PMID:22690022

  20. Potential effects of global environmental changes on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Lal, Aparna; Baker, Michael G; Hales, Simon; French, Nigel P

    2013-02-01

    Global climate change will affect the viability and spread of zoonotic parasites, while agricultural land use changes will influence infection sources and reservoirs. The health impact of these environmental changes will depend on the social, economic and physical resilience of the population. This review describes the influence of climatic variability, land-use changes, and social factors on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in humans. Global to public health to individual-level interventions to reduce future disease burden are highlighted. Because future environmental change is expected to have the greatest health impacts in countries with limited resources, increasing research and adaptation capabilities in these regions is emphasized. Understanding how environmental and social processes interact to influence disease transmission is essential for the development of effective strategies for disease prevention.

  1. The smell of environmental change: Using floral scent to explain shifts in pollinator attraction1

    PubMed Central

    Burkle, Laura A.; Runyon, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    As diverse environmental changes continue to influence the structure and function of plant–pollinator interactions across spatial and temporal scales, we will need to enlist numerous approaches to understand these changes. Quantitative examination of floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one approach that is gaining popularity, and recent work suggests that floral VOCs hold substantial promise for better understanding and predicting the effects of environmental change on plant–pollinator interactions. Until recently, few ecologists were employing chemical approaches to investigate mechanisms by which components of environmental change may disrupt these essential mutualisms. In an attempt to make these approaches more accessible, we summarize the main field, laboratory, and statistical methods involved in capturing, quantifying, and analyzing floral VOCs in the context of changing environments. We also highlight some outstanding questions that we consider to be highly relevant to making progress in this field. PMID:28690928

  2. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    Our study focuses on a multiproxy analysis of sedimentary records from Lago Bertrand (area 50 km2; 227 masl; 46°55'S 72°50'W). Three cores were retrieved during fieldtrips in 2009 and 2011 with an Uwitec gravity corer. One core was collected in the main lake (LBt09, 102 cm) and two others in a lateral extension (LBb11-A, 162 cm and LBb11-B, 156 cm). Data 210Pb and 137Cs give average sedimentation rates of 2 mm/yr for the upper core section from the main lake, allowing a decennial resolution. Our aim is to document the climatic variability during the last millennium in Northern Patagonia and its impact on the environment. Lago Bertrand is separated from a pro-glacial lake (Lago Plomo) by a morainic barrier. The sediments of this lake are mainly composed of clayed silts and very few sandy silts. In the cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand, X-ray radiographies and magnetic susceptibility profiles evidence well-defined pluri-millimetric laminations with organic-rich layers, especially in the central core section. In the main lake, X-ray radiographies show diffuse pluri-millimetric laminations while magnetic susceptibility profiles do not confirm it. The sediments of the main lake appear more homogeneous with less organic-rich layers. They are characterized by low C/N ratio (10), supporting an important aquatic productivity; high inorganic content (90-95% of the bulk sediment); two peaks in the biological silica profile; and abundant diatoms (50-100 µm). According to the age model, the changes in aquatic productivity occurred between 1700 and 1850 AD. The cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand are under investigation to confirm the extension of the sedimentological changes observed in the main lake. The main sedimentological change observed in Lago Bertrand occurs during an interval equivalent to a part of the Little Ice Age. A similar biogenic silica-rich layer was also recorded in another relatively distant lake (Lago Thompson at 45°30'S, 72°47

  3. Plant responses to soil heterogeneity and global environmental change.

    PubMed

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Bardgett, Richard D; de Kroon, Hans

    2012-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that soil nutrient heterogeneity, a ubiquitous feature of terrestrial ecosystems, modulates plant responses to ongoing global change (GC). However, we know little about the overall trends of such responses, the GC drivers involved, and the plant attributes affected.We synthesized literature to answer the question: Does soil heterogeneity significantly affect plant responses to main GC drivers, such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), nitrogen (N) enrichment and changes in rainfall regime?Overall, most studies have addressed short-term effects of N enrichment on the performance of model plant communities using experiments conducted under controlled conditions. The role of soil heterogeneity as a modulator of plant responses to elevated CO2 may depend on the plasticity in nutrient uptake patterns. Soil heterogeneity does interact with N enrichment to determine plant growth and nutrient status, but the outcome of this interaction has been found to be both synergistic and inhibitory. The very few studies published on interactive effects of soil heterogeneity and changes in rainfall regime prevented us from identifying any general pattern.We identify the long-term consequences of soil heterogeneity on plant community dynamics in the field, and the ecosystem level responses of the soil heterogeneity × GC driver interaction, as the main knowledge gaps in this area of research.In order to fill these gaps and take soil heterogeneity and GC research a step forward, we propose the following research guidelines: 1) combining morphological and physiological plant responses to soil heterogeneity with field observations of community composition and predictions from simulation models; and 2) incorporating soil heterogeneity into a trait-based response-effect framework, where plant resource-use traits are used as both response variables to this heterogeneity and GC, and predictors of ecosystem functioning.Synthesis. There is enough

  4. Plant responses to soil heterogeneity and global environmental change

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bardgett, Richard D.; de Kroon, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent evidence suggests that soil nutrient heterogeneity, a ubiquitous feature of terrestrial ecosystems, modulates plant responses to ongoing global change (GC). However, we know little about the overall trends of such responses, the GC drivers involved, and the plant attributes affected. We synthesized literature to answer the question: Does soil heterogeneity significantly affect plant responses to main GC drivers, such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), nitrogen (N) enrichment and changes in rainfall regime? Overall, most studies have addressed short-term effects of N enrichment on the performance of model plant communities using experiments conducted under controlled conditions. The role of soil heterogeneity as a modulator of plant responses to elevated CO2 may depend on the plasticity in nutrient uptake patterns. Soil heterogeneity does interact with N enrichment to determine plant growth and nutrient status, but the outcome of this interaction has been found to be both synergistic and inhibitory. The very few studies published on interactive effects of soil heterogeneity and changes in rainfall regime prevented us from identifying any general pattern. We identify the long-term consequences of soil heterogeneity on plant community dynamics in the field, and the ecosystem level responses of the soil heterogeneity × GC driver interaction, as the main knowledge gaps in this area of research. In order to fill these gaps and take soil heterogeneity and GC research a step forward, we propose the following research guidelines: 1) combining morphological and physiological plant responses to soil heterogeneity with field observations of community composition and predictions from simulation models; and 2) incorporating soil heterogeneity into a trait-based response-effect framework, where plant resource-use traits are used as both response variables to this heterogeneity and GC, and predictors of ecosystem functioning. Synthesis

  5. Evidence for Environmental Changes in the Submillimeter Dust Opacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter G.; Roy, Arabindo; Bontemps, Sylvain; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Ade, Peter A. R.; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C.; Hughes, David H.; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S.; Viero, Marco P.; Wiebe, Donald V.

    2012-05-01

    The submillimeter opacity of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the Galactic plane has been quantified using a pixel-by-pixel correlation of images of continuum emission with a proxy for column density. We used multi-wavelength continuum data: three Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope bands at 250, 350, and 500 μm and one IRAS band at 100 μm. The proxy is the near-infrared color excess, E(J - K s), obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Based on observations of stars, we show how well this color excess is correlated with the total hydrogen column density for regions of moderate extinction. The ratio of emission to column density, the emissivity, is then known from the correlations, as a function of frequency. The spectral distribution of this emissivity can be fit by a modified blackbody, whence the characteristic dust temperature T and the desired opacity σe(1200) at 1200 GHz or 250 μm can be obtained. We have analyzed 14 regions near the Galactic plane toward the Vela molecular cloud, mostly selected to avoid regions of high column density (N H > 1022 cm-2) and small enough to ensure a uniform dust temperature. We find σe(1200) is typically (2-4) × 10-25 cm2 H-1 and thus about 2-4 times larger than the average value in the local high Galactic latitude diffuse atomic ISM. This is strong evidence for grain evolution. There is a range in total power per H nucleon absorbed (and re-radiated) by the dust, reflecting changes in the strength of the interstellar radiation field and/or the dust absorption opacity. These changes in emission opacity and power affect the equilibrium T, which is typically 15 K, colder than at high latitudes. Our analysis extends, to higher opacity and lower temperature, the trend of increasing σe(1200) with decreasing T that was found at high latitudes. The recognition of changes in the emission opacity raises a cautionary flag because all column densities deduced from dust emission maps, and the

  6. EVIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN THE SUBMILLIMETER DUST OPACITY

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter G.; Roy, Arabindo; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Bontemps, Sylvain; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume; and others

    2012-05-20

    The submillimeter opacity of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the Galactic plane has been quantified using a pixel-by-pixel correlation of images of continuum emission with a proxy for column density. We used multi-wavelength continuum data: three Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope bands at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m and one IRAS band at 100 {mu}m. The proxy is the near-infrared color excess, E(J - K{sub s}), obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Based on observations of stars, we show how well this color excess is correlated with the total hydrogen column density for regions of moderate extinction. The ratio of emission to column density, the emissivity, is then known from the correlations, as a function of frequency. The spectral distribution of this emissivity can be fit by a modified blackbody, whence the characteristic dust temperature T and the desired opacity {sigma}{sub e}(1200) at 1200 GHz or 250 {mu}m can be obtained. We have analyzed 14 regions near the Galactic plane toward the Vela molecular cloud, mostly selected to avoid regions of high column density (N{sub H} > 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) and small enough to ensure a uniform dust temperature. We find {sigma}{sub e}(1200) is typically (2-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -25} cm{sup 2} H{sup -1} and thus about 2-4 times larger than the average value in the local high Galactic latitude diffuse atomic ISM. This is strong evidence for grain evolution. There is a range in total power per H nucleon absorbed (and re-radiated) by the dust, reflecting changes in the strength of the interstellar radiation field and/or the dust absorption opacity. These changes in emission opacity and power affect the equilibrium T, which is typically 15 K, colder than at high latitudes. Our analysis extends, to higher opacity and lower temperature, the trend of increasing {sigma}{sub e}(1200) with decreasing T that was found at high latitudes. The recognition of changes in the emission opacity

  7. The Importance of Contexts in Strategies of Environmental Organizations with Regard to Climate Change

    PubMed

    Pleune

    1997-09-01

    / The purpose of the study was to investigate the extent to which strategies of environmental organizations depend on contexts. I examined this dependence by analyzing the strategies of five environmental organizations in the Netherlands with regard to climate change. These strategies were investigated over time and compared with the strategies these organizations had used in relation to ozone depletion and acidification. The results indicate that several of the organizations changed their strategies with respect to climate change over time. Furthermore, different strategies were used simultaneously in relation to the three problems. The findings suggest that strategies concerning climate change were to a considerable extent determined by the dominant framing of the problem in society. This framing was defined mainly by actors other than environmental organizations. The initial framing of climate change as a CO2 problem, which brought the issue into the energy debate, as well as the more general definition of the problem in the late 1980s as a greenhouse problem, were very important for determining the strategies of the organizations. It can be concluded that strategies of Dutch environmental organizations with regard to climate change were strongly dependent on the context.KEY WORDS: Environmental organization; Strategy; Climate change; Man-nature relationship; Problem definition; Context

  8. Corticosterone responses and personality in birds: Individual variation and the ability to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, John F

    2013-09-01

    Birds can respond to an internal or external stimulus with activation of the HPA axis and secretion of corticosterone. There is considerable individual variation in corticosterone responses, and individual responses can be very different from the mean response for a group of birds. Corticosterone responses and behavioural responses to environmental stimuli are determined by individual characteristics called personality. It is proposed that birds with low corticosterone responses and proactive personalities are likely to be more successful (have greater fitness) in constant or predictable conditions, whilst birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be more successful in changing or unpredictable conditions. The relationship between corticosterone responses and fitness thus depends on the prevailing environmental conditions, so birds with either low or high corticosterone responses can have the greatest fitness and be most successful, but in different situations. It is also proposed that birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be better able to cope with environmental changes due to climate change than birds with proactive personalities and relatively low corticosterone responses. Phenotypic plasticity in corticosterone responses can be quantified using a reaction norm approach, and reaction norms can be used to determine the degree of plasticity in corticosterone responses of individual birds, and mean levels of plasticity in responses of species of birds. Individual corticosterone responses and personality, and reaction norms for corticosterone responses, can in future be used to predict the ability of birds to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

  9. Evaluation of D-1 tape and cassette characteristics: Moisture content of Sony and Ampex D-1 tapes when delivered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, Gary

    Commercial D-1 cassette tapes and their associated recorders were designed to operate in broadcast studios and record in accordance with the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) 607 digital video standards. The D-1 recorder resulted in the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) standards 224 to 228 and is the first digital video recorder to be standardized for the broadcast industry. The D-1 cassette and associated media are currently marketed for broadcast use. The recorder was redesigned for data applications and is in the early stages of being evaluated. The digital data formats used are specified in MIL-STD-2179 and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.175-190 standard. In early 1990, the National Media Laboratory (NML) was asked to study the effects of time, temperature, and relative humidity on commercial D-1 cassettes. The environmental range to be studied was the one selected for the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS) program. Several discussions between NML personnel, ATARS representatives, recorder contractors, and other interested parties were held to decide upon the experimental plan to be implemented. Review meetings were held periodically during the course of the experiment. The experiments were designed to determine the dimensional stability of the media and cassette since this is one of the major limiting factors of helical recorders when the media or recorders are subjected to non-broadcasting environments. Measurements were also made to characterize each sample of cassettes to give preliminary information on which purchase specifications could be developed. The actual tests performed on the cassettes and media before and after aging fall into the general categories listed.

  10. Environmental Changes Assessment of Coastal Zones by Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Liviu Florin; Golovanov, Carmen Ionescu; Zoran, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Fuzzy theory applied for the analysis of coastal areas changes, for which each pixel on the map is assigned a membership grade in all classes, represent reasonable alternatives to traditional fixed classifications. Mixture modeling and subpixel spectral analysis is used for the percent cover of individual cover types within a pixel assessment. These methods require a definition of spectral endmembers, which is difficult (and perhaps impossible) for complex and highly variable land cover units. Fuzzy classifications and mixture/subpixel models provide information on variations in spectral signature between pixels and not on differences in the on-the-ground content of mapped land cover. The coastal zone units are recognized on a ground truth map of an area using Landsat Thematic Mapper ™ and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) as well as SAR ERS-1 imagery for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone, Romania, over 1989-2008 period.

  11. Lateglacial and Holocene environmental changes in Ganga plain, Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Joachimski, M.; Sharma, M.; Tobschall, H. J.; Singh, I. B.; Sharma, C.; Chauhan, M. S.; Morgenroth, G.

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotope, elemental geochemistry and pollen analysis of a sediment profile from Sanai lake, Central Ganga Plain, were used to document climatic oscillations during the last ˜15,000 yr in Indian subcontinent. Micaceous sandy sediments at the base of the profile indicate an active channel and humid conditions before ˜15,000 14C yr BP. The channel was abandoned during comparatively arid conditions (15,000-13,000 14C yr BP) and converted into a swamp. Enhanced humidity around 13,000 14C yr BP led to submergence of marshes and establishment of a large lake. A dry phase is also identified around an estimated age of 11,500-10,500 14C yr BP which might correspond to the Younger Dryas event witnessed globally. The Early to Mid-Holocene climatic optimum (˜10,000-5800 14C yr BP) is characterised by a lake environment. Occurence of warmth loving aquatic plants, lower δ 18O values of gastropod aragonite, heavier δ 13C org values indicate a sensitive response of the lake ecology to the climatic warming and increased rainfall. This is followed by an arid event during 5000-2000 14C yr BP and from ˜1700 14C yr BP there is evidence of climatic amelioration. The sequence and magnitude of the millenium-scale climatic oscillations documented along the lake profile correlate well with records from other parts of the Indian subcontinent indicating that the recorded changes are an expression of broad scale, probably global and climatic change.

  12. Environmental Change Science Literacy Through Writing: Successes in an Undergraduate Writing and Composition Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Basic science literacy, especially with regards to environmental change science, is often lacking in traditional K- 12 and undergraduate education. This generally leads to broad misconceptions based on distorted presentations of science in the media. Current educational research suggests that the teaching and learning of science can happen in many ways, whether it is through lectures, labs, research, inquiry or informal learning activities. This study was motivated by the desire to investigate the ability to teach environmental change science content in the non-traditional mode of an undergraduate composition and writing course. This technique offers educators another option for the integration of climate and environmental change material into their curriculum. The study incorporates the assessment and evaluation of student writing, in-class participation and student self- evaluations from "Writing about Change: Global Environmental Change and Society" a writing course that fulfils a requirement to graduate from the University of California - Santa Cruz. The course was taught Winter Quarter 2007 with a total of 28 days of instruction and the participation of 20 undergraduate students. The overarching goals of this study can be broadly classified as attitudinal, skills development and content retention. This study was designed to address three broad questions related to the above broad goals: i) Did students leave the class more comfortable and confident with environmental change issues and content? ii) Did students develop skills that are useful for reading and writing about scientific material? iii) What did students learn (retain): more general concepts or specific facts regarding climate and environmental change? Preliminary analysis and coding of student work clearly show that students were successful in developing skills for understanding and utilizing scientific information via writing and making thoughtful judgments regarding the reliability of environmental

  13. Beyond mice and men: Environmental change, immunity and infections in wild ungulates

    PubMed Central

    Jolles, Anna E.; Beechler, Brianna R.; Dolan, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of rapid environmental change, anticipating shifts in microparasite and macroparasite dynamics, including emergence events, is an enormous challenge. We argue that immunological studies in natural populations are pivotal to meeting this challenge: Many components of environmental change – shifts in biotic assemblages, altered climate patterns, and reduced environmental predictability – may affect host immunity. We suggest that wild ungulates can serve as model systems aiding the discovery of immunological mechanisms that link environmental change with parasite transmission dynamics. Our review of eco-immunological studies in wild ungulates reveals progress in understanding how co-infections affect immunity and parasite transmission; and how environmental and genetic factors interact to shape immunity. Changes in bioavailability of micronutrients have been linked to immunity and health in wild ungulates. Although physiological stress in response to environmental change has been assessed, downstream effects on immunity have not been studied. Moreover, the taxonomic range of ungulates studied is limited to bovids (bighorn sheep, Soay sheep, chamois, musk oxen, bison, African buffalo) and a few cervids (red deer, black-tailed deer). We discuss areas where future studies in ungulates could lead to significant contributions in understanding patterns of immunity and infection in natural populations and across species. PMID:25354672

  14. Local Government Capacity to Respond to Environmental Change: Insights from Towns in New York State.

    PubMed

    Larson, Lincoln R; Lauber, T Bruce; Kay, David L; Cutts, Bethany B

    2017-07-01

    Local governments attempting to respond to environmental change face an array of challenges. To better understand policy responses and factors influencing local government capacity to respond to environmental change, we studied three environmental issues affecting rural or peri-urban towns in different regions of New York State: climate change in the Adirondacks (n = 63 towns), loss of open space due to residential/commercial development in the Hudson Valley (n = 50), and natural gas development in the Southern Tier (n = 62). Our analysis focused on towns' progression through three key stages of the environmental policy process (issue awareness and salience, common goals and agenda setting, policy development and implementation) and the factors that affect this progression and overall capacity for environmental governance. We found that-when compared to towns addressing open space development and natural gas development-towns confronted with climate change were at a much earlier stage in the policy process and were generally less likely to display the essential resources, social support, and political legitimacy needed for an effective policy response. Social capital cultivated through collaboration and networking was strongly associated with towns' policy response across all regions and could help municipalities overcome omnipresent resource constraints. By comparing and contrasting municipal responses to each issue, this study highlights the processes and factors influencing local government capacity to address a range of environmental changes across diverse management contexts.

  15. Evaluation of public health professionals' capacity to implement environmental changes supportive of healthy weight.

    PubMed

    Gantner, Leigh A; Olson, Christine M

    2012-08-01

    Community-based interventions to promote healthy weights by making environmental and policy changes in communities may be an important strategy in reversing the obesity epidemic. However, challenges faced by local public health professionals in facilitating effective environmental and policy change need to be better understood and addressed. To better understand capacity-building needs, this study evaluated the efforts of the Healthy Start Partnership, a university-community project to promote healthy weights in young families in a rural eight-county area of upstate New York. Qualitative interviews (n=30) and pre/post surveys (n=31) were conducted over three years of the intervention. Challenges faced by partners significantly slowed progress of environmental interventions in some communities. First, many partners did not feel their "regular" jobs afforded them sufficient time to do community work. Second, many partners did not feel they had the personal political power to work on broader environmental, policy, or system change issues. Third, facilitating and policy change and reaching out to non-traditional partners, like businesses, required developing a new set of public health skills. Fourth, the long-time frame of environmental and policy work meant that many efforts would exceed the grant period. Building local public health leaders for environmental and policy change necessitates that these challenges are acknowledged and addressed.

  16. Can Perceptions of Environmental and Climate Change in Island Communities Assist in Adaptation Planning Locally?

    PubMed

    Aswani, Shankar; Vaccaro, Ismael; Abernethy, Kirsten; Albert, Simon; de Pablo, Javier Fernández-López

    2015-12-01

    Local perceptions of environmental and climate change, as well as associated adaptations made by local populations, are fundamental for designing comprehensive and inclusive mitigation and adaptation plans both locally and nationally. In this paper, we analyze people's perceptions of environmental and climate-related transformations in communities across the Western Solomon Islands through ethnographic and geospatial methods. Specifically, we documented people's observed changes over the past decades across various environmental domains, and for each change, we asked respondents to identify the causes, timing, and people's adaptive responses. We also incorporated this information into a geographical information system database to produce broad-scale base maps of local perceptions of environmental change. Results suggest that people detected changes that tended to be acute (e.g., water clarity, logging intensity, and agricultural diseases). We inferred from these results that most local observations of and adaptations to change were related to parts of environment/ecosystem that are most directly or indirectly related to harvesting strategies. On the other hand, people were less aware of slower insidious/chronic changes identified by scientific studies. For the Solomon Islands and similar contexts in the insular tropics, a broader anticipatory adaptation planning strategy to climate change should include a mix of local scientific studies and local observations of ongoing ecological changes.

  17. Ecophysiology of cognition: How do environmentally induced changes in physiology affect cognitive performance?

    PubMed

    Maille, Audrey; Schradin, Carsten

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive performance is based on brain functions, which have energetic demands and are modulated by physiological parameters such as metabolic hormones. As both environmental demands and environmental energy availability change seasonally, we propose that cognitive performance in free-living animals might also change seasonally due to phenotypic plasticity. This is part of an emerging research field, the 'ecophysiology of cognition': environmentally induced changes in physiological traits, such as blood glucose and hormone levels, are predicted to influence cognitive performance in free-living animals. Energy availability for the brain might change, and as such cognition, with changing energetic demands (e.g. reproduction) and changes of energy availability in the environment (e.g. winter, drought). Individuals spending more energy than they can currently obtain from their environment (allostatic overload type I) are expected to trade off energy investment between cognition and other life-sustaining processes or even reproduction. Environmental changes reducing energy availability might thus impair cognition. However, selection pressures such as predation risk, mate choice or social demands may act on the trade-off between energy saving and cognition. We assume that different environmental conditions can lead to three different trade-off outcomes: cognitive impairment, resilience or enhancement. Currently we cannot understand these trade-offs, because we lack information about changes in cognitive performance due to seasonal changes in energy availability and both the resulting changes in homeostasis (for example, blood glucose levels) and the associated changes in the mechanisms of allostasis (for example, hormone levels). Additionally, so far we know little about the fitness consequences of individual variation in cognitive performance. General cognitive abilities, such as attention and associative learning, might be more important in determining fitness than

  18. Food security in the context of global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.J.

    1993-11-01

    United Nations predictions and other sources indicate that world population could grow to 8.5 billion by 2025 (Keyfitz 1989) and 11 billion by the end of the coming century (UNFPA 1990). As new information becomes available on the effectiveness of population control programs, the rise of virulent diseases and other factors, these numbers change--sometimes smaller, sometimes larger still. Whatever the numbers actually turn out to be, global agricultural production will have to increase several-fold from present levels to feed and clothe the growing population and to improve worldwide standards of nutrition. The capacity of global agriculture to ensure food security through increased and sustained agricultural production depends on our ability to manage, conserve and in some cases increase the resource base available to the industry of agriculture. The resources that underpin agriculture are land, water and genetic diversity. The first two of these are the subject of this paper. Genetic diversity is the subject of another paper in this volume.

  19. Holocene environmental change and vegetation contraction in the Sonoran Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, Joseph R.; McDonald, Eric V.

    2006-03-01

    Two types of microtopographic features ( plant scar mounds and plant scar depressions) on surfaces of barren desert pavements provide a unique record of the former presence of large perennial plants. Evidence of bioturbation by burrowing animals extends more than 1 m beneath each type of plant scar, indicating that both features originated as large bioturbation mounds. Formation of bioturbation mounds in desertscrub environments is generally restricted to areas beneath widely separated, large perennial plants. The contrasting forms of plant scars (mounds vs. depressions) represent time-dependent changes following disappearance of the large plants and eventual cessation of bioturbation. Plant scar mounds represent a geologically recent episode of plant mortality, whereas plant scar depressions represent the disappearance of plants at a considerably earlier time, possibly at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Contrasting spatial distributions of the two kinds of plant scars indicate that vegetation on alluvial fans has progressively contracted from a more diffuse, former vegetation cover, yielding the wide, barren pavement surfaces present today. In less arid portions of the Sonoran Desert, spatial distribution of recent plant mortality due to persistent, severe drought provides an analog of the progressive loss of plants from different parts of the landscape in the past.

  20. Environmental change and water-related, vector borne diseases in eastern Africa: the HEALTHY FUTURES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, David; Kienberger, Stefan; Tompkins, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Pathogens that spend time outside the human body, and any organisms involved in their transmission, have particular ecological requirements; as environment, including climate, conditions change, then the transmission characteristics of associated pathogens - and the diseases caused - are also likely to vary. Relationships between environment and health in many parts of the world remain poorly studied and are often overlooked, however. This is particularly the case in developing countries, because of budgetary and available expertise constraints. Moreover the relationship is often confounded by other factors. These other factors contribute to human vulnerability, and thus to the overall disease risk due to environmental change. This presentation will highlight the importance of environmental, including climate, change information to a better understanding of the risks to health of projected future environmental changes, and to the more efficient and effective use of scarce health resources in the developing world. The paper will focus on eastern Africa, and in particular the health effects of future projected environmental change impacts on water-related, vector borne diseases in the East African Community region. Moreover the paper will highlight how the EU FP7-funded project HEALTHY FUTURES is, through a broadly-based, integrative approach that distinguishes environmental change-induced health hazard from health risk aims to support the health decisions making process, thereby attempting to help mitigate negative health impacts.

  1. Cross-Generational trans Fat Consumption Favors Self-Administration of Amphetamine and Changes Molecular Expressions of BDNF, DAT, and D1/D2 Receptors in the Cortex and Hippocampus of Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Fábio Teixeira; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Roversi, Karine; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; de Freitas, Daniele Leão; Pase, Camila Simonetti; Roversi, Katiane; Veit, Juliana Cristina; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-11-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug whose use has been related to neurotoxicity. Experimentally, AMPH increases anxiety-like symptoms, showing addictive properties. In the last decades, the growing consumption of processed foods has provided an excess of saturated and trans fats in detriment of essential fatty acids, which may modify the lipid profile of brain membranes, thus modifying its permeability and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Here, we assessed the influence of brain incorporation of different fatty acids (FA) on AMPH self-administration. Three groups of young male rats were orally supplemented from weaning with a mixture of soybean oil (SO, rich in n-6 FA) and fish oil (FO, rich in n-3 FA), hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in trans fatty acids--TFA), or water (control group). These animals were born from dams that were supplemented with the same fat from pregnancy to lactation. Anxiety-like symptoms and locomotor index were assessed in elevated plus maze and open-field (OF), respectively, while brain molecular expressions of dopaminergic receptors, dopamine transporter (DAT), and BDNF were determined in the cortex and hippocampus. HVF increased the frequency of AMPH self-administration and was associated with reinforcement and withdrawal signs as observed by increased anxiety-like symptoms. Contrarily, SO/FO decreased these parameters. Increased BDNF protein together with decreased DAT expression was observed in the hippocampus of HVF group. Based on these findings, our study points to a harmful influence of trans fats on drug addiction and craving symptoms, whose mechanism may be related to changes in the dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  2. Structural Approaches to Health Promotion: What Do We Need to Know about Policy and Environmental Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lisa; Golden, Shelley D.; Earp, Jo Anne L.

    2013-01-01

    Although the public health literature has increasingly called on practitioners to implement changes to social, environmental, and political structures as a means of improving population health, recent research suggests that articles evaluating organization, community, or policy changes are more limited than those focused on programs with…

  3. Climate change and environmentally responsible behavior on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Treesearch

    Jee In Yoon; Gerard Kyle; Carena J. vanRiper; Stephen G. Sutton

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Australians' perceptions of climate change, its impact on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and predictors of environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Our hypothesized model suggested that general attitudes toward climate change, social pressure for engaging in ERBs (subjective norms), and perceived behavioral control (...

  4. 78 FR 57372 - Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in Public... amended Notice of Intent (NOI) to modify the scope of the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project... previously announced this change in public meeting location on both the Northern Pass EIS Web site at...

  5. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: A North American perspective

    Treesearch

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Ivan J. Fernandez; Daniel D. Richter; Donald S. Ross; Paul W. Hazlett; Scott W. Bailey; Rock Ouimet; Richard A. F. Warby; Arthur H. Johnson; Henry Lin; James M. Kaste; Andrew G. Lapenis; Timothy J. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest...

  6. The smell of environmental change: Using floral scent to explain shifts in pollinator attraction

    Treesearch

    Laura A. Burkle; Justin B. Runyon

    2017-01-01

    As diverse environmental changes continue to influence the structure and function of plant-pollinator interactions across spatial and temporal scales, we will need to enlist numerous approaches to understand these changes. Quantitative examination of floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one approach that is gaining popularity, and recent work suggests that...

  7. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2016

    EPA Science Inventory

    When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable...

  8. The Process of Change Experimented by Teachers and Students when Voluntarily Trying Environmental Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Doyon, Andre; Langis, Joanne; Vasseur, Liette; Martin, Gilles; Ouellet, Eileen; Boudreau, Gaston

    2006-01-01

    During a training program on climate change education, teachers were invited to experiment with environmental behaviors in their personal lives. They then created their own climate change education model, with which they experimented in their classroom. Through teachers' and students' work, individual interviews, and questionnaires, researchers…

  9. Anthropogenic Climate Change in Undergraduate Marine and Environmental Science Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Mrakovcich, Karina L.; Futch, Victoria C.; Stutzman, Brooke S.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a context for program-level design decisions pertaining to anthropogenic climate change, the authors studied the prevalence of courses focused on human-induced climate change in undergraduate marine science and environmental science degree programs in the United States. Of the 86 institutions and 125 programs the authors examined, 37%…

  10. Peace and Environmental Education for Climate Change: Challenges and Practices in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naoufal, Nayla

    2014-01-01

    As noted in the literature reporting on the impact of climate change, it does not only bring about environmental degradation, i.e. ecological violence, but it may also provoke increased intercommunity and interstate violence. This article examines the implications of this relationship between climate change and increased violence for environmental…

  11. Climate-induced change of environmentally defined floristic domains: A conservation based vulnerability framework

    Treesearch

    Debbie Jewitt; Barend F.N. Erasmus; Peter S. Goodman; Timothy G. O' Connor; William W. Hargrove; Damian M. Maddalena; Ed. T.F. Witkowski

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change is having marked influences on species distributions, phenology and ecosystem composition and raises questions as to the effectiveness of current conservation strategies. Conservation planning has only recently begun to adequately account for dynamic threats such as climate change. We propose a method to incorporate climate-dynamic environmental...

  12. Structural Approaches to Health Promotion: What Do We Need to Know about Policy and Environmental Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lisa; Golden, Shelley D.; Earp, Jo Anne L.

    2013-01-01

    Although the public health literature has increasingly called on practitioners to implement changes to social, environmental, and political structures as a means of improving population health, recent research suggests that articles evaluating organization, community, or policy changes are more limited than those focused on programs with…

  13. Anthropogenic Climate Change in Undergraduate Marine and Environmental Science Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Mrakovcich, Karina L.; Futch, Victoria C.; Stutzman, Brooke S.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a context for program-level design decisions pertaining to anthropogenic climate change, the authors studied the prevalence of courses focused on human-induced climate change in undergraduate marine science and environmental science degree programs in the United States. Of the 86 institutions and 125 programs the authors examined, 37%…

  14. Peace and Environmental Education for Climate Change: Challenges and Practices in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naoufal, Nayla

    2014-01-01

    As noted in the literature reporting on the impact of climate change, it does not only bring about environmental degradation, i.e. ecological violence, but it may also provoke increased intercommunity and interstate violence. This article examines the implications of this relationship between climate change and increased violence for environmental…

  15. 76 FR 39385 - Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data, Information, and Related Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data... Service (NESDIS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Policy Change. SUMMARY: NOAA's National Data Centers will not accept checks (nor money...

  16. Direct and terrestrial vegetation-mediated effects of environmental change on aquatic ecosystem processes

    Treesearch

    Becky A. Ball; John S. Kominoski; Heather E. Adams; Stuart E. Jones; Evan S. Kane; Terrance D. Loecke; Wendy M. Mahaney; Jason P. Martina; Chelse M. Prather; Todd M.P. Robinson; Christopher T. Solomon

    2010-01-01

    Global environmental changes have direct effects on aquatic ecosystems, as well as indirect effects through alterations of adjacent terrestrial ecosystem structure and functioning. For example, shifts in terrestrial vegetation communities resulting from global changes can affect the quantity and quality of water, organic matter, and nutrient inputs to aquatic...

  17. A parameter control method in reinforcement learning to rapidly follow unexpected environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Murakoshi, Kazushi; Mizuno, Junya

    2004-11-01

    In order to rapidly follow unexpected environmental changes, we propose a parameter control method in reinforcement learning that changes each of learning parameters in appropriate directions. We determine each appropriate direction on the basis of relationships between behaviors and neuromodulators by considering an emergency as a key word. Computer experiments show that the agents using our proposed method could rapidly respond to unexpected environmental changes, not depending on either two reinforcement learning algorithms (Q-learning and actor-critic (AC) architecture) or two learning problems (discontinuous and continuous state-action problems).

  18. Interfacing remote sensing and geographic information systems for global environmental change research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae K.; Randolph, J. C.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Because changes in the Earth's environment have become major global issues, continuous, longterm scientific information is required to assess global problems such as deforestation, desertification, greenhouse effects and climate variations. Global change studies require understanding of interactions of complex processes regulating the Earth system. Space-based Earth observation is an essential element in global change research for documenting changes in Earth environment. It provides synoptic data for conceptual predictive modeling of future environmental change. This paper provides a brief overview of remote sensing technology from the perspective of global change research.

  19. Interfacing remote sensing and geographic information systems for global environmental change research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae K.; Randolph, J. C.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Because changes in the Earth's environment have become major global issues, continuous, longterm scientific information is required to assess global problems such as deforestation, desertification, greenhouse effects and climate variations. Global change studies require understanding of interactions of complex processes regulating the Earth system. Space-based Earth observation is an essential element in global change research for documenting changes in Earth environment. It provides synoptic data for conceptual predictive modeling of future environmental change. This paper provides a brief overview of remote sensing technology from the perspective of global change research.

  20. Using the satellite-derived NDVI to assess ecological responses to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Vik, Jon Olav; Mysterud, Atle; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Tucker, Compton J; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2005-09-01

    Assessing how environmental changes affect the distribution and dynamics of vegetation and animal populations is becoming increasingly important for terrestrial ecologists to enable better predictions of the effects of global warming, biodiversity reduction or habitat degradation. The ability to predict ecological responses has often been hampered by our rather limited understanding of trophic interactions. Indeed, it has proven difficult to discern direct and indirect effects of environmental change on animal populations owing to limited information about vegetation at large temporal and spatial scales. The rapidly increasing use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in ecological studies has recently changed this situation. Here, we review the use of the NDVI in recent ecological studies and outline its possible key role in future research of environmental change in an ecosystem context.

  1. Childhood Obesity Prevention in Childcare Settings: the Potential of Policy and Environmental Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children.

  2. Effects of Natural Environmental Changes on Soil-Vapor Extraction Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, S; Gregory, S

    2006-03-23

    Remediation by soil-vapor extraction has been used for over a decade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We have found that natural changes in environmental conditions affect the rate of soil-vapor extraction. Data on flow rate observations collected over this time are compared to in-situ measurements of several different environmental parameters (soil-gas pressure, soil-temperature, soil-moisture, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), rainfall and barometric pressure). Environmental changes that lead to increased soil-moisture are associated with reduced soil-vapor extraction flow rates. We have found that the use of higher extraction vacuums combined with dual-phase extraction can help to increase pneumatic conductivity when vadose zone saturation is a problem. Daily changes in barometric pressure and soil-gas temperature were found to change flow rate measurements by as much as 10% over the course of a day.

  3. Environmental Progression: The Psychological Justification for Reframing Climate Change and Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldey, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    On-going research in climate science communication through environmental media has uncovered critical barriers to reducing denial and increasing agency in addressing the threat of climate change. Similar to framing of our changing environment as "global warming", the term "climate change" also fails to properly frame the most critical challenge our species has faced. In a set of preliminary studies, significant changes in climate crisis denial, both positive and negative, have resulted from different media messaging. Continuation of this research utilizes social judgement theory (SJT) to classify a broader spectrum of effective avenues for environmental communication. The specificity of the terms global warming and climate change limit inclusion of issues critical to understanding their impacts. Now that the masses know what climate change is, it's time to teach them what it means.

  4. A method for the assessment of changes in environmental perception during an EIA process

    SciTech Connect

    Peterlin, Monika Kross, Burton C.; Kontic, Branko

    2008-11-15

    Changes in environmental perception during an EIA process among the general population (the public) and employees of the Port of Koper were measured. The method of measurement addresses the statistical significance of the influence of the content, form, mode, providers of environmental information, institutional constraint and other factors. Opinions about environmental issues were collected in both groups prior to and after the provision of information in the EIA process. The difference formed the basis for an assessment of how environmental information provided during an EIA process contributes to environmental perception. The results show that difference in opinions about the impact of the Port between the two groups became smaller when comparing the first and second survey. In relation to the opinions of the employees, institutional constraint was recognised.

  5. The politics of behavioural change for environmental health promotion in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Brendon R

    2007-05-01

    Behavioural change remains a popular intervention strategy for environmental health promotion in developing countries. This article explores the question of why behavioural change interventions continue to be widely used as an intervention strategy in developing countries and highlights the political implications of this approach. It suggests that framing interventions within a mainstream environmental health science paradigm serves to perpetuate a behavioural intervention approach while foreclosing other options. It also serves to perpetuate sexist representations of poor African women; absolves decision makers from addressing broader socio-political concerns (such as poverty and inequality) that are key to addressing environmental health concerns in developing countries; and sets up an expert model for environmental health and behavioural health scientists to thrive.

  6. US Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center Environmental Program on Climate Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    of environmental issues related to climate change . There is a growing recognition that the Navy will need to perform its national security mission in... climate change -related technology work at the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NAVFAC ESC) in Port Hueneme, California. NAVFAC ESC...categorized technologies that can be applied to climate change as mitigation, adaptation, and intervention. An essential element of the Navy’s response to

  7. CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-31

    CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change 1st Interim Report Report Documentation Page Form...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CSIR ,PO Box 395,Pretoria 0001, South Africa, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  8. On building methodological and theoretical frameworks to examine the interrelationships between environmental change and armed conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Hoek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Relationships between environmental change and armed conflict have long been studied. Sometimes referred to as 'warfare' or 'conflict' ecology, much of this scholarship has come in response to local-level perceptions of landscape or livelihood changes that result from regional armed conflict. However, such studies have, first, typically focused on spatiotemporally acute and readily detectable environmental change, like deforestation, to the exclusion of protracted and more subtle environmental changes, like agricultural degradation; second, been limited to situational conflicts or circumstances, thereby inhibiting broader theoretical development; and, third, often only considered the environmental consequences rather than the environmental or climatic circumstances that may contribute to conflict. As a result, there is little opportunity for methodological or theoretical cohesion between studies. In this presentation, I synthesize findings from three case studies examining the interrelationships between agricultural change and armed conflict in the semi-arid landscapes of northwest Pakistan, Palestine, and southern Syria. Using coarse through very high resolution remotely sensed imagery, socio-economic and demographic data, conflict databases, open-source programming, and building on theoretical underpinnings of political ecology and conflict studies, I present methods and modeling approaches that aid in overcoming data scarcity and disparity between scales of analysis and integrate environmental and conflict data in spatiotemporally explicit ways. Results from these case studies illuminate the interrelationships between both protracted and acute agricultural change and armed conflict, and have broad relevance for understanding the means by which environment, conflict, and livelihoods are linked, a nexus that will only become tighter with the advance of global climate change.

  9. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Responses to Environmental Change: Insights from Terrestrial Paleoecological Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddon, A. W. R.; Mackay, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Current understanding of ecological behaviour indicates that systems can experience sudden and abrupt changes in state, driven either by a large external change in environmental conditions (extrinsically forced), or the result of a set local feedbacks and site-specific interactions (intrinsically mediated responses). Responses mediated by intrinsic processes are notoriously diffi- cult to predict, they can occur as slow environmental variables gradually erode the resilience of the system eventually resulting in threshold transitions between alternative stable states. Finding ways to identify, model and predict such complex ecosystem behavior has been identified as a priority research challenge for both ecology and paleoecology. The paleoecological record can play a role in understanding the processes behind abrupt ecological change because it enables the reconstruction of processes occurring over decadal-centennial timescales or longer. Therefore, paleoecological data can be used to identify the existence of ecological thresholds and to investigate the environmental processes that can lead to loss of resilience and abrupt transitions between alternate states. In addition, incidences of abrupt vegetation changes in the past can serve as palaeoecological model systems; analogues of abrupt dynamics which can be used to test theories surrounding ecological responses to climate change. Here, I present examples from a range of terrestrial ecosystems (Holocene environmental changes from a coastal lagoon in the Galapagos Islands; Northern European vegetation changes since the last deglaciation; the North American hemlock decline) demonstrating evidence of abrupt ecosystem change. For each system I present a set of statistical techniques tailored to distin- guish between extrinsic versus intrinsically mediated ecological responses. Examples are provided from both single sites (i.e. landscape scale) and multiple sites (regional-continental scale). These techniques provide a

  10. Callous-unemotional behaviors in early childhood: Genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change.

    PubMed

    Flom, Megan; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2016-12-15

    Callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors demonstrate meaningful individual differences in early childhood, even in nonclinical samples with low mean levels of CU, but the factors underlying this variation have not been examined. This study investigated genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences and to sources of continuity and change in CU in toddler twins (145 monozygotic, 169 dizygotic) assessed at ages 2 and 3 years. CU, as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000), was moderately stable across age (r = .45, p < .0001). Longitudinal biometric analyses revealed genetic and nonshared environmental influences on CU at both ages, with no significant contribution from shared environmental factors. Stability from age 2 to 3 was due to genetic factors, whereas change was due to both genetic and nonshared environmental influences. This genetic and nonshared environmental change was substantial, suggesting malleability of CU in early childhood. Over 50% of the genetic influences and 100% of the nonshared environmental influences on CU at age 3 were independent of those that operated at age 2. Implications of novel sources of variance across age are discussed.

  11. Principles and processes for effecting change in environmental management in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Ian; Hurley, Evelyn; Reid, Janet; Allen, Will

    2007-02-01

    In New Zealand environmental management is essentially the responsibility of land managers. Management decisions affect both production/productivity and the environment. However, responsibility for ensuring positive environmental outcomes falls on both local (Regional) and Central Government, and both they and international agencies such as the OECD would wish to monitor and report on changes. In terms of policy, strong links have been established via Central and Regional Government to land managers. Consumers in the market place are also, increasingly, requiring responsibility for positive environmental outcomes of those who purchase and process primary products. Strong links for responsibility have been established between our international markets and processing businesses and there is a noticeable strengthening of the links from the processors to the land manager/producer. In New Zealand a range of initiatives has been developed and implemented over recent times, whereby land managers are taking increasing responsibility for accounting for the environmental outcomes of their production activities. The range covers the spectrum from voluntary to compulsory (e.g., in order to meet market requirements) and from those initiated by customers to processor and/or producer initiatives. This paper follows the evolution of the principles that drove the predominant activities of the period and the processes that initiated the changes in environmental management. As the focus of agriculturalists changed from pioneering in a new world, to establishing a production base, to economic reality, and finally to environmental responsibility, the processes of extension adapted to meet the new challenge.

  12. Environmental cues induce changes of steviol glycosides contents and transcription of corresponding biosynthetic genes in Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongheng; Huang, Suzhen; Han, Yulin; Yuan, Haiyan; Gu, Chunsun; Wang, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and secondary metabolism are commonly regulated by external cues such as light, temperature and water availability. In this study, the influences of low and high temperatures, dehydration, photoperiods, and different growing stages on the changes of steviol glycosides (SGs) contents and transcription levels of fifteen genes involved in SGs biosynthesis of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni were examined using HPLC and RT-PCR. The observations showed that the transcript levels of all the fifteen genes were maximum under 25 °C treatment, and the transcription of SrDXS, SrDXR, SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS, SrHDS, SrHDR, SrIDI, SrGGDPS, SrCPPS1, SrUGT85C2 and SrUGT76G1 were restrained both in low temperature (15 °C) and high temperature (35 °C). Most genes in SGs biosynthesis pathway exhibited down-regulation in dehydration. To elucidate the effect of photoperiods, the plants were treated by different simulated photoperiods (8 L/16 D, 1 0L/14 D, 14 L/10 D and 16 L/8 D), but no significant transcription changes were observed. In the study of growing stages, there were evident changes of SGs contents, and the transcript levels of all the fifteen genes were minimal in fast growing period, and exhibited evident increase both in flower-bud appearing stage and flowering stage. The obtained results strongly suggest that the effect of environmental cues on steviol glycosides contents and transcription of corresponding biosynthetic genes in S. rebaudiana is significant. It is worth to study deeply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Land-use and environmental changes in the Cerrados of South-Eastern Mato Grosso -- Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina

    The human-induced changes of the Earth's land surfaces have been unprecedented, with outcomes often indicating degradation and loss of environmental quality. Mato Grosso State in Brazil, location of the study area, underwent extensive land-use and land-cover changes in recent decades with the rates, patterns and consequences poorly documented until now. In this context, the aim of the present research is to propose a multidisciplinary approach for quantifying historical land-use and environmental changes in the southeast part of this State, where the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savannas) has been intensively converted into agricultural lands. The methodology includes three parts: remote sensing change detection, land vulnerability mapping, and identification of key environmental indicators. Land-use/cover information was extracted from a temporal remote sensing dataset using an object-oriented classification approach, and the changes quantified employing a post-classification method. In addition, the study area was assessed for its vulnerabilities, focusing mainly on erosion risks, wetlands, and areas with limited or no suitability for crops. Finally, key environmental indicators were identified from the preceding steps and analyzed within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework. The results provided an improved mapping of the Cerrados natural vegetation conversion into crops and pastures, and indicate that the Cerrado vegetation was intensively converted and also became more fragmented in the time frame studied. Between 1985 and 2005 the area lost approximately 6491 km 2 of Cerrados (42 %). Modeling based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation indicated significant increase in erosion risk from 1985 to 2005 mainly related to the increase in crop areas and the crops' encroachment into more fragile lands. The identification of environmental indicators rendered complex environmental information more

  14. Climate change and environmental impacts on maternal and newborn health with focus on Arctic populations.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Charlotta; Odland, Jon Ø; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented a report on global warming and the impact of human activities on global warming. Later the Lancet commission identified six ways human health could be affected. Among these were not environmental factors which are also believed to be important for human health. In this paper we therefore focus on environmental factors, climate change and the predicted effects on maternal and newborn health. Arctic issues are discussed specifically considering their exposure and sensitivity to long range transported contaminants. Considering that the different parts of pregnancy are particularly sensitive time periods for the effects of environmental exposure, this review focuses on the impacts on maternal and newborn health. Environmental stressors known to affects human health and how these will change with the predicted climate change are addressed. Air pollution and food security are crucial issues for the pregnant population in a changing climate, especially indoor climate and food security in Arctic areas. The total number of environmental factors is today responsible for a large number of the global deaths, especially in young children. Climate change will most likely lead to an increase in this number. Exposure to the different environmental stressors especially air pollution will in most parts of the world increase with climate change, even though some areas might face lower exposure. Populations at risk today are believed to be most heavily affected. As for the persistent organic pollutants a warming climate leads to a remobilisation and a possible increase in food chain exposure in the Arctic and thus increased risk for Arctic populations. This is especially the case for mercury. The perspective for the next generations will be closely connected to the expected temperature changes; changes in housing conditions; changes in exposure patterns; predicted increased exposure to Mercury because of increased

  15. Climate change and environmental impacts on maternal and newborn health with focus on Arctic populations

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Charlotta; Odland, Jon Ø.; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented a report on global warming and the impact of human activities on global warming. Later the Lancet commission identified six ways human health could be affected. Among these were not environmental factors which are also believed to be important for human health. In this paper we therefore focus on environmental factors, climate change and the predicted effects on maternal and newborn health. Arctic issues are discussed specifically considering their exposure and sensitivity to long range transported contaminants. Methods Considering that the different parts of pregnancy are particularly sensitive time periods for the effects of environmental exposure, this review focuses on the impacts on maternal and newborn health. Environmental stressors known to affects human health and how these will change with the predicted climate change are addressed. Air pollution and food security are crucial issues for the pregnant population in a changing climate, especially indoor climate and food security in Arctic areas. Results The total number of environmental factors is today responsible for a large number of the global deaths, especially in young children. Climate change will most likely lead to an increase in this number. Exposure to the different environmental stressors especially air pollution will in most parts of the world increase with climate change, even though some areas might face lower exposure. Populations at risk today are believed to be most heavily affected. As for the persistent organic pollutants a warming climate leads to a remobilisation and a possible increase in food chain exposure in the Arctic and thus increased risk for Arctic populations. This is especially the case for mercury. The perspective for the next generations will be closely connected to the expected temperature changes; changes in housing conditions; changes in exposure patterns; predicted increased exposure to

  16. COHORT CHANGE, DIFFUSION, AND SUPPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SPENDING IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.; Hunter, Lori M.

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing and sometimes heated debates over the direction and size of the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on environmental concern contrast post-materialist and affluence arguments, suggesting a positive relationship in high-income nations, with counter arguments for a negative or near zero relationship. A diffusion-of-innovations approach adapts parts of both arguments by predicting that high SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, which produces a positive relationship. Like other innovations, however, environmentalism diffuses over time to other SES groups, which subsequently weakens the association. We test this argument using the General Social Survey from 1973 to 2008 to compare support for environmental spending across 83 cohorts born from around 1900 to 1982. In developing attitudes before, during, and after the emergence of environmentalism, varying cohorts provide the contrast needed to identify long-term changes in environmental concern. Multilevel age, period, and cohort models support diffusion arguments by demonstrating the effects, across cohorts, of three common indicators of SES – education, income and occupational prestige – first strengthen and then weaken. This finding suggests that diffusion of environmental concern first produces positive relationships consistent with postmaterialism arguments and later produces null or negative relationships consistent with global environmentalism arguments. PMID:24639591

  17. COHORT CHANGE, DIFFUSION, AND SUPPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SPENDING IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Pampel, Fred C; Hunter, Lori M

    2012-09-01

    The long-standing and sometimes heated debates over the direction and size of the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on environmental concern contrast post-materialist and affluence arguments, suggesting a positive relationship in high-income nations, with counter arguments for a negative or near zero relationship. A diffusion-of-innovations approach adapts parts of both arguments by predicting that high SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, which produces a positive relationship. Like other innovations, however, environmentalism diffuses over time to other SES groups, which subsequently weakens the association. We test this argument using the General Social Survey from 1973 to 2008 to compare support for environmental spending across 83 cohorts born from around 1900 to 1982. In developing attitudes before, during, and after the emergence of environmentalism, varying cohorts provide the contrast needed to identify long-term changes in environmental concern. Multilevel age, period, and cohort models support diffusion arguments by demonstrating the effects, across cohorts, of three common indicators of SES - education, income and occupational prestige - first strengthen and then weaken. This finding suggests that diffusion of environmental concern first produces positive relationships consistent with postmaterialism arguments and later produces null or negative relationships consistent with global environmentalism arguments.

  18. Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region. PMID:18441406

  19. Geospatial information systems analysis of regional environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Twumasi, Yaw A; Merem, Edmund C

    2008-03-01

    This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region.

  20. Remote sensing helps to assess natural hazards and environmental changes in Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, Jean-Claud; Liew, Soo Chin; Gupta, Avijit

    2012-04-01

    Conference on Remote Sensing, Natural Hazards, and Environmental Change; Singapore, 28-29 July 2011 Natural hazards and anthropogenic environmental changes, both significant in the Asia-Pacific region, were the two themes of a conference organized by the National University of Singapore's Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP) and the Université Blaise Pascal's Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans. The application of satellite imagery at a wide range of resolutions, from 500 meters to 50 centimeters, was a unifying approach in many of the studies presented. The recent arrival of a new generation of satellites with extremely high resolution (50 centimeters) has improved scientists' ability to carry out detailed studies of natural hazards and environmental change.

  1. Evolutionary consequences of multidriver environmental change in an aquatic primary producer.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Georgina L; Colegrave, Nick; Collins, Sinéad

    2017-09-12

    Climate change is altering aquatic environments in a complex way, and simultaneous shifts in many properties will drive evolutionary responses in primary producers at the base of both freshwater and marine ecosystems. So far, evolutionary studies have shown how changes in environmental drivers, either alone or in pairs, affect the evolution of growth and other traits in primary producers. Here, we evolve a primary producer in 96 unique environments with different combinations of between one and eight environmental drivers to understand how evolutionary responses to environmental change depend on the identity and number of drivers. Even in multidriver environments, only a few dominant drivers explain most of the evolutionary changes in population growth rates. Most populations converge on the same growth rate by the end of the evolution experiment. However, populations adapt more when these dominant drivers occur in the presence of other drivers. This is due to an increase in the intensity of selection in environments with more drivers, which are more likely to include dominant drivers. Concurrently, many of the trait changes that occur during the initial short-term response to both single and multidriver environmental change revert after about 450 generations of evolution. In future aquatic environments, populations will encounter differing combinations of drivers and intensities of selection, which will alter the adaptive potential of primary producers. Accurately gauging the intensity of selection on key primary producers will help in predicting population size and trait evolution at the base of aquatic food webs.

  2. Synchronous environmental and cultural change in the prehistory of the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Samuel E; Gajewski, Konrad; Peros, Matthew C

    2010-12-21

    Climatic changes during the late Quaternary have resulted in substantial, often abrupt, rearrangements of terrestrial ecosystems, but the relationship between these environmental changes and prehistoric human culture and population size remains unclear. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates alongside a network of paleoecological records (sedimentary pollen and charcoal) and paleoclimatic reconstructions, we show that periods of cultural and demographic change in the northeastern United States occurred at the same times as the major environmental-climatic transitions of that region. At 11.6, 8.2, 5.4, and 3.0 kyr BP (10(3) calendar years before present), changes in forest composition altered the distribution, availability, and predictability of food resources which triggered technological adjustments manifested in the archaeological record. Human population level has varied in response to these external changes in ecosystems, but the adoption of maize agriculture during the late Holocene also resulted in a substantial population increase. This study demonstrates the long-term interconnectedness of prehistoric human cultures and the ecosystems they inhabited, and provides a consolidated environmental-cultural framework from which more interdisciplinary research and discussion can develop. Moreover, it emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change in a temperate region.

  3. Drastic Environmental Change on Mars: Applying the Lessons Learned on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairen, A.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Irwin, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and drastic environmental change has occurred frequently on Earth, posing a critical challenge to life. However, directional selection has overcome those challenges and driven life on our planet to ever increasing diversity and complexity. Based on our knowledge of the natural history of Earth, the effect of drastic environmental changes on a planet's biosphere can be attributed to three main factors: (1) the nature and time scale of change, (2) the composition of the biosphere prior to change, and (3) the nature of the environment following the change. Mars has undergone even larger environmental changes than Earth, from habitable conditions under which the origin of life (or transfer of life from Earth) seem plausible, to a dry and cold planet punctuated by wetter conditions. Given its planetary history, life on Mars could have retreated to a psychrophilic lifestyle in the deep subsurface or to environmental near-surface niches, such as hydrothermal regions and caves. Further, strong directional selection could have pushed putative martian life to evolve alternating cycles between active and dormant forms, as well as the innovation of new traits adapted to challenging near-surface conditions (e.g., use of H2O2 or perchlorates as antifreeze compounds).

  4. Changes in Bacillus anthracis CodY regulation under host-specific environmental factor deprived conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Kye; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2016-08-17

    Host-specific environmental factors induce changes in Bacillus anthracis gene transcription during infection. A global transcription regulator, CodY, plays a pivotal role in regulating central metabolism, biosynthesis, and virulence in B. anthracis. In this study, we utilized RNA-sequencing to assess changes in the transcriptional patterns of CodY-regulated B. anthracis genes in response to three conditions of environmental starvation: iron, CO2, or glucose deprivation. In addition, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation on newly identified CodY-mediated genes. Environmental deprivation induced transcriptional changes in CodY-regulated genes in both wild-type and codY null strains, and both CodY-specific and environment-specific patterns were observed. In the iron-depleted condition, overexpression of iron homeostasis genes was observed independent of codY deletion; however, transcription of siderophore and amino acid biosynthesis genes was CodY dependent. Although CodY has a significant regulatory role in central metabolism and the carbon overflow pathway, metabolism-associated genes exhibited CodY-independent expression patterns under glucose starvation. Genes that were differentially expressed in response to CO2 availability showed CodY-dependent regulation, though their maximal expression did require a supply of CO2/bicarbonate. We speculate that CodY regulates the expression of environmental-responsive genes in a hierarchical manner and is likely associated with other transcription regulators that are specific for a particular environmental change.

  5. Abiotic environmental stress induced changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast, mitochondria and peroxisome proteomes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicolas L; Tan, Yew-Foon; Jacoby, Richard P; Millar, A Harvey

    2009-04-13

    Exposure to adverse abiotic environmental conditions causes oxidative stress in plants, leading to debilitation and death or to response and tolerance. The subcellular energy organelles (chloroplast, mitochondria and peroxisomes) in plants are responsible for major metabolic processes including photosynthesis, photorespiration, oxidative phosphorylation, beta-oxidation and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here we analyze data and review a collection of both whole tissue and organellar proteomic studies that have investigated the effects of environmental stress in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We assess these data from an organellar perspective to begin to build an understanding of the changes in protein abundance within these organelles during environmental stresses. We found 279 claims of proteins that change in abundance that could be assigned to protein components of the energy organelles. These could be placed into eight different functional categories and nearly 80% of the specific protein isoforms detected were only reported to change in a single environmental stress. We propose primary and secondary mechanisms in organelles by which the protein changes observed could be mediated in order to begin developing an integrated and mechanistic understanding of environmental stress response.

  6. Pattern formation--A missing link in the study of ecosystem response to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Meron, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Environmental changes can affect the functioning of an ecosystem directly, through the response of individual life forms, or indirectly, through interspecific interactions and community dynamics. The feasibility of a community-level response has motivated numerous studies aimed at understanding the mutual relationships between three elements of ecosystem dynamics: the abiotic environment, biodiversity and ecosystem function. Since ecosystems are inherently nonlinear and spatially extended, environmental changes can also induce pattern-forming instabilities that result in spatial self-organization of life forms and resources. This, in turn, can affect the relationships between these three elements, and make the response of ecosystems to environmental changes far more complex. Responses of this kind can be expected in dryland ecosystems, which show a variety of self-organizing vegetation patterns along the rainfall gradient. This paper describes the progress that has been made in understanding vegetation patterning in dryland ecosystems, and the roles it plays in ecosystem response to environmental variability. The progress has been achieved by modeling pattern-forming feedbacks at small spatial scales and up-scaling their effects to large scales through model studies. This approach sets the basis for integrating pattern formation theory into the study of ecosystem dynamics and addressing ecologically significant questions such as the dynamics of desertification, restoration of degraded landscapes, biodiversity changes along environmental gradients, and shrubland-grassland transitions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pesticide tolerance of Paenibacillus sp. D1 and its chitinase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Ghodke, Indrajeet; Chhatpar, H S

    2009-01-01

    Excessive use of pesticides in agriculture has led to several problems pertaining to loss of soil fertility and environmental degradation. Biological control agents offer the best alternative to reduce use of toxic pesticides. Paenibacillus sp. D1 isolated from the effluent treatment plant of a seafood processing industry exhibited broad spectrum tolerance towards a number of pesticides at concentrations higher than recommended for field applications. The isolate showed enhanced growth and chitinase production in the presence of some protectant fungicides. None of the tested demethylase inhibitor (DMI) fungicides inhibited growth and chitinase production except triadimefon. The isolate was also tolerant to most commonly used insecticides belonging to the organophosphate, carbamate and cyclodiene organochloride classes. Chitinase of Paenibacillus sp. D1 was found to be more tolerant than the organism itself and was highly stable in the presence of pesticides at the temperature under field conditions in Gujarat, India, i.e. 40 degrees C. This was suggestive of its potential in integrated pest management (IPM) to significantly reduce the use of harmful chemicals. To our knowledge this is the first extensive study on pesticide tolerance of the Paenibacillus species and its chitinase.

  8. Global and local environmental changes as drivers of Buruli ulcer emergence

    PubMed Central

    Combe, Marine; Velvin, Camilla Jensen; Morris, Aaron; Garchitorena, Andres; Carolan, Kevin; Sanhueza, Daniel; Roche, Benjamin; Couppié, Pierre; Guégan, Jean-François; Gozlan, Rodolphe Elie

    2017-01-01

    Many emerging infectious diseases are caused by generalist pathogens that infect and transmit via multiple host species with multiple dissemination routes, thus confounding the understanding of pathogen transmission pathways from wildlife reservoirs to humans. The emergence of these pathogens in human populations has frequently been associated with global changes, such as socio-economic, climate or biodiversity modifications, by allowing generalist pathogens to invade and persist in new ecological niches, infect new host species, and thus change the nature of transmission pathways. Using the case of Buruli ulcer disease, we review how land-use changes, climatic patterns and biodiversity alterations contribute to disease emergence in many parts of the world. Here we clearly show that Mycobacterium ulcerans is an environmental pathogen characterized by multi-host transmission dynamics and that its infectious pathways to humans rely on the local effects of global environmental changes. We show that the interplay between habitat changes (for example, deforestation and agricultural land-use changes) and climatic patterns (for example, rainfall events), applied in a local context, can lead to abiotic environmental changes and functional changes in local biodiversity that favor the pathogen's prevalence in the environment and may explain disease emergence. PMID:28442755

  9. Satellite Models for Global Environmental Change in the NASA Health and Air Quality Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, J.; Estes, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. Health and Air Quality providers and researchers are effective by the global environmental changes that are occurring and they need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. This presentation maintains a diverse constellation of Earth observing research satellites and sponsors research in developing satellite data applications across a wide spectrum of areas including environmental health; infectious disease; air quality standards, policies, and regulations; and the impact of climate change on health and air quality. Successfully providing predictions with the accuracy and specificity required by decision makers will require advancements over current capabilities in a number of interrelated areas. These areas include observations, modeling systems, forecast development, application integration, and the research to operations transition process. This presentation will highlight many projects on which NASA satellites have been a primary partner with local, state, Federal, and international operational agencies over the past twelve years in these areas. Domestic and International officials have increasingly recognized links between environment and health. Health providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the health research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental

  10. Impact of land cover change on the environmental hydrology characteristics in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatkhah, Nader; Mansor, Shattri; Khuzaimah, Zailani; Asmat, Arnis; Adnan, Noraizam; Adam, Siti Noradzah

    2016-09-01

    Changing the land cover/ land use has serious environmental impacts affecting the ecosystem in Malaysia. The impact of land cover changes on the environmental functions such as surface water, loss water, and soil moisture is considered in this paper on the Kelantan river basin. The study area at the east coast of the peninsular Malaysia has suffered significant land cover changes in the recent years. The current research tried to assess the impact of land cover changes in the study area focused on the surface water, loss water, and soil moisture from different land use classes and the potential impact of land cover changes on the ecosystem of Kelantan river basin. To simulate the impact of land cover changes on the environmental hydrology characteristics, a deterministic regional modeling were employed in this study based on five approaches, i.e. (1) Land cover classification based on Landsat images; (2) assessment of land cover changes during last three decades; (3) Calculation the rate of water Loss/ Infiltration; (4) Assessment of hydrological and mechanical effects of the land cover changes on the surface water; and (5) evaluation the impact of land cover changes on the ecosystem of the study area. Assessment of land cover impact on the environmental hydrology was computed with the improved transient rainfall infiltration and grid based regional model (Improved-TRIGRS) based on the transient infiltration, and subsequently changes in the surface water, due to precipitation events. The results showed the direct increased in surface water from development area, agricultural area, and grassland regions compared with surface water from other land covered areas in the study area. The urban areas or lower planting density areas tend to increase for surface water during the monsoon seasons, whereas the inter flow from forested and secondary jungle areas contributes to the normal surface water.

  11. Altered striatal function in a mutant mouse lacking D1A dopamine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Drago, J; Gerfen, C R; Lachowicz, J E; Steiner, H; Hollon, T R; Love, P E; Ooi, G T; Grinberg, A; Lee, E J; Huang, S P

    1994-01-01

    Of the five known dopamine receptors, D1A and D2 represent the major subtypes expressed in the striatum of the adult brain. Within the striatum, these two subtypes are differentially distributed in the two main neuronal populations that provide direct and indirect pathways between the striatum and the output nuclei of the basal ganglia. Movement disorders, including Parkinson disease and various dystonias, are thought to result from imbalanced activity in these pathways. Dopamine regulates movement through its differential effects on D1A receptors expressed by direct output neurons and D2 receptors expressed by indirect output neurons. To further examine the interaction of D1A and D2 neuronal pathways in the striatum, we used homologous recombination to generate mutant mice lacking functional D1A receptors (D1A-/-). D1A-/- mutants are growth retarded and die shortly after weaning age unless their diet is supplemented with hydrated food. With such treatment the mice gain weight and survive to adulthood. Neurologically, D1A-/- mice exhibit normal coordination and locomotion, although they display a significant decrease in rearing behavior. Examination of the striatum revealed changes associated with the altered phenotype of these mutants. D1A receptor binding was absent in striatal sections from D1A-/- mice. Striatal neurons normally expressing functional D1A receptors are formed and persist in adult homozygous mutants. Moreover, substance P mRNA, which is colocalized specifically in striatal neurons with D1A receptors, is expressed at a reduced level. In contrast, levels of enkephalin mRNA, which is expressed in striatal neurons with D2 receptors, are unaffected. These findings show that D1A-/- mice exhibit selective functional alterations in the striatal neurons giving rise to the direct striatal output pathway. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7809078

  12. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Climate and environmental change drives Ixodes ricinus geographical expansion at the northern range margin.

    PubMed

    Jore, Solveig; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Isaksen, Ketil; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Woldehiwet, Zerai; Johansen, Bernt; Brun, Edgar; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Westermann, Sebastian; Larsen, Inger-Lise; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Hofshagen, Merete

    2014-01-08

    Global environmental change is causing spatial and temporal shifts in the distribution of species and the associated diseases of humans, domesticated animals and wildlife. In the on-going debate on the influence of climate change on vectors and vector-borne diseases, there is a lack of a comprehensive interdisciplinary multi-factorial approach utilizing high quality spatial and temporal data. We explored biotic and abiotic factors associated with the latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in the distribution of Ixodes ricinus observed during the last three decades in Norway using antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in sheep as indicators for tick presence. Samples obtained from 2963 sheep from 90 farms in 3 ecologically different districts during 1978 - 2008 were analysed. We modelled the presence of antibodies against A. phagocytophilum to climatic-, environmental and demographic variables, and abundance of wild cervids and domestic animals, using mixed effect logistic regressions. Significant predictors were large diurnal fluctuations in ground surface temperature, spring precipitation, duration of snow cover, abundance of red deer and farm animals and bush encroachment/ecotones. The length of the growth season, mean temperature and the abundance of roe deer were not significant in the model. Our results highlight the need to consider climatic variables year-round to disentangle important seasonal variation, climatic threshold changes, climate variability and to consider the broader environmental change, including abiotic and biotic factors. The results offer novel insight in how tick and tick-borne disease distribution might be modified by future climate and environmental change.

  14. Watershed scale environmental sustainability analysis of biofuel production in changing land use and climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RAJ, C.; Chaubey, I.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Brouder, S. M.; Volenec, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the grand challenges in meeting the US biofuel goal is producing large quantities of cellulosic biofeedstock materials for the production of biofuels in an environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. The possible land use and land management practice changes induce concerns over the environmental impacts of these bioenergy crop production scenarios both in terms of water availability and water quality, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. This study aims to evaluate environmental sustainability of various plausible land and crop management scenarios for biofuel production under changing climate scenarios for a Midwest US watershed. The study considers twelve environmental sustainability indicators related hydrology and water quality with thirteen plausible biofuels scenarios in the watershed under nine climate change scenarios. The land use change scenarios for evaluation includes, (1) bioenergy crops in highly erodible soils (3) bioenergy crops in low row crop productive fields (marginal lands); (3) bioenergy crops in pasture and range land use areas and (4) combinations of these scenarios. Future climate data bias corrected and downscaled to daily values from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset were used in this study. The distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to simulate bioenergy crops growth, hydrology and water quality. The watershed scale sustainability analysis was done in Wildcat Creek basin, which is located in North-Central Indiana, USA.

  15. Environmental equity in air quality management: local and international implications for human health and climate change.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Marie S; Kinney, Patrick L; Cohen, Aaron J

    2008-01-01

    The health burden of environmental exposures, including ambient air pollution and climate-change-related health impacts, is not equally distributed between or within regions and countries. These inequalities are currently receiving increased attention in environmental research as well as enhanced appreciation in environmental policy, where calls for environmental equity are more frequently heard. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 Global Update of the Air Quality Guidelines attempted to address the global-scale inequalities in exposures to air pollution and the burden of diseases due to air pollution. The guidelines stop short, however, of addressing explicitly the inequalities in exposure and adverse health effects within countries and urban areas due to differential distribution of sources of air pollution such as motor vehicles and local industry, and differences in susceptibility to the adverse health effects attributed to air pollution. These inequalities, may, however, be addressed in local air quality and land use management decisions. Locally, community-based participatory research can play an important role in documenting potential inequities and fostering corrective action. Research on environmental inequities will also benefit from current efforts to (1) better understand social determinants of health and (2) apply research evidence to reduce health disparities. Similarly, future research and policy action will benefit from stronger linkages between equity concerns related to health consequences of both air pollution exposure and climate change, since combustion products are important contributors to both of these environmental problems.

  16. Coral symbioses under prolonged environmental change: living near tolerance range limits

    PubMed Central

    Sampayo, Eugenia M.; Ridgway, Tyrone; Franceschinis, Lorenzo; Roff, George; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    As climate change progresses, understanding the long-term response of corals and their endosymbionts (Symbiodinium) to prolonged environmental change is of immediate importance. Here, a total of 1152 fragments from 72 colonies of three common coral species (Stylophora pistillata, Pocillopora damicornis, Seriatopora hystrix) underwent a 32-month reciprocal depth transplantation. Genetic analysis showed that while S. hystrix maintained its generalist symbiont, some S. pistillata and P. damicornis underwent temporary changes in resident symbionts immediately after stress (transplantation; natural bleaching). These temporary changes were phylogenetically constrained to ‘host-compatible’ symbionts only and reversion to original symbionts occurred within 7 to 12 months, indicating long-term fidelity and stability of adult symbioses. Measurements of symbiont photo-physiology (dark adapted yield, pressure over photosystem II) and coral health (host protein, bleaching status, mortality) indicated a broad acclimatory capacity. However, this came at an apparent energetic expense as disproportionate mortality amongst symbioses that persisted outside their distribution range was observed following a natural bleaching event. As environmental changes due to climate change become more continuous in nature, sub-lethal effects linked to the existence near tolerance range limits coupled with the inability of adult coral colonies to change resident symbionts makes corals particularly susceptible to additional environmental fluctuations or stress events and reduces the resilience of coral populations. PMID:27805069

  17. Two episodes of environmental change at the Permian-Triassic boundary of the GSSP section Meishan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongfu; Xie, Shucheng; Luo, Genming; Algeo, Thomas J.; Zhang, Kexin

    2012-11-01

    High-resolution stratigraphic records through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) interval of the global stratotype section and point (GSSP) at Meishan, Zhejiang Province, China reveal that the PTB crisis was not a single, abrupt catastrophe. A bed-by-bed analysis of environmental and biotic changes makes clear that the crisis can be resolved into two discrete episodes, each consisting of three stages: A) unstably oscillating conditions, B) peak crisis conditions, and C) ameliorating conditions. The first crisis episode commenced in Bed 23, peaked in Beds 24e-26, and ameliorated in Beds 27 and 28, while the second crisis episode commenced in Bed 29, peaked in Beds 34-38, and ameliorated in Beds 39 and higher. The macroscopic mass extinctions happened not at the beginning, nor the end of each cycle, but at times when the crisis or perturbation of environments began. These extinction events do not show detectable feedbacks to concurrent environmental changes. In each episode, cyanobacteria proliferation postdated the macroscopic extinction while proliferation of green sulfur bacteria predated the environmental crisis. Causational analysis between environmental and microbial changes show that geomicrobial functional groups exercised pronounced effects on the marine C-N-S cycles and ocean redox conditions during the PTB crisis. It is possible thus that the microbial crises played an important role in strengthening or evening triggering the environmental crisis.

  18. Environmental and hormonal factors controlling reversible colour change in crab spiders.

    PubMed

    Llandres, Ana L; Figon, Florent; Christidès, Jean-Philippe; Mandon, Nicole; Casas, Jérôme

    2013-10-15

    Habitat heterogeneity that occurs within an individual's lifetime may favour the evolution of reversible plasticity. Colour reversibility has many different functions in animals, such as thermoregulation, crypsis through background matching and social interactions. However, the mechanisms underlying reversible colour changes are yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study aims to determine the environmental and hormonal factors underlying morphological colour changes in Thomisus onustus crab spiders and the biochemical metabolites produced during these changes. We quantified the dynamics of colour changes over time: spiders were kept in yellow and white containers under natural light conditions and their colour was measured over 15 days using a spectrophotometer. We also characterised the chemical metabolites of spiders changing to a yellow colour using HPLC. Hormonal control of colour change was investigated by injecting 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into spiders. We found that background colouration was a major environmental factor responsible for colour change in crab spiders: individuals presented with white and yellow backgrounds changed to white and yellow colours, respectively. An ommochrome precursor, 3-OH-kynurenine, was the main pigment responsible for yellow colour. Spiders injected with 20E displayed a similar rate of change towards yellow colouration as spiders kept in yellow containers and exposed to natural sunlight. This study demonstrates novel hormonal manipulations that are capable of inducing reversible colour change.

  19. Climate change: overview of data sources, observed and predicted temperature changes, and impacts on public and environmental health

    Treesearch

    David H. Levinson; Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses the societal and the environmental impacts of climate change related to increasing surface temperatures on air quality and forest health. Increasing temperatures at and near the earth’s surface, due to both a warming climate and urban heat island effects, have been shown to increase ground-level ozone concentrations in cities across the U.S. In...

  20. Estimating the tolerance of species to the effects of global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Dakos, Vasilis; Bascompte, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental change is affecting species distribution and their interactions with other species. In particular, the main drivers of environmental change strongly affect the strength of interspecific interactions with considerable consequences for biodiversity. However, extrapolating the effects observed on pair-wise interactions to entire ecological networks is challenging. Here we propose a framework to estimate the tolerance to changes in the strength of mutualistic interaction that species in mutualistic networks can sustain before becoming extinct. We identify the scenarios where generalist species can be the least tolerant. We show that the least tolerant species across different scenarios do not appear to have uniquely common characteristics. Species' tolerance is extremely sensitive to the direction of change in the strength of mutualistic interaction, as well as to the observed mutualistic trade-offs between the number of partners and the strength of the interactions.

  1. Matching traditional and scientific observations to detect environmental change: a discussion on Arctic terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Henry; Callaghan, Terry; Fox, Shari; Krupnik, Igor

    2004-11-01

    Recent environmental changes are having, and are expected to continue to have, significant impacts in the Arctic as elsewhere in the world. Detecting those changes and determining the mechanisms that cause them are far from trivial problems. The use of multiple methods of observation can increase confidence in individual observations, broaden the scope of information available about environmental change, and contribute to insights concerning mechanisms of change. In this paper, we examine the ways that using traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) together with scientific observations can achieve these objectives. A review of TEK observations in comparison with scientific observations demonstrates the promise of this approach, while also revealing several challenges to putting it into practice on a large scale. Further efforts are suggested, particularly in undertaking collaborative projects designed to produce parallel observations that can be readily compared and analyzed in greater detail than is possible in an opportunistic sample.

  2. Do invasive alien plants benefit more from global environmental change than native plants?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjie; Oduor, Ayub M O; Zhang, Zhen; Manea, Anthony; Tooth, Ifeanna M; Leishman, Michelle R; Xu, Xingliang; van Kleunen, Mark

    2016-11-26

    Invasive alien plant species threaten native biodiversity, disrupt ecosystem functions and can cause large economic damage. Plant invasions have been predicted to further increase under ongoing global environmental change. Numerous case studies have compared the performance of invasive and native plant species in response to global environmental change components (i.e. changes in mean levels of precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration or nitrogen deposition). Individually, these studies usually involve low numbers of species and therefore the results cannot be generalized. Therefore, we performed a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis to assess whether there is a general pattern of differences in invasive and native plant performance under each component of global environmental change. We compiled a database of studies that reported performance measures for 74 invasive alien plant species and 117 native plant species in response to one of the above-mentioned global environmental change components. We found that elevated temperature and CO2 enrichment increased the performance of invasive alien plants more strongly than was the case for native plants. Invasive alien plants tended to also have a slightly stronger positive response to increased N deposition and increased precipitation than native plants, but these differences were not significant (N deposition: P = 0.051; increased precipitation: P = 0.679). Invasive alien plants tended to have a slightly stronger negative response to decreased precipitation than native plants, although this difference was also not significant (P = 0.060). So while drought could potentially reduce plant invasion, increases in the four other components of global environmental change considered, particularly global warming and atmospheric CO2 enrichment, may further increase the spread of invasive plants in the future.

  3. Water governance, resilience and global environmental change - a reassessment of integrated water resources management (IWRM).

    PubMed

    Galaz, V

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is gaining increased acceptance among water policy makers and researchers as a way to create more effective governance institutions, leading towards integrated water development solutions for poverty alleviation, while addressing social, economic and environmental aspects of water challenges. However, global environmental change poses fundamental challenges to water policy makers as it implies vast scientific, and hence, policy uncertainty; its implications for international water governance initiatives remain unspecified, effectively hindering dialogue on how current IWRM initiatives should be modified. This paper addresses the lag between our growing understanding of resilient interconnected freshwater resources (and their governance) and the reforms being promoted by policy makers. In particular, there is a need to rethink some of IWRM's key components to better tackle the challenges posed by the complex behaviour of interconnected social-ecological systems and global environmental change.

  4. Phase change material applications in buildings: an environmental assessment for some Spanish climate severities.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; López-Sabirón, Ana M; Mainar-Toledo, M D; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio

    2013-02-01

    This work proposes an environmental analysis based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA was applied to determine if energy savings are large enough to balance the environmental impact caused during phase change material (PCM) manufacture and its installation on tiles. Inputs and outputs of each management stage have been defined and the inventory emissions were calculated by SIMAPRO v 7.3.2. Emissions were classified into several impact categories; climate change, human toxicity, acidification, ozone depletion, particulate matter formation and eutrophication. Three commercial PCMs, evaluated using five different Spanish weather climates, were studied to explore a wide range of conditions. The main results conclude that the use of PCM can reduce the overall energy consumption and the environmental impacts. This reduction is strongly influenced by the climate conditions and the PCM introduced.

  5. Health effects associated with global climate change: A role for environmental mutagens?

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkranz, H.S.

    1996-12-31

    This commentary discusses the role the scientists who study environmental mutagens have in evaluating the health effects of climate change. The author feels that the possibility that mutagens secondary to climatic changes could affect human health directly (somatic mutation/cancer) as well as indirectly (mutagenesis of pathogens and their vectors) is intriguing, and that scientists in the area are well equipped to play a pivital role.

  6. Palaeoecological evidence for Holocene environmental change from the Virunga volcanoes in the Albertine Rift, central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Gayle; Mooney, Scott; Taylor, David

    2013-02-01

    This study presents two new, well-dated sedimentary pollen and charcoal records from high-altitude crater sites in the Virunga volcanoes, located in the Albertine Rift, central Africa, currently part of one of the world's most biodiverse areas. Here we argue that Holocene vegetation changes in a ca 8000-year palaeoenvironmental record from a crater swamp at an altitude of 3474 m and a ca 2800-year record from a crater lake at an altitude of 4127 m are linked to variations in both climate and human activity. Climatic changes during the mid- to late Holocene are reflected in the high-altitude sites and more widely in adjacent parts of the Albertine Rift. Vegetation changes, comprising a decline in Ericaceous vegetation at ca 5000 cal yrs BP and subsequent expansion of Afroalpine vegetation, together with a later increase in taxa associated with lower montane forest (particularly Podocarpus), reflect increasing aridity during the mid- to late Holocene. Human-induced environmental change in the Virunga volcanoes is apparent only within the last millennium, despite the long history of human occupation of the area. Both study sites record significant forest clearance at ca 900 cal yrs BP, involving a reduction in lower montane forest taxa and increases in disturbance indicators. Changes in the composition of upper montane forest, and particularly the expansion of Hagenia, are possibly linked to anthropogenic-induced changes in the fire regime, and are apparent from ca 900 cal yrs BP. Human-induced environmental modification from the early part of the last millennium, likely associated with onset of the Late Iron Age, appears to have extended to high altitudes. The importance of natural, long-term climate change as a major cause of environmental change in the Albertine Rift has been eclipsed within the last millennium by human-induced environmental effects.

  7. CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    supports a comparison of historic human responses to environmental change in the Mississippi River and the Nile River, as measured by human security...capabilities to handle large-scale changes. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of adaptive capacity compares areas in the Mississippi and Nile...Basin. The Mississippi case area serves as a more controlled case study with the Nile Basin representing a context with more limited historical data

  8. Environmental Education in Serbian Primary Schools: Challenges and Changes in Curriculum, Pedagogy, and Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanišic, Jelena; Maksic, Slavica

    2014-01-01

    The protection of human health and the preservation of the environment are topics that form an integral part of the primary school curriculum in Serbia. However, research studies have shown that students do not have enough knowledge to contribute to the development of a healthy lifestyle and environmental awareness. The latest changes in school…

  9. Changing the Environmental Behaviour of Small Business Owners: The Business Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Beth; Redmond, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the environment is something of a cracked record to many small business owners, as historically any calls to business to change or improve their practices or behaviours were from the "environmental" or "green" perspective, rather than from a business perspective. As a consequence, many small businesses have…

  10. National Institute for Global Environmental Change, July 1, 1994-- June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the report from the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the period July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995. Separate sections for the Great Plains, Midwestern, Norhteast, South Central, Southeast and Western regions are present. Each section contains project descriptions and abstracts for projects managed by the respective regional offices.

  11. Global Climate Change and Environmental Contaminants: A SETAC Call for Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change has become a global environmental threat that will impact virtually every ecosystem on the planet for generations to come. The widespread nature of the threat is evident in not only industrialized countries, but in remote locations, such as polar regions and oceani...

  12. Change in Moral Outlook Is an Important Topic of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suohua, Li

    2004-01-01

    It is a common recognition that humankind is facing an ecological environmental crisis. In order to protect the ecological system, to protect nature and thus to safeguard the continued existence of humankind, not only technological, economic, and managerial measures are needed, but more importantly, a change must take place in people's thinking so…

  13. How Will Global Environmental Changes Affect the Growth of Alien Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jujie; Dai, Zhicong; Li, Feng; Liu, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental changes can create novel habitats, promoting the growth of alien plants that often exhibit broad environmental tolerance and high phenotypic plasticity. However, the mechanisms underlying these growth promotory effects are unknown at present. Here, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis using data from 111 published studies encompassing the responses of 129 alien plants to global warming, increased precipitation, N deposition, and CO2 enrichment. We compared the differences in the responses of alien plants to the four global environmental change factors across six categories of functional traits between woody and non-woody life forms as well as C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Our results showed that all four global change factors promote alien plant growth. Warming had a more positive effect on C4 than C3 plants. Although the effects of the four factors on the functional traits of alien plants were variable, plant growth was mainly promoted via an increase in growth rate and size. Our data suggest that potential future global environmental changes could further facilitate alien plant growth. PMID:27847511

  14. Global Environmental Change: The Contribution of Social Science Research To Policy in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redclift, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes ways in which the principle of enhanced sustainability might become a point of reference in social science research, considered as a dimension of all social and economic behavior. Discusses some of the lessons learned from the Global Environmental Change program and considers the relationship between this work and…

  15. Environmental Education in Serbian Primary Schools: Challenges and Changes in Curriculum, Pedagogy, and Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanišic, Jelena; Maksic, Slavica

    2014-01-01

    The protection of human health and the preservation of the environment are topics that form an integral part of the primary school curriculum in Serbia. However, research studies have shown that students do not have enough knowledge to contribute to the development of a healthy lifestyle and environmental awareness. The latest changes in school…

  16. Vulnerability of US thermoelectric power generation to climate change when incorporating state-level environmental regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad; Li, Hongyi; Forman, Barton; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    Previous modelling studies suggest that thermoelectric power generation is vulnerable to climate change, whereas studies based on historical data suggest the impact will be less severe. Here we explore the vulnerability of thermoelectric power generation in the United States to climate change by coupling an Earth system model with a thermoelectric power generation model, including state-level representation of environmental regulations on thermal effluents. We find that the impact of climate change is lower than in previous modelling estimates due to an inclusion of a spatially disaggregated representation of environmental regulations and provisional variances that temporarily relieve power plants from permit requirements. More specifically, our results indicate that climate change alone may reduce average generating capacity by 2-3% by the 2060s, while reductions of up to 12% are expected if environmental requirements are enforced without waivers for thermal variation. Our work highlights the significance of accounting for legal constructs and underscores the effects of provisional variances in addition to environmental requirements.

  17. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  18. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  19. A Financial and Environmental Analysis of Strategic Policy Changes at Small Private Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    Recently many religious colleges have become more secular and single-sex colleges have become coeducational. By contrasting environmental and financial data of a matched sample of colleges that made these changes with a sample of colleges that have not, it was possible to assess the impact of those policy decisions. (Author/LBH)

  20. Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change in the Mississippi Delta: Considerations for Evaluation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Honeycutt, Sally; Davis, Melvin; Dauria, Emily; Berg, Carla; Dove, Cassandra; Gamble, Abigail; Hawkins, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Community-level policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies may offer an economical and sustainable approach to chronic disease prevention. The rapidly growing number of untested but promising PSE strategies currently underway offers an exciting opportunity to establish practice-based evidence for this approach. This article…

  1. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  2. How Will Global Environmental Changes Affect the Growth of Alien Plants?

    PubMed

    Jia, Jujie; Dai, Zhicong; Li, Feng; Liu, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental changes can create novel habitats, promoting the growth of alien plants that often exhibit broad environmental tolerance and high phenotypic plasticity. However, the mechanisms underlying these growth promotory effects are unknown at present. Here, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis using data from 111 published studies encompassing the responses of 129 alien plants to global warming, increased precipitation, N deposition, and CO2 enrichment. We compared the differences in the responses of alien plants to the four global environmental change factors across six categories of functional traits between woody and non-woody life forms as well as C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Our results showed that all four global change factors promote alien plant growth. Warming had a more positive effect on C4 than C3 plants. Although the effects of the four factors on the functional traits of alien plants were variable, plant growth was mainly promoted via an increase in growth rate and size. Our data suggest that potential future global environmental changes could further facilitate alien plant growth.

  3. An Investigation of Environmental Change Associated with Urban Renewal in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, A. G.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1995-01-01

    A sample of five sites of recent urban renewal activity in Sandwell, West Midlands, U.K. formed the basis for an audit survey of the nature and degree of associated change in a broad set of physical, built, and infrastructure environmental parameters. Data were mostly derived from questionnaire surveys of professionals with specific environmental…

  4. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  5. Expanding Students' Ability to Conceptualise the Dynamics of Changing Places in the Teaching of Environmental Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Mike

    2016-01-01

    "Research has consistently found that pedagogy informed by knowledge of students' existing ideas is more efficient in promoting conceptual change than traditional methods of instruction". Learners in the sub-field of environmental geography exhibit preconceptions that frame and sometimes hinder their knowledge acquisition. Those…

  6. Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change in the Mississippi Delta: Considerations for Evaluation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Honeycutt, Sally; Davis, Melvin; Dauria, Emily; Berg, Carla; Dove, Cassandra; Gamble, Abigail; Hawkins, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Community-level policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies may offer an economical and sustainable approach to chronic disease prevention. The rapidly growing number of untested but promising PSE strategies currently underway offers an exciting opportunity to establish practice-based evidence for this approach. This article…

  7. Changing the Environmental Behaviour of Small Business Owners: The Business Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Beth; Redmond, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the environment is something of a cracked record to many small business owners, as historically any calls to business to change or improve their practices or behaviours were from the "environmental" or "green" perspective, rather than from a business perspective. As a consequence, many small businesses have…

  8. Attitude Change as a Result of a Short Course on Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    This study was conducted to determine what attitude changes take place in a group of secondary school teachers as a result of participation in a short course on the environmental problems of air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, population problems and the use of natural resources. A secondary purpose was to determine if the teachers…

  9. Change in Moral Outlook Is an Important Topic of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suohua, Li

    2004-01-01

    It is a common recognition that humankind is facing an ecological environmental crisis. In order to protect the ecological system, to protect nature and thus to safeguard the continued existence of humankind, not only technological, economic, and managerial measures are needed, but more importantly, a change must take place in people's thinking so…

  10. MONITORING CHANGES IN THE ESTUARIES OF THE UNITED STATES: THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program/Estuaries (EMAP-E) is to estimate the current status, extent, changes, and trends in ecological indicators of the condition of the nation's coastal resources (intertidal, subtidal, and offshore) on a regional and ...

  11. An Investigation of Environmental Change Associated with Urban Renewal in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, A. G.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1995-01-01

    A sample of five sites of recent urban renewal activity in Sandwell, West Midlands, U.K. formed the basis for an audit survey of the nature and degree of associated change in a broad set of physical, built, and infrastructure environmental parameters. Data were mostly derived from questionnaire surveys of professionals with specific environmental…

  12. Observing environmental change in of the Gulf of Maine: ICUC smartphone app

    EPA Science Inventory

    Want to help collect data on environmental change in the Gulf of Maine with your smartphone? The Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) is growing the community of citizen scientists in the Gulf of Maine region through its new smartphone app: ICUC (...

  13. Observing environmental change in of the Gulf of Maine: ICUC smartphone app

    EPA Science Inventory

    Want to help collect data on environmental change in the Gulf of Maine with your smartphone? The Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) is growing the community of citizen scientists in the Gulf of Maine region through its new smartphone app: ICUC (...

  14. MONITORING CHANGES IN THE ESTUARIES OF THE UNITED STATES: THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program/Estuaries (EMAP-E) is to estimate the current status, extent, changes, and trends in ecological indicators of the condition of the nation's coastal resources (intertidal, subtidal, and offshore) on a regional and ...

  15. 75 FR 69475 - Notice Regarding Changed Venue for Public Hearing On a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION.../Overseas Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice regarding changed venue for public hearing. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S...

  16. Global Climate Change and Environmental Contaminants: A SETAC Call for Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change has become a global environmental threat that will impact virtually every ecosystem on the planet for generations to come. The widespread nature of the threat is evident in not only industrialized countries, but in remote locations, such as polar regions and oceani...

  17. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    SciTech Connect

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; Lu, Ying; Brodie, Eoin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-11-25

    We report that in many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal and bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction.

  18. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    DOE PAGES

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; ...

    2014-11-25

    We report that in many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of naturalmore » variation. Fungal and bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction.« less

  19. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    PubMed Central

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; Lu, Ying; Brodie, Eoin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal and bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction. PMID:25505459

  20. Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A

    2008-12-01

    The past 30 years have seen dramatic changes in the food and physical activity environments, both of which contribute to the changes in human behavior that could explain obesity. This paper reviews documented changes in the food environment, changes in the physical activity environment and the mechanisms through which people respond to these environments, often without conscious awareness or control. The most important environmental changes have been increases in food accessibility, food salience and decreases in the cost of food. The increases in food marketing and advertising create food cues that artificially stimulate people to feel hungry. The existence of a metabolic pathway that allows excess energy to be stored as fat suggests that people were designed to overeat. Many internal mechanisms favor neurophysiologic responses to food cues that result in overconsumption. External cues, such as food abundance, food variety and food novelty, cause people to override internal signals of satiety. Other factors, such as conditioning and priming, tie food to other desirable outcomes, and thus increase the frequency that hunger is stimulated by environmental cues. People's natural response to the environmental cues are colored by framing, and judgments are flawed and biased depending on how information is presented. People lack insight into how the food environment affects them, and subsequently are unable to change the factors that are responsible for excessive energy consumption. Understanding the causal pathway for overconsumption will be necessary to interrupt the mechanisms that lead to obesity.

  1. Changes in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Trait Anxiety from Middle Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sarah; Tully, Erin C.; Tarantino, Nick; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background Middle adolescence to early adulthood is an important developmental period for the emergence of anxiety. Genetically-influenced stable traits are thought to underlie internalizing psychopathology throughout development, but no studies have examined changes in genetic and environmental influences on trait anxiety during this period. Method A longitudinal twin study design was used to study same-sex twin pairs (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at three ages, 14, 18, and 21 years, to examine developmental shifts in genetic and environmental effects on trait anxiety. Results The heritability of trait anxiety increased with age, particularly between ages 14 and 18, no significant new genetic influences emerged after age 14, and the genetic influences were highly correlated across the three ages, supporting developmentally stable genetic risk factors. The environmental effects shared by members of a family decreased in influence across adolescence, while the influence of environmental effects unique to each individual twin remained relatively stable over the course of development and were largely age-specific Limitations The twin study design does not inform about specific genes and environmental risk factors. Conclusions Genetic influences increased in importance from middle to late adolescence but common genetic factors influenced trait anxiety across the three ages. Shared environmental influences decreased in importance and demonstrated negligible influence by late adolescence/early adulthood. Nonshared environmental effects were almost entirely age-specific. These findings support the importance of developmentally-sensitive interventions that target shared environmental factors prior to middle adolescence and shifting non-shared environmental risks at each age. PMID:23768528

  2. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  3. Under the curve: critical issues for elucidating D1 receptor function in working memory.

    PubMed

    Williams, G V; Castner, S A

    2006-04-28

    It has been postulated that spatial working memory operates optimally within a limited range of dopamine transmission and D1 dopamine receptor signaling in prefrontal cortex. Insufficiency in prefrontal dopamine, as in aging, and excessive transmission, as in acute stress, lead to impairments in working memory that can be ameliorated by D1 receptor agonist and antagonist treatment, respectively. Iontophoretic investigations of dopamine's influence on the cellular mechanisms of working memory have revealed that moderate D1 blockade can enhance memory fields in primate prefrontal pyramidal neurons while strong blockade abolishes them. The combined behavioral and physiological evidence indicates that there is a normal range of dopamine function in prefrontal cortex that can be described as an "inverted-U" relationship between dopamine transmission and the integrity of working memory. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated a role for dopamine in promoting the excitability of prefrontal pyramidal cells and facilitating their N-methyl-d-aspartate inputs, while simultaneously restraining recurrent excitation and facilitating feedforward inhibition. This evidence indicates that there is a fine balance between the synergistic mechanisms of D1 modulation in working memory. Given the critical role of prefrontal function for cognition, it is not surprising that this balancing act is perturbed by both subtle genetic influences and environmental events. Further, there is evidence for an imbalance in these dopaminergic mechanisms in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, and in related nonhuman primate models. Elucidating the orchestration of dopamine signaling in key nodes within prefrontal microcircuitry is therefore pivotal for understanding the influence of dopamine transmission on the dynamics of working memory. Here, we explore the hypothesis that the window of optimal dopamine signaling changes on a behavioral time-scale, dependent

  4. Taimyr Reindeer and Environmental Change: Monitoring Wild Reindeer Migration in Changing Natural and Social Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Taimyr Reindeer Herd (TRH) is both the largest and the longest monitored wild reindeer herd in Eurasia. An important part of Arctic ecosystems and Indigenous livelihood, wild reindeer have been continuously monitored for almost 50 years. During this time, herds have exhibited large changes in size and these changes have been recorded in almost all herds across the animal's range. An increasing number of wild reindeer in the Soviet times was followed by a significant population loss in the last decade. In addition, recent monitoring revealed substantial shifts in the distribution of wild populations. The decline in wild reindeer is likely related to natural cycles and changes in the Arctic environment caused by climate variability and anthropogenic activity. This study investigates patterns and possible drives of reindeer population dynamics in space and time. We identify key climatic factors, possible relationships with biomass dynamics, as well as with hunting practices and other human impacts.

  5. Environmental magnetism of Lake Ohrid (Balkans) - Rock magnetic proxies for lacustrine and terrestrial environmental changes over the past 640 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, J.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Francke, A.; Sagnotti, L.; Wagner, B.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic properties of lake sediments can provide valuable information on terrestrial environmental conditions. The composition of detrital magnetic minerals provides information on erosion and pedogenesis in the catchment. However, depending on the trophic state of the lake, water depth and stratification, oxygen supply is often limited and leads to dissolution and neo-formation of magnetic minerals. Variations in bulk magnetic and geochemical properties of a sediment core (ICDP site 5045-1) from Lake Ohrid, mimic climatic changes on glacial-interglacial and millennial time scales. During extremely cold glacials, low accumulation of organic matter and enhanced mixing of the water-column coincides with the preservation of syn-sedimentary greigite whereas in sediments deposited during less severe glacials and interglacials, greigite is absent. "Non-greigite" glacial sediments are characterized by high concentration of high-coercivity magnetic minerals, which relates to enhanced erosion of soils due a retreat in vegetation. During interglacials magnetite dominates the magnetic mineral assemblage, most likely corresponding to detrital particles originating from physically weathered rocks. Millennial-scale variations of magnetic properties are superimposed on the general glacial-interglacial pattern. Higher contributions from high-coercivity minerals correspond to phases of low summer-insolation. We propose that also on these time scales retreated vegetation resulted in enhanced soil erosion. Our study demonstrates that rock-magnetic studies, in concert with geochemical and sedimentological investigations, provide a multi-level contribution to environmental reconstructions, since the magnetic properties can mirror both environmental conditions on land, as well as intra-lake processes.

  6. Antarctica and Global Environmental Change - Lessons from the Past Inform Climate Change Policy Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, R. B.; Scientific Team Of Odp Drilling Leg 318; Andrill Science Team

    2011-12-01

    Antarctic's continental ice, sea ice, and the broader Southern Ocean form a coupled and complex climate system that interacts in important yet poorly understood ways with the low and mid-latitudes. Because of its unusual sovereignty status and the fact that there is no indigenous human population, information about climate change in Antarctica penetrates the policy world less readily than findings from other regions. Yet, Antarctica's potential to impact climate change globally is disproportionately large. Vulnerable portions of the ice sheet may contribute up to 3 to 5 meters of sea level rise in the coming centuries, including significant amounts within the next 50 years. Loss of sea ice and other changes in the Southern Ocean may reduce oceanic uptake of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide, exacerbating global warming worldwide. Antarctica's impact on the Southern Hemisphere wind field is now well-established, contributing to ongoing decadal-scale perturbations in continental precipitation as well as major reorganizations of Southern Ocean food chains. Recent scientific drilling programs in the Ross Sea and off Wilkes Land, Antarctica, provide valuable insights into past climatic and biogeochemical change in Antarctica, insights of great relevance to international and national climate change policy. In this paper, we discuss polar amplification, sea level variability coupled to Antarctic ice volume, and response timescales as seen through the lens of past climate change. One key result emerging from multiple drilling programs is recognition of unanticipated dynamism in the Antarctic ice sheet during portions of the Pliocene (at a time with pCO2 levels equivalent to those anticipated late this century) as well as during "super-interglacials" of the Pleistocene. Evidence for substantially warmer ocean temperatures and reduced sea ice cover at these times suggests that polar amplification of natural climate variability, even under scenarios of relative small amounts

  7. Environmental changes in the North Atlantic Region: SCANNET as a collaborative approach for documenting, understanding and predicting changes.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Johansson, M; Heal, O W; Saelthun, N R; Barkved, L J; Bayfield, N; Brandt, O; Brooker, R; Christiansen, H H; Forchhammer, M; Høye, T T; Humlum, O; Järvinen, A; Jonasson, C; Kohler, J; Magnusson, B; Meltofte, H; Mortensen, L; Neuvonen, S; Pearce, I; Rasch, M; Turner, L; Hasholt, B; Huhta, E; Leskinen, E; Nielsen, N; Siikamäki, P

    2004-11-01

    The lands surrounding the North Atlantic Region (the SCANNET Region) cover a wide range of climate regimes, physical environments and availability of natural resources. Except in the extreme North, they have supported human populations and various cultures since at least the end of the last ice age. However, the region is also important at a wider geographical scale in that it influences the global climate and supports animals that migrate between the Arctic and all the other continents of the world. Climate, environment and land use in the region are changing rapidly and projections suggest that global warming will be amplified there while increasing land use might dramatically reduce the remaining wilderness areas. Because much of the region is sparsely populated--if populated at all--observational records of past environmental changes and their impacts are both few and of short duration. However, it is becoming very important to record the changes that are now in progress, to understand the drivers of these changes, and to predict future consequences of the changes. To facilitate research into understanding impacts of global change on the lands of the North Atlantic Regions, and also to monitor changes in real time, an EU-funded network of research sites and infrastructures was formed in 2000: this was called SCANNET--SCANdinavian/North European NETwork of Terrestrial Field Bases. SCANNET currently consists of 9 core sites and 5 sites within local networks that together cover the broad range of current climate and predicted change in the region. Climate observations are well replicated across the network, whereas each site has tended to select particular environmental and ecological subjects for intensive observation. This provides diversity of both subject coverage and expertise. In this paper, we summarize the findings of SCANNET to-date and outline its information bases in order to increase awareness of data on environmental change in the North Atlantic

  8. Adaptive Response of a Gene Network to Environmental Changes by Fitness-Induced Attractor Selection

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Akiko; Urabe, Itaru; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    Cells switch between various stable genetic programs (attractors) to accommodate environmental conditions. Signal transduction machineries efficiently convey environmental changes to the gene regulation apparatus in order to express the appropriate genetic program. However, since the number of environmental conditions is much larger than that of available genetic programs so that the cell may utilize the same genetic program for a large set of conditions, it may not have evolved a signaling pathway for every environmental condition, notably those that are rarely encountered. Here we show that in the absence of signal transduction, switching to the appropriate attractor state expressing the genes that afford adaptation to the external condition can occur. In a synthetic bistable gene switch in Escherichia coli in which mutually inhibitory operons govern the expression of two genes required in two alternative nutritional environments, cells reliably selected the “adaptive attractor” driven by gene expression noise. A mathematical model suggests that the “non-adaptive attractor” is avoided because in unfavorable conditions, cellular activity is lower, which suppresses mRNA metabolism, leading to larger fluctuations in gene expression. This, in turn, renders the non-adaptive state less stable. Although attractor selection is not as efficient as signal transduction via a dedicated cascade, it is simple and robust, and may represent a primordial mechanism for adaptive responses that preceded the evolution of signaling cascades for the frequently encountered environmental changes. PMID:17183678

  9. A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Kelly S.; Hornsey, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions. PMID:26903924

  10. A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Kelly S; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions.

  11. Who benefits from environmental policy? An environmental justice analysis of air quality change in Britain, 2001-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Gordon; Norman, Paul; Mullin, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Air quality in Great Britain has improved in recent years, but not enough to prevent the European Commission (EC) taking legal action for non-compliance with limit values. Air quality is a national public health concern, with disease burden associated with current air quality estimated at 29 000 premature deaths per year due to fine particulates, with a further burden due to NO2. National small-area analyses showed that in 2001 poor air quality was much more prevalent in socio-economically deprived areas. We extend this social distribution of air quality analysis to consider how the distribution changed over the following decade (2001-2011), a period when significant efforts to meet EC air quality directive limits have been made, and air quality has improved. We find air quality improvement is greatest in the least deprived areas, whilst the most deprived areas bear a disproportionate and rising share of declining air quality including non-compliance with air quality standards. We discuss the implications for health inequalities, progress towards environmental justice, and compatibility of social justice and environmental sustainability objectives.

  12. Performing Environmental Change: MED Theatre and the Changing Face of Community-Based Performance Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Kerrie

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a programme of work produced by community-based theatre company, Manaton and East Dartmoor (MED) Theatre, addressing issues of climate change as they impact on life in rural Devon, UK. After some discussion of MED Theatre's constitution as a community-based company and the group's long-term engagement with the place, history,…

  13. Performing Environmental Change: MED Theatre and the Changing Face of Community-Based Performance Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Kerrie

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a programme of work produced by community-based theatre company, Manaton and East Dartmoor (MED) Theatre, addressing issues of climate change as they impact on life in rural Devon, UK. After some discussion of MED Theatre's constitution as a community-based company and the group's long-term engagement with the place, history,…

  14. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake

    PubMed Central

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; Dileone, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake. PMID:24441680

  15. [Environmental impact assessment of the land use change in china based on ecosystem service value].

    PubMed

    Ran, Sheng-hong; Lü, Chang-he; Jia, Ke-jing; Qi, Yong-hua

    2006-10-01

    The environmental impact of land use change is long-term and cumulative. The ecosystem service change results from land use change. Therefore, the ecosystem service function change is the key object in the environmental impact assessment of land use change. According to the specific situation of China, this paper adjusted the unit ecosystem service value of different land use types. Based on this, the ecosystem service value change of different provinces in China resulted from the land use change since the implementation of the last plan of land use (1997-2010) was analyzed. The results show that the ecosystem service value in China increased 0.91% from 1996 to 2004. Thereinto, Tianjin is the province that the ecosystem service value increased most quickly, which was 5.69% from 1996 to 2004, while Shanghai is the province that the value decreased most quickly, which was 9.79%. Furthermore, the change of 17 types of ecosystem services was analyzed. Among them, the climate regulation function enhanced 3.43% from 1996 to 2004 and the biology resource control was weakened by 2.26% in this period. The results also indicate that the increase of the area of water surface and forest is the main reason for why the ecosystem service value increased in China in that period.

  16. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Pampel, Fred C

    2013-09-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts.

  17. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Pampel, Fred C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts. PMID:24179313

  18. Environmental Toxicant Exposure and Cancer: The Role of Epigenetic Changes and Protection by Phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Amirhamzeh, Amirali; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Saadat, Alireza; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxicants is a well-documented predisposing factor for cancer. Although genetic alterations have long been known to occur through exposure to some environmental carcinogens, there is another layer of genome regulatory system named epigenetic system. Epigenetics is defined as any reversible and heritable change in cellular patterns of gene expression that does not alter DNA sequence. This layer of gene control plays a key role in early stages of carcinogenesis by reprogramming cells to what is known as cancer stem cells, a process with great similarities to somatic cell reprogramming into "induced pluripotent stem cell". Environmental toxicants could directly promote carcinogenesis through disturbing promoter CpG island hypermethylation, and silencing of tumor suppressor genes, hypomethylation of transposable elements and genomic instability induced by environmental toxicants. Environmental toxicants could also indirectly affect epigenetic programming of nucleus through inducing inflammatory signaling pathways that converge on NF-κB or STAT3 activation. Considering the reversibility of epigenetic alterations and their pivotal role in early carcinogenesis, reversion of these alterations could be a promising approach for chemoprevention. Selected phytochemicals have shown desirable effects through regulation of the most important epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression, as well as modulation of SIRT-1 and STAT-3 signaling pathways. The present review aims to outline the epigenetic mechanisms underlying carcinogenic effects of environmental toxicants, and the protective effects of phytochemicals in reversing epigenetic aberrations in the regulatory pathways steering normal cell homeostasis.

  19. Genomics of Adaptation Depends on the Rate of Environmental Change in Experimental Yeast Populations.

    PubMed

    Gorter, Florien A; Derks, Martijn F L; van den Heuvel, Joost; Aarts, Mark G M; Zwaan, Bas J; de Ridder, Dick; de Visser, J Arjan G M

    2017-10-01

    The rate of directional environmental change may have profound consequences for evolutionary dynamics and outcomes. Yet, most evolution experiments impose a sudden large change in the environment, after which the environment is kept c