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Sample records for d1 environmental change

  1. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  2. Macroevolutionary perspectives to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Condamine, Fabien L; Rolland, Jonathan; Morlon, Hélène

    2013-05-01

    Predicting how biodiversity will be affected and will respond to human-induced environmental changes is one of the most critical challenges facing ecologists today. Here, we put current environmental changes and their effects on biodiversity in a macroevolutionary perspective. We build on research in palaeontology and recent developments in phylogenetic approaches to ask how macroevolution can help us understand how environmental changes have affected biodiversity in the past, and how they will affect biodiversity in the future. More and more paleontological and phylogenetic data are accumulated, and we argue that much of the potential these data have for understanding environmental changes remains to be explored. PMID:23331627

  3. Environmentalism and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiemann, Adrian R.

    A high level of individual concern with environmental issues characterizes the ecological crisis of the 1970s. In spite of this increased public involvement, however, many basic problems facing humans as they interact with the environment have remained constant throughout history. For example, the sometimes conflicting concepts of scarcity,…

  4. Epigenetic variation and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Environmental conditions can change the activity of plant genes via epigenetic effects that alter the competence of genetic information to be expressed. This may provide a powerful strategy for plants to adapt to environmental change. However, as epigenetic changes do not modify DNA sequences and are therefore reversible, only those epi-mutations that are transmitted through the germline can be expected to contribute to a long-term adaptive response. The major challenge for the investigation of epigenetic adaptation theories is therefore to identify genomic loci that undergo epigenetic changes in response to environmental conditions, which alter their expression in a heritable way and which improve the plant's ability to adapt to the inducing conditions. This review focuses on the role of DNA methylation as a prominent epigenetic mark that controls chromatin conformation, and on its potential in mediating expression changes in response to environmental signals.

  5. Ecological effects of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Luque, Gloria M; Hochberg, Michael E; Holyoak, Marcel; Hossaert, Martine; Gaill, Françoise; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-05-01

    This Special Issue of Ecology Letters presents contributions from an international meeting organised by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Ecology Letters on the broad theme of ecological effects of global environmental change. The objectives of these articles are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the ecological effects of environmental change drivers and their interactions, including habitat loss and fragmentation, pollution, invasive species and climate change. A range of disciplines is represented, including stoichiometry, cell biology, genetics, evolution and biodiversity conservation. The authors emphasise the need to account for several key ecological factors and different spatial and temporal scales in global change research. They also stress the importance of ecosystem complexity through approaches such as functional group and network analyses, and of mechanisms and predictive models with respect to environmental responses to global change across an ecological continuum: population, communities and ecosystems. Lastly, these articles provide important insights and recommendations for environmental conservation and management, as well as highlighting future research priorities.

  6. Coffee Polyphenols Change the Expression of STAT5B and ATF-2 Modifying Cyclin D1 Levels in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oleaga, Carlota; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Noé, Véronique; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of its chemopreventive effects remain unknown. Objective. To identify differentially expressed genes upon incubation of HT29 colon cancer cells with instant caffeinated coffee (ICC) or caffeic acid (CA) using whole-genome microarrays. Results. ICC incubation of HT29 cells caused the overexpression of 57 genes and the underexpression of 161, while CA incubation induced the overexpression of 12 genes and the underexpression of 32. Using Venn-Diagrams, we built a list of five overexpressed genes and twelve underexpressed genes in common between the two experimental conditions. This list was used to generate a biological association network in which STAT5B and ATF-2 appeared as highly interconnected nodes. STAT5B overexpression was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. For ATF-2, the changes in mRNA levels were confirmed for both ICC and CA, whereas the decrease in protein levels was only observed in CA-treated cells. The levels of cyclin D1, a target gene for both STAT5B and ATF-2, were downregulated by CA in colon cancer cells and by ICC and CA in breast cancer cells. Conclusions. Coffee polyphenols are able to affect cyclin D1 expression in cancer cells through the modulation of STAT5B and ATF-2. PMID:22919439

  7. Nonlinear ionizing radiation-induced changes in eye lens cell proliferation, cyclin D1 expression and lens shape

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Ewa; Barnard, Stephen; Haines, Jackie; Coster, Margaret; van Geel, Orry; Wu, Weiju; Richards, Shane; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Rothkamm, Kai; Bouffler, Simon; Quinlan, Roy A.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated cataract risk after radiation exposure was established soon after the discovery of X-rays in 1895. Today, increased cataract incidence among medical imaging practitioners and after nuclear incidents has highlighted how little is still understood about the biological responses of the lens to low-dose ionizing radiation (IR). Here, we show for the first time that in mice, lens epithelial cells (LECs) in the peripheral region repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB) after exposure to 20 and 100 mGy more slowly compared with circulating blood lymphocytes, as demonstrated by counts of γH2AX foci in cell nuclei. LECs in the central region repaired DSBs faster than either LECs in the lens periphery or lymphocytes. Although DSB markers (γH2AX, 53BP1 and RAD51) in both lens regions showed linear dose responses at the 1 h timepoint, nonlinear responses were observed in lenses for EdU (5-ethynyl-2′-deoxy-uridine) incorporation, cyclin D1 staining and cell density after 24 h at 100 and 250 mGy. After 10 months, the lens aspect ratio was also altered, an indicator of the consequences of the altered cell proliferation and cell density changes. A best-fit model demonstrated a dose-response peak at 500 mGy. These data identify specific nonlinear biological responses to low (less than 1000 mGy) dose IR-induced DNA damage in the lens epithelium. PMID:25924630

  8. Environmental changes bridge evolutionary valleys

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Barrett; Ostermeier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the basic fitness landscape metaphor for molecular evolution, evolutionary pathways are presumed to follow uphill steps of increasing fitness. How evolution can cross fitness valleys is an open question. One possibility is that environmental changes alter the fitness landscape such that low-fitness sequences reside on a hill in alternate environments. We experimentally test this hypothesis on the antibiotic resistance gene TEM-15 β-lactamase by comparing four evolutionary strategies shaped by environmental changes. The strategy that included initial steps of selecting for low antibiotic resistance (negative selection) produced superior alleles compared with the other three strategies. We comprehensively examined possible evolutionary pathways leading to one such high-fitness allele and found that an initially deleterious mutation is key to the allele’s evolutionary history. This mutation is an initial gateway to an otherwise relatively inaccessible area of sequence space and participates in higher-order, positive epistasis with a number of neutral to slightly beneficial mutations. The ability of negative selection and environmental changes to provide access to novel fitness peaks has important implications for natural evolutionary mechanisms and applied directed evolution. PMID:26844293

  9. Medical responsibility and global environmental change.

    PubMed

    McCally, M; Cassel, C K

    1990-09-15

    Global environmental change threatens the habitability of the planet and the health of its inhabitants. Toxic pollution of air and water, acid rain, destruction of stratospheric ozone, waste, species extinction and, potentially, global warming are produced by the growing numbers and activities of human beings. Progression of these environmental changes could lead to unprecedented human suffering. Physicians can treat persons experiencing the consequences of environmental change but cannot individually prevent the cause of their suffering. Physicians have information and expertise about environmental change that can contribute to its slowing or prevention. Work to prevent global environmental change is consistent with the social responsibility of physicians and other health professionals.

  10. Zona occludens-2 inhibits cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation and exhibits changes in localization along the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Rocio; Huerta, Miriam; Islas, Socorro; Avila-Flores, Antonia; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; Weiske, Jörg; Huber, Otmar; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2009-02-01

    Here, we have studied the effect of the tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2 on cyclin D1 (CD1) protein expression. CD1 is essential for cell progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. We have found that in cultures of synchronized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, ZO-2 inhibits cell proliferation at G0/G1 and decreases CD1 protein level. These effects occur in response to a diminished CD1 translation and an augmented CD1 degradation at the proteosome triggered by ZO-2. ZO-2 overexpression decreases the amount of Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylated at Ser9 and represses beta-catenin target gene expression. We have also explored the expression of ZO-2 through the cell cycle and demonstrate that ZO-2 enters the nucleus at the late G1 phase and leaves the nucleus when the cell is in mitosis. These results thus explain why in confluent quiescent epithelia ZO-2 is absent from the nucleus and localizes at the cellular borders, whereas in sparse proliferating cultures ZO-2 is conspicuously present at the nucleus.

  11. Zona Occludens-2 Inhibits Cyclin D1 Expression and Cell Proliferation and Exhibits Changes in Localization along the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Rocio; Huerta, Miriam; Islas, Socorro; Avila-Flores, Antonia; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; Weiske, Jörg; Huber, Otmar; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2009-01-01

    Here, we have studied the effect of the tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2 on cyclin D1 (CD1) protein expression. CD1 is essential for cell progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. We have found that in cultures of synchronized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, ZO-2 inhibits cell proliferation at G0/G1 and decreases CD1 protein level. These effects occur in response to a diminished CD1 translation and an augmented CD1 degradation at the proteosome triggered by ZO-2. ZO-2 overexpression decreases the amount of Glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylated at Ser9 and represses β-catenin target gene expression. We have also explored the expression of ZO-2 through the cell cycle and demonstrate that ZO-2 enters the nucleus at the late G1 phase and leaves the nucleus when the cell is in mitosis. These results thus explain why in confluent quiescent epithelia ZO-2 is absent from the nucleus and localizes at the cellular borders, whereas in sparse proliferating cultures ZO-2 is conspicuously present at the nucleus. PMID:19056685

  12. Environmental insurance adapts to changing needs

    SciTech Connect

    Vuono, M. )

    1995-03-01

    No longer simply a specialty service niche, environmental insurance has become an increasingly important asset to businesses worldwide. Companies of all sizes are using insurance as a proactive tool for prudent environmental risk management. During the last five years, the environmental insurance industry has matured to meet the ever-changing environmental insurance needs of business. A broad range of policies and programs offers coverage against damages caused by chemical spills, hazardous material and related environmental contaminants. Securing environmental insurance coverage has become as customary for many businesses as acquiring general liability and automobile insurance.

  13. Can We Change Environmental Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William; Asche, Wayne E.

    1974-01-01

    "A Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward Environmental Education" was developed and administered to 306 students randomly assigned experimental control treatments. Data were analyzed from a pretest-posttest control group design. No significant differences between vocational and non-vocational experimental/control groups were indicated; however,…

  14. Marked change in microRNA expression during neuronal differentiation of human teratocarcinoma NTera2D1 and mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hohjoh, Hirohiko Fukushima, Tatsunobu

    2007-10-19

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, with a length of 19-23 nucleotides, which appear to be involved in the regulation of gene expression by inhibiting the translation of messenger RNAs carrying partially or nearly complementary sequences to the miRNAs in their 3' untranslated regions. Expression analysis of miRNAs is necessary to understand their complex role in the regulation of gene expression during the development, differentiation and proliferation of cells. Here we report on the expression profile analysis of miRNAs in human teratocarcinoma NTere2D1, mouse embryonic carcinoma P19, mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a and rat pheochromocytoma PC12D cells, which can be induced into differentiated cells with long neuritic processes, i.e., after cell differentiation, such that the resultant cells look similar to neuronal cells. The data presented here indicate marked changes in the expression of miRNAs, as well as genes related to neuronal development, occurred in the differentiation of NTera2D1 and P19 cells. Significant changes in miRNA expression were not observed in Neuro2a and PC12D cells, although they showed apparent morphologic change between undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Of the miRNAs investigated, the expression of miRNAs belonging to the miR-302 cluster, which is known to be specifically expressed in embryonic stem cells, and of miR-124a specific to the brain, appeared to be markedly changed. The miR-302 cluster was potently expressed in undifferentiated NTera2D1 and P19 cells, but hardly in differentiated cells, such that miR-124a showed an opposite expression pattern to the miR-302 cluster. Based on these observations, it is suggested that the miR-302 cluster and miR-124a may be useful molecular indicators in the assessment of degree of undifferentiation and/or differentiation in the course of neuronal differentiation.

  15. Environmental education: a time of change, a time for change.

    PubMed

    Keene, Matt; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2010-05-01

    We join the authors in this special issue in their call to embrace a culture of evaluation. Obstacles to change are formidable. Educators debate their purpose--provide knowledge or achieve environmental goals--and we have limited evidence of the effectiveness of environmental programs and policies. Change requires collaboration across organizations and disciplines, targeted capacity building, and building systems of assessment into programs that enable more sophisticated evaluations. As in other fields, an evidence-based movement will increase the credibility and effectiveness of environmental education. A culture of evaluation offers educators a solid platform to collaboratively and efficiently achieve society's environmental goals.

  16. Influence of post-mortem changes on DNA typing (D1S80, TH01, HLA DQA 1, and PM typing system): case studies for personal identification.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Shin-Ichi; Tokunaga, Itsuo; Kitamura, Osamu; Gotohda, Takako; Ishigami, Akiko

    2004-07-01

    Between 1996 and 2002, we tested a total of 20 unidentified bodies for DNA typing. We describe here the relationships among detection rates achieved by four DNA typing systems (D1S80 typing, TH01 typing, HLA DQA1 typing, and PM typings), the post-mortem interval, types of specimens (bone, nail, and blood), post-mortem changes, and the site at which the corpse was found (indoors, outdoor, or in the sea). Detection rates for PM typings, HLA DQA1 typing, TH01 typing, and D1S80 typing in all cases were 94.7, 90.0, 73.7, and 50.0%, respectively. The success of the typings was highly influenced by the post-mortem interval. Using blood, almost all DNA types were detected, while the nail showed comparatively higher detection rates than bone. The detection rate decreased in order with indoor, outdoor, sea, and soil as the site at which the corpse was found. It is important to consider the specimen, the site at which the corpse was found, and the post-mortem interval to successfully achieve DNA typing.

  17. Environmental Changes, Microbiota, and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung-Ju; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, Eun

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades, the prevalence of allergic disease has increased dramatically. The development of allergic diseases has been attributed to complex interactions between environmental factors and genetic factors. Of the many possible environmental factors, most research has focused on the most commonly encountered environmental factors, such as air pollution and environmental microbiota in combination with climate change. There is increasing evidence that such environmental factors play a critical role in the regulation of the immune response that is associated with allergic diseases, especially in genetically susceptible individuals. This review deals with not only these environmental factors and genetic factors but also their interactions in the development of allergic diseases. It will also emphasize the need for early interventions that can prevent the development of allergic diseases in susceptible populations and how these interventions can be identified. PMID:25228995

  18. Environmental Change in Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Vance, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is strong evidence that subsurface oceans could exist within several of the outer solar system's ice-rich moons, at Jupiter (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), Saturn (Enceladus and Titan), and Neptune (Triton). If liquid water is indeed available in these subsurface environments, then the availability of chemical energy becomes the greatest limitation on whether icy worlds could harbor life. Of these moons, the largest (Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan) are expected to harbor oceans deep within, and high-pressure H2O ice phases are expected farther beneath those deep oceans. In contrast, the oceans of smaller icy worlds—Europa, Enceladus, and Triton—are plausibly in direct contact with rock below. Given that serpentinization or other water-rock geochemical activity could supply reductants directly to their oceans, these icy worlds have the greatest chance to support present-day microbial life. Each of these three icy worlds displays spectacular resurfaced terrains that are very young (crater retention ages ~10s Myr and younger), with their internal activity linked to extremes in tidal heating today and/or in the geologically recent past. However, the degree of their tidal heating may have changed greatly over time. Europa is believed to experience cyclical tidal heating and activity; Enceladus may have experienced cyclical activity or a geologically recent pulse of activity; Triton may have experienced extreme tidal heating upon its capture and orbital circularization. Such dynamic pasts would pose challenges for any life within. We consider the possible effects of severe swings in the activity level of icy worlds, specifically the implications for delivery of chemical energy to their subsurface oceans.

  19. Effects of environmental change on wildlife health

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Duffus, Amanda L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental change has negatively affected most biological systems on our planet and is becoming of increasing concern for the well-being and survival of many species. At an organism level, effects encompass not only endocrine disruptions, sex-ratio changes and decreased reproductive parameters, but also include teratogenic and genotoxic effects, immunosuppression and other immune-system impairments that can lead directly to disease or increase the risk of acquiring disease. Living organisms will strive to maintain health by recognizing and resolving abnormal situations, such as the presence of invading microorganisms or harmful peptides, abnormal cell replication and deleterious mutations. However, fast-paced environmental changes may pose additional pressure on immunocompetence and health maintenance, which may seriously impact population viability and persistence. Here, we outline the importance of a functional immune system for survival and examine the effects that exposure to a rapidly changing environment might exert on immunocompetence. We then address the various levels at which anthropogenic environmental change might affect wildlife health and identify potential deficits in reproductive parameters that might arise owing to new immune challenges in the context of a rapidly changing environment. Throughout the paper, a series of examples and case studies are used to illustrate the impact of environmental change on wildlife health. PMID:19833653

  20. Modeling crop responses to environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Potential biophysical responses of crops to climate change are studied focusing on the primary environmental variables which define the limits to agricultural crop growth and production, and the principal methods for predicting climate change impacts on crop geography and production. It is concluded that the principal uncertainties in the prediction of the impacts of climate change on agriculture reside in the contribution of the direct effects of increasing CO2, in potential changes inclimate variability, and the effects of adjustments mechanisms in the context of climatic changes.

  1. Spacelab D-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1990-01-01

    The Spacelab D-1 (Deutchland Eins) Mission is discussed from the points of view of safety, materials handling, and toxic materials; the laboratory and equipment used; and some of the different philosophies utilized on this flight. How to enhance scientific return at the same time as being safe was examined.

  2. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’) and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’) or applied by the management (‘From’). Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may

  3. Environmental change makes robust ecological networks fragile

    PubMed Central

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Complex ecological networks appear robust to primary extinctions, possibly due to consumers' tendency to specialize on dependable (available and persistent) resources. However, modifications to the conditions under which the network has evolved might alter resource dependability. Here, we ask whether adaptation to historical conditions can increase community robustness, and whether such robustness can protect communities from collapse when conditions change. Using artificial life simulations, we first evolved digital consumer-resource networks that we subsequently subjected to rapid environmental change. We then investigated how empirical host–parasite networks would respond to historical, random and expected extinction sequences. In both the cases, networks were far more robust to historical conditions than new ones, suggesting that new environmental challenges, as expected under global change, might collapse otherwise robust natural ecosystems. PMID:27511722

  4. Environmental change makes robust ecological networks fragile.

    PubMed

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Complex ecological networks appear robust to primary extinctions, possibly due to consumers' tendency to specialize on dependable (available and persistent) resources. However, modifications to the conditions under which the network has evolved might alter resource dependability. Here, we ask whether adaptation to historical conditions can increase community robustness, and whether such robustness can protect communities from collapse when conditions change. Using artificial life simulations, we first evolved digital consumer-resource networks that we subsequently subjected to rapid environmental change. We then investigated how empirical host-parasite networks would respond to historical, random and expected extinction sequences. In both the cases, networks were far more robust to historical conditions than new ones, suggesting that new environmental challenges, as expected under global change, might collapse otherwise robust natural ecosystems. PMID:27511722

  5. Environmental change makes robust ecological networks fragile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Complex ecological networks appear robust to primary extinctions, possibly due to consumers’ tendency to specialize on dependable (available and persistent) resources. However, modifications to the conditions under which the network has evolved might alter resource dependability. Here, we ask whether adaptation to historical conditions can increase community robustness, and whether such robustness can protect communities from collapse when conditions change. Using artificial life simulations, we first evolved digital consumer-resource networks that we subsequently subjected to rapid environmental change. We then investigated how empirical host–parasite networks would respond to historical, random and expected extinction sequences. In both the cases, networks were far more robust to historical conditions than new ones, suggesting that new environmental challenges, as expected under global change, might collapse otherwise robust natural ecosystems.

  6. Human impact: man's role in environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Goudie, A.

    1982-01-01

    Drawing upon worldwide examples, the author traces mankind's interaction with nature and examines human interference with environmental systems at various stages of social development. Succeeding chapters take up man's specific impact on vegetation, animals, the soil, the waters, landforms, climate, and the atmosphere. With the aid of maps, diagrams, and graphs, the book analyzes the causes and consequences of environmental changes associated with such large-scale events as agricultural expansion, domestication, deforestation, and urbanization, including the spread of salination, extinction, erosion, and pollution. Interrelations, often dynamic and unpredictable, between these phenomena make it difficult to isolate the causes of changes and to determine the resiliency of natural systems to change. 505 references, 82 figures, 97 tables.

  7. Future generations, environmental ethics, and global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    The elements of a methodology to be employed by the global community to investigate the consequences of global environmental change upon future generations and global ecosystems are outlined in this paper. The methodology is comprised of two major components: A possible future worlds model; and a formal, citizen-oriented process to judge whether the possible future worlds potentially inheritable by future generations meet obligational standards. A broad array of descriptors of future worlds can be encompassed within this framework, including survival of ecosystems and other species and satisfaction of human concerns. The methodology expresses fundamental psychological motivations and human myths journey, renewal, mother earth, and being-in-nature-and incorporates several viewpoints on obligations to future generations-maintaining options, fairness, humility, and the cause of humanity. The methodology overcomes several severe drawbacks of the economic-based methods most commonly used for global environmental policy analysis.

  8. NOVELTY DETECTION UNDER CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    H. SOHN; K. WORDER; C. R. FARRAR

    2001-04-01

    The primary objective of novelty detection is to examine a system's dynamic response to determine if the system significantly deviates from an initial baseline condition. In reality, the system is often subject to changing environmental and operation conditions that affect its dynamic characteristics. Such variations include changes in loading, boundary conditions, temperature, and moisture. Most damage diagnosis techniques, however, generally neglect the effects of these changing ambient conditions. Here, a novelty detection technique is developed explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indications of true system changes. Auto-associative neural networks are employed to discriminate system changes of interest such as structural deterioration and damage from the natural variations of the system.

  9. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    SciTech Connect

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  10. Detecting genetic responses to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Ary A; Willi, Yvonne

    2008-06-01

    Changes in environmental conditions can rapidly shift allele frequencies in populations of species with relatively short generation times. Frequency shifts might be detectable in neutral genetic markers when stressful conditions cause a population decline. However, frequency shifts that are diagnostic of specific conditions depend on isolating sets of genes that are involved in adaptive responses. Shifts at candidate loci underlying adaptive responses and DNA regions that control their expression have now been linked to evolutionary responses to pollution, global warming and other changes. Conversely, adaptive constraints, particularly in physiological traits, are recognized through DNA decay in candidate genes. These approaches help researchers and conservation managers understand the power and constraints of evolution.

  11. Adaptation Strategies for Global Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Corell, R.

    2007-12-01

    The global environmental challenges society faces today are unheralded due to the pace at which human activities are affecting the earth system. The rates of energy consumption, nitrogen use and production, and water use increases each year leading to greater global environmental changes affecting warming of the earth system and loss of ecosystem services. The challenge we face today as a society is the manner and speed at which we can adapt to these changes affecting the ecosystem services we depend upon. Innovative strategies are needed to develop the adaptive management tools to integrate the sectors and science necessary to deal with the complexity of effects. Developing strategies to better guide decision making related to climate change trends into changing weather patterns at meaningful temporal and spatial scales are needed, observations and prognostic analyses of climate related triggers of threshold events in ecosystem dynamics, and transfer of knowledge between science, technology, and decision makers. These strategies need to better integrate science (physical, biological, and social knowledge), engineering, policy, and economics interests to create a framework to develop strategies for adaptation and mitigation to global change and to create bridges with institutions and organizations that deal with these issues as a governmental agency or private sector enterprise.

  12. Nodule performance within a changing environmental context.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; Molero, Gemma

    2014-07-15

    Global climate models predict that future environmental conditions will see alterations in temperature, water availability and CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in the atmosphere. Climate change will reinforce the need to develop highly productive crops. For this purpose it is essential to identify target traits conditioning plant performance in changing environments. N2 fixing plants represent the second major crop of agricultural importance worldwide. The current review provides a compilation of results from existing literature on the effects of several abiotic stress conditions on nodule performance and N2 fixation. The environmental factors analysed include water stress, salinity, temperature, and elevated [CO2]. Despite the large number of studies analysing [CO2] effects in plants, frequently they have been conducted under optimal growth conditions that are difficult to find in natural conditions where different stresses often occur simultaneously. This is why we have also included a section describing the current state of knowledge of interacting environmental conditions in nodule functioning. Regardless of the environmental factor considered, it is evident that some general patterns of nodule response are observed. Nodule carbohydrate and N compound availability, together with the presence of oxygen reactive species (ROS) have proven to be the key factors modulating N2 fixation at the physiological/biochemical levels. However, with the exception of water availability and [CO2], it should also be considered that nodule performance has not been characterised in detail under other limiting growth conditions. This highlights the necessity to conduct further studies considering these factors. Finally, we also observe that a better understanding of these metabolic effects of changing environment in nodule functioning would require an integrated and synergistic investigation based on widely used and novel protocols such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and

  13. Environmental change drove macroevolution in cupuladriid bryozoans.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Aaron; Jackson, Jeremy

    2009-10-22

    Most macroevolutionary events are correlated with changes in the environment, but more rigorous evidence of cause and effect has been elusive. We compiled a 10 Myr record of origination and extinction, changes in mode of reproduction, morphologies and abundances of cupuladriid bryozoan species, spanning the time when primary productivity collapsed in the southwestern Caribbean as the Isthmus of Panama closed. The dominant mode of reproduction shifted dramatically from clonal to aclonal, due in part to a pulse of origination followed by extinction that was strongly selective in favour of aclonal species. Modern-day studies predict reduced clonality in increasingly oligotrophic conditions, thereby providing a mechanistic explanation supporting the hypothesis that the collapse in primary productivity was the cause of turnover. However, whereas originations were synchronous with changing environments, extinctions lagged 1-2 Myr. Extinct species failed to become more robust and reduce their rate of cloning when the new environmental conditions arose, and subsequently saw progressive reductions in abundance towards their delayed demise. Environmental change is therefore established as the root cause of macroevolutionary turnover despite the lag between origination and extinction.

  14. Collective behaviour, uncertainty and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; O'Brien, Michael J

    2015-11-28

    A central aspect of cultural evolutionary theory concerns how human groups respond to environmental change. Although we are painting with a broad brush, it is fair to say that prior to the twenty-first century, adaptation often happened gradually over multiple human generations, through a combination of individual and social learning, cumulative cultural evolution and demographic shifts. The result was a generally resilient and sustainable population. In the twenty-first century, however, considerable change happens within small portions of a human generation, on a vastly larger range of geographical and population scales and involving a greater degree of horizontal learning. As a way of gauging the complexity of societal response to environmental change in a globalized future, we discuss several theoretical tools for understanding how human groups adapt to uncertainty. We use our analysis to estimate the limits of predictability of future societal change, in the belief that knowing when to hedge bets is better than relying on a false sense of predictability.

  15. Global Environmental Change: Modelling and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Christopher

    Stimulating work in many areas of environmental science has led to a growing awareness of and concern for the global environment. The subject of global change itself can be expressed narrowly, in terms of anthropogenic impacts on climate, or offered in the broadest sense, to include all changes occurring in the Earth-ocean-atmosphere system, either naturally, or as a result of human-induced interactions. Global Environmental Change: Modelling and Monitoring chooses the latter expression, and the authors ambitiously propose a unified global modeling system to study and monitor all such changes and provide real-time assessments to assist policymakers.Although the text is divided into 11 chapters, it conceptually splits into four sections. The introduction frames the need for a centralized, international monitoring organization by predicting the catastrophic trajectory of unsustainable development of the present Earth system based on a range of environmental and societal indicators; for example, enhanced atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, tropical forest destruction, unchecked fossil fuel consumption, and increases in human disease. The second section presents an overall structure of a system designed to chart this trajectory: a global observational data base linked to a vast model—or really a collection of interconnected modeling units—spanning ocean, atmospheric and terrestrial hydrodynamics, chemistry, and biology. The third section, which represents the bulk of the text, considers specific applications of the model as explored by the authors. The final two chapters describe some recent developments in microwave remote sensing capabilities and some theory into hypothesis testing and decision-making.

  16. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services. PMID:18797803

  17. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services.

  18. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P; Thorne, M; Egan, M; Calvez, M; Kautsky, U

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example. PMID:16198459

  19. Environmental health implications of global climate change.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert T; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J; Parson, Edward A; Vincent, James H

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and--associated with all the preceding--the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem.

  20. Environmental health implications of global climate change.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert T; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J; Parson, Edward A; Vincent, James H

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and--associated with all the preceding--the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. PMID:16121261

  1. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael M; Olivieri, Isabelle; Waller, Donald M; Nielsen, Einar E

    2012-03-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how to use genetic monitoring to study adaptive responses via repeated analysis of the same populations over time, distinguishing between phenotypic and molecular genetics approaches. After describing monitoring designs, we develop explicit criteria for demonstrating adaptive responses, which include testing for selection and establishing clear links between genetic and environmental change. We then review a few exemplary studies that explore adaptive responses to climate change in Drosophila, selective responses to hunting and fishing, and contemporary evolution in Daphnia using resurrected resting eggs. We further review a broader set of 44 studies to assess how well they meet the proposed criteria, and conclude that only 23% fulfill all criteria. Approximately half (43%) of these studies failed to rule out the alternative hypothesis of replacement by a different, better-adapted population. Likewise, 34% of the studies based on phenotypic variation did not test for selection as opposed to drift. These shortcomings can be addressed via improved experimental designs and statistical testing. We foresee monitoring of adaptive responses as a future valuable tool in conservation biology, for identifying populations unable to evolve at sufficiently high rates and for identifying possible donor populations for genetic rescue. Technological advances will further augment the realization of this potential, especially next-generation sequencing technologies that allow for monitoring at the level of whole genomes.

  2. Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns

    PubMed Central

    Olascoaga, María J.; Haller, George

    2012-01-01

    The lack of reliable forecasts for the spread of oceanic and atmospheric contamination hinders the effective protection of the ecosystem, society, and the economy from the fallouts of environmental disasters. The consequences can be dire, as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. We present a methodology to predict major short-term changes in environmental contamination patterns, such as oil spills in the ocean and ash clouds in the atmosphere. Our approach is based on new mathematical results on the objective (frame-independent) identification of key material surfaces that drive tracer mixing in unsteady, finite-time flow data. Some of these material surfaces, known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), turn out to admit highly attracting cores that lead to inevitable material instabilities even under future uncertainties or unexpected perturbations to the observed flow. These LCS cores have the potential to forecast imminent shape changes in the contamination pattern, even before the instability builds up and brings large masses of water or air into motion. Exploiting this potential, the LCS-core analysis developed here provides a model-independent forecasting scheme that relies only on already observed or validated flow velocities at the time the prediction is made. We use this methodology to obtain high-precision forecasts of two major instabilities that occurred in the shape of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This is achieved using simulated surface currents preceding the prediction times and assuming that the oil behaves as a passive tracer. PMID:22411824

  3. Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns.

    PubMed

    Olascoaga, María J; Haller, George

    2012-03-27

    The lack of reliable forecasts for the spread of oceanic and atmospheric contamination hinders the effective protection of the ecosystem, society, and the economy from the fallouts of environmental disasters. The consequences can be dire, as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. We present a methodology to predict major short-term changes in environmental contamination patterns, such as oil spills in the ocean and ash clouds in the atmosphere. Our approach is based on new mathematical results on the objective (frame-independent) identification of key material surfaces that drive tracer mixing in unsteady, finite-time flow data. Some of these material surfaces, known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), turn out to admit highly attracting cores that lead to inevitable material instabilities even under future uncertainties or unexpected perturbations to the observed flow. These LCS cores have the potential to forecast imminent shape changes in the contamination pattern, even before the instability builds up and brings large masses of water or air into motion. Exploiting this potential, the LCS-core analysis developed here provides a model-independent forecasting scheme that relies only on already observed or validated flow velocities at the time the prediction is made. We use this methodology to obtain high-precision forecasts of two major instabilities that occurred in the shape of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This is achieved using simulated surface currents preceding the prediction times and assuming that the oil behaves as a passive tracer.

  4. Changing Learner Behavior through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; Volk, Trudi L.

    1990-01-01

    Addressed is the effectiveness of environmental education for promoting responsible citizenship behavior. A model of environmental citizenship behavior is presented. Goals for instruction in environmental education are discussed. (CW)

  5. ISCCP D1 NAT

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-12

    ... Asked Questions New Algorithm: Summary of Changes - (C-series to D-series) Join ISCCP News List ... circulation models that precisely represent the global climate.       Stars Clouds Crops           Stars' ...

  6. Amphibians as models for studying environmental change.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William A

    2007-01-01

    The use of amphibians as models in ecological research has a rich history. From an early foundation in studies of amphibian natural history sprang generations of scientists who used amphibians as models to address fundamental questions in population and community ecology. More recently, in the wake of an environment that human disturbances rapidly altered, ecologists have adopted amphibians as models for studying applied ecological issues such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, and global climate change. Some of the characteristics of amphibians that make them useful models for studying these environmental problems are highlighted, including their trophic importance, environmental sensitivity, research tractability, and impending extinction. The article provides specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate how studies on amphibians have been instrumental in guiding scientific thought on a broad scale. Included are examples of how amphibian research has transformed scientific disciplines, generated new theories about global health, called into question widely accepted scientific paradigms, and raised awareness in the general public that our daily actions may have widespread repercussions. In addition, studies on amphibian declines have provided insight into the complexity in which multiple independent factors may interact with one another to produce catastrophic and sometimes unpredictable effects. Because of the complexity of these problems, amphibian ecologists have been among the strongest advocates for interdisciplinary research. Future studies of amphibians will be important not only for their conservation but also for the conservation of other species, critical habitats, and entire ecosystems.

  7. Introduction to Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. J.; Diekmann, B.; Jones, V. J.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    This volume brings together a collection of papers on Holocene environmental change in the Kamchatka Peninsula, in the Russian Far East. Much of the work that appears in these papers was completed under the auspices of two major research activities: a UK NERC-funded project Influence of global teleconnections on Holocene climate in Kamchatka, which dealt with the analysis of lake records collected during the Swedish Beringia 2005 expedition organised by the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat; and a Russian-German multidisciplinary research project KALMAR - Kurile-Kamchatka and Aleutian Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems: Geodynamic and Climate Interaction in Space and Time, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

  8. Indicators of recent environmental change in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, G.C.; D`Arrigo, R.D.; Juday, G.

    1997-12-31

    Climate models predict that global warming due to the effects of increasing trace gases will be amplified in northern high latitude regions, including Alaska. Several environmental indicators, including tree-ring based temperature reconstructions, borcal forest growth measurements and observations of glacial retreat all indicate that the general warming of the past century has been significant relative to prior centuries to millenia. The tree-ring records for central and northern Alaska indicate that annual temperature increased over the past century, peaked in the 1940s, and are still near the highest level for the past three centuries (Jacoby and D`Arrigo 1995). The tree-ring analyses also suggest that drought stress may now be a factor limiting growth at many northern sites. The recent warming combined with drier years may be altering the response of tree growth to climate and raising the likelihood of forest changes in Alaska and other boreal forests. Other tree-ring and forest data from southern and interior Alaska provide indices of the response of vegetation to extreme events (e.g., insect outbreaks, snow events) in Alaska (Juday and marler 1996). Historical maps, field measurements and satellite imagery indicate that Alaskan glaciers have receded over the past century (e.g., Hall and Benson 1996). Severe outbreaks of bark beetles may be on the increase due to warming, which can shorten their reproductive cycle. Such data and understanding of causes are useful for policy makers and others interested in evaluation of possible impacts of trace-gas induced warming and environmental change in the United States.

  9. Environmental change in the Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Wynn, G.; Hassan, M. A.; Donner, S. D.; Sivapalan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Land use, land cover change and hydrological modification are important factors affecting discharge, sediment yield, nutrient flows and precipitation at small and large scales. This presentation analyses the changes in crop and pasture land as well as dam and reservoir construction from 1900 to the present in the Mississippi River Basin (including six main sub-basins), to assess their influence on sediment and nutrient dynamics in the basin. Total cropland and pastureland from 1900-2007 are characterized at 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree spatial resolution from existing satellite-derived datasets. From 1900s to 2000s, total cropland in the Ohio River Basin and the Tennessee River Basin in the east exhibited a decreasing trend. The other sub-basins and the basin as a whole exhibited an increasing trend. The area under pasture in the Ohio, the Tennessee and the Upper Mississippi river basins decreased; it increased in the other sub-basins. The areas of corn, wheat and soybean, the three dominant crops in the United States, from 1950 to 2000 are characterized at 5’ x 5’ spatial resolution from existing inventory and satellite-data. The fractional coverage of soybean and wheat increased in most sub-basins, whereas the fraction of corn remained constant or decreased in most sub-basins. The distribution of dams and large dams (those with a normal storage capacity of 5000 acre-feet or more) built in each decade was generated from the data published by National Atlas of the United States. The analysis showed that the majority of the dams in Mississippi River Basin were built in 1960s and 1970s, but the majority of the large dams were built before the 1950s. These spatial and temporal changes in land use, land cover and hydrological modifications are linked to sediment, nutrient and environmental change of the basin.

  10. Changes in D1 but not D2 dopamine or mu-opioid receptor expression in limbic and motor structures after lateral hypothalamus electrical self-stimulation: A quantitative autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Simon, Maria J; Higuera-Matas, A; Roura-Martinez, D; Ucha, M; Santos-Toscano, R; Garcia-Lecumberri, C; Ambrosio, E; Puerto, A

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is involved in the activation of neuroanatomical systems that are also associated with the processing of natural and other artificial rewarding stimuli. Specific components of this behavior (hedonic impact, learning, and motor behavior) may involve changes in different neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and opioids. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was used to examine changes in mu-opioid and D1/D2-dopamine receptor expression in various anatomical regions related to the motor and mesolimbic reward systems after intracranial self-stimulation of the LH. Results of the behavioral procedure and subsequent radiochemical assays show selective changes in D1 but not D2 or mu receptors in Accumbens-Shell, Ventral Pallidum, Caudate-Putamen, and Medial Globus Pallidus. These findings are discussed in relation to the different psychobiological components of the appetitive motivational system, identifying some dissociation among them, particularly with respect to the involvement of the D1-dopamine subsystem (but not D2 or mu receptors) in goal-directed behaviors.

  11. National Environmental Change Information System Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference

  12. Environmental variation and population responses to global change.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Callum R; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in order to design effective strategies to conserve biodiversity under global change. Here, we review recent theoretical and empirical studies to assess: (1) how populations respond to changes in environmental variance, and (2) how environmental variance affects population responses to changes in mean conditions. Contrary to frequent claims, empirical studies show that increases in environmental variance can increase as well as decrease long-term population growth rates. Moreover, environmental variance can alter and even reverse the effects of changes in the mean environment, such that even if environmental variance remains constant, omitting it from population models compromises their ability to predict species' responses to changes in mean conditions. Drawing on theory relating these effects of environmental variance to the curvatures of population growth responses to the environment, we outline how species' traits such as phylogenetic history and body mass could be used to predict their responses to global change under future environmental variability.

  13. Environmental Education for Behaviour Change: Which Actions Should Be Targeted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2012-01-01

    One aim of environmental education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their environmental behaviour; this is particularly significant with environmental problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global warming. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's…

  14. Comprehension of climate change and environmental attitudes across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Degen, C; Kettner, S E; Fischer, H; Lohse, J; Funke, J; Schwieren, C; Goeschl, T; Schröder, J

    2014-08-01

    Given the coincidence of the demographic change and climate change in the upcoming decades the aging voter gains increasing importance in climate change mitigation and adaptation processes. It is generally assumed that information status and comprehension of complex processes underlying climate change are prerequisites for adopting pro-environmental attitudes and taking pro-environmental actions. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated in how far (1) environmental knowledge and comprehension of feedback processes underlying climate change and (2) pro-environmental attitudes change as a function of age. Our sample consisted of 92 participants aged 25-75 years (mean age 49.4 years, SD 17.0). Age was negatively related to comprehension of system structures inherent to climate change, but positively associated with level of fear of consequences and anxiousness towards climate change. No significant relations were found between environmental knowledge and pro-environmental attitude. These results indicate that, albeit understanding of relevant structures of the climate system is less present in older age, age is not a limiting factor for being engaged in the complex dilemma of climate change. Results bear implications for the communication of climate change and pro-environmental actions in aging societies. PMID:25119704

  15. Comprehension of climate change and environmental attitudes across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Degen, C; Kettner, S E; Fischer, H; Lohse, J; Funke, J; Schwieren, C; Goeschl, T; Schröder, J

    2014-08-01

    Given the coincidence of the demographic change and climate change in the upcoming decades the aging voter gains increasing importance in climate change mitigation and adaptation processes. It is generally assumed that information status and comprehension of complex processes underlying climate change are prerequisites for adopting pro-environmental attitudes and taking pro-environmental actions. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated in how far (1) environmental knowledge and comprehension of feedback processes underlying climate change and (2) pro-environmental attitudes change as a function of age. Our sample consisted of 92 participants aged 25-75 years (mean age 49.4 years, SD 17.0). Age was negatively related to comprehension of system structures inherent to climate change, but positively associated with level of fear of consequences and anxiousness towards climate change. No significant relations were found between environmental knowledge and pro-environmental attitude. These results indicate that, albeit understanding of relevant structures of the climate system is less present in older age, age is not a limiting factor for being engaged in the complex dilemma of climate change. Results bear implications for the communication of climate change and pro-environmental actions in aging societies.

  16. Continental diatoms as indicators of long-term environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J. Platt

    1999-01-01

    It is curious that diatoms, whose short lifespans and capacity for rapid regeneration make them especially suitable for short-term paleoenvironmental studies, would also have a significant role as indicators of long-term environmental change. This chapter explores the nature of long diatom records, their relation to global environmental changes, guidelines for their interpretation, and problems common to such records.

  17. Paleoecology: An Untapped Resource for Teaching Environmental Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raper, Diana J.; Zander, Holli

    2009-01-01

    Global warming and climate change have become hot topics that incite debate, inspire scientific research, and influence international policy. However, the scientific research that provides the past climate and environmental information upon which contemporary environmental change is measured, receives little attention in high school curriculum.…

  18. Environmental protection, inequality, and institutional change.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Elisabetta

    2011-02-01

    The contemporary world faces an unprecedented environmental challenge. Past international research has amply shown that we cannot afford to wait for a "development path" that automatically takes us on a sustainable future. Whether we look at global or local problems, the international debate increasingly points to the importance of popular support for environmental protection by a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Because environmental sustainability questions the way we produce, consume, and distribute the product of our work, an economic analysis that is limited to one market is insufficient. In addressing Bromley's question, "How do we wish the future to unfold for us?" this paper argues for the need to devote resources to understanding the spillovers between institutional settings and preferences toward the provision of global public goods. Here, this review focuses on labor-market institutions, as labor markets are traditionally the context in which inequality is created at the local and global levels. Labor-market institutional design, via its impact on risk and uncertainty and inequality, may have sizable implications on the provision of environmental care.

  19. Color and Change, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires very little teacher preparation. The philosophy of the series is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages students to work independently and at their own speeds. This particular unit is designed…

  20. Cultural adaptation to environmental change versus stability.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lei; Chen, Bin-Bin; Lu, Hui Jing

    2013-10-01

    The target article provides an intermediate account of culture and freedom that is conceived to be curvilinear by treating economic development not as an adaptive outcome in response to climate but as a cause of culture parallel to climate. We argue that the extent of environmental variability, including climatic variability, affects cultural adaptation.

  1. World Wind Tools Reveal Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed under NASA's Learning Technologies program as a tool to engage and inspire students, World Wind software was released under the NASA Open Source Agreement license. Honolulu, Hawaii based Intelesense Technologies is one of the companies currently making use of the technology for environmental, public health, and other monitoring applications for nonprofit organizations and Government agencies. The company saved about $1 million in development costs by using the NASA software.

  2. Monitoring environmental change in an ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gámez, M; López, I; Molnár, S

    2008-09-01

    The monitoring and analysis of the processes taking place in an ecosystem is a key issue for a sustainable human activity. A system of populations, as the biotic component of a complex ecosystem is usually affected by the variation of its abiotic environment. Even in nearly natural ecosystems an abiotic effect like climatic implications of global warming may cause important changes in the dynamics of the population system. In ecosystems involving field cultivation or any industrial activity; the abiotic parameter in question may be the concentration of a substance, changing, e.g. as a result of pollution, application of a pesticide, or a fertilizer, etc. In many cases the observation of the densities of each population may be technically complicated or expensive, therefore the question arises whether from the observation of the densities of certain (indicator) populations, the whole state process of the population system can be uniquely recovered. The paper is aimed at a methodological development of the state monitoring, under the conditions of a changing environment. It is shown, how the technique of mathematical systems theory can be applied not only for the approximate calculation of the state process on the basis of the observed data, even under the effect of an exogene abiotic change with known dynamics; but in certain cases, also for the estimation of the unknown biological effect of the change of an abiotic parameter. The proposed methodology is applied to simple illustrative examples concerning a three-species predator-prey system.

  3. Determining molecular responses to environmental change in soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the global climate changes, plants will be challenged by environmental stresses that are more extreme and more frequent. The average yield loss due to environmental stresses is currently estimated to be more than 50% for major crop species and is the major limitation to world food production. The...

  4. Sensitizing nurses for a changing environmental health role.

    PubMed

    Tiedje, L B; Wood, J

    1995-12-01

    This paper traces the evolution of a broader environmental health role for nursing by focusing on the health effects of exposure to environmental pollutants and of global environmental change. This evolving role is reviewed through the examination of selected community health nursing texts published during the last several decades. Key role strategies based on this expanded and evolving environmental role are proposed. Finally, a survey is described that is intended to heighten awareness of personal and professional attitudes and behaviors related to the environment.

  5. Plant ecology. Anthropogenic environmental changes affect ecosystem stability via biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Yann; Tilman, David; Isbell, Forest; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Reich, Peter B

    2015-04-17

    Human-driven environmental changes may simultaneously affect the biodiversity, productivity, and stability of Earth's ecosystems, but there is no consensus on the causal relationships linking these variables. Data from 12 multiyear experiments that manipulate important anthropogenic drivers, including plant diversity, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, fire, herbivory, and water, show that each driver influences ecosystem productivity. However, the stability of ecosystem productivity is only changed by those drivers that alter biodiversity, with a given decrease in plant species numbers leading to a quantitatively similar decrease in ecosystem stability regardless of which driver caused the biodiversity loss. These results suggest that changes in biodiversity caused by drivers of environmental change may be a major factor determining how global environmental changes affect ecosystem stability.

  6. Linking degradation status with ecosystem vulnerability to environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Baho, Didier L.; Allen, Craig R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental change can cause regime shifts in ecosystems, potentially threatening ecosystem services. It is unclear if the degradation status of ecosystems correlates with their vulnerability to environmental change, and thus the risk of future regime shifts. We assessed resilience in acidified (degraded) and circumneutral (undegraded) lakes with long-term data (1988–2012), using time series modeling. We identified temporal frequencies in invertebrate assemblages, which identifies groups of species whose population dynamics vary at particular temporal scales. We also assessed species with stochastic dynamics, those whose population dynamics vary irregularly and unpredictably over time. We determined the distribution of functional feeding groups of invertebrates within and across the temporal scales identified, and in those species with stochastic dynamics, and assessed attributes hypothesized to contribute to resilience. Three patterns of temporal dynamics, consistent across study lakes, were identified in the invertebrates. The first pattern was one of monotonic change associated with changing abiotic lake conditions. The second and third patterns appeared unrelated to the environmental changes we monitored. Acidified and the circumneutral lakes shared similar levels and patterns of functional richness, evenness, diversity, and redundancy for species within and across the observed temporal scales and for stochastic species groups. These similar resilience characteristics suggest that both lake types did not differ in vulnerability to the environmental changes observed here. Although both lake types appeared equally vulnerable in this study, our approach demonstrates how assessing systemic vulnerability by quantifying ecological resilience can help address uncertainty in predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change across ecosystems.

  7. The changing face of environmentalism in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Igor Izodorovich Altshuler and Ruben Artyomovich Mnatsakanyan are scientific researchers in the department of geography at Moscow State University and cofounders of the Association for the Support of Ecological initiatives established by the Soviet Foundation for Social Innovations. They authored a report on glasnost and ecology in the Soviet Union published in the December 1988 ENVIRONMENT. Recently, Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan visited ENVIRONMENT's offices in Washington, D.C., and talked at length about environmental problems and issues in the USSR. This paper presents excerpts of an interview of Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan conducted by Barbara Richman, managing editor of ENVIRONMENT. They discuss environmental problems, global climate change, agriculture, lack of information on the biggest polluters, transboundary pollution, impact of recent elections on environmental policy, the use of environmental impact assessments, public information about the environment, training of reporters, environmental organizations, and lack of money and political obstacles to environmental improvements.

  8. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition of agricultural land use and changes more accurately than present methods. Species and ages of grasses in pasture were identified and soils were classified into several types. The actual land cover and ecological environment were remarkably changeable at the rapidly industrialized area by the urbanization in the flat plane and also by the forest works and road construction in the mountainous area. The practical use of the recognition results was proved as the base map of the field survey or the retouching work of the vegetation and land use. There was a 10% cut in cost, labor, and time. Vegetation cover in Tokyo districts was estimated by both the multiregression model and the parametric model. Multicorrelation coefficient between observed value and estimated value was 0.87 and standard deviation was + or - 15%. Vegetation cover in Tokyo was mapped into five levels with equal intervals of 20%.

  9. Environmental Sustainability Change Management in SMEs: Learning from Sustainability Champions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadee, Doren; Wiesner, Retha; Roxas, Banjo

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the change management processes involved in undertaking environmental sustainability (ES) initiatives within Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) and relate these to the main attributes of learning organisations. Using case study techniques, the study draws from the change management experiences of a sample of 12 ES…

  10. Reconstructing Environmental Change Using Lake Varves as a Climate Proxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Christopher; Bodzin, Alec; Cirucci, Lori; Anastasio, David; Sahagian, Dork

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an investigative activity in which their eighth-grade students reconstructed past environmental change in the New England area using data from lake varves in central Vermont to examine evidence of climate change. The investigation uses an authentic paleoclimate record (Ridge 2011) from the Pleistocene epoch,…

  11. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  12. Environmentalism unbound: reconnecting and re-envisioning movements for change.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, R

    2001-01-01

    Disputes over environmental discourse have generated divergent pathways and discordant messages over the last three decades. An examination of them becomes a study of environmentalism s roots. The workplace is shown as a hidden and often discounted arena of debate about what constitutes an environmental issue. The triumph of the productionist and limitless consumption views helped to establish a focus on environmental change as a form of consumer action. Since the 1970s though, new forms of environmental discourse and action both community- and production-related have sought to shift the terrain. The possibility of becoming a broader, more socially inclusive movement capable of challenging the very structure and logic of capitalist social order is possible again, including the ability to identify new strategies for action. Overcoming the work/environment divide is perhaps the most contentious question facing the future of the environmental and labor movements. New approaches, including developing a community of interests, revaluing work, and developing an ethic of place (with urban, industrial, and global forms), require that the social and the ecological become joined in the construction of a common vision. When any environmental issue can be seen as socially determined, then environmentalism s great task will be to see itself as a primary agent of social change. PMID:17208705

  13. Environmentalism unbound: reconnecting and re-envisioning movements for change.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, R

    2001-01-01

    Disputes over environmental discourse have generated divergent pathways and discordant messages over the last three decades. An examination of them becomes a study of environmentalism s roots. The workplace is shown as a hidden and often discounted arena of debate about what constitutes an environmental issue. The triumph of the productionist and limitless consumption views helped to establish a focus on environmental change as a form of consumer action. Since the 1970s though, new forms of environmental discourse and action both community- and production-related have sought to shift the terrain. The possibility of becoming a broader, more socially inclusive movement capable of challenging the very structure and logic of capitalist social order is possible again, including the ability to identify new strategies for action. Overcoming the work/environment divide is perhaps the most contentious question facing the future of the environmental and labor movements. New approaches, including developing a community of interests, revaluing work, and developing an ethic of place (with urban, industrial, and global forms), require that the social and the ecological become joined in the construction of a common vision. When any environmental issue can be seen as socially determined, then environmentalism s great task will be to see itself as a primary agent of social change.

  14. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their

  15. Prediction uncertainty of environmental change effects on temperate European biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Dormann, Carsten F; Schweiger, Oliver; Arens, P; Augenstein, I; Aviron, St; Bailey, Debra; Baudry, J; Billeter, R; Bugter, R; Bukácek, R; Burel, F; Cerny, M; Cock, Raphaël De; De Blust, Geert; DeFilippi, R; Diekötter, Tim; Dirksen, J; Durka, W; Edwards, P J; Frenzel, M; Hamersky, R; Hendrickx, Frederik; Herzog, F; Klotz, St; Koolstra, B; Lausch, A; Le Coeur, D; Liira, J; Maelfait, J P; Opdam, P; Roubalova, M; Schermann-Legionnet, Agnes; Schermann, N; Schmidt, T; Smulders, M J M; Speelmans, M; Simova, P; Verboom, J; van Wingerden, Walter; Zobel, M

    2008-03-01

    Observed patterns of species richness at landscape scale (gamma diversity) cannot always be attributed to a specific set of explanatory variables, but rather different alternative explanatory statistical models of similar quality may exist. Therefore predictions of the effects of environmental change (such as in climate or land cover) on biodiversity may differ considerably, depending on the chosen set of explanatory variables. Here we use multimodel prediction to evaluate effects of climate, land-use intensity and landscape structure on species richness in each of seven groups of organisms (plants, birds, spiders, wild bees, ground beetles, true bugs and hoverflies) in temperate Europe. We contrast this approach with traditional best-model predictions, which we show, using cross-validation, to have inferior prediction accuracy. Multimodel inference changed the importance of some environmental variables in comparison with the best model, and accordingly gave deviating predictions for environmental change effects. Overall, prediction uncertainty for the multimodel approach was only slightly higher than that of the best model, and absolute changes in predicted species richness were also comparable. Richness predictions varied generally more for the impact of climate change than for land-use change at the coarse scale of our study. Overall, our study indicates that the uncertainty introduced to environmental change predictions through uncertainty in model selection both qualitatively and quantitatively affects species richness projections. PMID:18070098

  16. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-05-21

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture-environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence.

  17. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bryony A.; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y.; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture–environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence. PMID:23671097

  18. Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change': A Traveling Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, E. M.; Hakala, J. S.; Gearheard, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Inuit of Nunavut, Canada, have an intimate relationship with their surroundings. As a culture that relies on knowledge of sea ice, snow, and weather conditions for success in hunting, fishing, and healthy wellbeing, Inuit have observed and studied environmental patterns for generations. An ongoing study into their traditional knowledge and their observations of environmental change is being conducted by researcher Dr. Shari Gearheard, who has worked with Inuit communities in Nunavut for over a decade. The results of the research have been published in scientific journals, and to communicate the results to a broader audience, Dr. Gearheard designed an interactive CD-ROM displaying photographs, maps, and interview videos of Inuit Elders' perspectives on the changes they have witnessed. Receiving immediate popularity since its release in 2004, copies of `When the Weather is Uggianaqtuq: Inuit Observations of Environmental Change' have been distributed worldwide, to indigenous peoples, social science and climate change researchers, teachers, students, and the general public. To further disseminate the information contained on the CD-ROM, the National Snow and Ice Data Center and the Museum of Natural History, both of the University of Colorado, are partnering to create an exhibition which will open at the Museum during the International Polar Year in April 2008. The exhibit, tentatively titled `Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change,' will feature photographs, graphics, and text in both English and Inuktitut describing environmental change in the North. The goals are to make the information and interpretation contained on the CD-ROM available and more accessible to a broad audience and to raise awareness about Arctic climate change and the important contribution of Inuit knowledge. Following exhibition at the Museum, the exhibit will travel throughout the United States, Alaska, and Nunavut, through a network of museums, schools, libraries, tribal

  19. Coastal geoindicators of environmental change in the humid tropics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The primary geoindicators appropriate for monitoring environmental changes in the humid tropics are transitory surface water levels, shoreline position, wetlands distribution, coral reefs, landforms, and sediment sequence and composition. Lateral zonations and temporal successions of vegetation also can be used as geoindicators of riverine and shoreline changes. All of these coastal geoindicators are sensitive to regional tectonic processes and anthropogenic alterations and they typically reflect significant changes in coastal conditions such as fluvial processes, coastal energy, water quality, relative sea level, and sediment supply. Where humid tropical coasts coincide with active tectonic margins, indicators of seismic activity are critical to understanding Coastal changes associated with co-seismic subsidence or uplift, tsunamis, and liquefaction of coastal sediments. Coastal landforms and sedimentary deposits that record late Quaternary environmental changes include perched fluvial and marine terraces, delta-plain morphologies, crevassesplay deposits, peats and other paleosols, beach ridges, mud capes, and mud volcanoes. Although these features and deposits typically reflect environmental changes spanning more than 100 years, they are relevant to modern processes, management of coastal lands and resources, and prediction of future conditions. In some regions of the humid tropics, large coastal areas are unaffected by hurricanes or typhoons. Nevertheless, these tropical coasts are vulnerable to other non-storm processes, such as El Nin??o events, tsunamis, and monsoons that increase water levels, and cause widespread flooding and beach erosion. The environmental and political significance of coastal geoindicators increases when they are integrated and applied to issues of human safety and health such as hazards mapping, risk assessment, and dispersion of contaminated sediments. However, to be relevant, those socio-environmental applications demand accurate

  20. Delivering Global Environmental Change Science Through Documentary Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodgson, K.; Byrne, J. M.; Graham, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Communicating authentic science to society presents a significant challenge to researchers. This challenge stems from unfortunate misrepresentation and misunderstanding in the mainstream media, particularly in relation to science on global environmental change. This has resulted in a lower level of confidence and interest amongst audiences in regards to global environmental change and anthropogenic climate change discussions. This project describes a new form of documentary film that aspires to break this trend and increase audiences’ interest, reinvigorating discussion about global environmental change. The documentary film adopts a form that marries traditional scientific presentation with the high entertainment value of narrative storytelling. This format maintains the authenticity of the scientific message and ensures audience engagement throughout the entire presentation due to the fact that a sense of equality and intimacy between the audience and the scientists is achieved. The film features interviews with scientists studying global environmental change and opens with a comparison of authentic scientific information and the mainstream media’s presentation, and subsequent public opinion. This enables an analysis of the growing disconnect between society and the scientific community. Topics investigated include: Arctic ice melt, coastal zone hypoxia, tropical cyclones and acidification. Upon completion of the film, public and private screenings with predetermined audience demographics will be conducted using a short, standardized survey to gain feedback regarding the audience’s overall review of the presentation. In addition to the poster, this presentation features an extended trailer for the documentary film.

  1. Climate change and environmental concentrations of POPs: A review.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Martí; Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse; Domingo, José L

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the climate change impact on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has become a topic of notable concern. Changes in environmental conditions such as the increase of the average temperature, or the UV-B radiation, are likely to influence the fate and behavior of POPs, ultimately affecting human exposure. The state of the art of the impact of climate change on environmental concentrations of POPs, as well as on human health risks, is here reviewed. Research gaps are also identified, while future studies are suggested. Climate change and POPs are a hot issue, for which wide attention should be paid not only by scientists, but also and mainly by policy makers. Most studies reported in the scientific literature are focused on legacy POPs, mainly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. However, the number of investigations aimed at estimating the impact of climate change on the environmental levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is scarce, despite of the fact that exposure to PAHs and photodegradation byproducts may result in adverse health effects. Furthermore, no data on emerging POPs are currently available in the scientific literature. In consequence, an intensification of studies to identify and mitigate the indirect effects of the climate change on POP fate is needed to minimize the human health impact. Furthermore, being this a global problem, interactions between climate change and POPs must be addressed from an international perspective. PMID:26496851

  2. Climate change and environmental concentrations of POPs: A review.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Martí; Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse; Domingo, José L

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the climate change impact on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has become a topic of notable concern. Changes in environmental conditions such as the increase of the average temperature, or the UV-B radiation, are likely to influence the fate and behavior of POPs, ultimately affecting human exposure. The state of the art of the impact of climate change on environmental concentrations of POPs, as well as on human health risks, is here reviewed. Research gaps are also identified, while future studies are suggested. Climate change and POPs are a hot issue, for which wide attention should be paid not only by scientists, but also and mainly by policy makers. Most studies reported in the scientific literature are focused on legacy POPs, mainly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. However, the number of investigations aimed at estimating the impact of climate change on the environmental levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is scarce, despite of the fact that exposure to PAHs and photodegradation byproducts may result in adverse health effects. Furthermore, no data on emerging POPs are currently available in the scientific literature. In consequence, an intensification of studies to identify and mitigate the indirect effects of the climate change on POP fate is needed to minimize the human health impact. Furthermore, being this a global problem, interactions between climate change and POPs must be addressed from an international perspective.

  3. Methods for estimating the population contribution to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Raskin, P D

    1995-12-01

    "This paper introduces general methods for quantitative analysis of the role of population in environmental change. The approach is applicable over a wide range of environmental issues, and arbitrary regions and time periods. First, a single region is considered, appropriate formulae derived, and the limitations to quantitative approaches discussed. The approach is contrasted to earlier formulations, and shown to avoid weaknesses in a common approximation. Next, the analysis is extended to the multiple region problem. An apparent paradox in aggregating regional estimates is illuminated, and the risk of misleading results is underscored. The methods are applied to the problem of climate change with two case studies, an historical period and a future scenario, used to illustrate the results. The contribution of change in population to change in green house gas emissions is shown to be significant, but not dominant in both industrialized and developing regions."

  4. Challenges to professionalism: Social accountability and global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David; Walpole, Sarah; Barna, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve.This article addresses the following questions: • How do we reconcile ideas of medical professionalism with the demands of creating a more equal, just, sustainable and socially inclusive society? • What new challenges do or will we face in relation to environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, ecosystem health and climate change? • How can medical schools best teach social and environmental responsiveness within a framework of professionalism? • How do medical schools ensure that tomorrow's doctors possess the knowledge, skills and attitude to adapt to the challenges they will face in future roles?We offer ideas about why and how medical educators can change, recommendations to strengthen the teaching of professionalism and social accountability and suggestions about the contribution of an emerging concept, that of "environmental accountability".

  5. Planning for Change: Assessing Internal and External Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Janis Cox

    This report provides, first, an overview of the external and internal environmental factors affecting planning in California's community colleges; and, second, an examination of the influence of the demographics of the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD). After an executive summary, introductory material discusses ways in which change can…

  6. Challenges to professionalism: Social accountability and global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David; Walpole, Sarah; Barna, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve.This article addresses the following questions: • How do we reconcile ideas of medical professionalism with the demands of creating a more equal, just, sustainable and socially inclusive society? • What new challenges do or will we face in relation to environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, ecosystem health and climate change? • How can medical schools best teach social and environmental responsiveness within a framework of professionalism? • How do medical schools ensure that tomorrow's doctors possess the knowledge, skills and attitude to adapt to the challenges they will face in future roles?We offer ideas about why and how medical educators can change, recommendations to strengthen the teaching of professionalism and social accountability and suggestions about the contribution of an emerging concept, that of "environmental accountability". PMID:26030377

  7. People and Environmental Changes. Teacher's Guide. Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A.

    "People and Environmental Changes" is one of the "Preparing for Tomorrow's World" (PTW) program modules. PTW is an interdisciplinary, future-oriented program which incorporates information from the sciences and social sciences and addresses societal concerns which interface science/technology/society. The program promotes responsible citizenry…

  8. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  9. Drastic environmental change and its effects on a planetary biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N.; Fairén, Alberto G.

    2013-07-01

    Environmental conditions can change drastically and rapidly during the natural history of a planetary body. These changes affect the biosphere and can spur evolution via the mechanism of directional selection leading to the innovation of new processes and forms of life, or alternatively leading to the extinction of certain life forms. Based on the natural history of Earth, the effect on a planet's biosphere depends on three factors: (1) the nature and time scale of change, (2) the composition of the biosphere prior to change, and (3) the nature of the environment following the change. Though Earth has undergone various periods of drastic environmental change, life has shown an enormous resiliency and became more diverse and complex as a consequence of these events. Mars and Venus have undergone even larger environmental changes, both from habitable conditions under which the origin of life (or transfer of life from Earth) seem plausible, to a dry and cold planet punctuated by wetter conditions, and a hyperthermic greenhouse, respectively. Given its planetary history, life on Mars could have retreated to a psychrophilic lifestyle in the deep subsurface or to environmental near-surface niches, such as hydrothermal regions and caves. Further, strong directional selection could have pushed putative martian life to evolve alternating cycles between active and dormant forms, as well as the innovation of new traits adapted to challenging near-surface conditions. Life in the subsurface or on the surface of Venus seems impossible today, but microorganisms may have adapted to thrive in the lower cloud layer, possibly using a biochemical strategy analogous to Photosystem I and chemoautotrophic sulfur metabolism, and employing cycloocta sulfur for UV protection.

  10. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  11. Exploring environmental identity and behavioral change in an Environmental Science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-06-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures, impact the environmental identity and behavior of students. In this investigation, the identity theory of emotion of Stryker (2004) from the field of sociology is utilized in the interpretation of students' reactions to classroom experiences as they proceed through the Environmental Science course. The participants in this study are an Environmental Science teacher and the 10-12th grade students in her Environmental Science elective course. The researcher collected data for a period of six months, attending class on a daily basis. Data was collected through participant observation, videotaping, interviews, and cogenerative dialogues. The results of this study inform science educators by illuminating important elements, such as students' emotional responses to activities in class, conflicting elements of students' identities, and students' openness and willingness to critically reflect upon new information, which contribute to whether a student is likely to change their views towards the environment and pro-environmental behaviors.

  12. Coherence structure of D1 scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, Jan Olof

    2015-10-01

    The extensive literature on the physics of polarized scattering may give the impression that we have a solid theoretical foundation for the interpretation of spectro-polarimetric data. This theoretical framework has however not been sufficiently tested by experiments under controlled conditions. While the solar atmosphere may be viewed as a physics laboratory, the observed solar polarization depends on too many environmental factors that are beyond our control. The existence of a symmetric polarization peak at the center of the solar Na D1 line has remained an enigma for two decades, in spite of persistent efforts to explain it with available quantum theory. A decade ago a laboratory experiment was set up to determine whether this was a problem for solar physics or quantum physics. The experiment revealed a rich polarization structure of D1 scattering, although available quantum theory predicted null results. It has now finally been possible to formulate a well-defined and self-consistent extension of the theory of quantum scattering that can reproduce in great quantitative detail the main polarization structures that were found in the laboratory experiment. Here we give a brief overview of the new physical ingredients that were missing before. The extended theory reveals that multi-level atomic systems have a far richer coherence structure than previously believed.

  13. Epigenetic responses to environmental change and their evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bryan M

    2009-11-27

    Chromatin is a complex of DNA, RNA, histones and non-histone proteins and provides the platform on which the transcriptional machinery operates in eukaryotes. The structure and configuration of chromatin are manipulated by families of enzymes, some catalysing the dynamic addition and removal of chemical ligands to selected protein amino acids and some directly altering or displacing the basic structural units. The activities of many of these enzymes are sensitive to environmental and metabolic agents and can thereby serve as sensors through which environmental agents can alter gene expression. Such changes can, in turn, precipitate either local or cell-wide changes as the initial effect spreads through multiple interactive networks. This review discusses the increasingly well-understood mechanisms through which these enzymes alter chromatin function. In some cases at least, it seems that the effects on gene expression may persist even after the removal of the inducing agent, and can be passed on, through mitosis, to subsequent cell generations, constituting a heritable, epigenetic change. If such changes occur in germ cells or their precursors, then they may be passed on to subsequent generations. Mechanisms are now known to exist through which an epigenetic change might give rise to a localized change in DNA sequence exerting the same functional effect, thereby converting an epigenetic to a genetic change. If the induced genetic change has phenotypic effects on which selection can act, then this hypothetical chain of events constitutes a potential route through which the environment might directly influence evolution.

  14. Changes in Lignin and Polysaccharide Components in 13 Cultivars of Rice Straw following Dilute Acid Pretreatment as Studied by Solution-State 2D 1H-13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Oshima, Tomoko; Aikawa, Shimpei; Matsuda, Fumio; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    A renewable raw material, rice straw is pretreated for biorefinery usage. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13 C hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to analyze 13 cultivars of rice straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment, to characterize general changes in the lignin and polysaccharide components. Intensities of most (15 of 16) peaks related to lignin aromatic regions, such as p-coumarate, guaiacyl, syringyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, and cinnamyl alcohol, and methoxyl, increased or remained unchanged after pretreatment. In contrast, intensities of most (11 of 13) peaks related to lignin aliphatic linkages or ferulate decreased. Decreased heterogeneity in the intensities of three peaks related to cellulose components in acid-insoluble residues resulted in similar glucose yield (0.45-0.59 g/g-dry biomass). Starch-derived components showed positive correlations (r = 0.71 to 0.96) with glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and formate concentrations in the liquid hydrolysates, and negative correlations (r = -0.95 to -0.97) with xylose concentration and acid-insoluble residue yield. These results showed the fate of lignin and polysaccharide components by pretreatment, suggesting that lignin aromatic regions and cellulose components were retained in the acid insoluble residues and starch-derived components were transformed into glucose, 5-HMF, and formate in the liquid hydrolysate.

  15. Changes in Lignin and Polysaccharide Components in 13 Cultivars of Rice Straw following Dilute Acid Pretreatment as Studied by Solution-State 2D 1H-13C NMR

    PubMed Central

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Oshima, Tomoko; Aikawa, Shimpei; Matsuda, Fumio; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    A renewable raw material, rice straw is pretreated for biorefinery usage. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13 C hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to analyze 13 cultivars of rice straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment, to characterize general changes in the lignin and polysaccharide components. Intensities of most (15 of 16) peaks related to lignin aromatic regions, such as p-coumarate, guaiacyl, syringyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, and cinnamyl alcohol, and methoxyl, increased or remained unchanged after pretreatment. In contrast, intensities of most (11 of 13) peaks related to lignin aliphatic linkages or ferulate decreased. Decreased heterogeneity in the intensities of three peaks related to cellulose components in acid-insoluble residues resulted in similar glucose yield (0.45–0.59 g/g-dry biomass). Starch-derived components showed positive correlations (r = 0.71 to 0.96) with glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and formate concentrations in the liquid hydrolysates, and negative correlations (r = –0.95 to –0.97) with xylose concentration and acid-insoluble residue yield. These results showed the fate of lignin and polysaccharide components by pretreatment, suggesting that lignin aromatic regions and cellulose components were retained in the acid insoluble residues and starch-derived components were transformed into glucose, 5-HMF, and formate in the liquid hydrolysate. PMID:26083431

  16. Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic responses.

    PubMed

    Gienapp, P; Teplitsky, C; Alho, J S; Mills, J A; Merilä, J

    2008-01-01

    Rapid climate change is likely to impose strong selection pressures on traits important for fitness, and therefore, microevolution in response to climate-mediated selection is potentially an important mechanism mitigating negative consequences of climate change. We reviewed the empirical evidence for recent microevolutionary responses to climate change in longitudinal studies emphasizing the following three perspectives emerging from the published data. First, although signatures of climate change are clearly visible in many ecological processes, similar examples of microevolutionary responses in literature are in fact very rare. Second, the quality of evidence for microevolutionary responses to climate change is far from satisfactory as the documented responses are often - if not typically - based on nongenetic data. We reinforce the view that it is as important to make the distinction between genetic (evolutionary) and phenotypic (includes a nongenetic, plastic component) responses clear, as it is to understand the relative roles of plasticity and genetics in adaptation to climate change. Third, in order to illustrate the difficulties and their potential ubiquity in detection of microevolution in response to natural selection, we reviewed the quantitative genetic studies on microevolutionary responses to natural selection in the context of long-term studies of vertebrates. The available evidence points to the overall conclusion that many responses perceived as adaptations to changing environmental conditions could be environmentally induced plastic responses rather than microevolutionary adaptations. Hence, clear-cut evidence indicating a significant role for evolutionary adaptation to ongoing climate warming is conspicuously scarce.

  17. Modeling coastal environmental changes by fuzzy logic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.

    2004-10-01

    The coastal zone contains that unique environmental triple point where the water, land and atmospheric components of the terrestrial surface converge and interact. This paper is an application of remotely sensed images in marine coastal land cover classification for change detection assessment. The nature of the gradients in coastal region land cover composition among the map classes can therefore be identified.A supervised approach uses the prior knowledge about the area and thus it is very useful in getting better results than an unsupervised classification. The study test area was North-Western Black Sea coastal region, characterized by no so fast drastic changes,as it is a slow and continuous process. Satellite images (Landsat MSS, TM, ETM, SAR ERS, ASTER, MODIS) over a period of time between 1975 and 2003 were chosen for change detection analysis.In the fuzzy approach, it is possible to describe change as a degree, this being the main reason for fuzzy approach using for classification and change detection of major land cover classes in a marine coastal area.The results can be utilized as a temporal land-use change model for a region to quantify the extent and nature of change, and aid in future prediction studies, which helps in planning environmental agencies to develop sustainable land-use practices .

  18. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  19. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) and the IPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morison, J.; Schlosser, P.

    2003-12-01

    Recent studies of the arctic environment have revealed unexpected changes including lower sea-level atmospheric pressure, increased air temperature over most of the Arctic, but lower temperatures over eastern North America and Greenland, changed ocean circulation and rising coastal sea level, warmer Atlantic waters penetrating farther in the Arctic Ocean, reduced sea ice cover, and thawing permafrost. These changes are affecting every part of the arctic environment and are having repercussions on society. To understand the recent observations and put them into the context of natural variability and anthropogenic forcing, a multi-disciplinary, multi-agency program, has recently been developed. This program, SEARCH (Study of Environmental Arctic Change), has the potential to significantly contribute to the IPY by creating a framework for extensive new observations and placing the results into the context of a changing physical, biological, and social environment. Our contribution will outline SEARCH and explore its possible connectivity with the IPY.

  20. Evaluating environmental flows under climate variability and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, R.

    2012-04-01

    How much river flow is needed to ensure healthy freshwater ecosystems? This is a question that has exercised environmental managers for decades and one that is being made even harder by the prospect of anthropogenic climate change. The response requires balancing the long-term water demands of society with the needs of the environment in a sustainable and least cost way. Meeting these challenges will require more flexible water management systems and processes that recognise changing environmental limits, incentivise more environmentally-sensitive behaviours by water users and abstractors during times of water scarcity, and a move away from capital intensive, supply-side solutions. This talk evaluates the sensitivity of river flows to decadal variations in rainfall, abstraction amounts, licensing regime, and climate change. The overall objective is to determine how achievable abstraction volumes vary with different e-flow standards and water licensing regimes, under climate variability and change. The River Itchen in southern England has historically experienced unsustainable levels of water abstraction and is used as a test basin. The talk will consider the extent to which a 'smarter' approach to abstraction licensing could ensure that e-flow standards are met despite large uncertainty in the future climate, whilst having a minimal impact on security of water supplies.

  1. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks.

  2. Epigenetics changes associated to environmental triggers in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Carlos A; Cañas, Felipe; Bonilla-Abadía, Fabio; Ospina, Fabio E; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens and represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organs in different systems. While the pathogenesis of AID remains unclear, its aetiology is multifunctional and includes a combination of genetic, epigenetic, immunological and environmental factors. In AIDs, several epigenetic mechanisms are defective including DNA demethylation, abnormal chromatin positioning associated with autoantibody production and abnormalities in the expression of RNA interference (RNAi). It is known that environmental factors may interfere with DNA methylation and histone modifications, however, little is known about epigenetic changes derived of regulation of RNAi. An approach to the known environmental factors and the mechanisms that alter the epigenetic regulation in AIDs (with emphasis in systemic lupus erythematosus, the prototype of systemic AID) are showed in this review. PMID:26369426

  3. EDITORIAL: Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yongwei; Yao, Tandong

    2009-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is one of the Earth's most sensitive regions in responding to climate change due to its extremely high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The cryosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere of the plateau have been undergoing significant changes. Due to the low human population density, environmental changes on the plateau are largely driven by natural processes. Thus, the plateau provides a unique and comprehensive site for global change studies. This focus issue on Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau aims to address both paleo and recent environmental changes across the plateau to facilitate our understanding of this remote and under-studied area. We invited a wide spectrum of contributions to address climate change, permafrost degradation, glacier/snow/ice dynamics, lake dynamics, land- cover/land-use changes, and their interactions on the plateau. Collectively, the diverse contributions in this special issue are expected to present the recent advancement of the above topics and beyond. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau Contents Does a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range exist in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau? Qinglong You, Shichang Kang, Wolfgang-Albert Flügel, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Yuping Yan, Yanwei Xu and Jie Huang Diurnal variations of summertime precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau in relation to orographically-induced regional circulations Xiaodong Liu, Aijuan Bai and Changhai Liu Lake-level fluctuations since the Last Glaciation in Selin Co (lake), Central Tibet, investigated using optically stimulated luminescence dating of beach ridges Dewen Li, Yingkui Li, Baoqi Ma, Guocheng Dong, Liqiang Wang and Junxiang Zhao Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery Koji Fujita, Akiko Sakai, Takayuki Nuimura, Satoru Yamaguchi and Rishi R Sharma Changes

  4. Causes of Climate and Environmental Changes: The Need for Environmental-Friendly Education Policy in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankwoala, H. N. L.

    2015-01-01

    Man cannot naturally be detached from his environment. From time to time, changes in climate and environmental conditions occur as a result of natural and human factors. Obviously, the natural factors are almost beyond human control. But, the human factors are to a very large extent under human control. Thus, this paper tried to discover natural…

  5. The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Turner, B L; Lambin, Eric F; Reenberg, Anette

    2007-12-26

    Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research. This interdisciplinary field seeks to understand the dynamics of land cover and land use as a coupled human-environment system to address theory, concepts, models, and applications relevant to environmental and societal problems, including the intersection of the two. The major components and advances in land change are addressed: observation and monitoring; understanding the coupled system-causes, impacts, and consequences; modeling; and synthesis issues. The six articles of the special feature are introduced and situated within these components of study.

  6. The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Turner, B. L.; Lambin, Eric F.; Reenberg, Anette

    2007-01-01

    Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research. This interdisciplinary field seeks to understand the dynamics of land cover and land use as a coupled human–environment system to address theory, concepts, models, and applications relevant to environmental and societal problems, including the intersection of the two. The major components and advances in land change are addressed: observation and monitoring; understanding the coupled system—causes, impacts, and consequences; modeling; and synthesis issues. The six articles of the special feature are introduced and situated within these components of study. PMID:18093934

  7. Rapid environmental change during dynastic transitions in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Aubrey L.; Yu, JunQing; Abbott, Mark B.; Cooke, Colin A.; Bain, Daniel J.; Steinman, Byron A.

    2014-08-01

    Pollution and eutrophication of Chinese lakes are widely perceived to be 20th century phenomena. However, China has a long history of deforestation, agriculture, mineral resource extraction, and other anthropogenic activities that impact the environment. Here, we present a sediment record from Xing Yun Lake in the Yunnan Province of China that reveals significant alterations to the lake, its ecosystem, and its watershed beginning as early as 500 AD. A comprehensive suite of biogeochemical and isotopic proxies reveal several rapid transitions related to changes in agriculture and lake-level management that coincides with cultural and dynastic transitions. The deterioration of contemporary environmental conditions at Xing Yun arises from a long history of anthropogenic manipulation, eutrophication, and pollution of the lake and its watershed. This study highlights the importance of using historical records of industrial and agricultural activities, including landscape modification, in conjunction with records of climate change, to place present day environmental concerns into a long-term context.

  8. Visualizing marine environmental changes to the Saemangeum Coast.

    PubMed

    Jinah Kim; Jinah Park

    2012-01-01

    The Saemangeum Coast, located on the west side of the Korean peninsula, is undergoing a 30-year land reclamation project involving approximately 40 kilohectares. Because this project will drastically change the marine environment, monitoring and analyzing the water quality and marine life forms are necessary. However, the observation data are accumulating past the terabyte level, and the simulation data based on that data are also growing. Moreover, the gathered data are heterogeneous, and combining the datasets is often critical for gaining a better understanding of the environmental situation and for making predictions and decisions. A new visual-analytics tool for analyzing this situation fuses geographic-information-system data with ocean environmental data. It has three main components: data collection, geoprocessing, and data visualization. Researchers have used it to monitor and analyze changes in water quality, zooplankton distribution, and seabed topography.

  9. Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this

  10. Environmental Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal SAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazel, Mohammad A.; Homayouni, Saeid; Aghakarimi, Armin

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring of environmental phenomena in short-, mid- and long-term periods is the first step of any study or plan for natural resource management. As a result, detection and identification of the environmental changes became a main area of research for different applications. Remotely sensed data and especially Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery thanks to its independence to weather conditions and sun illumination, and its spatial and temporal resolution ability is a valuable source of information for change detection analysis and provides reliable data for information extraction for various applications. In general, change detection methods are grouped into supervised and unsupervised methods. Supervised methods work based on multi-temporal land-cover mapping of satellite images. While, unsupervised techniques include the very simple idea of image differencing to more sophisticated statistical modeling of changes in images. Unsupervised methods because of their advantages are more important in many applications. In recent years, the use of kernel based methods in change detection applications became an interesting topic in remote sensing community. Kernel-based methods and machine learning algorithms are the unsupervised paradigms which introduced powerful tools to deal with nonlinear classification. In this paper, we have presented a fully unsupervised framework for detecting the Urmia Lake changes during 2007 to 2010. This method uses the kernel-based clustering technique. The kernel k-means algorithm separates the changes from no-change classes of speckle free images. This method is a non-linear algorithm which considers the contextual information. For this purpose, at first, difference maps are calculated from multi-temporal data. Then these maps are projected into a higher dimensional space by using kernel function. Finally an unsupervised k-means clustering algorithm is used to obtain change and no-change classes. The proposed methodology is applied to

  11. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  12. Habitat complexity, environmental change and personality: A tropical perspective.

    PubMed

    Pamela Delarue, Emma Michelle; Kerr, Sarah Emily; Lee Rymer, Tasmin

    2015-11-01

    Tropical rainforests are species-rich, complex ecosystems. They are increasingly being negatively affected by anthropogenic activity, which is rapidly and unpredictably altering their structure and complexity. These changes in habitat state may expose tropical animals to novel and unpredictable conditions, potentially increasing their extinction risk. However, an animal's ability to cope with environmental change may be linked to its personality. While numerous studies have investigated environmental influences on animal personalities, few are focused on tropical species. In this review, we consider how behavioural syndromes in tropical species might facilitate coping under, and adapting to, increasing disturbance. Given the complexity of tropical rainforests, we first discuss how habitat complexity influences personality traits and physiological stress in general. We then explore the ecological and evolutionary implications of personality in the tropics in the context of behavioural flexibility, range expansion and speciation. Finally, we discuss the impact that anthropogenic environmental change may have on the ecological integrity of tropical rainforests, positing scenarios for species persistence. Maintaining tropical rainforest complexity is crucial for driving behavioural flexibility and personality type, both of which are likely to be key factors facilitating long term persistence in disturbed habitats.

  13. Middle Holocene rapid environmental changes and human adaptation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lespez, Laurent; Glais, Arthur; Lopez-Saez, José-Antonio; Le Drezen, Yann; Tsirtsoni, Zoï; Davidson, Robert; Biree, Laetitia; Malamidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    Numerous researchers discuss of the collapse of civilizations in response to abrupt climate change in the Mediterranean region. The period between 6500 and 5000 cal yr BP is one of the least studied episodes of rapid climate change at the end of the Late Neolithic. This period is characterized by a dramatic decline in settlement and a cultural break in the Balkans. High-resolution paleoenvironmental proxy data obtained in the Lower Angitis Valley enables an examination of the societal responses to rapid climatic change in Greece. Development of a lasting fluvio-lacustrine environment followed by enhanced fluvial activity is evident from 6000 cal yr BP. Paleoecological data show a succession of dry events at 5800-5700, 5450 and 5000-4900 cal yr BP. These events correspond to incursion of cold air masses to the eastern Mediterranean, confirming the climatic instability of the middle Holocene climate transition. Two periods with farming and pastural activities (6300-5600 and 5100-4700 cal BP) are evident. The intervening period is marked by environmental changes, but the continuous occurrence of anthropogenic taxa suggests the persistence of human activities despite the absence of archaeological evidence. The environmental factors alone were not sufficient to trigger the observed societal changes.

  14. Moving past framing climate change as an environmental issue (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    Continuing to frame climate change as an environmental issue can limit understanding by decision-makers and the public of the magnitude of the challenges faced by human and natural systems as the climate continues to change. Environmental issues are typically researched and managed using methods and tools that have been effective in dealing with other environmental concerns, from tropospheric ozone to lead exposure. Risk assessment is a commonly used approach to understanding the risk(s) posed by an agent, with four basic steps: (1) hazard identification; (2) dose-response assessment; (3) exposure assessment; and (4) risk characterization. This framing does not fully capture the complex interrelationships and feedbacks that often characterize the risks of climate change; understanding these can lead to better-informed decisions. Challenges with using traditional risk assessment to understand the health risks of climate change, for example, include the 'exposure' can range from increases in the mean and/or variance of temperature, precipitation, and other weather variables, to ocean acidification. Each is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, with many associations indirect and/or nonlinear. Further, uncertainty about the magnitude, timing, and nature of changes in the climate system results in a need to estimate the potential impacts under a range of possible scenarios. In addition, most climate-sensitive health outcomes have multiple, contributing causes that may be interrelated, making it difficult to single out the influence of climate change against a backdrop of other risk factors, including socioeconomic factors, that also will change over time. In short, the primary assumption underlying traditional risk assessment -- that a defined exposure to a specific agent causes an adverse health outcome to identifiable exposed populations -- does not apply to climate change. Climate literacy can be improved by moving the framing from a relatively linear

  15. Multidecadal Fluvial Sediment Fluxes to Deltas under Environmental Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Frances; Darby, Stephen; Nicholls, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Sediment delivery is vital to sustain delta environments on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Due to factors such as subsidence and sea level rise, deltas sink relative to sea level if sediment is not delivered to and retained on their surfaces. Deltas which sink relative to sea level experience flooding, land degradation and loss, which endangers anthropogenic activities and populations. The future of fluvial sediment fluxes, a key mechanism for sediment delivery to deltas, is uncertain due to complex environmental changes which are predicted to occur over the coming decades. This research investigates fluvial sediment fluxes under environmental changes in order to assess the sustainability of delta environments under potential future scenarios up to 2100. Global datasets of climate change, reservoir construction, and population and GDP as proxies for anthropogenic influence through land use changes are used to drive the catchment numerical model WBMsed, which is being used to investigate the effects of these environmental changes on fluvial sediment delivery. This process produces fluvial sediment fluxes under multiple future scenarios which will be used to assess the future sustainability of a selection of 8 vulnerable deltas, although the approach can be applied to deltas worldwide. By modelling potential future scenarios of fluvial sediment flux, this research contributes to the prognosis for delta environments. The future scenarios will inform management at multiple temporal scales, and indicate the potential consequences for deltas of various anthropogenic activities. This research will both forewarn managers of potentially unsustainable deltas and indicate those anthropogenic activities which encourage or hinder the creation of sustainable delta environments.

  16. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  17. Host manipulation in the face of environmental changes: Ecological consequences

    PubMed Central

    Labaude, Sophie; Rigaud, Thierry; Cézilly, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Several parasite species, particularly those having complex life-cycles, are known to induce phenotypic alterations in their hosts. Most often, such alterations appear to increase the fitness of the parasites at the expense of that of their hosts, a phenomenon known as “host manipulation”. Host manipulation can have important consequences, ranging from host population dynamics to ecosystem engineering. So far, the importance of environmental changes for host manipulation has received little attention. However, because manipulative parasites are embedded in complex systems, with many interacting components, changes in the environment are likely to affect those systems in various ways. Here, after reviewing the ecological importance of manipulative parasites, we consider potential causes and consequences of changes in host manipulation by parasites driven by environmental modifications. We show that such consequences can extend to trophic networks and population dynamics within communities, and alter the ecological role of manipulative parasites such as their ecosystem engineering. We suggest that taking them into account could improve the accuracy of predictions regarding the effects of global change. We also propose several directions for future studies. PMID:26835252

  18. Environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and the risk of lupus.

    PubMed

    Somers, E C; Richardson, B C

    2014-05-01

    A dose-dependent combination of environmental exposures, estrogenic hormones and genetic predisposition is thought to be required for lupus to develop and flare, but how the environment modifies the immune system in genetically predisposed people is unclear. Current evidence indicates that environmental agents that inhibit DNA methylation can convert normal antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes into autoreactive, cytotoxic, pro-inflammatory cells that are sufficient to cause lupus-like autoimmunity in animal models, and that the same changes in DNA methylation characterize CD4+ T cells from patients with active lupus. Environmental agents implicated in inhibiting T-cell DNA methylation include the lupus-inducing drugs procainamide and hydralazine, as well as diet, and agents causing oxidative stress, such as smoking, UV light exposure, and infections, which have been associated with lupus onset or disease activity. Other studies demonstrate that demethylated T cells cause only anti-DNA antibodies in mice lacking a genetic predisposition to lupus, but are sufficient to cause lupus-like autoimmunity in genetically predisposed mice and likely people, and that estrogens augment the disease. Collectively, these studies suggest that environmental agents that inhibit DNA methylation, together with lupus genes and estrogens or endocrine disruptors, combine in a dose-dependent fashion to cause lupus flares.

  19. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  20. Late Holocene Environmental Changes from NY-NJ Estuaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy M.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution records of environmental change in the lower Hudson estuary are quite rare. We present preliminary data from several marshes in the New York- New Jersey region in order to understand the late Holocene environmental history of this region. Our project includes salt marsh cores from Hackensack, Piermont, Staten Island, and Jamaica Bay. Our preliminary research has focused on a 11.15 m sediment core from Piermont Marsh, New York (40 deg N, 74 deg W) in an attempt to document the Holocene environmental history of the region. Lithology, loss -on -ignition (LOI), pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal, and foraminifera were analyzed. Core lithology consists of peat, silts, and clays that vary in color and texture. The base of the core is AMS C-14 dated to 4190 yr BP. Preliminary low-resolution analysis of the core to date includes sampling at the 1-meter interval throughout the core. LOI of the sediments ranges from 1% to 85%. Average rate of deposition is about .26 cm/yr. Major changes in pollen percentages are visible throughout the core.

  1. Late Holocene Environmental Changes from NY-NJ Estuaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy M.; Wong, Jennifer K.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution records of environmental change in the lower Hudson estuary are quite rare. We present preliminary data from several marshes in the New York- New Jersey region in order to understand the late Holocene environmental history of this region. Our project includes salt marsh cores from Hackensack, Piermont, Staten Island, and Jamaica Bay. Our preliminary research has focused on a 11.15 m. sediment core from Piermont Marsh, New York (40 N, 74 W) in an attempt to document the Holocene environmental history of the region. Lithology, loss-on-ignition (LOI), pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal, and foraminifera were analyzed. Core lithology consists of peat, silts, and clays that vary in color and texture. The base of the core is AMS C-14 dated to 4190 yr BP. Preliminary low-resolution analysis of the core to date includes sampling at the 1-meter interval throughout the core. LOI of the sediments ranges from 1% to 85%. Average rate of deposition is about .26 cm/yr. Major changes in pollen percentages are visible throughout the core.

  2. Benthic foraminifera and environmental changes in Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, E.; Gapotchenko, T.; Varekamp, J.C.; Mecray, E.I.; Buchholtz ten Brink, M. R.

    2000-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal faunas in Long Island Sound (LIS) in the 1940s and 1960s were of low diversity, and dominated by species of the genus Elphidium, mainly Elphidium excavatum clavatum, with common Buccella frigida and Eggerella advena. The distribution of these species was dominantly correlated with depth, but it was not clear which depth-related environmental variable was most important. Differences between faunas collected in 1996 and 1997, and in the 1940s and 1960s include a strong decrease in relative abundance of Eggerella advena over all LIS, an increase in relative abundance of Ammonia beccarii in western LIS, and a decrease in species diversity. The decreased diversity suggests that environmental stress caused the faunal changes. Oxygen isotope data for E. excavatum clavatum indicate that a change in salinity is not a probable cause. Carbon isotope data suggest that the supply of organic matter to the benthos increased since the early 1960s, with a stronger increase in western LIS where algal blooms have occurred since the early 1970s, possibly as a result of nutrient input by waste water treatment plants. These blooms or the resulting episodes of anoxia/hypoxia may have played a role in the increased relative abundance of A. beccarii. There is no clear explanation for the decreased abundance of E. advena, but changes in the phytoplankton composition (thus food supply) are a possible cause. Benthic foraminiferal faunal and stable isotope data have excellent potential as indicators of physicochemical environmental changes and their effects on the biota in LIS.

  3. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  4. Avoiding climate change uncertainties in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Driscoll, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies ‘reduction’ and ‘resilience’, ‘denying’, ‘ignoring’ and ‘postponing’. Second, 151 Danish SEAs are analysed with a focus on the extent to which climate change uncertainties are acknowledged and presented, and the empirical findings are discussed in relation to the model. The findings indicate that despite incentives to do so, climate change uncertainties were systematically avoided or downplayed in all but 5 of the 151 SEAs that were reviewed. Finally, two possible explanatory mechanisms are proposed to explain this: conflict avoidance and a need to quantify uncertainty.

  5. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  6. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wende, Wolfgang; Bond, Alan; Bobylev, Nikolai; Stratmann, Lars

    2012-01-15

    Countries are implementing CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 Degree-Sign C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO{sub 2} reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  7. (Meeting on human dimensions of global environmental change)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1990-12-18

    Traveler attended the meeting of the Standing Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change of the International Social Science Council (ISSC) and the Scientific Symposium organized by the Standing Committee. The purpose of the meeting and symposium was to discuss the Draft Framework and the Workplan of the Standing Committee prior to its presentation to the 1990 Congress of the ISSC on November 28--30, 1990. The meetings indicate that ORNL Global Environmental Studies Center is on the international leading edge of human dimensions research, except in the area of human dimensions data systems. This weakness could be rectified by close collaboration with the efforts of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) in Michigan.

  8. Predicting changes in the distribution and abundance of species under environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlén, Johan; Morris, William F

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes are expected to alter both the distribution and the abundance of organisms. A disproportionate amount of past work has focused on distribution only, either documenting historical range shifts or predicting future occurrence patterns. However, simultaneous predictions of abundance and distribution across landscapes would be far more useful. To critically assess which approaches represent advances towards the goal of joint predictions of abundance and distribution, we review recent work on changing distributions and on effects of environmental drivers on single populations. Several methods have been used to predict changing distributions. Some of these can be easily modified to also predict abundance, but others cannot. In parallel, demographers have developed a much better understanding of how changing abiotic and biotic drivers will influence growth rate and abundance in single populations. However, this demographic work has rarely taken a landscape perspective and has largely ignored the effects of intraspecific density. We advocate a synthetic approach in which population models accounting for both density dependence and effects of environmental drivers are used to make integrated predictions of equilibrium abundance and distribution across entire landscapes. Such predictions would constitute an important step forward in assessing the ecological consequences of environmental changes. PMID:25611188

  9. Predicting changes in the distribution and abundance of species under environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ehrlén, Johan; Morris, William F

    2015-03-01

    Environmental changes are expected to alter both the distribution and the abundance of organisms. A disproportionate amount of past work has focused on distribution only, either documenting historical range shifts or predicting future occurrence patterns. However, simultaneous predictions of abundance and distribution across landscapes would be far more useful. To critically assess which approaches represent advances towards the goal of joint predictions of abundance and distribution, we review recent work on changing distributions and on effects of environmental drivers on single populations. Several methods have been used to predict changing distributions. Some of these can be easily modified to also predict abundance, but others cannot. In parallel, demographers have developed a much better understanding of how changing abiotic and biotic drivers will influence growth rate and abundance in single populations. However, this demographic work has rarely taken a landscape perspective and has largely ignored the effects of intraspecific density. We advocate a synthetic approach in which population models accounting for both density dependence and effects of environmental drivers are used to make integrated predictions of equilibrium abundance and distribution across entire landscapes. Such predictions would constitute an important step forward in assessing the ecological consequences of environmental changes.

  10. Predicting changes in the distribution and abundance of species under environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ehrlén, Johan; Morris, William F

    2015-03-01

    Environmental changes are expected to alter both the distribution and the abundance of organisms. A disproportionate amount of past work has focused on distribution only, either documenting historical range shifts or predicting future occurrence patterns. However, simultaneous predictions of abundance and distribution across landscapes would be far more useful. To critically assess which approaches represent advances towards the goal of joint predictions of abundance and distribution, we review recent work on changing distributions and on effects of environmental drivers on single populations. Several methods have been used to predict changing distributions. Some of these can be easily modified to also predict abundance, but others cannot. In parallel, demographers have developed a much better understanding of how changing abiotic and biotic drivers will influence growth rate and abundance in single populations. However, this demographic work has rarely taken a landscape perspective and has largely ignored the effects of intraspecific density. We advocate a synthetic approach in which population models accounting for both density dependence and effects of environmental drivers are used to make integrated predictions of equilibrium abundance and distribution across entire landscapes. Such predictions would constitute an important step forward in assessing the ecological consequences of environmental changes. PMID:25611188

  11. Secular environmental precursors to Early Toarcian (Jurassic) extreme climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suan, Guillaume; Mattioli, Emanuela; Pittet, Bernard; Lécuyer, Christophe; Suchéras-Marx, Baptiste; Duarte, Luís Vítor; Philippe, Marc; Reggiani, Letizia; Martineau, François

    2010-02-01

    The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), about 183 myr ago, was a global event of environmental and carbon cycle perturbations, which deeply affected both marine biota and carbonate production. Nevertheless, the long-term environmental conditions prevailing prior to the main phase of marine extinction and carbonate production crisis remain poorly understood. Here we present a ˜ 8 myr-long record of Early Pliensbachian-Middle Toarcian environmental changes from the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal, in order to address the long-term paleoclimatic evolution that ultimately led to carbonate production and biotic crises during the T-OAE. Paleotemperature estimates derived from the oxygen isotope compositions of well-preserved brachiopod shells from two different sections reveal a pronounced ˜ 5 °C cooling in the Late Pliensbachian ( margaritatus- spinatum ammonite Zones boundary). This cooling event is followed by a marked ˜ 7-10 °C seawater warming in the Early Toarcian that, after a second cooling event in the mid- polymorphum Zone, culminates during the T-OAE. Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) contents, the amount of nannofossil calcite and the mean size of the major pelagic carbonate producer Schizosphaerella, all largely covary with paleotemperatures, indicating a coupling between climatic conditions and both pelagic and neritic CaCO 3 production. Furthermore, the cooling and warming episodes coincided with major marine regressions and transgressions, respectively, suggesting that the growth and decay of ice caps may have exerted a strong control on sea-level fluctuations throughout the studied time interval. This revised chronology of environmental changes shows important similarities with Neogene and Paleozoic episodes of deglacial black shale formation, and thus prompts the reevaluation of ice sheet dynamics as a possible agent of Mesozoic events of extinction and organic-rich sedimentation.

  12. Resilience vs. historical contingency in microbial responses to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Christine V; Keitt, Timothy H

    2015-07-01

    How soil processes such as carbon cycling will respond to future climate change depends on the responses of complex microbial communities, but most ecosystem models assume that microbial functional responses are resilient and can be predicted from simple parameters such as biomass and temperature. Here, we consider how historical contingencies might alter those responses because function depends on prior conditions or biota. Functional resilience can be driven by physiological, community or adaptive shifts; historical contingencies can result from the influence of historical environments or a combination of priority effects and biotic resistance. By modelling microbial population responses to environmental change, we demonstrate that historical environments can constrain soil function with the degree of constraint depending on the magnitude of change in the context of the prior environment. For example microbial assemblages from more constant environments were more sensitive to change leading to poorer functional acclimatisation compared to microbial assemblages from more fluctuating environments. Such historical contingencies can lead to deviations from expected functional responses to climate change as well as local variability in those responses. Our results form a set of interrelated hypotheses regarding soil microbial responses to climate change that warrant future empirical attention. PMID:25950733

  13. Environmental changes and vulnerability in the Gharbi Island (Kerkennah, Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, L.; Bouaziz, R.; Dahech, S.; Daoud, A.; Beltrando, G.

    2012-04-01

    Most reliable models of climatic observation and forecast show that the south of the Mediterranean perimeter is threatened by important variations of environmental conditions. The Gharbi Island that belongs to the Kerkennah archipelago is located 20 km away from the Sfax coast and is likely to undergo the consequences of these regional-scale evolutions. In addition, the socio-economic changes that started in the 80's may have an impact on land use. Indeed, marine conditions changed and overfishing causes the decrease of fish quantity and the leaving of the fisher in favor of agriculture. To enlighten changes of various natures and understand the mechanisms of their origin or development, we performed a comparison of land use on 4 dates over the last 50 years, using photointerpretation on two high resolution images (1963: aerial photography and 2010: Spot image; 2,5m resolution) and remote sensing on two Landsat 5 TM images (1984 and 2011). To support and complete our large scale observations, we also added photographic data gathered during two field campaigns. The first change we observed is a urban extension (stakes) predominantly imputed to the construction of holiday resort for Tunisian citizen, and for a minority to international tourism. We also found that the number of agricultural parcels (stakes) has been multiplied during the past decades in response of changes on agricultural practices, and that an irrigated zone has been created in response to the increase of hydric stress and of farmers. Finally, we describe an enlargement of sebkhas (low, salty and liable to flooding areas (hazard)) that might likely be caused by climatic and environmental evolution like sea level rise and subsidence. We conclude one the one hand that vulnerability and also risks of salinization and loss of farmland around the sebkhas and in the irrigated zone have increase and on the other hand that human infrastructures that are very close or in the sebkhas are vulnerable to sea

  14. Planetary Habitability and Rapid Environmental Change: The Biological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, D.; Fairen, A.; Irwin, L.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental conditions can change drastically and rapidly during the natural history of a planetary body. We have detailed evidence of these dramatic events from Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. Most of these occurrences seem to be triggered by astronomical events such as asteroid impacts or supernova explosions; others are triggered by the planet or moon itself (e.g., supervolcano eruptions). The associated question is always how these events affect the habitability of a planet, particularly the origin and presence of life. Under what conditions would such a drastic event be so catastrophic that it would prohibit the origin of life or be so devastating to existing organisms, that life would not be able to recover and be all but extinguished from a planet? Under what conditions would such an event be positive for the evolution of life, for example spurring life via mass extinctions and associated vacant habitats to the invention of new body plans and higher complexity? Here, we provide insights of what we can learn from the natural history of our own planet, which experienced many environmental disasters and abrupt climate changes, from the impact event that created the Moon to the extinction of the dinosaurs. We apply these insights to other planetary bodies and the question about the presence of life. One example is Mars, which underwent drastic environmental changes at the end of the Noachian period. Assuming that microbial life became established on Mars, could it have survived, perhaps by retreating to environmental niches? Life just starting out would have certainly been more vulnerable to extinction. But how far would it have to have evolved to be more resistant to potential extinction events? Would it have to be global in distribution to survive? Another example is Venus. Should Venus be seen as an example where life, which possibly arose in the first few hundred million years when the planet was still in the habitable zone, would have had no chance to

  15. Anticipation of periodic environmental changes in an amoeba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saigusa, Tetsu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2007-07-01

    The amoeboid organism of true slime mold, the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, had capacity of memorizing a periodic event. The organism showed vigorous locomotion in the favorite conditions. When stimulation of the unfavorable conditions was given in a pulse-like regime and was repeated three times at interval of 60 minutes, the amoeba reduced the locomotion speed in response to each pulse. Even though the favorite conditions were kept to be constant after the periodic pulses, the amoeba spontaneously reduced the locomotion speed at the timing of next pulse (after 60 minutes). This means that the amoeba anticipated the next environmental change.

  16. Correlative changes in life-history variables in response to environmental change in a model organism.

    PubMed

    Smallegange, Isabel M; Deere, Jacques A; Coulson, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Global change alters the environment, including increases in the frequency of (un)favorable events and shifts in environmental noise color. However, how these changes impact the dynamics of populations, and whether these can be predicted accurately has been largely unexamined. Here we combine recently developed population modeling approaches and theory in stochastic demography to explore how life history, morphology, and average fitness respond to changes in the frequency of favorable environmental conditions and in the color of environmental noise in a model organism (an acarid mite). We predict that different life-history variables respond correlatively to changes in the environment, and we identify different life-history variables, including lifetime reproductive success, as indicators of average fitness and life-history speed across stochastic environments. Depending on the shape of adult survival rate, generation time can be used as an indicator of the response of populations to stochastic change, as in the deterministic case. This work is a useful step toward understanding population dynamics in stochastic environments, including how stochastic change may shape the evolution of life histories.

  17. Self-organizing change? On drivers, causes and global environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Elverfeldt, Kirsten; Embleton-Hamann, Christine; Slaymaker, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Within global environmental change research, certain external drivers generally are assumed to cause the environmental system to change. The most commonly considered drivers are relief, sea level, hydroclimate, and/or people. However, complexity theory and self-organizing systems provide a very different framework and means of explanation. Self-organization - understood as the aggregate processes internal to an environmental system that lead to a distinctive spatial, temporal, or other organization - reduces the possibility of implicating a specific process as being causal. The principle of equifinality, whereby two or more different drivers can generate the same form, has long been recognized within a process-response framework, as well as the concept of divergence, which states that similar causes or processes result in different effects. Both ideas differ from self-organization in that they (i) deal with drivers external to the system and (ii) imply concrete cause-and-effect relations that might be difficult to discern. The assumption is, however, that careful study will eventually lead to the true causes and processes. Studies of self-organization deal with the ways in which internal processes interact and may drive a system toward an instability threshold, the so-called bifurcation point. At this point, the system develops by chance and no single external or internal cause for the change can be defined. For research into environmental change this is a crucial theory for two reasons:

  18. Transposons, environmental changes, and heritable induced phenotypic variability.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Lucia; Fanti, Laura; Specchia, Valeria; Bozzetti, Maria Pia; Berloco, Maria; Palumbo, Gino; Pimpinelli, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms of biological evolution have always been, and still are, the subject of intense debate and modeling. One of the main problems is how the genetic variability is produced and maintained in order to make the organisms adaptable to environmental changes and therefore capable of evolving. In recent years, it has been reported that, in flies and plants, mutations in Hsp90 gene are capable to induce, with a low frequency, many different developmental abnormalities depending on the genetic backgrounds. This has suggested that the reduction of Hsp90 amount makes different development pathways more sensitive to hidden genetic variability. This suggestion revitalized a classical debate around the original Waddington hypothesis of canalization and genetic assimilation making Hsp90 the prototype of morphological capacitor. Other data have also suggested a different mechanism that revitalizes another classic debate about the response of genome to physiological and environmental stress put forward by Barbara McClintock. That data demonstrated that Hsp90 is involved in repression of transposon activity by playing a significant role in piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs)-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) silencing. The important implication is that the fixed phenotypic abnormalities observed in Hsp90 mutants are probably related to de novo induced mutations by transposon activation. In this case, Hsp90 could be considered as a mutator. In the present theoretical paper, we discuss several possible implications about environmental stress, transposon, and evolution offering also a support to the concept of evolvability. PMID:24752783

  19. Transposons, environmental changes, and heritable induced phenotypic variability.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Lucia; Fanti, Laura; Specchia, Valeria; Bozzetti, Maria Pia; Berloco, Maria; Palumbo, Gino; Pimpinelli, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms of biological evolution have always been, and still are, the subject of intense debate and modeling. One of the main problems is how the genetic variability is produced and maintained in order to make the organisms adaptable to environmental changes and therefore capable of evolving. In recent years, it has been reported that, in flies and plants, mutations in Hsp90 gene are capable to induce, with a low frequency, many different developmental abnormalities depending on the genetic backgrounds. This has suggested that the reduction of Hsp90 amount makes different development pathways more sensitive to hidden genetic variability. This suggestion revitalized a classical debate around the original Waddington hypothesis of canalization and genetic assimilation making Hsp90 the prototype of morphological capacitor. Other data have also suggested a different mechanism that revitalizes another classic debate about the response of genome to physiological and environmental stress put forward by Barbara McClintock. That data demonstrated that Hsp90 is involved in repression of transposon activity by playing a significant role in piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs)-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) silencing. The important implication is that the fixed phenotypic abnormalities observed in Hsp90 mutants are probably related to de novo induced mutations by transposon activation. In this case, Hsp90 could be considered as a mutator. In the present theoretical paper, we discuss several possible implications about environmental stress, transposon, and evolution offering also a support to the concept of evolvability.

  20. Is sexual selection beneficial during adaptation to environmental change?

    PubMed

    Candolin, Ulrika; Heuschele, Jan

    2008-08-01

    The role of sexual selection in adaptation is disputed. A balance between sexual and viability selection can be achieved in stable environments, but environmental perturbations could change the costs and benefits arising from sexual selection and influence the rate of adaptation. Here we synthesise theoretical and empirical work on the role of sexual selection in adaptation to changed conditions. Contrasting results have been gained, but the majority of studies suggest that sexual selection has no significant effect or a negative effect on the rate of adaptation. However, once sexually selected traits start to evolve, sexual selection can accelerate adaptation. The role of sexual selection in extinction appears to be minor, but the results could be skewed.

  1. Microevolution of European temperate oaks in response to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This review reconstructs microevolutionary processes that allowed long-lived species as temperate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) to cope with climate change since the last glacial maximum, by assembling insights from complementary synchronic and allochronic approaches. Paleobotanical and genetic investigations show that oaks migrated at larger velocities than expected, thanks to long-distance rare events and most likely human interferences. Hybridization was a key mechanism accelerating migration and enhancing species succession. Common garden experiments and genome wide association studies demonstrated that diversifying selection across large environmental gradients contributed to rapid local adaptation. Finally the review explores how lessons taken from past evolutionary scenarios may help to predict future responses of oaks to ongoing climate change. PMID:27263361

  2. A Novel Tropical Dry Forests: A Response to Environmental Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A. E.; Molina, S.

    2015-12-01

    Dry Forest environments are favorable to human settlement and activities, leading to deforestation, agricultural enterprises, land degradation, and abandonment. As a result, tropical dry forests are vulnerable and experience a high rate of cover loss, which often requires restoration activities. We have studied the natural regeneration of dry forests in Puerto Rico following a variety of human activities including farming, cattle pasturing, charcoal production, and human dwellings. Our results show a high level of forest resilience to anthropogenic disturbances but also a change of species composition relative to undisturbed native forests. This novelty of forest composition represents a natural response to environmental changes induced by human activity and pre-adapts forests to conditions in the Anthropocene.

  3. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline

  4. Global atmospheric change and research needs in environmental health sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.D. ); Reed, D.J. )

    1991-12-01

    On November 6-7, 1989, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) held a conference on Global Atmospheric Change and Human Health. As a result, and in the months since this conference, many important areas of research have been identified with regard to the impacts of climatic changes on human health. To develop comprehensive research programs that address important human health issues related to global warming, it is necessary to begin by recognizing that some of the health effects will be direct such as those due to temperature changes, and others will be indirect consequences of environmental alterations resulting in crop loss, changing disease vectors, population migration, etc. It should also be recognized that the conditions leading to global warming have importance to human health and the environment other than through increasing concentrations of CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere, rising surface temperatures, and rising sea levels. Much of the increase in CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere is due to the increased combustion of fossil fuels for transportation and electric power production. Over the next 30 years, the demand for electrical power is expected to grow at a rate of 2 to 4% per year in the United States alone, and even faster growth is likely for developing countries. Much of this energy will be derived from the combustion of fossil fuels, including coal, which result in pollutant emissions to the air such as metals, radioactivity, SO[sub x], NO[sub x], and particles. Therefore, with increasing concentrations of CO[sub 2] there will not only be the effects of global warming on health, but also increasing concentrations of many serious air pollutants in urban areas, including the precursors of acid rain and acid deposition over large regional areas.

  5. South Polar Residual Cap Geomorphology and Inferred Environmental Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A.; Pathare, A.

    2003-12-01

    The CO2 southern residual cap (SRC) both controls circulation patterns regionally and buffers the atmospheric pressure globally. In turn this CO2 deposit is affected by changes in environmental conditions wrought by external forces such as dust storm activity. Mars Global Surveyor data of this area have revealed a rich variety of geomorphic features (1) of which there are several distinct classes. These different classes may be end members of the same basic process of insolation driven ablation. We are currently investigating two types of SRC features. Swiss-cheese features (SCF) are depressions characterized by flat floors and steep walls, which retreat 1-3 meters each Martian year (2). In some regions they have a definite symmetry axis along the north-south direction (3). After the seasonal frost disappears the residual ice exposed in the walls has a lower albedo (4). Previously (5) we modeled the evolution and growth of these depressions as a hole in a layer of CO2 ice underlain by water ice, which best explains their morphologic and thermal properties. The observed thickness of the CO2 slab can be as high as 8 meters but in general is much lower. Larger SCF?s commonly possess a raised central island of CO2 surrounded by a moat that penetrates to the underlying water ice (3). The fast rate of wall retreat observed (2) combined with the small sizes of the SCF?s indicate that all SCF?s visible today were created geologically recently. Within a particular region the size distribution is quite narrow (3): no larger (older) or smaller (younger) features were seen indicating that some relatively abrupt change in environmental conditions initiated the growth of this particular population of features. Fingerprint terrain (1) are areas with evenly spaced parallel ridges, which are steeper on one side. These ridges may have small areas of water ice exposed in the intervening troughs. Their wavelength is on the order of 70-90m with the steep edges facing northeast although

  6. Coping with global environmental change -- role of science and democracy.

    PubMed

    Menon, M G

    The world's population increased form about 3 billion in 1960 to 4 billion in 1974, to 5 billion in 1987, and it is projected to grow to 6 billion by 1991 and to 8 billion by 1992. Finite, nonrenewable resources have to satisfy the increased need for sustenance of this population excess in a sustainable economic development mold. Human activity has upset natural processes with negative environmental effects: Minamata disease in Japan caused by heavy metal pollution, global deforestation, and acid rain. The 1972 Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm dealt with industrial pollution. The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) was established subsequently. The theory of global warming caused by emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and halogens as predicted by a Swedish scientist decades ago is accumulating a body of evidence. The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) of the International Council of Scientific Unions attempt to explore the Earth's physical, chemical, and biological processes to predict global environmental changes. Success mandates data availability. Paleoclimatic evidence indicates previous cataclysms caused by climate change, thus agriculture could be affected massively by global warming. Improved scientific analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and crop simulation models for major agricultural areas are needed. The North-South dialogue in UN forums has been acrimonious without much success, although international cooperation has been fruitful with the adoption of the Montreal Protocol on phasing out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. Such cooperation is needed on energy consumption and sources.

  7. Interactions between environmental changes and brain plasticity in birds.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Anat

    2009-09-01

    Neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment occur in many vertebrates, including humans. Most of the new neurons die before reaching their destination. Those which survive migrate to various brain regions, replace older ones and connect to existing circuits. Evidence suggests that this replacement is related to acquisition of new information. Therefore, neuronal replacement can be seen as a form of brain plasticity that enables organisms to adjust to environmental changes. However, direct evidence of a causal link between replacement and learning remains elusive. Our hypothesis is that increased neuronal recruitment is associated with increase in memory load. Moreover, since neuronal recruitment is part of a turnover process, we assume that the same conditions that favor survival of some neurons induce the death of others. I present studies that investigated the effect of various behaviors and environmental conditions (food-hoarding, social change, reproductive cycle) on neuronal recruitment and survival in adult avian brains, and discuss how these phenomena relate to the life of animals. I offer a frame and rationale for comparing neuronal replacement in the adult brain, in order to uncover the pressures, rules, and mechanisms that govern its constant rejuvenation. The review emphasizes the importance of using various approaches (behavioral, anatomical, cellular and hormonal) in neuroethological research, and the need to study natural populations, in order to fully understand how neurogenesis and neuronal replacement contribute to life of animals. Finally, the review indicates to future directions and ends with the hope that a better understanding of adult neuronal replacement will lead to medical applications.

  8. Coping with global environmental change -- role of science and democracy.

    PubMed

    Menon, M G

    The world's population increased form about 3 billion in 1960 to 4 billion in 1974, to 5 billion in 1987, and it is projected to grow to 6 billion by 1991 and to 8 billion by 1992. Finite, nonrenewable resources have to satisfy the increased need for sustenance of this population excess in a sustainable economic development mold. Human activity has upset natural processes with negative environmental effects: Minamata disease in Japan caused by heavy metal pollution, global deforestation, and acid rain. The 1972 Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm dealt with industrial pollution. The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) was established subsequently. The theory of global warming caused by emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and halogens as predicted by a Swedish scientist decades ago is accumulating a body of evidence. The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) of the International Council of Scientific Unions attempt to explore the Earth's physical, chemical, and biological processes to predict global environmental changes. Success mandates data availability. Paleoclimatic evidence indicates previous cataclysms caused by climate change, thus agriculture could be affected massively by global warming. Improved scientific analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and crop simulation models for major agricultural areas are needed. The North-South dialogue in UN forums has been acrimonious without much success, although international cooperation has been fruitful with the adoption of the Montreal Protocol on phasing out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. Such cooperation is needed on energy consumption and sources. PMID:12285904

  9. Changes in New Zealand's environmental and governmental policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1987-07-01

    There will be now new geothermal development in New Zealand without reinjection. The new climate in New Zealand towards environmental protection comes with a major change in the country's policy toward geothermal development. Under the new plan, geothermal development is removed from governmental planning and control. For the first time in New Zealand's history, private companies may compete with governmental agencies to develop the country's geothermal resources. The governmental agencies will compete among themselves, as well, and be expected to make a profit. The two changes affect each other in a manner that benefits the environment. This occurs because a developer must secure both land rights and water rights before undertaking a geothermal project. As geothermal water is under New Zealand ground water law, local water boards issue the water rights for geothermal projects. These local boards must choose among all geothermal project applications, both public and private. Such competition is presently underway for the rights to develop Mokai Geothermal field, the hottest and most promising new field in the country. Both governmental groups are competing in this venture, and are preparing environmental impact reports for the water board.

  10. Instantaneous crack detection under changing operational and environmental variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Bum; Sohn, Hoon

    2007-04-01

    A new methodology of guided wave based nondestructive testing (NDT) is developed to detect crack damage in a thin metal structure without using prior baseline data or a predetermined decision boundary. In conventional guided wave based techniques, damage is often identified by comparing the "current" data obtained from a potentially damaged condition of a structure with the "past" baseline data collected at the pristine condition of the structure. However, it has been reported that this type of pattern comparison with the baseline data can lead to increased false alarms due to its susceptibility to varying operational and environmental conditions of the structure. To develop a more robust damage diagnosis technique, a new concept of NDT is conceived so that cracks can be detected even when the system being monitored is subjected to changing operational and environmental conditions. The proposed NDT technique utilizes the polarization characteristics of the piezoelectric wafers attached on the both sides of the thin metal structure. Crack formation creates Lamb wave mode conversion due to a sudden change in the thickness of the structure. Then, the proposed technique instantly detects the appearance of the crack by extracting this mode conversion from the measured Lamb waves, and the threshold value from damage classification is also obtained only from the current data set. Numerical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique to instantaneous crack detection.

  11. A decade of environmental change in the Pacific Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Kevin R.; Bond, Nicholas A.; Danielson, Seth L.; Overland, James E.; Salo, Sigrid A.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Whitefield, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Over the decade 2004-2013 environmental changes in the Pacific sector of the Arctic have been dramatic enough to suggest that a 'new normal' climate is emerging. The clearest indicator of this change is the dramatic loss of sea ice during the summer, which in some years has already resulted in essentially ice-free conditions in this region. For example, between 7 August and 11 October 2012, sea ice concentration in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas between 70 and 80°N fell below 20% (with a record minimum concentration of only 5% on 2 September). Thick multiyear sea ice (older than 2 years) has almost entirely disappeared, replaced by thin and more mobile first-year ice. Year-to-year variability in ice concentration is associated with anomalous wind forcing linked to larger-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, which also affect ocean currents, including transport through Bering Strait. With reduced sea ice extent the area of ice-free ocean susceptible to rapid solar heating has increased. More heat is stored in the upper ocean early in the summer melt season and persists later into the autumn freeze-up. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies greater than 6 °C have occurred frequently in the autumn in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. Environmental variations in the Bering Sea over the last decade have been subtle by comparison, and include an increase in winter sea-ice extent between 2007 and 2013.

  12. Carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon trading namely the reduction of future carbon dioxide levels has been widely touted as a solution needed to counter the problem of climate change. However, there are enormous risks involved as the measure tackles only one of the causes of climate change and may prove to be ineffective. This presentation highlights ten points relevant to the discussion on carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth for increasing public awareness. They include: (1) Climate has changed throughout Earth’s history. (2) The present level of about 388 parts per million level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has already exceeded the maximum level of the past 800,000 years. This value is obtained from air bubbles trapped within the ice in Antarctica but the consequence of further increases remains uncertain. (3) Earth scientists do not have an overwhelming consensus on whether carbon trading alone is an effective measure in mitigating climate change. (4) The present state of the Earth’s demise is largely the result of human actions including population growth and the mismanagement of the Earth. (5) The latest evidence on sea-level changes in the South China Sea a far-field region unaffected by glacial isostatic readjustment is not in support of a ‘rapid’ rate of future sea-level rise through global warming. (6) Volcanic eruptions have an important role in driving the Earth’s climate. Examples of temperature lowering as well as abnormally wet and dry years can both be found in the instrumental record. (7) Humans have drastically modified the ‘natural’ water cycle. This is however not a well recognized cause of climate change compared to the emission of greenhouse gases through fossil fuel consumption. (8) The bulk (~75%) of the rise in mean annual temperature of about 1oC observed at the Hong Kong Observatory Station since record began in 1884 is best explained by the thermal heat island effect. (9) No evidence has been found

  13. Observations of environmental change in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.; Valdez, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Few scientific data have been collected on pre-dam conditions of the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon National Park. Using historical diaries, interviews with pre-dam river runners (referred to as the ?Old Timers?), and historical scientific data and observations, we compiled anecdotal information on environmental change in Grand Canyon. The most significant changes are the: lowering of water temperature in the river, near-elimination of heavily sediment-laden flows, erosion of sand bars, invasion of non-native tamarisk trees, reduction in driftwood, development of marshes, increase in non-native fish at the expense of native fishes, and increase in water bird populations. In addition, few debris flows were observed before closure of Glen Canyon Dam, which might suggests that the frequency of debris flows in Grand Canyon has increased. Other possible changes include decreases in bat populations and increases in swallow and bighorn sheep populations, although the evidence is anecdotal and inconclusive. These results provide a perspective on managing the Colorado River that may allow differentiation of the effects of Glen Canyon Dam from other processes of change.

  14. Adjusting Behavior to Changing Environmental Demands with Development

    PubMed Central

    Lourenco, Frederico; Casey, BJ

    2013-01-01

    Plasticity refers to changes in the brain that enable an organism to adapt its behavior in the face of changing environmental demands. The evolutionary role of plasticity is to provide the cognitive flexibility to learn from experiences, to monitor the world based on learned predictions, and adjust actions when these predictions are violated. Both progressive (myelination) and regressive (synaptic pruning) brain changes support this type of adaptation. Experience-driven changes in neural connections underlie the ability to learn and update thoughts and behaviors throughout life. Many cognitive and behavioral indices exhibit nonlinear life-span trajectories, suggesting the existence of specific sensitive developmental periods of heightened plasticity. We propose that age-related differences in learning capabilities and behavioral performance reflect the distinct maturational timetable of subcortical learning systems and modulatory prefrontal regions. We focus specifically on the developmental transition of adolescence, during which individuals experience difficulty flexibly adjusting their behavior when confronted with unexpected and emotionally salient events. In this article, we review the findings illustrating this phenomenon and how they vary by individual. PMID:23518271

  15. Changes in environmental impacts of major crops in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Suh, Sangwon

    2015-09-01

    As with life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in general, agricultural LCAs often rely on static and outdated inventory data, but literature suggests that agricultural systems may be highly dynamic. Here, we applied life cycle impact assessment methods to investigate the trends and underlying drivers of changes in non-global environmental impacts of major crops in the US. The results show that the impact per hectare corn and cotton generated on the ecological health of freshwater systems decreased by about 50% in the last decade. This change is mainly due to the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which has reduced the application of insecticides and relatively toxic herbicides such as atrazine. However, the freshwater ecotoxicity impact per hectare soybean production increased by 3-fold, mainly because the spread of an invasive species, soybean aphid, has resulted in an increasing use of insecticides. In comparison, other impact categories remained relatively stable. By evaluating the relative ecotoxicity potential of a large number of pesticides, our analysis offers new insight into the benefits associated with GM crops. Our study also implies that because different impact categories show different degrees of changes, it is worthwhile focusing on the rapidly changing categories when updating agricultural LCA databases under time and resource constraints.

  16. Teacher Education Work Force Research Group (TEWFRG) Interim Report to the Legislature on Senate Concurrent Resolution 56 S.D. 1 Requesting the Hawaii Educational Policy Center to Report on the Retention and Change in Assignment of Teachers within the Department of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Educational Policy Center, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Hawai'i State Legislature passed Senate Concurrent Resolution 56 S.D. 1 "Requesting the Hawaii Educational Policy Center to Report on the Retention and Change in Assignment of Teachers Within the Department of Education." The resolution requested a report on the effectiveness and current status of teacher preparation and…

  17. Water loss in insects: an environmental change perspective.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L; Sørensen, Jesper G; Terblanche, John S

    2011-08-01

    In the context of global environmental change much of the focus has been on changing temperatures. However, patterns of rainfall and water availability have also been changing and are expected to continue doing so. In consequence, understanding the responses of insects to water availability is important, especially because it has a pronounced influence on insect activity, distribution patterns, and species richness. Here we therefore provide a critical review of key questions that either are being or need to be addressed in this field. First, an overview of insect behavioural responses to changing humidity conditions and the mechanisms underlying sensing of humidity variation is provided. The primary sensors in insects belong to the temperature receptor protein superfamily of cation channels. Temperature-activated transient receptor potential ion channels, or thermoTRPs, respond to a diverse range of stimuli and may be a primary integrator of sensory information, such as environmental temperature and moisture. Next we touch briefly on the components of water loss, drawing attention to a new, universal model of the water costs of gas exchange and its implications for responses to a warming, and in places drying, world. We also provide an overview of new understanding of the role of the sub-elytral chamber for water conservation, and developments in understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in preventing water loss. Because of an increasing focus on the molecular basis of responses to dehydration stress we touch briefly on this area, drawing attention to the role of sugars, heat shock proteins, aquaporins, and LEA proteins. Next we consider phenotypic plasticity or acclimation responses in insect water balance after initial exposures to altered humidity, temperature or nutrition. Although beneficial acclimation has been demonstrated in several instances, this is not always the case. Laboratory studies show that responses to selection for enhanced ability to

  18. Holocene sedimentation processes and environmental changes along the Namibian coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüller, Irka; Belz, Lukas; Wilkes, Heinz; Wehrmann, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The regional oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns strongly control environmental conditions in southern Africa. Changes in the system may have significant consequences on climate and related processes. The hyper arid coast of Namibia is mainly influenced by (1) the cold Benguela upwelling, (2) the Benguela current and (3) the Angola current. The Benguela current transports the cool, upwelling water from south to north and interacts with the warm, contrary flowing Angola current at the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF). Today the ABF is located around the Namibian-Angolan border with minor seasonal changes. Therefore, climate and environment at the Namibian coast are affected by the cold water conditions. It is known evidently that the location of the ABF changed during the Holocene over several latitudes and enabled warm water species to expand their range farther south. Several (paleo-) lagoons (coastal salt pans) exist along the Namibian coastline. Most of them are already barred and filled by longshore sediment transport processes. Tidal flooding and active sedimentation processes are restricted to the southernmost lagoons. Two different types of sediments occur. The northern pans contain well sorted, siliciclastic medium sands. Fine-layered alternation refers to changes in mineral composition. The southern pans are dominated by typical tidal sediments with a high amount of benthic fauna (mainly bivalves and gastropods). At Cape Cross the distinct shift between both facies is documented in the cores. Age determinations of core material prove a very fast sediment filling of the distinct lagoons with high sedimentation rates. However, the age of closure differs from lagoon to lagoon. Northern pan sediments are much older (Cape Cross: ~ 5000 a BP) than southern (Sandwich Bay and Conception Bay: 1800 - 300 a BP). Additional information are supported by river clay deposits (~ 36600 a BP) and fossil reed systems (~ 47900 a BP) in Conception Bay and peat deposits at

  19. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    PubMed Central

    Pyhälä, Aili; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Lehvävirta, Hertta; Byg, Anja; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Thornton, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental change (GEC) is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC— particularly in small-scale societies—and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management) based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014) that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i) cognition, (ii) culture and knowledge, and (iii) possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a “meta-language” around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies. PMID:27695479

  20. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    PubMed Central

    Pyhälä, Aili; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Lehvävirta, Hertta; Byg, Anja; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Thornton, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental change (GEC) is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC— particularly in small-scale societies—and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management) based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014) that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i) cognition, (ii) culture and knowledge, and (iii) possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a “meta-language” around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  1. Soil carbon responses to environmental change across temporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Carlos; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Different biotic and abiotic factors modify the rates of soil carbon cycling at a variety of temporal scales, posing challenges in determining appropriate model abstractions to represent soil carbon dynamics in the context of global environmental change. Although a large variety of models of soil organic matter dynamics have been proposed previously, it is difficult to compare different model structures and their scale of application. We present here a mathematical framework that can be used to synthesize models with different structure, i.e. number of distinctive pools, their cycling rates and their connection. This framework can also be used to identify the scale of operability of a model and how carbon stocks and respiration fluxes would respond to external perturbations. In this contribution, we present the main concepts behind our mathematical framework and how through eigenvalue analyses we can identify the scale of operability of a model. We also present an analysis of the potential sensitivity of soil carbon stocks to changes in temperature and moisture, and identify regions with larger sensitivities to climate change. Although different models provide very diverse responses, we predict larger sensitivities of soil C stocks in humid tropical regions to increases in temperature and decreases in soil moisture.

  2. Predicting effects of environmental change on a migratory herbivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stillman, R A; Wood, K A; Gilkerson, Whelan; Elkinton, E; Black, J. M.; Ward, David H.; Petrie, M.

    2015-01-01

    for which birds were disturbed. We discuss the consequences of these predictions for Black Brant conservation. A wide range of migratory species responses are expected in response to environmental change. Process-based models are potential tools to predict such responses and understand the mechanisms which underpin them.

  3. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    High Northern Hemisphere latitudes are undergoing rapid and significant change associated with climate warming. Climatic change in this region interacts with and affects the rate of the global change through atmospheric circulation, biogeophysical, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Changes in the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle, and carbon budget feedback to regional and global weather and climate systems. Two-thirds of the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land mass resides in Northern Eurasia (~20% of the global land mass), and this region has undergone sweeping socio-economic change throughout the 20th century. How this carbon-rich, cold region component of the Earth system functions as a regional entity and interacts with and feeds back to the greater global system is to a large extent unknown. To mitigate the deficiencies in understanding these feedbacks, which may in turn hamper our understanding of the global change rates and patterns, an initiative was formed. Three years ago the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was established to address large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change in this region. The NEESPI Science Plan and its Executive Summary have been published at the NEESPI web site (neespi.org). Since 2004, NEESPI participants have been able to seed several waves of research proposals to international and national funding agencies and institutions and also contribute to the International Polar Year. Currently, NEESPI is widely recognized and endorsed by several Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) programmes and projects: the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Research Programme through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Climate and Cryosphere Projects, the Global Water System Project, Global Carbon Project, Global Land Project, and the Integrated Land Ecosystem—Atmosphere Processes Study. Through NEESPI, more than 100 individually

  4. [Age-related changes in behavior, in monoamines and their metabolites content, and in density of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the brain structures of WAG/Rij rats with depression-like pathology].

    PubMed

    Sarkisova, K Yu; Kulikov, M A; Kudrin, V S; Midzyanovskaya, I S; Birioukova, L M

    2014-01-01

    Behavior in the light-dark choice, open field, sucrose consumption/preference and forced swimming tests, monoamines and their metabolites content in 5 brain structures (prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus), and density of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area were studied in WAG/Rij rats at age of 36 days, 3 and 6 months. It has been found that with age, as far as spike-wave discharges aggravate, behavioral symptoms of depression (enhanced immobility in the forced swimming test, reduced sucrose consumption/preference) as well as a hypo-function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic brain system increase in WAG/Rij rats. At age of 36 days, when phenotypic expression of absence epilepsy in WAG/Rij rats is absent, neurochemical alterations in the brain suggesting a hypo-function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system (deficit of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens), as well as symptoms of depression-like behavior, are not detected. In WAG/Rij rats, as well as in control rats, density of D1-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens decreased with age. A tendency to a lower density of D1-like dopamine receptors was found in WAG/Rij rats compared with controls at age of 3 months. In contrast with control rats, in WAG/Rij rats, density of D2-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens increased with age. Higher density of D2-like dopamine receptors was observed in WAG/Rij rats compared with controls only at age of 6 months when a hypo-function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic bran system was extremely pronounced indicating that this increase is a compensatory response to a deficit of dopamine.

  5. [Age-related changes in behavior, in monoamines and their metabolites content, and in density of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the brain structures of WAG/Rij rats with depression-like pathology].

    PubMed

    Sarkisova, K Yu; Kulikov, M A; Kudrin, V S; Midzyanovskaya, I S; Birioukova, L M

    2014-01-01

    Behavior in the light-dark choice, open field, sucrose consumption/preference and forced swimming tests, monoamines and their metabolites content in 5 brain structures (prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus), and density of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area were studied in WAG/Rij rats at age of 36 days, 3 and 6 months. It has been found that with age, as far as spike-wave discharges aggravate, behavioral symptoms of depression (enhanced immobility in the forced swimming test, reduced sucrose consumption/preference) as well as a hypo-function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic brain system increase in WAG/Rij rats. At age of 36 days, when phenotypic expression of absence epilepsy in WAG/Rij rats is absent, neurochemical alterations in the brain suggesting a hypo-function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system (deficit of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens), as well as symptoms of depression-like behavior, are not detected. In WAG/Rij rats, as well as in control rats, density of D1-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens decreased with age. A tendency to a lower density of D1-like dopamine receptors was found in WAG/Rij rats compared with controls at age of 3 months. In contrast with control rats, in WAG/Rij rats, density of D2-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens increased with age. Higher density of D2-like dopamine receptors was observed in WAG/Rij rats compared with controls only at age of 6 months when a hypo-function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic bran system was extremely pronounced indicating that this increase is a compensatory response to a deficit of dopamine. PMID:25975143

  6. Changes in phosphorus smoke chemistry with environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, K.M.; Ligotke, M.W.; Garland, T.R.; Van Voris, P.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    Physical and chemical characteristics of two phosphorus aerosols were measured under a limited number of environmental conditions. The exposures and measurements were performed in a wind tunnel under various humidities, wind speeds and, to a limited extent, aerosol ages. Temperature, another important environmental variable that may influence the chemical form of the aerosols, was not studied in this research program. Steady-state aerosols generated by combustion of red phosphorus/butyl rubber (RP/BR) and white phosphorus (WP) were suspended in a closed-loop wind tunnel to simulate the continuous-generation of these obscurants at Army field training sites. Measured aerosol characteristics were found to differ significantly from characteristics predicted by simple phosphoric acid models previously thought to represent the chemical form of the suspended particles. As many as 28 individual phosphorus species were detected in aerosol samples. The distribution of linear and cyclic phosphorus species in the sampled aerosol was observed to vary significantly for changes in both aerosol age (0 to 60 min) and relative humidity (<5% to 90%). Hydrolysis toward phosphate occurred as the aerosol aged, and the rate of change was slower for higher humidities. More high-order phosphorus species appeared to be formed during aerosol generation at low relative humidities than at high humidity, as revealed by measurements near the combustion zone. Steady-state aerosols showed decreasing conversion to phosphate with increasing humidity. The highly speciated aerosols hydrolyzed to phosphate in less than 18 hr after deposition onto dry surfaces. Other aerosol characteristics such as mass concentration, water and phosphorus content of the particles, and particle size distribution were also measured.

  7. Surface monitoring measurements of materials on environmental change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornari, Vivi; Bernikola, Eirini; Bellendorf, Paul; Bertolin, Chiara; Camuffo, Dario; Kotova, Lola; Jacobs, Daniela; Zarnic, Roko; Rajcic, Vlatka; Leissner, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Climate Change is one of the most critical global challenges of our time and the burdened cultural heritage of Europe is particularly vulnerable to be left unprotected. Climate for Culture2 project exploits the damage impact of climate change on cultural heritage at regional scale. In this paper the progress of the study with in situ measurements and investigations at cultural heritage sites throughout Europe combined with laboratory simulations is described. Cultural works of art are susceptible to deterioration with environmental changes causing imperceptibly slow but steady accumulation of damaging effects directly impacted on structural integrity. Laser holographic interference method is employed to provide remote non destructive field-wise detection of the structural differences occurred as climate responses. The first results from climate simulation of South East Europe (Crete) are presented. A full study in regards to the four climate regions of Europe is foreseen to provide values for development of a precise and integrated model of thermographic building simulations for evaluation of impact of climate change. Development of a third generation user interface software optimised portable metrology system (DHSPI II) is designed to record in custom intervals the surface of materials witnessing reactions under simulated climatic conditions both onfield and in laboratory. The climate conditions refer to real data-loggers readings representing characteristic historical building in selected climate zones. New generation impact sensors termed Glass Sensors and Free Water Sensors are employed in the monitoring procedure to cross-correlate climate data with deformation data. In this paper results from the combined methodology are additionally presented.

  8. Applications of Satellite Geodesy in Environmental and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qian

    Satellite geodesy plays an important role in earth observation. This dissertation presents three applications of satellite geodesy in environmental and climate change. Three satellite geodesy techniques are used: high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS), the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). In the first study, I use coastal uplift observed by GPS to study the annual changes in mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. The data show both spatial and temporal variations of coastal ice mass loss and suggest that a combination of warm atmospheric and oceanic condition drove these variations. In the second study, I use GRACE monthly gravity change estimates to constrain recent freshwater flux from Greenland. The data show that Arctic freshwater flux started to increase rapidly in the mid-late 1990s, coincident with a decrease in the formation of dense Labrador Sea Water, a key component of the deep southward return flow od the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Recent freshening of the polar oceans may be reducing formation of Labrador Sea Water and hence may be weakening the AMOC. In the third study, I use InSAR to monitor ground deformation caused by CO2 injection at an enhanced oil recovery site in west Texas. Carbon capture and storage can reduce CO 2 emitted from power plants, and is a promising way to mitigate anthropogenic warming. From 2007 to 2011, ~24 million tons of CO2 were sequestered in this field, causing up to 10 MPa pressure buildup in a reservoir at depth, and surface uplift up to 10 cm. This study suggests that surface displacement observed by InSAR is a cost-effective way to estimate reservoir pressure change and monitor the fate of injected fluids at waste disposal and CO2 injection sites.

  9. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. PMID:25324039

  10. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency.

  11. Environmental Changes in the pre-Messinian Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayser, J. P.; Marzocchi, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Pancost, R. D.; Sierro, F. J.; Flecker, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) is an extreme event which occurred in the Mediterranean Basin at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) resulting in thick evaporite deposits. There is evidence of restriction of the Atlantic-Mediterranean corridor several million years before the first evaporites. These pre-MSC successions are dominated by precession-controlled lithological variations which are putative responses to changing fluvial runoff. Recent climate simulations indicate that runoff into the Eastern Mediterranean is influenced by monsoonal precipitation from the North African continent. The Sorbas Basin in Spain and the Pissouri Section on Cyprus both contain pre-MSC successions from the margins of the Mediterranean Basin. We analysed biomarkers in conjunction with existing faunal records to understand whether simulated runoff changes were manifested in the sedimentological record and organic matter assemblages. This multi-proxy dataset allows us to compare the environmental evolution of the western vs. eastern basins prior to the MSC and allows us to test both climate models for Messinian climate variabitly and conceptual models for sedimentation. In the Sorbas Basin, pronounced orbital changes in faunal assemblages reflect Mediterrannean influences into the local Sorbas system; however, these are not manifested in biomarker assemblages, which are likely governed by more local hydrological processes, which in the Western Mediterranean lacked a strong precessional control. In the Pissouri Basin, however, terrigeous OM inputs sources exhibit strong orbital variations, suggesting a close link to precessionally driven changes in rainfall. Together, these results validate the sapropel formation hypothesis in the Mediterranean and confirm a strong precessional control on the African monsoon during the late Miocene; however, they also reveal the complex controls on the hydrology and sedimentology of marginal Mediterranean basins, such as the Sorbas Basin.

  12. Response diversity determines the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akira S; Furukawa, Takuya; Sasaki, Takehiro

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem stability and the maintenance of optimal ecosystem functionality. Conservation measures are thus essential to safeguard the ecosystem services that biodiversity provides and human society needs. Current anthropogenic threats may lead to detrimental (and perhaps irreversible) ecosystem degradation, providing strong motivation to evaluate the response of ecological communities to various anthropogenic pressures. In particular, ecosystem functions that sustain key ecosystem services should be identified and prioritized for conservation action. Traditional diversity measures (e.g. 'species richness') may not adequately capture the aspects of biodiversity most relevant to ecosystem stability and functionality, but several new concepts may be more appropriate. These include 'response diversity', describing the variation of responses to environmental change among species of a particular community. Response diversity may also be a key determinant of ecosystem resilience in the face of anthropogenic pressures and environmental uncertainty. However, current understanding of response diversity is poor, and we see an urgent need to disentangle the conceptual strands that pervade studies of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Our review clarifies the links between response diversity and the maintenance of ecosystem functionality by focusing on the insurance hypothesis of biodiversity and the concept of functional redundancy. We provide a conceptual model to describe how loss of response diversity may cause ecosystem degradation through decreased ecosystem resilience. We explicitly explain how response diversity contributes to functional compensation and to spatio-temporal complementarity among species, leading to long-term maintenance of ecosystem multifunctionality. Recent quantitative studies suggest that traditional diversity measures may often be uncoupled from

  13. Cyclin D1 functions in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiping; Wang, Chenguang; Prendergast, George C; Pestell, Richard G

    2006-11-01

    Cell migration is essential for developmental morphogenesis, tissue repair, and tumor metastasis. A recent study reveals that cyclin D1 acts to promote cell migration by inhibiting Rho/ROCK signaling and expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an extracellular matrix protein that regulates cell migration in many settings including cancer. Given the frequent overexpression of cyclin D1 in cancer cells, due to its upregulation by Ras, Rho, Src, and other genes that drive malignant development, the new findings suggest that cyclin D1 may have a central role in mediating invasion and metastasis of cancer cells by controlling Rho/ROCK signaling and matrix deposition of TSP-1.

  14. Teaching global and local environmental change through Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Emanuela Paola; Rossi, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Human beings perceive the world primarily through their sense of sight. This can explain why the use of images is so important and common in educational materials, in particular for scientific subjects. The development of modern technologies for visualizing the scientific features of the Earth has provided new opportunities for communicating the increasing complexity of science both to the public and in school education. In particular, the use of Earth observation satellites for civil purposes, which started in the 70s, has opened new perspectives in the study of natural phenomena and human impact on the environment; this is particularly relevant for those processes developing on a long term period and on a global scale. Instruments for Remote Sensing increase the power of human sight, giving access to additional information about the physical world, which the human eye could not otherwise perceive. The possibility to observe from a remote perspective significant processes like climate change, ozone depletion, desertification, urban development, makes it possible for observers to better appreciate and experience the complexity of environment. Remote Sensing reveals the impact of human activities on ecosystems: this allows students to understand important concepts like global and local change in much more depth. This poster describes the role and effectiveness of Remote Sensing imagery in scientific education, and its importance towards a better global environmental awareness.

  15. Interpreting physiological responses to environmental change through gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Andrew Y

    2007-05-01

    Identification of differentially expressed genes in response to environmental change offers insights into the roles of the transcriptome in the regulation of physiological responses. A variety of methods are now available to implement large-scale gene expression screens, and each method has specific advantages and disadvantages. Construction of custom cDNA microarrays remains the most popular route to implement expression screens in the non-model organisms favored by comparative physiologists, and we highlight some factors that should be considered when embarking along this path. Using a carp cDNA microarray, we have undertaken a broad, system-wide gene expression screen to investigate the physiological mechanisms underlying cold and hypoxia acclimation. This dataset provides a starting point from which to explore a range of specific mechanistic hypotheses at all levels of organization, from individual biochemical pathways to the level of the whole organism. We demonstrate the utility of two data analysis methods, Gene Ontology profiling and rank-based statistical methods, to summarize the probable physiological function of acclimation-induced gene expression changes, and to prioritize specific genes as candidates for further study. PMID:17449823

  16. Monitoring Polar Environmental Change Using FORMOSAT-2 Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Liu, C.; Chang, L.; Wang, S.; Yan, K.; Wu, F.; Wu, A.

    2007-12-01

    Polar ice loss to the sea currently account for virtually all of the sea-level rise that is not attributable to ocean warming. Huge section of the Ayles Ice Shelf broke off into the Arctic Ocean. Permafrost soil is losing its permanence across the Northern Hemisphere, altering ecosystems and damaging roads and buildings across Alaska, Canada, and Russia. Global warming change the polar environment significantly, especially in recent year. The National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan successfully launched FORMOSAT-2 on 20 May 2004. The orbit is designed to be high-altitude,. Sun-synchronous, and daily-revisit. With high agility in attitude control, FORMOSAT-2 can cover the polar areas up to +/- 90 deg latitude. More than 72 Area of interests in Alaska, Canada, Greenland area and Ice land have imaged periodically in 2006 and 2007. The images have 2m resolution in panchromatic band and 8m in multispectral bands, with size of about 24 x 100 km or large. The ability of FORMOSAT-2 daily revisit has been extended to monitor the change of topography for the glacier and ice shelf daily, weekly and monthly. By using the FORMOSAT-2 stereo pair, we can determine the elevation profile (DEM) across the glacier surface. In this paper, we will present the mapping and topography of Greenland glaciers and ice land including Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier, Greenland, Belcher Glacier, Canada and Ayles ice island. We will demonstrate the DEM extract ability from FORMOSAT-2 polar stereo images( up to 82 deg latitude), and compared with the DEM of the popular SRTM, ASTER which can be acquired to 79 deg latitude. It is expected that FORMOSAT-2 polar images will be continuously collected for years and contribute to the research of global environmental change.

  17. Drivers and Dynamics of Global Environmental Change in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, Graham; Munishi, Subira; Kunz, Richard; Viola, Paula

    2010-05-01

    Africa's potential to provide food, fuel, fibre and fodder for future global food and energy security has made it a target for a myriad investors from developed and developing countries alike. In many places, land grants and purchases have led to the establishment of huge monoculture production areas for food, fuel, fibre (maize, sugar cane, jatropha, plantation forestry etc) often preceded by deforestation and large scale utilisation and modification of available water resources. This coupled with the likelihood of rapid urbanisation in Africa over the next forty years and associated impacts linked to the high concentrations of inhabitants utilising and ultimately degrading available natural resources (e.g. wood for charcoal; water quality) have made Africa's ecosystems and people amongst the most vulnerable to global environmental change. Key questions that arise are how available scientific knowledge can best be utilized to reduce this vulnerability, where key gaps in knowledge in understanding the inter-linkages between societal needs and Food- Fibre-Energy-Water supply exist and how to best address the necessary complexity of considering these at different spatial and temporal scales. Drawing on the Ecosystem Goods and Services approach, we present key messages from ongoing research activities in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Tanzania and report on progress in applying management tools and systems to support decision making in these areas where development needs are critical. We also highlight lessons drawn from situations where unintended consequences have resulted from well meaning or politically expedient initiatives linked to large donor or foreign investment schemes, such as "outgrower" programmes, and where major environmental damage and ultimately the permanent loss of productivity of some landscapes has occurred.

  18. Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomanek, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change.

  19. Environmental Tracers for Determining Water Resource Vulnerability to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, M

    2009-07-08

    Predicted changes in the climate will have profound impacts on water availability in the Western US, but large uncertainties exist in our ability to predict how natural and engineered hydrological systems will respond. Most predictions suggest that the impacts of climate change on California water resources are likely to include a decrease in the percentage of precipitation that falls as snow, earlier onset of snow-pack melting, and an increase in the number of rain on snow events. These processes will require changes in infrastructure for water storage and flood control, since much of our current water supply system is built around the storage of winter precipitation as mountain snow pack. Alpine aquifers play a critical role by storing and releasing snowmelt as baseflow to streams long after seasonal precipitation and the disappearance of the snow pack, and in this manner significantly impact the stream flow that drives our water distribution systems. Mountain groundwater recharge and, in particular, the contribution of snowmelt to recharge and baseflow, has been identified as a potentially significant effect missing from current climate change impact studies. The goal of this work is to understand the behavior of critical hydrologic systems, with an emphasis on providing ground truth for next generation models of climate-water system interactions by implementing LLNL capabilities in environmental tracer and isotopic science. We are using noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers ({sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, {sup 35}S, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) in groundwater and stream water in a small alpine catchment to (1) provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge, (2) determine subsurface residence times (over time scales ranging from months to decades) of different groundwater age components, and (3) deconvolve the contribution of these different groundwater components

  20. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  1. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  2. Winter ecology of spectacled eiders: Environmental characteristics and population change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.R.; Douglas, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    We described characteristics of the wintering area used by Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) in the Bering Sea, Alaska, and evaluated these characteristics in relation to long-term population trends. Remoteness, limited daylight, and extreme weather conditions precluded direct observations, so we derived the location of the wintering area from satellite telemetry, ice conditions from remotely sensed data, weather conditions from archived data sets, and benthic communities from the literature. Based on analyses of two indices spanning 1957-2002 and 1988-2002, we identified no single environmental parameter that explained the precipitous decline in nesting populations in western Alaska. In general, we found that the number of days with extreme sea ice in winter, extreme winds, and winds in spring explained the greatest variability in annual indices. These analyses support the conclusion that annual population estimates on the breeding grounds can be negatively impacted by extended periods of dense sea-ice concentration and weather during the previous winter. Examination of population indices did not support the hypothesis that changes in benthic community on the wintering grounds have contributed to the decline or inhibited the recovery of the Spectacled Eider breeding population in western Alaska.

  3. Unconventional politics of unconventional gas: Environmental reframing and policy change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kear, Andrew Robert

    The present Rocky Mountain West natural gas boom, enabled by historic pro-resource-development political, institutional, economic, and cultural structures, is a politically contested battle over values. Volatile political action, unconventional coalitions, and unconventional politics engulf this unconventional gas boom -- especially at the state level. In this comparative case study of natural gas policy in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, I measure and compare these values, expressed as frames, through textual analysis of interest group public documents and state legislative bills and statutes from 1999-2008. By developing a new measure of state legislative framing, I test the relationship between interest group and institutional framing and also provide a viable measure of policy change useful to Narrative Policy Analysis theory. Results show that competing interest group and state legislative framing efforts are dynamic, measurably different, and periodically correlative. Competing interest groups rarely engage each other, except as the conflict matures when status-quo-supporters break their silence and engage the challengers' frames that have gained legislative traction. Environmental and land-use counter-framing ensues, but status-quo-supporters remain vigilant in their economic framing. Economic frames retain their institutional privilege within Wyoming and New Mexico, but natural gas policy undergoes a complete environmental reframe in the Colorado state legislature. Although the historically dominant economy frame based on "Old West" values remains largely intact, the respective state legislatures partially reframe policy (within 4 years) using environment, alternative land-uses, and democracy frames based on "New West" and long-extant but previously marginalized status-quo-challenger definitions. This reframing is not a strictly partisan issue, but rather it is influenced by political context, policy diffusion, and long-term interest group advocacy and

  4. Design and Environmental Verification of Chang'E-3 Moon-night Survival Device for APXS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. Y.; Wu, J.; Hu, Y. M.; Chang, J.; Gong, Y. Z.; Cai, M. S.; Wang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. Y.; Cui, X. Z.; Wang, J. Y.

    2015-09-01

    The Active Particle X-ray Spectrum (APXS) is one of the 4 scientific payloads of Chang'E-3 (CE-3) Lunar Rover, of which the scientific object is to identify the elements of lunar soil and rock samples. In this paper, the moon-night temperature of the moon surface will be described, and due to the cold environment the APXS will undergo after its landing. Thus, a specialized instrument which is named the moon-night survival device using the Radioisotope Heat Unit (RHU) as its heater source is designed to ensure APXS storage temperature requirements with limited sources on the satellite. In the end, a series of environmental tests are performed, and the installation of RHU on the launch tower as well as the status of the APXS working on orbit is presented since its launching in 2013.

  5. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration "tipping point" between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  6. Record of Environmental Change in San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, M.

    2004-05-01

    Benthic foraminifera in a 3.52 m core recovered from San Francisco Bay, CA yield a 3,800-year sediment record of climate and environmental change. The microfaunal assemblage of the core contains abundant subtidal estuarine benthic foraminifers found today at shallow water depths (<10 m) in the bay. A Q-mode cluster analysis of the samples grouped them into two clusters and one outlier. Cluster A is dominated by the herbivorous species Elphidium excavatum; its abundance often comprises 70-90% of the foraminiferal assemblage. Today, the species typically resides in cold, estuarine waters. Its dominance in the core from 352-150 cm (1920 B.C. to A.D. 652) and 88-18 cm (from A.D. 1224 to A.D. 1980) suggests that this area of the bay has remained relatively cold and shallow for about 3400 years out of the last four millennia. Cluster B, the Ammonia beccarii-Elphidium gunteri association, occurs from 150-88 cm in the core and is interpreted as representing warmer and possibly lower oxygenated conditions from A.D. 652 to A.D. 1224. The outlier, Cluster C (A.D. 1980 to present), is attributable to the recent appearance of the invasive Japanese species Trochammina hadai. Oxygen isotopes and trace elements were measured in specimens of Elphidium excavatum at 10 cm intervals throughout the length of the core. From 150-88 cm (A.D. 652 to A.D. 1224), d 18O values (mean = -3.81 mil) average 0.3 and 0.2 mil lighter than below and above this interval, respectively, corresponding to an increase in water temperature of about 1 deg C in the bay. A heightened Mg/Ca ratio at this time also indicates an increase in water temperature (by 0.3 deg C). The timing of this warming correlates well with records of the Medieval Warm Period. Trochammina hadai was introduced into the bay in the early 1980s, presumably in ballast sediment released from transoceanic vessels. In its native Japan, this species is often found in the most heavily polluted urban areas; its presence being regarded as an

  7. Geoscience for Alaska's D-1 Lands: A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Gamble, B.M.; Labay, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of This Report This interim report follows from the June 2006 recommendations to Congress by the BLM concerning disposition of the d-1 lands. That report recommended lifting of a significant number of d-1 PLOs, through the ongoing land management process within the BLM (e.g. resource management planning areas), or through Congressional action. The strategic actions outlined in this document refer only to Federal lands under US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) jurisdiction that 1) are affected by temporary withdrawals from mineral entry and mineral leasing by PLOs made pursuant to the Section 17(d)(1) of the ANCSA; 2) have been identified by the BLM as candidates for possible lifting of these PLOs and restrictions (U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 2006); and 3) lie outside of current Federal parks, preserves, monuments, refuges, reserves, wilderness areas and military installations that are closed to mineral entry, because within those areas the potential lifting of the d-1 restrictions has no practical effect. The resulting lands discussed here comprise approximately 121,000 km2 (29.9 million acres) of Alaska (Table 1) that, pending final resolution of Native and State land claims, will or may remain under Federal (BLM) control, and could be opened to mineral entry. For the purposes of this report, only these 29.9 million acres will hereafter be referred to as 'd-1' lands. This report gives a brief overview of the spatial distribution and physiographic setting, mineral occurrences, and mineral resource potential of the d-1lands. It outlines further geoscience information which could be compiled, collected, and evaluated in order to make a more accurate and comprehensive examination of the potential for undiscovered, locatable mineral resources on these Federal lands. This information is intended to provide guidance to USGS program managers and Federal land managers on matters of future exploration, access needs, and consequences of land status changes.

  8. Evolutionary History of Lagomorphs in Response to Global Environmental Change

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Deyan; Wen, Zhixin; Xia, Lin; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Erbajeva, Margarita; Huang, Chengming; Yang, Qisen

    2013-01-01

    Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C3 plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C4 (31% species are from Poaceae). The ability of several leporid species to consume C4 plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C4 plants in the late Miocene, the so-called ‘nature’s green revolution’, induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major ‘ecological opportunities’, which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of leporids

  9. Evolutionary history of lagomorphs in response to global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ge, Deyan; Wen, Zhixin; Xia, Lin; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Erbajeva, Margarita; Huang, Chengming; Yang, Qisen

    2013-01-01

    Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C(3) plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C(4) (31% species are from Poaceae). The ability of several leporid species to consume C(4) plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C(4) plants in the late Miocene, the so-called 'nature's green revolution', induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major 'ecological opportunities', which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of leporids. PMID

  10. Paleosols as Archives of Environmental Change in Deep Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Quentin

    2015-04-01

    Paleosols develop at the geosphere-atmosphere interface and potentially provide an archive of environmental conditions at the time of their formation. Although paleosols from deep time can be difficult to recognize due to the masking of pedogenic features by metamorphism and deformation, they may record transient (i.e. time-dependent) events which are often difficult to recognize in other geological proxies. Paleosols from the Archean and Paleoproterozoic are rare and complex to study, but offer an opportunity to gain insight into what may be relatively short-scale temporal variations in the Earth's atmospheric composition. For instance, it is widely believed that atmospheric oxygen saturation rose from <10E-05 present atmospheric level (PAL) in the Archean to >10E-02 PAL at the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at ca. 2.4 Ga. Until recently however, chemical or physical evidence from paleosols for earlier oxygenation events were generally thought to be lacking. Recent studies of paleosols from eastern India (Keonjhar Paleosol, Singhbhum Craton) and South Africa (Nsuze Paleosol, Kaapvaal Craton) have provided chemical evidence for transient Mesoarchean atmospheric oxygenation at ca. 3.0 Ga. These paleosols are considered to preserve the earliest known vestiges of terrestrial oxidative weathering, signifying a transient, early oxygen accumulation in the Earth's atmosphere. This has far-reaching implications from both atmospheric and biological evolutionary perspectives in that chemical signatures preserved in these Mesoarchean paleosols are thought to signify the presence of molecular oxygen at levels higher than those attributable to photo-dissociation of atmospheric water alone. Such elevated levels of atmospheric oxygen could only be due to the presence of a sufficiently large biomass of micro-organisms capable of oxidative photosynthesis. Although the Archean-Paleoproterozoic paleosol geological record is fragmentary and geochemical signatures are not necessarily

  11. Differential physiological responses to environmental change promote woody shrub expansion

    PubMed Central

    Heskel, Mary; Greaves, Heather; Kornfeld, Ari; Gough, Laura; Atkin, Owen K; Turnbull, Matthew H; Shaver, Gaius; Griffin, Kevin L

    2013-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of warming are increasingly modifying the carbon-rich vegetation and soils of the Arctic tundra, with important implications for the terrestrial carbon cycle. Understanding the biological and environmental influences on the processes that regulate foliar carbon cycling in tundra species is essential for predicting the future terrestrial carbon balance in this region. To determine the effect of climate change impacts on gas exchange in tundra, we quantified foliar photosynthesis (Anet), respiration in the dark and light (RD and RL, determined using the Kok method), photorespiration (PR), carbon gain efficiency (CGE, the ratio of photosynthetic CO2 uptake to total CO2 exchange of photosynthesis, PR, and respiration), and leaf traits of three dominant species – Betula nana, a woody shrub; Eriophorum vaginatum, a graminoid; and Rubus chamaemorus, a forb – grown under long-term warming and fertilization treatments since 1989 at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Under warming, B. nana exhibited the highest rates of Anet and strongest light inhibition of respiration, increasing CGE nearly 50% compared with leaves grown in ambient conditions, which corresponded to a 52% increase in relative abundance. Gas exchange did not shift under fertilization in B. nana despite increases in leaf N and P and near-complete dominance at the community scale, suggesting a morphological rather than physiological response. Rubus chamaemorus, exhibited minimal shifts in foliar gas exchange, and responded similarly to B. nana under treatment conditions. By contrast, E. vaginatum, did not significantly alter its gas exchange physiology under treatments and exhibited dramatic decreases in relative cover (warming: −19.7%; fertilization: −79.7%; warming with fertilization: −91.1%). Our findings suggest a foliar physiological advantage in the woody shrub B. nana that is further mediated by warming and increased soil nutrient availability, which may facilitate shrub

  12. Changing Issue Representation among Major United States Environmental Movement Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Histories of the environmental movement have emphasized the importance of a shift in focus from those issues traditionally associated with the movement, such as resource and wildlife protection, towards "new" quality of life issues, such as environmental pollution and its human health effects. Here, time-series data between 1970 and 2000 on the…

  13. Students as Catalysts of Environmental Change: A Framework for Researching Intergenerational Influence through Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Connell, Sharon; Fien, John

    2006-01-01

    Many environmental problems are desperately in need of attention. Educating both adults and young people is seen as part of the solution to such problems. Given this situation, and the already considerable investment in environmental education in schools, the notion of encouraging students to initiate environmental discussions with adults at home…

  14. What Is Climate Change? (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... vs Climate Change Global Warming (National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration) - Introduction to global warming with links to greenhouse effect, sea levels, and future climate change. Games and ...

  15. 42 CFR 52d.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants under the Clinical Cancer Education Program authorized by section 404(a)(4) of the Public Health Service Act,...

  16. 42 CFR 52d.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants under the Clinical Cancer Education Program authorized by section 404(a)(4) of the Public Health Service Act,...

  17. 42 CFR 52d.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants under the Clinical Cancer Education Program authorized by section 404(a)(4) of the Public Health Service Act,...

  18. 42 CFR 52d.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants under the Clinical Cancer Education Program authorized by section 404(a)(4) of the Public Health Service Act,...

  19. 42 CFR 52d.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants under the Clinical Cancer Education Program authorized by section 404(a)(4) of the Public Health Service Act,...

  20. Crime prevention through social and physical environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Nietzel, Michael T.; Himelein, Melissa J.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to crime prevention where behavior analysts can make important contributions is the modification of environmental opportunities and victim vulnerabilities that are related to higher rates of offending. Examples of environmental crime prevention are discussed in the following areas: (1) modifying physical environments in order to “harden” targets of crime, (2) training victims to be less vulnerable to victimization, (3) eliminating portrayals of certain groups of people that legitimize their victimization, and (4) organizing neighborhoods and communities to strengthen their means of social control. Two implications of environmental crime prevention—the role of individual differences and the scope of prevention—are discussed. PMID:22477962

  1. Environmental changes affect the assembly of soil bacterial community primarily by mediating stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ximei; Johnston, Eric R; Liu, Wei; Li, Linghao; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Both 'species fitness difference'-based deterministic processes, such as competitive exclusion and environmental filtering, and 'species fitness difference'-independent stochastic processes, such as birth/death and dispersal/colonization, can influence the assembly of soil microbial communities. However, how both types of processes are mediated by anthropogenic environmental changes has rarely been explored. Here we report a novel and general pattern that almost all anthropogenic environmental changes that took place in a grassland ecosystem affected soil bacterial community assembly primarily through promoting or restraining stochastic processes. We performed four experiments mimicking 16 types of environmental changes and separated the compositional variation of soil bacterial communities caused by each environmental change into deterministic and stochastic components, with a recently developed method. Briefly, because the difference between control and treatment communities is primarily caused by deterministic processes, the deterministic change was quantified as (mean compositional variation between treatment and control) - (mean compositional variation within control). The difference among replicate treatment communities is primarily caused by stochastic processes, so the stochastic change was estimated as (mean compositional variation within treatment) - (mean compositional variation within control). The absolute of the stochastic change was greater than that of the deterministic change across almost all environmental changes, which was robust for both taxonomic and functional-based criterion. Although the deterministic change may become more important as environmental changes last longer, our findings showed that changes usually occurred through mediating stochastic processes over 5 years, challenging the traditional determinism-dominated view.

  2. Environmental signaling and evolutionary change: can exposure of pregnant mammals to environmental estrogens lead to epigenetically induced evolutionary changes in embryos?

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Sabat, Pablo; Valladares, Luis

    2005-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic and hereditary mechanisms regulating genetic expression in mammalian cells. In this review, we propose how certain natural agents, through their dietary consumption, could induce changes in physiological aspects in mammalian mothers, leading to alterations in DNA methylation patterns of the developing fetus and to the emergence of new phenotypes and evolutionary change. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that this process would require (i) certain key periods in the ontogeny of the organism where the environmental stimuli could produce effects, (ii) particular environmental agents as such stimuli, and (iii) that a genomic persistent change be consequently produced in a population. Depending on the persistence of the environmental stimuli and on whether the affected genes are imprinted genes, induced changes in DNA methylation patterns could become persistent. Moreover, some fragments could be more frequently methylated than others over several generations, leading to biased base change and evolutionary consequences.

  3. Holocene environmental change at the oasis of Tayma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Max; Brückner, Helmut; Wellbrock, Kai; Pint, Anna; Grottker, Matthias; Voss, Peter; Ginau, Andreas; Klasen, Nicole; Frenzel, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The oasis of Tayma in northwestern Saudi Arabia has a rich cultural heritage comprising a large number of historic buildings and artefacts from the late Neolithic onwards. Extensive groundwater resources and the location at a branch of the Incense Road connecting south Arabia and the eastern Mediterranean determined the site's importance in Antiquity. This paper reports about Holocene environmental change at Tayma setting the frame for the interpretation of the archaeological record. Humid conditions during the early Holocene are inferred for the Arabian Peninsula (AP) based on the investigation of sabkhas, palaeo-lakes, sand dunes, wadis, speleothems and marine sediments. Most of these climate archives are located in the southern and southeastern part of the AP, where a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) triggered increased rainfall at the onset of the Holocene. At Tayma, where the influence of the ITCZ shift can be excluded, the sedimentary infill of a sabkha basin, the micro- and macrofaunal record, a digital elevation model based on DGPS measurements, and 14C-AMS data indicate the presence of a perennial lake with a minimum depth of 13 m, a stored water volume of 1.16 107 m3 and a surface of 18.45 km2 between 10,000-9000 cal BP. Foraminiferal test malformations and the shape of sieve pores on ostracod valves were used to detect trends in palaeo-salinity and ecological stress conditions. Contraction of the lake at least after 8500 cal BP is a response to a long-term aridisation trend subsequent to the early Holocene. Based on the hydrological water balance equation, quantitative data on minimum palaeo-rainfall during the early Holocene humid period were determined. Input parameters for the equation are the minimum lake level, lake surface and lake volume during the peak of the early Holocene humid period as well as palaeo-evapotranspiration, groundwater infiltration, and surface runoff. A perennial lake in the endorheic basin of the

  4. Modeling effects of environmental change on wolf population dynamics, trait evolution, and life history.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Tim; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Wayne, Robert K; Smith, Douglas W

    2011-12-01

    Environmental change has been observed to generate simultaneous responses in population dynamics, life history, gene frequencies, and morphology in a number of species. But how common are such eco-evolutionary responses to environmental change likely to be? Are they inevitable, or do they require a specific type of change? Can we accurately predict eco-evolutionary responses? We address these questions using theory and data from the study of Yellowstone wolves. We show that environmental change is expected to generate eco-evolutionary change, that changes in the average environment will affect wolves to a greater extent than changes in how variable it is, and that accurate prediction of the consequences of environmental change will probably prove elusive.

  5. Modeling effects of environmental change on wolf population dynamics, trait evolution, and life history.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Tim; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Wayne, Robert K; Smith, Douglas W

    2011-12-01

    Environmental change has been observed to generate simultaneous responses in population dynamics, life history, gene frequencies, and morphology in a number of species. But how common are such eco-evolutionary responses to environmental change likely to be? Are they inevitable, or do they require a specific type of change? Can we accurately predict eco-evolutionary responses? We address these questions using theory and data from the study of Yellowstone wolves. We show that environmental change is expected to generate eco-evolutionary change, that changes in the average environment will affect wolves to a greater extent than changes in how variable it is, and that accurate prediction of the consequences of environmental change will probably prove elusive. PMID:22144626

  6. Loss of inhibition by formate in newly constructed photosystem II D1 mutants, D1-R257E and D1-R257M, of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Xiong, J; Minagawa, J; Crofts, A; Govindjee

    1998-07-20

    Formate is known to cause significant inhibition in the electron and proton transfers in photosystem II (PSII); this inhibition is uniquely reversed by bicarbonate. It has been suggested that bicarbonate functions by providing ligands to the non-heme iron and by facilitating protonation of the secondary plastoquinone QB. Numerous lines of evidence indicate an intimate relationship of bicarbonate and formate binding of PSII. To investigate the potential amino acid binding environment of bicarbonate/formate in the QB niche, arginine 257 of the PSII D1 polypeptide in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was mutated into a glutamate (D1-R257E) and a methionine (DQ-R257M). The two mutants share the following characteristics. (1) Both have a drastically reduced sensitivity to formate. (2) A larger fraction of QA- persists after flash illumination, which indicates an altered equilibrium constant of the reaction QA-QB<-->QA QB-, in the direction of [QA-], or a larger fraction of non-QB centers. However, there appears to be no significant difference in the rate of electron transfer from QA- to QB. (3) The overall rate of oxygen evolution is significantly reduced, most likely due to changes in the equilibrium constant on the electron acceptor side of PSII or due to a larger fraction in non-QB centers. Additional effects on the donor side cannot yet be excluded. (4) The binding affinity for the herbicide DCMU is unaltered. (5) The mutants grow photosynthetically, but at a decreased (approximately 70% of the wild type) level. (6) The Fo level was elevated (approximately 40-50%) which could be due to a decrease in the excitation energy transfer from the antenna to the PSII reaction center, and/or to an increased level of [QA-] in the dark. (7) A decreased (approximately 10%) ratio of F685 (mainly from CP43) and F695 (mainly from CP47) to F715 (mainly from PSI) emission bands at 77 K suggests a change in the antenna complex. Taken together these results lead to

  7. The Effects of the National Environmental Education Development (NEED) Program on Self Concept and Change of Environmental Attitudes of Selected Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert Aura

    Evaluated was the environmental education program conducted at the Tremond Environmental Education Center, Tremond, Tennessee to determine its effectiveness in changing and influencing environmental attitudes and self-concepts of elementary school children. As part of the study, instruments to assess environmental attitudes and attitude change in…

  8. Early emergence of three dopamine D1 receptor subtypes in vertebrates. Molecular phylogenetic, pharmacological, and functional criteria defining D1A, D1B, and D1C receptors in European eel Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Cardinaud, B; Sugamori, K S; Coudouel, S; Vincent, J D; Niznik, H B; Vernier, P

    1997-01-31

    The existence of dopamine D1C and D1D receptors in Xenopus and chicken, respectively, challenged the established duality (D1A and D1B) of the dopamine D1 receptor class in vertebrates. To ascertain the molecular diversity of this gene family in early diverging vertebrates, we isolated four receptor-encoding sequences from the European eel Anguilla anguilla. Molecular phylogeny assigned two receptor sequences (D1A1 and D1A2) to the D1A subtype, and a third receptor to the D1B subtype. Additional sequence was orthologous to the Xenopus D1C receptor and to several other previously unclassified fish D1-like receptors. When expressed in COS-7 cells, eel D1A and D1B receptors display affinity profiles for dopaminergic ligands similar to those of other known vertebrate homologues. The D1C receptor exhibits pharmacological characteristics virtually identical to its Xenopus homologue. Functionally, while all eel D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase, the eel D1B receptor exhibits greater constitutive activity than either D1A or D1C receptors. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction reveals the differential distribution of D1A1, D1A2, D1B, and D1C receptor mRNA within the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of the eel brain. Taken together, these data suggest that the D1A, D1B, and D1C receptors arose prior to the evolutionary divergence of fish and tetrapods and exhibit molecular, pharmacological, and functional attributes that unambiguously allow for their classification as distinct D1 receptor subtypes in the vertebrate phylum. PMID:9006917

  9. Biodiversity: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the first installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. It encourages students to weigh a wide range of information from pertinent disciplines and to develop their own opinions in order to make their own…

  10. Evaluation of Public Health Professionals' Capacity to Implement Environmental Changes Supportive of Healthy Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantner, Leigh A.; Olson, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based interventions to promote healthy weights by making environmental and policy changes in communities may be an important strategy in reversing the obesity epidemic. However, challenges faced by local public health professionals in facilitating effective environmental and policy change need to be better understood and addressed. To…

  11. Deforestation: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the second installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. This series teaches students how to gather a wide range of information from pertinent areas of study and encourages them to develop their own opinions…

  12. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, S.; Pakes, A.; Kortum, S.

    1996-11-12

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate {open_quotes}hedonic cost functions{close_quotes} that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices. 19 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Global environmental change issues in the western Indian ocean region

    SciTech Connect

    Gable, F.J.; Aubrey, D.G.; Gentile, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Global climate change caused by increased atmospheric trace gas loading is expected to cause a variety of direct and indirect impacts. These impacts include rising sea levels, changes in storm climates, changes in precipitation patterns, and alterations of ocean circulation patterns. The purpose of the paper is to place into a regional context for the Western Indian Ocean region the problems arising from changes in global climate. Specifically, the paper will focus on the potential for impacts in the coastal zone, where the indirect pressures of climate change and anthropogenic forcings (e.g. pollution, dredging, coral mining) and policy (land use, coastal zone) collide.

  14. Global environmental change: what can health care providers and the environmental health community do about it now?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian S; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A; Hu, Howard

    2006-12-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available "planetary health" metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations.

  15. Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do About It Now?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A.; Hu, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon- and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available “planetary health” metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations. PMID:17185267

  16. Volunteer for Change: A Guide to Environmental Community Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This booklet contains examples of volunteer projects related to solid waste management as developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), whose mission is to protect human health and the natural environment. EPA's Office of Solid Waste (OSW) promotes volunteerism and community service programs for people of all ages. A variety of…

  17. Environmental Education Evaluation: Time to Reflect, Time for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crohn, Kara; Birnbaum, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the "Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning," attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased…

  18. Developmental Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and Metabolic Changes in Children.

    PubMed

    Russ, Karin; Howard, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other forms of metabolic disease have been rising over the past several decades. Although diet and physical activity play important roles in these trends, other environmental factors also may contribute to this significant public health issue. In this article, we discuss the possibility that widespread exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases in children. We summarize the epidemiological evidence on exposure to environmental chemicals during early development and metabolic outcomes in infants and children. Prenatal exposure to EDCs, particularly the persistent organic pollutant DDT and its metabolite DDE, may influence growth patterns during infancy and childhood. The altered growth patterns associated with EDCs vary according to exposure level, sex, exposure timing, pubertal status, and age at which growth is measured. Early exposure to air pollutants also is linked to impaired metabolism in infants and children. As a result of these and other studies, professional health provider societies have called for a reduction in environmental chemical exposures. We summarize the resources available to health care providers to counsel patients on how to reduce chemical exposures. We conclude with a discussion of environmental policies that address chemical exposures and ultimately aim to improve public health. PMID:27401018

  19. Does ecohydrological connectivity affect sensitivity to environmental change?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our goal is to understand the influences of complex terrain on the sensitivity of carbon and water cycle processes to environmental drivers at different scales. Gravity-driven flowpaths of air and water transport material and energy across and through landscapes, creating connec...

  20. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #7: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This edition focuses on a recent UNEP report entitled, "Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1998 Assessment." Dr. Richard Zepp (ORD/NERL) is one of the Lead Authors of this report. The 1998 assessment focuses on new information produced since 1994. It also includes earlie...

  1. Evolutionary rescue from extinction is contingent on a lower rate of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Haley A; Gallie, Jenna; Taylor, Susan; Kerr, Benjamin

    2013-02-28

    The extinction rate of populations is predicted to rise under increasing rates of environmental change. If a population experiencing increasingly stressful conditions lacks appropriate phenotypic plasticity or access to more suitable habitats, then genetic change may be the only way to avoid extinction. Evolutionary rescue from extinction occurs when natural selection enriches a population for more stress-tolerant genetic variants. Some experimental studies have shown that lower rates of environmental change lead to more adapted populations or fewer extinctions. However, there has been little focus on the genetic changes that underlie evolutionary rescue. Here we demonstrate that some evolutionary trajectories are contingent on a lower rate of environmental change. We allowed hundreds of populations of Escherichia coli to evolve under variable rates of increase in concentration of the antibiotic rifampicin. We then genetically engineered all combinations of mutations from isolates evolved under lower rates of environmental change. By assessing fitness of these engineered strains across a range of drug concentrations, we show that certain genotypes are evolutionarily inaccessible under rapid environmental change. Rapidly deteriorating environments not only limit mutational opportunities by lowering population size, but they can also eliminate sets of mutations as evolutionary options. As anthropogenic activities are leading to environmental change at unprecedented rapidity, it is critical to understand how the rate of environmental change affects both demographic and genetic underpinnings of evolutionary rescue.

  2. Codes of environmental management practice: Assessing their potential as a tool for change

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, J.; Ehrenfeld, J.

    1997-12-31

    Codes of environmental management practice emerged as a tool of environmental policy in the late 1980s. Industry and other groups have developed codes for two purposes: to change the environmental behavior of participating firms and to increase public confidence in industry`s commitment to environmental protection. This review examines five codes of environmental management practice: Responsible Care, the International Chamber of Commerce`s Business Charter for Sustainable Development, ISO 14000, the CERES Principles, and The Natural Step. The first three codes have been drafted and promoted primarily by industry; the others have been developed by non-industry groups. These codes have spurred participating firms to introduce new practices, including the institution of environmental management systems, public environmental reporting, and community advisory panels. The extent to which codes are introducing a process of cultural change is considered in terms of four dimensions: new consciousness, norms, organization, and tools. 94 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Environmental education evaluation: time to reflect, time for change.

    PubMed

    Crohn, Kara; Birnbaum, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning, attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased involvement of citizens in environmental issues in their regions. It further is nested in the context of potential political reforms in a stable market democracy where education is but one strategy that can be bundled with regulations and taxes/subsidies. Additional attention is directed to explaining many of the key evaluation theories--utilization-focused evaluation, evaluative capacity building, and program-theory driven evaluation. The final section of this chapter situates the subsequent chapters of this volume based on the demographic target (youth or adult) as well as connection to a particular evaluation theory.

  4. Protist metabarcoding and environmental biomonitoring: Time for change.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, J; Lejzerowicz, F; Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil, L; Visco, J; Esling, P

    2016-08-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing of environmental DNA and/or RNA proved to be a powerful tool to describe protist diversity. This new approach called also the metabarcoding has totally transformed our view of protist diversity, revealing a large number of novel lineages and expanding the range of protist phylogenetic diversity at almost every taxonomic level. However, until now the objectives of the vast majority of metabarcoding studies were purely academic. Practical applications of protist metabarcoding are surprisingly scarce, despite the fact that several groups of protists are commonly used as bioindicators of environmental impacts in freshwater or marine ecosystems. Here, we are reviewing studies that examine the ecological applications of metabarcoding for two groups of well-known protist bioindicators: diatoms and foraminifera. The results of these studies show that despite some biological and technical biases, molecular data quite faithfully reflect the morphology-based biotic indices and provide a similar assessment of ecosystem status. In view of these results, protist metabarcoding appears as a rapid and accurate tool for the evaluation of the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Hence, we plead for integration of protist metabarcoding in future biomonitoring projects as a complement of traditional methods and a source of new biosensors for environmental impact assessment. PMID:27004417

  5. Protist metabarcoding and environmental biomonitoring: Time for change.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, J; Lejzerowicz, F; Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil, L; Visco, J; Esling, P

    2016-08-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing of environmental DNA and/or RNA proved to be a powerful tool to describe protist diversity. This new approach called also the metabarcoding has totally transformed our view of protist diversity, revealing a large number of novel lineages and expanding the range of protist phylogenetic diversity at almost every taxonomic level. However, until now the objectives of the vast majority of metabarcoding studies were purely academic. Practical applications of protist metabarcoding are surprisingly scarce, despite the fact that several groups of protists are commonly used as bioindicators of environmental impacts in freshwater or marine ecosystems. Here, we are reviewing studies that examine the ecological applications of metabarcoding for two groups of well-known protist bioindicators: diatoms and foraminifera. The results of these studies show that despite some biological and technical biases, molecular data quite faithfully reflect the morphology-based biotic indices and provide a similar assessment of ecosystem status. In view of these results, protist metabarcoding appears as a rapid and accurate tool for the evaluation of the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Hence, we plead for integration of protist metabarcoding in future biomonitoring projects as a complement of traditional methods and a source of new biosensors for environmental impact assessment.

  6. Community Theories of Change: Linking Environmental Justice to Sustainability through Stakeholder Perceptions in Milwaukee (WI, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Kaitlyn; Cutts, Bethany; Greenlee, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Environmental justice and sustainability are compatible lenses, yet action toward equity is often missing from urban sustainability initiatives. This study aims to assess the cohesion of these frameworks in practice. To do this, we parse individuals’ theories of change, or how they identify and propose to resolve environmental injustices in the pursuit of sustainability. We posit that these theories of change are comprised of three main components: (1) perceived environmental benefits and burdens; (2) the causal pathways of environmental and social injustice; and (3) visions for positive change. Drawing from 35 stakeholder interviews in Milwaukee (WI, USA) we examine individual and institutional perspectives on environmental and social change and their links to the production of injustice. Our findings reveal that participants do not distinguish between environmental and social injustices. Instead, both social and environmental factors are implicated in injustice. Furthermore, we identify two mental maps for how social and economic change reproduce injustice. These findings suggest the need to reorient how urban injustice is considered and make efforts to acknowledge how a diversity of operational theories of change could either be divisive or could bring environmental justice and sustainability initiatives together. PMID:27706068

  7. Evaluation of D-1 tape and cassette characteristics: Moisture content of Sony and Ampex D-1 tapes when delivered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, Gary

    Commercial D-1 cassette tapes and their associated recorders were designed to operate in broadcast studios and record in accordance with the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) 607 digital video standards. The D-1 recorder resulted in the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) standards 224 to 228 and is the first digital video recorder to be standardized for the broadcast industry. The D-1 cassette and associated media are currently marketed for broadcast use. The recorder was redesigned for data applications and is in the early stages of being evaluated. The digital data formats used are specified in MIL-STD-2179 and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.175-190 standard. In early 1990, the National Media Laboratory (NML) was asked to study the effects of time, temperature, and relative humidity on commercial D-1 cassettes. The environmental range to be studied was the one selected for the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS) program. Several discussions between NML personnel, ATARS representatives, recorder contractors, and other interested parties were held to decide upon the experimental plan to be implemented. Review meetings were held periodically during the course of the experiment. The experiments were designed to determine the dimensional stability of the media and cassette since this is one of the major limiting factors of helical recorders when the media or recorders are subjected to non-broadcasting environments. Measurements were also made to characterize each sample of cassettes to give preliminary information on which purchase specifications could be developed. The actual tests performed on the cassettes and media before and after aging fall into the general categories listed.

  8. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change - Phoenix, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Phoenix doesn’t have many cloudy days, so it’s perfect for studying urban growth with satellite images. Scientists and city planners study population growth and urban expansion in fast-growing cities like Phoenix to determine the changes that have occurred over time and to see how those changes impact the surrounding environment, affect the availability of natural resources such as water, and alter the landscape and how it’s used. That information can help people plan for future changes as cities continue to grow.

  9. Rapid ecosystem change challenges the adaptive capacity of Local Environmental Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Luz, Ana C.; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The use of Local Environmental Knowledge has been considered as an important strategy for adaptive management in the face of Global Environmental Change. However, the unprecedented rates at which global change occurs may pose a challenge to the adaptive capacity of local knowledge systems. In this paper, we use the concept of the shifting baseline syndrome to examine the limits in the adaptive capacity of the local knowledge of an indigenous society facing rapid ecosystem change. We conducted semi-structured interviews regarding perceptions of change in wildlife populations and in intergenerational transmission of knowledge amongst the Tsimane’, a group of hunter-gatherers of Bolivian Amazonia (n = 300 adults in 13 villages). We found that the natural baseline against which the Tsimane’ measure ecosystem changes might be shifting with every generation as a result of (a) age-related differences in the perception of change and (b) a decrease in the intergenerational sharing of environmental knowledge. Such findings suggest that local knowledge systems might not change at a rate quick enough to adapt to conditions of rapid ecosystem change, hence potentially compromising the adaptive success of the entire social-ecological system. With the current pace of Global Environmental Change, widening the gap between the temporal rates of on-going ecosystem change and the timescale needed for local knowledge systems to adjust to change, efforts to tackle the shifting baseline syndrome are urgent and critical for those who aim to use Local Environmental Knowledge as a tool for adaptive management. PMID:26097291

  10. Combining environmental factors and agriculturalists' observations of environmental changes in the traditional terrace system of the Amalfi coast (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Savo, Valentina; Caneva, Giulia; McClatchey, Will; Reedy, David; Salvati, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Terraces are traditional engineered ecosystems that affect the hydro-geological equilibrium, slope stability, and local communities. The aims of this paper are (i) identifying environmental factors that affect terrace stability in the Amalfi Coast, (ii) defining agriculturalists' observations on environmental changes within that system and (iii) exploring potentiality of these observations to better define conservation strategies. All available data on physical and ecological factors recognized to affect the terrace system were collected and analyzed. Interviews were conducted with agriculturalists to obtain long-term observations on environmental factors that interact with this system. Landslides are more frequent where rainfall is high and during winter. Fires have an uneven annual distribution, with higher frequency during summers. Agriculturalists detailed complex interactions among environmental factors, economic elements, and terraces. These observations represent a valuable resource for defining causes and effects of abandonment and for better addressing conservation strategies.

  11. Strengthening Multidisciplinary Research on Climate and Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Tom; Li, Jianping; Alverson, Keith

    2014-08-01

    The difficulty with multidisciplinary research is finding common ground for scientists, whose approach to a particular scientific problem can differ radically. For example, there is agreement between the geophysical community and the food science and technology community that food security is an important issue. However, the climate change community sees possible solutions coming from more detailed studies on the links between climate change and agriculture, whereas the food science community sees possible solutions emerging from studies of food logistics and supply chains.

  12. Piggery: from environmental pollution to a climate change solution.

    PubMed

    Maraseni, Tek N; Maroulis, Jerry

    2008-05-01

    Pig farms are a vital component of rural economies in Australia. However, disposal of effluent leads to many environmental problems. This case study of the Berrybank Farm piggery waste management system in Victoria estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from three different activities. Analysis reveals that the capturing and combusting of methane from piggery effluent could save between 4859 and 5840 tCO2e yr(-1) of GHG emissions. Similarly, using methane for replacing fuels for electricity generation could save another 800 tCO2e yr(-1)of GHGs. Likewise, by utilizing the biogas wastes to replace inorganic fertilizers there could be a further saving of 1193 to 1375 tCO2e yr(-1) of GHG, depending on the type of fertilizers the waste replaces. Therefore, a well-managed piggery farm with 15,000 pigs could save 6,852 to 8,015 tCO2e yr(-1), which equates to the carbon sequestrated from 6,800 to 8,000 spotted gum trees (age=35 year) in their above plus below-ground biomass. Implementation of similar project in suitable areas in Australia could have significant environmental and financial benefits. PMID:18437624

  13. Cross-Generational trans Fat Consumption Favors Self-Administration of Amphetamine and Changes Molecular Expressions of BDNF, DAT, and D1/D2 Receptors in the Cortex and Hippocampus of Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Fábio Teixeira; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Roversi, Karine; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; de Freitas, Daniele Leão; Pase, Camila Simonetti; Roversi, Katiane; Veit, Juliana Cristina; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-11-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug whose use has been related to neurotoxicity. Experimentally, AMPH increases anxiety-like symptoms, showing addictive properties. In the last decades, the growing consumption of processed foods has provided an excess of saturated and trans fats in detriment of essential fatty acids, which may modify the lipid profile of brain membranes, thus modifying its permeability and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Here, we assessed the influence of brain incorporation of different fatty acids (FA) on AMPH self-administration. Three groups of young male rats were orally supplemented from weaning with a mixture of soybean oil (SO, rich in n-6 FA) and fish oil (FO, rich in n-3 FA), hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in trans fatty acids--TFA), or water (control group). These animals were born from dams that were supplemented with the same fat from pregnancy to lactation. Anxiety-like symptoms and locomotor index were assessed in elevated plus maze and open-field (OF), respectively, while brain molecular expressions of dopaminergic receptors, dopamine transporter (DAT), and BDNF were determined in the cortex and hippocampus. HVF increased the frequency of AMPH self-administration and was associated with reinforcement and withdrawal signs as observed by increased anxiety-like symptoms. Contrarily, SO/FO decreased these parameters. Increased BDNF protein together with decreased DAT expression was observed in the hippocampus of HVF group. Based on these findings, our study points to a harmful influence of trans fats on drug addiction and craving symptoms, whose mechanism may be related to changes in the dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  14. Spatiotemporal quantile regression for detecting distributional changes in environmental processes.

    PubMed

    Reich, Brian J

    2012-08-01

    Climate change may lead to changes in several aspects of the distribution of climate variables, including changes in the mean, increased variability, and severity of extreme events. In this paper, we propose using spatiotemporal quantile regression as a flexible and interpretable method for simultaneously detecting changes in several features of the distribution of climate variables. The spatiotemporal quantile regression model assumes that each quantile level changes linearly in time, permitting straight-forward inference on the time trend for each quantile level. Unlike classical quantile regression which uses model-free methods to analyze a single quantile or several quantiles separately, we take a model-based approach which jointly models all quantiles, and thus the entire response distribution. In the spatiotemporal quantile regression model, each spatial location has its own quantile function that evolves over time, and the quantile functions are smoothed spatially using Gaussian process priors. We propose a basis expansion for the quantile function that permits a closed-form for the likelihood, and allows for residual correlation modeling via a Gaussian spatial copula. We illustrate the methods using temperature data for the southeast US from the years 1931-2009. For these data, borrowing information across space identifies more significant time trends than classical non-spatial quantile regression. We find a decreasing time trend for much of the spatial domain for monthly mean and maximum temperatures. For the lower quantiles of monthly minimum temperature, we find a decrease in Georgia and Florida, and an increase in Virginia and the Carolinas.

  15. Simulating environmental changes due to marine hydrokinetic energy installations.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Craig A.; James, Scott Carlton; Roberts, Jesse Daniel; Seetho, Eddy

    2010-08-01

    Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) projects will extract energy from ocean currents and tides, thereby altering water velocities and currents in the site's waterway. These hydrodynamics changes can potentially affect the ecosystem, both near the MHK installation and in surrounding (i.e., far field) regions. In both marine and freshwater environments, devices will remove energy (momentum) from the system, potentially altering water quality and sediment dynamics. In estuaries, tidal ranges and residence times could change (either increasing or decreasing depending on system flow properties and where the effects are being measured). Effects will be proportional to the number and size of structures installed, with large MHK projects having the greatest potential effects and requiring the most in-depth analyses. This work implements modification to an existing flow, sediment dynamics, and water-quality code (SNL-EFDC) to qualify, quantify, and visualize the influence of MHK-device momentum/energy extraction at a representative site. New algorithms simulate changes to system fluid dynamics due to removal of momentum and reflect commensurate changes in turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. A generic model is developed to demonstrate corresponding changes to erosion, sediment dynamics, and water quality. Also, bed-slope effects on sediment erosion and bedload velocity are incorporated to better understand scour potential.

  16. Distant storms as drivers of environmental change at Pacific atolls.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jonathan P A; Garton, David W; Collen, John D; Zwartz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The central Pacific Ocean with its many low lying islands and atolls is under threat from sea level rise and increased storm activity. Here, we illustrate how increasing frequency and severity of large scale storm events associated with global climate change may be particularly profound at the local scale for human populations that rely on lagoon systems for provision of a variety of goods and services. In August 2011 a storm originating in the Southern Ocean caused a large amplitude ocean swell to move northward through the Pacific Ocean. Its arrival at Palmyra Atoll coincided with transient elevated sea surface height and triggered turnover of the lagoon water column. This storm-induced change to the lagoon reflects long distance connectivity with propagated wave energy from the Southern Ocean and illustrates the increasing threats generated by climate change that are faced by human populations on most low-lying Pacific islands and atolls. PMID:24498232

  17. Distant storms as drivers of environmental change at Pacific atolls.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jonathan P A; Garton, David W; Collen, John D; Zwartz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The central Pacific Ocean with its many low lying islands and atolls is under threat from sea level rise and increased storm activity. Here, we illustrate how increasing frequency and severity of large scale storm events associated with global climate change may be particularly profound at the local scale for human populations that rely on lagoon systems for provision of a variety of goods and services. In August 2011 a storm originating in the Southern Ocean caused a large amplitude ocean swell to move northward through the Pacific Ocean. Its arrival at Palmyra Atoll coincided with transient elevated sea surface height and triggered turnover of the lagoon water column. This storm-induced change to the lagoon reflects long distance connectivity with propagated wave energy from the Southern Ocean and illustrates the increasing threats generated by climate change that are faced by human populations on most low-lying Pacific islands and atolls.

  18. Distant Storms as Drivers of Environmental Change at Pacific Atolls

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Jonathan P. A.; Garton, David W.; Collen, John D.; Zwartz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The central Pacific Ocean with its many low lying islands and atolls is under threat from sea level rise and increased storm activity. Here, we illustrate how increasing frequency and severity of large scale storm events associated with global climate change may be particularly profound at the local scale for human populations that rely on lagoon systems for provision of a variety of goods and services. In August 2011 a storm originating in the Southern Ocean caused a large amplitude ocean swell to move northward through the Pacific Ocean. Its arrival at Palmyra Atoll coincided with transient elevated sea surface height and triggered turnover of the lagoon water column. This storm-induced change to the lagoon reflects long distance connectivity with propagated wave energy from the Southern Ocean and illustrates the increasing threats generated by climate change that are faced by human populations on most low-lying Pacific islands and atolls. PMID:24498232

  19. The role of stomata in sensing and driving environmental change.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Alistair M; Woodward, F Ian

    2003-08-21

    Stomata, the small pores on the surfaces of leaves and stalks, regulate the flow of gases in and out of leaves and thus plants as a whole. They adapt to local and global changes on all timescales from minutes to millennia. Recent data from diverse fields are establishing their central importance to plant physiology, evolution and global ecology. Stomatal morphology, distribution and behaviour respond to a spectrum of signals, from intracellular signalling to global climatic change. Such concerted adaptation results from a web of control systems, reminiscent of a 'scale-free' network, whose untangling requires integrated approaches beyond those currently used.

  20. Evolutionary tipping points in the capacity to adapt to environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Botero, Carlos A.; Weissing, Franz J.; Wright, Jonathan; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2015-01-01

    In an era of rapid climate change, there is a pressing need to understand how organisms will cope with faster and less predictable variation in environmental conditions. Here we develop a unifying model that predicts evolutionary responses to environmentally driven fluctuating selection and use this theoretical framework to explore the potential consequences of altered environmental cycles. We first show that the parameter space determined by different combinations of predictability and timescale of environmental variation is partitioned into distinct regions where a single mode of response (reversible phenotypic plasticity, irreversible phenotypic plasticity, bet-hedging, or adaptive tracking) has a clear selective advantage over all others. We then demonstrate that, although significant environmental changes within these regions can be accommodated by evolution, most changes that involve transitions between regions result in rapid population collapse and often extinction. Thus, the boundaries between response mode regions in our model correspond to evolutionary tipping points, where even minor changes in environmental parameters can have dramatic and disproportionate consequences on population viability. Finally, we discuss how different life histories and genetic architectures may influence the location of tipping points in parameter space and the likelihood of extinction during such transitions. These insights can help identify and address some of the cryptic threats to natural populations that are likely to result from any natural or human-induced change in environmental conditions. They also demonstrate the potential value of evolutionary thinking in the study of global climate change. PMID:25422451

  1. Environmental Education and Behavioral Change: An Identity-Based Environmental Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness of environmental education (EE) programs at fostering ecologically responsible behavior is analyzed through the lens of psychology. In section 1, a critique of knowledge and attitude appeals is presented using contemporary psychological understandings of these constructs to show why many EE programs have been met…

  2. The Earth Is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change. Frontiers in Polar Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupnik, Igor, Ed.; Jolly, Dyanna, Ed.

    This book focuses on documenting and understanding the nature of environmental changes observed by indigenous residents of the Arctic. Common themes include increasing variability and unpredictability of the weather and seasonal climatic patterns, as well as changes in the sea ice and the health of wildlife. Nine papers focus on these changes,…

  3. In Search of Excellence: Practical Strategies for Managing Change in Environmental Health Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veninga, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes three methods intended to assist in assessing the attitudes of environmental health organization employees with regard to change. Focuses on ways to bring about orderly organizational change, how to evaluate whether the changes are effective, and how to diminish resistance to new ideas. (Author/TW)

  4. Effects of environmental change on zoonotic disease risk: an ecological primer.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Ostfeld, Richard S; Peterson, A Townsend; Poulin, Robert; de la Fuente, José

    2014-04-01

    Impacts of environmental changes on zoonotic disease risk are the subject of speculation, but lack a coherent framework for understanding environmental drivers of pathogen transmission from animal hosts to humans. We review how environmental factors affect the distributions of zoonotic agents and their transmission to humans, exploring the roles they play in zoonotic systems. We demonstrate the importance of capturing the distributional ecology of any species involved in pathogen transmission, defining the environmental conditions required, and the projection of that niche onto geography. We further review how environmental changes may alter the dispersal behaviour of populations of any component of zoonotic disease systems. Such changes can modify relative importance of different host species for pathogens, modifying contact rates with humans.

  5. The Science of Storytelling: Indigenous Perspective in Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Low, R.; Zepeda, O.; Valdez, S.

    2013-04-01

    The 2-hour workshop was devoted to sharing indigenous approaches to understanding and communicating the environment around us. Topics focused on weather and climate change. Two indigenous peoples from the Tohono O'odham and Pueblo of Laguna Nations immersed participants in their perspectives of knowing through storytelling.

  6. SPRUCE: Spruce and Peatland Responses under Climatic and Environmental Change

    DOE Data Explorer

    SPRUCE is an experiment to assess the response of northern peatland ecosystems to increases in temperature and exposures to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. It is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a Picea mariana [black spruce] - Sphagnum spp. bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. It is an ecosystem considered especially vulnerable to climate change, and anticipated to be near its tipping point with respect to climate change. Responses to warming and interactions with increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are anticipated to have important feedbacks on the atmosphere and climate, because of the high carbon stocks harbored by such ecosystems.[copied from http://mnspruce.ornl.gov/] While some data files are restricted to access by project members only, others are available for public download now, even as research is being actively conducted.

  7. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  8. Pettaquamscutt Cove Salt Marsh: Environmental Conditions and Historical Ecological Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using historic air photos and U.S. Coast Survey maps, historic vegetation changes were identified. Using surveys of vegetation and elevation, we measure elevation of Narrow River salt marshes, and compare it with other salt marshes in Rhode Island and neighboring states. Water ...

  9. Environmental Health Indicators of Climate Change for the United States: Findings from the State Environmental Health Indicator Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    English, Paul B.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Ross, Zev; Anderson, Henry; Boothe, Vicki; Davis, Christine; Ebi, Kristie; Kagey, Betsy; Malecki, Kristen; Shultz, Rebecca; Simms, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop public health adaptation strategies and to project the impacts of climate change on human health, indicators of vulnerability and preparedness along with accurate surveillance data on climate-sensitive health outcomes are needed. We researched and developed environmental health indicators for inputs into human health vulnerability assessments for climate change and to propose public health preventative actions. Data sources We conducted a review of the scientific literature to identify outcomes and actions that were related to climate change. Data sources included governmental and nongovernmental agencies and the published literature. Data extraction Sources were identified and assessed for completeness, usability, and accuracy. Priority was then given to identifying longitudinal data sets that were applicable at the state and community level. Data synthesis We present a list of surveillance indicators for practitioners and policy makers that include climate-sensitive health outcomes and environmental and vulnerability indicators, as well as mitigation, adaptation, and policy indicators of climate change. Conclusions A review of environmental health indicators for climate change shows that data exist for many of these measures, but more evaluation of their sensitivity and usefulness is needed. Further attention is necessary to increase data quality and availability and to develop new surveillance databases, especially for climate-sensitive morbidity. PMID:20049116

  10. The history of environmental change and adaptation in eastern Saloum-Senegal—Driving forces and perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbow, Cheikh; Mertz, Ole; Diouf, Awa; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Reenberg, Anette

    2008-12-01

    Environmental change in the Sahel-Sudan zone of West Africa has been a major issue in development debates over the last decades. Using remote sensing based land cover change analysis, archival data, national and international statistical data, and household interviews, we analyze the drivers of environmental change in Eastern Saloum in Central East Senegal as well as the local perceptions of these changes and adaptation. Being part of the ground nut basin, Eastern Saloum has witnessed rapid environmental degradation caused by the conversion of forest and savanna areas to agricultural land during the last 20-30 years and by a combination of decline in precipitation, soil degradation, a diversity of policies with little concern for the environment, fluctuating markets and population pressure. Farmers perceive the environmental change mainly as land degradation and poor soil fertility, though recent extensification of agriculture counters this effect and has led to increased vegetation cover in marginal areas. They identified erratic climate, agricultural policies, insufficient food production and desire to increase income as the main drivers of change in the area. We conclude that while climate variability has influenced environmental change in the area, various types of State interventions in agriculture and global market fluctuations appear to have been the main underlying causes of environmental degradation.

  11. Environmental policies to enhance technological change in the electricity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunol Del Rio, Eric

    International agreements on climate change mitigation set quantitative carbon emission reduction targets in a country for a given year with respect to a given base year. A central question is then on what time do the new clean and costly technologies need to start functioning to comply with the agreed targets, and under what incentive does the market implement them. The planner's economic problem is to design an incentive that makes the new clean technology less costly than the vintage polluting facility, at the precise time in order to comply with the agreements at minimum cost. Chapter 1 reviews the literature on efficient allocation of pollution, discussing its validity to explain induced technological change. It then presents a simple model of technological change showing that market power determes the optimal adoption time of a new technology. Chapter 2 analyzes the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change under different paths of technological progress. Furthermore, the paper examines the influence of market conditions. It shows that emission charges do reduce the firm's optimal adoption time when investment cost paths for the new technology are convex. On the contrary, emission charges may delay the optimal the switching time of a technology when the investment cost path is concave. Chapter 3 explores the results of Chapter 2 in an agent-based model. Simulations of firms adjusting their output a la Cournot show that the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change is highly dependant on the number of firms in the market. Moreover, the shape of the technological progress curve is determinant: the effects of carbon charges are not linear on carbon price, and become more uncertain the more concave the investment cost path is. These results show that policies aiming at internalizing pollution costs enhance technological change at very different rates, depending on the actual market conditions in the industry and

  12. Changing environmental strategies over time: an empirical study of the steel industry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Clemens, B

    2001-06-01

    This study investigates how environmental strategies change over time. We submit evidence from the US steel industry that firms have modified their strategies over time. We offer that US industry passed through three stages--cost minimization, cost-effective compliance, and beneficial environmental controls. We compare typologies of environmental strategies and choose that of C. Oliver as the most appropriate. We investigate how environmental strategies in the steel industry changed over time a 4-year period. We offer that a further understanding of Oliver's strategies may increase understanding of the relationship between business and government on environmental issues. One over-arching problem in our field is the need to adequately operationalize how firms change strategies and pass through different stages. We hope that our study will help future researchers and practitioners better articulate the concepts of environmental strategies over time. Our study focused on the steel industry in the United States. We chose the US steel industry as one of the major environmental actors in the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency ranks the iron and steel industry as the largest industrial source of toxic environmental contamination. We encourage researchers to evaluate and test our methodology and findings in other contexts--both in other nations and different industries.

  13. 78 FR 57372 - Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in Public... amended Notice of Intent (NOI) to modify the scope of the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (DOE/EIS-0463) and to conduct additional public scoping meetings (78...

  14. Social and Economic Influences in Curriculum Change in Japan: Case History of Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimazu, Yasuo

    1981-01-01

    Surveys social, economic and environmental characteristics of Japan in the 1960s and 1970s and describes their influence on curriculum changes in secondary science education. Discusses Japanese attitudes towards nature as a foundation for environmental education, the impact of western culture on this attitude, and the future of environmental…

  15. Global Climate Change and Environmental Health: Proceedings of the 1997 Annual Conference of the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health

    SciTech Connect

    Kovats, Sari; Patz, Jonathan A.; Dobbins, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the conference was to bring together a diverse group of occupational and environmental health experts to address the potential effects of climate change and ozone depletion on the current and future incidence of disease, heat stress, food and water supplies, and air pollution; to discuss initial strategies for improving R&D, global health surveillance systems, disease prevention, medical and public health community education, international cooperation, and public outreach; to address this international occupational and environmental health problem; and to explore international challenges and opportunities for collaborative projects in addressing these potential effects.

  16. Adapting environmental management to uncertain but inevitable change

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Sam; Fuller, Richard A.; Iwamura, Takuya; Chadès, Iadine

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of adaptation actions to protect biodiversity is limited by uncertainty about the future. One reason for this is the fear of making the wrong decisions caused by the myriad future scenarios presented to decision-makers. We propose an adaptive management (AM) method for optimally managing a population under uncertain and changing habitat conditions. Our approach incorporates multiple future scenarios and continually learns the best management strategy from observations, even as conditions change. We demonstrate the performance of our AM approach by applying it to the spatial management of migratory shorebird habitats on the East Asian–Australasian flyway, predicted to be severely impacted by future sea-level rise. By accounting for non-stationary dynamics, our solution protects 25 000 more birds per year than the current best stationary approach. Our approach can be applied to many ecological systems that require efficient adaptation strategies for an uncertain future. PMID:25972463

  17. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Petermann Glacier, Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This calving is normal, but it’s worth watching Petermann and other Greenland glaciers closely. Petermann is one of the major marine-terminating glaciers of Greenland. Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased recently. An article in Nature concluded that climate change may cause Petermann and other Greenland glaciers to contribute to sea level rise. Landsat helps glaciologists keep a close eye on this remote but significant glacier.

  18. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Ayeyarwady Delta—also called the Irrawaddy Delta—is a vast alluvial floodplain. The delta spans over 35,000 km2 (13,500 mi2) and was once home to an extensive tract of mangrove forests, but deforestation has changed the landscape. One scientific study estimated that the delta lost 1,685 km2 (651 mi2) from 1978 to 2011. This 40-year sequence of Landsat images shows the relatively rapid loss of mangrove forest.

  19. Developmental and Geographical Equity in Global Environmental Change: A Framework for Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasperson, Roger E.; Dow, Kirstin M.

    1991-01-01

    Major equity problems in pursuing global environmental change are examined. They arise from the interaction of geographical discontinuities, uncertainty, and international development. A framework is proposed for equity analysis that considers both distributional and procedural equity. (SLD)

  20. Continuing the debate on the role of Quaternary environmental change for macroevolution.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, K D

    2004-01-01

    The Quaternary has been a period of dramatic environmental change for the past 1.8 Myr, with major shifts in distributions and abundances of terrestrial and marine organisms. The evolutionary consequences of this have been debated since the nineteenth century. However, the lack of accurate relative and absolute time-scales for evolutions and environmental change inhibited progress. We do now have an understanding of time-scales. Palaeoecology has demonstrated the individualistic nature of species' response to environmental change, but lacks a means of determining ancestry. DNA characterization of modern populations in relation to their distributions nicely complements palaeoecological results by contributing ancestry. The chance to understand how species originate and the causal factors of speciation (environmental change or otherwise) may be within reach. PMID:15101585

  1. 75 FR 69475 - Notice Regarding Changed Venue for Public Hearing On a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION.../Overseas Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice regarding changed venue for public hearing. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the...

  2. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  3. THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY IN POPULATION DYNAMICS UNDER CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental variability can influence species distributions through changes in
    survival, fecundity, behavior, and metabolic activities. As worldwide coastal populations rise, the associated deforestation and development can increase both quantities and variability in runoff...

  4. Opportunities and challenges in integrating the science and policy of global environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundquist, E. T.

    2002-05-01

    The American Geophysical Union's Focus Group (formerly Committee) on Global Environmental Change seeks to foster the interdisciplinary interactions needed for scientific study and public understanding of global environmental change. The Focus Group is exploring ways to improve communication of scientific information to policy makers, and ways to better inform the research community about relevant public policy activities. Scientific information is increasingly influential in shaping public opinion about global environmental change. Likewise, societal concerns are increasingly prominent in the development of plans for scientific study of climate change and other global environmental issues. These developments emphasize the importance of conveying scientific information without political advocacy, and of formulating public policies that include broad advancement of scientific knowledge. This presentation will discuss these challenges and opportunities using examples from recent and pending legislation relevant to climate and carbon-cycle research. Suggestions will be made for ongoing efforts to enhance communications between the research community and policy makers.

  5. Climate change in Australian tropical rainforests: an impending environmental catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen E; Bolitho, Elizabeth E; Fox, Samantha

    2003-09-22

    It is now widely accepted that global climate change is affecting many ecosystems around the globe and that its impact is increasing rapidly. Many studies predict that impacts will consist largely of shifts in latitudinal and altitudinal distributions. However, we demonstrate that the impacts of global climate change in the tropical rainforests of northeastern Australia have the potential to result in many extinctions. We develop bioclimatic models of spatial distribution for the regionally endemic rainforest vertebrates and use these models to predict the effects of climate warming on species distributions. Increasing temperature is predicted to result in significant reduction or complete loss of the core environment of all regionally endemic vertebrates. Extinction rates caused by the complete loss of core environments are likely to be severe, nonlinear, with losses increasing rapidly beyond an increase of 2 degrees C, and compounded by other climate-related impacts. Mountain ecosystems around the world, such as the Australian Wet Tropics bioregion, are very diverse, often with high levels of restricted endemism, and are therefore important areas of biodiversity. The results presented here suggest that these systems are severely threatened by climate change.

  6. Changing seasonality of birth--a possible environmental effect.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, D; Douglas, A S; Allan, T M

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--Seasonality of birth was examined to determine whether this has changed over the last half century. DESIGN--Time-series analysis was carried out on retrospective data, both for the full 50 year period and for the five decades within that period. Although the primary objective was to investigate seasonality by fitting an appropriate model and examining changes over the period studied, non-seasonal trends were also examined. SETTING--Data by month were obtained from the Registrar General on all births in Scotland during the years 1938-87. SUBJECTS--There was a total of 4,325,000 births in the 50 years examined. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--There are two peaks to the seasonality rhythm--one wide, in spring/early summer and one narrow, in October. Cosinor analysis, modified to allow for the second peak, was used to fit a sine curve model. Analysis of variance showed that this was adequate and established the significance of both peaks. The main peak of seasonal excess rose to a maximum in 1948-57, and thereafter declined by two thirds. While the position of the main peak moved forward two months over the 50 years, the October peak remained unchanged until the final decade, when it rose slightly; thus its relative importance increased steadily from 1948 onwards. CONCLUSIONS--The changing biological rhythm may be related to alterations in the climate and environment or to social differences. PMID:8289035

  7. Environmental analyse of soil organic carbon stock changes in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koco, Š.; Barančíková, G.; Skalský, R.; Tarasovičová, Z.; Gutteková, M.; Halas, J.; Makovníková, J.; Novákova, M.

    2012-04-01

    The content and quality of soil organic matter is one of the basic soil parameters on which soil production functioning depends as well as it is active in non production soil functions like an ecological one especially. Morphologic segmentation of Slovakia has significant influence of structure in using agricultural soil in specific areas of our territory. Also social changes of early 90´s of 20´th century made their impact on change of using of agricultural soil (transformation from large farms to smaller ones, decreasing the number of livestock). This research is studying changes of development of soil organic carbon stock (SOC) in agricultural soil of Slovakia as results of climatic as well as social and political changes which influenced agricultury since last 40 years. The main goal of this research is an analysis of soil organic carbon stock since 1970 until now at specific agroclimatic regions of Slovakia and statistic analysis of relation between modelled data of SOC stock and soil quality index value. Changes of SOC stock were evaluated on the basis SOC content modeling using RothC-26.3 model. From modeling of SOC stock results the outcome is that in that time the soil organic carbon stock was growing until middle 90´s years of 20´th century with the highest value in 1994. Since that year until new millennium SOC stock is slightly decreasing. After 2000 has slightly increased SOC stock so far. According to soil management SOC stock development on arable land is similar to overall evolution. In case of grasslands after slight growth of SOC stock since 1990 the stock is in decline. This development is result of transformational changes after 1989 which were specific at decreasing amount of organic carbon input from organic manure at grassland areas especially. At warmer agroclimatic regions where mollic fluvisols and chernozems are present and where are soils with good quality and steady soil organic matter (SOM) the amount of SOC in monitored time is

  8. Using a Web Browser for Environmental and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Stackhouse, Paul; Mangosing, Daniel; Smith, G. Louis

    2002-01-01

    A new web browser for viewing and manipulating meteorological data sets is located on a web server at NASA, Langley Research Center. The browser uses a live access server (LAS) developed by the Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. LAS allows researchers to interact directly with the data to view, select, and subset the data in terms of location (latitude, longitude) and time such as day, month, or year. In addition, LAS can compare two data sets and can perform averages and variances, LAS is used here to show how it functions as an internet/web browser for use by the scientific and educational community. In particular its versatility in displaying and manipulating data sets of atmospheric measurements in the earth s radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, which includes measurements of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation is demonstrated. These measurements are from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment and the surface radiation budget (SRB) experiment.

  9. Using a Web Browser for Environmental and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Stackhouse, Paul; Mangosing, Daniel; Smith, G. Louis

    2005-01-01

    A new web browser for viewing and manipulating meteorological data sets is located on a web server at NASA, Langley Research Center. The browser uses a live access server (LAS) developed by the Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. LAS allows researchers to interact directly with the data to view, select, and subset the data in terms of location (latitude, longitude) and time such as day, month, or year. In addition, LAS can compare two data sets and can perform averages and variances, LAS is used here to show how it functions as an internet/web browser for use by the scientific and educational community. In particular its versatility in displaying and manipulating data sets of atmospheric measurements in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, which includes measurements of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation is demonstrated. These measurements are from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment and the surface radiation budget (SRB) experiment.

  10. Dopamine D(1) receptor deletion strongly reduces neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Ares-Santos, S; Granado, N; Oliva, I; O'Shea, E; Martin, E D; Colado, M I; Moratalla, R

    2012-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent, highly addictive psychostimulant consumed worldwide. In humans and experimental animals, repeated exposure to this drug induces persistent neurodegenerative changes. Damage occurs primarily to dopaminergic neurons, accompanied by gliosis. The toxic effects of METH involve excessive dopamine (DA) release, thus DA receptors are highly likely to play a role in this process. To define the role of D(1) receptors in the neurotoxic effects of METH we used D(1) receptor knock-out mice (D(1)R(-/-)) and their WT littermates. Inactivation of D(1)R prevented METH-induced dopamine fibre loss and hyperthermia, and increases in gliosis and pro-inflammatory molecules such as iNOS in the striatum. In addition, D(1)R inactivation prevented METH-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. To explore the relationship between hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, METH was given at high ambient temperature (29 °C). In this condition, D(1)R(-/-) mice developed hyperthermia following drug delivery and the neuroprotection provided by D(1)R inactivation at 23 °C was no longer observed. However, reserpine, which empties vesicular dopamine stores, blocked hyperthermia and strongly potentiated dopamine toxicity in D(1)R(-/-) mice, suggesting that the protection afforded by D(1)R inactivation is due to both hypothermia and higher stored vesicular dopamine. Moreover, electrical stimulation evoked higher DA overflow in D(1)R(-/-) mice as demonstrated by fast scan cyclic voltammetry despite their lower basal DA content, suggesting higher vesicular DA content in D(1)R(-/-) than in WT mice. Altogether, these results indicate that the D(1)R plays a significant role in METH-induced neurotoxicity by mediating drug-induced hyperthermia and increasing the releasable cytosolic DA pool.

  11. Environmental consequences of geochemical change in hot spring ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems provide a natural laboratory for studying the effects of geochemical change over time, and for testing predictions of how geochemical change will affect microbial ecology. Hot springs in hydrothermal areas that express the results of subsurface boiling, phase separation, and differential movement of liquid phase and vapor phase constituents can fluctuate in temperature and composition. Since 1999 we have sampled several fluctuating hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, and those hat experience large geochemical changes provide opportunities to quantify the effects of fluctuations on chemical energy supplies. Annual samples from Obsidian Pool (Mud Volcano Area) showed that pH increased from 6.5 (in 1999) to 6.8 (’00), steadily decreased to 4.2 (’06), and then increased to 5.2 (’09), with temperature ranging from 76.4 to 85.3°C. Simultaneously the chloride concentration increased by 65% (from 18.5 ppm in 1999 to 30.7 ppm in 2009), indicative of increased hydrothermal input, and the sulfate concentration increased by over 300% (from 50.0 ppm in 2000 to 203.8 ppm in 2009), suggesting an increased gas-phase sulfide input and subsequent oxidation. Several energy yielding reactions at a pH of 6.5 no longer yield energy at pH of 4.2. This suggests that microorganisms that use those pathways had a negative selection pressure with the drop in pH. As an example, the chemical affinity for sulfur reduction to pyrite coupled to iron oxidation to goethite changed from 7.1 (pH = 6.5) to -1.3 kcal/mol e- (pH = 4.2), and once again had a positive value at pH = 5.2. This means that microorganisms using this pathway may once again inhabit the hot spring while many others from when the pH was 6.5 still have a negative selection pressure. The pH of another hot spring in the Sylvan Springs Area steadily increased from 3.7 (’04) to 7.6 (’08) while the temp. decreased from 52.9 to 41.9°C, chloride concentration increased by 32% (from 464 to 614 ppm

  12. Through the eyes of children: perceptions of environmental change in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Pellier, Anne-Sophie; Wells, Jessie A; Abram, Nicola K; Gaveau, David; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10-15 years) from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated "shifting environmental baselines" do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children through artistic

  13. Through the Eyes of Children: Perceptions of Environmental Change in Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Pellier, Anne-Sophie; Wells, Jessie A.; Abram, Nicola K.; Gaveau, David; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10–15 years) from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated “shifting environmental baselines” do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children through

  14. Through the eyes of children: perceptions of environmental change in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Pellier, Anne-Sophie; Wells, Jessie A; Abram, Nicola K; Gaveau, David; Meijaard, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10-15 years) from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated "shifting environmental baselines" do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children through artistic

  15. Corticosterone responses and personality in birds: Individual variation and the ability to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, John F

    2013-09-01

    Birds can respond to an internal or external stimulus with activation of the HPA axis and secretion of corticosterone. There is considerable individual variation in corticosterone responses, and individual responses can be very different from the mean response for a group of birds. Corticosterone responses and behavioural responses to environmental stimuli are determined by individual characteristics called personality. It is proposed that birds with low corticosterone responses and proactive personalities are likely to be more successful (have greater fitness) in constant or predictable conditions, whilst birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be more successful in changing or unpredictable conditions. The relationship between corticosterone responses and fitness thus depends on the prevailing environmental conditions, so birds with either low or high corticosterone responses can have the greatest fitness and be most successful, but in different situations. It is also proposed that birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be better able to cope with environmental changes due to climate change than birds with proactive personalities and relatively low corticosterone responses. Phenotypic plasticity in corticosterone responses can be quantified using a reaction norm approach, and reaction norms can be used to determine the degree of plasticity in corticosterone responses of individual birds, and mean levels of plasticity in responses of species of birds. Individual corticosterone responses and personality, and reaction norms for corticosterone responses, can in future be used to predict the ability of birds to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

  16. Late Quaternary environmental change in the Bonneville basin, western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madsen, D.B.; Rhode, D.; Grayson, D.K.; Broughton, J.M.; Livingston, S.D.; Hunt, J.; Quade, Jay; Schmitt, D.N.; Shaver, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    Excavation and analyses of small animal remains from stratified raptor deposits spanning the last 11.5 ka, together with collection and analysis of over 60 dated fossil woodrat midden samples spanning the last 50 ka, provide a detailed record of changing climate in the eastern Great Basin during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Sagebrush steppe dominated the northern Bonneville basin during the Full Glacial, suggesting that conditions were cold and relatively dry, in contrast to the southern basin, which was also cold but moister. Limber pine woodlands dominated ???13-11.5 ka, indicating increased dryness and summer temperatures ???6-7??C cooler than present. This drying trend accelerated after ???11.5 ka causing Lake Bonneville to drop rapidly, eliminating 11 species of fish from the lake. From ???11.5-8.2 ka xerophytic sagebrush and shadscale scrub replaced more mesophilic shrubs in a step-wise fashion. A variety of small mammals and plants indicate the early Holocene was ???3??C cooler and moister than at present, not warmer as suggested by a number of climatic models. The diversity of plants and animals changed dramatically after 8.2 ka as many species disappeared from the record. Some of the upland species returned after ???4 ka and Great Salt Lake became fresh enough at ???3.4 and ???1.2 ka to support populations of Utah chub. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    Our study focuses on a multiproxy analysis of sedimentary records from Lago Bertrand (area 50 km2; 227 masl; 46°55'S 72°50'W). Three cores were retrieved during fieldtrips in 2009 and 2011 with an Uwitec gravity corer. One core was collected in the main lake (LBt09, 102 cm) and two others in a lateral extension (LBb11-A, 162 cm and LBb11-B, 156 cm). Data 210Pb and 137Cs give average sedimentation rates of 2 mm/yr for the upper core section from the main lake, allowing a decennial resolution. Our aim is to document the climatic variability during the last millennium in Northern Patagonia and its impact on the environment. Lago Bertrand is separated from a pro-glacial lake (Lago Plomo) by a morainic barrier. The sediments of this lake are mainly composed of clayed silts and very few sandy silts. In the cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand, X-ray radiographies and magnetic susceptibility profiles evidence well-defined pluri-millimetric laminations with organic-rich layers, especially in the central core section. In the main lake, X-ray radiographies show diffuse pluri-millimetric laminations while magnetic susceptibility profiles do not confirm it. The sediments of the main lake appear more homogeneous with less organic-rich layers. They are characterized by low C/N ratio (10), supporting an important aquatic productivity; high inorganic content (90-95% of the bulk sediment); two peaks in the biological silica profile; and abundant diatoms (50-100 µm). According to the age model, the changes in aquatic productivity occurred between 1700 and 1850 AD. The cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand are under investigation to confirm the extension of the sedimentological changes observed in the main lake. The main sedimentological change observed in Lago Bertrand occurs during an interval equivalent to a part of the Little Ice Age. A similar biogenic silica-rich layer was also recorded in another relatively distant lake (Lago Thompson at 45°30'S, 72°47

  18. Plant responses to soil heterogeneity and global environmental change

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bardgett, Richard D.; de Kroon, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent evidence suggests that soil nutrient heterogeneity, a ubiquitous feature of terrestrial ecosystems, modulates plant responses to ongoing global change (GC). However, we know little about the overall trends of such responses, the GC drivers involved, and the plant attributes affected. We synthesized literature to answer the question: Does soil heterogeneity significantly affect plant responses to main GC drivers, such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), nitrogen (N) enrichment and changes in rainfall regime? Overall, most studies have addressed short-term effects of N enrichment on the performance of model plant communities using experiments conducted under controlled conditions. The role of soil heterogeneity as a modulator of plant responses to elevated CO2 may depend on the plasticity in nutrient uptake patterns. Soil heterogeneity does interact with N enrichment to determine plant growth and nutrient status, but the outcome of this interaction has been found to be both synergistic and inhibitory. The very few studies published on interactive effects of soil heterogeneity and changes in rainfall regime prevented us from identifying any general pattern. We identify the long-term consequences of soil heterogeneity on plant community dynamics in the field, and the ecosystem level responses of the soil heterogeneity × GC driver interaction, as the main knowledge gaps in this area of research. In order to fill these gaps and take soil heterogeneity and GC research a step forward, we propose the following research guidelines: 1) combining morphological and physiological plant responses to soil heterogeneity with field observations of community composition and predictions from simulation models; and 2) incorporating soil heterogeneity into a trait-based response-effect framework, where plant resource-use traits are used as both response variables to this heterogeneity and GC, and predictors of ecosystem functioning. Synthesis

  19. EVIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN THE SUBMILLIMETER DUST OPACITY

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter G.; Roy, Arabindo; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Bontemps, Sylvain; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume; and others

    2012-05-20

    The submillimeter opacity of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the Galactic plane has been quantified using a pixel-by-pixel correlation of images of continuum emission with a proxy for column density. We used multi-wavelength continuum data: three Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope bands at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m and one IRAS band at 100 {mu}m. The proxy is the near-infrared color excess, E(J - K{sub s}), obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Based on observations of stars, we show how well this color excess is correlated with the total hydrogen column density for regions of moderate extinction. The ratio of emission to column density, the emissivity, is then known from the correlations, as a function of frequency. The spectral distribution of this emissivity can be fit by a modified blackbody, whence the characteristic dust temperature T and the desired opacity {sigma}{sub e}(1200) at 1200 GHz or 250 {mu}m can be obtained. We have analyzed 14 regions near the Galactic plane toward the Vela molecular cloud, mostly selected to avoid regions of high column density (N{sub H} > 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) and small enough to ensure a uniform dust temperature. We find {sigma}{sub e}(1200) is typically (2-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -25} cm{sup 2} H{sup -1} and thus about 2-4 times larger than the average value in the local high Galactic latitude diffuse atomic ISM. This is strong evidence for grain evolution. There is a range in total power per H nucleon absorbed (and re-radiated) by the dust, reflecting changes in the strength of the interstellar radiation field and/or the dust absorption opacity. These changes in emission opacity and power affect the equilibrium T, which is typically 15 K, colder than at high latitudes. Our analysis extends, to higher opacity and lower temperature, the trend of increasing {sigma}{sub e}(1200) with decreasing T that was found at high latitudes. The recognition of changes in the emission opacity

  20. Environmental Changes Assessment of Coastal Zones by Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Liviu Florin; Golovanov, Carmen Ionescu; Zoran, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Fuzzy theory applied for the analysis of coastal areas changes, for which each pixel on the map is assigned a membership grade in all classes, represent reasonable alternatives to traditional fixed classifications. Mixture modeling and subpixel spectral analysis is used for the percent cover of individual cover types within a pixel assessment. These methods require a definition of spectral endmembers, which is difficult (and perhaps impossible) for complex and highly variable land cover units. Fuzzy classifications and mixture/subpixel models provide information on variations in spectral signature between pixels and not on differences in the on-the-ground content of mapped land cover. The coastal zone units are recognized on a ground truth map of an area using Landsat Thematic Mapper ™ and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) as well as SAR ERS-1 imagery for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone, Romania, over 1989-2008 period.

  1. Potential effects of global environmental changes on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Lal, Aparna; Baker, Michael G; Hales, Simon; French, Nigel P

    2013-02-01

    Global climate change will affect the viability and spread of zoonotic parasites, while agricultural land use changes will influence infection sources and reservoirs. The health impact of these environmental changes will depend on the social, economic and physical resilience of the population. This review describes the influence of climatic variability, land-use changes, and social factors on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in humans. Global to public health to individual-level interventions to reduce future disease burden are highlighted. Because future environmental change is expected to have the greatest health impacts in countries with limited resources, increasing research and adaptation capabilities in these regions is emphasized. Understanding how environmental and social processes interact to influence disease transmission is essential for the development of effective strategies for disease prevention.

  2. Lateglacial and Holocene environmental changes in Ganga plain, Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Joachimski, M.; Sharma, M.; Tobschall, H. J.; Singh, I. B.; Sharma, C.; Chauhan, M. S.; Morgenroth, G.

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotope, elemental geochemistry and pollen analysis of a sediment profile from Sanai lake, Central Ganga Plain, were used to document climatic oscillations during the last ˜15,000 yr in Indian subcontinent. Micaceous sandy sediments at the base of the profile indicate an active channel and humid conditions before ˜15,000 14C yr BP. The channel was abandoned during comparatively arid conditions (15,000-13,000 14C yr BP) and converted into a swamp. Enhanced humidity around 13,000 14C yr BP led to submergence of marshes and establishment of a large lake. A dry phase is also identified around an estimated age of 11,500-10,500 14C yr BP which might correspond to the Younger Dryas event witnessed globally. The Early to Mid-Holocene climatic optimum (˜10,000-5800 14C yr BP) is characterised by a lake environment. Occurence of warmth loving aquatic plants, lower δ 18O values of gastropod aragonite, heavier δ 13C org values indicate a sensitive response of the lake ecology to the climatic warming and increased rainfall. This is followed by an arid event during 5000-2000 14C yr BP and from ˜1700 14C yr BP there is evidence of climatic amelioration. The sequence and magnitude of the millenium-scale climatic oscillations documented along the lake profile correlate well with records from other parts of the Indian subcontinent indicating that the recorded changes are an expression of broad scale, probably global and climatic change.

  3. Environmental changes define ecological limits to species richness and reveal the mode of macroevolutionary competition.

    PubMed

    Ezard, Thomas H G; Purvis, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Co-dependent geological and climatic changes obscure how species interact in deep time. The interplay between these environmental factors makes it hard to discern whether ecological competition exerts an upper limit on species richness. Here, using the exceptional fossil record of Cenozoic Era macroperforate planktonic foraminifera, we assess the evidence for alternative modes of macroevolutionary competition. Our models support an environmentally dependent macroevolutionary form of contest competition that yields finite upper bounds on species richness. Models of biotic competition assuming unchanging environmental conditions were overwhelmingly rejected. In the best-supported model, temperature affects the per-lineage diversification rate, while both temperature and an environmental driver of sediment accumulation defines the upper limit. The support for contest competition implies that incumbency constrains species richness by restricting niche availability, and that the number of macroevolutionary niches varies as a function of environmental changes.

  4. Environmental changes define ecological limits to species richness and reveal the mode of macroevolutionary competition.

    PubMed

    Ezard, Thomas H G; Purvis, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Co-dependent geological and climatic changes obscure how species interact in deep time. The interplay between these environmental factors makes it hard to discern whether ecological competition exerts an upper limit on species richness. Here, using the exceptional fossil record of Cenozoic Era macroperforate planktonic foraminifera, we assess the evidence for alternative modes of macroevolutionary competition. Our models support an environmentally dependent macroevolutionary form of contest competition that yields finite upper bounds on species richness. Models of biotic competition assuming unchanging environmental conditions were overwhelmingly rejected. In the best-supported model, temperature affects the per-lineage diversification rate, while both temperature and an environmental driver of sediment accumulation defines the upper limit. The support for contest competition implies that incumbency constrains species richness by restricting niche availability, and that the number of macroevolutionary niches varies as a function of environmental changes. PMID:27278857

  5. The Importance of Contexts in Strategies of Environmental Organizations with Regard to Climate Change

    PubMed

    Pleune

    1997-09-01

    / The purpose of the study was to investigate the extent to which strategies of environmental organizations depend on contexts. I examined this dependence by analyzing the strategies of five environmental organizations in the Netherlands with regard to climate change. These strategies were investigated over time and compared with the strategies these organizations had used in relation to ozone depletion and acidification. The results indicate that several of the organizations changed their strategies with respect to climate change over time. Furthermore, different strategies were used simultaneously in relation to the three problems. The findings suggest that strategies concerning climate change were to a considerable extent determined by the dominant framing of the problem in society. This framing was defined mainly by actors other than environmental organizations. The initial framing of climate change as a CO2 problem, which brought the issue into the energy debate, as well as the more general definition of the problem in the late 1980s as a greenhouse problem, were very important for determining the strategies of the organizations. It can be concluded that strategies of Dutch environmental organizations with regard to climate change were strongly dependent on the context.KEY WORDS: Environmental organization; Strategy; Climate change; Man-nature relationship; Problem definition; Context

  6. Can Perceptions of Environmental and Climate Change in Island Communities Assist in Adaptation Planning Locally?

    PubMed

    Aswani, Shankar; Vaccaro, Ismael; Abernethy, Kirsten; Albert, Simon; de Pablo, Javier Fernández-López

    2015-12-01

    Local perceptions of environmental and climate change, as well as associated adaptations made by local populations, are fundamental for designing comprehensive and inclusive mitigation and adaptation plans both locally and nationally. In this paper, we analyze people's perceptions of environmental and climate-related transformations in communities across the Western Solomon Islands through ethnographic and geospatial methods. Specifically, we documented people's observed changes over the past decades across various environmental domains, and for each change, we asked respondents to identify the causes, timing, and people's adaptive responses. We also incorporated this information into a geographical information system database to produce broad-scale base maps of local perceptions of environmental change. Results suggest that people detected changes that tended to be acute (e.g., water clarity, logging intensity, and agricultural diseases). We inferred from these results that most local observations of and adaptations to change were related to parts of environment/ecosystem that are most directly or indirectly related to harvesting strategies. On the other hand, people were less aware of slower insidious/chronic changes identified by scientific studies. For the Solomon Islands and similar contexts in the insular tropics, a broader anticipatory adaptation planning strategy to climate change should include a mix of local scientific studies and local observations of ongoing ecological changes.

  7. Environmental Change Science Literacy Through Writing: Successes in an Undergraduate Writing and Composition Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Basic science literacy, especially with regards to environmental change science, is often lacking in traditional K- 12 and undergraduate education. This generally leads to broad misconceptions based on distorted presentations of science in the media. Current educational research suggests that the teaching and learning of science can happen in many ways, whether it is through lectures, labs, research, inquiry or informal learning activities. This study was motivated by the desire to investigate the ability to teach environmental change science content in the non-traditional mode of an undergraduate composition and writing course. This technique offers educators another option for the integration of climate and environmental change material into their curriculum. The study incorporates the assessment and evaluation of student writing, in-class participation and student self- evaluations from "Writing about Change: Global Environmental Change and Society" a writing course that fulfils a requirement to graduate from the University of California - Santa Cruz. The course was taught Winter Quarter 2007 with a total of 28 days of instruction and the participation of 20 undergraduate students. The overarching goals of this study can be broadly classified as attitudinal, skills development and content retention. This study was designed to address three broad questions related to the above broad goals: i) Did students leave the class more comfortable and confident with environmental change issues and content? ii) Did students develop skills that are useful for reading and writing about scientific material? iii) What did students learn (retain): more general concepts or specific facts regarding climate and environmental change? Preliminary analysis and coding of student work clearly show that students were successful in developing skills for understanding and utilizing scientific information via writing and making thoughtful judgments regarding the reliability of environmental

  8. TBC1D1 reduces palmitate oxidation by inhibiting β-HAD activity in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Maher, A C; McFarlan, J; Lally, J; Snook, L A; Bonen, A

    2014-11-01

    In skeletal muscle the Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has been implicated in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation by an unknown mechanism. We determined whether TBC1D1 altered fatty acid utilization via changes in protein-mediated fatty acid transport and/or selected enzymes regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We also determined the effects of TBC1D1 on glucose transport and oxidation. Electrotransfection of mouse soleus muscles with TBC1D1 cDNA increased TBC1D1 protein after 2 wk (P<0.05), without altering its paralog AS160. TBC1D1 overexpression decreased basal palmitate oxidation (-22%) while blunting 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR)-stimulated palmitate oxidation (-18%). There was a tendency to increase fatty acid esterification (+10 nmol·g(-1)·60 min(-1), P=0.07), which reflected the reduction in fatty acid oxidation (-12 nmol·g(-1)·60 min(-1)). Concomitantly, basal (+21%) and AICAR-stimulated glucose oxidation (+8%) were increased in TBC1D1-transfected muscles relative to their respective controls (P<0.05), independent of changes in GLUT4 and glucose transport. The reductions in TBC1D1-mediated fatty acid oxidation could not be attributed to changes in the transporter FAT/CD36, muscle mitochondrial content, CPT1 expression or the expression and phosphorylation of AS160, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, or AMPK. However, TBC1D1 overexpression reduced β-HAD enzyme activity (-18%, P<0.05). In conclusion, TBC1D1-mediated reduction of muscle fatty acid oxidation appears to occur via inhibition of β-HAD activity.

  9. Beyond mice and men: environmental change, immunity and infections in wild ungulates.

    PubMed

    Jolles, A E; Beechler, B R; Dolan, B P

    2015-05-01

    In the face of rapid environmental change, anticipating shifts in microparasite and macroparasite dynamics, including emergence events, is an enormous challenge. We argue that immunological studies in natural populations are pivotal to meeting this challenge: many components of environmental change--shifts in biotic assemblages, altered climate patterns and reduced environmental predictability--may affect host immunity. We suggest that wild ungulates can serve as model systems aiding the discovery of immunological mechanisms that link environmental change with parasite transmission dynamics. Our review of eco-immunological studies in wild ungulates reveals progress in understanding how co-infections affect immunity and parasite transmission and how environmental and genetic factors interact to shape immunity. Changes in bioavailability of micronutrients have been linked to immunity and health in wild ungulates. Although physiological stress in response to environmental change has been assessed, downstream effects on immunity have not been studied. Moreover, the taxonomic range of ungulates studied is limited to bovids (bighorn sheep, Soay sheep, chamois, musk oxen, bison, African buffalo) and a few cervids (red deer, black-tailed deer). We discuss areas where future studies in ungulates could lead to significant contributions in understanding the patterns of immunity and infection in natural populations and across species. PMID:25354672

  10. Beyond mice and men: Environmental change, immunity and infections in wild ungulates

    PubMed Central

    Jolles, Anna E.; Beechler, Brianna R.; Dolan, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of rapid environmental change, anticipating shifts in microparasite and macroparasite dynamics, including emergence events, is an enormous challenge. We argue that immunological studies in natural populations are pivotal to meeting this challenge: Many components of environmental change – shifts in biotic assemblages, altered climate patterns, and reduced environmental predictability – may affect host immunity. We suggest that wild ungulates can serve as model systems aiding the discovery of immunological mechanisms that link environmental change with parasite transmission dynamics. Our review of eco-immunological studies in wild ungulates reveals progress in understanding how co-infections affect immunity and parasite transmission; and how environmental and genetic factors interact to shape immunity. Changes in bioavailability of micronutrients have been linked to immunity and health in wild ungulates. Although physiological stress in response to environmental change has been assessed, downstream effects on immunity have not been studied. Moreover, the taxonomic range of ungulates studied is limited to bovids (bighorn sheep, Soay sheep, chamois, musk oxen, bison, African buffalo) and a few cervids (red deer, black-tailed deer). We discuss areas where future studies in ungulates could lead to significant contributions in understanding patterns of immunity and infection in natural populations and across species. PMID:25354672

  11. Evaluation of Public Health Professionals’ Capacity to Implement Environmental Changes Supportive of Healthy Weight

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Christine M

    2012-01-01

    Community-based interventions to promote healthy weights by making environmental and policy changes in communities may be an important strategy in reversing the obesity epidemic. However, challenges faced by local public health professionals in facilitating effective environmental and policy change need to be better understood and addressed. To better understand capacity-building needs, this study evaluated the efforts of the Healthy Start Partnership, a university-community project to promote healthy weights in young families in a rural eight-county area of upstate New York. Qualitative interviews (n = 30) and pre/post surveys (n = 31) were conducted over three years of the intervention. Challenges faced by partners significantly slowed progress of environmental interventions in some communities. First, many partners did not feel their “regular” jobs afforded them sufficient time to do community work. Second, many partners did not feel they had the personal political power to work on broader environmental, policy, or system change issues. Third, facilitating and policy change and reaching out to non-traditional partners, like businesses, required developing a new set of public health skills. Fourth, the long-time frame of environmental and policy work meant that many efforts would exceed the grant period. Building local public health leaders for environmental and policy change necessitates that these challenges are acknowledged and addressed. PMID:22326561

  12. Tough environmental rules spur water/wastewater market changes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Driven by complex and technical laws, plus anticipated new rules and legislation when the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act are ultimately reauthorized, the $3.5 billion water and wastewater industry is going through dramatic changes. While capital spending will increase by only 16.6 percent between 1993 and 1997, equipment and instrument spending will increase by 21.1 percent. The move away from end-of-pipe to in-process treatment, and ultimately to pollution prevention, means a new logic is involved in this market. Recycling, reuse, and recovery of water is an important focus in many industrial facilities - and the line between water treatment and wastewater treatment has blurred with this new approach. Water treatment capital spending in the US was more than $7.3 billion in 1993, and may total more than $8.6 billion in 1997. As water and wastewater treatment processes and products becomes more sophisticated, and industry becomes more concerned with human exposure to toxics and trace contaminants, the demand for better measurement and analysis will continue. Water impurities vary with the source of water supply. Surface waters, characteristically high in dissolved oxygen (DO) and organic and inorganic sediment, are low on total solids and hardness. Groundwater is usually high in carbon dioxide, total solids and hardness, but low in sediment. Certain chemical characteristics significant in water plant operation are subject to measurement automatically with electrodes placed in the line of flow, or by intermittent sampling. 5 tabs.

  13. Food security in the context of global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.J.

    1993-11-01

    United Nations predictions and other sources indicate that world population could grow to 8.5 billion by 2025 (Keyfitz 1989) and 11 billion by the end of the coming century (UNFPA 1990). As new information becomes available on the effectiveness of population control programs, the rise of virulent diseases and other factors, these numbers change--sometimes smaller, sometimes larger still. Whatever the numbers actually turn out to be, global agricultural production will have to increase several-fold from present levels to feed and clothe the growing population and to improve worldwide standards of nutrition. The capacity of global agriculture to ensure food security through increased and sustained agricultural production depends on our ability to manage, conserve and in some cases increase the resource base available to the industry of agriculture. The resources that underpin agriculture are land, water and genetic diversity. The first two of these are the subject of this paper. Genetic diversity is the subject of another paper in this volume.

  14. Interfacing remote sensing and geographic information systems for global environmental change research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae K.; Randolph, J. C.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Because changes in the Earth's environment have become major global issues, continuous, longterm scientific information is required to assess global problems such as deforestation, desertification, greenhouse effects and climate variations. Global change studies require understanding of interactions of complex processes regulating the Earth system. Space-based Earth observation is an essential element in global change research for documenting changes in Earth environment. It provides synoptic data for conceptual predictive modeling of future environmental change. This paper provides a brief overview of remote sensing technology from the perspective of global change research.

  15. Environmental change and water-related, vector borne diseases in eastern Africa: the HEALTHY FUTURES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, David; Kienberger, Stefan; Tompkins, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Pathogens that spend time outside the human body, and any organisms involved in their transmission, have particular ecological requirements; as environment, including climate, conditions change, then the transmission characteristics of associated pathogens - and the diseases caused - are also likely to vary. Relationships between environment and health in many parts of the world remain poorly studied and are often overlooked, however. This is particularly the case in developing countries, because of budgetary and available expertise constraints. Moreover the relationship is often confounded by other factors. These other factors contribute to human vulnerability, and thus to the overall disease risk due to environmental change. This presentation will highlight the importance of environmental, including climate, change information to a better understanding of the risks to health of projected future environmental changes, and to the more efficient and effective use of scarce health resources in the developing world. The paper will focus on eastern Africa, and in particular the health effects of future projected environmental change impacts on water-related, vector borne diseases in the East African Community region. Moreover the paper will highlight how the EU FP7-funded project HEALTHY FUTURES is, through a broadly-based, integrative approach that distinguishes environmental change-induced health hazard from health risk aims to support the health decisions making process, thereby attempting to help mitigate negative health impacts.

  16. Future global environmental changes: Comparison with past and present rates of change

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.L. )

    1993-06-01

    Quantification of past and present rates of vegetation change provides a yardstick for the evaluation of future rates of change. Holocene and post-settlement rates of vegetation change were measured at Channel Islands and Capitol Reef National Parks, and at Indiana Dunes and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshores, using various paleoecological proxy data. Vegetation changes were quantified using several multivariate ordination techniques. Comparison of past vegetation changes due to climatic shifts, plant succession, and plant migration, with ongoing changes due to grazing, logging, exotic species invasions, and modified fire regimes, demonstrates that plant communities are presently suffering rates of change which are unprecedented in their severity for the Last 5000 years. The climatic warming projected for the next 50 years will exacerbate these ongoing changes, but win only be one of many variables operating in the unplanned experimental redesign our natural ecosystems.

  17. Coastal seas in a changing world: Anthropogenic impact and environmental responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Gao, Xuelu; Ishizaka, Joji; Lebel, Louis

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, human-driven environmental change caused by the modification of river discharges, the exploitation of marine resources, the burning of fossil fuels, and various shoreline developments and engineering activities, has accelerated; and evidence of this is seen around the world. Linking continents with open oceans, coastal seas trap most land-based discharge and consequently face varying degrees of anthropogenic change.

  18. Peace and Environmental Education for Climate Change: Challenges and Practices in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naoufal, Nayla

    2014-01-01

    As noted in the literature reporting on the impact of climate change, it does not only bring about environmental degradation, i.e. ecological violence, but it may also provoke increased intercommunity and interstate violence. This article examines the implications of this relationship between climate change and increased violence for environmental…

  19. Anthropogenic Climate Change in Undergraduate Marine and Environmental Science Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Mrakovcich, Karina L.; Futch, Victoria C.; Stutzman, Brooke S.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a context for program-level design decisions pertaining to anthropogenic climate change, the authors studied the prevalence of courses focused on human-induced climate change in undergraduate marine science and environmental science degree programs in the United States. Of the 86 institutions and 125 programs the authors examined, 37%…

  20. The Process of Change Experimented by Teachers and Students when Voluntarily Trying Environmental Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Doyon, Andre; Langis, Joanne; Vasseur, Liette; Martin, Gilles; Ouellet, Eileen; Boudreau, Gaston

    2006-01-01

    During a training program on climate change education, teachers were invited to experiment with environmental behaviors in their personal lives. They then created their own climate change education model, with which they experimented in their classroom. Through teachers' and students' work, individual interviews, and questionnaires, researchers…

  1. Changes in Professional Degree Programs in the USA: An Environmental Analysis of Professional Education Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorweiler, Vernon P.; Yakhou, Mehenna

    1994-01-01

    The nature of changes occurring in professional degree programs, resulting from environmental factors such as societal change, competition, and advancing technology, is examined. Focus is on accounting and engineering at the baccalaureate level, business and law at the graduate level. Application of Total Quality Management to curriculum…

  2. 76 FR 39385 - Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data, Information, and Related Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data...: Notice of Policy Change. SUMMARY: NOAA's National Data Centers will not accept checks (nor money orders...) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), Asheville, NC National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), Boulder,...

  3. Structural Approaches to Health Promotion: What Do We Need to Know about Policy and Environmental Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lisa; Golden, Shelley D.; Earp, Jo Anne L.

    2013-01-01

    Although the public health literature has increasingly called on practitioners to implement changes to social, environmental, and political structures as a means of improving population health, recent research suggests that articles evaluating organization, community, or policy changes are more limited than those focused on programs with…

  4. 77 FR 61401 - Notice of Change of Public Meeting Location for the Draft Legislative Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Change of Public Meeting Location for the Draft Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Renewal of the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range Land Withdrawal... public meetings on the Draft LEIS is being changed. The October 25, 2012 public meeting will now be...

  5. Effects of Natural Environmental Changes on Soil-Vapor Extraction Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, S; Gregory, S

    2006-03-23

    Remediation by soil-vapor extraction has been used for over a decade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We have found that natural changes in environmental conditions affect the rate of soil-vapor extraction. Data on flow rate observations collected over this time are compared to in-situ measurements of several different environmental parameters (soil-gas pressure, soil-temperature, soil-moisture, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), rainfall and barometric pressure). Environmental changes that lead to increased soil-moisture are associated with reduced soil-vapor extraction flow rates. We have found that the use of higher extraction vacuums combined with dual-phase extraction can help to increase pneumatic conductivity when vadose zone saturation is a problem. Daily changes in barometric pressure and soil-gas temperature were found to change flow rate measurements by as much as 10% over the course of a day.

  6. Childhood Obesity Prevention in Childcare Settings: the Potential of Policy and Environmental Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children. PMID:26627214

  7. Environmental cues induce changes of steviol glycosides contents and transcription of corresponding biosynthetic genes in Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongheng; Huang, Suzhen; Han, Yulin; Yuan, Haiyan; Gu, Chunsun; Wang, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and secondary metabolism are commonly regulated by external cues such as light, temperature and water availability. In this study, the influences of low and high temperatures, dehydration, photoperiods, and different growing stages on the changes of steviol glycosides (SGs) contents and transcription levels of fifteen genes involved in SGs biosynthesis of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni were examined using HPLC and RT-PCR. The observations showed that the transcript levels of all the fifteen genes were maximum under 25 °C treatment, and the transcription of SrDXS, SrDXR, SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS, SrHDS, SrHDR, SrIDI, SrGGDPS, SrCPPS1, SrUGT85C2 and SrUGT76G1 were restrained both in low temperature (15 °C) and high temperature (35 °C). Most genes in SGs biosynthesis pathway exhibited down-regulation in dehydration. To elucidate the effect of photoperiods, the plants were treated by different simulated photoperiods (8 L/16 D, 1 0L/14 D, 14 L/10 D and 16 L/8 D), but no significant transcription changes were observed. In the study of growing stages, there were evident changes of SGs contents, and the transcript levels of all the fifteen genes were minimal in fast growing period, and exhibited evident increase both in flower-bud appearing stage and flowering stage. The obtained results strongly suggest that the effect of environmental cues on steviol glycosides contents and transcription of corresponding biosynthetic genes in S. rebaudiana is significant. It is worth to study deeply.

  8. Resolvin D1 Polarizes Primary Human Macrophages toward a Proresolution Phenotype through GPR32.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Mattia; Gemperle, Claudio; Rimann, Nicole; Hersberger, Martin

    2016-04-15

    Resolvin D1 (RvD1) was shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipid mediator in several animal models of inflammation, but its mechanism of action in humans is not clear. We show that the RvD1 receptor GPR32 is present on resting, proinflammatory M(LPS) and alternatively activated primary human M(IL-4) macrophages, whereas TGF-β and IL-6 reduce its membrane expression. Accordingly, stimulation of resting primary human macrophages with 10 nM RvD1 for 48 h maximally reduced the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8; abolished chemotaxis to several chemoattractants like chemerin, fMLF, and MCP-1; and doubled the phagocytic activity of these macrophages toward microbial particles. In contrast, these functional changes were not accompanied by surface expression of markers specific for alternatively activated M(IL-4) macrophages. Similar proresolution effects of RvD1 were observed when proinflammatory M(LPS) macrophages were treated with RvD1. In addition, we show that these RvD1-mediated effects are GPR32 dependent because reduction of GPR32 expression by small interfering RNA, TGF-β, and IL-6 treatment ablated these proresolution effects in primary human macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that in humans RvD1 triggers GPR32 to polarize and repolarize macrophages toward a proresolution phenotype, supporting the role of this mediator in the resolution of inflammation in humans.

  9. Changes in free-living bacterial community diversity reflect the magnitude of environmental variability.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Alice C; Ortell, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year study was undertaken to compare patterns in the diversity of free-living bacteria in a river-dominated estuary and offshore, on the shelf, to determine whether changes in the free-living bacterial community could be related to differences in environmental seasonality and variability. Although the environmental conditions inshore were significantly more variable than those on the shelf and demonstrated clear seasonal patterns, there were no significant differences in the alpha diversity of the communities based on richness, evenness, or phylogenetic diversity. Comparison of communities using Bray-Curtis similarity indicated no significant differences in the magnitude of change between sequential samples from inshore and on the shelf. Seasonal differences were detected both inshore and on the shelf. However, analysis using the weighted UniFrac distance indicated significantly lower overall change between shelf samples with no significant seasonal differences. These findings suggest different patterns of change between the two sites. Inshore, changes in the relative abundance of distantly related bacterial species reflect the larger environmental variability, while on the shelf, changes in the relative abundance of closely related bacterial species or strains may result in a more functionally stable community. Thus, the magnitude of environmental change can alter patterns of bacterial diversity in marine systems.

  10. Sphere-plate Casimir interaction in (D + 1)-dimensional spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, L. P.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we derive the formula for the Casimir interaction energy between a sphere and a plate in (D + 1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. It is assumed that the scalar field satisfies the Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the sphere and the plate. As in the D = 3 case, the formula is of TGTG type. One of our main contributions is deriving the translation matrices which express the change of bases between plane waves and spherical waves for general D. Using orthogonality of Gegenbauer polynomials, it turns out that the final TGTG formula for the Casimir interaction energy can be simplified to one that is similar to the D = 3 case. To illustrate the application of the formula, both large separation and small separation asymptotic behaviors of the Casimir interaction energy are computed. The large separation leading term is proportional to L-D+1 if the sphere is imposed with Dirichlet boundary condition, and to L-D-1 if the sphere is imposed with Neumann boundary condition, where L is distance from the center of the sphere to the plane. For the small separation asymptotic behavior, it is shown that the leading term is equal to the one obtained using proximity force approximation. The next-to-leading order term is also computed using perturbation method. It is shown that when the space dimension D is larger than 5, the next-to-leading order has sign opposite to the leading order term. Moreover, the ratio of the next-to-leading order term to the leading order term is linear in D, indicating a larger correction at higher dimensions.

  11. Cyclin D1 Determines Mitochondrial Function In Vivo†

    PubMed Central

    Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Ju, Xiaoming; Quong, Andrew A.; Katiyar, Sanjay; Liu, Manran; Jiao, Xuanmao; Li, Anping; Zhang, Xueping; Lu, Yinan; Wang, Chenguang; Byers, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert; Link, Todd; Shemluck, Melvin; Yang, Jianguo; Fricke, Stanley T.; Novikoff, Phyllis M.; Papanikolaou, Alexandros; Arnold, Andrew; Albanese, Christopher; Pestell, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The cyclin D1 gene encodes a regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the pRb tumor suppressor to promote nuclear DNA synthesis. cyclin D1 is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is sufficient for the development of murine mammary tumors. Herein, cyclin D1 is shown to perform a novel function, inhibiting mitochondrial function and size. Mitochondrial activity was enhanced by genetic deletion or antisense or small interfering RNA to cyclin D1. Global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of mammary epithelial cell-targeted cyclin D1 antisense transgenics demonstrated that cyclin D1 inhibits mitochondrial activity and aerobic glycolysis in vivo. Reciprocal regulation of these genes was observed in cyclin D1-induced mammary tumors. Cyclin D1 thus integrates nuclear DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function. PMID:16809779

  12. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake.

    PubMed

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David M; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2014-02-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake.

  13. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Responses to Environmental Change: Insights from Terrestrial Paleoecological Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddon, A. W. R.; Mackay, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Current understanding of ecological behaviour indicates that systems can experience sudden and abrupt changes in state, driven either by a large external change in environmental conditions (extrinsically forced), or the result of a set local feedbacks and site-specific interactions (intrinsically mediated responses). Responses mediated by intrinsic processes are notoriously diffi- cult to predict, they can occur as slow environmental variables gradually erode the resilience of the system eventually resulting in threshold transitions between alternative stable states. Finding ways to identify, model and predict such complex ecosystem behavior has been identified as a priority research challenge for both ecology and paleoecology. The paleoecological record can play a role in understanding the processes behind abrupt ecological change because it enables the reconstruction of processes occurring over decadal-centennial timescales or longer. Therefore, paleoecological data can be used to identify the existence of ecological thresholds and to investigate the environmental processes that can lead to loss of resilience and abrupt transitions between alternate states. In addition, incidences of abrupt vegetation changes in the past can serve as palaeoecological model systems; analogues of abrupt dynamics which can be used to test theories surrounding ecological responses to climate change. Here, I present examples from a range of terrestrial ecosystems (Holocene environmental changes from a coastal lagoon in the Galapagos Islands; Northern European vegetation changes since the last deglaciation; the North American hemlock decline) demonstrating evidence of abrupt ecosystem change. For each system I present a set of statistical techniques tailored to distin- guish between extrinsic versus intrinsically mediated ecological responses. Examples are provided from both single sites (i.e. landscape scale) and multiple sites (regional-continental scale). These techniques provide a

  14. On building methodological and theoretical frameworks to examine the interrelationships between environmental change and armed conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Hoek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Relationships between environmental change and armed conflict have long been studied. Sometimes referred to as 'warfare' or 'conflict' ecology, much of this scholarship has come in response to local-level perceptions of landscape or livelihood changes that result from regional armed conflict. However, such studies have, first, typically focused on spatiotemporally acute and readily detectable environmental change, like deforestation, to the exclusion of protracted and more subtle environmental changes, like agricultural degradation; second, been limited to situational conflicts or circumstances, thereby inhibiting broader theoretical development; and, third, often only considered the environmental consequences rather than the environmental or climatic circumstances that may contribute to conflict. As a result, there is little opportunity for methodological or theoretical cohesion between studies. In this presentation, I synthesize findings from three case studies examining the interrelationships between agricultural change and armed conflict in the semi-arid landscapes of northwest Pakistan, Palestine, and southern Syria. Using coarse through very high resolution remotely sensed imagery, socio-economic and demographic data, conflict databases, open-source programming, and building on theoretical underpinnings of political ecology and conflict studies, I present methods and modeling approaches that aid in overcoming data scarcity and disparity between scales of analysis and integrate environmental and conflict data in spatiotemporally explicit ways. Results from these case studies illuminate the interrelationships between both protracted and acute agricultural change and armed conflict, and have broad relevance for understanding the means by which environment, conflict, and livelihoods are linked, a nexus that will only become tighter with the advance of global climate change.

  15. Silymarin induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation via its phosphorylation of threonine-286 in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2015-01-01

    Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant has been reported to show anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. For anti-cancer activity, silymarin is known to regulate cell cycle progression through cyclin D1 downregulation. However, the mechanism of silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation still remains unanswered. The current study was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cyclin D1 downregulation by silymarin in human colorectal cancer cells. The treatment of silymarin suppressed the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased cellular accumulation of exogenously-induced cyclin D1 protein. However, silymarin did not change the level of cyclin D1 mRNA. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with silymarin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation. Inhibition of NF-κB by a selective inhibitor, BAY 11-7082 suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by silymarin. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through its threonine-286 phosphorylation via NF-κB activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between silymarin, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:25479723

  16. Silymarin induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation via its phosphorylation of threonine-286 in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2015-01-01

    Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant has been reported to show anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. For anti-cancer activity, silymarin is known to regulate cell cycle progression through cyclin D1 downregulation. However, the mechanism of silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation still remains unanswered. The current study was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cyclin D1 downregulation by silymarin in human colorectal cancer cells. The treatment of silymarin suppressed the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased cellular accumulation of exogenously-induced cyclin D1 protein. However, silymarin did not change the level of cyclin D1 mRNA. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with silymarin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation. Inhibition of NF-κB by a selective inhibitor, BAY 11-7082 suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by silymarin. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through its threonine-286 phosphorylation via NF-κB activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between silymarin, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells.

  17. A method for the assessment of changes in environmental perception during an EIA process

    SciTech Connect

    Peterlin, Monika Kross, Burton C.; Kontic, Branko

    2008-11-15

    Changes in environmental perception during an EIA process among the general population (the public) and employees of the Port of Koper were measured. The method of measurement addresses the statistical significance of the influence of the content, form, mode, providers of environmental information, institutional constraint and other factors. Opinions about environmental issues were collected in both groups prior to and after the provision of information in the EIA process. The difference formed the basis for an assessment of how environmental information provided during an EIA process contributes to environmental perception. The results show that difference in opinions about the impact of the Port between the two groups became smaller when comparing the first and second survey. In relation to the opinions of the employees, institutional constraint was recognised.

  18. 26 CFR 25.2522(d)-1 - Additional cross references.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional cross references. 25.2522(d)-1 Section 25.2522(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2522(d)-1...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3231(d)-1 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service. 31.3231(d)-1 Section 31.3231(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND... Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3231(d)-1 Service....

  20. 26 CFR 1.509(d)-1 - Definition of support

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of support 1.509(d)-1 Section 1.509(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(d)-1 Definition of support For purposes...

  1. Climate change and environmental impacts on maternal and newborn health with focus on Arctic populations

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Charlotta; Odland, Jon Ø.; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented a report on global warming and the impact of human activities on global warming. Later the Lancet commission identified six ways human health could be affected. Among these were not environmental factors which are also believed to be important for human health. In this paper we therefore focus on environmental factors, climate change and the predicted effects on maternal and newborn health. Arctic issues are discussed specifically considering their exposure and sensitivity to long range transported contaminants. Methods Considering that the different parts of pregnancy are particularly sensitive time periods for the effects of environmental exposure, this review focuses on the impacts on maternal and newborn health. Environmental stressors known to affects human health and how these will change with the predicted climate change are addressed. Air pollution and food security are crucial issues for the pregnant population in a changing climate, especially indoor climate and food security in Arctic areas. Results The total number of environmental factors is today responsible for a large number of the global deaths, especially in young children. Climate change will most likely lead to an increase in this number. Exposure to the different environmental stressors especially air pollution will in most parts of the world increase with climate change, even though some areas might face lower exposure. Populations at risk today are believed to be most heavily affected. As for the persistent organic pollutants a warming climate leads to a remobilisation and a possible increase in food chain exposure in the Arctic and thus increased risk for Arctic populations. This is especially the case for mercury. The perspective for the next generations will be closely connected to the expected temperature changes; changes in housing conditions; changes in exposure patterns; predicted increased exposure to

  2. Principles and processes for effecting change in environmental management in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Ian; Hurley, Evelyn; Reid, Janet; Allen, Will

    2007-02-01

    In New Zealand environmental management is essentially the responsibility of land managers. Management decisions affect both production/productivity and the environment. However, responsibility for ensuring positive environmental outcomes falls on both local (Regional) and Central Government, and both they and international agencies such as the OECD would wish to monitor and report on changes. In terms of policy, strong links have been established via Central and Regional Government to land managers. Consumers in the market place are also, increasingly, requiring responsibility for positive environmental outcomes of those who purchase and process primary products. Strong links for responsibility have been established between our international markets and processing businesses and there is a noticeable strengthening of the links from the processors to the land manager/producer. In New Zealand a range of initiatives has been developed and implemented over recent times, whereby land managers are taking increasing responsibility for accounting for the environmental outcomes of their production activities. The range covers the spectrum from voluntary to compulsory (e.g., in order to meet market requirements) and from those initiated by customers to processor and/or producer initiatives. This paper follows the evolution of the principles that drove the predominant activities of the period and the processes that initiated the changes in environmental management. As the focus of agriculturalists changed from pioneering in a new world, to establishing a production base, to economic reality, and finally to environmental responsibility, the processes of extension adapted to meet the new challenge.

  3. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  4. Drastic Environmental Change on Mars: Applying the Lessons Learned on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairen, A.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Irwin, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and drastic environmental change has occurred frequently on Earth, posing a critical challenge to life. However, directional selection has overcome those challenges and driven life on our planet to ever increasing diversity and complexity. Based on our knowledge of the natural history of Earth, the effect of drastic environmental changes on a planet's biosphere can be attributed to three main factors: (1) the nature and time scale of change, (2) the composition of the biosphere prior to change, and (3) the nature of the environment following the change. Mars has undergone even larger environmental changes than Earth, from habitable conditions under which the origin of life (or transfer of life from Earth) seem plausible, to a dry and cold planet punctuated by wetter conditions. Given its planetary history, life on Mars could have retreated to a psychrophilic lifestyle in the deep subsurface or to environmental near-surface niches, such as hydrothermal regions and caves. Further, strong directional selection could have pushed putative martian life to evolve alternating cycles between active and dormant forms, as well as the innovation of new traits adapted to challenging near-surface conditions (e.g., use of H2O2 or perchlorates as antifreeze compounds).

  5. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle. PMID:26680578

  6. Synchronous environmental and cultural change in the prehistory of the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Samuel E; Gajewski, Konrad; Peros, Matthew C

    2010-12-21

    Climatic changes during the late Quaternary have resulted in substantial, often abrupt, rearrangements of terrestrial ecosystems, but the relationship between these environmental changes and prehistoric human culture and population size remains unclear. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates alongside a network of paleoecological records (sedimentary pollen and charcoal) and paleoclimatic reconstructions, we show that periods of cultural and demographic change in the northeastern United States occurred at the same times as the major environmental-climatic transitions of that region. At 11.6, 8.2, 5.4, and 3.0 kyr BP (10(3) calendar years before present), changes in forest composition altered the distribution, availability, and predictability of food resources which triggered technological adjustments manifested in the archaeological record. Human population level has varied in response to these external changes in ecosystems, but the adoption of maize agriculture during the late Holocene also resulted in a substantial population increase. This study demonstrates the long-term interconnectedness of prehistoric human cultures and the ecosystems they inhabited, and provides a consolidated environmental-cultural framework from which more interdisciplinary research and discussion can develop. Moreover, it emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change in a temperate region.

  7. Land-use and environmental changes in the Cerrados of South-Eastern Mato Grosso -- Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina

    The human-induced changes of the Earth's land surfaces have been unprecedented, with outcomes often indicating degradation and loss of environmental quality. Mato Grosso State in Brazil, location of the study area, underwent extensive land-use and land-cover changes in recent decades with the rates, patterns and consequences poorly documented until now. In this context, the aim of the present research is to propose a multidisciplinary approach for quantifying historical land-use and environmental changes in the southeast part of this State, where the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savannas) has been intensively converted into agricultural lands. The methodology includes three parts: remote sensing change detection, land vulnerability mapping, and identification of key environmental indicators. Land-use/cover information was extracted from a temporal remote sensing dataset using an object-oriented classification approach, and the changes quantified employing a post-classification method. In addition, the study area was assessed for its vulnerabilities, focusing mainly on erosion risks, wetlands, and areas with limited or no suitability for crops. Finally, key environmental indicators were identified from the preceding steps and analyzed within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework. The results provided an improved mapping of the Cerrados natural vegetation conversion into crops and pastures, and indicate that the Cerrado vegetation was intensively converted and also became more fragmented in the time frame studied. Between 1985 and 2005 the area lost approximately 6491 km 2 of Cerrados (42 %). Modeling based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation indicated significant increase in erosion risk from 1985 to 2005 mainly related to the increase in crop areas and the crops' encroachment into more fragile lands. The identification of environmental indicators rendered complex environmental information more

  8. Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region. PMID:18441406

  9. Remote sensing helps to assess natural hazards and environmental changes in Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, Jean-Claud; Liew, Soo Chin; Gupta, Avijit

    2012-04-01

    Conference on Remote Sensing, Natural Hazards, and Environmental Change; Singapore, 28-29 July 2011 Natural hazards and anthropogenic environmental changes, both significant in the Asia-Pacific region, were the two themes of a conference organized by the National University of Singapore's Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP) and the Université Blaise Pascal's Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans. The application of satellite imagery at a wide range of resolutions, from 500 meters to 50 centimeters, was a unifying approach in many of the studies presented. The recent arrival of a new generation of satellites with extremely high resolution (50 centimeters) has improved scientists' ability to carry out detailed studies of natural hazards and environmental change.

  10. Geospatial information systems analysis of regional environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Twumasi, Yaw A; Merem, Edmund C

    2008-03-01

    This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region.

  11. Differential plasticity of size and mass to environmental change in a hibernating mammal.

    PubMed

    Canale, Cindy I; Ozgul, Arpat; Allainé, Dominique; Cohas, Aurelie

    2016-10-01

    Morphological changes following changes in species' distribution and phenology have been suggested to be the third universal response to global environmental change. Although structural size and body mass result from different genetic, physiological, and ecological mechanisms, they are used interchangeably in studies evaluating population responses to environmental change. Using a 22-year (1991-2013) dataset including 1768 individuals, we investigated the coupled dynamics of size and mass in a hibernating mammal, the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota), in response to local environmental conditions. We (i) quantified temporal trends in both traits, (ii) determined the environmental drivers of trait dynamics, and (iii) identified the life-history processes underlying the observed changes. Both phenotypic traits were followed through life: we focused on the initial trait value (juvenile size and mass) and later-life development (annual change in size [Δsize] and mass [Δmass]). First, we demonstrated contrasting dynamics between size and mass over the study period. Juvenile size and subsequent Δsize showed significant declines, whereas juvenile mass and subsequent Δmass remained constant. As a consequence of smaller size associated with a similar mass, individuals were in better condition in recent years. Second, size and mass showed different sensitivities to environmental variables. Both traits benefited from early access to resources in spring, whereas Δmass, particularly in early life, also responded to summer and winter conditions. Third, the interannual variation in both traits was caused by changes in early life development. Our study supports the importance of considering the differences between size and mass responses to the environment when evaluating the mechanisms underlying population dynamics. The current practice of focusing on only one trait in population modeling can lead to misleading conclusions when evaluating species' resilience to contemporary

  12. Pattern formation--A missing link in the study of ecosystem response to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Meron, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Environmental changes can affect the functioning of an ecosystem directly, through the response of individual life forms, or indirectly, through interspecific interactions and community dynamics. The feasibility of a community-level response has motivated numerous studies aimed at understanding the mutual relationships between three elements of ecosystem dynamics: the abiotic environment, biodiversity and ecosystem function. Since ecosystems are inherently nonlinear and spatially extended, environmental changes can also induce pattern-forming instabilities that result in spatial self-organization of life forms and resources. This, in turn, can affect the relationships between these three elements, and make the response of ecosystems to environmental changes far more complex. Responses of this kind can be expected in dryland ecosystems, which show a variety of self-organizing vegetation patterns along the rainfall gradient. This paper describes the progress that has been made in understanding vegetation patterning in dryland ecosystems, and the roles it plays in ecosystem response to environmental variability. The progress has been achieved by modeling pattern-forming feedbacks at small spatial scales and up-scaling their effects to large scales through model studies. This approach sets the basis for integrating pattern formation theory into the study of ecosystem dynamics and addressing ecologically significant questions such as the dynamics of desertification, restoration of degraded landscapes, biodiversity changes along environmental gradients, and shrubland-grassland transitions.

  13. The Response of Environmental Capacity for Malaria Transmission in West Africa to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The climate of West Africa is characterized by north-south gradients in temperature and rainfall. Environmental capacity for malaria transmission (e.g. as measured by vectorial capacity) is strongly tied to these two variables; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the lifespan of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. A change in climate is therefore expected to lead to changes in the distribution of malaria transmission. Current general circulation models agree that the temperature in West Africa is expected to increase by several degrees in the next century. However they predict a wide range of possible rainfall scenarios in the future, from intense drying to significant increases in rainfall (Christensen et al., 2007). The effects these changes will have on environmental capacity for malaria transmission depend on the magnitude and direction of the changes, and on current conditions. For example, malaria transmission will be more sensitive to positive changes in rainfall in dry areas where mosquito populations are currently limited by water availability than in relatively wet areas. Here, we analyze combinations of changes in rainfall and temperature within the ranges predicted by GCMs, and assess the impact these combinations will have on the environmental capacity for malaria transmission. In particular, we identify climate change scenarios that are likely to have the greatest impact on environmental capacity for malaria transmission, as well as geographic "hot spots" where the greatest changes are to be expected. Christensen, J. H., Busuioc, A., & et al. (2007). Regional climate projections. In S. Solomon (Ed.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  14. COHORT CHANGE, DIFFUSION, AND SUPPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SPENDING IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.; Hunter, Lori M.

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing and sometimes heated debates over the direction and size of the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on environmental concern contrast post-materialist and affluence arguments, suggesting a positive relationship in high-income nations, with counter arguments for a negative or near zero relationship. A diffusion-of-innovations approach adapts parts of both arguments by predicting that high SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, which produces a positive relationship. Like other innovations, however, environmentalism diffuses over time to other SES groups, which subsequently weakens the association. We test this argument using the General Social Survey from 1973 to 2008 to compare support for environmental spending across 83 cohorts born from around 1900 to 1982. In developing attitudes before, during, and after the emergence of environmentalism, varying cohorts provide the contrast needed to identify long-term changes in environmental concern. Multilevel age, period, and cohort models support diffusion arguments by demonstrating the effects, across cohorts, of three common indicators of SES – education, income and occupational prestige – first strengthen and then weaken. This finding suggests that diffusion of environmental concern first produces positive relationships consistent with postmaterialism arguments and later produces null or negative relationships consistent with global environmentalism arguments. PMID:24639591

  15. COHORT CHANGE, DIFFUSION, AND SUPPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SPENDING IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Pampel, Fred C; Hunter, Lori M

    2012-09-01

    The long-standing and sometimes heated debates over the direction and size of the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on environmental concern contrast post-materialist and affluence arguments, suggesting a positive relationship in high-income nations, with counter arguments for a negative or near zero relationship. A diffusion-of-innovations approach adapts parts of both arguments by predicting that high SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, which produces a positive relationship. Like other innovations, however, environmentalism diffuses over time to other SES groups, which subsequently weakens the association. We test this argument using the General Social Survey from 1973 to 2008 to compare support for environmental spending across 83 cohorts born from around 1900 to 1982. In developing attitudes before, during, and after the emergence of environmentalism, varying cohorts provide the contrast needed to identify long-term changes in environmental concern. Multilevel age, period, and cohort models support diffusion arguments by demonstrating the effects, across cohorts, of three common indicators of SES - education, income and occupational prestige - first strengthen and then weaken. This finding suggests that diffusion of environmental concern first produces positive relationships consistent with postmaterialism arguments and later produces null or negative relationships consistent with global environmentalism arguments. PMID:24639591

  16. COHORT CHANGE, DIFFUSION, AND SUPPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SPENDING IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Pampel, Fred C; Hunter, Lori M

    2012-09-01

    The long-standing and sometimes heated debates over the direction and size of the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on environmental concern contrast post-materialist and affluence arguments, suggesting a positive relationship in high-income nations, with counter arguments for a negative or near zero relationship. A diffusion-of-innovations approach adapts parts of both arguments by predicting that high SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, which produces a positive relationship. Like other innovations, however, environmentalism diffuses over time to other SES groups, which subsequently weakens the association. We test this argument using the General Social Survey from 1973 to 2008 to compare support for environmental spending across 83 cohorts born from around 1900 to 1982. In developing attitudes before, during, and after the emergence of environmentalism, varying cohorts provide the contrast needed to identify long-term changes in environmental concern. Multilevel age, period, and cohort models support diffusion arguments by demonstrating the effects, across cohorts, of three common indicators of SES - education, income and occupational prestige - first strengthen and then weaken. This finding suggests that diffusion of environmental concern first produces positive relationships consistent with postmaterialism arguments and later produces null or negative relationships consistent with global environmentalism arguments.

  17. Satellite Models for Global Environmental Change in the NASA Health and Air Quality Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, J.; Estes, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. Health and Air Quality providers and researchers are effective by the global environmental changes that are occurring and they need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. This presentation maintains a diverse constellation of Earth observing research satellites and sponsors research in developing satellite data applications across a wide spectrum of areas including environmental health; infectious disease; air quality standards, policies, and regulations; and the impact of climate change on health and air quality. Successfully providing predictions with the accuracy and specificity required by decision makers will require advancements over current capabilities in a number of interrelated areas. These areas include observations, modeling systems, forecast development, application integration, and the research to operations transition process. This presentation will highlight many projects on which NASA satellites have been a primary partner with local, state, Federal, and international operational agencies over the past twelve years in these areas. Domestic and International officials have increasingly recognized links between environment and health. Health providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the health research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental

  18. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions. PMID:26546049

  19. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions.

  20. Environmental and hormonal factors controlling reversible colour change in crab spiders.

    PubMed

    Llandres, Ana L; Figon, Florent; Christidès, Jean-Philippe; Mandon, Nicole; Casas, Jérôme

    2013-10-15

    Habitat heterogeneity that occurs within an individual's lifetime may favour the evolution of reversible plasticity. Colour reversibility has many different functions in animals, such as thermoregulation, crypsis through background matching and social interactions. However, the mechanisms underlying reversible colour changes are yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study aims to determine the environmental and hormonal factors underlying morphological colour changes in Thomisus onustus crab spiders and the biochemical metabolites produced during these changes. We quantified the dynamics of colour changes over time: spiders were kept in yellow and white containers under natural light conditions and their colour was measured over 15 days using a spectrophotometer. We also characterised the chemical metabolites of spiders changing to a yellow colour using HPLC. Hormonal control of colour change was investigated by injecting 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into spiders. We found that background colouration was a major environmental factor responsible for colour change in crab spiders: individuals presented with white and yellow backgrounds changed to white and yellow colours, respectively. An ommochrome precursor, 3-OH-kynurenine, was the main pigment responsible for yellow colour. Spiders injected with 20E displayed a similar rate of change towards yellow colouration as spiders kept in yellow containers and exposed to natural sunlight. This study demonstrates novel hormonal manipulations that are capable of inducing reversible colour change.

  1. Antarctic Pliocene Biotic and Environmental Change in a Global Context Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilty, P. G.; Whitehead, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Pliocene was globally an interval of dramatic climate change and often compared with the environment evolving through human-induced global change. Antarctic history needs to be integrated into global patterns. The Prydz Bay-Prince Charles Mountains region of East Antarctica is a major source of data on Late Paleozoic-Recent changes in Antarctic biota and environment. This paper reviews what is known of 13 marine transgressions in the Late Neogene of the region and attempts to compare the Antarctic pattern with global patterns, such as those identified through global sequence stratigraphic analysis. Although temporal resolution in Antarctic sections is not always as good as for sections elsewhere, enough data exist to indicate that many events can be construed as part of global changes. It is expected that further correlation will be effected. During much of the Pliocene, there was less continental ice, reduced sea-ice cover, probably higher sea-level, penetration of marine conditions deep into the hinterland, and independent evidence to indicate that this was due to warmth. The Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone probably was much farther south than currently. There have been major changes in the marine fauna, and distribution of surviving species since the mid-Pliocene. Antarctic fish faunas underwent major changes during this interval with evolution of a major new Subfamily and diversification in at least two subfamilies. No palynological evidence of terrestrial vegetation has been recovered from the Prydz Bay - Prince Charles Mountain region. Analysis of origin and extinction data for two global planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphic zonations shows that the interval Late Miocene-Pliocene was an interval of enhanced extinction and evolution, consistent with an interval of more rapid and high amplitude fluctuating environments.

  2. Environmental enrichment is associated with rapid volumetric brain changes in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Jan; Allemang-Grand, Rylan; Dazai, Jun; Lerch, Jason P

    2015-04-01

    Environmental enrichment is a model of increased structural brain plasticity. Previous histological observations have shown molecular and cellular changes in a few pre-determined areas of the rodent brain. However, little is known about the time course of enrichment-induced brain changes and how they distribute across the whole brain. Here we expose adult mice to three weeks of environmental enrichment using a novel re-configurable maze design. In-vivo MRI shows volumetric brain changes in brain areas related to spatial memory, navigation, and sensorimotor experience, such as the hippocampal formation and the sensorimotor cortex. Evidence from a second cohort of mice indicates that these plastic changes might occur as early as 24h after exposure. This suggests that novel experiences are powerful modulators of plasticity even in the adult brain. Understanding and harnessing the underlying molecular mechanisms could advance future treatments of neurological disease.

  3. Estimating the tolerance of species to the effects of global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Dakos, Vasilis; Bascompte, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental change is affecting species distribution and their interactions with other species. In particular, the main drivers of environmental change strongly affect the strength of interspecific interactions with considerable consequences for biodiversity. However, extrapolating the effects observed on pair-wise interactions to entire ecological networks is challenging. Here we propose a framework to estimate the tolerance to changes in the strength of mutualistic interaction that species in mutualistic networks can sustain before becoming extinct. We identify the scenarios where generalist species can be the least tolerant. We show that the least tolerant species across different scenarios do not appear to have uniquely common characteristics. Species' tolerance is extremely sensitive to the direction of change in the strength of mutualistic interaction, as well as to the observed mutualistic trade-offs between the number of partners and the strength of the interactions.

  4. Antarctica and Global Environmental Change - Lessons from the Past Inform Climate Change Policy Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, R. B.; Scientific Team Of Odp Drilling Leg 318; Andrill Science Team

    2011-12-01

    Antarctic's continental ice, sea ice, and the broader Southern Ocean form a coupled and complex climate system that interacts in important yet poorly understood ways with the low and mid-latitudes. Because of its unusual sovereignty status and the fact that there is no indigenous human population, information about climate change in Antarctica penetrates the policy world less readily than findings from other regions. Yet, Antarctica's potential to impact climate change globally is disproportionately large. Vulnerable portions of the ice sheet may contribute up to 3 to 5 meters of sea level rise in the coming centuries, including significant amounts within the next 50 years. Loss of sea ice and other changes in the Southern Ocean may reduce oceanic uptake of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide, exacerbating global warming worldwide. Antarctica's impact on the Southern Hemisphere wind field is now well-established, contributing to ongoing decadal-scale perturbations in continental precipitation as well as major reorganizations of Southern Ocean food chains. Recent scientific drilling programs in the Ross Sea and off Wilkes Land, Antarctica, provide valuable insights into past climatic and biogeochemical change in Antarctica, insights of great relevance to international and national climate change policy. In this paper, we discuss polar amplification, sea level variability coupled to Antarctic ice volume, and response timescales as seen through the lens of past climate change. One key result emerging from multiple drilling programs is recognition of unanticipated dynamism in the Antarctic ice sheet during portions of the Pliocene (at a time with pCO2 levels equivalent to those anticipated late this century) as well as during "super-interglacials" of the Pleistocene. Evidence for substantially warmer ocean temperatures and reduced sea ice cover at these times suggests that polar amplification of natural climate variability, even under scenarios of relative small amounts

  5. Natural variation in stomatal responses to environmental changes among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sho; Monda, Keina; Negi, Juntaro; Konishi, Fumitaka; Ishikawa, Shinobu; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Goto, Nobuharu; Iba, Koh

    2015-01-01

    Stomata are small pores surrounded by guard cells that regulate gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Guard cells integrate multiple environmental signals and control the aperture width to ensure appropriate stomatal function for plant survival. Leaf temperature can be used as an indirect indicator of stomatal conductance to environmental signals. In this study, leaf thermal imaging of 374 Arabidopsis ecotypes was performed to assess their stomatal responses to changes in environmental CO2 concentrations. We identified three ecotypes, Köln (Kl-4), Gabelstein (Ga-0), and Chisdra (Chi-1), that have particularly low responsiveness to changes in CO2 concentrations. We next investigated stomatal responses to other environmental signals in these selected ecotypes, with Col-0 as the reference. The stomatal responses to light were also reduced in the three selected ecotypes when compared with Col-0. In contrast, their stomatal responses to changes in humidity were similar to those of Col-0. Of note, the responses to abscisic acid, a plant hormone involved in the adaptation of plants to reduced water availability, were not entirely consistent with the responses to humidity. This study demonstrates that the stomatal responses to CO2 and light share closely associated signaling mechanisms that are not generally correlated with humidity signaling pathways in these ecotypes. The results might reflect differences between ecotypes in intrinsic response mechanisms to environmental signals. PMID:25706630

  6. Two episodes of environmental change at the Permian-Triassic boundary of the GSSP section Meishan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongfu; Xie, Shucheng; Luo, Genming; Algeo, Thomas J.; Zhang, Kexin

    2012-11-01

    High-resolution stratigraphic records through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) interval of the global stratotype section and point (GSSP) at Meishan, Zhejiang Province, China reveal that the PTB crisis was not a single, abrupt catastrophe. A bed-by-bed analysis of environmental and biotic changes makes clear that the crisis can be resolved into two discrete episodes, each consisting of three stages: A) unstably oscillating conditions, B) peak crisis conditions, and C) ameliorating conditions. The first crisis episode commenced in Bed 23, peaked in Beds 24e-26, and ameliorated in Beds 27 and 28, while the second crisis episode commenced in Bed 29, peaked in Beds 34-38, and ameliorated in Beds 39 and higher. The macroscopic mass extinctions happened not at the beginning, nor the end of each cycle, but at times when the crisis or perturbation of environments began. These extinction events do not show detectable feedbacks to concurrent environmental changes. In each episode, cyanobacteria proliferation postdated the macroscopic extinction while proliferation of green sulfur bacteria predated the environmental crisis. Causational analysis between environmental and microbial changes show that geomicrobial functional groups exercised pronounced effects on the marine C-N-S cycles and ocean redox conditions during the PTB crisis. It is possible thus that the microbial crises played an important role in strengthening or evening triggering the environmental crisis.

  7. Effect of climate change on environmental flow indicators in the narew basin, poland.

    PubMed

    Piniewski, Mikołaj; Laizé, Cédric L R; Acreman, Michael C; Okruszko, Tomasz; Schneider, Christof

    2014-01-01

    Environmental flows-the quantity of water required to maintain a river ecosystem in its desired state-are of particular importance in areas of high natural value. Water-dependent ecosystems are exposed to the risk of climate change through altered precipitation and evaporation. Rivers in the Narew basin in northeastern Poland are known for their valuable river and wetland ecosystems, many of them in pristine or near-pristine condition. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the environmental flow regime of the Narew river system, caused by climate change, as simulated by hydrological models with different degrees of physical characterization and spatial aggregation. Two models were assessed: the river basin scale model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the continental model of water availability and use WaterGAP. Future climate change scenarios were provided by two general circulation models coupled with the A2 emission scenario: IPSL-CM4 and MIROC3.2. To assess the impact of climate change on environmental flows, a method based conceptually on the "range of variability" approach was used. The results indicate that the environmental flow regime in the Narew basin is subject to climate change risk, whose magnitude and spatial variability varies with climate model and hydrological modeling scale. Most of the analyzed sites experienced moderate impacts for the Generic Environmental Flow Indicator (GEFI), the Floodplain Inundation Indicator, and the River Habitat Availability Indicator. The consistency between SWAT and WaterGAP for GEFI was medium: in 55 to 66% of analyzed sites, the models suggested the same level of impact. Hence, we suggest that state-of-the-art, high-resolution, global- or continental-scale models, such as WaterGAP, could be useful tools for water management decision-makers and wetland conservation practitioners, whereas models such as SWAT should serve as a complementary tool for more specific, smaller-scale, local

  8. Performing Environmental Change: MED Theatre and the Changing Face of Community-Based Performance Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Kerrie

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a programme of work produced by community-based theatre company, Manaton and East Dartmoor (MED) Theatre, addressing issues of climate change as they impact on life in rural Devon, UK. After some discussion of MED Theatre's constitution as a community-based company and the group's long-term engagement with the place, history,…

  9. Water governance, resilience and global environmental change - a reassessment of integrated water resources management (IWRM).

    PubMed

    Galaz, V

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is gaining increased acceptance among water policy makers and researchers as a way to create more effective governance institutions, leading towards integrated water development solutions for poverty alleviation, while addressing social, economic and environmental aspects of water challenges. However, global environmental change poses fundamental challenges to water policy makers as it implies vast scientific, and hence, policy uncertainty; its implications for international water governance initiatives remain unspecified, effectively hindering dialogue on how current IWRM initiatives should be modified. This paper addresses the lag between our growing understanding of resilient interconnected freshwater resources (and their governance) and the reforms being promoted by policy makers. In particular, there is a need to rethink some of IWRM's key components to better tackle the challenges posed by the complex behaviour of interconnected social-ecological systems and global environmental change.

  10. Phase change material applications in buildings: an environmental assessment for some Spanish climate severities.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; López-Sabirón, Ana M; Mainar-Toledo, M D; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio

    2013-02-01

    This work proposes an environmental analysis based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA was applied to determine if energy savings are large enough to balance the environmental impact caused during phase change material (PCM) manufacture and its installation on tiles. Inputs and outputs of each management stage have been defined and the inventory emissions were calculated by SIMAPRO v 7.3.2. Emissions were classified into several impact categories; climate change, human toxicity, acidification, ozone depletion, particulate matter formation and eutrophication. Three commercial PCMs, evaluated using five different Spanish weather climates, were studied to explore a wide range of conditions. The main results conclude that the use of PCM can reduce the overall energy consumption and the environmental impacts. This reduction is strongly influenced by the climate conditions and the PCM introduced. PMID:23262321

  11. Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A

    2008-12-01

    The past 30 years have seen dramatic changes in the food and physical activity environments, both of which contribute to the changes in human behavior that could explain obesity. This paper reviews documented changes in the food environment, changes in the physical activity environment and the mechanisms through which people respond to these environments, often without conscious awareness or control. The most important environmental changes have been increases in food accessibility, food salience and decreases in the cost of food. The increases in food marketing and advertising create food cues that artificially stimulate people to feel hungry. The existence of a metabolic pathway that allows excess energy to be stored as fat suggests that people were designed to overeat. Many internal mechanisms favor neurophysiologic responses to food cues that result in overconsumption. External cues, such as food abundance, food variety and food novelty, cause people to override internal signals of satiety. Other factors, such as conditioning and priming, tie food to other desirable outcomes, and thus increase the frequency that hunger is stimulated by environmental cues. People's natural response to the environmental cues are colored by framing, and judgments are flawed and biased depending on how information is presented. People lack insight into how the food environment affects them, and subsequently are unable to change the factors that are responsible for excessive energy consumption. Understanding the causal pathway for overconsumption will be necessary to interrupt the mechanisms that lead to obesity. PMID:19136984

  12. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    DOE PAGES

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; Lu, Ying; Brodie, Eoin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-11-25

    In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal andmore » bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction.« less

  13. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    SciTech Connect

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; Lu, Ying; Brodie, Eoin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-11-25

    In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal and bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction.

  14. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    PubMed Central

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; Lu, Ying; Brodie, Eoin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal and bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction. PMID:25505459

  15. Attitude Change as a Result of a Short Course on Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    This study was conducted to determine what attitude changes take place in a group of secondary school teachers as a result of participation in a short course on the environmental problems of air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, population problems and the use of natural resources. A secondary purpose was to determine if the teachers…

  16. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  17. Environmental Education in Serbian Primary Schools: Challenges and Changes in Curriculum, Pedagogy, and Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanišic, Jelena; Maksic, Slavica

    2014-01-01

    The protection of human health and the preservation of the environment are topics that form an integral part of the primary school curriculum in Serbia. However, research studies have shown that students do not have enough knowledge to contribute to the development of a healthy lifestyle and environmental awareness. The latest changes in school…

  18. Observing environmental change in of the Gulf of Maine: ICUC smartphone app

    EPA Science Inventory

    Want to help collect data on environmental change in the Gulf of Maine with your smartphone? The Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) is growing the community of citizen scientists in the Gulf of Maine region through its new smartphone app: ICUC (...

  19. National Institute for Global Environmental Change, July 1, 1994-- June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the report from the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the period July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995. Separate sections for the Great Plains, Midwestern, Norhteast, South Central, Southeast and Western regions are present. Each section contains project descriptions and abstracts for projects managed by the respective regional offices.

  20. Changes in Mobility of Children with Cerebral Palsy over Time and across Environmental Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, Beth L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Gracely, Edward J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; O'Neil, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined changes in mobility methods of children with cerebral palsy (CP) over time and across environmental settings. Sixty-two children with CP, ages 6-14 years and classified as levels II-IV on the Gross Motor Function Classification System, were randomly selected from a larger data base and followed for three to four years. On each…

  1. An Investigation of Environmental Change Associated with Urban Renewal in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, A. G.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1995-01-01

    A sample of five sites of recent urban renewal activity in Sandwell, West Midlands, U.K. formed the basis for an audit survey of the nature and degree of associated change in a broad set of physical, built, and infrastructure environmental parameters. Data were mostly derived from questionnaire surveys of professionals with specific environmental…

  2. Changing the Environmental Behaviour of Small Business Owners: The Business Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Beth; Redmond, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the environment is something of a cracked record to many small business owners, as historically any calls to business to change or improve their practices or behaviours were from the "environmental" or "green" perspective, rather than from a business perspective. As a consequence, many small businesses have…

  3. Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change in the Mississippi Delta: Considerations for Evaluation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Honeycutt, Sally; Davis, Melvin; Dauria, Emily; Berg, Carla; Dove, Cassandra; Gamble, Abigail; Hawkins, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Community-level policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies may offer an economical and sustainable approach to chronic disease prevention. The rapidly growing number of untested but promising PSE strategies currently underway offers an exciting opportunity to establish practice-based evidence for this approach. This article…

  4. Global Climate Change and Environmental Contaminants: A SETAC Call for Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change has become a global environmental threat that will impact virtually every ecosystem on the planet for generations to come. The widespread nature of the threat is evident in not only industrialized countries, but in remote locations, such as polar regions and oceani...

  5. Expanding Students' Ability to Conceptualise the Dynamics of Changing Places in the Teaching of Environmental Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Mike

    2016-01-01

    "Research has consistently found that pedagogy informed by knowledge of students' existing ideas is more efficient in promoting conceptual change than traditional methods of instruction". Learners in the sub-field of environmental geography exhibit preconceptions that frame and sometimes hinder their knowledge acquisition. Those…

  6. Change in Moral Outlook Is an Important Topic of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suohua, Li

    2004-01-01

    It is a common recognition that humankind is facing an ecological environmental crisis. In order to protect the ecological system, to protect nature and thus to safeguard the continued existence of humankind, not only technological, economic, and managerial measures are needed, but more importantly, a change must take place in people's thinking so…

  7. MONITORING CHANGES IN THE ESTUARIES OF THE UNITED STATES: THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program/Estuaries (EMAP-E) is to estimate the current status, extent, changes, and trends in ecological indicators of the condition of the nation's coastal resources (intertidal, subtidal, and offshore) on a regional and ...

  8. Nucleic acid sequences encoding D1 and D1/D2 domains of human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR)

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2010-04-06

    The invention provides recombinant human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) polypeptides which bind adenovirus. Specifically, polypeptides corresponding to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2 are provided. In another aspect, the invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains and expression vectors for producing the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. The invention also includes an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide fused to a polypeptide which facilitates folding of D1 when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a CAR D1-binding virus, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. The invention also provides a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  9. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  10. Environmental changes impacting Echinococcus transmission: research to support predictive surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Jo-An M; Gray, Darren J; Clements, Archie C A; Barnes, Tamsin S; McManus, Donald P; Yang, Yu R

    2013-03-01

    Echinococcosis, resulting from infection with tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, has a global distribution with 2-3 million people affected and 200,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Costs of treatment for humans and economic losses to the livestock industry have been estimated to exceed $2 billion. These figures are likely to be an underestimation given the challenges with its early detection and the lack of mandatory official reporting policies in most countries. Despite this global burden, echinococcosis remains a neglected zoonosis. The importance of environmental factors in influencing the transmission intensity and distribution of Echinococcus spp. is increasingly being recognized. With the advent of climate change and the influence of global population expansion, food insecurity and land-use changes, questions about the potential impact of changing temperature, rainfall patterns, increasing urbanization, deforestation, grassland degradation and overgrazing on zoonotic disease transmission are being raised. This study is the first to comprehensively review how climate change and anthropogenic environmental factors contribute to the transmission of echinococcosis mediated by changes in animal population dynamics, spatial overlap of competent hosts and the creation of improved conditions for egg survival. We advocate rigorous scientific research to establish the causal link between specific environmental variables and echinococcosis in humans and the incorporation of environmental, animal and human data collection within a sentinel site surveillance network that will complement satellite remote-sensing information. Identifying the environmental determinants of transmission risk to humans will be vital for the design of more accurate predictive models to guide cost-effective pre-emptive public health action against echinococcosis. PMID:23504826

  11. Association of MyoD1a and MyoD1b gene polymorphisms and meat quality traits in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Chen, W X; Ma, Y; Liu, K H

    2015-08-07

    In this study, we identified myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and analyzed the correlation between MRFs and meat quality in rainbow trout. The MyoD1a and MyoD1b genes were cloned from rainbow trout using a homology cloning method. Introns 1 and 2 in the MyoD1a and MyoD1b genes were cloned and submitted to GenBank (accession Nos. FJ623462 and FJ793566). Polymorphisms of MyoD1a and MyoD1b genes were analyzed using single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing, respectively. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the MyoD1 gene, located at 129G→A in exon 1 and 37 G→A in exon 2. The 37 G→A mutation in exon 2 induced the R185K amino acid change in the polypeptide chain. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MyoD2 gene were detected, including 218T→C, 224T→C, 242A→C, 246T→A, 248T→C, 305T→C, and 329C→T. The 246T→A mutation in exon 1 induced the R83K change in the polypeptide chain. In the S3 fragment, meat quality traits of genotypes AA and AB significantly differed from those of genotype BB (P < 0.05). In the S5 fragment, meat quality traits of the genotypes AA and AC were significantly different from the genotypes BB and BC (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the MyoD1a and MyoD1b genes have an important influence on meat quality or were linked to the major genes in these strains. These genes can be used to control muscle fiber traits in rainbow trout, and the mutations in the S3 and S5 fragments can be used as molecular markers for selecting rainbow trout with better meat quality traits.

  12. Coping with Change: The Small Experiment as a Strategic Approach to Environmental Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Katherine N.; Kaplan, Stephen

    2001-12-01

    The patterns of living, planning, and resource utilization as practiced in Western countries for decades are not sustainable; change of some sort is essential. But what changes are appropriate, and, perhaps more important, will people accept them? The small experiment framework provides a strategy for meeting the challenge of change. By encouraging participation, limiting the scale of initial change, and incorporating some aspects of the familiar, many of the difficulties that make change so problematic can be mitigated or even eliminated. An exploration, from a psychological perspective, of the characteristic difficulties surrounding potential change provides the context for a discussion of the components of the small experiment and an analysis of how these elements address these characteristic challenges. A comparison to adaptive management is drawn, and several concrete examples illustrate how the strategy has been used successfully to address a variety of environmental problems.

  13. Using NEON to Measure Adaptation of Vegetation to Changes in Environmental Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P. H.; Kao, R.; Gibson, C.

    2009-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform for documenting and analyzing the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON features sensor networks and experiments linked by cyberinfrastructure to record and archive ecological data for at least 30 years. NEON partitions the United States into 20 ecoclimatic domains. Each domain hosts one fully instrumented core site in a wildland area and two re-locatable sites, which aims to capture ecologically significant gradients (e.g. landuse). Using standardized protocols and an open data policy, NEON data will be gathered from the level of the gene and organism to populations and communities, with extrapolations to the continental scale. In conjunction with environmental data, NEON will conduct field observations and analyses of biological specimens to track biodiversity, population dynamics, productivity, phenology, infectious disease, biogeochemistry and ecohydrology. Here we present a few examples of the type of research NEON will enable using this data. The NEON network will measure and scale many environmental factors that affect vegetation, e.g. temperature, precipitation, and nutrient availability. Direct monitoring of vegetation will enable the study of acclimatory and adaptive changes in vegetation properties over different time scales. Such data will improve the representation of vegetation responses to environmental change in models. The vision behind NEON aims to advance our ability to quantitatively predict ecological change.

  14. The environmental impact of climate change adaptation on land use and water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fezzi, Carlo; Harwood, Amii R.; Lovett, Andrew A.; Bateman, Ian J.

    2015-03-01

    Encouraging adaptation is an essential aspect of the policy response to climate change. Adaptation seeks to reduce the harmful consequences and harness any beneficial opportunities arising from the changing climate. However, given that human activities are the main cause of environmental transformations worldwide, it follows that adaptation itself also has the potential to generate further pressures, creating new threats for both local and global ecosystems. From this perspective, policies designed to encourage adaptation may conflict with regulation aimed at preserving or enhancing environmental quality. This aspect of adaptation has received relatively little consideration in either policy design or academic debate. To highlight this issue, we analyse the trade-offs between two fundamental ecosystem services that will be impacted by climate change: provisioning services derived from agriculture and regulating services in the form of freshwater quality. Results indicate that climate adaptation in the farming sector will generate fundamental changes in river water quality. In some areas, policies that encourage adaptation are expected to be in conflict with existing regulations aimed at improving freshwater ecosystems. These findings illustrate the importance of anticipating the wider impacts of human adaptation to climate change when designing environmental policies.

  15. Responses to temperature and hypoxia as interacting stressors in fish: implications for adaptation to environmental change.

    PubMed

    McBryan, T L; Anttila, K; Healy, T M; Schulte, P M

    2013-10-01

    Anthropogenic environmental change is exposing animals to changes in a complex array of interacting stressors and is already having important effects on the distribution and abundance of species. However, despite extensive examination of the effects of stressors in isolation, knowledge of the effects of stressors in combination is limited. This lack of information makes predicting the responses of organisms to anthropogenic environmental change challenging. Here, we focus on the effects of temperature and hypoxia as interacting stressors in fishes. A review of the available evidence suggests that temperature and hypoxia act synergistically such that small shifts in one stressor could result in large effects on organismal performance when a fish is exposed to the 2 stressors in combination. Although these stressors pose substantial challenges for fish, there also is substantial intraspecific variation in tolerance to these stressors that could act as the raw material for the evolution of improved tolerance. However, the potential for adaptive change is, in part, dependent on the nature of the correlations among traits associated with tolerance. For example, negative genetic correlations (or trade-offs) between tolerances to temperature and hypoxia could limit the potential for adaptation to the combined stressors, while positive genetic correlations might be of benefit. The limited data currently available suggest that tolerances to hypoxia and to high-temperature may be positively correlated in some species of fish, suggesting the possibility for adaptive evolution in these traits in response to anthropogenic environmental change.

  16. Upending the social ecological model to guide health promotion efforts toward policy and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Golden, Shelley D; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Green, Lawrence W; Earp, Jo Anne L; Lieberman, Lisa D

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to change policies and the environments in which people live, work, and play have gained increasing attention over the past several decades. Yet health promotion frameworks that illustrate the complex processes that produce health-enhancing structural changes are limited. Building on the experiences of health educators, community activists, and community-based researchers described in this supplement and elsewhere, as well as several political, social, and behavioral science theories, we propose a new framework to organize our thinking about producing policy, environmental, and other structural changes. We build on the social ecological model, a framework widely employed in public health research and practice, by turning it inside out, placing health-related and other social policies and environments at the center, and conceptualizing the ways in which individuals, their social networks, and organized groups produce a community context that fosters healthy policy and environmental development. We conclude by describing how health promotion practitioners and researchers can foster structural change by (1) conveying the health and social relevance of policy and environmental change initiatives, (2) building partnerships to support them, and (3) promoting more equitable distributions of the resources necessary for people to meet their daily needs, control their lives, and freely participate in the public sphere.

  17. A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Kelly S; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions. PMID:26903924

  18. A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Kelly S.; Hornsey, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions. PMID:26903924

  19. A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Kelly S; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions.

  20. Diarrheal illnesses on the Ecuadorian coast: socio-environmental changes and health concepts

    PubMed Central

    Trostle, James A.; Yépez-Montufar, Jeanneth Alexandra; Corozo-Angulo, Betty; Rodríguez, Marylin

    2013-01-01

    The authors present an ethnoepidemiological study of diarrheal illnesses in 21 communities on the northern coast of Ecuador, where numerous social and environmental changes have taken place since 2001 due to a new highway. As communities realize that nature itself is changing, changes occur in their interpretations of health and disease, which the authors present through a taxonomic classification of diarrheal illnesses. Given the high incidence of diarrheal diseases, alternative concepts have emerged (as compared to those of biomedicine) in relation to causes, symptoms, and treatments. The non-biomedical and biomedical systems overlap, with mixtures of coexistence and resistance. Recognizing this reality means understanding a series of challenges for the official health system, including the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, non-use of health services for some diseases, and perceived relations between environmental contamination and the efficacy of modern and traditional medicines. PMID:20694359

  1. Emergency Response to and Preparedness for Extreme Weather Events and Environmental Changes in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Liao, Yongfeng; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong; Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi

    2016-03-01

    China has achieved impressive rapid economic growth over the past 30 years but accompanied by significant extreme weather events and environmental changes caused by global change and overfast urbanization. Using the absolute hazards index (AHI), we assessed the spatial distribution patterns and related health effects of 4 major extreme natural disasters, including drought, floods (landslides, mudslides), hails, and typhoons from 2000 to 2011 at the provincial level in China. The results showed that (1) central and south China were the most affected by the 4 natural disasters, and north China suffered less; (2) the provinces with higher AHI suffered most from total death, missing people, collapse, and emergently relocated population; (3) the present health emergency response system to disasters in China mainly lacks a multidisciplinary approach. In the concluding section of this article, suggestions on preparedness and rapid response to extreme health events from environmental changes are proposed.

  2. Emergency Response to and Preparedness for Extreme Weather Events and Environmental Changes in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Liao, Yongfeng; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong; Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi

    2016-03-01

    China has achieved impressive rapid economic growth over the past 30 years but accompanied by significant extreme weather events and environmental changes caused by global change and overfast urbanization. Using the absolute hazards index (AHI), we assessed the spatial distribution patterns and related health effects of 4 major extreme natural disasters, including drought, floods (landslides, mudslides), hails, and typhoons from 2000 to 2011 at the provincial level in China. The results showed that (1) central and south China were the most affected by the 4 natural disasters, and north China suffered less; (2) the provinces with higher AHI suffered most from total death, missing people, collapse, and emergently relocated population; (3) the present health emergency response system to disasters in China mainly lacks a multidisciplinary approach. In the concluding section of this article, suggestions on preparedness and rapid response to extreme health events from environmental changes are proposed. PMID:25246501

  3. Global methane and nitrous oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems due to multiple environmental changes

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Hanqin; Chen, Guangsheng; Lu, Chaoqun; Xu, Xiaofeng; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Banger, Kamaljit; Tao, Bo; Pan, Shufen; Chu, Mingliang; et al

    2015-03-16

    Greenhouse gas (GHG)-induced climate change is among the most pressing sustainability challenges facing humanity today, posing serious risks for ecosystem health. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the two most important GHGs after carbon dioxide (CO2), but their regional and global budgets are not well known. In this paper, we applied a process-based coupled biogeochemical model to concurrently estimate the magnitude and spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes as driven by multiple environmental changes, including climate variability, rising atmospheric CO2, increasing nitrogen deposition, tropospheric ozone pollution, land use change, and nitrogen fertilizer use.

  4. Chronic Cocaine Dampens Dopamine Signaling during Cocaine Intoxication and Unbalances D1 over D2 Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kicheon; Pan, Yingtian

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine increases triggered by cocaine and consequent stimulation of dopamine receptors (including D1 and D2) are associated with its rewarding effects. However, while facilitation of D1 receptor (D1R) signaling enhances the rewarding effects of cocaine, facilitation of D2R signaling decreases it, which indicates that for cocaine to be rewarding it must result in a predominance of D1R over D2R signaling. Moreover, the transition to compulsive cocaine intake might result from an imbalance between D1R and D2R signaling. To test the hypothesis that chronic cocaine use unbalances D1R over D2R signaling during cocaine intoxication, we used microprobe optical imaging to compare dynamic changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i, marker of neuronal activation) to acute cocaine in striatal D1R-EGFP and D2R-EGFP-expressing neurons between control and chronically treated mice. Chronic cocaine attenuated responses to acute cocaine in D1R (blunting Ca2+ increases by 67 ± 16%) and D2R (blunting Ca2+ decrease by 72 ± 17%) neurons in most D1R and D2R neurons (∼75%). However, the dynamics of this attenuation during cocaine intoxication was longer lasting for D2R than for D1R. Thus, whereas control mice showed a fast but short-lasting predominance of D1R over D2R signaling (peaking at ∼8 min) during acute cocaine intoxication, in chronically treated mice D1R predominance was sustained for >30 min (throughout the measurement period). Thus, chronic cocaine use dramatically reduced cocaine-induced DA signaling, shifting the balance between D1R and D2R signaling during intoxication to a predominance of D1R (stimulatory) over D2R (inhibitory) signaling, which might facilitate compulsive intake in addiction. PMID:24089490

  5. Deletion of the Rab GAP Tbc1d1 modifies glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hargett, Stefan R; Walker, Natalie N; Hussain, Syed S; Hoehn, Kyle L; Keller, Susanna R

    2015-08-01

    Tbc1d1 is a Rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) implicated in regulating intracellular retention and cell surface localization of the glucose transporter GLUT4 and thus glucose uptake in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Tbc1d1 is most abundant in skeletal muscle but is expressed at varying levels among different skeletal muscles. Previous studies with male Tbc1d1-deficient (Tbc1d1(-/-)) mice on standard and high-fat diets established a role for Tbc1d1 in glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. Here we describe similar, but also additional abnormalities in male and female Tbc1d1(-/-) mice. We corroborate that Tbc1d1 loss leads to skeletal muscle-specific and skeletal muscle type-dependent abnormalities in GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake in female and male mice. Using subcellular fractionation, we show that Tbc1d1 controls basal intracellular GLUT4 retention in large skeletal muscles. However, cell surface labeling of extensor digitorum longus muscle indicates that Tbc1d1 does not regulate basal GLUT4 cell surface exposure as previously suggested. Consistent with earlier observations, female and male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice demonstrate increased energy expenditure and skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, we observe sex-dependent differences in in vivo phenotypes. Female, but not male, Tbc1d1(-/-) mice have decreased body weight and impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, but only male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice show increased lipid clearance after oil gavage. We surmise that similar changes at the tissue level cause differences in whole-body metabolism between male and female Tbc1d1(-/-) mice and between male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice in different studies due to variations in body composition and nutrient handling.

  6. Deletion of the Rab GAP Tbc1d1 modifies glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hargett, Stefan R; Walker, Natalie N; Hussain, Syed S; Hoehn, Kyle L; Keller, Susanna R

    2015-08-01

    Tbc1d1 is a Rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) implicated in regulating intracellular retention and cell surface localization of the glucose transporter GLUT4 and thus glucose uptake in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Tbc1d1 is most abundant in skeletal muscle but is expressed at varying levels among different skeletal muscles. Previous studies with male Tbc1d1-deficient (Tbc1d1(-/-)) mice on standard and high-fat diets established a role for Tbc1d1 in glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. Here we describe similar, but also additional abnormalities in male and female Tbc1d1(-/-) mice. We corroborate that Tbc1d1 loss leads to skeletal muscle-specific and skeletal muscle type-dependent abnormalities in GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake in female and male mice. Using subcellular fractionation, we show that Tbc1d1 controls basal intracellular GLUT4 retention in large skeletal muscles. However, cell surface labeling of extensor digitorum longus muscle indicates that Tbc1d1 does not regulate basal GLUT4 cell surface exposure as previously suggested. Consistent with earlier observations, female and male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice demonstrate increased energy expenditure and skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, we observe sex-dependent differences in in vivo phenotypes. Female, but not male, Tbc1d1(-/-) mice have decreased body weight and impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, but only male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice show increased lipid clearance after oil gavage. We surmise that similar changes at the tissue level cause differences in whole-body metabolism between male and female Tbc1d1(-/-) mice and between male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice in different studies due to variations in body composition and nutrient handling. PMID:26015432

  7. Middle Holocene environmental change in central Korea and its linkage to summer and winter monsoon changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jaesoo; Yang, Dong-Yoon; Lee, Jin-Young; Hong, Sei-Sun; Um, In Kwon

    2015-07-01

    To trace the surficial responses of lowlands to past climate change, we investigated δ13C in total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratios, magnetic susceptibility (MS), and silicon (Si) intensity (directly proportional to concentration) in wetland sediments collected from the Gimpo area of central Korea, covering 6600-4600 cal yr BP. Two organic layers with high TOC%, negatively depleted δ13CTOC values (- 27 to - 29‰), low MS values, and low Si intensities were found at 6200-5900 and 5200-4800 cal yr BP, respectively. These middle Holocene wet periods corresponded to relatively intensified summer monsoon and solar activity periods. The intervening dry period (5900-5200 cal yr BP) with high MS, high Si, and low TOC% corresponded to an intensified dust-activity interval and stronger winter monsoon. This multi-centennial climatic fluctuation of wet periods (6200-5900 cal yr BP and 5200-4800 cal yr BP) and an intervening dry period (5900-5200 cal yr BP) in central Korea was more synchronous with climate change in the arid inner part of China than with that in South China, suggesting possible strong high-latitude-driven climatic influences (e.g., North Atlantic cooling events) during the middle Holocene.

  8. 26 CFR 25.2522(d)-1 - Additional cross references.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional cross references. 25.2522(d)-1 Section 25.2522(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2522(d)-1 Additional cross references. (a) See section 14 of the...

  9. 26 CFR 25.2522(d)-1 - Additional cross references.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional cross references. 25.2522(d)-1 Section 25.2522(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2522(d)-1 Additional cross references. (a) See section 14 of the...

  10. Environmental change in the Limfjord, Denmark (ca 7500-1500 cal yrs BP): a multiproxy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jonathan P.; Ryves, David B.; Rasmussen, Peter; Knudsen, Karen L.; Petersen, Kaj S.; Olsen, Jesper; Leng, Melanie J.; Kristensen, Peter; McGowan, Suzanne; Philippsen, Bente

    2013-10-01

    The Limfjord region of northern Jutland, Denmark, supports a rich archaeological record dating back to the Mesolithic, which documents long-term change in human practices and utilisation of marine resources since approximately 7500 BP. The presence and availability of marine resources in the Limfjord is sensitively regulated by environmental parameters such as salinity, sedimentary regime, nutrient status and primary productivity, but long-term changes in these parameters are currently poorly understood. In this study a multiproxy approach (including sedimentary parameters, diatoms, molluscs, foraminifera, sedimentary pigments, C and O stable isotopes and plant macrofossils) has been adopted to assess environmental change over the period ca 7500-1500 cal yrs BP at Kilen, a coastal fjord (before AD 1856) situated in the Western Limfjord. A diatom-based salinity transfer function based on a pan-Baltic training set has been applied to the fossil diatom dataset for quantitative assessment of salinity change over the study period. This study demonstrates that large-scale shifts in salinity are a common feature of the Limfjord's long-term history and are driven by the level of connection with the North Sea and the Skagerrak respectively, which in turn is likely driven by the complex interplay between climate, sea-level change, current velocity and rates of erosion/sedimentary accretion. Three shifts in state at Kilen are identified over the study period: a deep, periodically stratified fjord with medium-high salinity (and high productivity) between ca 7500-5000 BP, followed by a gradual transition to a shallow benthic system with more oceanic conditions (i.e. higher salinity, lower productivity, slower sedimentary accumulation rate and poorer fossil preservation) after ca 5000 BP and no stratification after ca 4400 BP, and lastly, within this shallow phase, an abrupt shift to brackish conditions around 2000 BP. Environmental-societal interactions are discussed on the

  11. Changes in structural health monitoring system capability due to aircraft environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Jeffrey D.

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) promises to decrease the maintenance cost and increase the availability of aging aircraft fleets by fundamentally changing the way structural inspections are performed. But this promise can only be realized through the consistent and predictable performance of a SHM system throughout the entire remaining life of an aircraft. In a sensor-based SHM system, sensor signal changes are analyzed and interpreted to identify structural flaws. But aircraft environmental factors such as temperature fluctuations, cyclic strain and exposure to various aircraft fluids also have the potential to change SHM sensor signals, raising questions about long term SHM system capability. This research begins by analyzing the current USAF inspection paradigm, known aircraft environmental factors, representative structural inspection locations for the F-15 and C-130, and current SHM technologies. A design of experiments approach is used to build and execute an experiment to determine the effect of one aircraft environmental factor (cyclic strain) on a common SHM technology (PZT-based sensors). Analysis of the experimental results shows the sensors to be significantly affected by cyclic strain, and that the effects can be estimated using a power equation model. A "probability of detection (POD) degradation model" is then developed by extending existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) POD analysis techniques. This model demonstrates how changes in sensor performance due to an aircraft environmental factor can be used to estimate the change in overall performance of the SHM system. This POD degradation model provides a common framework to predict changes in SHM system performance over the remaining life of an aircraft. An example combining the experimental results with an existing SHM POD analysis shows how the POD degradation model can be applied to current SHM research.

  12. Post-transcriptional regulation of dopamine D1 receptor expression in caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Tobón, Krishna E; Catuzzi, Jennifer E; Cote, Samantha R; Sonaike, Adenike; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2015-07-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor is centrally involved in mediating the effects of cocaine and is essential for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Changes in D1 receptor expression have been reported in various models of cocaine addiction; however, the mechanisms that mediate these changes in D1 receptor expression are not well understood. Using preadolescent drd1a-EGFP mice and a binge cocaine treatment protocol we demonstrate that the D1 receptor is post-transcriptionally regulated in the caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized animal. While cocaine-sensitized mice express high levels of steady-state D1 receptor mRNA, the expression of D1 receptor protein is not elevated. We determined that the post-transcriptional regulation of D1 receptor mRNA is rapidly attenuated and D1 receptor protein levels increase within 30 min when the sensitized mice are challenged with cocaine. The rapid increase in D1 receptor protein levels requires de novo protein synthesis and correlates with the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in the cocaine-sensitized mice. The increase in D1 receptor protein levels in the caudate-putamen inversely correlated with the levels of microRNA 142-3p and 382, both of which regulate D1 receptor protein expression. The levels of these two microRNAs decreased significantly within 5 min of cocaine challenge in sensitized mice. The results provide novel insights into the previously unknown rapid kinetics of D1 receptor protein expression which occurs in a time scale that is comparable to the expression of immediate early genes. Furthermore, the results suggest a potential novel role for inherently labile microRNAs in regulating the rapid expression of D1 receptor protein in cocaine-sensitized animals. PMID:25900179

  13. Post-transcriptional regulation of dopamine D1 receptor expression in caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized mice

    PubMed Central

    Tobón, Krishna E.; Catuzzi, Jennifer E.; Cote, Samantha R.; Sonaike, Adenike; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor is centrally involved in mediating the effects of cocaine and is essential for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Changes in D1 receptor expression has been reported in various models of cocaine addiction; however, the mechanisms that mediate these changes in D1 receptor expression are not well understood. Using preadolescent drd1a-EGFP mice and a binge cocaine treatment protocol we demonstrate that the D1 receptor is post-transcriptionally regulated in the caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized animal. While cocaine-sensitized mice express high levels of steady state D1 receptor mRNA, the expression of D1 receptor protein is not elevated. We determined that the post-transcriptional regulation of D1 receptor mRNA is rapidly attenuated and D1 receptor protein levels increase within thirty minutes when the sensitized mice are challenged with cocaine. The rapid increase in D1 receptor protein levels requires de novo protein synthesis and correlates with the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in the cocaine-sensitized mice. The increase in D1 receptor protein levels in the caudate-putamen inversely correlated to the levels of microRNA 142-3p and 382, both of which regulate D1 receptor protein expression. The levels of these two microRNAs decreased significantly within five minutes of cocaine challenge in sensitized mice. The results provide novel insights into the previously unknown rapid kinetics of D1 receptor protein expression which occurs in a time scale that is comparable to the expression of immediate early genes. Furthermore, the results suggests a potential novel role for inherently labile microRNAs in regulating the rapid expression of D1 receptor protein in cocaine-sensitized animals. PMID:25900179

  14. Identifying the effects of environmental and policy change interventions on healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Deborah J; Barrington, Wendy E; Beresford, Shirley A A

    2015-03-18

    Obesity has been characterized as a disease. Strategies to change the incidence and prevalence of this disease include a focus on changing physical and social environments, over and above individual-level strategies, using a multilevel or systems approach. We focus our attention on evidence published between 2008 and 2013 on the effectiveness of interventions in nutrition environments, i.e., environmental interventions designed to influence the intake of healthful foods and amount of energy consumed. An overarching socioecological framework that has guided much of this research was used to characterize different types of environmental strategies. Intervention examples in each area of the framework are provided with a discussion of key findings and related conceptual and methodological issues. The emphasis in this review is on adults, but clearly this literature is only one part of the picture. Much research has been focused on child-specific interventions, including environmental interventions. Some evidence suggests effectiveness of policy-based or other types of interventions that aim to regulate or restructure environments to promote healthy dietary choices, and these strategies would apply to both children and adults. Opportunities to evaluate these policy changes in adults' social and physical environments are rare. Much of the existing research has been with children. As conceptual and methodological issues continue to be identified and resolved, we hope that future research in this domain will identify environmental strategies that can be included in intervention toolboxes to build healthy nutrition environments for both adults and children.

  15. Identifying the Effects of Environmental and Policy Change Interventions on Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Deborah J.; Barrington, Wendy E.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been characterized as a disease. Strategies to change the incidence and prevalence of this disease include a focus on changing physical and social environments, over and above individual-level strategies, using a multilevel or systems approach. We focus our attention on evidence published between 2008 and 2013 on the effectiveness of interventions in nutrition environments, i.e., environmental interventions designed to influence the intake of healthful foods and amount of energy consumed. An overarching socioecological framework that has guided much of this research was used to characterize different types of environmental strategies. Intervention examples in each area of the framework are provided with a discussion of key findings and related conceptual and methodological issues. The emphasis in this review is on adults, but clearly this literature is only one part of the picture. Much research has been focused on child-specific interventions, including environmental interventions. Some evidence suggests effectiveness of policy-based or other types of interventions that aim to regulate or restructure environments to promote healthy dietary choices, and these strategies would apply to both children and adults. Opportunities to evaluate these policy changes in adults’ social and physical environments are rare. Much of the existing research has been with children. As conceptual and methodological issues continue to be identified and resolved, we hope that future research in this domain will identify environmental strategies that can be included in intervention toolboxes to build healthy nutrition environments for both adults and children. PMID:25785891

  16. Parallel changes in the taxonomical structure of bacterial communities exposed to a similar environmental disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Laplante, Karine; Derome, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial communities play a central role in ecosystems, by regulating biogeochemical fluxes. Therefore, understanding how multiple functional interactions between species face environmental perturbations is a major concern in conservation biology. Because bacteria can use several strategies, including horizontal gene transfers (HGT), to cope with rapidly changing environmental conditions, potential decoupling between function and taxonomy makes the use of a given species as a general bioindicator problematic. The present work is a first step to characterize the impact of a recent polymetallic gradient over the taxonomical networks of five lacustrine bacterial communities. Given that evolutionary convergence represents one of the best illustration of natural selection, we focused on a system composed of two pairs of impacted and clean lakes in order to test whether similar perturbation exerts a comparable impact on the taxonomical networks of independent bacterial communities. First, we showed that similar environmental stress drove parallel structural changes at the taxonomic level on two independent bacterial communities. Second, we showed that a long-term exposure to contaminant gradients drove significant taxonomic structure changes within three interconnected bacterial communities. Thus, this model lake system is relevant to characterize the strategies, namely acclimation and/or adaptation, of bacterial communities facing environmental perturbations, such as metal contamination. PMID:22393517

  17. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Pampel, Fred C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts. PMID:24179313

  18. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Pampel, Fred C

    2013-09-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts. PMID:24179313

  19. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Pampel, Fred C

    2013-09-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts.

  20. Sphere-plate Casimir interaction in (D + 1)-dimensional spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, L. P.

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we derive the formula for the Casimir interaction energy between a sphere and a plate in (D + 1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. It is assumed that the scalar field satisfies the Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the sphere and the plate. As in the D = 3 case, the formula is of TGTG type. One of our main contributions is deriving the translation matrices which express the change of bases between plane waves and spherical waves for general D. Using orthogonality of Gegenbauer polynomials, it turns out that the final TGTG formula for the Casimir interaction energy can be simplified to one that is similar to the D = 3 case. To illustrate the application of the formula, both large separation and small separation asymptotic behaviors of the Casimir interaction energy are computed. The large separation leading term is proportional to L{sup −D+1} if the sphere is imposed with Dirichlet boundary condition, and to L{sup −D−1} if the sphere is imposed with Neumann boundary condition, where L is distance from the center of the sphere to the plane. For the small separation asymptotic behavior, it is shown that the leading term is equal to the one obtained using proximity force approximation. The next-to-leading order term is also computed using perturbation method. It is shown that when the space dimension D is larger than 5, the next-to-leading order has sign opposite to the leading order term. Moreover, the ratio of the next-to-leading order term to the leading order term is linear in D, indicating a larger correction at higher dimensions.

  1. Trait-based approaches to conservation physiology: forecasting environmental change risks from the bottom up

    PubMed Central

    Chown, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Trait-based approaches have long been a feature of physiology and of ecology. While the latter fields drifted apart in the twentieth century, they are converging owing at least partly to growing similarities in their trait-based approaches, which have much to offer conservation biology. The convergence of spatially explicit approaches to understanding trait variation and its ecological implications, such as encapsulated in community assembly and macrophysiology, provides a significant illustration of the similarity of these areas. Both adopt trait-based informatics approaches which are not only providing fundamental biological insights, but are also delivering new information on how environmental change is affecting diversity and how such change may perhaps be mitigated. Such trait-based conservation physiology is illustrated here for each of the major environmental change drivers, specifically: the consequences of overexploitation for body size and physiological variation; the impacts of vegetation change on thermal safety margins; the consequences of changing net primary productivity and human use thereof for physiological variation and ecosystem functioning; the impacts of rising temperatures on water loss in ectotherms; how hemisphere-related variation in traits may affect responses to changing rainfall regimes and pollution; and how trait-based approaches may enable interactions between climate change and biological invasions to be elucidated. PMID:22566671

  2. Trait-based approaches to conservation physiology: forecasting environmental change risks from the bottom up.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L

    2012-06-19

    Trait-based approaches have long been a feature of physiology and of ecology. While the latter fields drifted apart in the twentieth century, they are converging owing at least partly to growing similarities in their trait-based approaches, which have much to offer conservation biology. The convergence of spatially explicit approaches to understanding trait variation and its ecological implications, such as encapsulated in community assembly and macrophysiology, provides a significant illustration of the similarity of these areas. Both adopt trait-based informatics approaches which are not only providing fundamental biological insights, but are also delivering new information on how environmental change is affecting diversity and how such change may perhaps be mitigated. Such trait-based conservation physiology is illustrated here for each of the major environmental change drivers, specifically: the consequences of overexploitation for body size and physiological variation; the impacts of vegetation change on thermal safety margins; the consequences of changing net primary productivity and human use thereof for physiological variation and ecosystem functioning; the impacts of rising temperatures on water loss in ectotherms; how hemisphere-related variation in traits may affect responses to changing rainfall regimes and pollution; and how trait-based approaches may enable interactions between climate change and biological invasions to be elucidated.

  3. A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health

    PubMed Central

    Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David

    2011-01-01

    The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health. PMID:21845162

  4. Salmon Futures: Stakeholder-driven salmon management scenarios under changing environmental conditions on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trammell, E. J.; Krupa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the adaptive capacity of individuals within natural resource management agencies is a key component of assessing the vulnerability of salmon to future environmental change. We seek to explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula by exploring the drivers and implications of different salmon allocation scenarios through participatory workshops with managers. We present here the initial results from the first workshop, which explores the various drivers responsible for changes in salmon allocation. Ranging from global to local, and biophysical to socioeconomic, these drivers are also linked to specific actors in the region. These complex interactions comprise the Kenai Peninsula's social-ecological system and determine its ability to react to change. Using a stakeholder-driven scenario framework, we aim to: 1) explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies in the region by exploring and exposing managers to different but logically coherent salmon allocation scenarios; 2) build stakeholder confidence in the science of environmental change on the Kenai Peninsula; and 3) develop a decision support tool that helps regional resource managers better understand their changing environment. We utilize and present the scenario framework as a platform for integrating hydrologic, landscape, and cultural change information into actionable decisions, crafted by the stakeholders, so that landscape change on the Kenai becomes more coordinated.

  5. Stream flow changes across North Carolina (USA) 1955-2012 with implications for environmental flow management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitzen, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines changes in stream flow conditions across North Carolina, relates these changes to geomorphological conditions of rivers, and makes recommendations for environmental flow guidelines to conserve and protect riverine ecosystems. Monthly stream flow percentile metrics (90th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 10th percentiles) are compared over two time periods (1955-1980 and 1984-2012) for 63 gages distributed statewide. The results showed that stream flow changes vary spatially by flow magnitude, ecoregion, basin, and temporally by months. The greatest changes involve decreases to the 10th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles and the least amount of change is associated with 90th percentile flows. The spring and summer months of February through August have the greatest flow reductions, while September, November, and December exhibit magnitude increases for the 75th and 90th percentile flows. The Blue Ridge has the least amount of change, whereas the Piedmont and Coastal Plain have the greatest change. The few gages that do not show significant magnitude decreases to the 10th percentile flow are below major dams on the Neuse, Cape Fear, and Roanoke rivers. These same dammed rivers exhibit increases to the 90th percentile flows. The Tar River Basin, which is free of dams, shows opposite effects, with significant decreases to the 10th percentile flows and minimal changes to the 75th and 90th percentile flows. This study elucidates the importance of establishing environmental flow criteria that apply statewide across North Carolina. Sustainable environmental flow criteria need to be established that conserve seasonal patterns of flows, sustain low flows (from increases and decreases), and protect headwater and tributary accumulation areas from over-abstraction.

  6. Who benefits from environmental policy? An environmental justice analysis of air quality change in Britain, 2001-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Gordon; Norman, Paul; Mullin, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Air quality in Great Britain has improved in recent years, but not enough to prevent the European Commission (EC) taking legal action for non-compliance with limit values. Air quality is a national public health concern, with disease burden associated with current air quality estimated at 29 000 premature deaths per year due to fine particulates, with a further burden due to NO2. National small-area analyses showed that in 2001 poor air quality was much more prevalent in socio-economically deprived areas. We extend this social distribution of air quality analysis to consider how the distribution changed over the following decade (2001-2011), a period when significant efforts to meet EC air quality directive limits have been made, and air quality has improved. We find air quality improvement is greatest in the least deprived areas, whilst the most deprived areas bear a disproportionate and rising share of declining air quality including non-compliance with air quality standards. We discuss the implications for health inequalities, progress towards environmental justice, and compatibility of social justice and environmental sustainability objectives.

  7. Holocene environmental change in southwest Turkey: a palaeoecological record of lake and catchment-related changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, W. J.; Roberts, N.; Lamb, H. F.; Tibby, J. C.

    1999-04-01

    Percentage, concentration and accumulation pollen data together with diatom and non-siliceous microfossil data are presented for the site of Gölhisar Gölü (37°8'N, 29°36'E; elevation 930 m), a small intramontane lake in Burdur Province, southwest Turkey. Microfossil assemblages from the longest sediment core (GHA: 813 cm) record changes in local and regional vegetation and lake productivity over the last ˜9500 years. Pollen spectra indicate that vegetation progressed from an open landscape with an increase in arboreal pollen occurring ˜8500 BP to mixed forest comprising oak, pine and juniper until around 3000 BP (Cal ˜1240 BC) when a human occupation phase becomes discernible from the pollen spectra. This occurs shortly after the deposition of a volcanic tephra layer which originated from the Minoan eruption of Santorini (Thera) and radiocarbon dated to 3330±70 yr BP (Cal ˜1600 BC). This human occupation phase is comparable to the Beyşehir Occupation phase recorded at other sites in southwest Turkey and involved forest clearance and the cultivation of fruit trees such as Olea, Juglans, Castanea and Vitis together with arable cereal growing and pastoralism. The presence of pollen types associated with the Beyşehir Occupation phase in deposits above the Santorini tephra layer confirms a Late Bronze Age/early Anatolian Dark Age date for its commencement. Since ˜3000 BP notable changes in aquatic ecology associated with tephra deposition and subsequent nutrient and sediment flux from the lake catchment are recorded. The Beyşehir Occupation phase at Gölhisar Gölü came to an end around 1300 BP (Cla AD ˜700) when pine appears to have become the dominant forest tree.

  8. Environmental assessment in countries in transition: evolution in a changing context.

    PubMed

    Cherp, A

    2001-08-01

    Over the last fifteen years, Environmental Assessment systems of transitional societies of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia have undergone dramatic change from appraisals integrated into centrally planned economies to formal procedures aimed to ensure interdisciplinary analysis of environmental impacts and linked to publicly accountable decision-making. In most Central European nations, EA systems have been radically reformed to approximate the procedures used in developed countries, particularly in the European Union. In contrast, EA in most of the former Soviet republics has been reformed more gradually and is still based on the so-called State Environmental Review procedure inherited from the USSR and substantially different from 'Western' EA. About one-third of the transitional countries (in the Balkans, the Caucasus and Central Asia) have, so far, failed to establish functioning EA systems. Throughout the region, there has been a gap between EA legislation and practice, especially concerning interdisciplinary analysis of environmental impacts, public participation, and utilisation of EA findings in decision-making. A key driving force in the reform of EA systems has been the change in their societal context, the so-called 'process of transition'. Three main policy agendas--environmental protection, reforms of decision-making, and conforming to international requirements--along with the institutional context of EA regulations and practice have influenced both the change of EA systems over time and the regional variations in the patterns of their evolution. This study suggests that an effective reform of an EA system should be context-sensitive, or be 'in gear' with the political and economic transition. Future EA research should consider their changing societal contexts and focused on practical effects of applying EA procedures.

  9. Simulating future trends in urban stormwater quality for changing climate, urban land use and environmental controls.

    PubMed

    Borris, Matthias; Viklander, Maria; Gustafsson, Anna-Maria; Marsalek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The effects of climatic changes, progressing urbanization and improved environmental controls on the simulated urban stormwater quality in a northern Sweden community were studied. Future scenarios accounting for those changes were developed and their effects simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). It was observed that the simulated stormwater quality was highly sensitive to the scenarios, mimicking progressing urbanization with varying catchment imperviousness and area. Thus, land use change was identified as one of the most influential factors and in some scenarios, urban growth caused changes in runoff quantity and quality exceeding those caused by a changing climate. Adaptation measures, including the reduction of directly connected impervious surfaces (DCIS) through the integration of more green spaces into the urban landscape, or disconnection of DCIS were effective in reducing runoff volume and pollutant loads. Furthermore, pollutant source control measures, including material substitution, were effective in reducing pollutant loads and significantly improving stormwater quality.

  10. Land system architecture: Using land systems to adapt and mitigate global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, B.L.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Verbug, Peter H.; Murray, Alan T.

    2013-04-01

    Land systems (mosaics of land use and cover) are human environment systems, the changes in which drive and respond to local to global environmental changes, climate to macro-economy (Foley et al., 2005). Changes in land systems have been the principal proximate cause in the loss of habitats and biota globally, long contributed to atmospheric greenhouse gases, and hypothesized to have triggered climate changes in the early Holocene (Ruddiman, 2003). Land use, foremost agriculture, is the largest source of biologically active nitrogen to the atmosphere, critical to sources and sinks of carbon, and a major component in the hydrologic cycle (e.g., Bouwman et al., 2011). Changes in land systems also affect regional climate (Feddema et al., 2005; Pielke, 2005), ecosystem functions, and the array of ecosystem services they provide. Land systems, therefore, are a central feature of how humankind manages its relationship with nature-intended or not, or whether this relationship proceeds sustainably or not.

  11. Tipping points and early warning signals in the genomic composition of populations induced by environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Jacobo; Manrubia, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    We live in an ever changing biosphere that faces continuous and often stressing environmental challenges. From this perspective, much effort is currently devoted to understanding how natural populations succeed or fail in adapting to evolving conditions. In a different context, many complex dynamical systems experience critical transitions where their dynamical behaviour or internal structure changes suddenly. Here we connect both approaches and show that in rough and correlated fitness landscapes, population dynamics shows flickering under small stochastic environmental changes, alerting of the existence of tipping points. Our analytical and numerical results demonstrate that transitions at the genomic level preceded by early-warning signals are a generic phenomenon in constant and slowly driven landscapes affected by even slight stochasticity. As these genomic shifts are approached, the time to reach mutation-selection equilibrium dramatically increases, leading to the appearance of hysteresis in the composition of the population. Eventually, environmental changes significantly faster than the typical adaptation time may result in population extinction. Our work points out several indicators that are at reach with current technologies to anticipate these sudden and largely unavoidable transitions.

  12. Coupled dynamics of body mass and population growth in response to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, Arpat; Childs, Dylan Z; Oli, Madan K; Armitage, Kenneth B; Blumstein, Daniel T; Olson, Lucretia E; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2010-07-22

    Environmental change has altered the phenology, morphological traits and population dynamics of many species. However, the links underlying these joint responses remain largely unknown owing to a paucity of long-term data and the lack of an appropriate analytical framework. Here we investigate the link between phenotypic and demographic responses to environmental change using a new methodology and a long-term (1976-2008) data set from a hibernating mammal (the yellow-bellied marmot) inhabiting a dynamic subalpine habitat. We demonstrate how earlier emergence from hibernation and earlier weaning of young has led to a longer growing season and larger body masses before hibernation. The resulting shift in both the phenotype and the relationship between phenotype and fitness components led to a decline in adult mortality, which in turn triggered an abrupt increase in population size in recent years. Direct and trait-mediated effects of environmental change made comparable contributions to the observed marked increase in population growth. Our results help explain how a shift in phenology can cause simultaneous phenotypic and demographic changes, and highlight the need for a theory integrating ecological and evolutionary dynamics in stochastic environments. PMID:20651690

  13. Dynamic regulation of partner abundance mediates response of reef coral symbioses to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Cunning, R; Vaughan, N; Gillette, P; Capo, T R; Matté, J L; Baker, A C

    2015-05-01

    Regulating partner abunclance may allow symmotic organisms to mediate interaction outcomes, facilitating adaptive responses to environmental change. To explore the capacity for-adaptive regulation in an ecologically important endosymbiosis, we studied the population dynamics of symbiotic algae in reef-building corals under different abiotic contexts. We found high natural variability in symbiont abundance in corals across reefs, but this variability converged to different symbiont-specific abundances when colonies were maintained under constant conditions. When conditions changed seasonally, symbiont abundance readjusted to new equilibria. We explain these patterns using an a priori model of symbiotic costs and benefits to the coral host, which shows that the observed changes in symbiont abundance are consistent with the maximization of interaction benefit under different environmental conditions. These results indicate that, while regulating symbiont abundance helps hosts sustain maximum benefit in a dynamic environment, spatiotemporal variation in abiotic factors creates a broad range of symbiont abundances (and interaction outcomes) among corals that may account for observed natural variability in performance (e.g., growth rate) and stress tolerance (e.g., bleaching susceptibility). This cost or benefit framework provides a new perspective on the dynamic regulation of reef coral symbioses and illustrates that the dependence of interaction outcomes on biotic and abiotic contexts may be important in understanding how diverse mutualisms respond to environmental change.

  14. Tracing α, β, and γ diversity responses to environmental change in boreal lakes.

    PubMed

    Angeler, David G; Drakare, Stina

    2013-08-01

    Boreal lakes undergo broad-scale environmental change over time, but biodiversity responses to these changes, particularly at macroecological scales, are not well known. We studied long-term trends (1992-2009) of environmental variables and assessed α, β, and γ diversity responses of phytoplankton and littoral invertebrates to these changes. Diversity was assessed based on taxon richness ("richness") and the exponentiated Shannon entropy ("diversity"). Almost all environmental variables underwent significant monotonic change over time, indicating mainly decreasing acidification, water clarity and nutrient concentrations in the lakes. These variables explained about 54 and 38% of variance in regression models of invertebrates and phytoplankton, respectively. Despite this, most diversity-related variables fluctuated around a long-term mean. Only α and γ richness and diversity of invertebrates increased monotonically through time, and these patterns correlated significantly with local and regional abundances. Results suggest that biodiversity in boreal lakes is currently stable, with no evidence of regional biotic homogenization or local diversity loss. Results also show that richness trends between phytoplankton and invertebrates were widely uncorrelated, and the same was found for diversity trends. Also, within each taxonomic group, temporal patterns of richness and diversity were largely uncorrelated with each other. From an applied perspective, this suggest that long-term trends of biodiversity in boreal lakes at a macroecological scale cannot be accurately assessed without multiple lines of evidence, i.e. through the use of multiple taxa and diversity-related variables in the analyses. PMID:23229393

  15. Advocating for environmental changes to increase access to parks: engaging promotoras and youth leaders.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Elva; Mueller, Kristin; Mejia, Elizabeth; Rovira-Oswalder, Tanya; Richardson, Dana; Hoos, Tracy

    2013-09-01

    Access to physical activity opportunities are limited in underserved communities. Community-based programs can increase promotoras and youth leaders' capacity to advocate for built environmental changes. Promotoras and youth leaders were trained on walkability assessment, park audits, and advocacy. The youth and promotoras from one church located adjacent to a park implemented a community survey, conducted walk audits, and engaged in consciousness-raising activities about environmental factors that affect communities. They also mobilized community members to advocate for a nearby park. Advocacy tactics included attending and making presentations at the City Council, planning meetings, organizing health fairs, and speaking to community members. The following changes were made at the park: removed overgrown plants, relocated storage container, increased park security (i.e., lighting, fencing), improved safety (i.e., covered sewer drain, sand lot removed), enhanced amenities (i.e., drinking fountain, bathroom, benches, tables), improved pedestrian safety in park (i.e., leveled the old and added new walking paths), and improved children's play area (i.e., new play equipment, fencing). The current program highlights factors that contributed to park changes and challenges in increasing access to parks. Furthermore, the current study notes steps that other programs can take to make environmental changes. PMID:23362333

  16. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change: Research findings and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Corbera, Esteve; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the special feature of Ecology and Society entitled “Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change. The special feature addresses two main research themes. The first theme concerns the resilience of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (hereafter TEK) and the conditions that might explain its loss or persistence in the face of global change. The second theme relates to new findings regarding the way in which TEK strengthens community resilience to respond to the multiple stressors of global environmental change. Those themes are analyzed using case studies from Africa, Asia, America and Europe. Theoretical insights and empirical findings from the studies suggest that despite the generalized worldwide trend of TEK erosion, substantial pockets of TEK persist in both developing and developed countries. A common trend on the studies presented here is hybridization, where traditional knowledge, practices, and beliefs are merged with novel forms of knowledge and technologies to create new knowledge systems. The findings also reinforce previous hypotheses pointing at the importance of TEK systems as reservoirs of experiential knowledge that can provide important insights for the design of adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with global environmental change. Based on the results from papers in this feature, we discuss policy directions that might help to promote maintenance and restoration of living TEK systems as sources of social-ecological resilience. PMID:26097492

  17. Dynamic regulation of partner abundance mediates response of reef coral symbioses to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Cunning, R; Vaughan, N; Gillette, P; Capo, T R; Matté, J L; Baker, A C

    2015-05-01

    Regulating partner abunclance may allow symmotic organisms to mediate interaction outcomes, facilitating adaptive responses to environmental change. To explore the capacity for-adaptive regulation in an ecologically important endosymbiosis, we studied the population dynamics of symbiotic algae in reef-building corals under different abiotic contexts. We found high natural variability in symbiont abundance in corals across reefs, but this variability converged to different symbiont-specific abundances when colonies were maintained under constant conditions. When conditions changed seasonally, symbiont abundance readjusted to new equilibria. We explain these patterns using an a priori model of symbiotic costs and benefits to the coral host, which shows that the observed changes in symbiont abundance are consistent with the maximization of interaction benefit under different environmental conditions. These results indicate that, while regulating symbiont abundance helps hosts sustain maximum benefit in a dynamic environment, spatiotemporal variation in abiotic factors creates a broad range of symbiont abundances (and interaction outcomes) among corals that may account for observed natural variability in performance (e.g., growth rate) and stress tolerance (e.g., bleaching susceptibility). This cost or benefit framework provides a new perspective on the dynamic regulation of reef coral symbioses and illustrates that the dependence of interaction outcomes on biotic and abiotic contexts may be important in understanding how diverse mutualisms respond to environmental change. PMID:26236853

  18. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-01-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals’ responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work. PMID:25567979

  19. Activation of vegetated parabolic dunes into mobile barchans under potential environmental change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Na; Baas, Andreas C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Parabolic dunes are a quintessential example of the co-evolution of soil, landform, and vegetation, and they are found around the world, on coasts, river valleys, lake shores, and margins of deserts and steppes. These areas are often sensitive to changes in natural and anthropogenic forcings and socio-economic activities. Some studies have indicated parabolic dunes can lose vegetation and transform into barchan and transverse dunes by environmental change such as decreased precipitation or lowered water table, as well as anthropogenic stress such as increased burning and grazing. These transformations and shifts between states of eco-geomorphic systems may have significant implications on land management and social-economic development. This study utilises the Extended-DECAL - parameterised by field measurements of dune topography and vegetation characteristics combined with remote sensing - to explore how increases in drought stress, wind strength, and grazing stress may lead to the activation of stabilised parabolic dunes into highly mobile barchans. The modelling results show that the mobility of an initial parabolic dune at the outset of perturbations determines to a large extent the capacity of a system to absorb the environmental change, and a slight increase in vegetation cover of an initial parabolic dune can increase the activation threshold significantly. Plants with a higher deposition tolerance increase the activation threshold for the climatic impact and sand transport rate, whereas the erosion tolerance of plants influences the patterns of resulting barchans. The change in the characteristics of eco-geomorphic interaction zones may indirectly reflect the dune stability and predict an ongoing transformation, whilst the activation angle may be potentially used as a proxy of environmental stresses. In contrast to the natural environmental changes which tend to affect relatively weak and young plants, grazing stress can exert a broader impact on all

  20. Environmental forcing and Southern Ocean marine predator populations: effects of climate change and variability.

    PubMed

    Trathan, P N; Forcada, J; Murphy, E J

    2007-12-29

    The Southern Ocean is a major component within the global ocean and climate system and potentially the location where the most rapid climate change is most likely to happen, particularly in the high-latitude polar regions. In these regions, even small temperature changes can potentially lead to major environmental perturbations. Climate change is likely to be regional and may be expressed in various ways, including alterations to climate and weather patterns across a variety of time-scales that include changes to the long interdecadal background signals such as the development of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Oscillating climate signals such as ENSO potentially provide a unique opportunity to explore how biological communities respond to change. This approach is based on the premise that biological responses to shorter-term sub-decadal climate variability signals are potentially the best predictor of biological responses over longer time-scales. Around the Southern Ocean, marine predator populations show periodicity in breeding performance and productivity, with relationships with the environment driven by physical forcing from the ENSO region in the Pacific. Wherever examined, these relationships are congruent with mid-trophic-level processes that are also correlated with environmental variability. The short-term changes to ecosystem structure and function observed during ENSO events herald potential long-term changes that may ensue following regional climate change. For example, in the South Atlantic, failure of Antarctic krill recruitment will inevitably foreshadow recruitment failures in a range of higher trophic-level marine predators. Where predator species are not able to accommodate by switching to other prey species, population-level changes will follow. The Southern Ocean, though oceanographically interconnected, is not a single ecosystem and different areas are dominated by different food webs. Where species occupy different positions in

  1. Modelling Multidecadal Fluvial Sediment Fluxes to Deltas Under Future Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, F. E.; Darby, S. E.; Nicholls, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    As low lying coastal regions deltas are prone to land loss, degradation, and flooding due to relative sea level rise. These processes endanger delta populations and infrastructure, a situation which is increasingly exacerbated by anthropogenic activities. The flux of fluvial sediment to deltas is a first order control on delta aggradation and thus the potential for the surface elevation of a delta to be maintained or rise relative to sea level. Aggradation may occur without anthropogenic interference, but it can also be induced by controlled flooding. This research investigates how future environmental changes through to 2100 will influence fluvial sediment delivery to a selection of 10 vulnerable deltas, thereby contributing to the understanding of relative sea level change projections for these fragile coastal systems. The key environmental changes investigated in this study include anthropogenic climate change, reservoir construction, and land cover changes induced by changes in agricultural practices and vegetation cover. The effects of these environmental changes on fluvial sediment delivery are being evaluated using the catchment numerical model WBMsed, which is being calibrated for the selection of deltas using historical reference data. As a test case, the inputs for modelling current and future sediment fluxes to the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta are refined using economic and population projections as proxies for anthropogenic influences on delta catchments. This research will contribute to the prognosis for vulnerable deltas and inform their short- and long-term management by indicating the consequences of anthropogenic activities which affect delta elevation and sustainability via altering fluvial sediment processes. While this could give forewarning for the residents and managers of unsustainable deltas, it could also be used as an argument for or against various anthropogenic activities.

  2. Bacterial responses to environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau over the past half century.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqin; Priscu, John C; Yao, Tandong; Vick-Majors, Trista J; Xu, Baiqing; Jiao, Nianzhi; Santibáñez, Pamela; Huang, Sijun; Wang, Ninglian; Greenwood, Mark; Michaud, Alexander B; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Jianjun; Gao, Qun; Yang, Yunfeng

    2016-06-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic factors can alter biodiversity and can lead to changes in community structure and function. Despite the potential impacts, no long-term records of climatic influences on microbial communities exist. The Tibetan Plateau is a highly sensitive region that is currently undergoing significant alteration resulting from both climate change and increased human activity. Ice cores from glaciers in this region serve as unique natural archives of bacterial abundance and community composition, and contain concomitant records of climate and environmental change. We report high-resolution profiles of bacterial density and community composition over the past half century in ice cores from three glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau. Statistical analysis showed that the bacterial community composition in the three ice cores converged starting in the 1990s. Changes in bacterial community composition were related to changing precipitation, increasing air temperature and anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the plateau. Collectively, our ice core data on bacteria in concert with environmental and anthropogenic proxies indicate that the convergence of bacterial communities deposited on glaciers across a wide geographical area and situated in diverse habitat types was likely induced by climatic and anthropogenic drivers. PMID:26530871

  3. Environmental heat and salt stress induce transgenerational phenotypic changes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Suter, Léonie; Widmer, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Plants that can adapt their phenotype may be more likely to survive changing environmental conditions. Heritable epigenetic variation could provide a way to rapidly adapt to such changes. Here we tested whether environmental stress induces heritable, potentially adaptive phenotypic changes independent of genetic variation over few generations in Arabidopsis thaliana. We grew two accessions (Col-0, Sha-0) of A. thaliana for three generations under salt, heat and control conditions and tested for induced heritable phenotypic changes in the fourth generation (G4) and in reciprocal F1 hybrids generated in generation three. Using these crosses we further tested whether phenotypic changes were maternally or paternally transmitted. In generation five (G5), we assessed whether phenotypic effects persisted over two generations in the absence of stress. We found that exposure to heat stress in previous generations accelerated flowering under G4 control conditions in Sha-0, but heritable effects disappeared in G5 after two generations without stress exposure. Previous exposure to salt stress increased salt tolerance in one of two reciprocal F1 hybrids. Transgenerational effects were maternally and paternally inherited. Lacking genetic variability, maternal and paternal inheritance and reversibility of transgenerational effects together indicate that stress can induce heritable, potentially adaptive phenotypic changes, probably through epigenetic mechanisms. These effects were strongly dependent on plant genotype and may not be a general response to stress in A. thaliana.

  4. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  5. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  6. Environmental Heat and Salt Stress Induce Transgenerational Phenotypic Changes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Léonie; Widmer, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Plants that can adapt their phenotype may be more likely to survive changing environmental conditions. Heritable epigenetic variation could provide a way to rapidly adapt to such changes. Here we tested whether environmental stress induces heritable, potentially adaptive phenotypic changes independent of genetic variation over few generations in Arabidopsis thaliana. We grew two accessions (Col-0, Sha-0) of A. thaliana for three generations under salt, heat and control conditions and tested for induced heritable phenotypic changes in the fourth generation (G4) and in reciprocal F1 hybrids generated in generation three. Using these crosses we further tested whether phenotypic changes were maternally or paternally transmitted. In generation five (G5), we assessed whether phenotypic effects persisted over two generations in the absence of stress. We found that exposure to heat stress in previous generations accelerated flowering under G4 control conditions in Sha-0, but heritable effects disappeared in G5 after two generations without stress exposure. Previous exposure to salt stress increased salt tolerance in one of two reciprocal F1 hybrids. Transgenerational effects were maternally and paternally inherited. Lacking genetic variability, maternal and paternal inheritance and reversibility of transgenerational effects together indicate that stress can induce heritable, potentially adaptive phenotypic changes, probably through epigenetic mechanisms. These effects were strongly dependent on plant genotype and may not be a general response to stress in A. thaliana. PMID:23585834

  7. Large-river delta-front estuaries as natural "recorders" of global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Thomas S; Allison, Mead A

    2009-05-19

    Large-river delta-front estuaries (LDE) are important interfaces between continents and the oceans for material fluxes that have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. In this article, we propose that more emphasis should be placed on LDE in future global climate change research. We will use some of the most anthropogenically altered LDE systems in the world, the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River and the Chinese rivers that enter the Yellow Sea (e.g., Huanghe and Changjiang) as case-studies, to posit that these systems are both "drivers" and "recorders" of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. Specifically, the processes in the LDE can influence ("drive") the flux of particulate and dissolved materials from the continents to the global ocean that can have profound impact on issues such as coastal eutrophication and the development of hypoxic zones. LDE also record in their rapidly accumulating subaerial and subaqueous deltaic sediment deposits environmental changes such as continental-scale trends in climate and land-use in watersheds, frequency and magnitude of cyclonic storms, and sea-level change. The processes that control the transport and transformation of carbon in the active LDE and in the deltaic sediment deposit are also essential to our understanding of carbon sequestration and exchange with the world ocean--an important objective in global change research. U.S. efforts in global change science including the vital role of deltaic systems are emphasized in the North American Carbon Plan (www.carboncyclescience.gov). PMID:19435849

  8. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability. PMID:26645076

  9. Large-river delta-front estuaries as natural "recorders" of global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Thomas S; Allison, Mead A

    2009-05-19

    Large-river delta-front estuaries (LDE) are important interfaces between continents and the oceans for material fluxes that have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. In this article, we propose that more emphasis should be placed on LDE in future global climate change research. We will use some of the most anthropogenically altered LDE systems in the world, the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River and the Chinese rivers that enter the Yellow Sea (e.g., Huanghe and Changjiang) as case-studies, to posit that these systems are both "drivers" and "recorders" of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. Specifically, the processes in the LDE can influence ("drive") the flux of particulate and dissolved materials from the continents to the global ocean that can have profound impact on issues such as coastal eutrophication and the development of hypoxic zones. LDE also record in their rapidly accumulating subaerial and subaqueous deltaic sediment deposits environmental changes such as continental-scale trends in climate and land-use in watersheds, frequency and magnitude of cyclonic storms, and sea-level change. The processes that control the transport and transformation of carbon in the active LDE and in the deltaic sediment deposit are also essential to our understanding of carbon sequestration and exchange with the world ocean--an important objective in global change research. U.S. efforts in global change science including the vital role of deltaic systems are emphasized in the North American Carbon Plan (www.carboncyclescience.gov).

  10. Bacterial responses to environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau over the past half century.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqin; Priscu, John C; Yao, Tandong; Vick-Majors, Trista J; Xu, Baiqing; Jiao, Nianzhi; Santibáñez, Pamela; Huang, Sijun; Wang, Ninglian; Greenwood, Mark; Michaud, Alexander B; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Jianjun; Gao, Qun; Yang, Yunfeng

    2016-06-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic factors can alter biodiversity and can lead to changes in community structure and function. Despite the potential impacts, no long-term records of climatic influences on microbial communities exist. The Tibetan Plateau is a highly sensitive region that is currently undergoing significant alteration resulting from both climate change and increased human activity. Ice cores from glaciers in this region serve as unique natural archives of bacterial abundance and community composition, and contain concomitant records of climate and environmental change. We report high-resolution profiles of bacterial density and community composition over the past half century in ice cores from three glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau. Statistical analysis showed that the bacterial community composition in the three ice cores converged starting in the 1990s. Changes in bacterial community composition were related to changing precipitation, increasing air temperature and anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the plateau. Collectively, our ice core data on bacteria in concert with environmental and anthropogenic proxies indicate that the convergence of bacterial communities deposited on glaciers across a wide geographical area and situated in diverse habitat types was likely induced by climatic and anthropogenic drivers.

  11. Protein Kinase D1-Dependent Phosphorylation of Dopamine D1 Receptor Regulates Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Su, Ping; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Jie; Xing, Baoming; Kang, Kai; Li, Wenqi; Wang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) is critically involved in reward and drug addiction. Phosphorylation-mediated desensitization or internalization of D1R has been extensively investigated. However, the potential for upregulation of D1R function through phosphorylation remains to be determined. Here we report that acute cocaine exposure induces protein kinase D1 (PKD1) activation in the rat striatum, and knockdown of PKD1 in the rat dorsal striatum attenuates cocaine-induced locomotor hyperactivity. Moreover, PKD1-mediated phosphorylation of serine 421 (S421) of D1R promotes surface localization of D1R and enhances downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in D1R-transfected HEK 293 cells. Importantly, injection of the peptide Tat-S421, an engineered Tat fusion-peptide targeting S421 (Tat-S421), into the rat dorsal striatum inhibits cocaine-induced locomotor hyperactivity and injection of Tat-S421 into the rat hippocampus or the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) also inhibits cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). However, injection of Tat-S421 into the rat NAc shell does not establish CPP by itself and injection of Tat-S421 into the hippocampus does not influence spatial learning and memory. Thus, targeting S421 of D1R represents a promising strategy for the development of pharmacotherapeutic treatments for drug addiction and other disorders that result from DA imbalances. PMID:24362306

  12. Cyclin D1 expression is regulated by the retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, H; Lukas, J; Schneider, A; Warthoe, P; Bartek, J; Eilers, M; Strauss, M

    1994-01-01

    The product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene, pRb, acts as a tumor suppressor and loss of its function is involved in the development of various types of cancer. DNA tumor viruses are supposed to disturb the normal regulation of the cell cycle by inactivating pRb. However, a direct function of pRb in regulation of the cell cycle has hitherto not been shown. We demonstrate here that the cell cycle-dependent expression of one of the G1-phase cyclins, cyclin D1, is dependent on the presence of a functional Rb protein. Rb-deficient tumor cell lines as well as cells expressing viral oncoproteins (large tumor antigen of simian virus 40, early region 1A of adenovirus, early region 7 of papillomavirus) have low or barely detectable levels of cyclin D1. Expression of cyclin D1, but not of cyclins A and E, is induced by transfection of the Rb gene into Rb-deficient tumor cells. Cotransfection of a reporter gene under the control of the D1 promoter, together with the Rb gene, into Rb-deficient cell lines demonstrates stimulation of the D1 promoter by Rb, which parallels the stimulation of endogenous cyclin D1 gene expression. Our finding that pRb stimulates expression of a key component of cell cycle control, cyclin D1, suggests the existence of a regulatory loop between pRb and cyclin D1 and extends existing models of tumor suppressor function. Images PMID:8159685

  13. 26 CFR 25.2522(d)-1 - Additional cross references.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Additional cross references. 25.2522(d)-1 Section 25.2522(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED..., 1972 (Pub. L. 92-526, 86 Stat. 1048). (e) For treatment of the Board for International Broadcasting...

  14. 26 CFR 25.2522(d)-1 - Additional cross references.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional cross references. 25.2522(d)-1 Section 25.2522(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED..., 1972 (Pub. L. 92-526, 86 Stat. 1048). (e) For treatment of the Board for International Broadcasting...

  15. 26 CFR 25.2523(d)-1 - Joint interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Joint interests. 25.2523(d)-1 Section 25.2523(d... TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2523(d)-1 Joint interests. Section 2523(d) provides that if a property interest is transferred to the donee spouse as sole joint...

  16. 26 CFR 25.2523(d)-1 - Joint interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Joint interests. 25.2523(d)-1 Section 25.2523(d... TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2523(d)-1 Joint interests. Section 2523(d) provides that if a property interest is transferred to the donee spouse as sole joint...

  17. 26 CFR 25.2523(d)-1 - Joint interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Joint interests. 25.2523(d)-1 Section 25.2523(d... TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2523(d)-1 Joint interests. Section 2523(d) provides that if a property interest is transferred to the donee spouse as sole joint...

  18. 26 CFR 25.2523(d)-1 - Joint interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Joint interests. 25.2523(d)-1 Section 25.2523(d... TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2523(d)-1 Joint interests. Section 2523(d) provides that if a property interest is transferred to the donee spouse as sole joint...

  19. 26 CFR 25.2523(d)-1 - Joint interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint interests. 25.2523(d)-1 Section 25.2523(d... TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2523(d)-1 Joint interests. Section 2523(d) provides that if a property interest is transferred to the donee spouse as sole joint...

  20. Environmental literacy framework with a focus on climate change (ELF): a framework and resources for teaching climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, L. T.; Pennycook, J.

    2011-12-01

    The challenges of communicating climate change science to non-technical audiences present a daunting task, but one that is recognized in the science community as urgent and essential. ANDRILL's (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) international network of scientists, engineers, technicians and educators collaborate to convey a deeper understanding of current geoscience research as well as the process of science in an effort to provide the next generation of scientists and voters with the knowledge to make informed decisions concerning climate change mitigation and adaptation. One roadblock for educators who recognize the need to teach climate change has been the lack of a comprehensive, integrated set of resources and activities that are related to the National Science Education Standards. Pieces of the climate change puzzle can be found in the excellent work of the groups of science and education professionals who developed the Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences, Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science, Earth Science Literacy Principles: The Big Ideas and Supporting Concepts of Earth Science, and Essential Principals and Fundamental Concepts for Atmospheric Science Literacy, but teachers have precious little time to search out the climate change goals and objectives in those frameworks and then find the resources to teach them. Through NOAA funding, ANDRILL has created a new framework, The Environmental Literacy Framework with a Focus on Climate Change (ELF), drawing on the works of the aforementioned groups, and promoting an Earth Systems approach to teaching climate change through five units: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Geosphere, Hydrosphere/Cryosphere, and Energy as the driver of interactions within and between the "spheres." Each key concept in the framework has a hands-on, inquiry activity and matching NOAA resources for teaching the objectives. The ELF framework and the companion activities are available in digital form.

  1. Evolutionary rescue and adaptation to abrupt environmental change depends upon the history of stress.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Andrew; Bell, Graham

    2013-01-19

    Whether evolution will be rapid enough to rescue declining populations will depend upon population size, the supply of genetic variation, the degree of maladaptation and the historical direction of selection. We examined whether the level of environmental stress experienced by a population prior to abrupt environmental change affects the probability of evolutionary rescue (ER). Hundreds of populations of two species of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus were exposed to a range of sublethal concentrations of salt for approximately a hundred generations before transfer to a concentration of salt lethal to the ancestor (150 g l(-1) NaCl). The fitness of surviving populations of both species was a quadratic function of yield: fitness was greatest for large populations that had been selected on low salt concentrations (less than 20 g l(-1) NaCl) and small populations that had adapted to high salt (more than 80 g l(-1) NaCl). However, differences occurred between species in the probability of ER. The frequency of ER was positively correlated with salt concentration for S. cerevisiae, but negatively correlated with salt concentration in S. paradoxus. These results not only demonstrate that past environmental conditions can determine the probability of ER after abrupt environmental change, but also suggest that there may even be differences between closely related species that are worth further exploration.

  2. Industrialization, energy efficiency and environmental protection in Asian industrializing countries: The role of technological change

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.

    1995-06-01

    Rapid industrialization in many Asian developing countries has caused an explosive growth in energy consumption and an unsustainable environmental pressure: local water and atmospheric pollution are compromising the results of economic growth with health and ecological destruction, whereas increasing emission of greenhouse gases contributes to the global climate change. The key question is how to orient this industrialization process toward a more energy efficient and environmentally sound direction in order to avoid the errors made by the present day developed countries during their industrialization period. Rapid uptake of technological innovation, fostered by a high turnover of the capital stock and a strong trade orientation, and advantages as latecomers in the industrialization process may help these countries to adopt the latest available technologies in the form of clean process innovations, thus ``leap-frogging`` some of the problems associated with industrialization and avoiding many of the more serious environmental impacts of old technologies. This paper focuses its analysis on the role of technologic change in the greening of industrialization processes of Asian developing countries. After analyzing the technological causes of energy and environmental problems created by the rapid industrialization process in these Asian countries, the paper suggests that not only should the ``end-of-the-pipe`` cleaning technologies be widely promoted, but also the clean process innovations be encouraged, thus tackling the pollution problems in their roots.

  3. Striatal dopamine modulates song spectral but not temporal features through D1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Leblois, Arthur; Perkel, David J

    2012-01-01

    The activity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and their projection to the basal ganglia (BG) are thought to play a critical role in the acquisition of motor skills through reinforcement learning, as well as in the expression of learned motor behaviors. The precise role of BG dopamine in mediating and modulating motor performance and learning, however, remains unclear. In songbirds, a specialized portion of the BG is responsible for song learning and plasticity. Previously we found that dopamine acts on D1 receptors in Area X to modulate the BG output signal and thereby trigger changes in song variability. Here, we investigate the effect of D1 receptor blockade in the BG on song behavior in the zebra finch. We report that this manipulation abolishes social context-dependent changes in variability not only in harmonic stacks, but also in other types of syllables. However, song timing seems not to be modulated by this BG dopamine signal. Indeed, injections of a D1 antagonist in the BG altered neither song duration, nor the change of song duration with social context. Finally, D1 receptor activation in the BG was not necessary for the modulation of other features of song such as the number of introductory notes or motif repetitions. Together, our results suggest that activation of D1 receptors in the BG is necessary for the modulation of fine acoustic features of song with social context while it is not involved in the regulation of song timing and structure at a larger time scale. PMID:22594943

  4. Annual rhythms that underlie phenology: biological time-keeping meets environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Barbara; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Sheriff, Michael J.; Hut, Roelof A.; Foster, Russell; Barnes, Brian M.; Dominoni, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal recurrence of biological processes (phenology) and its relationship to environmental change is recognized as being of key scientific and public concern, but its current study largely overlooks the extent to which phenology is based on biological time-keeping mechanisms. We highlight the relevance of physiological and neurobiological regulation for organisms’ responsiveness to environmental conditions. Focusing on avian and mammalian examples, we describe circannual rhythmicity of reproduction, migration and hibernation, and address responses of animals to photic and thermal conditions. Climate change and urbanization are used as urgent examples of anthropogenic influences that put biological timing systems under pressure. We furthermore propose that consideration of Homo sapiens as principally a ‘seasonal animal’ can inspire new perspectives for understanding medical and psychological problems. PMID:23825201

  5. Species response to environmental change: impacts of food web interactions and evolution.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jason P; Moran, Nancy A; Ives, Anthony R

    2009-03-01

    How environmental change affects species abundances depends on both the food web within which species interact and their potential to evolve. Using field experiments, we investigated both ecological and evolutionary responses of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), a common agricultural pest, to increased frequency of episodic heat shocks. One predator species ameliorated the decrease in aphid population growth with increasing heat shocks, whereas a second predator did not, with this contrast caused by behavioral differences between predators. We also compared aphid strains with stably inherited differences in heat tolerance caused by bacterial endosymbionts and showed the potential for rapid evolution for heat-shock tolerance. Our results illustrate how ecological and evolutionary complexities should be incorporated into predictions of the consequences of environmental change for species' populations.

  6. Annual rhythms that underlie phenology: biological time-keeping meets environmental change.

    PubMed

    Helm, Barbara; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Sheriff, Michael J; Hut, Roelof A; Foster, Russell; Barnes, Brian M; Dominoni, Davide

    2013-08-22

    Seasonal recurrence of biological processes (phenology) and its relationship to environmental change is recognized as being of key scientific and public concern, but its current study largely overlooks the extent to which phenology is based on biological time-keeping mechanisms. We highlight the relevance of physiological and neurobiological regulation for organisms' responsiveness to environmental conditions. Focusing on avian and mammalian examples, we describe circannual rhythmicity of reproduction, migration and hibernation, and address responses of animals to photic and thermal conditions. Climate change and urbanization are used as urgent examples of anthropogenic influences that put biological timing systems under pressure. We furthermore propose that consideration of Homo sapiens as principally a 'seasonal animal' can inspire new perspectives for understanding medical and psychological problems. PMID:23825201

  7. Projected Impacts of Climate Change on Environmental Suitability for Malaria Transmission in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Eltahir, Elfatih A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Climate change is expected to affect the distribution of environmental suitability for malaria transmission by altering temperature and rainfall patterns; however, the local and global impacts of climate change on malaria transmission are uncertain. Objective: We assessed the effect of climate change on malaria transmission in West Africa. Methods: We coupled a detailed mechanistic hydrology and entomology model with climate projections from general circulation models (GCMs) to predict changes in vectorial capacity, an indication of the risk of human malaria infections, resulting from changes in the availability of mosquito breeding sites and temperature-dependent development rates. Because there is strong disagreement in climate predictions from different GCMs, we focused on the GCM projections that produced the best and worst conditions for malaria transmission in each zone of the study area. Results: Simulation-based estimates suggest that in the desert fringes of the Sahara, vectorial capacity would increase under the worst-case scenario, but not enough to sustain transmission. In the transitional zone of the Sahel, climate change is predicted to decrease vectorial capacity. In the wetter regions to the south, our estimates suggest an increase in vectorial capacity under all scenarios. However, because malaria is already highly endemic among human populations in these regions, we expect that changes in malaria incidence would be small. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of rainfall in shaping the impact of climate change on malaria transmission in future climates. Even under the GCM predictions most conducive to malaria transmission, we do not expect to see a significant increase in malaria prevalence in this region. Citation: Yamana TK, Eltahir EA. 2013. Projected impacts of climate change on environmental suitability for malaria transmission in West Africa. Environ Health Perspect 121:1179–1186; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  8. Creating an Environmental Justice Framework for Policy Change in Childhood Asthma: A Grassroots to Treetops Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Katherine; Arons, Abigail; Standish, Marion; Brindis, Claire D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The Community Action to Fight Asthma Initiative, a network of coalitions and technical assistance providers in California, employed an environmental justice approach to reduce risk factors for asthma in school-aged children. Policy advocacy focused on housing, schools, and outdoor air quality. Technical assistance partners from environmental science, policy advocacy, asthma prevention, and media assisted in advocacy. An evaluation team assessed progress and outcomes. Methods. A theory of change and corresponding logic model were used to document coalition development and successes. Site visits, surveys, policymaker interviews, and participation in meetings documented the processes and outcomes. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to assess strategies, successes, and challenges. Results. Coalitions, working with community residents and technical assistance experts, successfully advocated for policies to reduce children's exposures to environmental triggers, particularly in low-income communities and communities of color. Policies were implemented at various levels. Conclusions. Environmental justice approaches to policy advocacy could be an effective strategy to address inequities across communities. Strong technical assistance, close community involvement, and multilevel strategies were all essential to effective policies to reduce environmental inequities. PMID:21836108

  9. Positive Regulation of Neocortical Synapse Formation by the Plexin-D1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Synapse formation is a critical process during neural development and is coordinated by multiple signals. Several lines of evidence implicate the Plexin-D1 receptor in synaptogenesis. Studies have shown that Plexin-D1 signaling is involved in synaptic specificity and synapse formation in spinal cord and striatum. Expression of Plexin-D1 and its principal neural ligand, Sema3E, by neocortical neurons is temporally and spatially regulated, reaching the highest level at the time of synaptogenesis in mice. In this study, we examined the function of Plexin-D1 in synapse formation by primary neocortical neurons in vitro. A novel, automated image analysis method was developed to quantitate synapse formation under baseline conditions and with manipulation of Plexin-D1 levels. shRNA and overexpression manipulations caused opposite changes, with reduction resulting in less synapse formation, an effect distinct from that reported in the striatum. The data indicate that Plexin-D1 operates in a cell context-specific fashion, mediating different synaptogenic outcomes depending upon neuron type. PMID:25976775

  10. Genetic and Environmental Regulation on Longitudinal Change of Metabolic Phenotypes in Danish and Chinese Adult Twins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuxia; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Duan, Haiping; Tan, Qihua; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Kruse, Torben; Dalgård, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The rate of change in metabolic phenotypes can be highly indicative of metabolic disorders and disorder-related modifications. We analyzed data from longitudinal twin studies on multiple metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins representing two populations of distinct ethnic, cultural, social-economic backgrounds and geographical environments. Materials and Methods The study covered a relatively large sample of 502 pairs of Danish adult twins followed up for a long period of 12 years with a mean age at intake of 38 years (range: 18–65) and a total of 181 Chinese adult twin pairs traced for about 7 years with a mean baseline age of 39.5 years (range: 23–64). The classical twin models were fitted to the longitudinal change in each phenotype (Δphenotype) to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to the variation in Δphenotype. Results Moderate to high contributions by the unique environment were estimated for all phenotypes in both Danish (from 0.51 for low density lipoprotein cholesterol up to 0.72 for triglycerides) and Chinese (from 0.41 for triglycerides up to 0.73 for diastolic blood pressure) twins; low to moderate genetic components were estimated for long-term change in most of the phenotypes in Danish twins except for triglycerides and hip circumference. Compared with Danish twins, the Chinese twins tended to have higher genetic control over the longitudinal changes in lipids (except high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and glucose, higher unique environmental contribution to blood pressure but no genetic contribution to longitudinal change in body mass traits. Conclusion Our results emphasize the major contribution of unique environment to the observed intra-individual variation in all metabolic phenotypes in both samples, and meanwhile reveal differential patterns of genetic and common environmental regulation on changes over time in metabolic phenotypes across the two samples. PMID:26862898

  11. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  12. Investigating human responses to political and environmental change through paleodiet and paleomobility.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Kelly J; Torres-Rouff, Christina; Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2015-06-01

    Bioarchaeological approaches are well suited for examining past responses to political and environmental changes. In the Andes, we hypothesized that political and environmental changes around AD 1100 resulted in behavioral changes, visible as shifts in paleodiet and paleomobility, among individuals in the San Pedro de Atacama oases and Loa River Valley. To investigate this hypothesis, we generated carbon and oxygen isotope data from cemeteries dating to the early Middle Horizon (Larache, Quitor-5, Solor-3), late Middle Horizon (Casa Parroquial, Coyo Oriental, Coyo-3, Solcor-Plaza, Solcor-3, Tchecar), and Late Intermediate Period (Caspana, Quitor-6 Tardío, Toconce, Yaye-1, Yaye-2, Yaye-3, Yaye-4). Carbon isotope data demonstrate a greater range of carbon sources during the late Middle Horizon compared with the Late Intermediate Period; while most individuals consumed largely C3 sources, some late Middle Horizon individuals consumed more C4 sources. Oxygen isotope data demonstrate greater diversity in drinking water sources during the late Middle Horizon compared with the Late Intermediate Period. Water samples were analyzed to provide baseline data on oxygen isotope variability within the Atacama Desert, and demonstrated that oxygen isotope values are indistinguishable in the San Pedro and Loa Rivers. However, oxygen isotope values in water sources in the high-altitude altiplano and coast are distinct from those in the San Pedro and Loa Rivers. In conclusion, instead of utilizing a wider variety of resources after environmental and political changes, individuals exhibited a wider range of paleodietary and paleomobility strategies during the Middle Horizon, a period of environmental and political stability.

  13. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  14. Investigating human responses to political and environmental change through paleodiet and paleomobility.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Kelly J; Torres-Rouff, Christina; Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2015-06-01

    Bioarchaeological approaches are well suited for examining past responses to political and environmental changes. In the Andes, we hypothesized that political and environmental changes around AD 1100 resulted in behavioral changes, visible as shifts in paleodiet and paleomobility, among individuals in the San Pedro de Atacama oases and Loa River Valley. To investigate this hypothesis, we generated carbon and oxygen isotope data from cemeteries dating to the early Middle Horizon (Larache, Quitor-5, Solor-3), late Middle Horizon (Casa Parroquial, Coyo Oriental, Coyo-3, Solcor-Plaza, Solcor-3, Tchecar), and Late Intermediate Period (Caspana, Quitor-6 Tardío, Toconce, Yaye-1, Yaye-2, Yaye-3, Yaye-4). Carbon isotope data demonstrate a greater range of carbon sources during the late Middle Horizon compared with the Late Intermediate Period; while most individuals consumed largely C3 sources, some late Middle Horizon individuals consumed more C4 sources. Oxygen isotope data demonstrate greater diversity in drinking water sources during the late Middle Horizon compared with the Late Intermediate Period. Water samples were analyzed to provide baseline data on oxygen isotope variability within the Atacama Desert, and demonstrated that oxygen isotope values are indistinguishable in the San Pedro and Loa Rivers. However, oxygen isotope values in water sources in the high-altitude altiplano and coast are distinct from those in the San Pedro and Loa Rivers. In conclusion, instead of utilizing a wider variety of resources after environmental and political changes, individuals exhibited a wider range of paleodietary and paleomobility strategies during the Middle Horizon, a period of environmental and political stability. PMID:25641703

  15. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a north american perspective.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Fernandez, Ivan J; Richter, Daniel D; Ross, Donald S; Hazlett, Paul W; Bailey, Scott W; Ouimet, Rock; Warby, Richard A F; Johnson, Arthur H; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M; Lapenis, Andrew G; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced. PMID:23673928

  16. Biochemical characterizations reveal different properties between CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Myung; Yang, Kyungmi; Yang, Beom-Seok

    2003-10-31

    CDK2 and CDK4 known promoter of cell cycling catalyze phosphorylation of RB protein. Enzyme specificity between two CDKs that work at a different cell cycle phase is not clearly understood. In order to define kinase properties of CDK2 and CDK4 in complex with cycline A or cycline D1 in relation to their respective role in cell cycling regulation, we examined enzymatic properties of both CDK4/cycline D1 and CDK2/cycline A in vitro. Association constant, Km for ATP in CDK4/cyclin D1 was found as 418 microM, a value unusually high whereas CDK2/cyclin A was 23 microM, a value close to most of other regulatory protein kinases. Turnover value for both CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A were estimated as 3.4 and 3.9 min(-1) respectively. Kinetic efficiency estimation indicates far over one order magnitude less efficiency for CDK4/cyclin D1 than the value of CDK2/cycline A (9.3 pM(-1) min(-1) and 170 pM(-1) min(-1) respectively). In addition, inhibition of cellular CDK4 caused increase of cellular levels of ATP, even though inhibition of CDK2 did not change it noticeably. These data suggest cellular CDK4/cyclin D1 activity is tightly associated with cellular ATP concentration. Also, analysis of phosphorylated serine/threonine sites on RB catalyzed by CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A showed significant differences in their preference of phosphorylation sites in RB C-terminal domain. Since RB is known to regulate various cellular proteins by binding and this binding is controlled by its phosphorylation, these data shown here clearly indicate significant difference in their biochemical properties between CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A affecting regulation of cellular RB function. PMID:14646596

  17. Fusion of multispectral and multitemporal satellite data for urban environmental changes analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Environmental urban changes assessment is providing information on environmental quality for identifying the major issues, priority areas of the policy making, planning and management. Effective planning is based on the completely and precisely understanding of the environmental parameters in urban area. Remote sensing is a key application in global-change science, being very useful for urban climatology and landuse-landcover dynamics and morphology analysis. Multi-spectral and multi-temporal satellite imagery (LANDSAT TM and ETM, MODIS and IKONOS) for Bucharest urban area over 1988 - 2008 period provides the most reliable technique of monitoring of different urban structures regarding the net radiation and heat fluxes associated with urbanization at the regional scale. The main objectives of this investigation aimed :to develop and validate new techniques for mapping and monitoring land cover and land use within and around Bucharest urban area using satellite sensor images and new digital framework data ; to analyze the spatial pattern of land cover and the detailed morphology of urban land use across the study area, and hence quantify the degree of order and structure that underlies the apparently irregular geometry of land use parcels; to devise a methodology for automatic updating of digital urban land-use maps; to develop an improved information base on urban land-use and land-use change for land-use/transportation models, urban development planning, urban ecology and local plans. Bucharest town, the biggest industrial, commercial center in Romania has experienced a rapid urban expansion during the last decades. A large amount of forest and agricultural land has been converted into housing, infrastructure and industrial estates. The resultant impervious urban surface alters the surface energy balance and surface runoff, which in turn could pose serious environmental problems for its inhabitants (e.g., urban waterlogged and thermal pollution). The changes over

  18. A correlational analysis of the effects of changing environmental conditions on the NR atomic hydrogen maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragonette, Richard A.; Suter, Joseph J.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive statistical analysis has been undertaken to determine if a correlation exists between changes in an NR atomic hydrogen maser's frequency offset and changes in environmental conditions. Correlation analyses have been performed comparing barometric pressure, humidity, and temperature with maser frequency offset as a function of time for periods ranging from 5.5 to 17 days. Semipartial correlation coefficients as large as -0.9 have been found between barometric pressure and maser frequency offset. Correlation between maser frequency offset and humidity was small compared to barometric pressure and unpredictable. Analysis of temperature data indicates that in the most current design, temperature does not significantly affect maser frequency offset.

  19. When environmental changes do not cause geographic separation of fauna: differential responses of Baikalian invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While the impact of climate fluctuations on the demographic histories of species caused by changes in habitat availability is well studied, populations of species from systems without geographic isolation have received comparatively little attention. Using CO1 mitochondrial sequences, we analysed phylogeographic patterns and demographic histories of populations of five species (four gastropod and one amphipod species) co-occurring in the southwestern shore of Lake Baikal, an area where environmental oscillations have not resulted in geographical isolation of habitats. Results Species with stronger habitat preferences (gastropods B. turriformis, B. carinata and B. carinatocostata) exhibit rather stable population sizes through their evolutionary history, and their phylogeographic pattern indicates moderate habitat fragmentation. Conversely, species without strong habitat preference (gastropod M. herderiana and amphipod G. fasciatus) exhibit haplotype networks with a very abundant and widespread central haplotype and a big number of singleton haplotypes, while their reconstructed demographic histories show a population expansion starting about 25-50 thousand years ago, a period marked by climate warming and increase in diatom abundance as inferred from bottom-lake sedimentary cores. Conclusions In agreement with previous studies, we found that species reacted differently to the same environmental changes. Our results highlight the important role of dispersal ability and degree of ecological specialization in defining a species' response to environmental changes. PMID:20969796

  20. Sex Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Longitudinal Change in Functional Ability in Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Ernsth-Bravell, Marie; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual and gender differences in aging of functional ability. Method. Twenty assessments of functional ability are collected as part of the longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging from 859 twins aged 50–88 at the first wave. Participants completed up to 6 assessments covering a 19-year period. Factor analysis was used to create 3 factors: flexibility, fine motor skills, and balance. Results. Latent growth curve analysis demonstrated increasing disability and variability after age 70. For flexibility, results indicated significant sex differences in mean change trajectories but no sex differences in components of variance. No sex differences were found for fine motor movement. For balance, there were no sex differences in mean change trajectories; however, there was significant genetic variance for changes in balance in women after age 70 but not for men. Discussion. Although idiosyncratic environmental influences account for a large part of increasing variance, correlated and shared rearing environmental effects were also evident. Thus, both microenvironmental (individual) and macroenvironmental (family and cultural) effects, as well as genetic factors, affect maintenance of functional ability in late adulthood. PMID:24398585

  1. Organizing for Global Environmental Change Policy: How Difficult Can it Be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental change does not respect geopolitical boundaries, and so new groups continue to spring up to try to assist with the policy aspects of addressing impacts region-wide. One of the newest organizations on the environmental change policy scene is the Group on Earth Observations (GEO). GEO is an intergovernmental organization that does not use a treaty or other legal framework to perform its duties. Moreover, all of the members of GEO volunteer to do help the organization achieve its goals, and some go even further and donate funds. How do they make the most of the volunteers? How do the volunteers even decide to join GEO, and why? Has GEO been effective? How does a volunteer intergovernmental body organize itself? In what key ways does GEO achieve what other organizations cannot? Are there lessons here for addressing global environmental change at other levels? There are lessons to be learned regarding how the GEO structures itself to be most effective when handling the challenges of making Earth observations available for societal benefit. This paper discusses the results of research conducted to learn more about this unique animal in the policy zoo, and will provide answers to these and other questions gleaned from the case study on GEO.

  2. Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    SciTech Connect

    Stoss, F.W.

    1994-06-01

    The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

  3. Environmental changes monitoring by remote sensing for Danube River Delta, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    2003-03-01

    Danube delta, one of the largest European wetlands left, lies predominantly in Romania, being considered a Biosphere Reservation. Environmental impact assessment and detection of spatio-temporal changes is needed for protection, conservation and restoration of the biological diversity specific to this area. Danube Delta wetlands and aquatic ecosystem are increasingly endangered by global or regional environmental changes due to the discharges or deposition of excess nutrients and/or harmful substances, to the reclamation of lands for agriculture, forestry, and engineering of water flows. A multitemporal data set consisting of LANDSAT MSS, TM and SAR-ERS1 images for Romanian Danube River Delta was used for comparing and mapping landcover change via change detection. The main aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive analysis based on existing historical and more recent data to establish the link between phytoplankton bloom development and related harmful phenomena in the North-Western part of Black Sea and changes in the Danube watershed (landuse, fertilizer utilization, waste water treatments). Based on satellite data were analyzed some test areas in the vicinity of the Danube mouths where the nutrient concentration were highest, being assimilated with an expected oxygen depletion, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the bottom waters and the superficial sediments.

  4. Energy flow and functional compensation in Great Basin small mammals under natural and anthropogenic environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Rebecca C.; Rowe, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the ecological impacts of environmental change has primarily focused at the species level, leaving the responses of ecosystem-level properties like energy flow poorly understood. This is especially so over millennial timescales inaccessible to direct observation. Here we examine how energy flow within a Great Basin small mammal community responded to climate-driven environmental change during the past 12,800 y, and use this baseline to evaluate responses observed during the past century. Our analyses reveal marked stability in energy flow during rapid climatic warming at the terminal Pleistocene despite dramatic turnover in the distribution of mammalian body sizes and habitat-associated functional groups. Functional group turnover was strongly correlated with climate-driven changes in regional vegetation, with climate and vegetation change preceding energetic shifts in the small mammal community. In contrast, the past century has witnessed a substantial reduction in energy flow caused by an increase in energetic dominance of small-bodied species with an affinity for closed grass habitats. This suggests that modern changes in land cover caused by anthropogenic activities—particularly the spread of nonnative annual grasslands—has led to a breakdown in the compensatory dynamics of energy flow. Human activities are thus modifying the small mammal community in ways that differ from climate-driven expectations, resulting in an energetically novel ecosystem. Our study illustrates the need to integrate across ecological and temporal scales to provide robust insights for long-term conservation and management. PMID:26170294

  5. Benthic foraminiferal records of natural and anthropogenic environmental change in a coastal estuary: Tomales Bay, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, S. C.; Hill, T. M.; Russell, A. D.; Brooks, G.

    2009-12-01

    Tomales Bay (~50km north of San Francisco) is a low-inflow, seasonally hypersaline estuary on the Northern California coast that has been heavily influenced by anthropogenic processes (cattle ranching, land use changes, recent changes in salinity and pH). To investigate the linkages between human developments and environmental changes that have occurred in Tomales Bay, eight sediment cores (2.51m to 2.86m in length) have been recovered along the length of the bay. Sediment accumulation rates for the bay range from 2.95mm/yr to 6.27mm/yr. In the outer bay, the benthic foraminiferal assemblage is characterized by a recent (upper 30 cm) increase in agglutinated foraminifera along with a decrease in calcareous species (Elphidium hannai, Elphidium sp., Ammonia beccarii and Buccella tenerrima) following a period where calcareous species dominated the assemblage and agglutinated foraminifera populations were practically non-existent. These trends may indicate changes in saturation levels of calcite in the estuary. Benthic foraminiferal geochemistry (δ18O and Mg/Ca) will be utilized to reconstruct salinity and temperature records for the past 456 years. Comparing these findings to the well-documented history of human activity of Tomales Bay may provide insights into natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and impacts on coastal environments.

  6. Energy flow and functional compensation in Great Basin small mammals under natural and anthropogenic environmental change.

    PubMed

    Terry, Rebecca C; Rowe, Rebecca J

    2015-08-01

    Research on the ecological impacts of environmental change has primarily focused at the species level, leaving the responses of ecosystem-level properties like energy flow poorly understood. This is especially so over millennial timescales inaccessible to direct observation. Here we examine how energy flow within a Great Basin small mammal community responded to climate-driven environmental change during the past 12,800 y, and use this baseline to evaluate responses observed during the past century. Our analyses reveal marked stability in energy flow during rapid climatic warming at the terminal Pleistocene despite dramatic turnover in the distribution of mammalian body sizes and habitat-associated functional groups. Functional group turnover was strongly correlated with climate-driven changes in regional vegetation, with climate and vegetation change preceding energetic shifts in the small mammal community. In contrast, the past century has witnessed a substantial reduction in energy flow caused by an increase in energetic dominance of small-bodied species with an affinity for closed grass habitats. This suggests that modern changes in land cover caused by anthropogenic activities--particularly the spread of nonnative annual grasslands--has led to a breakdown in the compensatory dynamics of energy flow. Human activities are thus modifying the small mammal community in ways that differ from climate-driven expectations, resulting in an energetically novel ecosystem. Our study illustrates the need to integrate across ecological and temporal scales to provide robust insights for long-term conservation and management. PMID:26170294

  7. Stratigraphic evidence for anthropogenically induced coastal environmental change from Oaxaca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goman, Michelle; Joyce, Arthur; Mueller, Raymond

    2005-05-01

    Previous interdisciplinary paleoenvironmental and archaeological research along the Río Verde Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, showed that Holocene erosion in the highland valleys of the upper drainage basin triggered geomorphic changes in the river's coastal floodplain. This article uses stratigraphic data from sediment cores extracted from Laguna Pastoría, an estuary in the lower Río Verde Valley, to examine changes in coastal geomorphology potentially triggered by highland erosion. Coastal lagoon sediments contain a stratigraphically and chronologically distinct record of major hurricane strikes during late Holocene times. Three distinct storm facies are identified from sediment cores obtained from Laguna Pastoría, which indicate that profound coastal environmental changes occurred within the region and are correlated with increased sediment supplied from highland erosion. The Chione/ Laevicardium facies was deposited in an open bay while the Mytella/barnacle facies and sand facies were deposited in an enclosed lagoon following bay barrier formation. We argue that highland erosion triggered major geomorphic changes in the lowlands including bay barrier formation by ˜2500 cal yr B.P. These environmental changes may have had significant effects on human populations in the region. The lagoon stratigraphy further indicates an increase in mid-late Holocene hurricane activity, possibly caused by increased El Niño frequencies.

  8. Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-03-22

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  9. Turtles outsmart rapid environmental change: The role of cognition in navigation.

    PubMed

    Krochmal, Aaron R; Roth, Timothy C; Rush, Sage; Wachter, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Animals inhabiting changing environments show high levels of cognitive plasticity. Cognition may be a means by which animals buffer the impact of environmental change. However, studies examining the evolution of cognition seldom compare populations where change is rapid and selection pressures are strong. We investigated this phenomenon by radiotracking experienced and naïve Eastern painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) as they sought new habitats when their pond was drained. Resident adults repeatedly used specific routes to permanent water sources with exceptional precision, while adults translocated to the site did not. Naïve 1-3 y olds from both populations used the paths taken by resident adults, an ability lost by age 4. Experience did not, however, influence the timing of movement or the latency to begin navigation. This suggests that learning during a critical period may be important for how animals respond to changing environments, highlighting the importance of incorporating cognition into conservation. PMID:27065017

  10. Coping with change: a framework for environmental signals and how neuroendocrine pathways might respond.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, John C

    2015-04-01

    The Earth has always been a changeable place but now warming trends shift seasons and storms occur with greater frequency, intensity and duration. This has prompted reference to the modern era as the Anthropocene caused by human activity. This era poses great challenges for all life on earth and important questions include why and how some organisms can cope and others cannot? It is of heuristic value to consider a framework for types of environmental signals and how they might act. This is especially important as predictable changes of the environment (seasonality) are shifting rapidly as well as unpredictable changes (perturbations) in novel ways. What we need to know is how organisms perceive their environment, transduce that information into neuroendocrine signals that orchestrate morphological, physiological and behavioral responses. Given these goals we can begin to address the questions: do neuroendocrine systems have sufficient flexibility to acclimate to significant change in phenology, are genetic changes leading to adaptation necessary, or both? PMID:25511258

  11. Turtles outsmart rapid environmental change: The role of cognition in navigation

    PubMed Central

    Krochmal, Aaron R; Roth, Timothy C; Rush, Sage; Wachter, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Animals inhabiting changing environments show high levels of cognitive plasticity. Cognition may be a means by which animals buffer the impact of environmental change. However, studies examining the evolution of cognition seldom compare populations where change is rapid and selection pressures are strong. We investigated this phenomenon by radiotracking experienced and naïve Eastern painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) as they sought new habitats when their pond was drained. Resident adults repeatedly used specific routes to permanent water sources with exceptional precision, while adults translocated to the site did not. Naïve 1–3 y olds from both populations used the paths taken by resident adults, an ability lost by age 4. Experience did not, however, influence the timing of movement or the latency to begin navigation. This suggests that learning during a critical period may be important for how animals respond to changing environments, highlighting the importance of incorporating cognition into conservation. PMID:27065017

  12. Coping with change: a framework for environmental signals and how neuroendocrine pathways might respond.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, John C

    2015-04-01

    The Earth has always been a changeable place but now warming trends shift seasons and storms occur with greater frequency, intensity and duration. This has prompted reference to the modern era as the Anthropocene caused by human activity. This era poses great challenges for all life on earth and important questions include why and how some organisms can cope and others cannot? It is of heuristic value to consider a framework for types of environmental signals and how they might act. This is especially important as predictable changes of the environment (seasonality) are shifting rapidly as well as unpredictable changes (perturbations) in novel ways. What we need to know is how organisms perceive their environment, transduce that information into neuroendocrine signals that orchestrate morphological, physiological and behavioral responses. Given these goals we can begin to address the questions: do neuroendocrine systems have sufficient flexibility to acclimate to significant change in phenology, are genetic changes leading to adaptation necessary, or both?

  13. Effects of changes in micro- and macro-environmental factors on the supply of hospitals services.

    PubMed

    Kassaye, W W; Tseng, K C

    1990-01-01

    The failures, marketing difficulties and financial hardships hospitals have experienced raises a question as to whether they have been responsive to the changes in the micro and macro-environmental factors. To determine how responsive hospitals have been to these changes, we investigate the impact of a number of selected factors on the supply of hospital services during 1972 through 1978. The findings indicate that despite the fact that the economy went through recessionary periods, and the demographic distribution exhibited both a shift and a change in the aging and birth rates of the nation, the changes in hospitals' responsiveness have been less than satisfactory. It appears that hospitals readily respond to the changes in the micro-environment than to the changes in macro-environment. Their response to the changes in the macro-environment. Their response to the changes in the macro-environment may be characterized as an effort to create a higher level of production whose goal is to create a still higher level of needs and wants.

  14. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Johanna D.; Devine, Carol M.; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. PMID:26368577

  15. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Johanna D; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population.

  16. Tree species from different functional groups respond differently to environmental changes during establishment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo R M; van Langevelde, Frank; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H T

    2014-04-01

    Savanna plant communities change considerably across time and space. The processes driving savanna plant species diversity, coexistence and turnover along environmental gradients are still unclear. Understanding how species respond differently to varying environmental conditions during the seedling stage, a critical stage for plant population dynamics, is needed to explain the current composition of plant communities and to enable us to predict their responses to future environmental changes. Here we investigate whether seedling response to changes in resource availability, and to competition with grass, varied between two functional groups of African savanna trees: species with small leaves, spines and N-fixing associations (fine-leaved species), and species with broad leaves, no spines, and lacking N-fixing associations (broad-leaved species). We show that while tree species were strongly suppressed by grass, the effect of resource availability on seedling performance varied considerably between the two functional groups. Nutrient inputs increased stem length only of broad-leaved species and only under an even watering treatment. Low light conditions benefited mostly broad-leaved species' growth. Savannas are susceptible to ongoing global environment changes. Our results suggest that an increase in woody cover is only likely to occur in savannas if grass cover is strongly suppressed (e.g. by fire or overgrazing). However, if woody cover does increase, broad-leaved species will benefit most from the resulting shaded environments, potentially leading to an expansion of the distribution of these species. Eutrophication and changes in rainfall patterns may also affect the balance between fine- and broad-leaved species. PMID:24337711

  17. Modelling and Investigating Dune Transformations Driven by Vegetation and Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Na; Baas, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Despite growing perception of the significant role of vegetation in shaping distinct landscapes in aeolian systems, the complex eco-geomorphic interrelationships between vegetation and dune landforms are not well understood. Projections of future climatic change, meanwhile, in particular increased temperature and drought severity, raise concerns that widespread aeolian activity may intensify as a result of semi-stabilised dunes transforming to highly mobile forms. Computer modelling of aeolian landscapes and sand transport processes has been in wide use in the past decade, due to its capability of bridging the gap between different temporal and spatial scales. Numerical simulations serve as an important tool to investigate and explore theoretical foundations underlying distinctive landscape patterns and their response to perturbations arising from both natural and anthropogenic impacts. This research focuses on modelling and understanding the transformation of a semi-fixed parabolic dunefield with shrubs and nebkhas into a highly mobile barchanoid dunefield, and tries to clarify the fundamental mechanisms underlying dunefield reactivation and transformation driven by vegetation and environmental change in Inner Mongolia, China. Vegetation distribution and topography maps of a number of parabolic dunes on the Ordos Plateau were acquired using quadrat surveys and d-GPS. Sampling transects were established along longitudinal sections, cross sections and lee slopes. Historical trajectories of vegetation and morphologic change of two active parabolic dunes were determined by analysing three satellite RS images in 2005, 2007 and 2010. Vegetation density maps and potential sand transport rates were estimated by combining the DEM acquired from the field and the migration rate determined from the remote sensing image interpretation. Based on this fieldwork investigation, remote sensing image interpretation, and local climatic context analysis, the DECAL (Discrete Eco

  18. Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Shiklomanov, Alexander; Okladinikov, Igor; Prusevich, Alex; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Description and first results of the cooperative project "Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes" recently started by SCERT IMCES and ESRC UNH are reported. The project is aimed at development of hardware and software platform prototype of Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes over the areas of mutual interest and demonstration the benefits of such collaboration that complements skills and regional knowledge across the northern extratropics. In the framework of the project, innovative approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platforms of two U.S. and Russian leading institutions involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research centers focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies by international research teams. DRC under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed by the cooperating teams' information-computational systems RIMS (http://rims.unh.edu) and CLIMATE(http://climate.scert.ru/), which are widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The project includes several major directions of research (Tasks) listed below. 1. Development of architecture and defining major hardware and software components of DRC for monitoring and projecting of regional environmental changes. 2. Development of an information database and computing software suite for distributed processing and analysis of large geospatial data hosted at ESRC and IMCES SB RAS. 3. Development of geoportal, thematic web client and web services providing international research teams with an access to "cloud" computing resources at DRC; two options will be executed: access through a basic graphical web browser and

  19. Holocene environmental change and its impact on sediment dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusar, Bert; Verstraeten, Gert; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Bakker, Johan

    2011-10-01

    Investigators have studied past environmental change in the Eastern Mediterranean region from a number of perspectives. While climate reconstructions and palynological research have focused on forces that drive the geomorphologic system, many researchers have attempted to use sediment archive studies to identify periods of change in sediment dynamics. Due to the large variability in environmental parameters and the variety of landscapes present in the Eastern Mediterranean region, research has focused on sediment archives ranging from small colluvial sites to deltas of large rivers on the Mediterranean coast. As the cultural record for the region is extremely rich, the main goal of palaeo-environmental research in the Eastern Mediterranean has been to identify the relative importance of human impact on the landscape. Nevertheless, sediment archives have significant limitations: chronological control for many palaeo-environmental records is highly uncertain, and rates of landscape change are oftentimes difficult to assess. Most palaeo-environmental research has been conducted on or near archeological sites, where direct human impact may obscure the indirect impact on sediment dynamics through land-use changes. Quantification and modeling of sediment dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean environment offer one solution. When erosion and sediment transport rate analyses are incorporated, periods of relatively important change can be identified. Using multiple approaches the relative importance of the main driving forces, climate and land use, become distinguishable. Since field-based data from the actual sediment archives remain vital, an overview of numerous studies in the Eastern Mediterranean is provided in order to draw a general picture for different time periods and the relative scale of regional landscape development during the Holocene. A comparison of sediment dynamics with the record of driving forces indicates that while climate was the main driver of the

  20. Drivers and Dynamics of Ecological Responses to Abrupt Environmental Change on the Early Miocene Oregon Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    We know that the biosphere responds to abrupt climate change, but know less about the dynamics of those changes and their proximal drivers. Studies of well-preserved fossil time-series spanning past climate events that utilize multiple environmental proxies and examine multiple taxonomic groups can provide critical insight into (a) the specific environmental factors to which the biota respond, (b) the rate and tempo of those responses, and (c) whether taxonomic groups respond similarly or differently to the same stresses. I examine the drivers and dynamics of ecological changes in continental shelf benthic foraminifera and molluscs from the Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation in Oregon (20.3-16.3 mya), which spans a time of global warming leading into the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. Stable isotope (δ18O) data from three species of benthic foraminifera from the Astoria sediments indicate that the region abruptly warmed by 2-4°C approximately 19 mya. In addition, δ13C values from epifaunal and infaunal foraminifera indicate an increase in productivity and organic carbon flux over time. Further, an increase in δ15N from bulk sediment and an increase in sedimentary laminations suggest oxygen levels declined. Multivariate analyses demonstrate a strong correlation between foraminiferal community metrics and δ15N suggesting that the foraminiferal community is tracking oxygenation levels while correlations to productivity changes appear indirect. Molluscan community metrics also have an approximately linear relationship to δ15N. Temperature itself had little direct influence on community composition. Changes in community composition and structure of both the foraminifera and the molluscs are abrupt relative to the duration of community states, but each group responds differently to the climate change. The foraminiferal community increases in the number of species and the evenness of species abundances while the molluscan community decreases in

  1. Hundred Years of Environmental Change and Phytoplankton Ecophysiological Variability Archived in Coastal Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Berge, Terje; Lundholm, Nina; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Marine protist species have been used for several decades as environmental indicators under the assumption that their ecological requirements have remained more or less stable through time. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that marine protists, including several phytoplankton species, are in fact highly diverse and may quickly respond to changes in the environment. Predicting how future climate will impact phytoplankton populations is important, but this task has been challenged by a lack of time-series of ecophysiological parameters at time-scales relevant for climate studies (i.e. at least decadal). Here, we report on ecophysiological variability in a marine dinoflagellate over a 100-year period of well-documented environmental change, by using the sedimentary archive of living cysts from a Scandinavian fjord (Koljö Fjord, Sweden). During the past century, Koljö Fjord has experienced important changes in salinity linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). We revived resting cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei preserved in the fjord sediments and determined growth rates for 18 strains obtained from 3 sediment core layers at salinity 15 and 30, which represent extreme sea-surface conditions during periods of predominantly negative and positive NAO phases, respectively. Upper pH tolerance limits for growth were also tested. In general, P. dalei grew at a higher rate in salinity 30 than 15 for all layers, but there were significant differences among strains. When accounting for inter-strain variability, cyst age had no effect on growth performance or upper pH tolerance limits for this species, indicating a stable growth response over the 100-year period in spite of environmental fluctuations. Our findings give some support for the use of morphospecies in environmental studies, particularly at decadal to century scales. Furthermore, the high intra-specific variability found down to sediment layers dated as ca. 50 years-old indicates that cyst-beds of P

  2. Hundred years of environmental change and phytoplankton ecophysiological variability archived in coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Berge, Terje; Lundholm, Nina; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Marine protist species have been used for several decades as environmental indicators under the assumption that their ecological requirements have remained more or less stable through time. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that marine protists, including several phytoplankton species, are in fact highly diverse and may quickly respond to changes in the environment. Predicting how future climate will impact phytoplankton populations is important, but this task has been challenged by a lack of time-series of ecophysiological parameters at time-scales relevant for climate studies (i.e. at least decadal). Here, we report on ecophysiological variability in a marine dinoflagellate over a 100-year period of well-documented environmental change, by using the sedimentary archive of living cysts from a Scandinavian fjord (Koljö Fjord, Sweden). During the past century, Koljö Fjord has experienced important changes in salinity linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). We revived resting cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei preserved in the fjord sediments and determined growth rates for 18 strains obtained from 3 sediment core layers at salinity 15 and 30, which represent extreme sea-surface conditions during periods of predominantly negative and positive NAO phases, respectively. Upper pH tolerance limits for growth were also tested. In general, P. dalei grew at a higher rate in salinity 30 than 15 for all layers, but there were significant differences among strains. When accounting for inter-strain variability, cyst age had no effect on growth performance or upper pH tolerance limits for this species, indicating a stable growth response over the 100-year period in spite of environmental fluctuations. Our findings give some support for the use of morphospecies in environmental studies, particularly at decadal to century scales. Furthermore, the high intra-specific variability found down to sediment layers dated as ca. 50 years-old indicates that cyst-beds of P

  3. Urbanization and environmental change during the economic transition on the Mongolian Plateau: Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peilei; Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet

    2016-01-01

    Driven by drastic socioeconomic changes in China and Mongolia, urbanization has become one of the most significant driving forces in the transformation of the Mongolian Plateau in the past 30 years. Using Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar as case studies, we developed a holistic approach to examine the socioeconomic and natural driving forces for urbanization and to investigate the impact on the urban environment. We used a multidisciplinary approach and relied on a variety of data sources to assess the changes of the landscape and environment of the two cities. We detected a rapid urbanization in Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar, both in terms of urban population growth and urban land expansion, from 1990 to 2010, with a much faster speed in 2000-2010. The local geo-physical conditions have constrained the spatial direction of expansion. Ulaanbaatar lagged behind Hohhot for about a decade when measured by indicators of urban population and urban land. Both cities have a degraded urban environment and a growing air pollution epidemic. While Hohhot had worse air pollution than Ulaanbaatar in the early 2000s, the gap between the two cities became smaller after 2010. The research presented here highlights the following as key determinants for urbanization and environmental change: (1) the co-evolution of urbanization, economic development, and environmental change; (2) the urbanization of transitional economies driven by the change of the economic structure, i.e., the development by both manufacturing and tertiary sectors and the change in the primary sector; and (3) the recent institutional changes and increased integration with the global economy. PMID:26456409

  4. Urbanization and environmental change during the economic transition on the Mongolian Plateau: Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar.