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  1. Drug discovery in academia.

    PubMed

    Shamas-Din, Aisha; Schimmer, Aaron D

    2015-08-01

    Participation of academic centers in aspects of drug discovery and development beyond target identification and clinical trials is rapidly increasing. Yet many academic drug discovery projects continue to stall at the level of chemical probes, and they infrequently progress to drugs suitable for clinical trials. This gap poses a major hurdle for academic groups engaged in drug discovery. A number of approaches have been pursued to overcome this gap, including stopping at the production of high-quality chemical probes, establishing the resources in-house to advance select projects toward clinical trials, partnering with not-for-profit groups to bring the necessary resources and expertise to develop probes into drugs, and drug repurposing, whereby known drugs are advanced into clinical trials for new indications. In this review, we consider the role of academia in anticancer drug discovery and development, as well as the strategies used by academic groups to overcome barriers in this process.

  2. Diversity in academia: some reflections.

    PubMed

    Steele, R L

    1995-01-01

    How close does academia come to mirroring America? Like other societal institutions, higher education has overcome obstacles to cultural diversity with varying degrees of success. Changes in faculty composition and development of more inclusive curricula have been slow taking place in some instances, but there is reason to be optimistic. This paper discusses the historical context of racism and prejudice in American society and how institutions of higher education compare with current trends in overcoming obstacles affecting parity.

  3. Negotiating Three Worlds: Academia, Nursing Science, and Tribal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Holkup, Patricia A.; Rodehorst, T. Kim; Wilhelm, Susan L.; Kuntz, Sandra W.; Weinert, Clarann; Stepans, Mary Beth Flanders; Salois, Emily Matt; Bull, Jacqueline Left Hand; Hill, Wade G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to use a cross-cultural model to guide the exploration of common issues and the dynamic interrelationships surrounding entrée to tribal communities as experienced by four nursing research teams. Method Members of four research teams discuss the primary lessons learned about successful strategies and challenges encountered during their projects' early stages. Results Understanding the cultural values of relationship and reciprocity is critical to the success of research projects conducted in Native American communities. Discussion Conducting cross-cultural research involves complex negotiations among members of three entities: academia, nursing science, and tribal communities. The lessons learned in these four research projects may be instructive to investigators who have the opportunity to conduct research with tribal communities. PMID:18948449

  4. Electronic Publishing in Academia: An Economic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Malcolm

    The challenge to academia is to invest in services that will turn the abundance of electronic data into sound, useful, compelling information products. The process of filtering, labeling, refining, and packaging, that is, the process of editing and publishing, takes resources and will be shaped by the electronic world in significant ways. This…

  5. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  6. Using Microcomputers to Increase Productivity in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Garry D.

    1984-01-01

    The expanded use of microcomputers, including word processing, to improve productivity of geological educators and students is discussed. Topic areas examined include: computer development and academic use; word processing with microcomputers; instructional uses and other applications; impacts on academia; and acquisition. (BC)

  7. Continuous Improvement Framework: Implications for Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temponi, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the main elements of continuous improvement (CI) in higher education and the concerns of academia's stakeholders in the implementation of such an approach. Suggests guidelines for the development of a culture more receptive to the implementation and maintenance of a CI approach in higher education. Design/methodology/approach:…

  8. Determinants of Organisational Climate for Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Adela; Scott, Don

    2013-01-01

    Being aware of the factors that develop a positive organisational climate is especially important in universities, where the academic members of staff are, in large measure, self-motivated. To identify the determinants of organisational climate for university academia, the validity and reliability of the first-order constructs of autonomy,…

  9. Gender Inequality in Academia: Evidences from Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    Universities and other institutions of higher education in Nigeria see themselves as liberal and open-minded. They support social movements that encourage principles of democracy and social justice, yet their mode of governance is male dominated and patriarchal. This study, therefore, identified the causes of gender inequality in academia and the…

  10. Burke and Academia: Revenge of the Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambkin, David J.

    Kenneth Burke was a college dropout who did not enjoy notable success until quite late in life. His major interest was the development of a meta-theory of language, which he called "rhetoric." Denied the resources and material rewards of academia, Burke was both scapegoated and redeemed by the academic community. Furthermore, the scapegoaters and…

  11. Making a Case for Technology in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Kathrin; Callender, Donell; Henry, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Interested in connecting users with the latest resources aimed at advancing intellectual inquiry and discovery, researchers from Texas Tech University Libraries decided to embark on a study to explore the practicality of the latest technology, the iPad, within the varying functions of academia. Using an online survey and focus groups, the…

  12. Strengthening the relationship between industry and academia

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.J.; Medford, M.O. )

    1991-11-01

    Both industry and academia recognize that there are potential benefits in developing a partnership. Interaction between industry and academia is necessary if students are to be given the skills that are most critical to industry. These more appropriately educated students will then be able to make a greater and more immediate contribution once in the work force. This interaction can continue throughout the employee's career by providing opportunities for lifelong learning through training - both technical training to prevent obsolescence and training to broaden or add to employee skills (e.g., management or quality training). Local universities and colleges in the Tennessee River Valley provide help with curriculum development and provide expertise and the latest information and techniques that are lacking within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for training and broadening employees. Two examples are provided of current programs designed to address industrial demands for education.

  13. Job sharing for women pharmacists in academia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kelly C; Finks, Shannon W

    2009-11-12

    The pharmacist shortage, increasing numbers of female pharmacy graduates, more pharmacy schools requiring faculty members, and a lower percentage of female faculty in academia are reasons to develop unique arrangements for female academic pharmacists who wish to work part-time. Job sharing is an example of a flexible alternative work arrangement that can be successful for academic pharmacists who wish to continue in a part-time capacity. Such partnerships have worked for other professionals but have not been widely adopted in pharmacy academia. Job sharing can benefit the employer through retention of experienced employees who collectively offer a wider range of skills than a single employee. Benefits to the employee include balanced work and family lives with the ability to maintain their knowledge and skills by remaining in the workforce. We discuss the additional benefits of job-sharing as well as our experience in a non-tenure track job-sharing position at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. PMID:19960092

  14. Academia-industry symbiosis in organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Michaudel, Quentin; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S

    2015-03-17

    Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial "sponsoring" is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry's point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry's desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply "pure science" research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the "real world" at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate groups, thereby presenting an

  15. Academia-industry symbiosis in organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Michaudel, Quentin; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S

    2015-03-17

    Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial "sponsoring" is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry's point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry's desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply "pure science" research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the "real world" at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate groups, thereby presenting an

  16. Career Development of Women in Academia: Traversing the Leaky Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Courtney E.; Shaffer, Katharine S.

    2014-01-01

    Women's experiences in academia are laden with a fundamental set of issues pertaining to gender inequalities. A model reflecting women's career development and experiences around their academic pipeline (or career in academia) is presented. This model further conveys a new perspective on the experiences of women academicians before, during and…

  17. Commentary: Will academia embrace comparative effectiveness research?

    PubMed

    Lauer, Michael S

    2011-06-01

    In recent medical history, a number of therapies that were widely adopted based on observational data or pathophysiological constructs turned out to be useless or even harmful when tested in randomized comparative effectiveness trials. These therapies not only harmed patients but also did a disservice to the practical education of medical students, residents, and fellows. These trainees effectively learned that it is acceptable to implement practices even in the absence of high-quality evidence, and so they may not have learned how to analyze the quality of evidence. In this issue of Academic Medicine, seven groups address critical aspects of the intersection between comparative effectiveness research (CER) and academic medicine. Their topics include the need at academic health centers for cultural shifts, for addressing conflicts of interest, for exploiting academic talent and electronic information resources, for interacting well with policy makers, for incorporating economic evaluations, for incorporating tests of educational methods, for developing multidisciplinary models, and for integrating CER into "predictive health." This commentary argues that academia must embrace CER by insisting on the highest levels of evidence, by viewing all clinical interactions as opportunities for scientific advancement, by setting an example for policy makers and colleagues working in nonacademic settings, and by engaging all physicians in the clinical research enterprise. PMID:21613887

  18. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  19. Leading by Example: The Case for IT Security in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Leadership in IT security is needed. Security matters: the ethics, the economics, and the social implications. There is much the academic community can do to help ensure cybersecurity. This document discusses steps academia can take to help ensure cybersecurity.

  20. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  1. Measuring successful knowledge sharing among academia through social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Saadiah; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zabidi, Nerda Zura; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Alias, Rose Alinda

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to study the influence of social media on knowledge sharing among academia. Previously, many researches have been done to explore the importance emergence of social media for public use, but there are still limited studies on how this technological advancement affects the academia. For this study, Facebook is chosen as one of the online social networking tools as the medium of knowledge sharing. To begin with, this study is started with the identification of factors that encourage the academia to share their knowledge through social media. These factors are then categorized based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). After this knowledge has successfully shared, the level of successful knowledge sharing through Facebook is modeled using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy inputs for this study are the number of like, comment and share. Findings from this study indeed showed that there are many reasons encouraging academia to utilize social media for their work. Besides, this paper contributes new knowledge to fuzzy logic application as it is the first known research in measuring Facebook engagement for knowledge sharing purposes. In conclusion although there exist some barriers and limitations with the use of social media, academia are showing a positive shift in the application of these tools for work.

  2. SMEs and their co-operation with academia.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Jean Michel; Strömqvist, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation between SMEs and Academia can be a win-win situation when each partner understands the constraints of the other. SMEs are often leaders in innovation; therefore more ready to share interest in research. They are flexible and dynamic. They need a short feed-back to sustain their co-operation. Academia is often more long-term oriented and more question- than answer-oriented. A code of conduct can ease the relationship because it can anticipate the potential problems.

  3. Public health service administration and academia. A joint venture.

    PubMed

    Campbell, B F; King, J B

    1992-12-01

    Joint ventures between service and academia are designed to enhance the quality of client services, enrich faculty teaching experiences and skills, and strengthen communication channels. The joint venture described in this article is an example of how public health nursing services and academia can be united through faculty participation in administration. Included in the discussion are the impetus for the project, the contract negotiations, the positive outcomes and disadvantages of the venture, and questions that should be raised when a similar venture is considered.

  4. Tenure Denied: Cases of Sex Discrimination in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Susan K., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on women who took their fight for tenure to the courts. Drawing on 19 cases supported by the American Association of University Women Legal Advocacy Fund since 1981, we document the challenge of fighting sex discrimination in academia. In the process, we illustrate the overt and subtle forms of sex discrimination that continue…

  5. "Good Girls": Emphasised Femininity as Cloning Culture in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattsson, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in academia might be understood as an effect of the belief of a contradiction between woman and science, which make it difficult for women to appropriate the right to author and authorise acts of knowing and thinking in science. In relation to this concern, the aim of this article is to explore how a group of successful women…

  6. The Lived Experience of Novice Nursing Faculty in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Shirley S.

    2013-01-01

    To relieve the nursing faculty shortage, notable numbers of master's prepared clinical nurse experts are entering the ranks of nursing faculty to teach the prelicensure nursing student. The transition from clinical practice to the academia raises concern about the adequacy of preparation for the complex specialization role of nurse educator. In…

  7. Translating the Academy: Learning the Racialized Languages of Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monzó, Lilia D.; SooHoo, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This article presents narratives of 2 women faculty of color, 1 early career Latina and the other tenured Asian American woman, regarding their ontological and epistemological struggles in academia, as well as the hope, impetus, and strategies for change that they constructed together. Drawing on a critical pedagogy perspective, mentoring is…

  8. Navigating the Career Transition from Industry to Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michael John; Wood, Leigh; Solomonides, Ian; Dixon, Peter; Goos, Merrilyn

    2013-01-01

    Transitions from "industry" to "academia" represent a unique type of career change. Although such transitions are becoming increasingly common in Australian universities and beyond, there is no coherent framework for making sense of the multiple and intersecting factors involved in these inter-domain movements. This form of…

  9. Getting Started in Academia: A Guide for Educational Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Christine B.; Barnes, Benita J.

    2008-01-01

    We identify the major tasks facing pre-tenure faculty members and outline advice, based on a review of the literature and our experiences, for succeeding in academia. The challenges encountered by new faculty include learning the culture of the new academic institution, understanding the processes and policies for academic performance review,…

  10. Bridging the Gap in Knowledge Transfer between Academia and Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gera, Rajat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper intends to identify the causes or gaps in transfer of managerial knowledge between academia and practitioners and to develop a framework that overcomes the gaps through knowledge management, information technology and human resource practices. The paper aims to suggest a strategic approach based on the knowledge transfer cycle.…

  11. Iranian academia: evolution after revolution and plagiarism as a disorder.

    PubMed

    Ghazinoory, Sepehr; Ghazinoori, Soroush; Azadegan-Mehr, Mandana

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a few of scientific journals raise serious questions about scientific ethics and moral judgment of some of the Iranian government's senior executives in their papers. Plagiarism, under any circumstances is not justified, and we do not intend to justify it in this note. However, we find it useful in understanding why otherwise respected, responsible individuals may engage in plagiarism by terse review of the history Iranian academia.

  12. Repaving the road to biomedical innovation through academia.

    PubMed

    Marks, Andrew R

    2011-06-29

    Biomedical innovation requires investigators to build on existing knowledge and achieve insights that are transformative. Innovation starts with incisive scientific discoveries, which are often made in academic research laboratories. Today, the financial model for supporting biomedical research in universities is threatened, and one victim is innovation. New models for public funding that support high-risk research in academia will spur innovation and ultimately advance clinical medicine.

  13. Repaving the Road to Biomedical Innovation Through Academia

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical innovation requires investigators to build on existing knowledge and achieve insights that are transformative. Innovation starts with incisive scientific discoveries, which are often made in academic research laboratories. Today, the financial model for supporting biomedical research in universities is threatened, and one victim is innovation. New models for public funding that support high-risk research in academia will spur innovation and ultimately advance clinical medicine. PMID:21715676

  14. Transfer from research/academia to clinical/regulated.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ferdousi; Williams, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    We focus here on how the interface in academia has adapted in their approach to assessing the PDs of biological agents to better understand mechanisms at an early stage. This understanding enables drugs to be modified early and to be reassessed before progressing to late stage trials. We discuss how these efforts are now being bolstered by a network of consortia involving industry, academia and regulatory bodies, to bring together resources, knowledge and a harmonization in bioanalytical techniques. We highlight how the regulatory guidance still lags behind the rapid advancement in biologicals and associated analytical techniques, especially in immunotherapies and immunological bioassays. Despite this, new collaborative groups are working together to deliver robust and accurate results essential for identifying the most promising drugs to progress from early phase academic research to late phase industry based trials. We show how the relationship between academia and not-for-profit organizations with large pharma and emerging biotech companies has shifted toward a more collaborative effort in bringing new therapies to the forefront. PMID:27628669

  15. Life as an acoustician in industry, academia, and government service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Mardi C.

    2001-05-01

    Acoustics is a science that has very broad applications, which affect all different areas of our lives. During the last 20 years, I have combined family with a career as an acoustics engineer in industry, a tenured faculty member at a university and, most recently, a program manager in a government agency. In these positions I have worked in several areas of acoustics, including noise control, structural acoustics, building acoustics, sound quality, physical acoustics, acoustic materials, underwater acoustics, biomedical ultrasound, physiological acoustics, and bioacoustics. Although the fundamental science of sound is the foundation of all these areas, communication of ideas, problems, and solutions varies greatly from industry to academia to government. Thus knowing the science and how to use it are not enough, as communication skills and the ability to adapt them to changing environments are essential for a successful career. In addition to describing life as an acoustician in industry, academia, and government service, I will present several examples of how even though the acoustic fundamentals are the same, how they are communicated could become a disaster or save the day.

  16. Preparing the nurse scientist for academia and industry.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Lynne P; Kohlenberg, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    The number of doctoral programs in nursing has been increasing. However, these programs tend to focus on preparing nurse scientists to conduct research, and many spend little time preparing doctoral students for the educator, clinical researcher, or administrator role. Leaders of doctoral programs have identified the need to prepare doctoral students in the functional roles they will assume upon graduation, in addition to the researcher role. This article describes a two-course (six-credit) sequence of courses within a research-focused PhD in Nursing program that provides didactic and experiential knowledge about the role of the nurse scientist in academia and industry settings. Students are highly satisfied with the courses, and report that the experiences have provided them with important knowledge and skills as they assume the scientist role.

  17. A Study on the Role of Web Technology in Enhancing Research Pursuance among University Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad; Durrani, Muhammad Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of web technologies in promoting research pursuance among university teachers, examine the use of web technologies by university teachers in conducting research and identify the problems of university academia in using web technologies for research. The study was delimited to academia of social…

  18. Latinas/os Succeeding in Academia: The Effect of Mentors and Multiethnic Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos, Alyssa G.

    2016-01-01

    Academia often devalues diverse identities, cultures, and languages through emphasis placed on academic values. To ascertain how established and new Latina/o academics achieved success in academia, the author conducted interviews with ten Latina/o academics; they noted mentoring and multiethnic coursework as influential in their success as…

  19. Academia-Industry-Government Linkages in Tanzania: Trends, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpehongwa, Gasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed trends, challenges and prospects of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania. Using case study design, and documentary review to gather the required data, the study sought to answer three research questions: (1) what are the trends of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania?, (2) what are the challenges…

  20. A Case of Mimetic Isomorphism: A Short-Cut to Increasing Loyalty to Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the process of shortening career path to leadership positions in academia that could serve as an example of mimetic isomorphism, where university tries to apply business-like quick result-oriented strategies. This strategy incentivizes young faculty to stay in universities and keep loyalty to academia. This process could also…

  1. Keeping the Devil Away from Miss Jones: Censorship in Academia, 1976-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, L. B.; And Others

    Information on censorship in academia in the United States is presented, based on censorship cases reported in the "Newsletter on Intellectual Freedom" from 1976 to 1981. Cases occurring in academia accounted for 63 of the more than 800 cases reported. The states and institutions in which the censorship attacks occurred are identified, along with…

  2. Temporal distance and discrimination: an audit study in academia.

    PubMed

    Milkman, Katherine L; Akinola, Modupe; Chugh, Dolly

    2012-07-01

    Through a field experiment set in academia (with a sample of 6,548 professors), we found that decisions about distant-future events were more likely to generate discrimination against women and minorities (relative to Caucasian males) than were decisions about near-future events. In our study, faculty members received e-mails from fictional prospective doctoral students seeking to schedule a meeting either that day or in 1 week; students' names signaled their race (Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Indian, or Chinese) and gender. When the requests were to meet in 1 week, Caucasian males were granted access to faculty members 26% more often than were women and minorities; also, compared with women and minorities, Caucasian males received more and faster responses. However, these patterns were essentially eliminated when prospective students requested a meeting that same day. Our identification of a temporal discrimination effect is consistent with the predictions of construal-level theory and implies that subtle contextual shifts can alter patterns of race- and gender-based discrimination.

  3. National colloquium: developing national standards for industry, government, and academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Corey D.; Maconachy, W. V.; Murray, William; Wilson, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    The National Colloquium for Information Systems Security Education (the Colloquium) was established in 1997 to serve as a living body to bring government, industry, and academia together to meet the challenges of information security. All aspects of our lives and all aspects of our social, economic and political system are becoming increasingly dependent on our information and communications infrastructure. The security and assurance of our information and communications infrastructure should be a national priority. To address this, our nation needs an information-literate work force that is aware of its vulnerability, as well as a cadre of information professionals that are knowledgeable of the recognized 'best practices available in information security and information assurance, as called for in Presidential Decision Directive 63, May 22, 1998. It is the task of American higher education to provide that information- literate work force and to prepare information professions. To meet this priority, higher education must be informed of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be taught in the general curricula and in the information curricula of its colleges and universities. Industry and government must under their role in supporting higher education, not simply expecting higher education to be responsive and informed about information security and assurance.

  4. The dilemma of inclusivity in the globalization of academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano Rodriguez, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    This paper extends the conversation started by Mariona Espinet, Mercè Izquierdo, Clara Garcia-Pujol; Ludovic Morge and Isabel Martins and Susana de Souza regarding the diverse issues faced by the internationalisation of science education journals. I use my own experience as an early career researcher coming from an underrepresented culture and language within academia to expand on these issues. I focus on the issues which I have experienced the most: the disconnection between university research and school practice and the struggles with the unspoken power structures. As I delve into my experience, I argue that we are failing to ask the right questions to create a science education community that is inclusive of diverse views and multicultural perspectives. We need to rethink how we can avoid colonisation of school teachers, as Isabel and Susana describe, but also the colonisation of those academics and teachers who are from non-English speaking cultures. I urge us to carry more debates such as the one initiated by these three authors, exposing and debating about the different power structures within science education so that we can progress in empowering all those voices that have been silenced.

  5. The End of Academia?: From "Cogito Ergo Sum" to "Consumo Ergo Sum" Germany and Malaysia in Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kim-Hui,; Har, Wai-Mun

    2008-01-01

    The lack of academic and thinking culture is getting more worried and becomes a major challenge to our academia society this 21st century. Few directions that move academia from "cogito ergo sum" to "consumo ergo sum" are actually leading us to "the end of academia". Those directions are: (1) the death of dialectic;…

  6. Making Science Whole Again: The Role of Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubchenco, J.

    2006-12-01

    Science in the 21st Century has become increasingly fragmented, not in the usual sense of disciplinary divisions, but with increased specialization in the discovery, teaching, public communication and application aspects of new knowledge. As in the infamous `telephone game', messages passed along through multiple parties, risk distortion. More insidiously, without active and effective checks and balances along the way, information can be and is being deliberately distorted, completely altered, or used selectively. Science, of course, is not the only basis for decision-making; values, politics, economics and other factors should also be considered. Nonetheless, a key role of science is to inform decision-making (not to drive it exclusively). The importance of citizens and leaders having access to accurate scientific information and knowledge is so essential to human well-being that new mechanisms must be found to ensure the integrity of scientific information. Among the multiple changes that are needed to achieve this goal, many of which will be explored in this session, one pertains specifically to the academic scientific community. That change entails growing and supporting stellar scientists who participate directly in discovery AND public communication of knowledge. More scientists whose primary jobs are research and teaching could and should also be actively involved in sharing new knowledge with non-scientists. The public expects this to happen but academia gives it lip service at best. Having more scientists who can communicate scientific knowledge that is understandable, relevant, useable, current and credible to non-technical audiences is a key (though far from the only) factor in protecting the integrity of science. The Aldo Leopold Leadership Program now based at Stanford University's Woods Institute for the Environment is a program that trains tenured, academic environmental scientists to communicate effectively with politicians, business people, the

  7. Pharma and Academia: What We Have Here Is a Failure to Communicate.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Morris J

    2016-09-13

    In recent years, there has been substantial interest in the potential value of collaboration between academia and the pharmaceutical industry. In this Crosstalk, I discuss obstacles to these relationships being optimally productive. PMID:27626193

  8. Pharma and Academia: What We Have Here Is a Failure to Communicate.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Morris J

    2016-09-13

    In recent years, there has been substantial interest in the potential value of collaboration between academia and the pharmaceutical industry. In this Crosstalk, I discuss obstacles to these relationships being optimally productive.

  9. Industry-funded dermatologic research within academia in the United States: fiscal and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Blank, I H

    1992-03-01

    Private-sector funding of biomedical research within academia may come from industry, foundations, the dermatologists themselves, and the public at large. Industry-funding is of benefit to both academia and industry. Industry may fund clinical and basic research and product testing. Industry is more willing to fund product testing and clinical research than basic research. Funds for dermatologic research may be obtained from manufacturers of drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents. Questions of academic freedom arise when research is funded by industry. The results of academic research are in the public domain; the results of intramural industry research are often proprietary, i.e., "trade secrets." When there is industry funding within academia, any restraints on publication should be held to a minimum and be temporary. Publication should occur in a timely fashion, although recognizing the need for delayed publication if the results concern patentable material. When there is a consultantship, pre-arranged terms of agreement may restrict communication. Patents usually are held by the investigator's institution. The funding company may be granted world-wide, royalty-bearing licenses. Conflicts of interest may arise during any research endeavor; this warrants close attention when the research is industry funded. Stock ownership, speaker fees, blind contracts, etc., should be avoided. In any communication, funding agreements should be stated. Indirect costs are a "necessary evil." There are non-research expenditures associated with all research projects for which the institution is justified in requesting compensation. Indirect costs must have definite connections to a project. As industrial funding of research within academia increases, various facets of the academia-industry relationship are receiving increasing attention. Several aspects of conflicts of interest and indirect costs must yet be resolved. When faced openly and directly, all of these

  10. [Industry-Academia Collaboration in the Clinical Laboratory Field: Chairmen's Introductory Remarks].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Tohru; Ikemoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Industry-academia collaboration has become essential in contemporary medicine. Therefore, many institutes including university corporations have promoted the establishment of an endowed chair and/or performed collaborative research. This symposium was held to overview the present status of industry-academia collaboration in the clinical laboratory field. As a representative of the industry, Mr. Taniguchi (Sysmex) presented the development process of M2BP Glycosylation Isomer, a new marker for liver fibrosis. Mr. Saitoh (Horiba) introduced the achievements of joint collaborative research with Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, especially the practical realization of an automated hematology analyzer capable of simultaneously measuring C-reactive protein. Mr. Setoyama (LSI Medience) presented on the characteristic collaboration between academia and commercial laboratories such as Tsukuba Medical Laboratory of Education and Research (TMER). On the other hand, as a representative of academia, Associate Prof. Imai (Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine) summarized the necessity of clinical laboratories spread regenerative medicine. Finally, Prof. Koshiba (Hyogo College of Medicine) presented on the industry-academia collaboration in routine laboratory work in his institute. PMID:27192804

  11. Intellectual Property Rights -- How to Manage the Struggle between Academia and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabek, Rose Ann

    2000-03-01

    The struggle between Academia and Industry is really one of myths and misperception. Industry is viewed as greedy, difficult to deal with and arrogant. Academia on the other hand is viewed by industry as having unrealistic expectations about the value of the technology and its contribution to product success. Industry wants to own all IP and Academia has come to believe that they will make the next invention that will bring the billion dollars a year royalty income to the school (and the inventors). We will discuss how to measure the contributions of both parties, how to measure the risks and benefits to each party, and offer some suggestions on ways to compromise the IP rights to create a win-win situation for both parties.

  12. Better infrastructure: industry-academia partnerships--a marriage of convenience?

    PubMed

    Abraham, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The successful design and completion of clinical trials often requires participation of both industry and academia. Although there may be differing priorities for academic and industry participants, both bring important insights and resources to the clinical trial effort. Although industry generally is primarily responsible for preclinical development and funding of the study and academia for patient recruitment and participation in the data safety monitoring board and clinical coordinating center, there are also a number of important areas, including protocol design, data analysis, and manuscript preparation where both academia and industry can supply important insights. Inherent tensions may exist in the academic-industry relationship, including important issues relating to conflict of interest for both academic and industry participants. Nevertheless, the academic-industry partnership, if appropriately organized, can perform in a synergistic fashion, allowing exploration of novel therapies, elucidation of important mechanisms, and greater understanding of critical illness through using combined approaches that generate insights unable to be provided by either partner alone.

  13. Open Access Meets Discoverability: Citations to Articles Posted to Academia.edu

    PubMed Central

    Niyazov, Yuri; Vogel, Carl; Price, Richard; Lund, Ben; Judd, David; Akil, Adnan; Mortonson, Michael; Schwartzman, Josh; Shron, Max

    2016-01-01

    Using matching and regression analyses, we measure the difference in citations between articles posted to Academia.edu and other articles from similar journals, controlling for field, impact factor, and other variables. Based on a sample size of 31,216 papers, we find that a paper in a median impact factor journal uploaded to Academia.edu receives 16% more citations after one year than a similar article not available online, 51% more citations after three years, and 69% after five years. We also found that articles also posted to Academia.edu had 58% more citations than articles only posted to other online venues, such as personal and departmental home pages, after five years. PMID:26886730

  14. Gender and letters of recommendation for academia: agentic and communal differences.

    PubMed

    Madera, Juan M; Hebl, Michelle R; Martin, Randi C

    2009-11-01

    In 2 studies that draw from the social role theory of sex differences (A. H. Eagly, W. Wood, & A. B. Diekman, 2000), the authors investigated differences in agentic and communal characteristics in letters of recommendation for men and women for academic positions and whether such differences influenced selection decisions in academia. The results supported the hypotheses, indicating (a) that women were described as more communal and less agentic than men (Study 1) and (b) that communal characteristics have a negative relationship with hiring decisions in academia that are based on letters of recommendation (Study 2). Such results are particularly important because letters of recommendation continue to be heavily weighted and commonly used selection tools (R. D. Arvey & T. E. Campion, 1982; R. M. Guion, 1998), particularly in academia (E. P. Sheehan, T. M. McDevitt, & H. C. Ross, 1998). PMID:19916666

  15. Open Access Meets Discoverability: Citations to Articles Posted to Academia.edu.

    PubMed

    Niyazov, Yuri; Vogel, Carl; Price, Richard; Lund, Ben; Judd, David; Akil, Adnan; Mortonson, Michael; Schwartzman, Josh; Shron, Max

    2016-01-01

    Using matching and regression analyses, we measure the difference in citations between articles posted to Academia.edu and other articles from similar journals, controlling for field, impact factor, and other variables. Based on a sample size of 31,216 papers, we find that a paper in a median impact factor journal uploaded to Academia.edu receives 16% more citations after one year than a similar article not available online, 51% more citations after three years, and 69% after five years. We also found that articles also posted to Academia.edu had 58% more citations than articles only posted to other online venues, such as personal and departmental home pages, after five years. PMID:26886730

  16. Barriers to Women Leaders in Academia: Tales from Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe-Walsh, Liza; Turnbull, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding the lack of women in senior positions in science and technology (ST) in United Kingdom (UK) universities. Previous research has enhanced our understanding of the challenges women in academia face to progress their careers. In contrast, relatively little is known as to why so few women reach leadership positions…

  17. The role of academia and industry in nurturing women in physics in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamwandha, Cecilia A.; Kasina, Angeline; Muthui, Zipporah W.; Awuor, Emily; Baki, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The authors look at some of the primary initiatives taken by the government, academia, and industry to nurture the goals and dreams of Kenyan women physicists. They discuss key transformative lines of progress as evidenced by statistics, and the enabling environments and platforms upon which these were made possible.

  18. Reflections on the No-Uterus Rule: Pregnancy, Academia, and Feminist Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shope, Janet Hinson

    2005-01-01

    This essay relays the author's own pregnancy story to illustrate how academia traditionally reinforces the mind/body dualism by adhering to the no-uterus rule: a gender blind, antibody approach that treats persons as if they do not occupy a body in time and space. Her experience reveals the problems disembodied approaches to knowledge pose for…

  19. Leadership, Diversity and Succession Planning in Academia. Research & Occasional Papers Series: CSHE 8.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Although academia is becoming more like business in many respects--not all of them positive--it has not borrowed one of the best attributes of business culture: its tradition of developing leadership through succession planning. As a result, much talent is underutilized. This includes, most prominently, that of women and minorities, who tend not…

  20. Leaks in the pipeline: separating demographic inertia from ongoing gender differences in academia.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Allison K; Stanton, Daniel E

    2012-09-22

    Identification of the causes underlying the under-representation of women and minorities in academia is a source of ongoing concern and controversy. This is a critical issue in ensuring the openness and diversity of academia; yet differences in personal experiences and interpretations have mired it in controversy. We construct a simple model of the academic career that can be used to identify general trends, and separate the demographic effects of historical differences from ongoing biological or cultural gender differences. We apply the model to data on academics collected by the National Science Foundation (USA) over the past three decades, across all of science and engineering, and within six disciplines (agricultural and biological sciences, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, physical sciences, psychology, and social sciences). We show that the hiring and retention of women in academia have been affected by both demographic inertia and gender differences, but that the relative influence of gender differences appears to be dwindling for most disciplines and career transitions. Our model enables us to identify the two key non-structural bottlenecks restricting female participation in academia: choice of undergraduate major and application to faculty positions. These transitions are those in greatest need of detailed study and policy development. PMID:22719028

  1. NOAA & Academia Partnership Building Conference. Highlights (3rd, Washington, DC, November 14-15, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Silver Spring, MD.

    In November 2001 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hosted the third NOAA and Academia Partnership to evaluate, maintain, and expand on efforts to optimize NOAA-university cooperation. Close partnership between the NOAA and U.S. universities has produced many benefits for the U.S. economy and the environment. Based on the…

  2. Productivity in Academia: An Assessment of Causal Linkages between Output and Outcome Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Ssembatya, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate causal linkages between output and outcome indicators of productivity in academia. Design/methodology/approach: The duration of teaching service and the number of graduate students supervised to completion were adopted as output indicators of productivity. Equivalent outcome indicators were the…

  3. Students Perception of the Role of Parents in Academia and Continued Examination Malpractice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.

    2009-01-01

    The formal school system is bedeviled with many problems some of which have defied satisfactory solutions. One major problem plaguing the Nigerian education system is large scale examination malpractice. The aim of the study is to find out the role of parents in academia in perpetrating and perpetuating examination malpractice. The population of…

  4. A Critical Analysis of Anti-Discrimination Law and Microaggressions in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukes, Robin; Bangs, Joann

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical analysis of microaggressions and anti-discrimination law in academia. There are many challenges for faculty claiming discrimination under current civil rights laws. Examples of microaggressions that fall outside of anti-discrimination law will be provided. Traditional legal analysis of discrimination will not end…

  5. The Three-Ring Circus of Academia: How to Become the Ringmaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani

    2007-01-01

    The three-ring circus of academia is made up of research, teaching, and service. It is also characterized by continuous action that must be facilitated by the academic ringmaster. Academic life is more difficult than most anticipate because the responsibilities are time-consuming, diverse, and conflicting. Therefore, this article focuses on…

  6. Political Attitudes in the Classroom: Is Academia the Last Bastion of Liberalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Falce, David; Gomez, SimonPeter

    2007-01-01

    Academia is under attack from those who believe that college professors are uniformly leftist politically, which creates an environment of bias against conservative students and professors. Advocates have proposed an "Academic Bill of Rights" that may lead to policies to achieve intellectual diversity in faculty hiring and tenure decisions.…

  7. Poverty PhDs: Funds of Knowledge, Poverty, and Professional Identity in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Manning, Jill Michelle; Chun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the common deficit approach, this self-study explores the relationship between the funds of knowledge possessed by people of poverty and their development of professional identity in academia. All three authors have moved beyond conditions of financial poverty, but all find that the mental conditions of poverty persist. We conclude…

  8. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  9. Deal-Making and Rule-Breaking: Behind the Facade of Equity in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjeldal, Sue-Ellen; Rindfleish, Jennifer; Sheridan, Alison

    2005-01-01

    A glass ceiling for women still exists in academia after two decades of equal employment opportunity (EEO) legislation in Australia. There are complex factors that when combined make gender inequity in the higher education sector highly resistant to change. Using personal histories as a reflexive device, the paper makes explicit the embedded male…

  10. German Academia Heading for Sustainability? Reflections on Policy and Practice in Teaching, Research and Institutional Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomssent, Maik; Michelsen, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how far (and by what practical means) the growing global trend for universities to commit to sustainable development has spread across German academia. Following this introduction, part 2 will outline the political framework of the sustainability discourse in German higher education. Part 3 will emphasise the integration of…

  11. Technology Transfer: A Case Study of Programs and Practices at NASA, DOD, DOC, and Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology transfer is vital to humanity. It spurs innovation, promotes commerce, and provides technology-based goods and services. Technology transfer is also highly complex and interdependent in nature. This interdependence is exemplified principally by the various technology transfer interactions between government, industry, and academia. …

  12. Refugees, Migrants, Visitors and Internally Displaced Persons: Investigating Acculturation in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Nicholas; Martin, Rose; Knox, Sarah; Mabingo, Alfdaniels

    2016-01-01

    What is the boundary of the academic space, and who can belong within it? The migration of skilled practitioners into Academia from other workplaces brings with it the opportunity to expand the understandings and functions of higher education. Similar to processes of geographic/political migration, the acculturation resulting from this…

  13. Government and Academia: The Uneasy Bond. A Round Table Held on April 13, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    An edited transcript of a televised American Enterprise Institute Public Policy Forum examines the dangers and benefits of the relationship between government and academia. The following questions about the government's increasing role in higher education are discussed by the panel: Can state and federal governments assist colleges and…

  14. Development and Validation of a Measure of Intention to Stay in Academia for Physician Assistant Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted development and validation of a measure of "intention to stay in academia" for physician assistant (PA) faculty in order to determine if the construct could be measured in way that had both quantitative and qualitative meaning. Adopting both the methodologic framework of the Rasch model and the theoretical framework…

  15. The Efficacy of Social Media Technologies in Academia: A Pedagogical Bliss or Digital Fad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivunja, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Efficacy of a teaching strategy technically refers to the ability of that strategy to produce a desired or intended learning outcomes. To date, there is little information on the efficacy of social media technologies in academia and it is likely to be some time before their effectiveness is proven. It is therefore legitimate to ask the question,…

  16. The Diffusion of the Learning Pyramid Myths in Academia: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letrud, Kåre; Hernes, Sigbjørn

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the diffusion and present day status of a family of unsubstantiated learning-retention myths, some of which are referred to as "the learning pyramid". We demonstrate through an extensive search in academic journals and field-specific encyclopaedias that these myths are indeed widely publicised in academia and that…

  17. How Artists Working in Academia View Artistic Practice as Research: Implications for Tertiary Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Diana; Bennett, Dawn; Wright, David

    2011-01-01

    Artistic research output struggles for recognition as "legitimate" research within the highly-competitive and often traditional university sector. Often recognition requires the underpinning processes and thinking to be documented in a traditional written format. This article discusses the views of eight arts practitioners working in academia by…

  18. Morally Successful Collaboration between Academia and Industry — A Case of a Project Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartiainen, Tero

    Academia-industry collaboration is common in the IT-field, and it includes training programs, research centre activities, and industry advisory boards (Watson and Huber 2000). For the industry, co-operation provides possibilities to acquire human resources and, for the academia, co-operation ensures that research and teaching activities are relevant. Regardless of its popularity little is known about moral issues relating to this phenomenon. This study intends to fill the gap in knowledge by determining the nature of moral conflicts perceived by clients, students, and instructors of a collaborative project course, and by formulating a framework to successfully getting grips with these conflicts. This article is a summary of the research the detailed description of which is found in Vartiainen (2005).

  19. Alcohol medications development: advantages and caveats of government/academia collaborating with the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Litten, Raye Z; Ryan, Megan; Falk, Daniel; Fertig, Joanne

    2014-05-01

    The process of developing pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder is notoriously complex and challenging. The path to market is long, costly, and inefficient. One way of expediting and reducing the drug development process is through collaborations-building partnerships among government, academia, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, healthcare organizations and advocacy groups, and the patients (end consumers) themselves. By forging collaborations, particularly with pharmaceutical companies, the alcohol treatment field stands to reap benefits in generating new medications for use in mainstream treatment settings. At the same time, there are certain caveats that should be considered, particularly by academic researchers, before entering into such partnerships. This commentary examines the advantages and caveats of government and academia collaborations with pharmaceutical companies.

  20. Changing paradigms in animal agriculture: the role of academia and industry in technology transfer.

    PubMed

    Braund, D G

    1995-10-01

    Challenges abound for academia, industry, and animal agriculture. Universities, especially land-grant universities, are losing their credibility with the public on whom they depend for support. Industries have gone and continue to go through wrenching restructuring, driven by the realities of the marketplace. On the farm and in the classrooms, laboratories, and field research stations of land-grant universities, agriculturalists face a major challenge-society's growing resistance to science and technology. Technology, especially biotechnology, has become suspect in the minds of many people. Solutions to these and other challenges for effective technology transfer in the future will not depend on a single institution, company, or program. Perhaps the most challenging issue is simply how to unite groups and individuals who have been accustomed to having their own separate programs. In the future, "business as usual"; won't work. Academia and industry are being held to new and higher standards of accountability by their clientele (customers). Academia and industry will need to join forces to increase U.S. agriculture's competitiveness in a global environment that demands that the lag time between discovery and adoption of appropriate technology be shortened. PMID:8617689

  1. A Win-Win-Win Proposition -- Academia and Industry Working Together for Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogswell, J.

    2011-12-01

    Both Academia and Industry have a vested interest in building a pipeline of students who are attracted to geoscience as a discipline; who invest in a solid academic geoscience foundation and who move on to fulfilling professional careers. Global society needs geoscientists to find the energy that drives our economic well-being, responsibly and safely; and to solve today's complex environmental concerns. The US Oil and Gas Industry directly employed around 17,300 geologists in 2008(1). As with the rest of the geoscience community, our industry is dealing with a bi-modal age distribution in our workforce, with many eligible to retire in the next five years. Academia and Industry have an urgent, collective, challenge to attract the best and brightest students to study geoscience and to bring promising graduates onboard and up to speed as quickly as possible ExxonMobil accomplishes this rapid acclimation to our industry by focusing on high quality on-boarding, mentoring, and training, as well as diversity in early career assignments. We have implemented a one week on-boarding workshop for our new hires that provides them with comprehensive industry as well as Corporate cultural and infrastructure information. We ensure that our new hires have dedicated mentors who are passionate about petroleum geology, passionate about the petroleum business, and passionate about teaching the next generation of "oil finders." Our new hires attend several "flagship" schools in their first 5 years, which are designed to provide the technical expertise needed in today's petroleum business. Finally, our global operations allow us to provide a rich diversity of early assignments, which enables our early career geoscientists to develop an appreciation of the breadth of our business. There is no sub-discipline of geoscience that is more or less successful transitioning into our business from Academia. The key, which we rely on Academia to provide, is a strong grounding in the fundamentals of

  2. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    normalizadas, en el desempeño de los estudiantes en estos dos asuntos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. El razonamiento espacial de los estudiantes fue medido utilizando un instrumento específico desarrollado para este trabaljo. Las correlaciones entre los resultados de los tests astronómicos y este instrumento específico, antes y después del curso mostraron una relación entre moderada y fuerte, sugiriendo que la relación entre el razonamiento espacial y el conocimiento astronómico puede explicar hasta un 25% de la variación em el desempeño de los estudiantes. A comunidade da educação em astronomia tem suposto de forma implícita que o aprendizado da astronomia consiste em um domínio conceitual fundamentado no raciocínio espacial. Como um primeiro passo para identificar formalmente uma relação empírica entre estas duas coisas, utilizamos como amostra os estudantes de graduação de carreiras não científicas de um curso exploratório em uma universidade norte-americana do meio-oeste de médio porte com programa de Doutorado em andamento, onde estes estudantes foram submetidos a um diagnóstico de raciocino espacial e conceitos astronômicos antes e depois do mesmo. As ferramentas utilizadas foram o Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) e o questionário What do you know? Utilizando somente dados completamente consistentes para esta análise, nossa amostra consistiu de 86 estudantes de graduação. As melhoras, depois de normalizadas, do desempenho dos estudantes nos dois quesitos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. O raciocínio espacial dos estudantes foi medido utilizando um instrumento específico desenhado para este trabalho. As correlações entre os resultados dos testes astronômicos e este instrumento específico antes e depois do curso mostraram uma relação entre moderada e forte, sugerindo que a relação entre o raciocínio espacial e o conhecimento astronômico pode explicar até um 25% na variação no desempenho dos

  3. Innovation and industry-academia interactions: where conflicts arise and measures to avoid them.

    PubMed

    Vagelos, P Roy

    2007-03-01

    Every phase of the development of biopharmaceuticals and medical devices has the potential for conflict of interest, but adherence to established rules and practices throughout product development can eliminate the possibility of conflicts. Adherence to good practices should continue through the postmarketing period, with swift reporting and vigorous investigation of any safety concerns. Although some academic medical centers are restricting interactions between their faculty and industry to prevent possible conflicts in physician education about new products, industry and academia should look for new ways to come together in mutually agreed forums that focus on educating clinicians about new products in an efficient, transparent way.

  4. Innovation and industry-academia interactions: where conflicts arise and measures to avoid them.

    PubMed

    Vagelos, P Roy

    2007-03-01

    Every phase of the development of biopharmaceuticals and medical devices has the potential for conflict of interest, but adherence to established rules and practices throughout product development can eliminate the possibility of conflicts. Adherence to good practices should continue through the postmarketing period, with swift reporting and vigorous investigation of any safety concerns. Although some academic medical centers are restricting interactions between their faculty and industry to prevent possible conflicts in physician education about new products, industry and academia should look for new ways to come together in mutually agreed forums that focus on educating clinicians about new products in an efficient, transparent way. PMID:17469468

  5. Research Activities at the Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA) is an institute of Academia Sinica, the national research organization in Taiwan. The institute has a staff of approximately 100, and has operations in both Taipei and Hawaii. Present research at the ASIAA includes the Solar System, Stellar Evolution, Star Formation, Interstellar Chemistry, Galactic Dynamics, Active Galaxies, and Cosmology. We are partners in the SubMillimeter Array (SMA) project on Mauna Kea, and are developing an Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) in Mauna Loa. ASIAA also participates in the CFHT Wide Field Infrared Camera development in exchange for observing time on the telescope. A 3-telescope system is being built in Lulin Mountain in Taiwan to conduct an occultation survey in search for small Kuiper Belt objects. An increasing level of theoretical and computational astrophysics is being pursued through the establishment of Theoretical Institute for Advanced Research in Astrophysics (TIARA) in collaboration with TsingHua University. In this paper, we will report on some of the current research activities at ASIAA as well as plans for the future.

  6. [Johann Laurentius Bausch and Philipp Jacob Sachs of Lewenhaimb. Foundation of the Academia Naturae

    PubMed

    Müller, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biographical notes of the two municipal physicians of Schweinfurt, Leonhard Bausch (1574 to 1636) and Johann Laurentius Bausch (1605-1665) and another three physicians (Johann Michael Fehr, Georg Balthasar Wohlfarth and Georg Balthasar Metzger) who founded the Academia Naturae Curiosorum together with the younger Bausch in 1652, show that this founding was initiated by a surprisingly homogenous group, sharing the same social, educational and professional background as well as ancestral and acquired experiences. They all had been influenced by the immigration fate of their families, the rapid rise to the politically or academically educated elite in the imperial city of Schweinfurt, worn out by war and plagues. They all had studied at universities in protestant territories of the Holy Roman Empire, finishing with an educational journey (peregrinatio academica), usually to Italy. Experience of the flourishing university life beyond the frontiers of the Holy Roman Empire laid waste by the "Teutsche Krieg", the great variety of academies in Italy, the narrowness of contemporary medicine and the inability of the individual to explore the immense variety of nature: all this leads to the founding of the Academia Naturae Curiosorum and it is the point of reference of the founding documents of 1651/1652, which were first printed in 1662 (Salve Academicum). What is innovative about this is not the establishment of an academy but the desired aim and the way of achieving this. The tenor of these documents--to medically explore the variety of the divine "res naturals" in a cooperative and regulated way for the benefit of medicine and mankind and to publish the results in monographes (utilitas by curiositas)--was condensed by the later Leopoldina to the still used motto "to explore nature for the benefit of mankind". Due to Breslau's municipal physician Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenhaimb (1627 - 1672) the publishing activities of the academy came into being. But before the

  7. Measuring nepotism through shared last names: the case of Italian Academia.

    PubMed

    Allesina, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Nepotistic practices are detrimental for academia. Here I show how disciplines with a high likelihood of nepotism can be detected using standard statistical techniques based on shared last names among professors. As an example, I analyze the set of all 61,340 Italian academics. I find that nepotism is prominent in Italy, with particular disciplinary sectors being detected as especially problematic. Out of 28 disciplines, 9 - accounting for more than half of Italian professors - display a significant paucity of last names. Moreover, in most disciplines a clear north-south trend emerges, with likelihood of nepotism increasing with latitude. Even accounting for the geographic clustering of last names, I find that for many disciplines the probability of name-sharing is boosted when professors work in the same institution or sub-discipline. Using these techniques policy makers can target cuts and funding in order to promote fair practices.

  8. Collaborations among academia, government, and industry in the diagnostics space: barriers and some ideas for solutions.

    PubMed

    Evans, Greg; Austin, Finley

    2010-12-22

    The development and commercialization of diagnostic assays is distinct from that of therapeutic drugs in many important respects; for example, there are more variable regulatory requirements and reduced outside investments for diagnostics. The diagnostics industry has a pro-collaborative stance, because there is considerable mutual benefit in working in partnership with university or government researchers. However, there are substantial barriers to industry-academic collaborations. A Clinical and Translational Science Awards Industry Forum titled "Promoting Efficient and Effective Collaborations Among Academia, Government, and Industry" was held in February 2010, and a session at this forum was organized to list some of the most important barriers to diagnostics development and to discuss some possible solutions.

  9. Digital innovation through partnership between nature conservation organisations and academia: a qualitative impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Galán-Díaz, Carlos; Edwards, Peter; Nelson, John D; van der Wal, René

    2015-11-01

    Nature conservation organisations increasingly turn to new digital technologies to help deliver conservation objectives. This has led to collaborative forms of working with academia to spearhead digital innovation. Through in-depth interviews with three UK research-council-funded case studies, we show that by working with academics conservation organisations can receive positive and negative impacts, some of which cut across their operations. Positive impacts include new ways of engaging with audiences, improved data workflows, financial benefits, capacity building and the necessary digital infrastructure to help them influence policy. Negative impacts include the time and resources required to learn new skills and sustain new technologies, managing different organisational objectives and shifts in working practices as a result of the new technologies. Most importantly, collaboration with academics was shown to bring the opportunity of a profound change in perspectives on technologies with benefits to the partner organisations and individuals therein. PMID:26508342

  10. Digital innovation through partnership between nature conservation organisations and academia: a qualitative impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Galán-Díaz, Carlos; Edwards, Peter; Nelson, John D; van der Wal, René

    2015-11-01

    Nature conservation organisations increasingly turn to new digital technologies to help deliver conservation objectives. This has led to collaborative forms of working with academia to spearhead digital innovation. Through in-depth interviews with three UK research-council-funded case studies, we show that by working with academics conservation organisations can receive positive and negative impacts, some of which cut across their operations. Positive impacts include new ways of engaging with audiences, improved data workflows, financial benefits, capacity building and the necessary digital infrastructure to help them influence policy. Negative impacts include the time and resources required to learn new skills and sustain new technologies, managing different organisational objectives and shifts in working practices as a result of the new technologies. Most importantly, collaboration with academics was shown to bring the opportunity of a profound change in perspectives on technologies with benefits to the partner organisations and individuals therein.

  11. Practicum projects of value: a successful strategic partnership between nurse executives and master's level academia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Joyce A

    2010-01-01

    The opportunity exists for academia and the nursing executive community to collaboratively create cultures of excellence. One university formed relationships of collaborative synergy with nurse executives to provide practicum experiences of value for both the graduate nursing administration students and the health care facilities. The strategic preceptor partnerships offer graduate students the invaluable opportunity to experience the in-depth, real world perspective of nursing administration resulting in the enrichment of their academic scholarship. A final practicum work project is designed collaboratively with the preceptor and completed by the end of the second practicum semester. The resulting practicum project is an example of a mutually rewarding experience for the graduate nursing administration student and the preceptor. The collaborative synergistic model is a win-win situation for the university and the health care facility.

  12. Achieving professional success in US government, academia, and industry: an EMGS commentary.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Miriam C; Schwartz, Jeffrey L; Aardema, Marilyn J

    2014-08-01

    One of the goals of the EMGS is to help members achieve professional success in the fields they have trained in. Today, there is greater competition for jobs in genetic toxicology, genomics, and basic research than ever before. In addition, job security and the ability to advance in one's career is challenging, regardless of whether one works in a regulatory, academic, or industry environment. At the EMGS Annual Meeting in Monterey, CA (September, 2013), the Women in EMGS Special Interest Group held a workshop to discuss strategies for achieving professional success. Presentations were given by three speakers, each representing a different employment environment: Government (Miriam C. Poirier), Academia (Jeffrey L. Schwartz), and Industry (Marilyn J. Aardema). Although some differences in factors or traits affecting success in the three employment sectors were noted by each of the speakers, common factors considered important for advancement included networking, seeking out mentors, and developing exceptional communication skills. PMID:24788591

  13. Achieving professional success in US government, academia, and industry: an EMGS commentary.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Miriam C; Schwartz, Jeffrey L; Aardema, Marilyn J

    2014-08-01

    One of the goals of the EMGS is to help members achieve professional success in the fields they have trained in. Today, there is greater competition for jobs in genetic toxicology, genomics, and basic research than ever before. In addition, job security and the ability to advance in one's career is challenging, regardless of whether one works in a regulatory, academic, or industry environment. At the EMGS Annual Meeting in Monterey, CA (September, 2013), the Women in EMGS Special Interest Group held a workshop to discuss strategies for achieving professional success. Presentations were given by three speakers, each representing a different employment environment: Government (Miriam C. Poirier), Academia (Jeffrey L. Schwartz), and Industry (Marilyn J. Aardema). Although some differences in factors or traits affecting success in the three employment sectors were noted by each of the speakers, common factors considered important for advancement included networking, seeking out mentors, and developing exceptional communication skills.

  14. Training Multidisciplinary Scholars in Science Policy for Careers in Academia, Private Sector, and Public Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Regardless of a graduate student's ultimate career ambitions, it is becoming increasingly important to either develop skills to successfully transition into non-academic careers or to be able to understand the societal benefits of basic and applied research programs. In this talk I will provide my prospective -- from working in academia, the Federal government, and as an independent consultant -- about the training that we need for graduate students to navigate the jungle gym of career opportunities available (or not available) after they graduate. In particular, I will speak to the need for science policy training, in which scientific and coordination skills are put to use to help support societal decisions. I will assert that, to effectively train graduate students, it is necessary to provide experiences in multidisciplinary, policy-relevant scholarship to build marketable skills critical for a student's professional development.

  15. Natural products and drug discovery: a survey of stakeholders in industry and academia

    PubMed Central

    Amirkia, Vafa; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Context: In recent decades, natural products have undisputedly played a leading role in the development of novel medicines. Yet, trends in the pharmaceutical industry at the level of research investments indicate that natural product research is neither prioritized nor perceived as fruitful in drug discovery programmes as compared with incremental structural modifications and large volume HTS screening of synthetics. Aim: We seek to understand this phenomenon through insights from highly experienced natural product experts in industry and academia. Method: We conducted a survey including a series of qualitative and quantitative questions related to current insights and prospective developments in natural product drug development. The survey was completed by a cross-section of 52 respondents in industry and academia. Results: One recurrent theme is the dissonance between the perceived high potential of NP as drug leads among individuals and the survey participants' assessment of the overall industry and/or company level strategies and their success. The study's industry and academic respondents did not perceive current discovery efforts as more effective as compared with previous decades, yet industry contacts perceived higher hit rates in HTS efforts as compared with academic respondents. Surprisingly, many industry contacts were highly critical to prevalent company and industry-wide drug discovery strategies indicating a high level of dissatisfaction within the industry. Conclusions: These findings support the notion that there is an increasing gap in perception between the effectiveness of well established, commercially widespread drug discovery strategies between those working in industry and academic experts. This research seeks to shed light on this gap and aid in furthering natural product discovery endeavors through an analysis of current bottlenecks in industry drug discovery programmes. PMID:26578954

  16. The Managerial Turn in Higher Education? On the Interplay of Organizational and Occupational Change in German Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krücken, Georg; Blümel, Albrecht; Kloke, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The managerial turn in academia is currently broadly discussed. Based on empirical data gathered from a sample that includes all German universities, we can give a broad and fine-grained account of this turn. What we can clearly see is that whole new categories of administrative management positions have been created over the last years.…

  17. Conflicting Views on Quality: Interpretations of "A Good University" by Representatives of the State, the Market and Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udam, Maiki; Heidmets, Mati

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of research conducted over the period 2010-2012 in Estonia with the aim of identifying the expectations for the quality of higher education by principal parties in higher education, the state, the market and academia, as well as describing the differences and similarities in their expectations. The findings show…

  18. [Nurturing clinician investigators is the best way to promote innovative drug development from academia].

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Shunichi; Sakushima, Ken; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2012-03-01

    Clinical research in Japan is still lacking in quality and quantity, and that situation is worsening. One important cause of those problems is the dearth of clinician-investigators. A recent change in the system for post-graduate clinical training affected the career paths of medical residents and reduced the number of young doctors who enter graduate school. Even those who are interested in clinical research now have incentives to avoid graduate school. In Japan, 19th-century biological absolutism is still the dominant paradigm in the medical-research community. Science for public health in the 21st century will benefit from a probabilistic paradigm, which can help to restore an appropriate balance between basic sciences and clinical research. Research done by clinician-investigators should be based on clinical questions that arise in medical practice. That research includes investigation of disease and practice, exploration of associations between causes and outcomes, evaluation of diagnostic tests, and studies of the efficacy of treatments and prevention strategies. We emphasize the importance of nurturing clinician-investigators for the development of clinical research in Japan. This may not be the fastest way to promote innovative drug development from academia, but it is certainly the best.

  19. Eurosdr - the Pan-European Network for Mapping Agencies and Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streilein, A.; Remondino, F.; Pfeifer, N.; Trollvik, J. A.; Stoter, J.; Crompvoets, J.; Potůčková, M.

    2016-06-01

    EuroSDR (http://www.eurosdr.net/) is a non-profit organisation that provides a pan-European network that brings together mapping / cadastre agencies and academia for the purpose of applied research, and securing timely, research-based knowledge that allows the agencies to play their role as content providers and government competence centres for geographic information and spatial data infrastructures. EuroSDR is the recognised provider of research-based knowledge to a Europe where citizens can readily benefit from geographic information. Its mission is to develop and improve methods, systems and standards for the acquisition, processing, production, maintenance, management, visualization, and dissemination of geographic reference data in support of applications and service delivery. EuroSDR delivers advanced research-based knowledge. Its value is generated by facilitating interaction between research organisations and the public and private sector with the aim of exchanging ideas and knowledge about relevant research topics; by facilitating and contributing to research projects; and by transferring knowledge and research results to real world applications. The paper gives an overview about EuroSDR research principles, research alliances, objectives and action plans of each of the technical commissions.

  20. [Nurturing clinician investigators is the best way to promote innovative drug development from academia].

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Shunichi; Sakushima, Ken; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2012-03-01

    Clinical research in Japan is still lacking in quality and quantity, and that situation is worsening. One important cause of those problems is the dearth of clinician-investigators. A recent change in the system for post-graduate clinical training affected the career paths of medical residents and reduced the number of young doctors who enter graduate school. Even those who are interested in clinical research now have incentives to avoid graduate school. In Japan, 19th-century biological absolutism is still the dominant paradigm in the medical-research community. Science for public health in the 21st century will benefit from a probabilistic paradigm, which can help to restore an appropriate balance between basic sciences and clinical research. Research done by clinician-investigators should be based on clinical questions that arise in medical practice. That research includes investigation of disease and practice, exploration of associations between causes and outcomes, evaluation of diagnostic tests, and studies of the efficacy of treatments and prevention strategies. We emphasize the importance of nurturing clinician-investigators for the development of clinical research in Japan. This may not be the fastest way to promote innovative drug development from academia, but it is certainly the best. PMID:22402715

  1. Engaging academia to advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking

    PubMed Central

    Strosnider, Heather; Zhou, Ying; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Public health agencies at the federal, state, and local level are responsible for implementing actions and policies that address health problems related to environmental hazards. These actions and policies can be informed by integrating or linking data on health, exposure, hazards, and population. The mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is to provide information from a nationwide network of integrated health, environmental hazard, and exposure data that drives actions to improve the health of communities. The Tracking Program and federal, state, and local partners collect, integrate, analyze, and disseminate data and information to inform environmental public health actions. However, many challenges exist regarding the availability and quality of data, the application of appropriate methods and tools to link data, and the state of the science needed to link and analyze health and environmental data. The Tracking Program has collaborated with academia to address key challenges in these areas. The collaboration has improved our understanding of the uses and limitations of available data and methods, expanded the use of existing data and methods, and increased our knowledge about the connections between health and environment. Valuable working relationships have been forged in this process, and together we have identified opportunities and improvements for future collaborations to further advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking. PMID:25038624

  2. First optical education center in Japan established by cooperation between academia and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2014-07-01

    At the present of the 21st century, optical technology became what must be in our life. If there is no optical technology, we cannot use optical equipments such as the camera, microscopes, DVD, LEDs and laser diodes (LDs). Optics is also the leading part in the most advanced scientific field. It is clear that the organization which does education and research is required in such a very important area. Unfortunately, there was no such organization in Japan. The education and research of light have been individually done in various faculties of universities, various research institutes, and many companies. However, our country is now placed in severer surroundings, such as the globalization of our living, the accelerated competition in research and development. This is one of the reasons why Utsunomiya University has established Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE) in 2007. To contribute to optical technology and further development of optical industry, "Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University" promotes education and research in the field of the optical science and technology cooperatively with industry, academia and the government. Currently, 6 full professors, 21 cooperative professors, 2 visiting professors and 7 post-doctoral researchers and about 40 students are joined with CORE. Many research projects with industries, the local government of Tochigi as well as Japanese government. Optical Innovation Center has established in CORE by supporting of Japan Science and Technology Agency in 2011 to develop advanced optical technologies for local companies.

  3. Engaging academia to advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking.

    PubMed

    Strosnider, Heather; Zhou, Ying; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith

    2014-10-01

    Public health agencies at the federal, state, and local level are responsible for implementing actions and policies that address health problems related to environmental hazards. These actions and policies can be informed by integrating or linking data on health, exposure, hazards, and population. The mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention׳s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is to provide information from a nationwide network of integrated health, environmental hazard, and exposure data that drives actions to improve the health of communities. The Tracking Program and federal, state, and local partners collect, integrate, analyze, and disseminate data and information to inform environmental public health actions. However, many challenges exist regarding the availability and quality of data, the application of appropriate methods and tools to link data, and the state of the science needed to link and analyze health and environmental data. The Tracking Program has collaborated with academia to address key challenges in these areas. The collaboration has improved our understanding of the uses and limitations of available data and methods, expanded the use of existing data and methods, and increased our knowledge about the connections between health and environment. Valuable working relationships have been forged in this process, and together we have identified opportunities and improvements for future collaborations to further advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking.

  4. Views from academia and industry on skills needed for the modern research environment.

    PubMed

    Talgar, Cigdem P; Goodey, Nina M

    2015-01-01

    Reports from employers of higher education graduates indicate the existence of a considerable gap between the skills required by employers and those possessed by recent graduates. As a first step toward closing this gap, this study aims to determine its origin. Interviews with nine research-active biochemistry professionals were used to identify the most important skills for biochemistry students to succeed in research positions postgraduation. The results of these interviews were used to develop a survey, which was then administered to a larger group of biochemistry faculty and industry professionals. The output of the survey was a list of 52 skills valued by biochemistry professionals and rated by perceived importance. Importantly, the survey results also afford a comparative look at the prioritization of skills by two key populations: the academic faculty training students and the industry professionals hiring them. While there are many areas of agreement between these two populations, the survey also reveals areas were priorities diverge. The discrepancies found here suggest that the skills gap manifest at the point of employment may stem directly from differences in prioritization between the academic and industrial environments. This article aims to provide insight into the needs and requirements of the modern biochemical research environment, and invites debate concerning the preparation students receive in academia. Moreover, the results presented herein point to a need for further exploration of the possible misalignment of these two critical environments for young scientists.

  5. Supporting business continuity during a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak: a collaboration of industry, academia, and government.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, Morgan; Lee, Brendan; Goldsmith, Timothy; Halvorson, Dave; Hueston, William; McElroy, Kristina; Waters, Katherine

    2010-03-01

    Since 2006, a collaborative group of egg industry, state, federal, and academia representatives have worked to enhance preparedness in highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) planning. The collaborative group has created a draft egg product movement protocol, which calls for realistic, science-based contingency plans, biosecurity assessments, commodity risk assessments, and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR testing to support the continuity of egg operations while also preventing and eradicating an HPAI outbreak. The work done by this group serves as an example of how industry, government, and academia can work together to achieve better preparedness in the event of an animal health emergency. In addition, in the event of an HPAI outbreak in domestic poultry, U.S. consumers will be assured that their egg products come from healthy chickens.

  6. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Carla A; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a "chilly climate," devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism - being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting - require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences are affected significantly by the gender composition of an employee's specific department. Participants were recruited at two time points to complete campus climate surveys that were distributed to faculty at a large, public, research university. We examined the number of reported ostracism experiences (Study 1) and perceived information sharing (Study 2) among male and female university faculty. The findings indicated that female faculty members perceived more workplace ostracism than male faculty members. Analyses of department gender ratios suggested that the proportion of women in the department did not reduce the amount of workplace ostracism experienced by women. No gender differences were found in perceived information sharing. However, we found that Faculty of Color, both men and women, reported more frequent information exclusion than White faculty. These results have important implications for theoretical and practical understandings of workplace demography and suggest that it is necessary to look at subtle, ambiguous forms of discrimination in order to increase retention of faculty from underrepresented groups in academia.

  7. [An analysis of national projects of scientific research in Japanese acupuncture-moxibustion academia during recent 40 years].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Kushizaki, Masateru

    2013-02-01

    Adopting bibliometrics research methods to categorize and analyze the acupuncture scientific research findings which has been published by the KAKEN Database of Grants-In-Aid for Scientific Research, and moreover compared results from some of the winning national research projects published by the Internet-based Science Information System of China in 2011. Upon evaluation, it is found that the applied logic of Japanese acupuncture academia is clearer and the fixed position is more accurate. The achivments and academic thought of Japan acup-mox cirde will in some way inspire the acupuncture researchers in China regarding project selection and help them to avoid invalid or duplicate research. Furthermore, it is concluded that Chinese acupuncture academia is focusing on basic research and is showing the spirit for the scientific research as the cradle of acupuncture and moxibustion. In comparison, Japanese acupuncture academia is re nowned for their focus on the subtle interplay of basic and clinical research, as well as attention to detail, serves as a testament to their straightforward, absence of pretense as a country of practical scientific research.

  8. The changing environment of graduate and postdoctoral training in drug metabolism: viewpoints from academia, industry, and government.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey C; Dean, Dennis C; Preusch, Peter C; Correia, Maria Almira

    2003-04-01

    This article is an invited report of a symposium sponsored by the Drug Metabolism Division of the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics held at Experimental Biology 2002 in New Orleans. The impetus for the symposium was a perceived shortage in the supply of graduate students qualified for drug metabolism research positions in industry, academia, and government. For industry, recent hiring stems largely from the expansion of drug metabolism departments in an effort to keep pace with the demands of drug discovery and new technologies. In turn, regulatory scientists are needed to review and verify the results of the increased number and volume of studies required for drug development and approval. Thus the initial source of training, academia, has been forced to recognize these external hiring pressures while trying to attract and retain the faculty, postdoctoral scientists, and students necessary for active teaching and research programs. The trend of the expansion of the interdisciplinary nature of traditional drug metabolism to include emerging technologies such as pharmacogenetics, transporters, and proteomics and the implications for future needs in training and funding were acknowledged. There was also consensus on the value of partnerships between academia and industry for increasing student interest and providing training in disciplines directly applicable to industrial drug metabolism research. Factors affecting the sources of these trainees, such as federal funding, the number of trainees per institution, and recent issues with immigration restrictions that have limited the flow of scientists were also discussed.

  9. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Carla A; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a "chilly climate," devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism - being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting - require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences are affected significantly by the gender composition of an employee's specific department. Participants were recruited at two time points to complete campus climate surveys that were distributed to faculty at a large, public, research university. We examined the number of reported ostracism experiences (Study 1) and perceived information sharing (Study 2) among male and female university faculty. The findings indicated that female faculty members perceived more workplace ostracism than male faculty members. Analyses of department gender ratios suggested that the proportion of women in the department did not reduce the amount of workplace ostracism experienced by women. No gender differences were found in perceived information sharing. However, we found that Faculty of Color, both men and women, reported more frequent information exclusion than White faculty. These results have important implications for theoretical and practical understandings of workplace demography and suggest that it is necessary to look at subtle, ambiguous forms of discrimination in order to increase retention of faculty from underrepresented groups in academia. PMID:27303322

  10. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Carla A.; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R.; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a “chilly climate,” devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism – being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting – require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences are affected significantly by the gender composition of an employee’s specific department. Participants were recruited at two time points to complete campus climate surveys that were distributed to faculty at a large, public, research university. We examined the number of reported ostracism experiences (Study 1) and perceived information sharing (Study 2) among male and female university faculty. The findings indicated that female faculty members perceived more workplace ostracism than male faculty members. Analyses of department gender ratios suggested that the proportion of women in the department did not reduce the amount of workplace ostracism experienced by women. No gender differences were found in perceived information sharing. However, we found that Faculty of Color, both men and women, reported more frequent information exclusion than White faculty. These results have important implications for theoretical and practical understandings of workplace demography and suggest that it is necessary to look at subtle, ambiguous forms of discrimination in order to increase retention of faculty from underrepresented groups in academia. PMID:27303322

  11. Academia vs Industry: vanishing boundaries between global earthquake seismology and exploration seismics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Global seismology and exploration seismics have long lived in parallel universes, with little cross-fertilization of methodologies and with interaction between the associated communities often limited to company recruitment of students. Fortunately, this traditional separation of technology and people has begun to disappear. This is driven not only by continuing demands for human and financial resources (for companies and academia, respectively) but increasingly also by overlapping intellectual interest. First, 'waves are waves' (that is, the fundamental physics - and math to describe/handle it - is scale invariant) and many artificial boundaries are being removed by use of better wave theory, faster computers, and new data acquisition paradigms. For example, the development of dense sensor arrays (in USA, Europe, Asia - mostly China and Japan) is increasing the attraction (and need) of industry-style interrogation of massive data sets. Examples include large scale seismic exploration of Earth's deep interior with inverse scattering of teleseismic wavefields (e.g., Van der Hilst et al., Science, 2007). On the other hand, reservoir exploration and production benefits from expertise in earthquake seismology, both for better characterization of reservoirs and their overburden and for (induced) micro-earthquake analysis. Passive source methods (including but not restricted to ambient noise tomography) are providing new, economic opportunities for velocity analysis and monitoring, and studies of (micro)seismicity (e.g., source location, parameters, and moment tensor) allow in situ stress determination, tomographic velocity analysis with natural sources in the reservoir, and 4D monitoring (e.g., for hydrocarbon production, carbon sequestration, enhanced geothermal systems, and unconventional gas production). Second, the gap between the frequency ranges traditionally considered by both communities is being bridged by better theory, new sensor technology, and through

  12. The G4R GMES Academy - linking research, academia, service providers and local authorities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeil, Peter; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    The GMES Academy intends to enhance the role of the academic and R&D communities in the evolution of EO & GI services. The GMES4Regions G4R initiative, aiming to strengthen the link between GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and European regions, inaugurated the GMES Academy at the University Mozarteum of Salzburg (Austria) on 13th - 14th September 2012. This academy has been created with the objective of fostering a dialogue among the private sector, Local and Regional Administration (LRA) and the academic and research community, in order to improve the development of Earth Observation (EO) and Geographic Information (GI) services. On this occasion, Z_GIS, the Interfaculty Department of Geoinformatics of Salzburg University, hosted the round table "Fostering Downstream Services for the Regions - contributions from Research & Academia," during which the participants had the opportunity to discuss with representatives of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA) the future role of the academic community in this domain. Stakeholders from the academic and R&D world adopted the 'Salzburg Declaration on GMES related Research', calling for strengthening connections between research activities and educational programmes to improve GMES services. The Declaration calls mainly for: • fostering education and training on GMES • ensuring cooperation among the academic and research community through the GMES Academy • maintaining a political commitment towards the implementation of such academic initiatives. The GMES Academy is established as a platform with six components: GATEWAY - the directory of Universities and Research Centres BRIDGE - an inventory of research briefs documenting the latest offerings from research to effective applications FACILITATOR - a portal to seek or propose internships or contract research across Europe and addressing outreach and advocacy: LINK - Access to the repository of on-going GMES related

  13. Social exclusion in academia through biases in methodological quality evaluation: On the situation of women in science and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Leuschner, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Empirical studies show that academia is socially exclusive. I argue that this social exclusion works, at least partly, through the systematic methodological disqualification of contributions from members of underrepresented social groups. As methodological quality criteria are underdetermined their interpretation and weighting can be biased with relation to gender, race, social background, etc. Such biased quality evaluation can take place on a local or global level. The current situation of women in academic philosophy illuminates this. I conclude that only mechanical solutions can effectively change the situation.

  14. Mentoring women faculty of color in nursing academia: Creating an environment that supports scholarly growth and retention.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Kako, Peninnah M; Stevens, Patricia E

    2010-01-01

    Our purposes in writing this article are to: (1) raise consciousness and prompt dialogue about issues contributing to the lack of racial/ethnic diversity among faculties of nursing, and (2) offer a vision for mentoring women faculty of color in nursing academia that is inclusive and supportive of scholarly growth and retention. Drawing from our own experiences as mentees and mentors, and bringing in literature to substantiate our argument, we examine racism and its ramifications for academic nursing and recommend strategies for opposing racism and encouraging collaborative mentorship.

  15. State of R&D in photonics-related fields in Japan's industry and academia: leading the green digital economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuno, Kimio

    2010-06-01

    Photonics product statistics in Japan provided by OITDA is shown and analyzed from the aspect of three basic issues those the Japanese R & D state is facing. They are (1) off-shoring due to the deep integration in east Asia, (2) industry-academia collaboration and (3) global warming issue. The challengeable photonics R&D will come by aiming the volume zone market to get rid of the Galapagos problem and by opening innovation through the international collaboration. The connecting of the photonics products to the broadband systems are prospective to lead the "Green Digital Economy.

  16. Hurricane Public Health Research Center at Louisiana State University a Case of Academia Being Prepared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heerden, I. L.

    2006-12-01

    and chemicals in these standing flood waters would set the stage for massive disease outbreaks and prolonged chemical exposure. Before Katrina, population evacuation behavior had been determined, computer models could be used to predict storm surge flooding, government databases and GIS technology allowed documentation of at-risk areas, probable chemical and sewerage release sites had been mapped, tropical disease experts and social scientists had determined possible public health impacts; that injured and displaced animal pets and wild animals would be a major problem had been identified; and, an interactive GIS database was available for utilization in all aspects of the assessment and remediation post landfall. The value of this project has been many-fold. First, before Katrina it had a positive impact on emergency preparedness in the state of Louisiana. Second, during the hurricane Katrina catastrophe the project offered a major service to the state as the various data sets and research outputs were extensively used throughout the flooding thus reducing deaths, disease, pain, and suffering. Third, the model of academia aiding in disaster science and management is being exported nationally and internationally. Finally, our research results are applicable to other complex disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes, chemical spills or terrorism.

  17. Only an integrated approach across academia, enterprise, governments, and global agencies can tackle the public health impact of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Stordalen, Gunhild A.; Rocklöv, Joacim; Nilsson, Maria; Byass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite considerable global attention to the issues of climate change, relatively little priority has been given to the likely effects on human health of current and future changes in the global climate. We identify three major societal determinants that influence the impact of climate change on human health, namely the application of scholarship and knowledge; economic and commercial considerations; and actions of governments and global agencies. Discussion The three major areas are each discussed in terms of the ways in which they facilitate and frustrate attempts to protect human health from the effects of climate change. Academia still pays very little attention to the effects of climate on health in poorer countries. Enterprise is starting to recognise that healthy commerce depends on healthy people, and so climate change presents long-term threats if it compromises health. Governments and international agencies are very active, but often face immovable vested interests in other sectors. Overall, there tends to be too little interaction between the three areas, and this means that potential synergies and co-benefits are not always realised. Conclusion More attention from academia, enterprise, and international agencies needs to be given to the potential threats the climate change presents to human health. However, there needs to also be much closer collaboration between all three areas in order to capitalise on possible synergies that can be achieved between them. PMID:23653920

  18. Walking between academia and industry to find successful solutions to biomedical challenges: an interview with Geoffrey Smith.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoffrey; Cagan, Ross

    2015-10-01

    Geoffrey W. Smith is currently the Managing Director of Mars Ventures. He actually started his studies with a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Doctorate in Law but then, in part by chance and in part by following in his family footsteps, he stepped into the healthcare and biotech field. Since then, he has successfully contributed to the birth of a number of healthcare companies and has also held academic positions at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and at The Rockefeller University in New York, teaching about the interface between science and business. During 2014 he served as Senior Editor on Disease Models & Mechanisms, bringing to the editorial team his valuable experience in drug development and discovery. In this interview, Geoff talks to Ross Cagan, Editor-in-Chief of Disease Models & Mechanisms, about how he developed his incredibly varied career, sharing his views about industry, academia and science publishing, and discussing how academia and industry can fruitfully meet to advance bioscience, train the scientists and stakeholders of the future, and drive the successful discovery of new therapeutics to treat human disease. PMID:26438691

  19. Walking between academia and industry to find successful solutions to biomedical challenges: an interview with Geoffrey Smith

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Geoffrey W. Smith is currently the Managing Director of Mars Ventures. He actually started his studies with a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Doctorate in Law but then, in part by chance and in part by following in his family footsteps, he stepped into the healthcare and biotech field. Since then, he has successfully contributed to the birth of a number of healthcare companies and has also held academic positions at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and at The Rockefeller University in New York, teaching about the interface between science and business. During 2014 he served as Senior Editor on Disease Models & Mechanisms, bringing to the editorial team his valuable experience in drug development and discovery. In this interview, Geoff talks to Ross Cagan, Editor-in-Chief of Disease Models & Mechanisms, about how he developed his incredibly varied career, sharing his views about industry, academia and science publishing, and discussing how academia and industry can fruitfully meet to advance bioscience, train the scientists and stakeholders of the future, and drive the successful discovery of new therapeutics to treat human disease. PMID:26438691

  20. Walking between academia and industry to find successful solutions to biomedical challenges: an interview with Geoffrey Smith.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoffrey; Cagan, Ross

    2015-10-01

    Geoffrey W. Smith is currently the Managing Director of Mars Ventures. He actually started his studies with a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Doctorate in Law but then, in part by chance and in part by following in his family footsteps, he stepped into the healthcare and biotech field. Since then, he has successfully contributed to the birth of a number of healthcare companies and has also held academic positions at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and at The Rockefeller University in New York, teaching about the interface between science and business. During 2014 he served as Senior Editor on Disease Models & Mechanisms, bringing to the editorial team his valuable experience in drug development and discovery. In this interview, Geoff talks to Ross Cagan, Editor-in-Chief of Disease Models & Mechanisms, about how he developed his incredibly varied career, sharing his views about industry, academia and science publishing, and discussing how academia and industry can fruitfully meet to advance bioscience, train the scientists and stakeholders of the future, and drive the successful discovery of new therapeutics to treat human disease.

  1. How academia and the pharmaceutical industry can work together: the president's lecture, annual meeting of the American Thoracic Society, San Francisco, California.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Michael

    2013-02-01

    There is a long history of productive collaboration between biomedical scientists in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry. The primary beneficiary of this collaboration has been the public. Since the middle of the last century, marked advances in the treatment and prevention of disease have been driven by the translational research interactions across these two domains. But now, at a time when collaboration between academia and industry should be accelerating based on past success, new technology, and ever-increasing need, numerous obstacles to effective collaboration have appeared. In this analysis, based on experience in both academia and industry, the author provides perspective on current obstacles to academic-industrial collaboration, followed by recommendations on how effective collaboration can be renewed and enhanced.

  2. How academia and the pharmaceutical industry can work together: the president's lecture, annual meeting of the American Thoracic Society, San Francisco, California.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Michael

    2013-02-01

    There is a long history of productive collaboration between biomedical scientists in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry. The primary beneficiary of this collaboration has been the public. Since the middle of the last century, marked advances in the treatment and prevention of disease have been driven by the translational research interactions across these two domains. But now, at a time when collaboration between academia and industry should be accelerating based on past success, new technology, and ever-increasing need, numerous obstacles to effective collaboration have appeared. In this analysis, based on experience in both academia and industry, the author provides perspective on current obstacles to academic-industrial collaboration, followed by recommendations on how effective collaboration can be renewed and enhanced. PMID:23509330

  3. Design Principles for Fragment Libraries: Maximizing the Value of Learnings from Pharma Fragment-Based Drug Discovery (FBDD) Programs for Use in Academia.

    PubMed

    Keserű, György M; Erlanson, Daniel A; Ferenczy, György G; Hann, Michael M; Murray, Christopher W; Pickett, Stephen D

    2016-09-22

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is well suited for discovering both drug leads and chemical probes of protein function; it can cover broad swaths of chemical space and allows the use of creative chemistry. FBDD is widely implemented for lead discovery in industry but is sometimes used less systematically in academia. Design principles and implementation approaches for fragment libraries are continually evolving, and the lack of up-to-date guidance may prevent more effective application of FBDD in academia. This Perspective explores many of the theoretical, practical, and strategic considerations that occur within FBDD programs, including the optimal size, complexity, physicochemical profile, and shape profile of fragments in FBDD libraries, as well as compound storage, evaluation, and screening technologies. This compilation of industry experience in FBDD will hopefully be useful for those pursuing FBDD in academia.

  4. Research on imaging, sensing, and characterization of cells at Research Center for Applied Sciences (RCAS), Academia Sinica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hui-Chen; Chang, Chun-Fang; Chen, Bi-Chang; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chu, Chih-Wei; Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Hatanaka, Koji; Hsieh, Tung-Han; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Tung, Yi-Chung; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Yang, Fu-Liang; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-12-01

    Development of imaging, sensing, and characterization of cells at Research Center for Applied Sciences (RCAS) of Academia Sinica in Taiwan is progressing rapidly. The research on advanced lattice light sheet microscopy for temporal visualization of cells in three dimensions at sub-cellular resolution shows novel imaging results. Label-free observation on filopodial dynamics provides a convenient assay on cancer cell motility. The newly-developed software enables us to track the movement of two types of particles through different channels and reconstruct the co-localized tracks. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for detecting urinary microRNA for diagnosis of acute kidney injury demonstrates excellent sensitivity. A fully automated and integrated portable reader was constructed as a home-based surveillance system for post-operation hepatocellular carcinoma. New microfluidic cell culture devices for fast and accurate characterizations prove various diagnosis capabilities.

  5. Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  6. When Two Worlds Don't Collide: Can Social Curation Address the Marginalisation of Open Educational Practices and Resources from Outside Academia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryman, Leigh-Anne; Coughlan, Tony

    2014-01-01

    A canyonesque gulf has long existed between open academia and many external subject communities. Since 2011, we have been developing and piloting the public open scholar role (Coughlan and Perryman 2012)--involving open academics discovering, sharing and discussing open educational resources (OER) with online communities outside formal education…

  7. Beyond and between academia and business: How Austrian biotechnology researchers describe high-tech startup companies as spaces of knowledge production.

    PubMed

    Fochler, Maximilian

    2016-04-01

    Research and innovation policy has invested considerable effort in creating new institutional spaces at the interface of academia and business. High-tech startups founded by academic entrepreneurs have been central to these policy imaginaries. These companies offer researchers new possibilities beyond and between academia and larger industry. However, the field of science and technology studies has thus far shown only limited interest in understanding these companies as spaces of knowledge production. This article analyses how researchers working in small and medium-sized biotechnology companies in Vienna, Austria, describe the cultural characteristics of knowledge production in this particular institutional space. It traces how they relate these characteristics to other institutional spaces they have experienced in their research biographies, such as in academia or larger corporations. It shows that the reasons why researchers decide to work in biotechnology companies and how they organize their work are deeply influenced by their perception of deficiencies in the conditions for epistemic work in contemporary academia and, to a lesser degree, in industry. PMID:27263239

  8. A Case Study of an Academia-Industry Partnership to Meet the Education and Training Needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph Carl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to provide a description of the characteristics of an academia-industry partnership that works together with industry to meet the education and training needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) field. After the launch of Sputnik in 1957, U.S. pursued efforts to compete in STEM fields on…

  9. Beyond and between academia and business: How Austrian biotechnology researchers describe high-tech startup companies as spaces of knowledge production.

    PubMed

    Fochler, Maximilian

    2016-04-01

    Research and innovation policy has invested considerable effort in creating new institutional spaces at the interface of academia and business. High-tech startups founded by academic entrepreneurs have been central to these policy imaginaries. These companies offer researchers new possibilities beyond and between academia and larger industry. However, the field of science and technology studies has thus far shown only limited interest in understanding these companies as spaces of knowledge production. This article analyses how researchers working in small and medium-sized biotechnology companies in Vienna, Austria, describe the cultural characteristics of knowledge production in this particular institutional space. It traces how they relate these characteristics to other institutional spaces they have experienced in their research biographies, such as in academia or larger corporations. It shows that the reasons why researchers decide to work in biotechnology companies and how they organize their work are deeply influenced by their perception of deficiencies in the conditions for epistemic work in contemporary academia and, to a lesser degree, in industry.

  10. Power, Politics, Democracy and Reform: A Historical Review of Curriculum Reform, Academia and Government in British Columbia, Canada, 1920 to 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelations between power, politics, academia and curriculum reform in British Columbia (BC) using social studies curriculum documents as a case study. It describes how curriculum reform occurred and argues that reform was undemocratic as it was largely the product of individuals with power who invited individuals with…

  11. Research on the Industry-Academia-Research Cooperation Mechanism of Local University and College--Take Changchun University of Science and Technology as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Qiong; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Local university and college take as their own responsibilities to serve local economy and promote social development. For them, the cooperation mechanism "Industry-Academia-Research" is not only inevitable to keep up with the development of the times and education, but also necessary to adapt themselves to market demands. It is also the…

  12. "Lo Ultimo": "Consejos"--"Un Dialogo Respetoso Entre Colegas"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Olga A.; Flores, Belinda Bustos; Clark, Ellen Riojas

    2001-01-01

    "Los testimonios," or life stories, shared in this volume reveal that academia represents a labyrinth of challenges for aspiring and emerging Latina scholars--a story these authors know all too well. As Latina "veterana" scholars, who have traveled this arduous journey, the authors recognize that their collective efforts have…

  13. Rethinking the Meaning of Success in Academia: Strategies of a Female Scientist from a Far - Away Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekik, F.

    2007-12-01

    Earning and receiving tenure is essential for success in academia and there are obstacles, particularly for women in the sciences. Scholarly publications and formal reviews from peers and students make the road to tenure and promotion ambiguous and unpredictable. As a female scientist, I benefited from my upbringing in Turkey where women are raised to perceive themselves as both empowered and strong. Several recent studies on academicians in physics have shown that while in countries like Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Slovenia and Poland female scientists make up 20% or more of college faculty, they hold only 5% or less of faculty positions in universities in western Europe and the United States. Similar statistics prevail in earth science and geology departments world wide and will be discussed in my presentation. I also developed several strategies that helped me on the road to tenure, which I believe may have use to others--my part of this session will be to explain them more fully. They are: [1] Concentrate on your work, and do not be distracted by the multiple drains on time and energy such as competition with peers; [2] Wherever possible, develop a broader definition of "success," so that collaborations with other scientists, with students, and with the general public are valued; [3] Build your department by participating in searches and interviewing job candidates; [4] Seek colleagues who share your values about leadership and collegiality; and [5] Be confident about your own competence.

  14. Resolving complex research data management issues in biomedical laboratories: Qualitative study of an industry-academia collaboration.

    PubMed

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L; Bova, G Steven; Wang, Jian; Ackerman, Christopher F; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Chen, Steve H; Lindvall, Mikael; Zack, Donald J

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a distributed collaborative effort between industry and academia to systematize data management in an academic biomedical laboratory. Heterogeneous and voluminous nature of research data created in biomedical laboratories make information management difficult and research unproductive. One such collaborative effort was evaluated over a period of four years using data collection methods including ethnographic observations, semi-structured interviews, web-based surveys, progress reports, conference call summaries, and face-to-face group discussions. Data were analyzed using qualitative methods of data analysis to (1) characterize specific problems faced by biomedical researchers with traditional information management practices, (2) identify intervention areas to introduce a new research information management system called Labmatrix, and finally to (3) evaluate and delineate important general collaboration (intervention) characteristics that can optimize outcomes of an implementation process in biomedical laboratories. Results emphasize the importance of end user perseverance, human-centric interoperability evaluation, and demonstration of return on investment of effort and time of laboratory members and industry personnel for success of implementation process. In addition, there is an intrinsic learning component associated with the implementation process of an information management system. Technology transfer experience in a complex environment such as the biomedical laboratory can be eased with use of information systems that support human and cognitive interoperability. Such informatics features can also contribute to successful collaboration and hopefully to scientific productivity.

  15. Summary of the first network-centric sensing community workshop, 'netted sensors: a government, industry, and academia dialogue'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, Laurens D.; Jacyna, Garry M.; Allen, David P.

    2006-05-01

    The MITRE Corporation recently hosted the first Netted Sensors Community Workshop in McLean, Virginia, on 24 October - 26 October 2005. The Workshop was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The goal was to establish and sustain an annual Netted Sensors workshop that brings together Government, Industry and Academia to accelerate the development and transition of appropriate Netted Sensor technologies to solve real world problems. The workshop provided a forum focused on the application of netted sensing research and development (R&D) activities to solve existing and future Department of Defense (DoD), Intelligence Community (IC), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and Environmental sensing problems. The Netted Sensors workshop brought together the Science and Technology (S&T) community, Industry, and Government / Military organizations to (1) share, discuss and disseminate new R&D results, (2) highlight new commercial products and technologies, and (3) identify and discuss nationally important sensing problems suitable for Netted Sensing solutions. This paper provides a summary of the presentations that were made at the workshop as well as recommendations for future workshops.

  16. Resolving complex research data management issues in biomedical laboratories: Qualitative study of an industry-academia collaboration.

    PubMed

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L; Bova, G Steven; Wang, Jian; Ackerman, Christopher F; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Chen, Steve H; Lindvall, Mikael; Zack, Donald J

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a distributed collaborative effort between industry and academia to systematize data management in an academic biomedical laboratory. Heterogeneous and voluminous nature of research data created in biomedical laboratories make information management difficult and research unproductive. One such collaborative effort was evaluated over a period of four years using data collection methods including ethnographic observations, semi-structured interviews, web-based surveys, progress reports, conference call summaries, and face-to-face group discussions. Data were analyzed using qualitative methods of data analysis to (1) characterize specific problems faced by biomedical researchers with traditional information management practices, (2) identify intervention areas to introduce a new research information management system called Labmatrix, and finally to (3) evaluate and delineate important general collaboration (intervention) characteristics that can optimize outcomes of an implementation process in biomedical laboratories. Results emphasize the importance of end user perseverance, human-centric interoperability evaluation, and demonstration of return on investment of effort and time of laboratory members and industry personnel for success of implementation process. In addition, there is an intrinsic learning component associated with the implementation process of an information management system. Technology transfer experience in a complex environment such as the biomedical laboratory can be eased with use of information systems that support human and cognitive interoperability. Such informatics features can also contribute to successful collaboration and hopefully to scientific productivity. PMID:26652980

  17. Are Environmental Procedures Relating To Visual Health, In the Workplace, Academia, Computer Usage, and Governmental Jobs, Adequately Safe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillger, Robert; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Visual acuity diminishes following extensive computer use in workplace environments. Similar job-induced damage must surely be noticed by many millions of independent observers. Nonetheless, academia, some businesses, governmental and other parties which should be engaged in protecting the productivity and visual health of their constituencies seem to be reluctant to do so. Practical procedures to achieve this end were empirically established over a hundred years ago by the late ophthalmologist, Dr. William Bates. RDM has proposed that Bates results are predictable on the basis of a straightforward formulation from spatial Fourier optics. It is the first zero radius distance in the diffraction pattern produced by the human pupil, r = 1.22 lf/a, where chromatic aberration yields the isolated quasi-monochromatic wavelength range l, in product with that wavelength's focal length f, divided by the pupil diameter, a. Procedural and other practices may yield benefits! *This paper does not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. E.P.A.

  18. Hurdles in tissue engineering/regenerative medicine product commercialization: a survey of North American academia and industry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Peter C; Bertram, Timothy A; Tawil, Bill; Hellman, Kiki B

    2011-01-01

    The Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society-North America (TERMIS-NA) Industry Committee was formed in February 2009 to address the common roadblocks (i.e., hurdles) in the commercialization of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine products for its members. A semiquantitative online opinion survey instrument that delineated potentially sensitive hurdles to commercialization in each of the TERMIS constituency groups that generally participate in the stream of technology commercialization (academia, startup companies, development-stage companies, and established companies) was developed. The survey was opened to each of the 863 members of TERMIS-NA for a period of 5 weeks from October to November 2009. By its conclusion, 215 members (25%) had responded. Their proportionate numbers were closely representative of TERMIS-NA constituencies. The resulting data delineate what each group considers to be its most difficult and also its easiest hurdles in taking a technology to full product development. In addition, each group ranked its perception of the difficult and easy hurdles for all other groups, enabling an assessment of the degree of understanding between groups. The data depict not only critical hurdles in the path to commercialization at each stage in product development but also a variable understanding of perceptions of hurdles between groups. This assessment has provided the Industry Committee with activity foci needed to assist individual groups in the technology-commercialization stream. Moreover, the analysis suggests that enhanced communication between groups engaged in commercialization will be critical to the successful development of products in the tissue engineering/regenerative medicine sector.

  19. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sophia K.; Selig, Wendy; Harker, Matthew; Roberts, Jamie N.; Hesterlee, Sharon; Leventhal, David; Klein, Richard; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed. Methods Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions. Results Survey respondents (n = 179) valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p < .001). Patient group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non–patient group respondents (all p < .05). Industry and academic respondents more often cited internal bureaucratic processes and reluctance to share information as engagement barriers than did patient group respondents (all p < .01). Patient groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non–patient group respondents (all p< .01). Conclusions Despite reported similarities among approaches to engagement by the three stakeholder groups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with

  20. Women Physicists in Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrah, Nora

    2010-02-01

    The last decade marked the emergence of several important studies and workshops worldwide that focused attention on women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP) of the American Physical Society (APS) is very active in organizing national workshops and follow up ``conversations'' with physics departments and national laboratories [1,2] to address the gender gap in the field of physics. The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) is also very devoted to this issue, and the US is involved by contributing our lesson learned and our plans to increase the number of women in physics. In the US, our goal of doubling the number of women in physics by 2022 is ambitious but could be achieved. I will present the present status on this issue and our plans for the future. [4pt] [1] http://www.aps.org/programs/women/workshops/gender-equity/index.cfm [0pt] [2] Report, ``Gender Equity: Strengthening the Physics Enterprise in Universities and National Laboratories'', 2007. )

  1. Embodying Parenthood in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyas, Anniina Souminen; Poling, Linda Hoeptner

    2011-01-01

    Intrigued by Pillay's (2009) call for writing motherhood into one's scholarship and creating "liberatory intellectualism," the authors write this commentary to encourage exploration of and inquiry into viable metaphors of hands in poo and goo; performing paranoia, suspicion, and constant worry into one's scholarship; and moments that embody…

  2. Plagiarism in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahabuddin, Syed

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism sometimes creates legal and ethical problems for students and faculty. It can have serious consequences. Fortunately, there are ways to stop plagiarism. There are many tools available to detect plagiarism, e.g. using software for detecting submitted articles. Also, there are many ways to punish a plagiarist, e.g. banning plagiarists…

  3. Sleepless in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Sandra; Armenti, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    The conditions under which women academics work provide the impetus for this article. Current trends in feminist and other writing are moving us away from dwelling on the disadvantages women experience in the academy. Yet the findings from the two Canadian studies reported here suggest that issues around children and career, anxieties about…

  4. Bashing Pseudoscience in Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, S.; Robinson, G. M.; Moulton, J.

    2003-12-01

    Belief in paranormal, supernatural and other new-age claims is increasing according to surveys by the NSF and others. Astronomy-related pseudo-scientific beliefs are especially common. For example, more than thirty percent of Americans consider astrology to be scientific and more than one-third believe that extraterrestrial beings have visited earth at some time in the past. Not only do such beliefs ignore sound reasoning and information but they compete as alternative explanations for the world around us. While a general education might be expected to reduce acceptance of unsound beliefs, the level of such belief is surprisingly high among those with a higher education. An astronomer, a philosopher and a psychologist cooperated in developing a brief college course designed to challenge unsound reasoning and information, and to inoculate the participants with skepticism. Pre- and post-course opinion surveys show significant changes in belief.

  5. Industrial plasmas in academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenstein, Ch; Howling, AA; Guittienne, Ph; Furno, I.

    2015-01-01

    The present review, written at the occasion of the 2014 EPS Innovation award, will give a short overview of the research and development of industrial plasmas within the last 30 years and will also provide a first glimpse into future developments of this important topic of plasma physics and plasma chemistry. In the present contribution, some of the industrial plasmas studied at the CRPP/EPFL at Lausanne are highlighted and their influence on modern plasma physics and also discharge physics is discussed. One of the most important problems is the treatment of large surfaces, such as that used in solar cells, but also in more daily applications, such as the packaging industry. In this contribution, the advantages and disadvantages of some of the most prominent plasmas such as capacitively- and inductively-coupled plasmas are discussed. Electromagnetic problems due to the related radio frequency and its consequences on the plasma reactor performance, and also dust formation due to chemical reactions in plasma, are highlighted. Arcing and parasitic discharges occurring in plasma reactors can lead to plasma reactor damages. Some specific problems, such as the gas supply of a large area reactor, are discussed in more detail. Other topics of interest have been dc discharges such as those used in plasma spraying where thermal plasmas are applied for advanced material processing. Modern plasma diagnostics make it possible to investigate sparks in electrical discharge machining, which surprisingly show properties of weakly-coupled plasmas. Nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasmas have been applied to more speculative topics such as applications in aerodynamics and will surely be important in the future for ignition and combustion. Most of the commonly-used plasma sources have been shown to be limited in their performance. Therefore new, more effective plasma sources are urgently required. With the recent development of novel resonant network antennas for new advanced large area or large volume plasma sources, an important step towards high performance plasmas and new fast processes is made.

  6. Ethical Dilemmas in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicastro, Mary L.

    This paper presents an introduction to higher education models of ethical orientation and a series of exercises that were part of a workshop on ethics given by the Small Business Institute Directors' Association (SBIDA). Three models of ethical orientation include a self-interest orientation, with the professor solely concerned with his…

  7. Collaborative research between academia and industry using a large clinical trial database: a case study in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    of large clinical trial databases for the combined purpose of furthering clinical research and improving patient care. Fruitful collaboration between industry and academia was fostered while the donepezil data repository was used to advance clinical and scientific knowledge. The Expert Working Group approach warrants consideration as a blueprint for conducting similar research ventures in the future. PMID:22029822

  8. Multitasking in academia: Effective combinations of research, education and public outreach illustrated by a volcanic ash warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.; Plag, H.

    2011-12-01

    Science permeates our society. Its role and its perceived importance evolves with time. Scientists today are highly specialized, yet society demands they master a variety of skills requiring not only a number of different competencies but also a broad mindset. Scientists are subjected to a meritocracy in terms of having to produce scientific papers. Peer-reviewed scientific publications used to be sufficient to meet the various laws and regulations with respect to dissemination of scientific results. This has dramatically changed; both expressed directly through public voices (such as in the climate change discourses), but also by politicians and policy makers. In some countries research funding now comes with specific requirements concerning public outreach that go way beyond peer-reviewed publications and presentation at scientific conferences. Science policies encourage multidisciplinary cooperation and scientific questions themselves often cannot be answered without knowledge and information from several scientific areas. Scientists increasingly need to communicate knowledge and results in more general terms as well as educating future generations. A huge challenge lies in developing the knowledge, human capacity and mindset that will allow an individual academician to contribute to education, communicate across scientific fields and sectors in multidisciplinary cross sectoral cooperations and also reach out to the general public while succeeding within the scientific meritocracy. We demonstrate how research, education and communication within and outside academia can effectively be combined through a presentation of the International Airways Volcano Watch that encompasses an operational volcanic ash warning system for the aviation industry. This presentation will show the role of science throughout the information flow, from basic science to the pilots' decision-making. Furthermore, it will illustrate how one can connect specific scientific topics to societal

  9. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  10. NIMH Initiatives to Facilitate Collaborations between Industry, Academia and Government for the Discovery and Clinical Testing of Novel Models and Drugs for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Linda S.; Winsky, Lois; Goodman, Wayne; Oliveri, Mary Ellen; Stover, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    There is an urgent need to transform basic research discoveries into tools for treatment and prevention of mental illnesses. This article presents an overview of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) programs and resources to address the challenges and opportunities in psychiatric drug development starting at the point of discovery through the early phases of translational research. We summarize NIMH and selected National Institutes of Health (NIH) efforts to stimulate translation of basic and clinical neuroscience findings into novel targets, models, compounds, and strategies for the development of innovative therapeutics for psychiatric disorders. Examples of collaborations and partnerships between NIMH/NIH, academia, and industry are highlighted. PMID:18800066

  11. Restoring balance to industry-academia relationships in an era of institutional financial conflicts of interest: promoting research while maintaining trust.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael M E; Barnes, Mark; Florencio, Patrik S

    2003-02-12

    Economic partnerships between industry and academia accelerate medical innovation and enhance patient access to medical advances, but such partnerships have sometimes eroded public trust in the research enterprise. There is particular risk for conflict of interest when economic partnerships extend beyond a university's corporate interests to involve institutional decision makers. Institutions and institutional decision makers should fully disclose industry-related financial interests and relationships. Without legitimate justification for such interests, individuals should divest themselves from these interests or recuse themselves from responsibility for research oversight. Management of institutional partnerships also might entail the physical separation of certain facilities, the placement of restrictions on information shared between investment and research staffs, and provision of oversight by independent review panels made up of persons who have expertise in intellectual property, finance, and research, but who are not financially or otherwise dependent on the institution. Through these means, it is possible to restore balance to industry-academia relationships, thereby promoting progress while maintaining public trust in research. PMID:12585953

  12. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  13. GPCR structure, function, drug discovery and crystallography: report from Academia-Industry International Conference (UK Royal Society) Chicheley Hall, 1-2 September 2014.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Alexander; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Seifert, Roland; Tate, Christopher G; Sexton, Patrick M; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Fourmy, Daniel; Cherezov, Vadim; Marshall, Fiona H; Storer, R Ian; Moraes, Isabel; Tikhonova, Irina G; Tautermann, Christofer S; Hunt, Peter; Ceska, Tom; Hodgson, Simon; Bodkin, Mike J; Singh, Shweta; Law, Richard J; Biggin, Philip C

    2015-08-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of over half of all prescribed drugs today. The UniProt database has records for about 800 proteins classified as GPCRs, but drugs have only been developed against 50 of these. Thus, there is huge potential in terms of the number of targets for new therapies to be designed. Several breakthroughs in GPCRs biased pharmacology, structural biology, modelling and scoring have resulted in a resurgence of interest in GPCRs as drug targets. Therefore, an international conference, sponsored by the Royal Society, with world-renowned researchers from industry and academia was recently held to discuss recent progress and highlight key areas of future research needed to accelerate GPCR drug discovery. Several key points emerged. Firstly, structures for all three major classes of GPCRs have now been solved and there is increasing coverage across the GPCR phylogenetic tree. This is likely to be substantially enhanced with data from x-ray free electron sources as they move beyond proof of concept. Secondly, the concept of biased signalling or functional selectivity is likely to be prevalent in many GPCRs, and this presents exciting new opportunities for selectivity and the control of side effects, especially when combined with increasing data regarding allosteric modulation. Thirdly, there will almost certainly be some GPCRs that will remain difficult targets because they exhibit complex ligand dependencies and have many metastable states rendering them difficult to resolve by crystallographic methods. Subtle effects within the packing of the transmembrane helices are likely to mask and contribute to this aspect, which may play a role in species dependent behaviour. This is particularly important because it has ramifications for how we interpret pre-clinical data. In summary, collaborative efforts between industry and academia have delivered significant progress in terms of structure and understanding of GPCRs and will be

  14. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  15. Relaciones entre el sueño y la adicción

    PubMed Central

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Resumen La interacción entre los trastornos del sueño y el abuso de sustancias es ya conocida, pero seguramente más compleja de lo que se pensaba. Existe tanto una relación positiva entre tener un trastorno por uso de substancias y sufrir un trastorno de sueño, como viceversa. Los efectos sobre el sueño dependen de la substancia utilizada, pero se ha demostrado que tanto durante su uso como en período de abstinencia los consumidores tienen diferentes problemas de sueño y fundamentalmente un sueño más fragmentado. Sabemos que hay que tener en cuenta los problemas de sueño para evitar recaídas en la adicción. Investigaciones recientes indican que el sistema hipocretinérgico definido por el neuropéptido hipocretina/orexina (Hcrt/ox), localizado en el hipotálamo lateral e implicado entre otros en la regulación del ciclo sueño-vigilia, jugaría un papel importante en las conductas adictivas. Diferentes estudios han demostrado interacciones entre el sistema hipocretinérgico, los circuitos de respuesta aguda al estrés y los sistemas de recompensa. También sabemos que la activación optogenética selectiva del sistema hipocretinérgico incrementa la probabilidad de la transición del sueño a la vigilia, y también es suficiente para iniciar un comportamiento compulsivo de recaída adictiva. La activación del sistema hipocretinérgico podría explicar la hipervigilia asociada al estrés y a la adicción. El mayor conocimiento de esta interacción permitiría entender mejor los mecanismos de la adicción y encontrar nuevas estrategias para el tratamiento de las adicciones. PMID:23241715

  16. Situação da Mulher na Astronomia Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Adriana V. R.

    2007-07-01

    O conteúdo desse texto surgiu de uma apresentação de mesmo título que fiz na XXXI Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB) em 2005. Esse tema foi inspirado originalmente pela minha participação no "2nd UIPAP International Conference on Women in Physics" realizado entre 23 e 25 de maio de 2005 no Rio de Janeiro. Essa é uma conferência internacional que acontece de três em três anos, sendo que a primeira ocorreu em 2002 na cidade de Paris, França. Participei dessa conferência como membro da delegação da Sociedade Brasileira de Física e um dos trabalhos que apresentei versava sobre a situação das mulheres na Astronomia brasileira, cujos resultados principais discorro a seguir. A situação das astrônomas, baseada nos dados dos sócios da SAB coletados no final de 2004, é comparada com a das físicas brasileiras e também com as nossas colegas americanas. Os dados identificam ainda uma maior evasão da carreira por parte das mulheres do que os homens. Alguns dos possíveis motivos da evasão são discutidos, como o desejo de constituir família e/ou isolamento. Resultados um tanto preocupantes com relação à distribuição de bolsas de produtividade do CNPq também são apresentados. As principais discussões e estratégias recomendadas nesse congresso são mencionadas de forma resumida ao final.

  17. The Issue of Motivating Entre(Intra)Preneurial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Erik K.

    1990-01-01

    Six principles of motivating entre(intra)preneurial behavior are considered including the climate must allow the expression of such activity; motivation is broadly distributed in the general population; behavior is a function of its consequences; and motivating environments have an aura of excitement and experimentation. (DB)

  18. Henrique da Rocha Lima*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión’s disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  19. Debt Financing: Academia's Funding Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses debt financing as a way to help universities alleviate the problems of obsolete scientific equipment and facilities for research. Reviews several forms of tax-exempt financing and takes note of some of the advantages of debt financing. (CS)

  20. Expanding the Parameters of Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitchurch, Celia

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on qualitative data gathered from two studies funded by the UK Leadership Foundation for Higher Education to examine the expansion of academic identities in higher education. It builds on Whitchurch's earlier work, which focused primarily on professional staff, to suggest that the emergence of broadly based projects such as…

  1. Comparison Between Monteiro DA Rocha and Wilhelm Olbers' Methods for the Determination of the Orbits of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Fernando B.; Fernandes, João

    2006-08-01

    In 1797, under von Zach sponsoring, Wilhelm Olbers published his work on the determination of the parabolic orbits of the comets - "Abhandlung tiber die leichteste und bequemste Methode, die Bahn eines Cometen aus einigen Beobachtungen zu berechnen von Wilhelm Olbers". Over the next century, this method would become the main tool to determine comets' parabolic orbits. Two years later, in 1799, an article of Monteiro da Rocha entitled "Determinação das Orbitas dos Cometas" is published in Memórias da Academia Real das Ciências de Lisboa. This study publishes a method to solve the problem of the determination of comets' orbits very similar with the one proposed by Olbers. In the current article we intend to provide some information about the method of Monteiro da Rocha, which in fact was formerly formulated circa 16-17 years in advance to Olbers method, and to present the results of the quantitative side-by-side comparison of methods.

  2. Evaluation and Development of E-Learning Tools and Methods in Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing for Non Experts from Academia and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülch, E.; Al-Ghorani, N.; Quedenfeldt, B.; Braun, J.

    2012-07-01

    There does already exist a wide variety of tutorials and on-line courses on Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing very often used in academia. Many of them are still rather static and tedious or target high-knowledge learners. E-learning is, however, increasingly applied by many organizations and companies for life-long learning (like e.g. the EduServ courses of EuroSDR), but also for training of resellers and in order to save the expenses and time of travelling. A new issue of this project when taking into account the ethnic mentality in some countries like Saudi Arabia where it is impossible to mix the females and males at any institution type or for instance to teach ladies by a male teacher face to face, many academic workshops have been done separately twice by foreign organizations to adapt this situation. This paper will focus on these issues and present experiences gathered from a Master Thesis on "E-learning in Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing for Non Experts using Moodle" at HFT Stuttgart in co-operation with a software vendor and a reseller and experiences from a current European Tempus IV project GIDEC (Geographic information technology for sustainable development in Eastern neighouring countries). The aim of this research is to provide an overview on available methods and tools and classify and judge their feasibility for the above mentioned scenarios. A more detailed description is given on the development of e-learning applications for Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing using the open source package Moodle as platform. A first item covers the experiences from setting up and handling of Moodle for non-experts. The major emphasis is then on developing and analyzing some few case studies for lectures, exercises, and software training in the fields of Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Feedback from students and company staff will be evaluated and incorporated in an improved design and sample implementation. A further focus is on free

  3. Beyond 'flood hotspots': co-production of knowledge between academia and stakeholders for improved resilience of emergency response to flood disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, D.; Green, D. L.; Wilby, R.; Pattison, I.; Yang, L.; Bosher, L.; Ryley, T.

    2015-12-01

    useful information to implement strategic adaptation measures for mitigating the potential impacts of flooding. In addition to the key findings, the abstract will also present the process of engagement and lessons learned for successful academia-stakeholder engagement.

  4. Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2003-08-01

    A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

  5. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  6. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (P<0.001 and P<0.01). The composite pain scores (CPS) in DA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (P<0.01). Electrophysiological results also showed the biphasic increase in discharge rates of C and Aδ fibers of L5 dorsal root in the two strains, and the net change of the discharge rate of DA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The mechanical thresholds decreased after formalin injection in both strains (P<0.01), and the net change in the mechanical threshold in DA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The expression of RT1-B, representation of MHC class II molecule, in laminae I-II of L4/5 spinal cord in DA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (P<0.05). These results suggested that both DA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity.

  7. A Astronomia no Ensino Superior Brasileiro entre 1808 e 1889

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo S.; Videira, Antonio A. P.

    2003-05-01

    Este artigo apresenta os principais eventos ocorridos na história do ensino de astronomia nos cursos superiores que existiram no Brasil desde a chegada da Família Real portuguesa em 1808 até o final do período monárquico. Para compor esse esboço histórico, utilizamos, principalmente, livros didáticos, regulamentos, decretos e leis responsáveis pelas organizações dos conteúdos oferecidos e das carreiras dos responsáveis pela disciplina. Na análise do material empregado, investigamos a presença de concepções filosóficas e científicas, que podem ter norteado os conteúdos disciplinares. Não realizamos nenhuma comparação com o ensino de astronomia em outros países. Concluímos mostrando que o estudo de astronomia, durante o período monárquico, foi mais direcionado para a formação d engenheiros do que astrônomos. Gostaríamos de observar que o presente artigo não tem a pretensão de abordar o assunto de maneira completa e detalhada.

  8. Detecção da fase impulsiva de uma explosão solar gigante até 405 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-P.; Makhmutov, V.; Kaufmann, P.; Pacini, A. A.; Luethi, T.; Hudson, H. S.; Gary, D. E.; Yoshimori, M.

    2003-08-01

    A explosão ocorrida no dia 25/08/2001 foi uma das mais intensas do presente ciclo solar em ondas de rádio de altas frequências. Foram medidas em ondas milimétricas e submilimétricas, aproximadamente, 105 e vários milhares de unidades de fluxo solar, respectivamente. Apresentamos um estudo deste evento em múltiplas frequências, desde microondas (1GHz), até ondas submilimétricas (405 GHz) detectadas pelo Telescópio Solar para ondas Submilimétricas (SST). Esta base de dados foi complementada utilizando-se o experimento Yohkoh, incluindo a emissão em raios-X duros e raios-g (até 100 MeV), e imagens em raios-X moles da região ativa envolvida. Enfocamos e discutimos principalmente os seguintes aspectos da fase impulsiva do evento: (i) as implicações deduzidas do espectro eletromagnético, obtido pela primeira vez até 405 GHz; (ii) a dinâmica da região ativa. Os resultados mostram que para explicar o espectro rádio observado, são necessários entre 3.5×1037 e 1.5×1039 elétrons acelerados acima de 20 keV em uma região de campo magnético entre 300 e 800 Gauss. A estimativa do fluxo de fótons que seria produzido por estes elétrons, mostra que grande parte deles não precipitou na baixa atmosfera. A evolução temporal da emissão em raios-X moles revela que a configuração magnética da região ativa foi muito dinâmica durante a fase impulsiva da explosão. Em particular, mostramos que a produção dos elétrons altamente energéticos foi iniciada junto com a aparição, na baixa coroa solar, de um novo sistema compacto de estruturas magnéticas. Este fato sugere que os locais de aceleração estão localizados na baixa atmosfera do Sol, como resultado da interação entre o novo sistema compacto e o campo magnético ambiente da região ativa.

  9. Novas determinações dos parâmetros atmosféricos das estrelas anãs brancas DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, O.; Costa, A. F. M.; Kepler, S. O.

    2003-08-01

    Nós temos selecionado uma amostra de estrelas anãs brancas DA (atmosfera de hidrogênio) a partir dos índices de Strömgren cujos valores estão próximos a região de instabilidade das estrelas anãs brancas DA variáveis, as chamadas estrelas DAV ou ZZ Ceti. O objetivo é determinar os parâmetros fundamentais (temperatura efetiva, Teff, aceleração da gravidade, log g, e massa) destas estrelas para verificar quais os parâmetros estelares estão envolvidos com o mecanismo de pulsação das estrelas DAV. Nós obtemos, até agora, mais de 120 espectros óticos de estrelas DA. Entre as estrelas selecionadas há 20 estrelas variáveis (DAV). Assim, podemos verificar se existem ou não estrelas não variáveis dentro da faixa de instabilidade das estrelas ZZ Ceti. Neste trabalho nós apresentamos a determinação dos parâmetros atmosféricos (temperatura efetiva, Teff, e aceleração da gravidade, log g) das estrelas anãs brancas DA usando os novos modelos de atmosfera ML2/a = 0.6. Estes modelos têm sido utilizados recentemente por fornecerem uma excelente consistência interna na determinação das temperaturas nas regiões do ultra-violeta e ótico. Os parâmetros atmosféricos são determinados espectroscopicamente através da comparação do fluxo de energia das linhas de Balmer (Hb à H9) entre os espectros observados e sintéticos (gerados pelos modelos de atmosfera). As temperaturas obtidas com os novos modelos são, em geral, menores (~ 1000 K menos) que as temperaturas determinadas anteriormente, com modelos ML1. Os valores de log g não mudaram significativamente (menos de 10%). A faixa de instabilidade das DAVs está entre 11000 e 13000 K, consistente com dados de outros autores.

  10. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica em NGC 2438 e NGC 2440

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Tradicionalmente, as abundâncias em nebulosas planetárias e regiões HII têm sido obtidas de linhas excitadas colisionalmente, as quais são fortemente dependentes da temperatura eletrônica. Alternativamente, as abundâncias químicas podem ser determinadas de linhas de recombinação, as quais são quase independententes da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, consideráveis diferenças têm sido encontradas entre estes dois métodos. Estas discrepâncias têm sido atribuídas às flutuações espaciais da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, as magnitudes necessárias de flutuações de temperatura eletrônica são consideravelmente mais altas do que aquelas preditas pelos modelos padrões de fotoionização e os mecânismos físicos que poderiam explicar as grandes flutuações de temperatura são desconhecidas. Desta forma, o estudo de variações da temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII e nebulosas planetárias tem ganho um renovado interesse. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um estudo observacional sobre variações internas da temperatura eletrônica nas nebulosas planetárias NGC 2440 e NGC 2438. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal-ruído, na faixa de 3300-6800 Å, com o espectrógrafo Cassegrain Boller & Chivens acoplado ao telescópio de 1.52 m do European Southern Observatory (ESO). Temperaturas eletrônicas foram derivadas da razão [OIII](l4959+l5007)/l4363 em diferentes posições em cada nebulosa planetária. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica foram detectadas e suas magnitudes foram estimadas em NGC 2440 e NGC 2438.

  11. Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  12. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  13. The curriculum vitae: gateway to academia.

    PubMed

    Christenbery, Tom L

    2014-01-01

    A CV serves as formal documentation of the applicant’s career path and provides necessary demographic and historical information for career change or advancement. Therefore, each section of the CV should be a thorough accounting of the applicant’s academic, work, and professional responsibilities and attainments. The guidelines in this column also are relevant for nurse educators applying for positions in schools of nursing.

  14. Resistance to Technological Change in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerschell, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Initiating changes in technology, promoting utilization, and managing resistance by faculty may be among the most pressing challenges for academic leadership. Change that involves new technology is an ideal example of the systemic nature of organizational change because it includes infrastructure, expert knowledge, training, long-term vision,…

  15. Can Academia Adapt to Biotechnology's Lure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeffrey L.

    1981-01-01

    Presents viewpoints of scientists and postdoctoral students on issues involving the commercial applications and ventures related to recombinant DNA research. Suggests that how universities deal with issues could impact future school/business relationships as well as the future conduct of basic research. (SK)

  16. Industry-academia collaborations for biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Khusru; Busch, Andreas; Gottwald, Matthias; Reinke, Petra; Landeck, Lilla

    2015-12-01

    Several types of collaboration are being pursued to identify, validate and apply new biomarkers. Here, we highlight examples of such initiatives and discuss the challenges, approaches to address these challenges and key factors for success.

  17. Academia and the Search for Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Peter

    1982-01-01

    History provides examples of how academic communities responded to serious social problems and tensions: by intentionally or unintentionally aggravating them, withdrawing, or searching for solutions. (AVAIL: Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 1922 University Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

  18. Academic Inbreeding in the Portuguese Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Orlanda; Cardoso, Sónia; Carvalho, Teresa; Sousa, Sofia Branco; Santiago, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the inbreeding phenomena in Portuguese public universities. Inbreeding is defined as the recruitment of academics by the same institution that awarded their PhDs. Focusing on 1,217 PhD-holding Portuguese academics, belonging to four public universities and to six disciplinary areas, inbreeding is analysed in order to understand…

  19. Firm Seeks More Patent Money for Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Research Corporation is aiding universities in locating new sources of income by finding patentable inventions, acting as broker between companies wanting to fund research and investigators with parallel interests, seeking capital for professors whose ideas have commercial possibilities, and finding private donors of scientific equipment.…

  20. Communicating climate sciences in academia and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupigny-Giroux, L. L.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change has catapulted climate and atmospheric sciences onto center stage in a way that eclipses the challenges of acid rain deposition in the late 1990s. However, there are subtle differences in the non- scientists' understanding of climate dynamics, processes, feedbacks etc.. Even among non-atmospheric scientists, there is sometimes an under-appreciation of the nuances of the land-atmosphere-ocean system. Many agencies are poised to play pivotal roles in helping to move this understanding forward, either due to their scientific missions or outreach components. Among these are the American Association of State Climatologists, the American Meteorological Society, American Geophysical Union, UCAR, NOAA, NASA and Association of American Geographers to name a few. This presentation will suggest directions in communicating climate science that come out a State Climatologist's perspective as well as liberal arts academic setting.

  1. Strategic Human Resource Planning in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulferts, Gregory; Wirtz, Patrick; Peterson, Evan

    2009-01-01

    A strategic plan guides a college in successfully meeting its mission. Based on the strategic plan, a college can develop a human resource plan that will allow it to make management decisions in the present to support the future direction of the college. The overall purpose of human resource management is to: (1) ensure the organization has…

  2. Accountability and External Ethical Constraints in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, H. Paul, III

    This paper provides a critique of the culture of self-regulation in higher education, in the context of recent public concerns about accountability in higher education. It discusses the role of the professor within academe, the role of tenure in protecting academic freedom, and the need to address issues of faculty accountability. It then examines…

  3. The Restructuring of Academia. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Reviews "The Knowledge Factory" (Aronowitz 2000), "The Corporate Campus" (Turk 2000), "Academic Capitalism" (Slaughter and Leslie 1999), and "The Corrosion of Character" (Sennett 1998). Discuses their depiction of the impact of market forces on higher education; criticizes the neglect of diversity issues in these works. (SK)

  4. Drug Discovery in Academia- the third way?

    PubMed Central

    Frearson, Julie; Wyatt, Paul

    2010-01-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry continues to re-strategise and focus on low-risk, relatively short term gains for the sake of survival, we need to re-invigorate the early stages of drug discovery and rebalance efforts towards novel modes of action therapeutics and neglected genetic and tropical diseases. Academic drug discovery is one model which offers the promise of new approaches and an alternative organisational culture for drug discovery as it attempts to apply academic innovation and thought processes to the challenge of discovering drugs to address real unmet need. PMID:20922062

  5. The right to die: beyond academia.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Carole

    2016-03-01

    The world's first legal euthanasia death occurred in the Australian City of Darwin on Sunday 22 September 1996 when Bob Dent ended his life under the Northern Territory's short-lived Rights of the Terminally Ill Act 1995. Dent's death intensified argument about euthanasia in Australia, transforming the debate from a textbook discussion in social ethics into a vigorous and divisive social dispute. The day before he ended his life, Dent dictated a letter, written down by his wife. This description of his experience with terminal illness is graphic-the letter, his last effort to bring the plight of those living with terminal illness to public consciousness. In this paper I outline issues from the perspective of those, who like Bob Dent, the choice to die with dignity is personal and urgent. Rather than approach the issue purely from the theoretical, academic debate therefore, I present aspects that are largely unknown unless the experience of life-denying symptoms becomes real. From these aspects, dilemmas and consequences emerge that are not framed through the academic debate and in this way, I argue for the possibility of a framework that could change the law.

  6. Instructional Redesign: Developing Learning Communities in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michelle Velez

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, learning is provided in a unidirectional manner from instructor to learner. This practice can be limiting to all individuals involved in the learning process. To develop quality instructional materials, the learning team can participate in instructional design and development (ID) as partners. This article discusses a proposed…

  7. Differences Between Physics in Industry and Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, David E.

    1982-01-01

    Compares and contrasts industrial and university physics departments, focusing on the group dynamics and work environment of a corporate physics (General Motors). A major difference between these departments lies in the motivation for and evaluation of research, not in the selection of research topics. (Author/JN)

  8. Achieving Diversity in Academia: A Dream Deferred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jacqueline; Horvat, Erin McNamara; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    Attempts to achieve diversity in the faculty in institutions of higher education have increased in recent years. Despite these attempts, faculty of color and women are still underrepresented in the higher ranks. This paper presents autobiographies focusing on the career trajectories of three junior faculty members at one institution: a divorced…

  9. Mindfulness in Academia: Considerations for Administrative Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Caryn M.

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual paper presents a synthesis of information about the workload stress of educational administrators. Currently, there are few programs designed to assist educational leaders to deal with stress (Hawk & Martin, 2011). Stress reduction programs may include mindfulness, a widely used practice of meditation. Mindfulness is used in…

  10. Impact of Information Technology in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranjan, Jayanthi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to study the provisions of information technology IT for development of academic resources and examines the effect of IT in academic institutions for sharing information. Design/methodology/approach--The paper examines the role of IT in sharing information in academic institutions and explores the IT…

  11. Emmerce in Academia: A Cinderella Fable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuck, Lysbeth B.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for changes in library and information science degree programs to keep up with new technologies and areas of specialization. Describes master's of business administration degrees which often offer specialization in areas such as electronic commerce to keep up with the changing job market. (LRW)

  12. Academia's Own Demographic Time-Bomb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, Graham

    2005-01-01

    It's no news that Australian academics, like Australian cricketers, are getting older (and perhaps tireder). But the exact dimensions of the sector's staffing crisis haven't been clear. Graham Hugo has been studying the figures in detail, and he suggests that the problem may in fact be worse than has been thought. Around a quarter of the academic…

  13. Burnout and Personality: Evidence from Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghorpade, Jai; Lackritz, Jim; Singh, Gangaram

    2007-01-01

    Using multiple theoretical perspectives (stress, conservation of resources, and deviance), we investigated the relationship between burnout and personality. Burnout is measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishments), and personality is captured with the Mini-Marker Inventory…

  14. A sample postapproval monitoring program in academia.

    PubMed

    Banks, Ron E; Norton, John N

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of an animal care and use program (ACUP) should be to ensure animal well-being while fostering progressive science. Both the Animal Welfare Act (and associated regulations) and the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy require the institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) to provide oversight of the animal program through continuing reviews to ensure that procedures are performed as approved by the committee. But for many committees the semiannual assessment does not provide an opportunity to observe research procedures being performed. Furthermore, IACUC members are typically volunteers with other full-time commitments and may not be able to dedicate sufficient time to observe protocol performance. Postapproval monitoring (PAM) is a tool that the IACUC can use to ensure that the institution fulfills its regulatory obligation for animal program oversight. When performed by attentive and observant individuals, PAM can extend the IACUC's oversight, management, training, and communication resources, regardless of program size or complexity. No defined PAM process fits all institutions or all situations; rather, the monitoring must match the program under review. Nonetheless, certain concepts, concerns, and conditions affect all PAM processes; they are described in this article. Regardless of the style or depth of PAM chosen for a given program, one thing is sure: failure of the IACUC to engage all available and effective oversight methods to ensure humane, compassionate, efficient, and progressive animal care and use is a disservice to the institution, to the research community and to the animals used for biomedical research, testing, or teaching.

  15. Educating the Citizen of Academia Online?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic is a vast, sparsely populated area. The demographic situation points to online distance education as a solution to support lifelong learning and to build competence in the region. An overall aim of all university education is what Hans Georg Gadamer calls "Bildung", what we in Norwegian call "dannelse" and what Richard Rorty has called…

  16. La problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Tolentino, Dinorah

    2011-12-01

    En la sociedad prevalece una tendencia generalizada hacia la inclusion de creencias y practicas pseudocientificas. Esta investigacion responde a la necesidad de analizar como la proliferacion de las pseudociencias afecta la vision que tienen los estudiantes universitarios sobre las ciencias naturales. A tales efectos, la investigadora describe las concepciones epistemologicas que tienen los estudiantes sobre las ciencias y las pseudociencias e identifica los criterios de demarcacion, entre un area y otra, que se derivan de estas concepciones. De igual modo, esta identifica las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas de mayor arraigo entre los estudiantes, destacando, a su vez, la razon de ser de las mismas. Por ultimo, la investigadora analiza las implicaciones educativas de la problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La investigacion es de naturaleza mixta, enmarcada en los paradigmas empirico- analitico y cualitativo. El proceso investigativo se llevo a cabo mediante la administracion del cuestionario Criterios para la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La parte cualitativa estuvo enmarcada en el diseno de estudio de caso, recopilando informacion mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en dos grupos focales. La poblacion de estudio estuvo constituida por estudiantes universitarios del nivel subgraduado de la Universidad Central de Bayamon. Los resultados del estudio reflejaron las concepciones erroneas de los estudiantes sobre la naturaleza de las ciencias y las pseudociencias. Con respecto a la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia, el criterio imperante entre los universitarios es el de la verificabilidad, considerando la aplicacion del metodo cientifico como el metodo para demostrar la veracidad de las teorias cientificas. Las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas no son muy frecuentes entre los universitarios. Estos atribuyen las mismas a la prevalencia de elementos supersticiosos y al engano a que es sometida la poblacion

  17. Peculiaridades observadas no espectro da estrela magnética HD 190073 - candidata a estrela do tipo Ae de Herbig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, G. A. P.; Pogodin, M. A.; Lopes, D. F.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentaremos os resultados de uma investigação espectroscópica cooperativa da estrela magnética HD 190073. As observações foram conduzidas no Observatório do Pico dos Dias (LNA/MCT), European Southern Observatory (ESO, Chile), e Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ucrânia), entre 1998 e 2002. Discutiremos em detalhe um dos padrões mais marcantes do espectro desse objeto - as multicomponentes em absorção das linhas Ca ii K e H. De acordo com nossos resultados, a estrutura complexa desse perfil permaneceu constante durante várias decadas (dos anos 30 até os anos 80) após o que apresentou mudanças marcantes nos anos 90. Essa variabilidade apresenta óbvia contradição com a interpretação tradicional desse fenômeno como o resultado de espalhamento ressonante atuando seletivamente sobre o vento estelar em distâncias diferentes. Propomos uma explicação alternativa com base em uma topologia especí fica do campo magnético estelar. Essa hipótese permite, também, explicar uma série de outras peculiaridades observadas no envoltório de HD 190073, tais como: (a) a baixa velocidade de rotação pode ser o resultado da interação entre a magnetosfera estelar e um disco equatorial hipotético; (b) o gás circumstelar acumulado em loops magnéticos em latitudes intermediárias pode estimular a formação de regiões gasosas densas a distâncias intermediárias da estrela, onde linhas em emissão com perfil simples são formadas.

  18. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  19. The Supernova Impostor SN 2010da

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Breanna A.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova impostors are optical transients that, despite being assigned a supernova designation, do not signal the death of a massive star or accreting white dwarf. Instead, many impostors are thought to be major eruptions from luminous blue variables. Although the physical cause of these eruptions is still debated, tidal interactions from a binary companion has recently gained traction as a possible explanation for observations of some supernova impostors. In this talk, I will discuss the particularly interesting impostor SN 2010da, which exhibits high-luminosity, variable X-ray emission. The X-ray emission is consistent with accretion onto a neutron star, making SN 2010da a likely high mass X-ray binary in addition to a supernova impostor. SN 2010da is a unique laboratory for understanding both binary interactions as drivers of massive star eruptions and the evolutionary processes that create high mass X-ray binaries.

  20. Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.

    2003-08-01

    A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

  1. A Concepção de Universo entre Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo e suas Fontes de Aquisição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2006-08-01

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se identificar por meio de um questionário as concepções de Universo, de espaço e tempo que sustentam a visão de mundo de um grupo de 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio, pertencentes a três escolas de São Paulo. As questões relacionadas aos conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes permitiram constatar que há pouco conhecimento acerca dos temas investigados, destacando-se que apenas 20% dos alunos foram capazes de relacionar as semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo, verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% concebiam o Sol como uma estrela. No que se refere às fontes de aquisição que proporcionaram esses conhecimentos, apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de Ast! ronomia, verificou-se claramente que para a maioria dos alunos seus conceitos ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos, pois apesar de popular, a Astronomia ainda é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecisões. Nesse contexto, são discutidas algumas possíveis contribuições que podem ser dadas para o ensino de Astronomia pelo uso das ferramentas computacionais nas escolas.

  2. Massa do gás e das estrelas em aglomerados: eficiência da formação estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laganá, T. F.; Lima Neto, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados de galáxias apresentam um interesse especial para a cosmologia observacional. Eles são as maiores estruturas ligadas pela gravitação no Universo e relaxadas na região central. A comparação entre a massa do gás intra-aglomerado (responsável por ~25% da massa total, inferida a partir de observações em raios-X), a massa contida nas estrelas (i.e., nas galáxias) e a massa total (incluindo a matéria escura não bariônica), nos dá informações importantes sobre os processos de formação e evolução de aglomerados. Por exemplo, a razão entre a massa do gás e a massa total é uma medida da fração de bárions no Universo (razão entre a matéria bariônica e matéria escura) e, utilizando a densidade de bárions predita pela nucleosíntese primordial, podemos deduzir a densidade de matéria escura no Universo (cf. White et al. 1993). O objetivo deste trabalho é obter as razões entre as massas do gás, estelar (contida nas galáxias), e a total (massa dinâmica). As massas do gás e total são obtidas a partir das análises fotométrica e espectroscópica em raios-X enquanto que a massa estelar é obtida pela análise fotométrica das galáxias. Esta análise foi aplicada ao aglomerado Abell 496 observado pelo satélite XMM-Newton. A massa contida nas galáxias foi estimada a partir da função de luminosidade obtida por Durret et al. (2002). Para determinar as massas dinâmica e do gás nos precisamos determinar os perfis radiais de densidade e temperatura. Nós apresentaremos aqui estes resultados e suas implicações na eficiência da formação estelar em Abell 496.

  3. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes.

  4. Common colds on Tristan da Cunha

    PubMed Central

    Shibli, M.; Gooch, S.; Lewis, H. E.; Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Eight epidemics of respiratory disease have been observed among islanders of Tristan da Cunha. They seem to be initiated by the arrival of ships and transmission seemed to occur as a result of close human contact but could not always be traced. Islanders suffered from less colds than those in less isolated communities. PMID:5282927

  5. DA White Dwarfs in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, T. F.; Howell, S. B.; Petit, V.; Lépine, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present 16 new, and confirm 7 previously identified, DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field through ground-based spectroscopy with the Hale 200″, Kitt Peak 4-meter, and Bok 2.3-meter telescopes. Using atmospheric models we determine their effective temperatures and surface gravities to constrain their position with respect to the ZZ Ceti (DA pulsator) instability strip, and look for the presence or absence of pulsation with Kepler's unprecedented photometry. Our results are as follows: i) From our measurements of temperature and surface gravity, 12 of the 23 DA white dwarfs from this work fall well outside of the instability strip. The Kepler photometry available for 11 of these WDs allows us to confirm that none are pulsating. One of these eleven happens to be a presumed binary, KIC 11604781, with a period of ˜5 days. ii) The remaining 11 DA white dwarfs are instability strip candidates, potentially falling within the current, empirical instability strip, after accounting for uncertainties. These WDs will help constrain the strip's location further, as eight are near the blue edge and three are near the red edge of the instability strip. Four of these WDs do not have Kepler photometry, so ground-based photometry is needed to determine the pulsation nature of these white dwarfs. The remaining seven have Kepler photometry available, but do not show any periodicity on typical WD pulsation timescales.

  6. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  7. The PAN-DA data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Bernett, M.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Kaczar, K; MacKinnon, B.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Votava, M.; White, V.

    1989-05-01

    The Online and Data Acquisition software groups at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have extended the VAXONLINE data acquisition package to include a VME based data path. The resulting environment, PAN-DA, provides a high throughput for logging, filtering, formatting and selecting events. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  9. Uma Comparação entre Técnicas de Propagação de Erros em Astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabot, Alexandre; Baptista, Raymundo

    2005-07-01

    Neste trabalho é feito um estudo comparativo entre dois algoritmos numéricos usados para propagação de erros em dados experimentais. Um deles é conhecido por Método de Monte carlo e o outro por Método de Bootstrap. Recentemente, Dhullon & Watson argüiram que a aplicação do método de Monte Carlo introduz ruído nos dados, e propuseram então a utilização do Bootstrap como alternativa capaz de produzir resultados superiores. O objetivo deste trabalho é testar a validade dessa afirmação. As duas técnicas foram aplicadas a três problemas diferentes: o ajsute de modelos de emissão LTE simples e atmosfera estelar a espectros estelares observados e o ajuste de curvas de luz de eclipses de Variáveis Cataclísmicas para a detemrinação da distribuição radial de brilho dos seus discos de acréscimo. Os métodos foram testados quanto à sua robusteza, ou seja, a capacidade de prover resultados coerentes enre si. Além disso, as soluções dos métodos foram comparadas. Os resultados indicam que não existe evidência de superioridade de um métodos em relação ao outro.

  10. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  11. A Day in the Life at DaVita Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company name means "giving life," the bar for learning and development programs is held high. In this article, the author describes what it takes to graduate from DaVita Academy, the soft skills training program dialysis services company DaVita offers all its employees. DaVita's chief executive officer, Kent Thiry, states that the Academy…

  12. ESTIGMA Y VIH/SIDA ENTRE PADRES/MADRES Y ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Grace Rosado; Reyes, Glendalys Rivera; Villanueva, Victoria Larrieux; Torres, Gilliam J. Torres; Díaz, Elba Betancourt; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Villaruel, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    La comunicación entre padres/madres y adolescentes sobre el tema de la sexualidad es importante para el desarrollo de la salud de personas jóvenes. Dicha comunicación puede verse negativamente impactada por actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el tema del VIH/SIDA. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el VIH/SIDA entre padres/madres y adolescentes puertorriqueños/as. Este esfuerzo es parte del Proyecto Cuídalos, dirigido a probar una intervención en formato electrónico que busca aumentar la comunicación sobre sexualidad y salud entre padres/madres y adolescentes mediante un diseño experimental con 458 diadas de padres/madres y adolescentes de 13 a 17 años. Para propósitos de este artículo reportamos estadísticas descriptivas sobre estigma hacia el VIH/SIDA con la información recopilada en la medición basal. Tanto adultos/as como adolescentes mostraron actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el VIH/SIDA. A la luz de los resultados es necesario continuar desarrollando intervenciones para la reducción de estigma en esta población. Los/as padres/madres pueden ser un recurso invaluable para reducir el estigma en los/as jóvenes, y prevenir conductas sexuales de riesgo e infecciones. PMID:27099649

  13. PanDA for COMPASS at JINR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis System) is a workload management system, widely used for data processing at experiments on Large Hadron Collider and others. COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Data processing for COMPASS runs locally at CERN, on lxbatch, the data itself stored in CASTOR. In 2014 an idea to start running COMPASS production through PanDA arose. Such transformation in experiment's data processing will allow COMPASS community to use not only CERN resources, but also Grid resources worldwide. During the spring and summer of 2015 installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper.

  14. The DA{phi}NE-Light Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burattini, Emilio; Cinque, Gianfelice; Dabagov, Sultan; Grilli, Antonio; Marcelli, Augusto; Pace, Elisabetta; Piccinini, Massimo; Raco, Agostino; Monti, Francesca

    2004-05-12

    The new Synchrotron Radiation facility at Frascati exploits the intense photon emission from DA{phi}NE, the 0,51 GeV storage ring circulating over 1 A of electrons. Among the three beamlines commissioned, the Synchrotron INfrared Beamline At Da{phi}ne (SINBAD) is fully operational by a brilliant SR beam spanning the entire IR. Recently, the soft X-ray beamline has been characterized and, once implemented the double-crystal monocromator, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is applied on material standards in the distinguishing energy region below 4 keV. An UltraViolet line, presently dedicated to photobiology dosimetry, has also given first results on cell irradiation in the UVB band.

  15. [Leonardo da Vinci--a dyslectic genius?].

    PubMed

    Røsstad, Anna

    2002-12-10

    Leonardo da Vinci's texts consist almost exclusively of scientific notes. Working on a book on Leonardo's art, I studied all Leonardo's published texts carefully for any new information. In some prefaces I came to suspect that Leonardo might have suffered from dyslexia. This article considers the question of whether it is possible to find indications of dyslexia in Leonardo's texts and in the accounts of his life.

  16. [Anogenital Warts in a Major Venereology Clinic: Centro de Saúde da Lapa - Lisbon, 2008 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Gameiro, Ana; Alves, João; Santo, Irene; Azevedo, Jacinta

    2016-02-01

    Introdução: O vírus do papiloma humano é responsável pela infeção sexualmente transmissível mais comum, podendo manifestar--se por um conjunto amplo de doenças, nomeadamente condilomas anogenitais, papilomatose laríngea recorrente, e neoplasias da região anogenital, colo do útero e orofaringe. Estima-se que os condilomas anogenitais afetem 1% da população sexualmente ativa, causados em cerca de 90% pelos genótipos 6 e 11. Material e Métodos: Identificámos os doentes com primeiro diagnóstico de condilomas anogenitais da consulta de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis do Centro de Saúde da Lapa, entre janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2014, e caracterizámos os doentes por sexo, orientação sexual, idade, localização das lesões, e número de parceiros nos últimos seis meses. Resultados: Foram identificados 902 indivíduos com primeiro diagnóstico de condilomas anogenitais. Observámos uma diminuição significativa de novos casos nas mulheres com < 19 anos (r = -0,848; p = 0,016), e uma diminuição sem significado estatístico nos homens com < 19 anos e nas mulheres entre os 20 - 24 anos. Discussão: Em outubro de 2008, a vacina quadrivalente (genótipos 6, 11, 16, 18) foi introduzida no plano nacional de vacinação de Portugal, abrangendo as adolescentes com 13 anos, com um catch-up para as de 17 anos. A diminuição de primeiros diagnósticos de condilomas anogenitais nas mulheres, deve-se provavelmente à sua vacinação antes de iniciarem a vida sexual. Conclusão: Este estudo reforça a import'ncia do programa nacional de vacinação para o vírus do papiloma humano.

  17. The Real Code of Leonardo da Vinci

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Leiv

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. In conclusion: this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:19924278

  18. Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Namdar, Husain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-08-20

    Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology.

  19. Turbocharging the DA465 gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng-Qi; Zong, Li-Jun; Wang, Yin-Yan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve performance of the DA465Q gasoline engine, a substantial amount of research was done to optimize its turbocharging system. The research led to the GT12 turbocharger being selected and its turbocharging parameters being settled. Based on these tests, rational matching was worked out for respective components of the turbocharging system. Results show that this turbocharger allows the engine to easily meet the proposed requirements for power and economic performance, giving insight into further performance improvements for gasoline engines.

  20. Mycoflora and mycotoxins natural occurrence in corn from entre rios province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Am, P; LE, B; Sl, R; Hhl, G

    2001-03-01

    Corn samples were collected in 1999 from three departments of Entre Réos province, Argentina, and were surveyed for mould contamination and natural occurrence ofFusarium mycotoxins, ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.Fusarium verticillioides was the most prevalent fungal species recorded at all departments. Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A were not found in any samples. Only one of the 52 corn samples analysed was contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (17 μg/kg). Fumonisin B1 was found in 58 % of samples (range of positive samples: 47- 3,347 μg/kg), fumonisin B2 in 33.0 % (range of positive samples: 23-537 μg/kg) and fumonisin B3 in 25.0 % (range of positive samples: 24-287 μg/kg) of them. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in corn from Entre Ríos province, Argentina. Levels of fumonisins were lower than detected in other Argentinian provinces. PMID:23605614

  1. Mycoflora and mycotoxins natural occurrence in corn from entre rios province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Am, P; LE, B; Sl, R; Hhl, G

    2001-03-01

    Corn samples were collected in 1999 from three departments of Entre Réos province, Argentina, and were surveyed for mould contamination and natural occurrence ofFusarium mycotoxins, ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.Fusarium verticillioides was the most prevalent fungal species recorded at all departments. Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A were not found in any samples. Only one of the 52 corn samples analysed was contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (17 μg/kg). Fumonisin B1 was found in 58 % of samples (range of positive samples: 47- 3,347 μg/kg), fumonisin B2 in 33.0 % (range of positive samples: 23-537 μg/kg) and fumonisin B3 in 25.0 % (range of positive samples: 24-287 μg/kg) of them. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in corn from Entre Ríos province, Argentina. Levels of fumonisins were lower than detected in other Argentinian provinces. PMID:23605615

  2. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

  3. 40 CFR 60.52Da - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 60.52Da Section 60.52Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Electric Utility Steam Generating Units for...

  4. Asteroid 2012 DA14 To Whiz Past Earth Safely

    NASA Video Gallery

    The small near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 will pass very close to Earth on Feb. 15, 2013. Asteroid 2012 DA14 will be closest to Earth at about 11:24 a.m. PST (2:24 p.m. EST and 1924 UTC), on Feb. 15,...

  5. DA-6034 Induces [Ca(2+)]i Increase in Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Mi; Park, Soonhong; Ji, Hyewon; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kang, Kyung Koo; Shin, Dong Min

    2014-04-01

    DA-6034, a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye. However, whether DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling and its underlying mechanism in epithelial cells are not known. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for actions of DA-6034 in Ca(2+) signaling pathways of the epithelial cells (conjunctival and corneal cells) from human donor eyes and mouse salivary gland epithelial cells. DA-6034 activated Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary cultured human conjunctival cells. DA-6034 also increased [Ca(2+)]i in mouse salivary gland cells and human corneal epithelial cells. [Ca(2+)]i increase of DA-6034 was dependent on the Ca(2+) entry from extracellular and Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores. Interestingly, these effects of DA-6034 were related to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) but not phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway and lysosomal Ca(2+) stores. These results suggest that DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling via extracellular Ca(2+) entry and RyRs-sensitive Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores in epithelial cells.

  6. Etude des relations entre photosynthese respiration, transpiration et nutrition minerale chez le ble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, M.; Ducloux, H.; Richaud, C.; Massimino, D.; Daguenet, A.; Massimino, J.; Gerbaud, A.

    La croissance du Blé Triticum aestivum a été étudiée en environnement contrôlé et fermé pendant une période de 70 jours. Les échanges gazeux (Photosynthèse, Respiration) hydriques (Transpiration) et la consommation en éléments minéraux (Azote, Phosphore, Potassium) ont été mesurés en continu. On présentera les relations dynamiques observées entre les différentes fonctions physiologiques, d'une part sous l'influence de la croissance et d'autre part en réponse à des modifications de l'environnement. L'influence de la teneur en CO2 pendant la croissance (teneur normale ou doublée) sera mise en évidence.

  7. An Environmental Management Model of Thermal Waters in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablo, Mársico Daniel; Luís, Díaz Eduardo; Ivana, Zecca; Oscar, Dallacosta; Antonio, Paz-González

    2015-04-01

    Deep exploratory drillings, i.e. those with more than 500 meters depth, have been performed in the Entre Ríos province, Argentina, in order to ascertain the presence of thermal water. Drilling began in 1994, and until now there have been 18 polls with very variable results in terms of mineralization, resource flow, and temperature. The aim of this study was to present a management model, which should allow operators of thermal complexes to further develop procedures for safeguarding the biodiversity of the ecosystems involved, both during exploration and exploitation activities. The environmental management Plan proposed is constituted by a set of technical procedures that are formulated and should be performed during the stages of exploration and exploitation of the resource, and consists of: environmental monitoring, environmental audit, public information and contingency programs. This Plan describes the measures and proposals aimed at protecting environmental quality in the area of influence of a thermal complex project, ensuring that its execution remains environmentally responsibly, and allowing implementation of specific actions to prevent or correct environmental impacts, as predicted in the evaluation of the Environmental Program. The audit of environmental impact includes and takes into account natural factors, such as water, soil, atmosphere, flora and fauna, and also cultural factors. The technical audit Plan was prepared in order to get a systematic structure and organization of the verification process, and also with regard to document the degree of implementation of the proposed mitigation measures. Finally, an environmental contingency program was implemented, and its objective was to consider the safeguarding of life and its natural environment. Thus, a guide has been developed with the main actions to be taken on a contingency, since forecast increases the efficiency of the response. The methodology developed here was adopted as the procedure

  8. Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Pevsner, Jonathan

    2002-04-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made far-reaching contributions to many areas of science, technology and art. Leonardo's pioneering research into the brain led him to discoveries in neuroanatomy (such as those of the frontal sinus and meningeal vessels) and neurophysiology (he was the first to pith a frog). His injection of hot wax into the brain of an ox provided a cast of the ventricles, and represents the first known use of a solidifying medium to define the shape and size of an internal body structure. Leonardo developed an original, mechanistic model of sensory physiology. He undertook his research with the broad goal of providing physical explanations of how the brain processes visual and other sensory input, and integrates that information via the soul.

  9. Da Costa's syndrome or neurocirculatory asthenia.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, O

    1987-01-01

    The syndrome variously called Da Costa's syndrome, effort syndrome, neurocirculatory asthenia, etc has been studied for more than 100 years by many distinguished physicians. Originally identified in men in wartime, it has been widely recognised as a common chronic condition in both sexes in civilian life. Although the symptoms may seem to appear after infections and various physical and psychological stresses, neurocirculatory asthenia is most often encountered as a familial disorder that is unrelated to these factors, although they may aggravate an existing tendency. Respiratory complaints (including breathlessness, with and without effort, and smothering sensations) are almost universal, and palpitation, chest discomfort, dizziness and faintness, and fatigue are common. The physical examination is normal. The aetiology is obscure but patients usually have a normal life span. Reassurance and measures to improve physical fitness are helpful. PMID:3314950

  10. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA...

  11. 75 FR 75868 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Register on August 25, 2010 (75 FR 52292). That NPRM proposed to require a retrofit of the rear passenger... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration,...

  12. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde

  13. Metal Lines in DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D.; Reid, I. N.; Hünsch, M.

    2003-10-01

    We report Keck telescope HIRES echelle observations of DA white dwarfs in a continuation of an extensive search for metals. These spectra are supplemented with new JHK magnitudes that are used to determine improved atmospheric parameters. Of the DA white dwarfs not in binary or common proper motion systems, about 25% show Ca II lines. For these, Ca abundances are determined from comparison with theoretical equivalent widths from model atmosphere calculations; in a few cases we also obtain Mg, Fe, Si, and Al abundances. If Ca is not observed, we generally determine very stringent upper limits. We compare the data to predictions of previously published models involving the accretion/diffusion of interstellar matter and of comets. The derived abundances are not obviously compatible with the predictions of either model, which up to now could only be tested with traces of metals in helium-rich white dwarfs. By modifying certain assumptions in the published interstellar accretion model we are able to match the distribution of the elements in the white dwarf atmospheres, but, even so, tests of other expectations from this scenario are less successful. Because comet accretion appears unlikely to be the primary cause of the DAZ phenomenon, the data suggest that no more than about 20% of F-type main-sequence stars are accompanied by Oort-like comet clouds. This represents the first observational estimate of this fraction. A plausible alternative to the accretion of cometary or interstellar matter is disruption and accretion of asteroidal material, a model first suggested in 1990 to explain excess near-infrared emission from the DAZ G29-38. An asteroidal debris model to account for the general DAZ phenomenon does not presently disagree with the HIRES data, but neither is there any compelling evidence in support of such a model. The HIRES data indicate that in close red dwarf/white dwarf binaries not known to be cataclysmic variables there is, nonetheless, significant mass

  14. Characterization of the isolated 20 kDa and 50 kDa fragments of the myosin head.

    PubMed

    Muhlrad, A; Kasprzak, A A; Ue, K; Ajtai, K; Burghardt, T P

    1986-01-30

    We have isolated two proteolytic fragments of subfragment 1 (S-1) of myosin from rabbit skeletal muscle. These fragments, identified by their molecular weights of 20 and 50 kDa, may be functional domains that, when isolated, retain their specific function. We have studied several structural and functional features of the 20 and 50 kDa fragments. Considerable secondary structure in both fragments has been observed in CD spectrum studies. Previously CD spectra showed 64% ordered structure for the 20 kDa fragment (Muhlrad and Morales, M.F. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81, 1003) and here we show 71% ordered structures for the 50 kDa fragment. Fluorescence lifetime studies of tryptophan residues in the 50 kDa fragment and 1,5-IAEDANS-labeled SH-1 in the 20 kDa fragment are used to investigate the tertiary structure of the fragments. We find the tertiary structure relating to this measurement of both fragments to be intact; however, the reaction of 1,5-IAEDANS with SH-1 on the isolated 20 kDa fragment is less specific than with S-1. Furthermore, the fragments showed a tendency to aggregate. The domain concept of S-1 was supported by the characteristic biochemical function of the isolated fragments. Both of the fragments were effective in competing with S-1 for binding to actin in acto-S-1 ATPase measurements. From these studies and in direct binding measurement the 20 kDa fragment proved to bind with higher affinity to actin than did the 50 kDa fragment.

  15. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  16. Cloning of the 52-kDa chitinase gene from Serratia marcescens KCTC2172 and its proteolytic cleavage into an active 35-kDa enzyme.

    PubMed

    Gal, S W; Choi, J Y; Kim, C Y; Cheong, Y H; Choi, Y J; Lee, S Y; Bahk, J D; Cho, M J

    1998-03-01

    A chitinase gene (pCHI52) encoding the 52-kDa chitinase was isolated from a Serratia marcescens KCTC2172 cosmid library. This chitinase gene consists of 2526 bp with an open reading frame that encodes 485 amino acids. Escherichia coli harboring the pCHI52 gene secreted not only a 52-kDa but also a 35-kDa chitinase into the culture supernatant. We purified both 52-kDa and 35-kDa chitinases using a chitin affinity column and Sephacryl-S-300 gel filtration chromatography. We determined that the 17 N-terminal amino acid sequences of the 52-kDa and the 35-kDa chitinase are identical. Furthermore, a protease obtained from S. marcescens KCTC2172 cleaved the 52-kDa chitinase into the 35-kDa protein with chitinase activity. These results suggest that the 35-kDa chitinase derives from the 52-kDa chitinase by post-translational proteolytic modification. The optimal reaction temperature of 45 degrees C and the optimal pH of 5.5 were identical for both enzymes. The specific activities of the 52-kDa and 35-kDa chitinases on natural swollen chitin were 67 mumol min-1 mg-1 and 60 mumol min-1 mg-1, respectively.

  17. PKC phosphorylates residues in the N-terminal of the DA transporter to regulate amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Bubula, Nancy; Brown, Jason; Wang, Yunliang; Kondev, Veronika; Vezina, Paul

    2016-05-27

    The DA transporter (DAT), a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport (efflux). Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux. Other signaling pathways, involving CaMKII and ERK, have also been shown to regulate DAT mediated efflux. Here we assessed the contribution of putative PKC residues (S4, S7, S13) in the N-terminal of the DAT to amphetamine-induced DA efflux by transfecting DATs containing different serine to alanine (S-A) point mutations into DA pre-loaded HEK-293 cells and incubating these cells in amphetamine (2μM). The effects of a S-A mutation at the non-PKC residue S12 and a threonine to alanine (T-A) mutation at the ERK T53 residue were also assessed for comparison. WT-DATs were used as controls. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that inhibiting PKC with Go6976 (130nM) significantly reduced amphetamine-induced DA efflux. In subsequent experiments, cells transfected with the S4A, S12A, S13A, T53A and S4,7,13A mutants showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced DA efflux similar to that observed with Go6976. Interestingly, cells transfected with the S7A mutant, identified by some as a PKC-PKA residue, showed unperturbed WT-DAT levels of amphetamine-induced DA efflux. These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of select residues in the DAT N-terminal can regulate amphetamine-induced efflux. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect.

  18. On Ensino da Astronomia no Ensino Médio sob Diferentes Abordagens Metodológicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Albrecht, Evonir

    2011-12-01

    O presente trabalho, sobre a intervenção de metodologias de ensino, foi desenvolvido na Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, na cidade de Caraguatatuba - SP, em três turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, perfazendo um total de 119 educandos, entre 16 e 19 anos. Antes de iniciar-se a intervenção, um questionário de vinte perguntas objetivas e dissertativas foi desenvolvido, aplicado pelo professor da classe, que ministrou as aulas correspondentes. Este questionário foi o mesmo em todas as três classes com o objetivo de diagnosticar o conhecimento prévio dos alunos sobre Astronomia. Começando a intervenção nas turmas, o professor envolvido usou três diferentes metodologias de ensino: (A) em forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos alunos, nos quais o professor fazia apenas as intervenções necessárias, (B) na forma tradicional, com a ajuda de multimídia para o desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) a tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. No final do trabalho os alunos responderam o mesmo questionário novamente, de modo que os três métodos utilizados puderam ser comparados. Os resultados apresentados após a intervenção foram melhores que os resultados iniciais indicando a ocorrência de uma aprendizagem significativa. Quando os estudantes foram inicialmente questionados sobre quantos planetas existem no nosso sistema solar, a classe A obteve 39% de respostas certas, a classe B 48% e a classe C 46%, mas após o desenvolvimento das atividades, as classes obtiveram respectivamente 94%, 97 % e 90% de aproveitamento. No término do bimestre, foi sugerido aos educandos que elaborassem uma história em quadrinhos, a qual serviu para averiguar se os conceitos inicialmente observados foram alterados e se novos foram agregados. A análise das histórias foi dividida em três partes: Criatividade; Temas abordados; Emprego correto dos conceitos estudados. Ao final quatorze histórias foram confeccionadas. O aprendizado

  19. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  20. El espectro de KX TrA entre 1990 y 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; García, L.; Ferrer, O.; Barbá, R.

    La estrella simbiótica KX TrA = He2-177 fue observada espectroscópicamente con el telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO entre los años 1990 y 1996, utilizándose resoluciones intermedia y alta. El rango espectral estudiado se extiende desde 4400 Åa 7200 Å. La historia fotométrica de KX TrA presenta explosiones del mismo tipo que las mostradas por la nova lenta RR Tel y su espectro de alta excitación, muy rico en líneas de emisión, es también similar al de RR Tel. Por lo tanto, es importante analizar la evolución espectral de KX TrA en el tiempo, prestando especial atención a los posibles cambios en los niveles de excitación. Las emisiones presentes corresponden a transiciones permitidas y prohibidas con un amplio rango de ionización, incluyéndose las anchas e intensas líneas originadas por scattering Raman de O VI en λλ 6825 y 7082 Å. En el período cubierto por nuestras observaciones se estudia la variación de la intensidad relativa de las emisiones, el comportamiento de las velocidades radiales y los cambios de perfiles de las líneas, especialmente en Hα y Hβ. El contínuo de la región roja observada indica un tipo espectral no más tardío que M3 para la componente gigante fría del sistema.

  1. The Moon Phases in a Paper Box. (Spanish Title: Las Fases de la Luna en Una Caja de Cartón.) As Fases da Lua Numa Caixa de Papelão

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima O. Saraiva, Maria; Amador, Cláudio B.; Kemper, Érico; Goulart, Paulo; Muller, Angela

    2007-12-01

    material didático de baixo custo para demonstração do conceito de fases de um corpo iluminado. O principal objetivo de nosso material é facilitar a compreensão das fases da Lua da perspectiva de um observador na Terra. O material ajuda na visualização de dois efeitos importantes: (1º) mesmo tendo sempre a metade da "Lua" (representada por uma bolinha de isopor ou de ping-pong) iluminada pelo "Sol" (representado por uma fonte de luz natural ou artificial), nós vemos diferentes frações de sua superfície iluminada, dependendo do ângulo pelo qual a olhamos; (2º) a orientação da borda convexa da Lua nas fases Crescente e Minguante também depende da perspectiva pela qual a olhamos da Terra. O uso de uma caixa fechada permite observar o contraste entre as diferentes fases sem necessidade de estar em uma sala escurecida. Apresentamos também um texto explicativo sobre fases da Lua, enfatizando a dependência da aparência da parte iluminada com o ângulo de visada.

  2. A cosmologia no ensino da geografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, S. C.; Chiaradia, A. P. M.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo deste trabalho é auxiliar o professor de Geografia em sala de aula no ensino de tópicos relacionados com a Cosmologia. A idéia deste trabalho surgiu quando foi constatado que o professor de Geografia tem dificuldades de ensinar este tópico. Esta constatação foi feita por uma das autoras ao lecionar este tópico no ensino fundamental e em discussões com outros professores de Geografia. Da mesma maneira que ocorria desde os tempos mais antigos, os alunos têm muito interesse em conhecer os fenômenos que ocorrem no Cosmo, porém os livros didáticos de Geografia utilizados em sala de aula não são ricos em informações sobre este assunto. Assim, o professor de Geografia tem poucas informações para discutir este assunto em sala de aula e não dá a devida importância para este tópico. Então, foi desenvolvido um material de apoio para professores de Geografia sobre a origem do Universo, sua evolução e seu possível futuro evolutivo segundo as mais recentes teorias, com base em perguntas feitas pelos alunos de ensino fundamental e as informações trazidas nos livros didáticos Não cabe a este material inovar e tão pouco trazer uma metodologia de ensino de Cosmologia. Neste material o professor de Geografia pode encontrará um banco de informações, que constitui no estabelecimento de conceitos, teorias e hipóteses, sobre a Cosmologia, em linguagem simples e de fácil entendimento. Para desenvolvê-lo, foram feitas pesquisas não exaustivas em livros e revistas científicas, compilação e discussão em forma cronológica das teorias aceitas sobre modelos cosmológicos. Portanto, este material será apresentado neste trabalho.

  3. Geomagnetic observations on tristan da cunha, south atlantic ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, N.; Maule, C.F.; Pedersen, L.W.; Berarducci, A.M.; Macmillan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37?? 05' S, 12?? 18' W, is therefore of crucial importance. We have conducted several sets of repeat station measurements during magnetically quiet conditions (Kp 2o or less) in 2004. The procedures are described and the results are compared to those from earlier campaigns and to the predictions of various global field models. Features of the local crustal bias field and the solar quiet daily variation are discussed. We also evaluate the benefit of continuous magnetic field recordings from Tristan da Cunha, and argue that such a data set is a very valuable addition to geomagnetic satellite data. Recently, funds were set up to establish and operate a magnetometer station on Tristan da Cunha during the Swarm magnetic satellite mission (2011-2014).

  4. 1991 DA: An asteroid in a bizarre orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steel, Duncan; Mcnaught, Robert H.; Asher, David

    1992-01-01

    Asteroidal object 1991 DA has an orbit of high inclination, crossing the planets from Mars to Uranus. This is unique for an asteroid, but not unusual for a comet of the Halley-type: it therefore seems likely that 1991 DA is an extinct or dormant comet. Previous CCD imaging has shown no indication of a coma; spectroscopic observations of 1991 DA which lack any evidence of strong comet-like emissions are reported. Numerical integrations of the orbit of this object were performed which show that is has been remarkably stable for the past approximately 20,000 yr, but chaotic before that. This may allow a new estimate to be made of the physical lifetimes of comets.

  5. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  6. Publishing Planetary Data to the VO using DaCHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.

    2014-04-01

    Publishing to the Virtual Observatory has many advantages, but between standards compliance, registration, data organisation, and server operation it is also requires a nontrivial effort if starting from scratch. The DaCHS software from the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory offers a packaged solution letting publishers concentrate on working with their own data and metadata as much as possible. For the planetary community, publishing is further facilitated by built-in support for the EPN-TAP data model. This contribution will show a typical publishing workflow together with a brief overview of how DaCHS meshes in with the VO and Web-based data usage.

  7. The DaCHS Multi-protocol VO Server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.

    2014-05-01

    GAVO's Data Center Helper Suite (DaCHS) is a suite of tools for publishing data to the Virtual Observatory. It implements all major VO protocols (SCS, SIAP, SSAP, TAP, OAI-PMH). The integrated management and ingestion component allow defining metadata, structure, and services once and re-use the definition throughout the publication cycle from initial metadata aquisition to registry record generation. It has been driving GAVO's data center since 2008 and is now deployed in multiple locations around the globe. This poster briefly describes the design of the system as well as a bird's-eye view of data publishing with DaCHS.

  8. A teoria da percolação aplicada às galáxias aneladas peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.; de Medeiros, N. G. F.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Oliveira-Abans, M.

    2003-08-01

    Formulado no final da década de 50, o modelo de percolação concentra-se em descrever o meio poroso, que será visto neste trabalho como uma rede de canais aleatórios, por onde escoa um fluido determinístico. Se o número de canais for suficientemente grande, então eles estarão ligados e o meio se tornará permeável à passagem do fluido. Neste caso, dizemos que houve a percolação do fluido. Reformulando o modelo acima, podemos escrever um código particularmente adaptado para simulações em Galáxias, onde iremos supor que os canais formam um reticulado, e que cada sítio da rede representa um poro que será interpretado como uma região ativa de formação estelar. Para cada elo teremos um pequeno canal ligando dois sítios vizinhos, que poderá, após um tempo "t", induzir ou não a formação de uma região ativa no poro vizinho. Para simular a passagem desta região ativa através dos poros, diremos que um elo está aberto com probabilidade p e fechado com probabilidade 1-p. Dessa forma, passamos a imaginar configurações de elos abertos e fechados, onde cada configuração ocorre com uma certa probabilidade, dada por p|A|(1-p)|F|, onde |A| é o número de elos abertos e |F| o número de elos fechados da configuração. A expressão anterior só tem importância física se |A| e |F| forem ambos finitos, pois, caso contrário, a probabilidade de ocorrência de uma dada configuração será sempre nula. Neste trabalho, foram considerados dados cinemáticos publicados na literatura bem como aqueles obtidos pelos autores a partir de observações fotométricas realizadas no Observatório de Las Campanãs, em 1994, para a Galáxia Anelada Peculiar HRG 03401. Mostraremos que para certos valores de p, situados entre 0,5 e 0,6, os clusters assim formados irão simular, de maneira coerente, o referido objeto.

  9. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)), by the hourly heat input rate (measured according to the provisions of § 60.49Da(n)), and dividing... shall conduct the performance test required under § 60.8 using the appropriate methods in appendix A of... second sampling site shall be located at the outlet from the heat recovery steam generating...

  10. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission rate in lb/MMBtu (measured by the CEMS required under § 60.49Da(c) and (d)), by the hourly heat... section may be used: (1) The owner or operator of an affected duct burner shall conduct the performance... located at the outlet from the heat recovery steam generating unit. Measurements shall be taken at...

  11. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)), by the hourly heat input rate (measured according to the provisions of § 60.49Da(n)), and dividing... shall conduct the performance test required under § 60.8 using the appropriate methods in appendix A of... second sampling site shall be located at the outlet from the heat recovery steam generating...

  12. Leonardo da Vinci and the sinuses of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Robicsek, F

    1991-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that eddy currents generated by the sinuses of Valsalva play an important role in the physiologic closure of the aortic valve. This process is briefly discussed and evidence is presented that this fact was well known and elaborated upon by the renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci. This fact is illustrated with his words and drawings.

  13. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  14. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Steam Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.47Da Commercial... potential combustion concentration (80 percent reduction) for each 24-hour period of steam generator... owner or operator of a fluidized bed combustion electric utility steam generator (atmospheric...

  15. Infrared applications for portable devices using IrDA transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sanjay M.; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Tan, Wee S.

    2001-11-01

    The internet has been the mantra in last decade and digital convergence is the latest talk on the tech streets. Features that once clearly discerned a mobile phone from a PDA or a PDA from a laptop are being replaced with multi-functional overlapping features and there is a growing need for wireless access and interoperability. Infrared communications has been addressing these needs for quite some time. The technology has matured through standardization efforts of IrDA (Infrared Data Association) and is widely used in PDAs, mobile phones, laptops, printers and digital cameras to name a few. This paper explores some new application scenarios for an IrDA transceiver. The first part of the paper describes a reference architecture for using infrared wireless communication for MP3 file exchange and the various possible user models. The second part of the paper discusses various configurations for implementing an ambient light detection scheme using IrDA transceivers, to turn off the backlighting of a LCD panel of a PDA or mobile phone in the presence of ambient light. The third part of the paper discusses various techniques of enabling extended link distance operation of IrDA transceivers for toy and remote control applications.

  16. Training and Health. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) CYTOTRAIN (a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening); (2) Apollo (a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…

  17. Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

  18. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  19. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  20. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  1. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  2. The Potential da Vinci in All of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by…

  3. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combined cycle systems, either of the procedures described in paragraph (j)(1) or (2) of this section may... carbon dioxide (CO2)) and meet the requirements of § 60.49Da. Alternatively, data from a NOX emission... shall constitute the NOX emission rate from the duct burner of the combined cycle system. (k)...

  4. Da Que Hablar (Something To Talk About), 1991-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Que Hablar, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of all 14 issues of a bimonthly serial, from its inception in May 1991 through November 1993. "Da Que Hablar" provides numerous authentic materials from magazines and newspapers to stimulate discussion in Spanish in the foreign language classroom. The articles cover topics such as current events, cultural issues, sports,…

  5. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  6. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  7. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  8. The graying of academia: will it reduce scientific productivity?

    PubMed

    Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2010-10-01

    The belief that science is a young person's game and that only young scientists can be productive and publish high-quality research is still widely shared by university administrators and members of the scientific community. Since the average age of university faculties is increasing not only in the United States but also in Europe, the question arises as to whether this belief is correct. If it were valid, the abolition of compulsory retirement in the United States and some parts of Canada would lower the productivity of these university systems. To address this question, this article reviews research on the association of age and scientific productivity conducted during the last four decades in North America and Europe. Whereas early research typically showed a decline in productivity after the ages of 40 to 45 years, this decline has been absent in more recent studies. Explanations for this change are discussed.

  9. Business and Academia: Partners in New England's Economic Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, John C., Ed.; Bernstein, Melvin H., Ed.

    The relationship of higher education and the health of the economy is examined with emphasis on the rationale for change in some of the attitudes and policies within the New England higher education community that have prevailed during its 1945-1975 period of prosperity and growth, and prior to the 1976-1980 shift to steady state and no-growth…

  10. Networking Industry and Academia: Evidence from FUSION Projects in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Simon; Onofrei, George

    2009-01-01

    Graduate development programmes such as FUSION continue to be seen by policy makers, higher education institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as primary means of strengthening higher education-business links and in turn improving the match between graduate output and the needs of industry. This paper provides evidence from case…

  11. Water, Water, Everywhere: Defining and Assessing Data Sharing in Academia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sharing of research data has begun to gain traction in many areas of the sciences in the past few years because of changing expectations from the scientific community, funding agencies, and academic journals. National Science Foundation (NSF) requirements for a data management plan (DMP) went into effect in 2011, with the intent of facilitating the dissemination and sharing of research results. Many projects that were funded during 2011 and 2012 should now have implemented the elements of the data management plans required for their grant proposals. In this paper we define ‘data sharing’ and present a protocol for assessing whether data have been shared and how effective the sharing was. We then evaluate the data sharing practices of researchers funded by the NSF at Oregon State University in two ways: by attempting to discover project-level research data using the associated DMP as a starting point, and by examining data sharing associated with journal articles that acknowledge NSF support. Sharing at both the project level and the journal article level was not carried out in the majority of cases, and when sharing was accomplished, the shared data were often of questionable usability due to access, documentation, and formatting issues. We close the article by offering recommendations for how data producers, journal publishers, data repositories, and funding agencies can facilitate the process of sharing data in a meaningful way. PMID:26886581

  12. Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…

  13. Medical informatic research management in academia - the Danish setting.

    PubMed

    Kjær Andersen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The condition that the Danish universities have been subject to severe changes through the last decade has had huge consequences for management of research at the level of a discipline as Medical Informatics. The presentation pinpoints some of the instruments, which is on top of the management agenda in the new academic reality in Denmark. Performance contracts, organizational structure, general management, research constraints, ranking and performance issues, economy linked to production, ownership, and incitements are issues affecting the way research are done. The issue of effective research management is to navigate in this reality, ensure inspiration and influx from other environments dealing with medical informatics problems, in theory as well as in praxis - and shield the individual researcher from emerging bureaucracy, leaving room for creativity.

  14. From Resistance to Acceptance and Use of Technology in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Sofia Matrosova

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of faculty's resistance to use technology in higher education is the focus of this research as a secondary reading of the existing relevant research with the purpose of analyzing factors of resistance and finding the solutions. This paper is an excerpt from a Doctoral dissertation and is focused on the causes of resistance and…

  15. Similarity Attracts: An Analysis of Recruitment Decisions in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebken, Heinke

    2010-01-01

    The finding and the recruiting of scientists have been a long-standing issue in higher education. Due to the dearth of reliable evidence on scholarly potential at an early stage of a scientist's career, the hiring department often has to look for alternative assessment criteria. Drawing on the similarity-attraction theory, it is hypothesized that…

  16. Job-Sharing Couples in Academia: Career and Family Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikitka, Kathleen F.; Koblinsky, Sally A.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates careers and family life-styles of 20 job-sharing couples in faculty positions at 12 colleges. Information was gathered about the couples' reasons for becoming involved in job sharing, conditions of their employment, their division of professional and household labor, their satisfaction with the job-sharing arrangement, and their…

  17. Job-Sharing Couples in Academia: Administrative Policies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikitka, Kathleen Faith

    1984-01-01

    Examined existing administrative policies and procedures for academic job sharing for married couples in a survey of 12 institutions and 16 administrators. Results suggested growing consideration of job sharing by academic employers and pointed out advantages such as attracting high-quality faculty and extending faculty resources. (JAC)

  18. "A deep fragrance of academia": the Australian Tobacco Research Foundation

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Carter, S; Peters, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To review the history of the tobacco industry supported Australian Tobacco Research Foundation (ATRF)(1970–1994) for evidence of the industry's use of the Foundation to further its objectives that "more research was needed" on smoking and health and to promulgate the view that nicotine was not addictive. (2) To review efforts by public health advocates to discredit the ATRF as a public relations tool used by the Australian industry. Methods: Systematic search of previously internal industry documents released through the US Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The ATRF was headed by prestigious Australian medical scientists, with at least one considered by the industry to be "industry positive". An international ATRF symposium on nicotine was vetted by the industry and heavily attended by industry approved scientists. Following sustained criticism from the health and medical community about the industry's creation of the ATRF to further its objectives, the ATRF's scientific committee was provoked to publicly declare in 1988 that smoking was a causative agent in disease. This criticism led to growing ATRF boycotts by scientists and substandard applications, causing the industry to see the ATRF as being poor value-for-money and eventually abandoning it. Conclusions: The raison d'etre for the ATRF's establishment was to allow the Australian industry to point to its continuing commitment to independent medical research, with the implied corollary that tobacco control measures were premature in the face of insufficient evidence about tobacco's harms. Sustained criticism of tobacco industry funded research schemes can undermine their credibility among the scientific community. PMID:14645947

  19. Online Social Networking Issues Within Academia and Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Online social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online social networking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online social networking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an “e-professionalism” concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online social networking. PMID:18322572

  20. Social Media for Professional Development and Networking Opportunities in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The research reported on in this article explores the use of social media for work-related or professional purposes. In particular, it focuses on the perceptions and use of social media by academics in the UK. The purpose of the research was to explore the potential social media has to facilitate the changing landscape of higher education and…

  1. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  2. Liberties, Freedom and Autonomy: A Few Reflections on Academia's Estate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorens, Justin

    2006-01-01

    There are several reasons why the issues of academic freedom and university autonomy have re-emerged on the agenda in the last few years. First of all, there is the spiralling increase in the number of students since the end of the Second World War with, as its corollary, the explosion in most countries--whatever their political or social…

  3. E-Mail in Academia: Expectations, Use, and Instructional Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Meredith; Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The popularity of and reliance on emergent computer-mediated communication technologies such as instant messaging, blogs, and social networks have arguably widened the generation gap between faculty and traditional undergraduate students. Marc Prensky defined this generational technology divide by coining the terms "digital natives" and "digital…

  4. Multifunctional metal-organic frameworks: from academia to industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia; Vilela, Sérgio M F; Tomé, João P C; Almeida Paz, Filipe A

    2015-10-01

    After three decades of intense and fundamental research on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), is there anything left to say or to explain? The synthesis and properties of MOFs have already been comprehensively described elsewhere. It is time, however, to prove the nature of their true usability: technological applications based on these extended materials require development and implementation as a natural consequence of the up-to-known intensive research focused on their design and preparation. The current large number of reviews on MOFs emphasizes practical strategies to develop novel networks with varied crystal size, shape and topology, being mainly devoted to academic concerns. The present survey intends to push the boundaries and summarise the state-of-the-art on the preparation of promising (multi)functional MOFs in worldwide laboratories and their use as materials for industrial implementation. This review starts, on the one hand, to describe several tools and striking examples of remarkable and recent (multi)functional MOFs exhibiting outstanding properties (e.g., in gas adsorption and separation, selective sorption of harmful compounds, heterogeneous catalysis, luminescent and corrosion protectants). On the other hand, and in a second part, it intends to use these examples of MOFs to incite scientists to move towards the transference of knowledge from the laboratories to the industry. Within this context, we exhaustively review the many efforts of several worldwide commercial companies to bring functional MOFs towards the daily use, analysing the various patents and applications reported to date. Overall, this review goes from the very basic concepts of functional MOF engineering and preparation ending up in their industrial production on a large scale and direct applications in society.

  5. Faculty Members in Ad/PR Perceive Discrimination in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; Smith, Ron F.

    This study examined whether faculty in advertising and public relations feel they are being treated fairly in their departments and in the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC). A three-page questionnaire was mailed to 460 people belonging to either the Advertising Division or the Public Relations Division of the…

  6. From Equal to Equivalent Pay: Salary Discrimination in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Ester

    1977-01-01

    Examines the federal statutes barring sex discrimination in employment and argues that the work of any two professors is comparable but not equal. Suggests using regression analysis to prove salary discrimination and discusses the legal justification for adopting regression analysis and the standard of comparable pay for comparable work.…

  7. Academia, Chronic Care, and the Future of Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Most proposals to reform health care delivery center on a robust, well-designed primary care sector capable of reducing the health and cost consequences of major chronic illnesses. Ironically, the intensified policy interest in primary care coincides with a steep decline in the proportion of medical students choosing primary care careers. Negativity stemming from the experience of trying to care for chronically ill patients with complex conditions in poorly designed, chaotic primary care teaching settings may be influencing trainees to choose other career paths. Redesigning teaching clinics so that they routinely provide high quality, well-organized chronic care would appear to be a critical early step in addressing the looming primary care workforce crisis. The Chronic Care Model provides a proven framework for such a redesign, and has been, with organizational support and effort, successfully implemented in academic settings. PMID:20737241

  8. Ontological Relations and the Capability Maturity Model Applied in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Jerônimo Moreira; Campoy, Laura Gómez; Vilarino, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new approach to the discovery, identification and connection of ontological elements within the domain of characterization in learning organizations. In particular, the study can be applied to contexts where organizations require planning, logic, balance, and cognition in knowledge creation scenarios, which is the case for the…

  9. Doing Animist Research in Academia: A Methodological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Epistemologies, ontologies, and education based on colonial Eurocentric assumptions have made animism difficult to explicitly explore, acknowledge, and embody in environmental research. Boundaries between humans and the "natural world," including other animals, are continually reproduced through a culture that privileges rationality and the…

  10. Resilience to Social Bullying in Academia: A Phenomenological Study.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane; Beitz, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    While social bullying, negative workplace behaviors, and incivility are receiving scholarly attention, no research study could be identified targeting resilience to social bullying in nursing programs. This article describes a phenomenological study that investigated resilience to social bullying. Seventeen self-identified bullied nurse faculty were audiotaped. Colaizzi's method guided data analysis. Multiple themes reflected 3 chronologic periods: during bullying, decisional phase, and after bullying. Implications for the health and well-being of nursing faculty are posed.

  11. Women, Know Your Limits: Cultural Sexism in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savigny, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Despite the considerable advances of the feminist movement across Western societies, in Universities women are less likely to be promoted, or paid as much as their male colleagues, or even get jobs in the first place. One way in which we can start to reflect on why this might be the case is through hearing the experiences of women academics…

  12. From Marginalisation to Integration: Arab-Palestinians in Israeli Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Tamar; Jabareen, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The Arab-Palestinian minority in Israel, one-fifth of the country's population, has been underrepresented in Israeli institutions of higher education since the establishment of the state. This article focuses on the authors' shared aim of promoting diversity and multiculturalism in institutions of higher education in Israel. It first introduces…

  13. The Origins and Agenda of the Accuracy in Academia Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E.

    A careful look at the philosophy and programs of the reactionary right shows that prominent among their activities is an assault on freedom of thought and communication. The reactionary right does not believe in the democratic idea of accountability, recognizes that accountability depends upon information, and works unceasingly to keep that…

  14. Resistance Meets Spirituality in Academia: "I Prayed on It!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Vonzell; Karanxha, Zorka

    2012-01-01

    We describe the lived experiences of a Black Woman educational leader who has studied and worked in the academy and in the field of K-12 education. This partial life history, excavated through the tenets of Critical Race Theory (CRT), illuminates the social construction of race and the pervasiveness and permanence of racism. We determined through…

  15. Female Counselor Educators: Encouraging and Discouraging Factors in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nicole R.; Leinbaugh, Tracy; Bradley, Carla; Hazler, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The current study explores the encouraging and discouraging factors influencing female counselor educators. This study asked 115 female counselor educators to rate each of 91 items as to how encouraging or discouraging each item was to them as faculty members. The means and standard deviations were calculated for each of the 91 items of the PMBCE.…

  16. Who Gets Promoted? Gender Differences in Science and Engineering Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Kristen

    Using a nationally representative sample of doctoral academic scientists and engineers, this study examines gender differences in the likelihood of having tenure and senior faculty ranks after controlling for academic age, field, doctoral origins, employing educational institution, productivity, postdoctoral positions, work activities, and family characteristics. Logistic regressions show that many of these controls are significant; that biology and employment at comprehensive universities have a gender-specific advantage for women; and that postdoctoral positions, teaching instead of doing administrative work, and having children have a gender-specific disadvantage. Although the statistical methods employed here do not reveal the exact nature of how gender inequities in science and engineering careers arise, the author suggests that they exist.

  17. The Dynamics of Multidisciplinary Research Teams in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younglove-Webb, Julie; Gray, Barbara; Abdalla, Charles W.; Thurow, Amy Purvis

    1999-01-01

    Although multidisciplinary research teams are well-equipped to attack complex problems, actually succeeding in such endeavors is not easy. This paper explores problems that may arise in multidisciplinary research teams, develops a grounded theory, and offers suggestions to help teams reach their goals. It also offers advice to administrators for…

  18. Foot Soldier in Academia: Jacob C. Meyer, Historian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Lawrence E.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the life and beliefs of Jacob C. Meyer, a history teacher of the author. Suggests that although Meyer's lack of publication dooms him to be forgotten, he is in other ways a memorable person. Includes Meyer's education, experience as a conscientious objector during World War I, and efforts at reforming the Mennonite Church. (DK)

  19. Health, race, and academia in america: survival of the fittest?

    PubMed

    Spigner, C

    1990-01-01

    Health educators need to understand how the cultural environment of academe contributes to the problem of Black underrepresentation particularly in the health/academic professions. The issue of the public health of Blacks is linked to the levels of Black representation at the predominantly White institutions of higher education. Several points are articulated: 1) The health of African-Americans is inextricably influenced by socio-economic status, of which education attainment is a major factor; 2) Black scholars play a significant role in Black student matriculation, thus enhancing the well-being of Blacks as a group; and 3) Institutionalized racism is built upon a foundation of an individualistic ethic regarding university faculty promotions, which in turn provides a traditional advantage to White faculty and hinders Black faculty within White academic institutions. Unless the representation of Black faculty and students is increased, the 1990s is likely to exacerbate still further conditions of inequalities in health, academe, and society.

  20. Understanding "Whiteness" in Academia: A Black Woman's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.

    While a great deal of discussion has been generated regarding increased levels of student diversity, recruitment of minority faculty, and the diversification of college curricula, there has been far less written about the impact of white institutions on the psyches of ethnic minority faculty. This paper discloses one African-American female…

  1. Salary Structure Effects and the Gender Pay Gap in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.; Hughes, James W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the gender salary gap and discrimination based on the most recent national faculty survey data. New estimates for 1999 indicate that male faculty members still earn 20.7% more than comparable female colleagues. Depending upon which decomposition technique is employed, the portion of this gap attributable to…

  2. Online social networking issues within academia and pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Cain, Jeff

    2008-02-15

    Online social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online social networking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online social networking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an "e-professionalism" concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online social networking. PMID:18322572

  3. Faculty Members in Ad/PR Perceive Discrimination in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; Smith, Ron F.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys faculty in advertising and public relations. Finds that they feel treated fairly by their chairs, but unfairly by some colleagues in their departments as well as in other departments, and by the field's leading association. (SR)

  4. Attitudes to Gender Equality Issues in British and German Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a range of perceived similarities and differences between male and female academics in the context of contemporary European Union "gender mainstreaming" policy. It concentrates upon the higher education systems of Germany and the United Kingdom, and is based upon questionnaire responses. A large majority of respondents believe…

  5. Greening academia: Developing sustainable waste management at Higher Education Institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, N.; Williams, I.D.; Kemp, S.; Smith, N.F.

    2011-07-15

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are often the size of small municipalities. Worldwide, the higher education (HE) sector has expanded phenomenally; for example, since the 1960s, the United Kingdom (UK) HE system has expanded sixfold to >2.4 million students. As a consequence, the overall production of waste at HEIs throughout the world is very large and presents significant challenges as the associated legislative, economic and environmental pressures can be difficult to control and manage. This paper critically reviews why sustainable waste management has become a key issue for the worldwide HE sector to address and describes some of the benefits, barriers, practical and logistical problems. As a practical illustration of some of the issues and problems, the four-phase waste management strategy developed over 15 years by one of the largest universities in Southern England - the University of Southampton (UoS) - is outlined as a case study. The UoS is committed to protecting the environment by developing practices that are safe, sustainable and environmentally friendly and has developed a practical, staged approach to manage waste in an increasingly sustainable fashion. At each stage, the approach taken to the development of infrastructure (I), service provision (S) and behavior change (B) is explained, taking into account the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) factors. Signposts to lessons learned, good practice and useful resources that other institutions - both nationally and internationally - can access are provided. As a result of the strategy developed at the UoS, from 2004 to 2008 waste costs fell by around Pounds 125k and a recycling rate of 72% was achieved. The holistic approach taken - recognizing the PESTLE factors and the importance of a concerted ISB approach - provides a realistic, successful and practical example for other institutions wishing to effectively and sustainably manage their waste.

  6. Water, Water, Everywhere: Defining and Assessing Data Sharing in Academia.

    PubMed

    Van Tuyl, Steven; Whitmire, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    Sharing of research data has begun to gain traction in many areas of the sciences in the past few years because of changing expectations from the scientific community, funding agencies, and academic journals. National Science Foundation (NSF) requirements for a data management plan (DMP) went into effect in 2011, with the intent of facilitating the dissemination and sharing of research results. Many projects that were funded during 2011 and 2012 should now have implemented the elements of the data management plans required for their grant proposals. In this paper we define 'data sharing' and present a protocol for assessing whether data have been shared and how effective the sharing was. We then evaluate the data sharing practices of researchers funded by the NSF at Oregon State University in two ways: by attempting to discover project-level research data using the associated DMP as a starting point, and by examining data sharing associated with journal articles that acknowledge NSF support. Sharing at both the project level and the journal article level was not carried out in the majority of cases, and when sharing was accomplished, the shared data were often of questionable usability due to access, documentation, and formatting issues. We close the article by offering recommendations for how data producers, journal publishers, data repositories, and funding agencies can facilitate the process of sharing data in a meaningful way.

  7. What Academia Can Gain from Building a Data Warehouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierschem, David; McMillen, Jeremy; McBroom, Randy

    2003-01-01

    Describes how, when used effectively, data warehouses can be a significant component of strategic decision making on campus. Discusses what a data warehouse is and what its informational contents may include, environmental drivers and obstacles, and strategies to justify developing a data warehouse for an academic institution. (EV)

  8. Emotional Intelligence of Malaysian Academia towards Work Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngah, Rohana; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Rahman, Zanariah Abdul

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the research conducted in relating to emotional intelligence of university staff to work attitude. The Emotional Intelligence (EI) Scale devised by Schutte et al. (1998) is used in this study, which is more suitable compared to BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory. Beside their experiences, knowledge and skills, emotion play an…

  9. The SSCI Syndrome in Taiwan's Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chuing Prudence

    2014-01-01

    With the global expansion of higher education in the last two decades, the maintenance of academic quality to meet requirements for international competitiveness has become a critical issue for policymakers and universities. In addition, the neoliberal emphasis on the market has increased the competition for global university rankings, and this…

  10. Careers Other Than Academia EPA/AAAS Graduate Fellowship Expo

    EPA Science Inventory

    NCER invited Emilie to speak to the EPA STAR graduate fellows about her transition from graduate school into a postdoctoral position with the EPA. Discussion of what led Emilie to seek a position with the EPA, how she conducted her job search, and what qualities she thinks gradu...

  11. Constructing Fear in Academia: Neoliberal Practices at a Public College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dana-Ain

    2011-01-01

    Neoliberal values and ideology, which have broadly undermined social justice ideals, have been inserted into a range of public spheres both in the U.S.A. and internationally. Public higher education institutions have increasingly acquiesced to neoliberal strategies, which restrict access to public services, commodify the public sphere and…

  12. Academic Perceptions of Higher Education Assessment Processes in Neoliberal Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaper, Rille

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberal higher education reforms in relation to quality assurance, managerialist practices, accountability and performativity are receiving increasing attention and criticism. In this article, I will address student assessment as part of the technologies that increasingly govern academics and their work in universities. I will draw on…

  13. Knowledge Hiding in Academia: Is Personality a Key Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirkasimoglu, Nihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to analyze the knowledge hiding types of academicians and its relationship between personality traits. It was designed as a quantitative study. Data was gathered from 386 research assistants and assistant professors from Turkish universities. Knowledge hiding scale developed by Connelly, Zweig, Webster and Trougakos…

  14. Journalism's Status in Academia: A Candidate for Elimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; Carey, Arlen; Counts, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Examines the problems experienced with journalism and mass communication (JMC) programs in an era of retrenchment. Surveys 600 academicians from various disciplines. Finds that concerns of JMC educators are shared by colleagues in other disciplines; and that JMC programs seem more likely to be merged than eliminated. Suggests eight strategies for…

  15. Women "Opting out" of Academia: At What Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Beth Z.; Carden, William; Francisco, Alyson; Jones, Thomas O., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has examined the phenomenon of women "opting out" of the corporate environment. Much of this research has examined both "pull" factors--those of home and family life, and "push" factors--those within the organization which create a competitive environment where women feel they cannot achieve the same measure of success as their…

  16. The Imperative of Academia in the Globalization of Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Harry S; Bentz, Michael L; Baus, Gustavo Herdocia; Palacios, Jorge; Dibbell, David G; Noon, John; Poore, Samuel O; King, Timothy W; Mount, Delora L

    2015-06-01

    Although vertical health care delivery models certainly will remain a vital component in the provision of surgery in low-and-middle-income countries, it is clear now that the sustainability of global surgery will depend on more than just surgeons operating. Instead, what is needed is a comprehensive approach, that is, a horizontal integration that develops sustainable human resources, physical infrastructure, administrative oversight, and financing mechanisms in the developing world. We propose that such a strategy for development would necessarily involve an active role by academic institutions of high-income countries.

  17. Career Development in the Workplace: Academia and Industry Join Hands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag-Mutter, Priscilla

    Sinclair Community College (SCC) in Dayton, Ohio has designed a career development workshop for both hourly and salaried employees of Monarch Marking, Inc., to help the local industry to encourage its motivated employees to set and start working toward new career goals within the company. From 12 to 15 employees take part in each 16-hour,…

  18. Preparing physics students for careers outside of academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, Kendra; Czujko, Roman; Sauncy, Toni

    2014-03-01

    Most undergraduate physics programs focus on preparing students for physics graduate school, but in reality around 40% of physics bachelor's degree recipients go directly into the workforce. In response to calls for more STEM workers and a desire to see more students of all ambitions benefit from a physics education, the American Institute of Physics has been exploring how physics departments can better prepare their students to enter the STEM workforce after the bachelor's degree, and how students can better prepare themselves to enter the STEM workforce. This poster will include results from this NSF-funded Career Pathways Project, including an overview of common features of departments that successfully prepare students to enter the workforce and a career toolbox we have created for physics students. Work supported by NSF award 1011829.

  19. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Educational Needs in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brems, Christiane; Boschma-Wynn, Rachel V.; Dewane, Sarah L.; Edwards, Alexandra; Robinson, Rebecca Volino

    2011-01-01

    As many as 4.5 live births per 1000 are affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), preventable birth defects with life-long consequences. Prevention of FASDs is gaining in importance, and recruitment of diverse disciplines in delivering prevention to women of childbearing age is essential. This needs assessment explored to what extent…

  20. Feudalism and Academia: UK Academics' Accounts of Research Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge of research cultures in university education departments is still evolving, particularly in connection with the departments which have achieved a high ranking in the UK government's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), and also the conditions under which "knowledge workers" operate are under-researched, although this is beginning to…

  1. The Intellectuals' Migration: The Emigre's Conquest of American Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbut, Anthony

    1984-01-01

    A flow of scientists, artists, filmmakers, poets, historians, novelists, and philosophers driven into exile by Hitler were destined to change the tone of American culture. Some of the most productive work was done in academic settings specifically set up for refugee scholars. (MLW)

  2. High-throughput screening in academia: the Harvard experience.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ross L

    2003-12-01

    To identify small-molecule modulators of biologic systems, academic scientists are beginning to use high-throughput screening (HTS) approaches that have traditionally been used only in industry. The HTS laboratories that are being established in universities, while differing in details of staffing, equipment, and size, have all been created to attain 1 or more of 3 principal goals: drug discovery, chemical genetics, or training. This article will examine the role that these activities play in 4 HTS laboratories that have been created within the academic community of Harvard Medical School and its affiliated institutions. First, the 3 activities will be defined with special attention paid to describing the impact they are having on how academic biologic science is conducted today. Next, the histories and operations of the 4 Harvard laboratories are reviewed. In the course of these summaries, emphasis is placed on understanding the motivational role that the 3 activities initially played in the creation of the 4 Harvard facilities and the roles that the activities continue to play in their day-to-day operations. Finally, several concerns are identified that must be attended to for the successful establishment and operation of an academic biologic science that has yet to be fully determined. HTS has the ability to provide the tools to test previously untestable hypotheses and can thereby allow the discovery of the unanticipated and the truly novel.

  3. Greening academia: developing sustainable waste management at Higher Education Institutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Williams, I D; Kemp, S; Smith, N F

    2011-07-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are often the size of small municipalities. Worldwide, the higher education (HE) sector has expanded phenomenally; for example, since the 1960s, the United Kingdom (UK) HE system has expanded sixfold to >2.4 million students. As a consequence, the overall production of waste at HEIs throughout the world is very large and presents significant challenges as the associated legislative, economic and environmental pressures can be difficult to control and manage. This paper critically reviews why sustainable waste management has become a key issue for the worldwide HE sector to address and describes some of the benefits, barriers, practical and logistical problems. As a practical illustration of some of the issues and problems, the four-phase waste management strategy developed over 15 years by one of the largest universities in Southern England--the University of Southampton (UoS)--is outlined as a case study. The UoS is committed to protecting the environment by developing practices that are safe, sustainable and environmentally friendly and has developed a practical, staged approach to manage waste in an increasingly sustainable fashion. At each stage, the approach taken to the development of infrastructure (I), service provision (S) and behavior change (B) is explained, taking into account the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) factors. Signposts to lessons learned, good practice and useful resources that other institutions--both nationally and internationally--can access are provided. As a result of the strategy developed at the UoS, from 2004 to 2008 waste costs fell by around £125k and a recycling rate of 72% was achieved. The holistic approach taken--recognizing the PESTLE factors and the importance of a concerted ISB approach--provides a realistic, successful and practical example for other institutions wishing to effectively and sustainably manage their waste.

  4. The Dilemma of Inclusivity in the Globalization of Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castano Rodriguez, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the conversation started by Mariona Espinet, Mercè Izquierdo, Clara Garcia-Pujol; Ludovic Morge and Isabel Martins and Susana de Souza regarding the diverse issues faced by the internationalisation of science education journals. I use my own experience as an early career researcher coming from an underrepresented culture and…

  5. Reflections and Interpretations on Life in Academia: A Mentee Speaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkham, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Using personal autobiographical data collected over the course of an academic year, this article reflects the experiences of a new teacher educator entering higher education. Emergent patterns are examined and illuminated using the discourse of mentoring, and this discourse is, in turn, challenged, in part for the imbalance in the voices recorded,…

  6. Currere, Unexpected Journeys, and Unplanned Destinations in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    A sudden change of teaching placements forced my return to graduate school at the age of 40. Transformative graduate school learning resulted in the completion of a Ph.D. and earning a tenure track position in teacher education. This essay uses Pinar's four steps of currere provide a lens to examine the past, look toward the future, take…

  7. Programming Language Use in US Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Arfa Rabai, Latifa; Cohen, Barry; Mili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In the same way that natural languages influence and shape the way we think, programming languages have a profound impact on the way a programmer analyzes a problem and formulates its solution in the form of a program. To the extent that a first programming course is likely to determine the student's approach to program design, program analysis,…

  8. New psychoactive substances legislation in Ireland - Perspectives from academia.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Pierce V; Power, John D

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of 'legal highs' or 'new psychoactive substances' (NPS) on the Irish market is reflective of their appearance in many countries, with some notable exceptions. The official response to the situation is examined here by looking at Irish controlled drugs legislation and drug enforcement policies as enacted in recent years and their effects on academic research on NPS. The philosophy and practice of outright bans of scheduled substances has not been effective in delivering the stated aims of illicit drug control, namely harm reduction. With these legislative changes, we have witnessed the removal of the 'legitimate' sale and open marketing of a number of NPS to the general public in commercial retail premises. However, as legislation was enacted, suppliers and vendors rapidly changed the contents of their legal high products from now controlled to non-controlled substances. We have found that it is administratively challenging to perform scientific research on controlled substances at academic institutions. It is desirable to gather analytical, pharmacological, and toxicological data on these substances as they emerge on the market but due to the restrictive nature of licensing requirements, once a substance or generic class of substances is controlled, this becomes more difficult. The facts that any quantity of substance, no matter how small, is controlled, the nomenclature used to describe compounds is not consistent within the enacted legislation and the use of catch-all classes of compounds with the intention of controlling many similar molecular structures, all create problematic issues for academic researchers.

  9. Sex, Income, and Achievement: Reward-Dualism in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Mary Frank

    A report is presented on an analysis of sex factors in academic income variation as determined by achieved, ascribed, and university location characteristics. The study group consisted of 5450 individuals at a major midwestern university as of June 1971. The subjects included 4541 men and 908 women research assistants and associates, deans and…

  10. The Faculty Conjugated as Feminine: A Portrait of Portuguese Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Diana; Sa, Maria Jose; de Lourdes Machado-Taylor, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Portuguese higher education is changing, with a significant impact on academic careers, reinforcing the academic "estate." The focus of this paper is the analysis not only of the gender differences per se, but it also relates them to other variables such as the higher education subsystem, career positioning, the sociocultural background…

  11. Supercomputing in American Academia: The University of Illinois Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jarrett S.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Illinois' National Center for Supercomputing Applications, a cooperative effort of the National Science Foundation, University of Illinois, the state, and industry, offers training and support services in the use of technologically advanced computing for scientific research. The computers simulate physical phenomena that are…

  12. A Fish out of Water? Management Consultants in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano-Velarde, Kathia

    2010-01-01

    What happens when management consultants enter the academic arena and offer their services to universities? In the following article, we examine this question by drawing on findings from a qualitative study based on a series of 30 interviews with senior management consultants and academic managers in Germany. The aim of this explorative study is,…

  13. The New Carpetbaggers, Black Literature and Academia's Revolving Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, Sanford

    College English teachers today, in responding to black writers' demands for a forum, frequently resemble the old carpetbaggers, in that their teaching of black literature or composition reveals little or no background knowledge of the subject, with the course often being only a smoke screen for an informal study in something else. Such…

  14. Combining Academia and Activism: Common Obstacles and Useful Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Michael; Martin, Brian; Dreher, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Academics can engage in and contribute to activism in various ways. Some are involved in action groups on issues such as climate change and treatment of asylum seekers. Some undertake research and speak to the media about indigenous, environmental, gender and other issues. Others campaign on matters of concern within universities, including…

  15. Collaboration with academia in the development of post ovulatory methods.

    PubMed

    Thaler, G

    1999-12-01

    The 0.75-mg levonorgestrel-containing 'morning after' contraceptive tablet Postinor was developed by Gedeon Richter Ltd., Hungary. The product was first launched in 1979 and registered later in approximately 40 countries. In 1994, the World Health Organization offered the company participation in a multinational clinical trial to prove the superiority of the product over existing (Yuzpe-type) emergency contraceptive products. Based on these data the company was able to redesign the 'morning after' type Postinor into an 'emergency' pill, Postinor-2. During further clinical trials a close working relationship was formed between the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University in Szeged, Hungary, and Gedeon Richter. The advantages and challenges of cooperation between public- and private-sector institutions are analyzed in the paper.

  16. Medical academia clinical experiences of Ward Round Teaching curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Haghani, Fariba; Arabshahi, Seyed Kamran Soltani; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Alavi, Mousa; Omid, Athar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medical students spend most of their time in hospital wards and it is necessary to study clinical educational opportunities. This study was aimed to explore faculty members’ experience on Ward Round Teaching content. Methods and Materials: This qualitative study was conducted by purposive sampling with the maximum variation of major clinical departments faculty members in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (n = 9). Data gathering was based on deep and semi-structured interviews. Data gathering continued till data saturation. Data was analyzed through the Collaizzi method and validated. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of data (credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability) were employed (Guba and Lincoln). Results: Basic codes extracted from the analyzed data were categorized into two main themes and related subthemes, including (1) tangible teachings (analytic intelligence, technical intelligence, legal duties) and (2) implied teachings (professionalism, professional discipline, professional difficulties). Conclusion: Ward round teaching is a valuable opportunity for learners to learn not only patient care aspects but also ethical values. By appropriate planning, opportunities can be used to teach capabilities that are expected of general practitioners. PMID:24627858

  17. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  18. Roles and Delegation of Authority (R/DA) System

    SciTech Connect

    ABBOTT,JOHN P.; HUTCHINS,JAMES C.; SCHOCH,DAVID G.

    1999-11-01

    The processes of defining managerial roles and providing for delegation of authority are essential to any enterprise. At most large organizations, these processes are defined in policy manuals and through sets of standard operating procedures for many, if not all, business and administrative functions. Many of these staff-initiated, administrative functions require the routing of documents for approval to one or more levels of management. These employee-oriented, back office types of workflows tend to require more flexibility in determining to whom these documents should go to, while, at the same time, providing the responsible parties with the flexibility to delegate their approval authority or allow others to review their work. Although this practice is commonplace in manual, paper-based processes that exist in many organizations, it is difficult to provide the same flexibility in the more structured, electronic-based, workflow systems. The purpose of this report is to present a framework or architecture for creating a R/DA system and provide some insights associated with its design and utilization. To improve understanding and clarify subsequent discussion, the goals and requirements for the major R/DA system components, namely, the database and interface modules, are initially presented along with the identification of important concepts and the definition of critical terms. Next high-level functions relating the types of inputs to the outputs of the R/DA interface module are introduced and discussed. Then the relationships between the major R/DA modules and the primary components associated with its creation and maintenance are presented and analyzed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn relative to the advantages associated with developing a R/DA system for use in implementing an enterprise-wide, work-facilitating information system.

  19. 32 CFR 635.23 - DA Form 4833 (Commander's Report of Disciplinary or Administrative Action).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DA Form 4833 within 45 days of receipt. (1) Appropriate blocks will be checked and blanks annotated... the disposition on DA Form 4833 as appropriate. That portion of the signature block of DA Form 4833... the format and at the frequency specified by the supported commander....

  20. In vivo breakdown products of the 32 kDa thylakoid herbicide binding protein. [Spirodela oligorrhiza

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.M.; Mattoo, A.K.; Gaba, V.; Edelman, M.

    1986-04-01

    The 32 kDa herbicide binding protein of PSII is degraded rapidly in the light. This phenomenon was investigated in Spirodela oligorrhiza. When fronds were radiolabeled in the presence of cycloheximide only the chloroplast-encoded proteins were labeled. Under these conditions, a breakdown product of 23.5 kDa was observed. This polypeptide was further degraded with kinetics similar to that of the 32 kDa protein. The 23.5 kDa polypeptide cross-reacted with an antibody specific to the 32 kDa protein. By protease digestion it was determined that the 23.5 kDa polypeptide is the intact N-terminal piece of the 32 kDa protein. Thus, this product corresponds to the membrane anchor of the 32 kDa protein. Using the same antibody, breakdown products of 16 kDa, 14 kDa and 12 kDa were observed. These products have also been observed in Zea mays and Solanum nigrum. Using DCMU during pulse-chase experiments at different light intensities, evidence was obtained that the 23.5 kDa breakdown product is generated in vivo.

  1. Determinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade da função de luminosidade através de simulações de Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P. E.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os principais resultados do estudo da população de galáxias anãs de baixo brilho superficial dos grupos compactos HCG44 e HCG68. A inclinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade a da função de luminosidade desses grupos foi estimado através de simulações de Monte Carlo. O método consistiu em simular galáxias anãs de baixo brilho superficial em imagens reais seguindo uma distribuição de magnitudes dada uma função de Schechter. Foram testados vários modelos com diferentes valores para os parâmetros M* e a da função de Schechter, e para cada um dos modelos foi repetido o mesmo processo de recuperação, seleção e análise usados com as galáxias anãs dos grupos. Os resultados de cada modelo foram então comparados com o observado nos grupos. Nossos resultados indicam que a distribuição de magnitudes (para magnitudes absolutas até MR»-12) observadas nos grupos são compatíveis com uma função de luminosidade de Schechter dada por um M* = -16 e um a entre -1.0 e -1.4, e portanto de acordo com a tendência observada de uma inclinação do extremo de baixa luminosidade da função de luminosidade de grupos mais plana (~1.2, Trentham & Tully 2002, MNRAS, 335, 712) que esperado pelo modelo hierárquico de formação de estruturas CDM (Cold Dark Matter - Matéria Escura Fria).

  2. PanDaTox: a tool for accelerated metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2012-04-18

    Metabolic engineering is often facilitated by cloning of genes encoding enzymes from various heterologous organisms into E. coli. Such engineering efforts are frequently hampered by foreign genes that are toxic to the E. coli host. We have developed PanDaTox (www.weizmann.ac.il/pandatox), a web-based resource that provides experimental toxicity information for more than 1.5 million genes from hundreds of different microbial genomes. The toxicity predictions, which were extensively experimentally verified, are based on serial cloning of genes into E. coli as part of the Sanger whole genome shotgun sequencing process. PanDaTox can accelerate metabolic engineering projects by allowing researchers to exclude toxic genes from the engineering plan and verify the clonability of selected genes before the actual metabolic engineering experiments are conducted.

  3. [Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems. PMID:24946522

  4. A novel 29-kDa chicken heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Einat, M F; Haberfeld, A; Shamay, A; Horev, G; Hurwitz, S; Yahav, S

    1996-12-01

    The family of small heat shock proteins is the more variable among the highly conserved superfamily of heat shock proteins (HSP). Using a metabolic labeling procedure with tissue explants, we have detected in chickens a new member of the small HSP family with an apparent molecular weight of 29-kDa. This protein was induced in broiler chickens' heart muscle and lungs following an in vivo heat stress. The 29-kDa band appears after 3 h of heat stress, much later than the induction of HSP 90, HSP 70, and HSP 27. The late onset of induction suggests that HSP 29 plays a more specific role of a "second stage defense protein". PMID:9000279

  5. The Da Vinci code dynamically de-coded.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mariam

    2005-01-01

    The novel The Da Vinci Code, by Dan Brown has been on best-seller lists for over two years. An examination of Brown's previous novels reveals a well-designed plot line shared by all four novels that not only makes them good "thrillers" but also creates a mythological structure to the novels that draws on common unconscious fantasies in the same way that fairy tales do. One aspect of this mythological structure is the use of evil conspiracies (and benign ones as well) for the protagonist to overcome. In addition, The Da Vinci Code presents a religious theme involving legends about Mary Magdalene. This theme touches on the role of a feminine aspect to divinity in allowing for an erotic connection with the divine.

  6. TA-DA: A Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    We present the Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis (TA-DA), a new software aimed to greatly simplify and improve the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models, and allow the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. Its flexibility allows one to address a number of such problems: from the interpolation of stellar models, or sets of stellar physical parameters in general, to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units; from the analysis of observed color-magnitude diagrams to a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data. TA-DA is available as a pre-compiled Interactive Data Language widget-based application; its graphical user interface makes it considerably user-friendly. In this paper, we describe the software and its functionalities.

  7. TA-DA: A TOOL FOR ASTROPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    We present the Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis (TA-DA), a new software aimed to greatly simplify and improve the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models, and allow the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. Its flexibility allows one to address a number of such problems: from the interpolation of stellar models, or sets of stellar physical parameters in general, to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units; from the analysis of observed color-magnitude diagrams to a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data. TA-DA is available as a pre-compiled Interactive Data Language widget-based application; its graphical user interface makes it considerably user-friendly. In this paper, we describe the software and its functionalities.

  8. [Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems.

  9. 16-kDa prolactin and bromocriptine in postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Struman, Ingrid; Hoch, Melanie; Podewski, Edith; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-09-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially life-threatening heart disease emerging toward the end of pregnancy or in the first postpartal months in previously healthy women. Recent data suggest a central role of unbalanced peri-/postpartum oxidative stress that triggers the proteolytic cleavage of the nursing hormone prolactin (PRL) into a potent antiangiogenic, proapoptotic, and proinflammatory 16-kDa PRL fragment. This notion is supported by the observation that inhibition of PRL secretion by bromocriptine, a dopamine D2-receptor agonist, prevented the onset of disease in an animal model of PPCM and by first clinical experiences where bromocriptine seem to exert positive effects with respect to prevention or treatment of PPCM patients. Here, we highlight the current state of knowledge on diagnosis of PPCM, provide insights into the biology and pathophysiology of 16-kDa PRL and bromocriptine, and outline potential consequences for the clinical management and treatment options for PPCM patients.

  10. DA-9801 promotes neurite outgrowth via ERK1/2-CREB pathway in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Kyong Hoon; Back, Moon Jung; Ha, Hae Chan; Jang, Ji Min; Kim, Ha Hyung; Choi, Sang-Zin; Son, Miwon; Kim, Dae Kyong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effect of DA-9801 on neurite outgrowth. We found that DA-9801 elicits its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. DA-9801, an extract from a mixture of Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea nipponica, was reported to promote neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on cell viability and expression of neuronal markers were evaluated in PC12 cells. To investigate DA-9801 action, specific inhibitors targeting the ERK signaling cascade were used. No cytotoxicity was observed in PC12 cells at DA-9801 concentrations of less than 30 µg/mL. In the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF, 2 ng/mL), DA-9801 promoted neurite outgrowth and increased the relative mRNA levels of neurofilament-L (NF-L), a marker of neuronal differentiation. The Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 and MEK inhibitor PD98059 significantly attenuated DA-9801-induced neurite outgrowth. Additionally, the MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor SL327 significantly attenuated the increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells induced by DA-9801 treatment. Conversely, the selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor SB203580 did not attenuate the DA-9801 treatment-induced increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells. DA-9801 enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB in PC12 cells incubated with and without NGF. Pretreatment with PD98059 blocked the DA-9801-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB. In conclusion, DA-9801 induces neurite outgrowth by affecting the ERK1/2-CREB signaling pathway. Insights into the mechanism underlying this effect of DA-9801 may suggest novel potential strategies for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy.

  11. On the sexual intercourse drawings of Leonardo da Vinci.

    PubMed

    Morris, A G

    1986-04-12

    Leonardo da Vinci's marvellous anatomical drawings have been praised by both artists and medical historians over the centuries. Specific reference is made here to Leonardo's drawings of the act of sexual intercourse. It is shown that his illustrations are not based purely on original observation. Rather, they are an attempt to illustrate and clarify anatomy and physiology as presented in the textbooks of the time.

  12. Da Vinci's codex and the anatomy of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Borg, Keith

    2012-08-01

    We usually display a laid-back approach to medical jargon throughout our theatre work. The word 'perioperative' is built from the Greek word 'peri' (around) and the Latin 'operari' (to work). Latin and Greek became the prefixed language of choice for Leonardo da Vinci, and his research was pivotal in determining the way in which surgical procedures are documented. Ancient manuscripts aided the unfolding of the secrets of anatomy, and Leonardo revealed that art was the key in expressive detailed explanation.

  13. Is there any mantle plume beneath Tristan da Cunha?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloemer, A.; Geissler, W. H.; Jegen, M. D.; Jokat, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tristan da Cunha is a volcanic island in the South Atlantic located very close to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Generally, it is accepted to be the location of a mantle plume, which has been active at least since the breakup of Gondwana at 130 Ma, the time when the Paraná/Etendeka flood basalts were emplaced. Furthermore, it is associated with the formation of the Walvis Ridge and the Rio Grande Rise, and therefore it's one of the key examples of a hot spot track linking a flood basalt province to an active ocean island volcano. However, global tomography models are contradicting about the origin of Tristan da Cunha: Whether it is a deep mantle plume or caused by shallow plate tectonics. To gain a better understanding, we deployed 24 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers, 26 ocean-bottom electromagnetic stations and 2 seismological land stations in January 2012 with the German research vessel Maria S. Merian. We acquired continuous seismological data for one year and recovered the instruments in January 2013.We use cross-correlated travel time residuals of teleseismic earthquakes to perform a finite-frequency tomography to resolve the P wave velocity upper mantle structure beneath the island. Here we show our preliminary results of the 3-D velocity perturbations in the upper mantle: We do not image a plume-like structure directly beneath the island. Instead we observe a low velocity region in the southwest of our array that might be related to a local mantle upwelling (mantle plume). Additionally we show the local seismicity in the Tristan da Cunha region.Chen et al. and Baba et al. will present the first results on the magnetotelluric experiment and Ryberg et al. will present the crustal structure around the Tristan da Cunha hotspot.

  14. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  15. OpenDA-NEMO framework for ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Altaf, Muhammad Umer; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Data assimilation methods provide a means to handle the modeling errors and uncertainties in sophisticated ocean models. In this study, we have created an OpenDA-NEMO framework unlocking the data assimilation tools available in OpenDA for use with NEMO models. This includes data assimilation methods, automatic parallelization, and a recently implemented automatic localization algorithm that removes spurious correlations in the model based on uncertainties in the computed Kalman gain matrix. We have set up a twin experiment where we assimilate sea surface height (SSH) satellite measurements. From the experiments, we can conclude that the OpenDA-NEMO framework performs as expected and that the automatic localization significantly improves the performance of the data assimilation algorithm by successfully removing spurious correlations. Based on these results, it looks promising to extend the framework with new kinds of observations and work on improving the computational speed of the automatic localization technique such that it becomes feasible to include large number of observations.

  16. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  17. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts. PMID:26529894

  18. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts.

  19. Clostridium perfringens growth from spore inocula in sous-vide processed pork-based Mexican entrée.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Garcia, Denise Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Valenzuela-Melendrez, Martin; Díaz-Cinco, Martha E; Thippareddi, H; Aida Peña-Ramos, E

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of Citricidal wih irradiation on Clostridium perfringens growth from spores in a sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée was investigated. Citricidal was added at 200 or 800 ppm after mixing pork meat with tomatillo sauce and inoculated with 3 log(10) CFU/g of C. perfringens spores. Samples were irradiated at either 0 or 2 kGy, heated to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and stored at 4 degrees C for 28 d, 15 degrees C for 45 d, and 25 degrees C for 26 h. To simulate the conditions that may occur during transportation, distribution, storage, or handling in supermarkets or by consumers, the effect of static temperature abuse on C. perfringens growth was assessed by transferring samples stored at 4 to 25 degrees C for 13 and 15 h. Total C. perfringens populations were determined by plating diluted samples on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar. Growth was not observed up to 45 d of storage at 15 degrees C in samples supplemented with 800 ppm of Citricidal. At 25 degrees C, no significant differences (P > 0.05) on the lag phase duration due to antimicrobial treatments was observed. The temperature abuse of refrigerated products for up to 15 h did not lead to C. perfringens growth to high infective dose levels of 1 million cells required to cause food poisoning. The results suggest that 800 ppm Citricidal can have significant bacteriostatic activity against C. perfringens and may provide a degree of protection against this pathogen in sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée, under mild temperature abuse (

  20. Determinação da composição química em nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.; Maciel, W. J.

    2003-08-01

    Existe um gradiente radial de abundâncias no disco galáctico, cujo comportamento é razoavelmente bem conhecido para distâncias galactocêntricas entre 3 e 10 kpc. Foi obtido a partir de resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias, regiões HII e estrelas, como as estrelas quentes de tipo O, B e aglomerados abertos. Com o objetivo de investigar o comportamento deste gradiente radial na região externa do disco, conhecida como anticentro galáctico, reportamos aqui os resultados finais da análise de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro, observadas no LNA e no ESO entre 1995 e 2000. O uso de nebulosas planetárias permite o cálculo das abundâncias de elementos traçadores da evolução química do disco como oxigênio, argônio e neônio com o uso de técnicas de espectroscopia nebular. Os resultados indicam uma distribuição de abundâncias distinta daquela encontrada na vizinhança solar, mostrando que o gradiente radial diminui sensivelmente para distâncias galactocêntricas maiores que 10 kpc. Este resultado está de acordo com os mais recentes modelos de evolução química do disco, que prevêem uma diminuição ou mesmo um desaparecimento do gradiente radial no bordo externo do disco galáctico. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  1. Teaching and Popularization of Astronomy in Latin America by the Liada Perspective. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza y Divulgación de la Astronomía en la América Latina en la Perspectiva de la Liada.) Ensino e Divulgação da Astronomia na América Latina na Perspectiva da Liada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio

    2008-12-01

    disponibilizados en la página de la Sección, faz-se una análisis y discusión sobre la importancia de tales relatos para finalidades educacionales. Es presentada una Hoja de reporte elaborado como sugestión para presentación de relatos por parte de individuos y instituciones ben como discutida la importancia de la sistematización de experiencias visando mayor visibilidad y cambio de informaciones en el área. Concluí con una evaluación de los proyectos, su potencial y limitaciones, ben como sugestiones de proyectos futuros visando mayor interacción entre los países de la América Latina y tornando disponible la Sección para esta finalidad.

    Esse trabalho visa divulgar e analisar as atividades da Seção de Ensino e Divulgação de Astronomia (SEDA) da Liga Iberoamericana de Astronomia (LIADA). Após um histórico da LIADA, são apresentados os diversos projetos da Seção que conta com a colaboração de coordenadores locais na maioria dos países da América Latina. São apresentados os projetos que visam chamar a atenção do público em geral, estudantes e professores para a observação do céu e posterior envio de relatos para colocação na página da Seção na Internet. Mais especificamente são analisados os projetos e relatos relacionados aos eclipses ocorridos desde o ano 2000. Utilizando-se os arquivos disponibilizados na página da Seção, faz-se uma análise e discussão sobre a importância de tais relatos para finalidades educacionais. É apresentado um formulário elaborado como sugestão para apresentação de relatos por parte de indivíduos e instituições bem como discutida a importância da sistematização de experiências visando maior visibilidade e troca de informações na área. Conclui com uma avaliação dos projetos, seu potencial e limitações, bem como sugestões de projetos futuros visando maior interação entre os países da América Latina e tornando disponível a Seção para esta finalidade.

  2. Reconstitution of surfactant activity by using the 6 kDa apoprotein associated with pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, S H; Possmayer, F

    1986-01-01

    Lipid extracts of bovine pulmonary surfactant containing the 6 kDa apoprotein, but lacking the 35 kDa apoprotein, can mimic the essential characteristics of pulmonary surfactant on a pulsating-bubble surfactometer. Reconstituted surfactant can be produced by combining silicic acid fractions containing 6 kDa apoprotein and phosphatidylglycerol with phosphatidylcholine. Treatment of the protein-containing fraction with proteolytic enzymes abolishes its efficacy. These results indicate that the presence of the 6 kDa apoprotein can account for some of the essential physical and biological characteristics of pulmonary surfactant. Immunodiffusion studies indicate that, contrary to earlier suggestions, the 6 kDa apoprotein is not structurally related to the major surfactant apoprotein that has a molecular mass of 35 kDa. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3098235

  3. Accumulation of 23 kDa lipocalin during brain development and injury in Hyphantria cunea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Ja; Je, Hyun Jeong; Cheon, Hyang Mi; Kong, Sun Young; Han, JikHyun; Yun, Chi Young; Han, Yeon Su; Lee, In Hee; Kang, Young Jin; Seo, Sook Jae

    2005-10-01

    The cDNA corresponding to a novel lipocalin was identified from the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea. This lipocalin cDNA encodes a 194 residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 23 kDa. Sequence analyses revealed that the 23 kDa lipocalin cDNA is most similar to Drosophila lazarillo, human apolipoprotein D, and Bombyrin. Northern blot analyses showed that 23 kDa lipocalin transcript is expressed in the whole body only in 4- and 6-day-old pupae. By Western blot analysis it was confirmed that 23 kDa lipocalin is mainly accumulated in brain and subesophageal ganglion, though it is detected in a small amount in fat body and epidermis of Hyphantria cunea. The accumulation of 23 kDa lipocalin in brain tissue was upregulated in response to injury. The putative function of 23 kDa lipocalin in brain is discussed.

  4. An epidemic of influenza on Tristan da Cunha.

    PubMed

    Mantle, J; Tyrrell, D A

    1973-03-01

    Respiratory disease on Tristan da Cunha has been observed since the islanders returned in 1962. An epidemic of unprecedented severity occurred in the winter of 1971 and involved 273 (96%) of 284 islanders, 92 of whom had two attacks.The epidemic was apparently introduced by the Tristania.The illness of both first and second attacks ranged from mild to severe but there were some differences. There were two deaths, both in elderly persons with chronic chest disease and heart failure. Serological evidence suggests that this was due to influenza A2 of the Hong Kong serotype H(3)N(2).

  5. An epidemic of influenza on Tristan da Cunha

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, John; Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Respiratory disease on Tristan da Cunha has been observed since the islanders returned in 1962. An epidemic of unprecedented severity occurred in the winter of 1971 and involved 273 (96%) of 284 islanders, 92 of whom had two attacks. The epidemic was apparently introduced by the Tristania. The illness of both first and second attacks ranged from mild to severe but there were some differences. There were two deaths, both in elderly persons with chronic chest disease and heart failure. Serological evidence suggests that this was due to influenza A2 of the Hong Kong serotype H3N2. PMID:4511951

  6. TA-DA: A Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-10-01

    TA-DA is a pre-compiled IDL widget-based application which greatly simplifies and improves the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models and allows the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. It is flexible and can address a number of problems, from the interpolation of stellar models or sets of stellar physical parameters in general to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units. It also analyzes observed color-magnitude diagrams and allows a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data.

  7. Leonardo da Vinci and Kethem-Kiveris vena.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Antonín; Skorepova-Honzlova, Zita; Jelen, Karel

    2012-01-01

    In the drawing of coitus by Leonardo da Vinci are pictured the contemporary hypotheses regarding this act. The authors analyze the mamillaruteral connection depicted by the artist and grow up to believe that this is a hypothetical kiveris vena, female vein described by Anatomist Master Nicolai Physicus from the Salerno School. The Hebrew roots were found in the name. The connection is described also by Mondino in The Anathomia. The same connection can be found in the picture of the pregnant woman in Fasciculus Medicinæ by Johannes De Ketham.

  8. LEONARDO DA VINCI AND THE ORIGIN OF SEMEN.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-12-20

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy.

  9. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

  10. High Resolution EUV & FUV Spectroscopy of DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Good, S. A.; Bannister, N. P.; Burleigh, M. R.; Holberg, J. B.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.

    We report on recent results from a high-resolution spectroscopic survey of hot DA white dwarfs, based on IUE, FUSE and HST observations. For the first time, we address the measurement of element abundances in a completely objective manner with a spectroscopic model fitting technique, which allows us to consider formally the limits that can be placed on abundances in stars where no heavy elements are detected. We also include our latest analysis of the high resolution EUV spectrum of G191-B2B recorded by J-PEX.

  11. Leonardo da Vinci and the origin of semen

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy. PMID:27494016

  12. Josephson D/A converter with fundamental accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, C.A.; Burroughs, C.J.; Kautz, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    A binary sequence of series arrays of shunted Josephson junctions is used to make a 14-bit D/A converter. With thirteen bias lines any step number in the range -8192 to +8192 (1.2 to -1.2 V) can be selected in the time required to stabilize the bias current (a few microseconds). The circuit makes possible the digital synthesis of very-accurate ac wave-forms whose amplitude derives directly from the internationally accepted definition of the volt.

  13. Identification of sequence similarity between 60 kDa and 70 kDa molecular chaperones: evidence for a common evolutionary background?

    PubMed Central

    Flores, A I; Cuezva, J M

    1997-01-01

    Recent findings support the premise that chaperonins (60 kDa stress-proteins) and alpha-subunits of F-type ATPases (alpha-ATPase) are evolutionary related protein families. Two-dimensional gel patterns of synthesized proteins in unstressed and heat-shocked embryonic Drosophila melanogaster SL2 cells revealed that antibodies raised against the alpha-subunit of the F1-ATPase complex from rat liver recognize an inducible p71 member of the 70 kDa stress-responsive protein family. Molecular recognition of this stress-responsive 70 kDa protein by antibodies raised against the F1-ATPase alpha-subunit suggests the possibility of partial sequence similarity within these ATP-binding protein families. A multiple sequence alignment between alpha-ATPases and 60 kDa and 70 kDa molecular chaperones is presented. Statistical evaluation of sequence similarity reveals a significant degree of sequence conservation within the three protein families. The finding suggests a common evolutionary origin for the ATPases and molecular chaperone protein families of 60 kDa and 70 kDa, despite the lack of obvious structural resemblance between them. PMID:9065788

  14. Soil Quality Indicators to Define Land Use in the Area of Native Forest of Entre Ríos, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M. G.; Tasi, H. A.; Paz González, A.; Díaz, E. L.; Sasal, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The main economic activity in the area of native forest of the province of Entre Ríos (Argentina) has long been the agricultural and/or livestock production, especially cattle breeding. In recent years, the proportion of agricultural crops in the rotations, especially that of soybean, has increased, thus leading to an increase in the need for land clearing to incorporate new lands for agricultural use. Most of these lands are considered marginal for agricultural use. In addition rice farming with irrigation is a critical part of the Entre Ríos economy. Defining and assessing soil quality indicators (SQI) that show the evolution of the soil with different uses and management systems is a way to contribute to the knowledge of soil quality. The aims of this study were to characterize the current land use and land tenure in the area of native forest of Entre Ríos, as well as to identify and select variables sensitive to agricultural and/or livestock use of the most representative soils of this area (indicators of the dynamic quality of the soil) and define the most appropriate land use according to land suitability and behavior of these indicators. We identified the most representative soil subgroups (corresponding to the orders Vertisols, Mollisols and Alfisols) and defined the production systems livestock-agricultural, agricultural-livestock, agricultural without irrigation, and rice crop irrigated with water from groundwater and surface reservoirs. We also determined the physical, physico-chemical, chemical and microbiological variables of the soil, and characterized the quality of the water for irrigation. We selected the SQI using Principal Components Analysis, to form a minimum data set (MDS). The change in the use of the land responded to a favorable economic situation for agriculture that started in the 1990's. The leasing and sharecropping schemes and the incidental contracts have become increasingly important, predominating over the undivided property. We

  15. Competition entre les phases ferromagnetique metallique et ordre de charges a l'interface de manganites a magnetoresistance colossale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverdiere, Jonathan

    Dans la these qui suit, l'interaction entre deux manganites a magnetoresistance colossale domines par des phases antagonistes est etudiee a l'interface de bicouches. Un manganite isolant anti-ferromagnetique presentant une phase d'ordre de charges a basse temperature et un manganite metallique domine par les interactions ferromagnetiques. L'objectif est de verifier si l'interaction entre ces deux manganites est susceptible de soit 1) affaiblir la stabilite de l'ordre de charges ou soit 2) de rendre la phase metallique plus resistive afin d'ameliorer les proprietes de magnetoresistance colossale. Deux series de bicouches ont ete preparees par depot par ablation laser pulse et analysees avec une combinaison de plusieurs methodes experimentales telles que la mesure de resistance electrique, la spectroscopie Raman, la mesure d'aimantation et la diffraction des rayons X. Dans la premiere serie de bicouches, la configuration utilisee consiste en une couche tampon ferromagnetique sur laquelle une couche de manganite a ordre de charges est deposee. Il s'est avere que la phase d'ordre de charges n'est pas destabilisee par la phase ferromagnetique metallique dans une couche d'ordre de charges aussi mince que 10 nm. Les mesures de resistance montrent que la phase isolante demeure difficile a rendre metallique sous l'application d'un champ magnetique. La spectroscopie Raman montre egar lement une phase d'ordre de charges tres stable et suggere que les contraintes mecaniques appliquees par la couche tampon sont responsables de cette stabilite, malgre la presence de la phase ferromagnetique a proximite. Dans la deuxieme serie de bicouches, la configuration utilisee consiste en une couche tampon presentant de l'ordre de charges sur laquelle une couche ferromagnetique metallique est deposee. La diminution de l'epaisseur de la couche ferromagnetique metallique se repercute sur une diminution de la temperature de Curie et de la transition metal-isolant. Entre 4 et 5 nm, la

  16. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction. PMID:27155501

  17. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA workload management system for exascale computational science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.; Yu, D.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of PanDA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools.

  18. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction.

  19. Effect of grapefruit seed extract on thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during sous-vide processing of two marinated Mexican meat entrées

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D and z values of Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200 and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples, inoculated with L.monoc...

  20. A Process Evaluation of an Efficacious Family-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating: The "Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmied, Emily; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy; Ibarra, Leticia; Ayala, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    "Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud" was a successful family-based randomized controlled trial designed to improve dietary behaviors and intake among U.S. Latino families, specifically fruit and vegetable intake. The novel intervention design merged a community health worker ("promotora") model with an entertainment-education…

  1. State of Conservation of the Native Forests in Entre Ríos (Argentina) and Changes in Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabattini, R. A.; Sione, S. M.; Ledesma, S. G.; Sabattini, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The native forest area of Entre Ríos province (Argentina) is associated with a constant change in land use, with an increase in recent years in agricultural use, especially for soybean crop. In addition, since its inadequate management has triggered degradation processes of the natural forest structure, the implementation of strategies for the restoration and conservation of native forests has become a priority. The aim of this study was to diagnose the conservation state of the native forest in the basin of the Estacas Stream (Entre Ríos, Argentina) after the change in land use, to help design guidelines for the restoration and sustainable management of these ecosystems. The field study was conducted in October 2010, in a representative area of the native forest of 73,000 ha. Using Landsat 5-TM images (INPE), environments were separated by manual vectorization, identifying and classifying native forests and other lands (agricultural, urban). Using a field exploratory survey (58 geo-referenced sampling points), we developed patterns corresponding to the different types of forests, contrasting this information with the digital data of the images. The native forests were classified according to type (high/low forest, open/closed forest, savanna), successional stage (climax, successional or regeneration forest) and degree of disturbance (weed growth, erosion, fire), and their frequency determined. Each classification was assessed by a contingency matrix, and global reliability index and the Kappa index. The information obtained generated a classification map of native forests in the basin scale. We found that the native forest covered an area of 42,726.91 ha, accounting for 58.52% of the total basin area, and that the rest corresponded to other land uses. The most frequent native forests (59.09%) were climax forest, but accounted for only 8.2% of the basin area. Within this group, the most important were the low and open forest, with Prosopis affinis and Prosopis

  2. Chandra Confirmation of a Pulsar Wind Nebula in DA 495

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Safi-Harb, S.; Landecker, T.L.; Kothes, R.; Camilo, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a multiwavelength study of the unusual radio supernova remnant DA 495, we present observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis confirms the previously detected X-ray source at the heart of the annular radio nebula, establishing the radiative properties of two key emission components: a soft unresolved source with a blackbody temperature of 1 MK consistent with a neutron star, surrounded by a nontherma1 nebula 40" in diameter exhibiting a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 1.63, typical of a pulsar wind nebula. Morphologically, the nebula appears to be slightly extended along a direction, in projection on the sky, previously demonstrated to be of significance in radio and ASCA observations; we argue that this represents the orientation of the pulsar spin axis. At smaller scales, a narrow X-ray feature is seen extending out 5" from the point source, but energetic arguments suggest that it is not the resolved termination shock of the pulsar wind against the ambient medium. Finally, we argue based on synchrotron lifetimes in the nebular magnetic field that DA 495 represents the first example of a pulsar wind nebula in which electromagnetic flux makes up a significant part, together with particle flux, of the neutron star's wind.

  3. DA/DSM{trademark} focuses on utility restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, E.

    1995-03-01

    Debate about restructuring the electric industry and the proposal for retail wheeling in California dominated discussion at DA/DSM `95, the fifth annual symposium on distribution automation and demand-side management. The basic goal is to introduce competition and reduce costs by providing choices for consumers between regulated utilities and direct contracts with other providers. All customers will have some means of direct access to outside generation sources. However, for residential customers, direct access will probably come through an aggregation of interests. Focusing on the future of demand-side management, there is concern that California`s restructuring may spell doom for DSM. DSM spending has declined over the past year and a major question raised was the fate of uneconomic DSM, environmental, renewable and other social programs. There was great interest at DA/DSM `95 in sessions devoted to electric utility activity on the information superhighway, loosely defined as methods to improve communications between customers and utilities. Several projects are described.

  4. A PEG-DA microfluidic device for chemotaxis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz Traore, Mahama; Behkam, Bahareh

    2013-08-01

    The study of cells in a well-defined and chemically programmable microenvironment is essential for a complete and fundamental understanding of the cell behaviors with respect to specific chemical compounds. Flow-free microfluidic devices that generate quasi-steady chemical gradients (spatially varying but temporally constant) have been demonstrated as effective chemotaxis assay platforms due to dissociating the effect of chemical cues from mechanical shear forces caused by fluid flow. In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of a flow-free microfluidic platform made of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogel. We have demonstrated that the mass transport properties of these devices can be customized by fabricating them from PEG-DA gels of four distinct molecular weights. In contrast to microfluidic devices developed using soft lithography; this class of devices can be realized using a more cost-effective approach of direct photopolymerization with fewer microfabrication steps. This microfluidic platform was tested by conducting a quantitative study of the chemotactic behavior of Escherichia coli (E. coli) RP437, a model microorganism, in presence of the chemo-effector, casamino-acids. Using the microfabrication and characterization methodology presented in this work, microfluidic platforms with well-defined and customizable diffusive properties can be developed to accommodate the study of a wide range of cell types.

  5. D-A and D-2 dopamine receptor function in the rabbit retina: a model for the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Hensler, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were done investigating the effect of the synaptic concentration of the transmitter DA, modified by changes in the frequency of electrical field stimulation and by the DA uptake inhibitor nomifensine, on the modulation of /sup 3/H-DA release by D-2 DA autoreceptors and by melatonin receptor sites. At lower synaptic concentrations of the transmitter dopamine, D-2 DA receptor agonists were more potent, while antagonists were more potent when the synaptic concentration of transmitter was higher. The potency of melatonin to inhibit DA release was not altered by the frequency of field stimulation of by frequency-dependent changes in the synaptic concentration of the transmitter.

  6. 28 kDa adenosine-binding proteins of brain and other tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Ravid, K; Rosenthal, R A; Doctrow, S R; Lowenstein, J M

    1989-01-01

    Membranes prepared from calf brain were solubilized and chromatographed on a column containing 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine covalently linked to agarose through the 5'-amino group. When the column was eluted with adenosine, a pure protein emerged with subunit molecular mass of 28 kDa. The protein was extracted from the membranes with sodium cholate, but not with 100 microM-adenosine or 0.5 M-NaCl. A similar 28 kDa protein was isolated from the soluble fraction of calf brain. The yield of membrane-bound and soluble 28 kDa protein per gram of tissue was about the same. The 28 kDa protein was also found in membrane and soluble fractions of rabbit heart, rat liver and vascular smooth muscle from calf aorta. The yield per gram of tissue fell into the order brain greater than heart approximately vascular smooth muscle greater than liver for the 28 kDa protein from the membrane fraction, and brain approximately heart greater than vascular smooth muscle greater than liver for the 28 kDa protein from the soluble fraction. Polyclonal antibodies to pure 28 kDa protein from calf brain membranes cross-reacted with the 28 kDa protein from calf brain soluble fraction and with 28 kDa proteins isolated from other tissues. The 28 kDa protein from calf brain membranes was also eluted from the affinity column by AMP and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, but at a concentration higher than that at which adenosine eluted the protein, but N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, ADP, ATP, GTP, NAD+, cyclic AMP and inosine failed to elute the protein at concentrations up to 1 mM. The 28 kDa protein from the soluble fraction was not eluted by 3 mM-AMP or 1 mM-N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine,-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine or -cyclic AMP. Unexpectedly, the soluble 28 kDa protein was eluted by AMP in the presence of sodium cholate. Soluble 28 kDa protein from calf brain had a KD for adenosine of 12 microM. Membrane 28 kDa protein from calf brain had a KD of 14 microM in the

  7. Natural co-occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feeds from Entre Ríos, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Monge, M P; Dalcero, A M; Magnoli, C E; Chiacchiera, S M

    2013-01-01

    A total of 120 pelleted poultry feed samples from Entre Ríos Province, Argentina, were evaluated. The aims were to investigate (1) the presence of relevant toxigenic fungi, as well as to determine the ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) by Aspergillus section Flavi isolated strains; and (2) the natural co-occurrence of AFs, fumonisins (FBs), gliotoxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 and T-2 toxin by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Total fungal counts were below the established value (1 × 10⁴ CFU g⁻¹). Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were the only aflatoxigenic species isolated. Co-occurrence of fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), HT-2 and T-2 toxin was detected in 100% of the feeds, with mean levels from 4502 to 5813; 6.7 to 21.6 and 19.6 to 30.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. A large number of starter samples were co-contaminated with aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), FB₁, HT-2 and T-2 toxins. Gliotoxin and DAS were not found in this survey.

  8. Análisis de la correlación espacio-temporal entre ondas EIT y ondas Moreton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgazzi, A.; Rovira, M.; Stenborg, G.

    Observaciones de la atmósfera solar en distintas longitudes de onda han demostrado la presencia de fenómenos ondulatorios, tanto a nivel cromosférico como coronal. En el primero de los casos a las ondas observadas se las dió por llamar ondas Moreton, mientras que en el segundo ondas EIT. En el presente trabajo se abordará el estudio de la posible relación causal entre ambos fenómenos ondulatorios. Para concretar dicha meta se hará uso de un conjunto de observaciones del disco solar en Hα (para la determinación y análisis de las ondas Moreton) y en Fe XII (para la determinación y análisis de las ondas EIT). Los observables que se midan serán luego usados para la interpretación física del fenómeno en base a modelos teóricos existentes.

  9. Axonal patterns and targets of dA1 interneurons in the chick hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Ayelet; Hadas, Yoav; Klar, Avihu; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2012-04-25

    Hindbrain dorsal interneurons that comprise the rhombic lip relay sensory information and coordinate motor outputs. The progenitor dA1 subgroup of interneurons, which is formed along the dorsal-most region of the caudal rhombic lip, gives rise to the cochlear and precerebellar nuclei. These centers project sensory inputs toward upper-brain regions. The fundamental role of dA1 interneurons in the assembly and function of these brainstem nuclei is well characterized. However, the precise en route axonal patterns and synaptic targets of dA1 interneurons are not clear as of yet. Novel genetic tools were used to label dA1 neurons and trace their axonal trajectories and synaptic connections at various stages of chick embryos. Using dA1-specific enhancers, two contralateral ascending axonal projection patterns were identified; one derived from rhombomeres 6-7 that elongated in the dorsal funiculus, while the other originated from rhombomeres 2-5 and extended in the lateral funiculus. Targets of dA1 axons were followed at later stages using PiggyBac-mediated DNA transposition. dA1 axons were found to project and form synapses in the auditory nuclei and cerebellum. Investigation of mechanisms that regulate the patterns of dA1 axons revealed a fundamental role of Lim-homeodomain (HD) proteins. Switch in the expression of the specific dA1 Lim-HD proteins Lhx2/9 into Lhx1, which is typically expressed in dB1 interneurons, modified dA1 axonal patterns to project along the routes of dB1 subgroup. Together, the results of this research provided new tools and knowledge to the assembly of trajectories and connectivity of hindbrain dA1 interneurons and of molecular mechanisms that control these patterns.

  10. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes s

  11. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  14. 40 CFR 60.44Da - Standard for nitrogen oxides (NOX).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for nitrogen oxides (NOX). 60.44Da Section 60.44Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... for nitrogen oxides (NOX). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test...

  15. A Proposal to Build Evaluation Capacity at the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.

    2005-01-01

    The author describes potential evaluation capacity-building activities in contrast to the specifics of an evaluation design. Her response to the case of the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy is developed in three parts: (1) an initial framing of the Bunche-Da Vinci situation; (2) what should be done before signing a contract; and (3)…

  16. Expression and purification of 15 kDa granulysin utilizing an insect cell secretion system.

    PubMed

    Finn, Michael W; Clayberger, Carol; Krensky, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    Granulysin is an antimicrobial and proinflammatory protein expressed in activated human T cells and natural killer cells. A single mRNA produces the 15 kDa isoform which is then cleaved at the amino and carboxy termini to produce the 9 kDa isoform. Recombinant 9 kDa granulysin has been studied in detail but little is known about the function of the 15 kDa isoform, and no protocol has been published describing expression and purification of this form. Two commercially available preparations of the recombinant 15 kDa granulysin contain tags that may affect function. Here we describe for the first time a method to produce 15 kDa granulysin as a secreted protein from insect cells. The 15 kDa granulysin is purified using a HiTrap Heparin column and a Resource S column. A typical a yield of purified 15 kDa granulysin is 0.6 mg/L of insect cell supernatant.

  17. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form...

  19. A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaucer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    "A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  1. Paśu Ayurvĕda (veterinary medicine) in Garudapurăņa.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The history of veterinary medicine is closely tied to the development of human medicine. Evidence of animal medicine has been found in ancient civilizations, such as those of the Hindu, Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. Ancient Indian literature in the form of the holy Vĕda, Purăna, Brăhmaņa, epics, etc. is flooded with information on animal care. The Purăņa are ancient scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God and his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurvĕda, Jyŏtişa (Astrology), cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. The treatment of animal diseases using Ayurvedic medicine has been mentioned in Garudapurăna, Agnipurăņa, Atri-samhită, Matsyapurăņa and many other texts. The Garudapurăņa is one of the important Săttvika purăna, the subject matter is divided into two parts, viz. Pŭrvakhaņda (first part) and an Uttarakhaņda (subsequent part). Gavăyurvĕda, Gajăyurvĕda narrated briefly and Aśvăyurvĕda described detailly in Pŭrvakhaņda. PMID:19580108

  2. The Indicative and Subjunctive "da"-complements in Serbian A Syntactic-Semantic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorovic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    A syntactic-semantic investigation of subjunctive and indicative "da"-complements in Serbian is conducted in this project. After a careful comparison of Serbian sentence constructions with "da"-complements to the equivalent sentence structures in languages of the Balkans as well as other Slavic languages, it is clearly…

  3. Binding and endocytosis of 39 kDa protein by MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Vettenranta, K; Bu, G; Schwartz, A L

    1995-08-01

    A 39 kDa protein copurifies with the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and regulates ligand interactions with LRP. In our recent studies on the clearance of the 39 kDa protein in vivo, we demonstrated that once the liver LRP receptors were saturated, the kidney became the major organ responsible for the 39 kDa protein clearance (Warshawsky et al., 1993, J. Clin. Invest., 92:937-944). The current study was undertaken in order to investigate the potential binding and cellular processing of the 39 kDa protein by kidney-derived MDBK cells. Herein we demonstrate specific, high-affinity, saturable, and Ca(2+)-dependent binding of the 125I-39 kDa protein to MDBK cells (Kd approximately 10-15 nM, 50-70,000 binding sites per cell). Cellular uptake and degradation of the 125I-39 kDa protein by MDBK cells was also demonstrated with kinetics typical of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Using chemical crosslinking we show that LRP in part mediates the binding of 125I-39 kDa protein to the MDBK cell surface. In addition, the presence of functional LRP on the MDBK cell surface was confirmed by the specific binding of activated alpha 2-macroglobulin, another ligand of LRP. Our data thus demonstrate the ability of kidney-derived MDBK cells to specifically bind, endocytose, and degrade the 39 kDa protein.

  4. Growth-Promoting Hormone DA-6 Assists Phytoextraction and Detoxification of Cd by Ryegrass.

    PubMed

    He, Shanying; Wu, Qiuling; He, Zhenli

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of growth-promoting hormone diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) on Cd phytoextraction and detoxification in ryegrass. Foliar spray of DA-6 significantly enhanced Cd extraction efficiency (P<0.05), with 1 μM DA-6 the most effective. At the subcellular level, 43-53% of Cd was soluble fraction and 23-46% in cell wall, and 9-25% in organelles. Chemical speciation analysis showed that 52.7-58.5% of Cd was NaCl extractable, 12.1-22.7% ethanol extractable, followed by other fractions. DA-6 alleviated metal toxicity by fixing more Cd in cell wall and decreasing Cd migration in plant. In conclusion, ryegrass tolerates Cd by cell wall compartmentalization along with protein and organic acids combination, and the treatment of 1 μM DA-6 appears to be optimal for enhancing the remediation efficiency of ryegrass for Cd contaminated soil.

  5. Kinship structure and heterozygosity on Tristan da Cunha.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E A; Roberts, D F

    1980-01-01

    Although there are many factors influencing the genotype proportions in a small population [1], a heterozygote excess, caused by avoidance of incestuous matings, will often be the expected observation. In the population of the small South-Atlantic islands of Tristan da Cunha, such an excess if observed [2], and we have investigated its origin, partitioning the population by sex and by generation. Although for such a small population the test for random pairing of genes [3, 4] is not sufficiently powerful to produce significant results, the pattern of homozygote deficiency is suggestive of avoidance of close matings. We have also investigated the effect of current nuclear family structure and family-size distribution. PMID:7386464

  6. Sine ars scientia nihil est: Leonardo da Vinci and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kickhöfel, Eduardo H P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the relationship between art and science so far as it concerns a symposium on neurosciences. We undertake a historical overview of that relationship, paying particular attention to the sui generis case of Leonardo da Vinci, who very often is regarded as the man who worked on art and science with equal ease. We then explain why his idea of merging these two forms of knowledge failed, considering the clear-cut distinction between art and science in his time. With this clarification, we explore the matter today. We look at Raphael's The Transfiguration, in which the representation of the possessed boy is seen by neuroscientists as indicative of an epileptic seizure. We also look at the ideas of neuroscientists Semir Zeki and Vilayanur Ramachandran, who study particular aspects of brain function and suggest a new merging of art and science.

  7. Leonardo da Vinci: the search for the soul.

    PubMed

    Del Maestro, R F

    1998-11-01

    The human race has always contemplated the question of the anatomical location of the soul. During the Renaissance the controversy crystallized into those individuals who supported the heart ("cardiocentric soul") and others who supported the brain ("cephalocentric soul") as the abode for this elusive entity. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) joined a long list of other explorers in the "search for the soul." The method he used to resolve this anatomical problem involved the accumulation of information from ancient and contemporary sources, careful notetaking, discussions with acknowledged experts, and his own personal search for the truth. Leonardo used a myriad of innovative methods acquired from his knowledge of painting, sculpture, and architecture to define more clearly the site of the "senso comune"--the soul. In this review the author examines the sources of this ancient question, the knowledge base tapped by Leonardo for his personal search for the soul, and the views of key individuals who followed him.

  8. [Regarding the Manuscript D " Dell' occhio " of Leonardo da Vinci].

    PubMed

    Heitz, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci's Manuscript D consists of five double pages sheets, which, folded in two, comprise ten folios. This document, in the old Tuscan dialect and mirror writing, reveals the ideas of Leonardo on the anatomy of the eye in relation to the formation of images and visual perception. Leonardo explains in particular the behavior of the rays in the eye in terms of refraction and reflection, and is very mechanistic in his conception of the eye and of the visual process. The most significant innovations found in these folios are the concept of the eye as a camera obscura and the intersection of light rays in the interior of the eye. His texts nevertheless show hesitation, doubts and a troubled confusion, reflecting the ideas and uncertainties of his era. He did not share his results in his lifetime, despite both printing and etching being readily available to him.

  9. Evolving understanding of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO).

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Liu, Jian; Garavito, R Michael; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh

    2015-09-01

    The translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been the focus of intense research by the biomedical community and the pharmaceutical industry because of its apparent involvement in many disease-related processes. These include steroidogenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, neurological disease and cancer, resulting in the use of TSPO as a biomarker and its potential as a drug target. Despite more than 30 years of study, the precise function of TSPO remains elusive. A recent breakthrough in determining the high-resolution crystal structures of bacterial homologs of mitochondrial TSPO provides new insight into the structural and functional properties at a molecular level and new opportunities for investigating the significance of this ancient and highly conserved protein family. The availability of atomic level structural information from different species also provides a platform for structure-based drug development. Here we briefly review current knowledge regarding TSPO and the implications of the new structures with respect to hypotheses and controversies in the field.

  10. DBS -- An rlogin multiplexer and output logger for DA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Appleton, L.; Udumula, L.; Votava, M.

    1994-04-01

    DART Bootstrap Services (dbs) is the first component of run-control for the DART Data Acquisition system -- the DA for the 96` round of experiments at Fermilab -- though it has potential usefulness as a powerful tool in other distributed applications. dbs is an rlogin session multiplexer. It allows a user, running a single program, to start up any number of remote login sessions, feed shell commands to them, and collect their output into a single (or multiple) log files (a server keeps the sessions open and collects their output). From this program, any session can be attached to interactively so it appears just like an rlogin session -- dbs becomes transparent. When finished with this interactive mode, the user can escape back to dbs and attach to a different session if so desired. Among many other useful features, dbs supplies a mechanism for cleanup (deletion) of all processes created under a session, allowing a fresh start.

  11. A 92-kDa human immunostimulatory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Fontan, E; Briend, E; Saklani-Jusforgues, H; d'Alayer, J; Vandekerckhove, J; Fauve, R M

    1994-01-01

    We purified to apparent homogeneity a human urinary glycoprotein of 92 kDa (HGP.92) that, administered intravenously at 250 micrograms/kg, fully protected mice against a lethal inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes. Since HGP.92 protected scid mice, which lack B and T lymphocytes, this increased resistance to Listeria did not appear to be lymphocyte mediated. Furthermore, inflammatory macrophages incubated with 6 nM HGP.92 inhibited the growth of Lewis carcinoma cells in vitro. These two activities appeared to depend on an oligosaccharide moiety, as they were lost after N-Glycanase treatment of HGP.92. Thus, the biological activity of HGP.92 was in some way related to a glycan moiety. Images PMID:8078887

  12. VLBI Radar of the 2012 DA14 Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaeva, M. B.; Dugin, N. A.; Antipenko, A. A.; Bezrukov, D. A.; Bezrukov, V. V.; Voytyuk, V. V.; Dement'ev, A. F.; Jekabsons, N.; Klapers, M.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Nabatov, A. S.; Nesteruk, V. N.; Putillo, D.; Reznichenko, A. M.; Salerno, E.; Snegirev, S. D.; Tikhomirov, Yu. V.; Khutornoy, R. V.; Skirmante, K.; Shmeld, I.; Chagunin, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    An experiment on VLBI radar of the 2012 DA14 asteroid was carried out on February 15-16, 2011 at the time of its closest approach to the Earth. The research teams of Kharkov (Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine), Evpatoria (National Space Facilities Control and Test Center), Nizhny Novgorod (Radiophysical Research Institute), Bologna (Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF)), and Ventspils (Ventspils International Radioastronomy Center) took part in the experiment. The asteroid was irradiated by the RT-70 planetary radar (Evpatoria) at a frequency of 5 GHz. The reflected signal was received using two 32-m radio telescopes in Medicina (Italy) and Irbene (Latvia) in radiointerferometric mode. The Doppler frequency shifts in bi-static radar mode and interference frequency in VLBI mode were measured. Accuracy of the VLBI radar method for determining the radial and angular velocities of the asteroid were estimated.

  13. Pharmacological action of DA-9701 on the motility of feline stomach circular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Thao; Song, Hyun Ju; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-03-01

    DA-9701, a new prokinetic agent for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, is formulated with Pharbitis semen and Corydalis tuber. This study wasconducted to determine the pharmacological action of DA-9701 and to identify the receptors involved in DA-9701 -induced contractile responsesin the feline gastric corporal, fundic and antral circular smooth muscle. Concentration-response curve to DA-9701 was established. The tissue trips were exposed to methylsergide, ketanserin, ondansetron, GR 113808, atropine and dopamine before administration of DA-9701. The contractile force was determined before and after administration of drugs by a polygraph.DA-9701 enhanced the spontaneous contractile amplitude of antrum, corpus and fundus. However, it did not change the spontaneous contractile frequency of antrum and corpus, but concentration-dependently reduced that of fundus. In the fundus, DA-9701 -induced tonic contractions were inhibited by dopamine, methylsergide, ketanserine, ondansetron or GR 113808 respectively, but not by atropine, indicating that the contractile responses are mediated by multiple receptors: 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and dopamine receptors. In the corpus, DA-9701-induced contractions were blocked by atropine, dopamine or GR 113808, but not by methysergide, ketanserin or ondansetron, indicating that they are involved in receptors on both, smooth muscles and neurons: 5-HT4 and dopamine receptors. However, contractile responses to DA-9701 are mainly mediated by dopamine receptors in the antrum. These results suggest that DA-9701 has important roles in gastric accommodation by enhancing tonic activity of fundus, and in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit by phasic contractions of corpus and antrum mediated by multiple receptors. PMID:25980179

  14. Human MHC class I antigens are associated with a 90-kDa cell surface protein.

    PubMed

    Ferm, M T; Grönberg, A

    1991-08-01

    Human MHC class I proteins are expressed on almost all nucleated cells as a heavy chain (about 45 kDa) non-covalently associated with beta 2-microglobulin (12 kDa). In this report we show that MHC class I (MHC-I) proteins can also be associated with a 90-kDa protein in the cell membrane. Surface-radiolabelled cells were treated with dithiobis succinimidyl propionate (DSP) in order to preserve multimer protein complexes during cell lysis. The lysates were immunoprecipitated and analysed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Immunoprecipitation of human MHC-I proteins co-precipitated another protein of about 90 kDa in molecular weight-p90. p90 was coprecipitated from all the MHC-I expressing cells tested: U937, Raji, Molt-4 and IFN-gamma treated K562, but not from untreated, MHC-I negative K562. A 90-kDa protein was also co-precipitated with MHC-I from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Furthermore, p90 was coprecipitated by different MoAbs to the MHC-I heavy chain or beta 2-microglobulin, but not by control antibodies. Two additional co-precipitating proteins at 34 kDa and 28 kDa were seen in MHC-I precipitates from Raji cells. Our results suggest that MHC-I proteins and the 90-kDa protein are associated in the cell membrane, probably by a close but weak, non-covalent interaction. Two additional cell surface proteins at 34 kDa and 28 kDa seem to be MHC-I associated on Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells.

  15. Reduced striatal dopamine DA D2 receptor function in dominant-negative GSK-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sintes, Raquel; Bortolozzi, Analia; Artigas, Francesc; Lucas, José J

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase with constitutive activity involved in cellular architecture, gene expression, cell proliferation, fate decision and apoptosis, among others. GSK-3 expression is particularly high in brain where it may be involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer׳s disease, bipolar disorder and major depression. A link with schizophrenia is suggested by the antipsychotic drug-induced GSK-3 regulation and by the involvement of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Taking advantage of the previous development of dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice (Tg) showing a selective reduction of GSK-3 activity in forebrain neurons but not in dopaminergic neurons, we explored the relationship between GSK-3 and dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. In microdialysis experiments, local quinpirole (DA D2-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced dopamine (DA) release significantly less in Tg mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, local SKF-81297 (selective DA D1-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced DA release equally in both control and Tg mice indicating a comparable function of DA D1-R in the direct striato-nigral pathway. Likewise, systemic quinpirole administration - acting preferentially on presynaptic DA D2- autoreceptors to modulate DA release-reduced striatal DA release similarly in both control and Tg mice. Quinpirole reduced locomotor activity and induced c-fos expression in globus pallidus (both striatal DA D2-R-mediated effects) significantly more in WT than in Tg mice. Taking together, the present results show that dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice show reduced DA D2-R-mediated function in striatum and further support a link between dopaminergic neurotransmission and GSK-3 activity.

  16. Pharmacological action of DA-9701 on the motility of feline stomach circular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Thao; Song, Hyun Ju; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-03-01

    DA-9701, a new prokinetic agent for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, is formulated with Pharbitis semen and Corydalis tuber. This study wasconducted to determine the pharmacological action of DA-9701 and to identify the receptors involved in DA-9701 -induced contractile responsesin the feline gastric corporal, fundic and antral circular smooth muscle. Concentration-response curve to DA-9701 was established. The tissue trips were exposed to methylsergide, ketanserin, ondansetron, GR 113808, atropine and dopamine before administration of DA-9701. The contractile force was determined before and after administration of drugs by a polygraph.DA-9701 enhanced the spontaneous contractile amplitude of antrum, corpus and fundus. However, it did not change the spontaneous contractile frequency of antrum and corpus, but concentration-dependently reduced that of fundus. In the fundus, DA-9701 -induced tonic contractions were inhibited by dopamine, methylsergide, ketanserine, ondansetron or GR 113808 respectively, but not by atropine, indicating that the contractile responses are mediated by multiple receptors: 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and dopamine receptors. In the corpus, DA-9701-induced contractions were blocked by atropine, dopamine or GR 113808, but not by methysergide, ketanserin or ondansetron, indicating that they are involved in receptors on both, smooth muscles and neurons: 5-HT4 and dopamine receptors. However, contractile responses to DA-9701 are mainly mediated by dopamine receptors in the antrum. These results suggest that DA-9701 has important roles in gastric accommodation by enhancing tonic activity of fundus, and in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit by phasic contractions of corpus and antrum mediated by multiple receptors.

  17. On acoplamento mecânico entre a antena e o transdutor no detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, J. L.; Aguiar, O. D.; Velloso, W. F., Jr.; Lucena, A. U.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais MARIO SCHENBERG consistirá de uma massa esférica de cobre-alumínio de 1150kg resfriada a 4K, sobre a qual serão instalados 6 transdutores de nióbio. Com estes trandutores pretende-se converter um possível sinal de onda gravitacional detectado em sinal elétrico, para tanto é necessário que o acoplamento mecânico entre os transdutores e a massa ressonante seja o maior possível. Isto significa que o transdutor deve ser ressonante na mesma freqüência que a antena (aproximadamente 3200Hz). Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma geometria para a estrutura mecânica do trandutor. Isto foi feito criando-se modelos em elementos finitos usando-se o "software" MSC/Nastran. Estes modelos criados foram analisados estaticamente (cálculo de tensões) e dinamicamente (cálculo das freqüências de ressonâncias e seus respectivos modos normais) de maneira a se obter o primeiro modo normal do transdutor em 3200Hz. A partir destes cálculos escolheu-se a melhor geometria para o transdutor. Os próximos passos do trabalho serão: usinar este transdutor em uma barra de nióbio e testá-lo à temperatura ambiente e à baixa temperatura. Após isto, pretende-se testá-lo na própria antena resfriada.

  18. HACCP models for quality control of entrée production in hospital foodservice systems. I. Development of hazard analysis critical control point models.

    PubMed

    Bobeng, B J; David, B D

    1978-11-01

    HACCP models were developed as part of a research project for quality control of entrée production in three types of hospital foodservice systems: Conventional, cook/chill, and cook/freeze. Critical control points at process stages were identified. Time-temperature was a critical control point throughout entrée production in each model; time-temperature parameters were established for critical control points. Equipment sanitation and personnel sanitation are critical control points for which standards must be established by each foodservice system. Determination of the effectiveness of control measures included continuous monitoring of critical control points for time-temperature. Sanitation of equipment and personnel should be monitored using standards established by the foodservice system.

  19. Half-size me? How calorie and price information influence ordering on restaurant menus with both half and full entrée portion sizes.

    PubMed

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-02-01

    Many restaurants are increasingly required to display calorie information on their menus. We present a study examining how consumers' food choices are affected by the presence of calorie information on restaurant menus. However, unlike prior research on this topic, we focus on the effect of calorie information on food choices made from a menu that contains both full size portions and half size portions of entrées. This different focus is important because many restaurants increasingly provide more than one portion size option per entrée. Additionally, we examine whether the impact of calorie information differs depending on whether full portions are cheaper per unit than half portions (non-linear pricing) or whether they have a similar per unit price (linear pricing). We find that when linear pricing is used, calorie information leads people to order fewer calories. This decrease occurs as people switch from unhealthy full sized portions to healthy full sized portions, not to unhealthy half sized portions. In contrast, when non-linear pricing is used, calorie information has no impact on calories selected. Considering the impact of calorie information on consumers' choices from menus with more than one entrée portion size option is increasingly important given restaurant and legislative trends, and the present research demonstrates that calorie information and pricing scheme may interact to affect choices from such menus. PMID:26654889

  20. Half-size me? How calorie and price information influence ordering on restaurant menus with both half and full entrée portion sizes.

    PubMed

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-02-01

    Many restaurants are increasingly required to display calorie information on their menus. We present a study examining how consumers' food choices are affected by the presence of calorie information on restaurant menus. However, unlike prior research on this topic, we focus on the effect of calorie information on food choices made from a menu that contains both full size portions and half size portions of entrées. This different focus is important because many restaurants increasingly provide more than one portion size option per entrée. Additionally, we examine whether the impact of calorie information differs depending on whether full portions are cheaper per unit than half portions (non-linear pricing) or whether they have a similar per unit price (linear pricing). We find that when linear pricing is used, calorie information leads people to order fewer calories. This decrease occurs as people switch from unhealthy full sized portions to healthy full sized portions, not to unhealthy half sized portions. In contrast, when non-linear pricing is used, calorie information has no impact on calories selected. Considering the impact of calorie information on consumers' choices from menus with more than one entrée portion size option is increasingly important given restaurant and legislative trends, and the present research demonstrates that calorie information and pricing scheme may interact to affect choices from such menus.

  1. Endogenous dopamine (DA) modulates (3H)spiperone binding in vivo in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, S.; Krauss, J.; Grunenwald, C.; Gunst, F.; Heinrich, M.; Schaub, M.; Stoecklin, K.V.; Vassout, A.; Waldmeier, P.; Maitre, L. )

    1991-01-01

    (3H)spiperone (SPI) binding in vivo, biochemical parameters and behavior were measured after modulating DA levels by various drug treatments. DA releasers and uptake inhibitors increased SPI binding in rat striatum. In other brain areas, the effects were variable, but only the pituitary remained unaffected. Surprisingly, nomifensine decreased SPI binding in frontal cortex. The effects of these drugs were monitored by measuring DA, serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in the same rats. The increased SPI binding in striatum was parallel to the locomotor stimulation with the following rank order: amfonelic acid greater than nomifensine greater than D-amphetamine greater than or equal to methylphenidate greater than amineptine greater than bupropion. Decreasing DA levels with reserpine or alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine reduced SPI binding by 45% in striatum only when both drugs were combined. In contrast, reserpine enhanced SPI binding in pituitary. Thus, the amount of releasable DA seems to modulate SPI binding characteristics. It is suggested that in vivo, DA receptors are submitted to dynamic regulation in response to changes in intrasynaptic concentrations of DA.

  2. Essential Roles of Da Transactivation Domains in Neurogenesis and in E(spl)-Mediated Repression

    PubMed Central

    Zarifi, Ioanna; Kiparaki, Marianthi; Koumbanakis, Konstantinos A.; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Zacharioudaki, Evanthia; Alexiadis, Anastasios; Livadaras, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    E proteins are a special class of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that heterodimerize with many bHLH activators to regulate developmental decisions, such as myogenesis and neurogenesis. Daughterless (Da) is the sole E protein in Drosophila and is ubiquitously expressed. We have characterized two transcription activation domains (TADs) in Da, called activation domain 1 (AD1) and loop-helix (LH), and have evaluated their roles in promoting peripheral neurogenesis. In this context, Da heterodimerizes with proneural proteins, such as Scute (Sc), which is dynamically expressed and also contributes a TAD. We found that either one of the Da TADs in the Da/Sc complex is sufficient to promote neurogenesis, whereas the Sc TAD is incapable of doing so. Besides its transcriptional activation role, the Da AD1 domain serves as an interaction platform for E(spl) proteins, bHLH-Orange family repressors which antagonize Da/Sc function. We show that the E(spl) Orange domain is needed for this interaction and strongly contributes to the antiproneural activity of E(spl) proteins. We present a mechanistic model on the interplay of these bHLH factors in the context of neural fate assignment. PMID:22949507

  3. Vectra DA for the objective measurement of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Segurado, O G; Sasso, E H

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and regular assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is required to achieve treatment targets such as remission and to optimize clinical outcomes. To assess inflammation accurately, predict joint damage and monitor treatment response, a measure of disease activity in RA should reflect the pathological processes resulting in irreversible joint damage and functional disability. The Vectra DA blood test is an objective measure of disease activity for patients with RA. Vectra DA provides an accurate, reproducible score on a scale of 1 to 100 based on the concentrations of 12 biomarkers that reflect the pathophysiologic diversity of RA. The analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of Vectra DA have been evaluated for patients with RA in registries and prospective and retrospective clinical studies. As a biomarker-based instrument for assessing disease activity in RA, the Vectra DA test can help monitor therapeutic response to methotrexate and biologic agents and assess clinically challenging situations, such as when clinical measures are confounded by non-inflammatory pain from fibromyalgia. Vectra DA scores correlate with imaging of joint inflammation and are predictive for radiographic progression, with high Vectra DA scores being associated with more frequent and severe progression and low scores being predictive for non-progression. In summary, the Vectra DA score is an objective measure of RA disease activity that quantifies inflammatory status. By predicting risk for joint damage more effectively than conventional clinical and laboratory measures, it has the potential to complement these measures and optimise clinical decision making.

  4. Antimicrobial Properties of an Immunomodulator - 15 kDa Human Granulysin

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hung-Mu; Lin, Li-Chih; Wang, Chiu-Feng; Lee, Yi-Jang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Liao, You-Di

    2016-01-01

    Granulysin, a cationic protein expressed by human natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, is a mediator for drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and graft-versus-host disease. Some 15 kDa granulysin are processed into 9 kDa forms and sequestered in cytolytic granules, while others are constitutively secreted into body fluids. Both 9 and 15 kDa granulysin have been shown to be a serum marker for cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, 15 kDa is able to activate monocyte differentiation. However, its antimicrobial properties have not been clearly addressed. Here, we report a novel method to prepare both the soluble 9 and 15 kDa granulysin and show that the 15 kDa form is more effective than the 9 kDa form in exerting specific antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa within a range of few micromolars. We also show that the 15 kDa granulysin is able to hyperpolarize the membrane potential and increase membrane permeability of treated bacteria. Interestingly, the bactericidal activity and membrane permeability of the granulysins were markedly reduced at lower pH (pH 5.4) as a result of probable increase in hydrophobicity of the granulysins. Additionally, we’ve also shown the granulysin to inhibit biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that the 15 kDa granulysin exhibits a novel mechanism in bacteria killing in a way that’s different from most antimicrobial peptides. Our novel granulysin preparation methodology will be useful for further study of action mechanisms of other antimicrobial, cytotoxic and immunomodulating properties in granulysin-mediated diseases. PMID:27276051

  5. Therapeutic effect of infused Fluosol-DA/carbogen with ephedrine, flunarizine, or nitroprusside

    SciTech Connect

    Teicher, B.A.; Holden, S.A.; Northey, D.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Herman, T.S.

    1993-04-30

    The perfluorochemical emulsion Fluosol-DA plus carbogen breathing has been shown to increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy in preclinical solid tumors when the emulsion was administered by i.v. bolus injection. Much of the enhancement in tumor radiation response was lost when the emulsion was administered slowly. The authors hypothesized that an increase in tumor perfusion resulted when Fluosol-DA was administered rapidly. In the present study, the [alpha]/[beta] agonist ephedrine, the Ca[sup 2+] channel blocker flunarizine and the nitric oxide producing vasodilating drug nitroprusside have been tested. Ephedrine administration resulted in a decrease in the radiation plus Fluosol-DA [+-] carbogen antitumor effects in both the Lewis lung carcinoma and FSaIIC tumor systems. In contrast, flunarizine administration resulted in an increase in the efficacy of the radiation plus carbogen and the radiation plus Fluosol-DA/carbogen in both emulsion was given rapidly. Even with flunarizine administration Fluosol-DA delivered slowly was less effective than when the emulsion was given rapidly. Flunarizine with Fluosol-DA infused i.v. over 30 min followed by carbogen breathing prior to and during radiation therapy resulted in a 1.7-1.6-fold increase in response compared with 2.4-2.2-fold with Fluosol-DA administered by injection i.v. and carbogen breathing prior to and during radiation therapy using growth delay of the Lewis lung carcinoma. The effects of nitroprusside were complex. This drug had considerably more effect at 10 Gy than at higher radiation doses. These studies suggest that Fluosol-DA given by i.v. injection may increase tumor perfusion and that a drug like flunarizine may be beneficial if the Fluosol-DA is administered slowly followed by carbogen breathing and radiation therapy. 45 refs., 4 figs.

  6. L’expression verbale de la douleur chez l’enfant : Comparaison intermodale entre sensation de douleur et manipulation tactile

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, Margaux; Jacquet, Denis; Michelutti, Marjolaine; Wood, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    HISTORIQUE: La présente étude se situe dans le contexte de l’expression verbale de la douleur chez l’enfant. Elle porte plus particulièrement sur la dimension qualitative de la sensation de douleur. OBJECTIF: Nous cherchons à repérer les particularités de l’expression verbale relativement à l’aspect qualitatif de la douleur. MÉTHODOLOGIE: La recherche a été menée auprès de 60 patients de quatre à 18 ans ressentant de la douleur, rencontrés dans un hôpital universitaire pédiatrique. Elle confirme en premier lieu l’origine des descripteurs sensoriels de la douleur, qui renvoient aux expériences perceptives passées de l’enfant, non nécessairement liées à la douleur. Ces expériences sont qualifiées de prototypiques, dans la mesure où, bien qu’elles soient liées à des contextes de vie variés, le type de rapport au monde qu’elles provoquent ne varie pas. RÉSULTATS: Dans ce cadre, le pincement, le tiraillement, le tapement, l’écrasement et l’appuiement, le picotement et le serrement constituent chacune des expériences sensorielles et motrices particulières dont la structure de base ne varie pas d’un contexte à l’autre. En second lieu, les résultats obtenus montrent que dès quatre ans, l’enfant est en mesure de comparer, puis de reconnaître une analogie entre une expérience exclusivement tactile et sa sensation de douleur. CONCLUSION: Ces résultats mettent en lumière le rôle primordial du raisonnement analogique dans l’expression verbale de la douleur, ce qui amène à affirmer que le niveau de développement cognitif de l’enfant n’est pas une variable a priori déterminante lorsqu’il s’agit de qualifier sa douleur. PMID:21766069

  7. Cristallisation, syncristallisation, et alliages moléculaires entre le lorazépam et l'oxazépam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascherpa-Corral, D.; Mascherpa, G.; Chauvet, A.

    1993-04-01

    Le polymorphisme et pseudopolymorphisme du lorazépam et oxazépam ont été étudiés par analyse thermique, calorimétrie différentielle à balayage et diffraction de rayons X. Deux formes polymorphes du lorazépam et plusieurs mono et hemisolvates ont été isolés à partir de recristallisation dans divers soivants. Aucun polymorphisme ni solvate n'a été mis en évidence avec l'oxazépam. Les paramètres cristallographiques des phases isolées ont été déterminées. A 160 et 203°C, le lorazépam et l'oxazépam perdent respectivement une molécule d'eau pour donner après réarrangement la quinazolinecarboxaldéhyde correspondante. La syncristallisation des deux benzodiazépines dans le benzène conduit à des alliages moléculaires à miscibilité totale à l'état solide dans tout le domaine de concentration entre l'exazépam el la forme α du lorazépam, elle n'est que partielle avec la forme β. Thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction were carried out to study the polymorphism and pseudopolymorphism of lorazepam and oxazepam. Two polymorphic forms of lorazepam and several mono- or hemisolvates were obtained after recrystallization from various solvents. No polymorphic form or solvate has been found for oxazepam. The crystallographic parameters of these new phases were determined. Lorazepam and oxazepam can lose a molecule of water at 160 and 203°C, respectively, and rearrange to quinazolinecarboxaldehyde. Mixed crystals of the two benzodiazepines, after recrystallization from benzene, lead to molecular alloys with complete solid solubility between oxazepam and the α-form of lorazepam over the whole range of composition but only to partial solubility with the β-form of lorazepam.

  8. Myelin management by the 18.5-kDa and 21.5-kDa classic myelin basic protein isoforms.

    PubMed

    Harauz, George; Boggs, Joan M

    2013-05-01

    The classic myelin basic protein (MBP) splice isoforms range in nominal molecular mass from 14 to 21.5 kDa, and arise from the gene in the oligodendrocyte lineage (Golli) in maturing oligodendrocytes. The 18.5-kDa isoform that predominates in adult myelin adheres the cytosolic surfaces of oligodendrocyte membranes together, and forms a two-dimensional molecular sieve restricting protein diffusion into compact myelin. However, this protein has additional roles including cytoskeletal assembly and membrane extension, binding to SH3-domains, participation in Fyn-mediated signaling pathways, sequestration of phosphoinositides, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Of the diverse post-translational modifications of this isoform, phosphorylation is the most dynamic, and modulates 18.5-kDa MBP's protein-membrane and protein-protein interactions, indicative of a rich repertoire of functions. In developing and mature myelin, phosphorylation can result in microdomain or even nuclear targeting of the protein, supporting the conclusion that 18.5-kDa MBP has significant roles beyond membrane adhesion. The full-length, early-developmental 21.5-kDa splice isoform is predominantly karyophilic due to a non-traditional P-Y nuclear localization signal, with effects such as promotion of oligodendrocyte proliferation. We discuss in vitro and recent in vivo evidence for multifunctionality of these classic basic proteins of myelin, and argue for a systematic evaluation of the temporal and spatial distributions of these protein isoforms, and their modified variants, during oligodendrocyte differentiation.

  9. Leonardo Da Vinci and stroke - vegetarian diet as a possible cause.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Serefnur; Altieri, Marta; Troisi, Pina

    2010-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 to May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. It has been gleaned from the many available historical documents that da Vinci was a vegetarian who respected and loved animals, and that he suffered from right hemiparesis in the last 5 years of his life. A vegetarian diet has both positive and negative influences on the cerebrovascular system. In this report, a possible relation between a vegetarian diet and stroke is discussed from various perspectives as related to Leonardo da Vinci's stroke.

  10. Stability of new carbapenem DA-1131 to renal dipeptidase (dehydropeptidase I).

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Wook; We, Jeoung Soon; Kim, Gye Won; Choi, Seong Hak; Park, Haeng Soon

    2002-02-01

    The stability of DA-1131 to renal dipeptidase (RDPase) (EC 3.4.13.19) was compared with that of imipenem and meropenem by V(max)/K(m) ratios as an index of the enzyme's preference for substrates. Our results showed a decreasing order of imipenem (6.24), meropenem (2.41), and DA-1131 (1.39). The biochemical evaluation of DA-1131 as the least preferred substrate of RDPase suggests its potential use as a novel beta-lactam antibiotic which may be usable without coadministration of RDPase inhibitors once its clinical suitability is proven.

  11. Augusto Celestino da Costa (1884-1956) - professor, scientist and science promoter.

    PubMed

    David-Ferreira, José-Francisco

    2009-01-01

    At the dawn of the 20th century in Lisbon, Augusto Celestino da Costa advocated a model of university practice based on research and defended the promotion of a scientific culture and the dissemination of Science in society. As a scientist, Celestino da Costa made numerous original descriptions of the cytology, histology and embryology of endocrine glands and the sympathetic nervous system. Celestino da Costa authored seminal textbooks on histology and embryology, and was responsible for launching in Portugal the first governmental agency to finance scientific activities.

  12. Arbitrary Amplitude DIA and DA Solitary Waves in Adiabatic Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Jahan, N.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-10-15

    The dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) as well as the dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) in an adiabatic dusty plasma are investigated by the pseudo-potential approach which is valid for arbitrary amplitude SWs. The role of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions in modifying the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of arbitrary amplitude DIA and DA SWs are explicitly examined. It is found that the effects of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions significantly modify the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of the DIA and DA SWs. The implications of our results in space and laboratory dusty plasmas are briefly discussed.

  13. 2012 DA14 and Chelyabinsk: Same Day Coincidence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2013-10-01

    A long anticipated near-miss by near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2012 DA14 on 15 February 2013 was upstaged 16 hours earlier by the impact and atmospheric explosion of a ~20 m NEA over Chelyabinsk, Russia. DA14 was earlier estimated to be 45 m across and passage at a distance under geosynchronous satellites was considered to be a record close approach by an object of that size, a once-in-40-years event. Actual Earth impact by a 20 m NEA had been estimated to be a once-in-200-years event. A simplistic calculation gives a probability of these happening on the same day of 1-in-a-billion. Within hours of the Chelyabinsk impact, it was recognized and widely reported that the two asteroids were in very different orbits and could not, at least in any readily understandable way, be physically related to each other (e.g. fragments of the same precursor body). Also, some early reports suggested that the two asteroids had very different compositions, further undermining the possibility they were pieces of the same body. (It seems unlikely, though certainly conceivable, that the two NEAs could have different compositions yet have some kind of causal connection resulting in the same-day events.) Nevertheless, incredibly tiny probabilities beg for an explanation. Here, with the benefit of hindsight, I re-examine issues that affect the probabilities, such as size, albedo, probable composition, and numbers of NEAs of these sizes. I also consider difficult issues of framing the apparent coincidence, which dominate other uncertainties. Updated information about the physical nature of the two asteroids somewhat modifies the original estimates of probabilities. Moreover, more proper ways of framing elements of the coincidence considerably reduce the improbability of the same-day events, but not nearly to the level (e.g. 1-in-1000 or perhaps 1-in-10,000) where we could rationalize dismissing the events as “just a coincidence.” The events of 15 February 2013 deserve more sophisticated

  14. Survey infravermelho do braço espiral de scuttum e da barra no centro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amôres, E. B.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    O survey infravermelho consiste de observações utilizando a CAMIV no telescópio de 60 cm do LNA. Nosso principal objetivo é melhor caracterizar a população estelar dos braços espirais e de uma estrutura existente no centro galáctico que acreditamos ser devido à existência de uma barra, cujas extremidades estariam localizadas em longitudes galácticas l~23° e l~14°. As observações realizadas em vários filtros (imagens J, H e K) são particularmente importantes nas direções que tangenciam os braços espirais, desta forma, comparamos uma direção que atravessa um braço a uma direção próxima que não passa pelo braço, sendo que ambas possuem a mesma contribuição de contagens foreground. Nas missões realizadas até o presente, observamos a região na direção tangencial ao braço de Scuttum, com observações de l = 30.04° até l = 31.04°, a cada intervalo de longitude de 0.1°, para latitude galáctica de 0.0°, 0.25°, 0.50°. Para as regiões que acreditamos serem as extremidades da barra, observamos as faixas de longitude compreendidas entre -15° £ l £ -13° e 24° £ l £ 22° a cada intervalo de 0.25°, para latitude galáctica de 0.0° e 0.25°. As observações nos filtros J e H foram feitas com tempo de integração de 60s, na banda K, as observações foram feitas utilizando o filtro C1 com tempo de integração de aproximadamente 210 s (12x15s). Elaboramos diagramas cor-cor e cor-magnitude onde podemos verificar a existência de regiões com diferentes contagens e população estelar à medida que um braço espiral é atravessado.

  15. Audio annotation watermarking with robustness against DA/AD conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kun; Kraetzer, Christian; Biermann, Michael; Dittmann, Jana

    2010-01-01

    In the paper we present a watermarking scheme developed to meet the specific requirements of audio annotation watermarking robust against DA/AD conversion (watermark detection after playback by loudspeaker and recording with a microphone). Additionally the described approach tries to achieve a comparably low detection complexity, so it could be embedded in the near future in low-end devices (e.g. mobile phones or other portable devices). We assume in the field of annotation watermarking that there is no specific motivation for attackers to the developed scheme. The basic idea for the watermark generation and embedding scheme is to combine traditional frequency domain spread spectrum watermarking with psychoacoustic modeling to guarantee transparency and alphabet substitution to improve the robustness. The synchronization and extraction scheme is designed to be much less computational complex than the embedder. The performance of the scheme is evaluated in the aspects of transparency, robustness, complexity and capacity. The tests reveals that 44% out of 375 tested audio files pass the simulation test for robustness, while the most appropriate category shows even 100% robustness. Additionally the introduced prototype shows an averge transparency of -1.69 in SDG, while at the same time having a capacity satisfactory to the chosen application scenario.

  16. DA WHITE DWARFS OBSERVED IN THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yueyang; Deng Licai; Liu Chao; Carrell, Kenneth; Yang Fan; Gao Shuang; Xu Yan; Li Jing; Zhang Haotong; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Yuan Hailong; Lepine, Sebastien; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Jin Ge

    2013-08-01

    A total of {approx}640, 000 objects from the LAMOST pilot survey have been publicly released. In this work, we present a catalog of DA white dwarfs (DAWDs) from the entire pilot survey. We outline a new algorithm for the selection of white dwarfs (WDs) by fitting Sersic profiles to the Balmer H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} lines of the spectra, and calculating the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. Two thousand nine hundred sixty-four candidates are selected by constraining the fitting parameters and the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. All the spectra of candidates are visually inspected. We identify 230 DAWDs (59 of which are already included in the Villanova and SDSS WD catalogs), 20 of which are DAWDs with non-degenerate companions. In addition, 128 candidates are classified as DAWDs/subdwarfs, which means the classifications are ambiguous. The result is consistent with the expected DAWD number estimated based on the LEGUE target selection algorithm.

  17. Voltammetric classification of ciders with PLS-DA.

    PubMed

    Górski, Łukasz; Sordoń, Wanda; Ciepiela, Filip; Kubiak, Władysław W; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Voltammograms recorded on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) may be a chemical fingerprints of food samples, enabled distinguishing the origin of the considered products. In this work the objects of the study was 5 Polish ciders of various brands. For each sample 10 scans were recorded by DPV in the potential range between -0.2 and 1.0 V in Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 2.0. The signals preprocessing realized by baseline correction with 4-th degree polynomial and normalization (in 0 to 1 interval), performed to reduce problems with insufficient signal's repeatability associated with mechanical renovation of the electrode surface before each measurement. The PLS-DA classification models were built using the training set and then validated using the samples absent in the learning process. The final multi-class model with optimized complexity enables classification of the ciders with 100% sensitivity and specificity, with the exception of one cider, where specificity was 95% (for validation set). PMID:26695257

  18. GOoDA: The Generic Optimization Data Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calafiura, P.; Eranian, S.; Levinthal, D.; Kama, S.; Vitillo, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Modern superscalar, out-of-order microprocessors dominate large scale server computing. Monitoring their activity, during program execution, has become complicated due to the complexity of the microarchitectures and their IO interactions. Recent processors have thousands of performance monitoring events. These are required to actually provide coverage for all of the complex interactions and performance issues that can occur. Knowing which data to collect and how to interpret the results has become an unreasonable burden for code developers whose tasks are already hard enough. It becomes the task of the analysis tool developer to bridge this gap. To address this issue, a generic decomposition of how a microprocessor is using the consumed cycles allows code developers to quickly understand which of the myriad of microarchitectural complexities they are battling, without requiring a detailed knowledge of the microarchitecture. When this approach is intrinsically integrated into a performance data analysis tool, it enables software developers to take advantage of the microarchitectural methodology that has only been available to experts. The Generic Optimization Data Analyzer (GOoDA) project integrates this expertise into a profiling tool in order to lower the required expertise of the user and, being designed from the ground up with large-scale object-oriented applications in mind, it will be particularly useful for large HENP codebases

  19. [Project Leonardo-da-Vinci for better nursing care].

    PubMed

    Gábor, Katalin; Csanádi, Lajosné; Helembai, Kornélia; Szögi, Zoltánné; Tulkán, Ibolya; Unginé, Kántor Katalin

    2002-08-18

    The aim of the present paper is to inform physicians about the work completed by nurses and professors of baccalaureat nurses in the framework of Leonardo da Vinci project, organised and sponsored by the European Union. The goal of the project was to increase the effectiveness of chief nurses throughout their further training programme in the field of management. The team of Szeged chose the human resource management, since in this field is possible to achieve the greatest improvement with the smallest financial investment. We measured the fluctuations and the absentees of the nurses, the changes in the degree of education, the nurse' and patient' satisfaction at the beginning and at the end of the period studied. Except the patient's satisfaction all the other parameters improved by the end of tested period. The project provided a unique possibility to compare the state of the Hungarian nursing with that of the countries belonging to the European Union, to exchange the experience and to learn some new methods. In the framework of this project a book of two volumes was prepared containing the suggestions of EU. This book is widely available in English and in French.

  20. Near-UV absorption in very cool DA white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, D.; Holberg, J. B.; Kowalski, P. M. E-mail: holberg@argus.lpl.arizona.edu

    2014-07-20

    The atmospheres of very cool, hydrogen-rich white dwarfs (WDs) (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) are challenging to model because of the increased complexity of the equation of state, chemical equilibrium, and opacity sources in a low-temperature, weakly ionized dense gas. In particular, many models that assume relatively simple models for the broadening of atomic levels and mostly ideal gas physics overestimate the flux in the blue part of their spectra. A solution to this problem that has met with some success is that additional opacity at short wavelengths comes for the extreme broadening of the Lyman α line of atomic H by collisions primarily with H{sub 2}. For the purpose of validating this model more rigorously, we acquired Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra of eight very cool WDs (five DA and three DC stars). Combined with their known parallaxes, BVRIJHK, and Spitzer IRAC photometry, we analyze their entire spectral energy distribution (from 0.24 to 9.3 μm) with a large grid of model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. We find that the red wing of the Lyman α line reproduces the rapidly decreasing near-UV flux of these very cool stars very well. We determine better constrained values of T{sub eff} and gravity as well as upper limits to the helium abundance in their atmospheres.

  1. Biogeochemical Indicators of Paleoenvironmental Changes in a Humid Region of Amazonia (Lagoa da Pata, Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Mendes, L. G.; Azeredo, J. B.; Moura, M. S.; de Oliveira, A. R.; Monteiro, F.; Santelli, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis of four sediment core collected in Lagoa da Pata lake show significant changes in the environmental history of Amazonia during the last 40,000 years. The Lagoa da Pata Lake (0°17'S, 66°40'W) is located on the top of the Morro dos Seis Lagos, an isolated hill in the extensive forested plane surface of high Rio Negro basin. The climate in the region presents mean annual precipitation around 3000 mm without dry season. Three distinct sections are clearly identified in the LPT III, LPT IV and LPT V cores. They consist of upper and lower organic-rich layers, separated by a clastic layer which represents a short period of rapid accumulation around 18 ka BP. Analysis of the organic matter composition by d13C and d15N, total Carbon and Nitrogen, sedimentary chlorophyll concentration and organic matter petrography show three different phases related to organic matter deposition. Between, at least 46,000 and 31,000 14C yr B.P., the lake presented a high water level attested by high accumulation rates of organic carbon. Values of d13C (around -32%) associated to high C/N ratio demonstrate a lignocellulosic material contribution in this phase; the second phase between the 31000 yr 14C B.P. and 18000 14C B.P. is characterised by a lower productivity attested by low sedimentary chlorophyll and total organic carbon values. The d13C values increase with medium values around -28% that may correspond to an input of organic matter rich in C4 plants (grasses). The sedimentation rate decreases significantly. High charcoal fluxes were observed in this period. At around 18000 14C yr BP, there appears to have been a sudden input of clastic material. This is represented by a sandy facies, which exhibits lower carbon contents. From 18000 14C yr B.P. to the present time occurred an increase in lacustrine productivity marked by an increase in carbon and chlorophyll derivate accumulation rates. The C/N values dropped indicting an algae organic matter contribution. It probably

  2. Thinking like Leonardo da Vinci and its implications for the modern doctor.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider.

  3. DaG 1066: A Newfound Anomalous Ureilite with Chondritic Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moggi Cecchi, V.; Caporali, S.; Pratesi, G.

    2015-07-01

    General description, textural, and compositional features of the polymict ureilite DaG 1066, recovered in 1999 in Libya, are provided. The meteorite contains various inclusions, among which almost pure forsterite and enstatite-bearing chondrules.

  4. Thinking like Leonardo da Vinci and its implications for the modern doctor.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider. PMID:24228380

  5. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  9. Load evaluation of the da Vinci surgical system for transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Niimi, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-12-01

    Transoral robotic surgery, performed with the da Vinci surgical system (da Vinci), is a surgical approach for benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. It provides several unique advantages, which include a 3-dimensional magnified view and ability to see and work around curves or angles. However, the current da Vinci surgical system does not provide haptic feedback. This is problematic because the potential risks specific to the transoral use of the da Vinci include tooth injury, mucosal laceration, ocular injury and mandibular fracture. To assess the potential for intraoperative injuries, we measured the load of the endoscope and the instrument of the da Vinci Si surgical system. We pressed the endoscope and instrument of the da Vinci Si against Load cell six times each and measured the dynamic load and the time-to-maximum load. We also struck the da Vinci Si endoscope and instrument against the Load cell six times each and measured the impact load. The maximum dynamic load was 7.27 ± 1.31 kg for the endoscope and 1.90 ± 0.72 for the instrument. The corresponding time-to-maximum loads were 1.72 ± 0.22 and 1.29 ± 0.34 s, but the impact loads were significantly lower than the dynamic load. It remains possible that a major load is exerted on adjacent structures by continuous contact with the endoscope and instrument of da Vinci Si. However, there is a minor delay in reaching the maximum load. Careful monitoring by an on-site assistant may, therefore, help prevent contiguous injury.

  10. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de

  11. OpenDA: Open Source Generic Data Assimilation Environment and its Application in Geophysical Process Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerts, A.; van Velzen, N.; Verlaan, M.; Sumihar, J.; Hummel, S.; El Serafy, G.; Dhondia, J.; Gerritsen, H.; Vermeer-Ooms, S.; Loots, E.; Markus, A.; Kockx, A.

    2011-12-01

    Data Assimilation techniques are essential elements in state-of-the-art development of models and their use in operational forecasting and real-time control in the fields of groundwater, surface water and soil systems. In meteorological and atmospheric sciences, steady improvements in numerical weather forecasting and climate prediction over the last couple of decades have been enabled to a large degree by the development of community-based models and data assimilation systems. The hydrologic community should learn from the experiences of the meteorological and atmospheric communities by accelerating the transition of hydrologic DA research into operations and developing community-supported, open-source modeling and forecasting systems and data assimilation tools. In 2010, a community based open source initiative named OpenDA was started. The openDA initiative bears similarities with the well-known openMI initiative. OpenDA makes use of a set of interfaces that describe the interaction between models, observations and data assimilation algorithms. It focuses on flexible applications in portable systems for modeling geophysical processes. It provides a generic interfacing protocol that allows combination of the implemented data assimilation techniques with, in principle, any time-stepping model describing a process (atmospheric processes, 3D circulation, 2D water flow, rainfall-runoff, unsaturated flow, groundwater flow, etc.). Presently, openDA features filtering techniques and calibration techniques. The presentation will give an overview of openDA and the results of some of its practical applications.

  12. The 32 kDa Enamelin Undergoes Conformational Transitions upon Calcium Binding

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Daming; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The 32 kDa hydrophilic and acidic enamelin, the most stable cleavage fragment of the enamel specific glycoprotein, is believed to play vital roles in controlling crystal nucleation or growth during enamel biomineralization. Circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrate that the secondary structure of the 32 kDa enamelin has a high content of α-helix (81.5%). Quantitative analysis on the circular dichroism data revealed that the 32 kDa enamelin undergoes conformational changes with a structural preference to β-sheet as a function of calcium ions. We suggest that the increase of β-sheet conformation upon presence of Ca2+ may allow preferable interaction of the 32 kDa enamelin with apatite crystal surfaces during enamel biomineralization. The calcium association constant of the 32 kDa enamelin calculated from the fitting curve of ellipticity at 222 nm is Ka = 1.55 (±0.13) × 103 M−1, indicating a relatively low affinity. Our current biophysical studies on the 32 kDa enamelin structure provide novel insights towards understanding the enamelin-mineral interaction and subsequently the functions of enamelin during enamel formation. PMID:18508280

  13. Isolation and characterization of two plaque size variants of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (DA strain).

    PubMed

    Oleszak, E L; Leibowitz, J L; Rodriguez, M

    1988-09-01

    We have isolated two plaque size variants of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) strain DA. One variant, TMEV-CL (CL), produced large plaques, while the other, TMEV-DS (DS), produced small plaques in L-2 cells. The DS variant yielded a lower titre in BHK cells and had a significantly slower growth rate when compared to CL and DA. In contrast, DS replicated to a higher titre in the central nervous system (CNS) of infected mice than the large plaque counterpart and DA. Furthermore, the DS (but not CL) variant was temperature-sensitive, replicating 130- to 500-fold more at 37 degrees C than at 39 degrees C. Although DS, CL and DA were able to establish persistent CNS infections in mice, only the DS variant and DA induced demyelinating disease in SJL/J mice. Therefore persistence of TMEV in the CNS is not sufficient to produce demyelinating disease. These two variants of the DA strain of TMEV will be useful for study of the viral genetic elements important in the mechanism of virus-induced demyelination.

  14. Investigation of hydrophobic organic carbon (HOC) partitioning to 1 kDa fractionated municipal wastewater colloids.

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Kerry N; Seth, Rajesh; Drouillard, Ken G

    2013-03-19

    Natural organic matter from the aquatic environment passing a 1 kDa filter has been hypothesized to not contribute appreciably to hydrophobic organic compound (HOC) partitioning; however, to our knowledge this limit has not been verified experimentally for any sorbate/sorbent system. Presently, colloidal organic carbon (COC) < 1 kDa approached 70% of the total COC (<1.5 μm) mass in primary effluent (PE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Partitioning of HOCs 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene to COC for both 1.5 μm and 1 kDa filtrates of PE was investigated using the gas-stripping technique. Contrary to the hypothesis, significant HOC-COC partitioning to the 1 kDa filtrate was observed with organic carbon-normalized partitioning coefficients (logKCOC) of 4.30, 4.36, and 3.74 for 1,2,4,5-TeCB, PeCB, and HCB, respectively. Further, partitioning to COC < 1 kDa dominated the overall partitioning of the three chlorobenzenes in the 1.5 μm filtrate, and the partitioning behavior did not follow the trend based on hydrophobicity (KOW). The results show that significant partitioning of HOC may occur to OC < 1 kDa and highlights the need for further experiments with other HOCs and COC characterization to better understand and explain the observed partitioning.

  15. In vitro degradation of the 32kDa PS II reaction centre protein

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenswiller, L.C.; Greenberg, B.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The 32kDa thylakoid membrane protein is an integral component of the PS II reaction centre. The protein, although stable in the dark, undergoes light dependent turnover. Light from the UV, visible and far-red spectral regions induce 32kDa protein degradation. To better understand 32kDa protein metabolism, an in vitro degradation system is being developed. It consists of isolated thylakoid membranes than contain radiolabelled protein. The 32kDa protein is actively and specifically degraded when the thylakoid preparation is exposed to UV or visible radiation. The protein is stable in the dark. The herbicides (atrazine and DCMU) inhibit degradation in the in vitro system as they do in vivo. Additionally, several methods of isolating thylakoids are being compared to optimize the 32kDa protein degradation reaction. The preparations will be evaluated based on their ability to permit light dependent degradation of the 32kDa protein without affecting the other membrane components.

  16. DA 5505: a novel topical formulation of terbinafine that enhances skin penetration and retention.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Raj Kumar; Han, Sang-Duk; Park, Hyoung Geun; Son, Miwon; Jun, Joon Ho; Kim, Jong Oh

    2015-01-01

    Topical fungal infections can become severe if left untreated. Efficient treatment modalities for topical fungal infections aid the penetration of antifungal agents deep into viable skin layers. Terbinafine is a fungicidal agent that inhibits ergosterol, an essential fungal component. The main objective of this study was to evaluate skin permeation and retention of a terbinafine-loaded solution containing chitosan as a film former. Comparative assessment of skin permeation and retention was performed using a prepared formulation (DA 5505) and marketed formulations of terbinafine in murine and porcine skin. To mimic fungal infection of skin, keratinized skin was induced in NC/Nga mice. In comparison with the marketed formulations, DA 5505 exhibited significantly better skin permeation. The flux, permeation coefficient, and enhancement ratio of terbinafine were remarkably increased by DA 5505 in comparison with the marketed formulations, and lag time was dramatically reduced. DA 5505 significantly increased cumulative terbinafine retention in viable skin layers in comparison with the marketed solution, suggesting enhanced efficacy. Furthermore, DA 5505 exhibited superior skin permeation in normal skin and keratinized skin. Thus, the DA 5505 formulation has the potential to effectively deliver terbinafine to superficial and deep cutaneous fungal infections.

  17. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area. PMID:24141956

  18. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area.

  19. Antiapoptotic activity of 30 kDa lipoproteins family from fat body tissue of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Pakkianathan, Britto Cathrin; Singh, Nitin Kumar; König, Simone; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2015-10-01

    The family of 30 kDa lipoproteins (LP1-5) is abundant in silkworm pupa fat body (FB) and hemolymph. One of its members, the 29 kDa protein decreased in concentration from peripheral (PP) FB tissue but was sustained in perivisceral (PV) FB tissue at the time of apoptosis. This study investigated the correlation of the 30 kDa proteins with FB apoptosis. Two protein fractions were purified, a 29 and a 30/31 kDa protein fraction, and they were used to test for activity against actinomycin D-induced apoptosis in the FB tissues. Concentrations as little as 50 μg/mL of the 29 kDa protein fraction efficiently inhibited apoptosis. Less antiapoptotic activity was detected for the higher MW fraction; DNA fragmentation was observed in FB tissue treated with 50 μg/mL of the 30/31 kDa fraction. The viability of the cells in the 29 kDa protein-supplemented culture was 40% higher than in the 31 kDa protein-supplemented culture. However, the 30 kDa lipoproteins were not able to prevent scheduled FB degeneration during silkworm metamorphosis. Thus, it is hypothesized that the antiapoptotic 29 kDa protein needs to be proteolytically degraded by a regulatory mechanism to allow programmed cell death of FB tissue.

  20. Leonardo da Vinci and the first hemodynamic observations.

    PubMed

    Martins e Silva, J

    2008-02-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was a genius whose accomplishments and ideas come down to us today, five centuries later, with the freshness of innovation and the fascination of discovery. This brief review begins with a summary of Leonardo's life and a description of the most important works of art that he bequeathed us, and then concentrates on his last great challenge. There was a point at which Leonardo's passion for art gave way to the study of human anatomy, not only to improve his drawing but to go beyond what had been simply a representation of form to understand the underlying functioning. Among his many interests, we focus on his study of the heart and blood vessels, which he observed carefully in animals and human autopsies, and reproduced in drawings of great quality with annotations of astonishing acuteness. The experience that he had acquired from observing the flow of water in currents and around obstacles, and the conclusions that he drew concerning hydrodynamics, were central to his interpretation of the mechanisms of the heart and of blood flow, to which he devoted much of his time between 1508 and 1513. From these studies, immortalized in drawings of great clarity, come what are acknowledged to be the first hemodynamic records, in which Leonardo demonstrates the characteristics of blood flow in the aorta and great vessels and the importance of blood reflux and the formation of eddies in the sinus in aortic valve his assiduous and careful observations, and his subsequent deductions, Leonardo put forward detailed findings on hemodynamic questions that advanced technology has only recently enabled us to confirm.

  1. La différence épidémiologique des hémorragies digestives hautes entre les hommes et les femmes

    PubMed Central

    El Mekkaoui, Amine; Saâda, Kaoutar; Mellouki, Ihssane; El Yousfi, Mounia; Aqodad, Nourdin; El Abkari, Mohammed; Ibrahimi, Adil; Benajah, Dafr-Allah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Des différences épidémiologiques, étiologique voire pronostique des hémorragies digestives hautes (HDH) entre les deux sexes opposés ont été cité par différentes études. Méthodes Nous avons essayé de déceler ces différences à travers une analyse rétrospective nichée sur une étude prospective sur les hémorragies digestives hautes ayant inclus 945 patients. Résultats Six cents trente-sept patients étaient des hommes (67,4% Vs 32,6%). Un antécédent d'HDH était trouvé chez 24,2% des cas sans différence significative entre les deux sexes. L'âge de survenue de l'hémorragie était plus élevé chez les femmes que chez les hommes : 51,5 ans ± 18,8 Vs 47,8 ans ± 18,3 (p : 0,003). Les étiologies de l'HDH étaient différentes entre les deux sexes. Alors que l'hémorragie liée à l'HTP était la première cause chez la femme (38 % Vs 23,5 % chez l'homme, p<0,0001), c'est la pathologie ulcéreuse qui venait en premier chez l'homme (62 % Vs 36,7 % chez la femme, p<0,0001). Un besoin transfusionnel était noté chez 42,4 % des patients de sexe masculin contre 35,4 % des patientes avec un p = 0,03. Le taux de récidive et de décès global étaient de 7,5 % et de 5,7 % des cas respectivement, sans différence significative entre les deux sexes. Conclusion L'étude trouve un profil épidémiologique, clinique et étiologique différent selon le sexe des patients. PMID:23077715

  2. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    PubMed Central

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p < 0,05) que les valeurs de référence recommandées par les structures officielles de contrôle et de production des mobiliers scolaires au Bénin. Quel que soit le sexe, il y avait une inadéquation entre la largeur du banc et la longueur fesse-poplité, puis entre la hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  3. Insertion of Astronomy as a High School Subject. (Spanish Title: Inserción de Astronomia Como Materia del Ciclo Secundario.) Inserção da Astronomia Como Disciplina Curricular do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Claudio André C. M.; Santa Rita, Josué R.

    2008-12-01

    Astronomy is considered among the first sciences that man dominated, however, the basic skills for the construction of knowledge, relatively to the contents "Earth and the Universe" are not being developed properly for the majority of students concluding the high school level. The students are concluding this teaching cycle without proper knowledge of several subjects in the area of Astronomy, which are mandatory in the national Curricular National Parameters (PCN). Because of this discrepancy, this work stresses the need of the incorporation of a specific subject of Astronomy in the high school, in order to reduce the gap between what is taught and which should be taught. La Astronomía es considerada una de las primeras ciencias que el hombre dominó. Sin embargo, las habilidades básicas para la construcción del conocimento, relativo al eje temático "Tierra y Universo", no vienen siendo trabajadas adecuadamente con la mayoría de los alumnos que concluyen el ciclo escolar medio. Los alumnos están concluyendo este nivel de enseñanza sin conocimentos de varios temas en el área de Astronomía, que son obligatorios según los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN). En virtud de esta discrepancia, este trabajo enfatiza la necesidad de incorporar una disciplina específica de Astronomía em el ciclo medio, em pro de la reducción de las distorsiones entre lo que es enseñado y lo que se debe enseñar. A Astronomia é considerada uma das primeiras ciências que o homem dominou, porém as competências básicas para a construção do conhecimento, relativo ao eixo temático "Terra e Universo", não vêm sendo trabalhadas a contento com a maioria dos alunos que concluem o ensino médio. Os alunos estão concluindo este nível de ensino sem conhecimento de vários temas na área de Astronomia, que são obrigatórios nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN). Em virtude desta discrepância, este trabalho vem evidenciar a necessidade da incorporação de uma

  4. Construção de um catálogo de aglomerados abertos para estudo da dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, I. M.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados abertos são objetos de grande valor para o estudo da dinâmica da Galáxia devido esses objetos terem uma faixa de idade relativamente ampla. O trabalho visa estudar a dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia principalmente através do uso desses aglomerados, uma vez que o estudo da cinemática desses objetos é fundamental para esse objetivo. Nosso grupo trabalha no sentido de construir uma base de dados de aglomerados abertos contendo coordenadas, distância, idade, movimentos próprios e velocidades radiais e já disponibiliza uma nova versão do catálogo de aglomerados abertos o qual é uma compilação de edições anteriores, principalmente Lynga (1987), Mermilliod (1995) e ESO-B (Lauberts 1982). Nossa amostra possui cerca de 1630 aglomerados, mas nem todos os parâmetros acima citados foram determinados em sua totalidade. Para determinarmos esses parâmetros, derivamos as cores intrínsecas das estrelas membro de cada aglomerado a partir de seus tipos espectrais (busca feita no SIMBAD) obtendo assim o excesso de cor individual. A distribuição dos excessos de cor foi então utilizada para derivarmos o avermelhamento médio para cada aglomerado. De maneira similar, os tipos espectrais foram usados para estimar as magnitudes absolutas, e com as magnitudes absolutas e aparentes determinamos a respectiva distribuição do módulo de distância e finalmente a distância. Para determinar as idades foram confeccionados os diagramas cor-magnitude das estrelas de cada aglomerado onde foram superpostas a Seqüência Principal de Idade Zero (ZAMS). Superpomos a ZAMS de Schmidt-Kaler e isócronas de composição solar. Essas isócronas foram usadas para determinação das idades dos aglomerados. Uma vez que não temos ainda resultados finais, apresentamos então alguns diagramas cor-magnitude os quais foram usados para determinação, principalmente, da distância e idade dos aglomerados.

  5. HACCP models for quality control of entrée production in hospital foodservice systems. II. Quality assessment of beef loaves utilizing HACCP models.

    PubMed

    Bobeng, B J; David, B D

    1978-11-01

    HACCP models were developed for quality control of entrée production in three hospital foodservice systems: Conventional, cook/chill, and cook/freeze (1). The three systems were stimulated in a laboratory to evaluate the effectiveness of the HACCP models for quality control and to generate quantitative data for evaluating and comparing the quality of beef loaves produced under controlled conditions. Attributes measured were weight (yield) and microbiologic, nutritional, and sensory qualities. The only significant difference in the beef loaves among systems was sensory quality. Scores for overall acceptability of beef loaves in the conventional system were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than for those of the cook/chill and cook/freeze systems. The HACCP models were effective quality control tools for entrée production; implementation of the HACCP system is recommended for hospital foodservices. The importance of the time-temperature critical point for monitoring control points in hospital foodservice systems is emphasized.

  6. An Introduction to the DA-T Gibbs Sampler for the Two-Parameter Logistic (2PL) Model and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo M.

    2005-01-01

    The DA-T Gibbs sampler is proposed by Maris and Maris (2002) as a Bayesian estimation method for a wide variety of "Item Response Theory (IRT) models". The present paper provides an expository account of the DA-T Gibbs sampler for the 2PL model. However, the scope is not limited to the 2PL model. It is demonstrated how the DA-T Gibbs sampler for…

  7. 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase and SATB1 localize to β-amyloid induced matrix attachment regions.

    PubMed

    Winick-Ng, Warren; Caetano, Fabiana A; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Morey, Trevor M; Heit, Bryan; Rylett, R Jane

    2016-01-01

    The M-transcript of human choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) produces an 82-kDa protein (82-kDa ChAT) that concentrates in nuclei of cholinergic neurons. We assessed the effects of acute exposure to oligomeric amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42) on 82-kDa ChAT disposition in SH-SY5Y neural cells, finding that acute exposure to Aβ1-42 results in increased association of 82-kDa ChAT with chromatin and formation of 82-kDa ChAT aggregates in nuclei. When measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified that Aβ1-42-exposure increases 82-kDa ChAT association with gene promoters and introns. The Aβ1-42-induced 82-kDa ChAT aggregates co-localize with special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1), which anchors DNA to scaffolding/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs). SATB1 had a similar genomic association as 82-kDa ChAT, with both proteins associating with synapse and cell stress genes. After Aβ1-42 -exposure, both SATB1 and 82-kDa ChAT are enriched at the same S/MAR on the APP gene, with 82-kDa ChAT expression attenuating an increase in an isoform-specific APP mRNA transcript. Finally, 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 have patterned genomic association at regions enriched with S/MAR binding motifs. These results demonstrate that 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 play critical roles in the response of neural cells to acute Aβ-exposure. PMID:27052102

  8. 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase and SATB1 localize to β-amyloid induced matrix attachment regions

    PubMed Central

    Winick-Ng, Warren; Caetano, Fabiana A.; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Morey, Trevor M.; Heit, Bryan; Rylett, R. Jane

    2016-01-01

    The M-transcript of human choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) produces an 82-kDa protein (82-kDa ChAT) that concentrates in nuclei of cholinergic neurons. We assessed the effects of acute exposure to oligomeric amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ1–42) on 82-kDa ChAT disposition in SH-SY5Y neural cells, finding that acute exposure to Aβ1–42 results in increased association of 82-kDa ChAT with chromatin and formation of 82-kDa ChAT aggregates in nuclei. When measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified that Aβ1–42 -exposure increases 82-kDa ChAT association with gene promoters and introns. The Aβ1–42 -induced 82-kDa ChAT aggregates co-localize with special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1), which anchors DNA to scaffolding/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs). SATB1 had a similar genomic association as 82-kDa ChAT, with both proteins associating with synapse and cell stress genes. After Aβ1–42 -exposure, both SATB1 and 82-kDa ChAT are enriched at the same S/MAR on the APP gene, with 82-kDa ChAT expression attenuating an increase in an isoform-specific APP mRNA transcript. Finally, 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 have patterned genomic association at regions enriched with S/MAR binding motifs. These results demonstrate that 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 play critical roles in the response of neural cells to acute Aβ -exposure. PMID:27052102

  9. High resolution structure of cleaved Serpin 42 Da from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drosophila melanogaster Serpin 42 Da gene (previously Serpin 4) encodes a serine protease inhibitor that is capable of remarkable functional diversity through the alternative splicing of four different reactive centre loop exons. Eight protein isoforms of Serpin 42 Da have been identified to date, targeting the protease inhibitor to both different proteases and cellular locations. Biochemical and genetic studies suggest that Serpin 42 Da inhibits target proteases through the classical serpin ‘suicide’ inhibition mechanism, however the crystal structure of a representative Serpin 42 Da isoform remains to be determined. Results We report two high-resolution crystal structures of Serpin 42 Da representing the A/B isoforms in the cleaved conformation, belonging to two different space-groups and diffracting to 1.7 Å and 1.8 Å. Structural analysis reveals the archetypal serpin fold, with the major elements of secondary structure displaying significant homology to the vertebrate serpin, neuroserpin. Key residues known to have central roles in the serpin inhibitory mechanism are conserved in both the hinge and shutter regions of Serpin 42 Da. Furthermore, these structures identify important conserved interactions that appear to be of crucial importance in allowing the Serpin 42 Da fold to act as a versatile template for multiple reactive centre loops that have different sequences and protease specificities. Conclusions In combination with previous biochemical and genetic studies, these structures confirm for the first time that the Serpin 42 Da isoforms are typical inhibitory serpin family members with the conserved serpin fold and inhibitory mechanism. Additionally, these data reveal the remarkable structural plasticity of serpins, whereby the basic fold is harnessed as a template for inhibition of a large spectrum of proteases by reactive centre loop exon ‘switching’. This is the first structure of a Drosophila serpin reported to date

  10. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam

  11. The rare DAT coding variant Val559 perturbs DA neuron function, changes behavior, and alters in vivo responses to psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Mergy, Marc A; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Gresch, Paul J; Gantz, Stephanie C; Williams, John; Davis, Gwynne L; Wheeler, C Austin; Stanwood, Gregg D; Hahn, Maureen K; Blakely, Randy D

    2014-11-01

    Despite the critical role of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) in DA clearance and psychostimulant responses, evidence that DAT dysfunction supports risk for mental illness is indirect. Recently, we identified a rare, nonsynonymous Slc6a3 variant that produces the DAT substitution Ala559Val in two male siblings who share a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with other studies identifying the variant in subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, using transfected cell studies, we observed that although DAT Val559 displays normal total and surface DAT protein levels, and normal DA recognition and uptake, the variant transporter exhibits anomalous DA efflux (ADE) and lacks capacity for amphetamine (AMPH)-stimulated DA release. To pursue the significance of these findings in vivo, we engineered DAT Val559 knock-in mice, and here we demonstrate in this model the presence of elevated extracellular DA levels, altered somatodendritic and presynaptic D2 DA receptor (D2R) function, a blunted ability of DA terminals to support depolarization and AMPH-evoked DA release, and disruptions in basal and psychostimulant-evoked locomotor behavior. Together, our studies demonstrate an in vivo functional impact of the DAT Val559 variant, providing support for the ability of DAT dysfunction to impact risk for mental illness.

  12. Localization, biosynthesis, processing and isolation of a major 126 kDa antigen of the parasitophorous vacuole of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Delplace, P; Fortier, B; Tronchin, G; Dubremetz, J F; Vernes, A

    1987-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies prepared against a 50 kDa antigen found in Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatants identify a 126 kDa polypeptide which can be localized by immunofluorescence and immunoelectronmicroscopy at the periphery of the schizonts. This polypeptide is released from the infected erythrocytes by mild saponin lysis and is probably a component of the parasitophorous vacuole. Pulse chase kinetic analysis demonstrated its disappearance from the parasitized red blood cell from 6 to 10 h after being synthesized and the concomitant appearance of the 50 kDa molecule in the culture supernatant. Purification of metabolically labeled, schizont infected cells demonstrated that spontaneous release of merozoites is needed for the processing of the 126 to the 50 kDa whereas reinvasion is not. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbit against affinity purified 126 kDa protein. These antibodies, together with another 126 kDa specific monoclonal antibody have enabled us to characterize two other cleavage products of the 126 kDa antigen in culture supernatants, namely 47 and 18 kDa polypeptides. We believe that the processing of the 126 kDa protein into low molecular weight fragments reflects a proteolytic event which may participate in merozoite release.

  13. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakker, A. B.; Cowles, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  14. Metagonimus yokogawai: a 100-kDa Somatic Antigen Commonly Reacting with Other Trematodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Jin; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the properties of a 100 kDa somatic antigen from Metagonimus yokogawai. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against this 100 kDa antigen, and their immunoreactivity was assessed by western blot analysis with patients' sera. The mAbs against the 100 kDa antigen commonly reacted with various kinds of trematode antigens, including intestinal (Gymnophalloides seoi), lung (Paragonimus westermani), and liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica). However, this mAb showed no cross-reactions with other helminth parasites, including nematodes and cestodes. To determine the topographic distribution of the 100 kDa antigen in worm sections, indirect immunoperoxidase staining was performed. A strong positive reaction was observed in the tegumental and subtegumental layers of adult M. yokogawai and C. sinensis. The results showed that the 100 kDa somatic protein of M. yokogawai is a common antigen which recognizes a target epitope present over the tegumental layer of different trematode species. PMID:24850966

  15. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis. PMID:26951982

  16. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis. PMID:26951982

  17. In vitro study on the interaction between the 32 kDa enamelin and amelogenin

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Daming; Du, Chang; Sun, Zhi; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Enamel extracelluar matrix components play vital roles in controlling crystal nucleation and growth during enamel formation. We investigated the interaction between the 32 kDa enamelin fragment and amelogenin using immunochemical and biophysical methods. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the 32 kDa enamelin and amelogenin eluted together from a Protein A column. Dynamic light scattering results showed that the 32 kDa enamelin had a profound effect on amelogenin assembly at pH 8.0, causing partial dissociation of the nanospheres, in a dose-dependent manner. The appearance of an isodichroic point and the shifting and intensity decrease of the ellipticity minima in the circular dichroism spectra of amelogenin following the addition of the 32 kDa enamelin were indicative of conformational changes in amelogenin and of a direct interaction between the two macromolecules. Our results collectively demonstrate that the 32 kDa enamelin has a direct interaction with amelogenin in vitro. Our current studies provide novel insights into understanding possible cooperation between enamelin and amelogenin in macromolecular self-assembly and in controlling enamel mineral formation. PMID:19263522

  18. Alternative translation initiation site in the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, W P; Roos, R P

    1991-01-01

    Polyprotein processing studies of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a group of mouse picornaviruses, demonstrated synthesis of a protein we have called l during in vitro translations from the RNA of DA, a demyelinating strain of TMEV, but not GDVII, an acute neurovirulent strain. We have proposed that l is synthesized from an alternative initiation site in the DA leader (L) coding area out of phase with the polyprotein reading frame (R. P. Roos, W.-P. Kong, B. L. Semler, J. Virol. 63:5344-5353, 1989). We now provide support for this proposal from experiments involving in vitro translation of three separate mutations of an infectious DA cDNA clone: DA"l"-1, which contains a base mismatch at the putative initiation codon of l, DAL-1, which contains a base mismatch at the presumed authentic initiation site of L at the beginning of the polyprotein; and DAL:NheI, which contains nucleotides coding for a four-amino-acid insertion in the L coding area with a termination codon in the l reading frame. Our results demonstrate that the DA strain uses an alternative initiation site and reading frame to in vitro synthesize l. l may have a role in the biological activity of the virus. Images PMID:2033677

  19. Audio watermarking robust against D/A and A/D conversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Shijun

    2011-12-01

    Digital audio watermarking robust against digital-to-analog (D/A) and analog-to-digital (A/D) conversions is an important issue. In a number of watermark application scenarios, D/A and A/D conversions are involved. In this article, we first investigate the degradation due to DA/AD conversions via sound cards, which can be decomposed into volume change, additional noise, and time-scale modification (TSM). Then, we propose a solution for DA/AD conversions by considering the effect of the volume change, additional noise and TSM. For the volume change, we introduce relation-based watermarking method by modifying groups of the energy relation of three adjacent DWT coefficient sections. For the additional noise, we pick up the lowest-frequency coefficients for watermarking. For the TSM, the synchronization technique (with synchronization codes and an interpolation processing operation) is exploited. Simulation tests show the proposed audio watermarking algorithm provides a satisfactory performance to DA/AD conversions and those common audio processing manipulations.

  20. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry. PMID:27163287

  1. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hung-Chang; Wei, Jia-Yi; Chu, Sao-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Chi; Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry.

  2. Essential 170-kDa subunit for degradation of crystalline cellulose by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, O.; Doi, R.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The cellulase complex from Clostridium cellulovorans has been purified and its subunit composition determined. The complex exhibits cellulase activity against crystalline cellulose as well as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and cellobiohydrolase activities. Three major subunits are present with molecular masses of 170, 100, and 70 kDa. The 100-kDa subunit is the major CMCase, although at least four other, minor subunits show CMCase activity. The 170-kDa subunit has the highest affinity for cellulose, does not have detectable enzymatic activity, but is necessary for cellulase activity. Immunological studies indicate that the 170-kDa subunit is not required for binding of the catalytic subunits to cellulose and therefore does not function solely as an anchor protein. Thus this core subunit must have multiple functions. The authors propose a working hypothesis that the binding of the 170-kDa subunit converts the crystalline cellulose to a form that is capable of being hydrolyzed in a cooperative fashion by the associated catalytic subunits.

  3. PanDA: Exascale Federation of Resources for the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; De, Kaushik; Hover, John; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Padolski, Siarhei; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-02-01

    After a scheduled maintenance and upgrade period, the world's largest and most powerful machine - the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) - is about to enter its second run at unprecedented energies. In order to exploit the scientific potential of the machine, the experiments at the LHC face computational challenges with enormous data volumes that need to be analysed by thousand of physics users and compared to simulated data. Given diverse funding constraints, the computational resources for the LHC have been deployed in a worldwide mesh of data centres, connected to each other through Grid technologies. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed in 2005 for the ATLAS experiment on top of this heterogeneous infrastructure to seamlessly integrate the computational resources and give the users the feeling of a unique system. Since its origins, PanDA has evolved together with upcoming computing paradigms in and outside HEP, such as changes in the networking model, Cloud Computing and HPC. It is currently running steadily up to 200 thousand simultaneous cores (limited by the available resources for ATLAS), up to two million aggregated jobs per day and processes over an exabyte of data per year. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is triggering the widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. In this contribution we will give an overview of the PanDA components and focus on the new features and upcoming challenges that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  4. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    SciTech Connect

    Thakker, A.B.; Cowles, B.A.

    1983-04-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  5. Essential 170-kDa subunit for degradation of crystalline cellulose by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulase.

    PubMed Central

    Shoseyov, O; Doi, R H

    1990-01-01

    The cellulase complex from Clostridium cellulovorans has been purified and its subunit composition determined. The complex exhibits cellulase activity against crystalline cellulose as well as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and cellobiohydrolase activities. Three major subunits are present with molecular masses of 170, 100, and 70 kDa. The 100-kDa subunit is the major CMCase, although at least four other, minor subunits show CMCase activity. The 170-kDa subunit has the highest affinity for cellulose, does not have detectable enzymatic activity, but is necessary for cellulase activity. Immunological studies indicate that the 170-kDa subunit is not required for binding of the catalytic subunits to cellulose and therefore does not function solely as an anchor protein. Thus this core subunit must have multiple functions. We propose a working hypothesis that the binding of the 170-kDa subunit converts the crystalline cellulose to a form that is capable of being hydrolyzed in a cooperative fashion by the associated catalytic subunits. Images PMID:2107547

  6. gLExec Integration with the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavakis, E.; Barreiro, F.; Campana, S.; De, K.; Di Girolamo, A.; Litmaath, M.; Maeno, T.; Medrano, R.; Nilsson, P.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    ATLAS user jobs are executed on Worker Nodes (WNs) by pilots sent to sites by pilot factories. This paradigm serves to allow a high job reliability and although it has clear advantages, such as making the working environment homogeneous, the approach presents security and traceability challenges. To address these challenges, gLExec can be used to let the payloads for each user be executed under a different UNIX user id that uniquely identifies the ATLAS user. This paper describes the recent improvements and evolution of the security model within the ATLAS PanDA system, including improvements in the PanDA pilot, in the PanDA server and their integration with MyProxy, a credential caching system that entitles a person or a service to act in the name of the issuer of the credential. Finally, it presents results from ATLAS user jobs running with gLExec and describes the deployment campaign within ATLAS.

  7. Detection of trace helium in G104 - 27, a 26,000 K DA white dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Holberg, J.B.; Kidder, K.M.; Wesemael, F. Montreal Universite, Montreal )

    1990-12-01

    The detection of the He I 4471 A feature in the moderately hot DA white dwarf G104 - 27 places this star within the rather sparse class of DAB white dwarfs. It does not appear possible, on the basis of the present data, to distinguish between a stratified and a homogeneously mixed atmosphere. While a stratified structure would be natural for a DA white dwarf, G104 - 27 resides near the red edge of the DB gap, in a region where DA stars could transform into DB stars through convective mixing in the underlying He envelope and thereby destroy envelope stratification. Both atmospheres are consistent with the existing soft X-ray flux limit for this star. 37 refs.

  8. Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with PARAFAC and PLS DA for characterization and classification of honey.

    PubMed

    Lenhardt, Lea; Bro, Rasmus; Zeković, Ivana; Dramićanin, Tatjana; Dramićanin, Miroslav D

    2015-05-15

    Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and Partial least squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS DA) were used for characterization and classification of honey. Excitation emission spectra were obtained for 95 honey samples of different botanical origin (acacia, sunflower, linden, meadow, and fake honey) by recording emission from 270 to 640 nm with excitation in the range of 240-500 nm. The number of fluorophores present in honey, excitation and emission spectra of each fluorophore, and their relative concentration are determined using a six-component PARAFAC model. Emissions from phenolic compounds and Maillard reaction products exhibited the largest difference among classes of honey of different botanical origin. The PLS DA classification model, constructed from PARAFAC model scores, detected fake honey samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Honey samples were also classified using PLS DA with errors of 0.5% for linden, 10% for acacia, and about 20% for both sunflower and meadow mix.

  9. The coolest DA white dwarfs detected at soft X-ray wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, K. M.; Holberg, J. B.; Barstow, M. A.; Tweedy, R. W.; Wesemael, F.

    1992-01-01

    New soft X-ray/EUV photometric observations of the DA white dwarfs KPD 0631 + 1043 = WD 0631 + 107 and PG 1113 + 413 = WD 1113 + 413 are analyzed. Previously reported soft X-ray detections of three other DAs and the failure to detect a fourth DA in deep Exosat observations are investigated. New ground-based spectra are presented for all of the objects, with IUE Ly-alpha spectra for some. These data are used to constrain the effective temperatures and surface gravities. The improved estimates of these parameters are employed to refer a photospheric He abundance for the hotter objects and to elucidate an effective observational low-temperature threshold for the detection of pure hydrogen DA white dwarfs at soft X-ray wavelengths.

  10. Detection of trace helium in G104 - 27, a 26,000 K DA white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Kidder, K. M.; Wesemael, F.

    1990-01-01

    The detection of the He I 4471 A feature in the moderately hot DA white dwarf G104 - 27 places this star within the rather sparse class of DAB white dwarfs. It does not appear possible, on the basis of the present data, to distinguish between a stratified and a homogeneously mixed atmosphere. While a stratified structure would be natural for a DA white dwarf, G104 - 27 resides near the red edge of the DB gap, in a region where DA stars could transform into DB stars through convective mixing in the underlying He envelope and thereby destroy envelope stratification. Both atmospheres are consistent with the existing soft X-ray flux limit for this star.

  11. Effect of Grapefruit Seed Extract on Thermal Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during Sous-Vide Processing of Two Marinated Mexican Meat Entrées.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin; Peña-Ramos, E Aida; Juneja, Vijay K; Camou, Juan Pedro; Cumplido-Barbeitia, German

    2016-07-01

    D- and z-values for Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200, and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes were packaged in sterile bags, immersed in a water bath, and held at 55, 57.5, 60, and 62.5°C for different periods of time. Depending upon the temperature, D-values at 0 ppm of GSE ranged from 26.19 to 2.03 min in BRCS and 26.41 to 0.8 min in PTS. Adding 800 ppm of GSE to BRCS thermally treated at 55 and 62.5°C significantly decreased inactivation time by 35%. A reduction in time of 25.9, 10.6, and 40.1% at 55, 57.5, and 60°C, respectively, was observed in PTS with 800 ppm of GSE. The z-values of L. monocytogenes were not significantly affected by GSE addition; average z-values were 7.25 and 5.09°C for BRCS and PTS, respectively. Estimated thermal lethality for a 7-D log reduction of L. monocytogenes under commercial-size sous-vide conditions at a reference temperature of 55°C was reached at 78 and 71 min for BRCS without and with 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. For PTS, 7-D reduction was attained at 69 and 61 min without and with addition of 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. Supplementing both Mexican meat entrées (BRCS and PTS) with 800 ppm of GSE rendered L. monocytogenes cells more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. The results of this study will assist the retail food industry in designing acceptance limits on critical control points pertaining to cooking regimes to effectively eliminate L. monocytogenes in BRCS and PTS sous-vide processed Mexican meat entrées. PMID:27357037

  12. Effect of Grapefruit Seed Extract on Thermal Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during Sous-Vide Processing of Two Marinated Mexican Meat Entrées.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin; Peña-Ramos, E Aida; Juneja, Vijay K; Camou, Juan Pedro; Cumplido-Barbeitia, German

    2016-07-01

    D- and z-values for Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200, and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes were packaged in sterile bags, immersed in a water bath, and held at 55, 57.5, 60, and 62.5°C for different periods of time. Depending upon the temperature, D-values at 0 ppm of GSE ranged from 26.19 to 2.03 min in BRCS and 26.41 to 0.8 min in PTS. Adding 800 ppm of GSE to BRCS thermally treated at 55 and 62.5°C significantly decreased inactivation time by 35%. A reduction in time of 25.9, 10.6, and 40.1% at 55, 57.5, and 60°C, respectively, was observed in PTS with 800 ppm of GSE. The z-values of L. monocytogenes were not significantly affected by GSE addition; average z-values were 7.25 and 5.09°C for BRCS and PTS, respectively. Estimated thermal lethality for a 7-D log reduction of L. monocytogenes under commercial-size sous-vide conditions at a reference temperature of 55°C was reached at 78 and 71 min for BRCS without and with 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. For PTS, 7-D reduction was attained at 69 and 61 min without and with addition of 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. Supplementing both Mexican meat entrées (BRCS and PTS) with 800 ppm of GSE rendered L. monocytogenes cells more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. The results of this study will assist the retail food industry in designing acceptance limits on critical control points pertaining to cooking regimes to effectively eliminate L. monocytogenes in BRCS and PTS sous-vide processed Mexican meat entrées.

  13. Characterization of the 70 kDa polypeptide of the Na/Ca exchanger.

    PubMed Central

    Saba, R I; Bollen, A; Herchuelz, A

    1999-01-01

    The Na/Ca exchanger is associated with 160, 120 and 70 kDa polypeptides whose nature is poorly understood. We have purified and characterized the Na/Ca exchanger from bovine cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles (SLVs) by using ion-exchange and affinity chromatographies. The Na/Ca exchanger-enriched fraction was reconstituted into asolectin liposomes [lipid to protein ratio 10:1 (w/w)] that showed Na/Ca exchange activity. Under non-reducing conditions, SDS/PAGE showed a single 70 kDa polypeptide, which was further characterized by immunoblots with different antibodies: SWant, raised against the purified exchanger protein; NH2-terminus, residues 1-21; NCX1, residues 393-406; and Exon F, residues 622-644. Immunoblots under reducing conditions with SWant, NH2-terminus and NCX1 showed three bands migrating at 160, 120 and 70 kDa for SLV preparations, whereas Exon F reacted only with the 160 and 120 kDa bands. Under non-reducing conditions, immunoblots with purified reconstituted Na/Ca exchanger showed a single band at 70 kDa reacting with SWant, NH2-terminus and NCX1 but not with Exon F. We conclude that the 70 kDa protein is associated with Na/Ca exchange activity, has the same N-terminal sequence as the cloned bovine cardiac exchanger, and has its length decreased by at least 35% from its C-terminal portion as compared with that of the wild-type exchanger. PMID:9931309

  14. Recurring X-ray outbursts in the supernova impostor SN 2010da in NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, B.; Williams, B. F.; Kong, A. K. H.; Gaetz, T. J.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Skillman, E. D.; Dolphin, A.

    2016-04-01

    We present new observations of the `supernova impostor' SN 2010da using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. During the initial 2010 outburst, the 0.3-10 keV luminosity was observed by Swift to be ˜5 × 1038 erg s-1 and faded by a factor of ˜25 in a four month period. Our two new Chandra observations show a factor of ˜10 increase in the 0.35-8 keV X-ray luminosity, from ˜4 × 1036 to 4 × 1037 erg s-1 in ˜6 months, and the X-ray spectrum is consistent in both observations with a power-law with a photon index of Γ ˜ 0. We find evidence of X-ray spectral state changes: when SN 2010da is in a high-luminosity state, the X-ray spectrum is harder (Γ ˜0) compared to the low-luminosity state (Γ ˜ 1.2 ± 0.8). Using our Hubble observations, we fit the colour-magnitude diagram of the coeval stellar population to estimate a time since formation of the SN 2010da progenitor system of ≲5 Myr. Our observations are consistent with SN 2010da being a high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) composed of a neutron star and a luminous blue variable-like companion, although we cannot rule out the possibility that SN 2010da is an unusually X-ray bright massive star. The ≲5 Myr age is consistent with the theoretically predicted delay time between the formation of a massive binary and the onset of the HMXB phase. It is possible that the initial 2010 outburst marked the beginning of X-ray production in the system, making SN 2010da possibly the first massive progenitor binary ever observed to evolve into an HMXB.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of chlorogenic acid and corydaline in DA-9701, a new botanical gastroprokinetic agent, in rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Won; Kim, Ju Myung; Jeong, Jin Seok; Son, Miwon; Lee, Hye Suk; Lee, Myung Gull; Kang, Hee Eun

    2014-07-01

    1.Few studies describing the pharmacokinetic properties of chlorogenic acid (CA) and corydaline (CRD) which are marker compounds of a new prokinetic botanical agent, DA-9701, have been reported. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties CA and CRD following intravenous and oral administration of pure CA (1-8 mg/kg) or CRD (1.1-4.5 mg/kg) and their equivalent dose of DA-9701 to rats. 2.  Dose-proportional AUC and dose-independent clearance (10.3-12.1 ml/min/kg) of CA were observed following its administration. Oral administration of CA as DA-9701 did not influence the oral pharmacokinetic parameters of CA. Incomplete absorption of CA, its decomposition in the gastrointestinal tract, and/or pre-systemic metabolism resulted in extremely low oral bioavailability (F) of CA (0.478-0.899%). 3.  CRD showed greater dose-normalized AUC in the higher dose group than that in lower dose group(s) after its administration due to saturation of its metabolism via decreased non-renal clearance (by 51.3%) and first-pass extraction. As a result, the F of CRD following 4.5 mg/kg oral CRD (21.1%) was considerably greater than those of the lower dose groups (9.10 and 13.8%). However, oral administration of CRD as DA-9701 showed linear pharmacokinetics as a result of increased AUC and F in lower-dose groups (by 182% and 78.5%, respectively) compared to those of pure CRD. The greater oral AUC of CRD for DA-9701 than for pure CRD could be due to decreased hepatic and/or GI first-pass extraction of CRD by other components in DA-9701.

  16. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, the future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multicore worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused worker nodes on Titan, which allows precise definition of the size and duration of jobs submitted to Titan according to available free resources. This capability significantly reduces PanDA job wait time while improving Titan's utilization efficiency. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on Titan and is being tested on several other supercomputing platforms. Notice: This manuscript has been authored, by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  17. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2013-06-01

    Rice, the staple food of south and east Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16, 26, 33, and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Recently, it was documented that the 56 kDa rice allergen was responsible for rice-induced anaphylaxis. The 14-16 kDa allergens have been identified as α-amylase inhibitors; the 26 kDa protein has been identified as α-globulin; and the 33 kDa protein has been identified as glyoxalase I. However, the identity of the 56 kDa rice allergen has not yet been determined. In this study, we demonstrate that serum from patients allergic to maize shows IgE binding to a 56 kDa protein that was present in both maize and rice but not in the oil seeds soybean and peanut. The 56 kDa IgE-binding protein was abundant in the rice endosperm. We have purified this protein from rice endosperm and demonstrated its reactivity to IgE antibodies from the serum of maize-allergic patients. The purified protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, resulting in identification of this rice allergen as granule-bound starch synthase, a product of the Waxy gene. Immunoblot analysis using protein extracts from a waxy mutant of rice revealed the absence of the 56 kDa IgE-binding protein. Our results demonstrate that the 56 kDa rice allergen is granule-bound starch synthase and raise the possibility of using waxy mutants of rice as a potential source of the hypoallergenic diet for patients sensitized to the 56 kDa rice allergen.

  18. Infectious cDNA clones of the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, R P; Stein, S; Ohara, Y; Fu, J L; Semler, B L

    1989-01-01

    The DA strain and other members of the TO subgroup of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses cause a persistent demyelinating infection, whereas the GDVII strain and other GDVII subgroup strains cause an acute lethal polioencephalomyelitis. We generated an infectious DA cDNA clone inserted into a transcription vector. Virus derived from transfection of transcripts produced a demyelinating disease indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus. The infectious clone provides a critical reagent for the production of interstrain recombinant viruses to help identify genetic loci responsible for the biological activities of the strains. Images PMID:2555569

  19. Spectroscopy of the DA white dwarfs - Automatic atmospheric parameterization and mass distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Robert K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the automatic calculation of the atmospheric parameters (Teff and log g) of hydrogen-rich degenerate stars from low-resolution spectra is described, and then applied to the spectra of 53 DA white dwarfs. A value for the width of the DA mass distribution of sigma M/solar-M not greater than +0.10 is obtained using the proposed approach. The data indicate that the distribution is asymmetrically skewed to low masses; however, there is also evidence of a high-mass non-Gaussian tail.

  20. Evolution of robots throughout history from Hephaestus to Da Vinci Robot.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegke, Xanthi-Ekaterini D; Iavazzo, Paraskevi-Evangelia; Gkegkes, Ioannis D

    2014-01-01

    Da Vinci robot is increasingly used for operations adding the advantages of robots to the favor of medicine. This is a historical article with the aim to present the evolution of robots in the medical area from the time of ancient myths to Renaissance and finally to the current revolutionary applications. We endeavored to collect several elegant narratives on the topic. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities. A trip from the Greek myths of Hephaestus through Aristotle and Leonardo Da Vinci to the robots of Karel Capek and Isaac Asimov and finally the invention of the medical robots is presented.