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Sample records for da batata solanum

  1. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield RESUMO A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl. Nos conduzirémos os três experimentos para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação da Brazília-DF, no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças no 1990. Os três experimentos (latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado, latossolo vermelho novo x adubo 4:14:8 NPK, latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK) no casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com total 29 combinações, no 5-5-3 repetições com total parcelas de 116. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA e MANOVA. Nossos principal resultados estam apresentándo abaixo. 1. A mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% de esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm, peso total de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. 2. Há um efeito grande crescente das doses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. 3. Analise-se do latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK experimento os resultados apresentárám-se que entre nas misturas também foi melhor a 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral. Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a outra mistura. Nossos resultados

  2. Analysis of sphingolipids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Bartke, Nana; Fischbeck, Anne; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    Ceramides and glucocerebrosides of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were analyzed using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Ceramides and glucocerebrosides containing the three different long-chain bases 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)), 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)), and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)) acylated to saturated and unsaturated hydroxy- and nonhydroxy fatty acids with 16-26 carbon atoms were detected. For ceramides and glucocerebrosides 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)) was found as the major long-chain base, with lesser amounts of 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)) and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)). 2-(Alpha-)hydroxypalmitic acid (C16:0h) was the major fatty acid, which was found to be acylated to the long-chain bases. For quantification of these compounds, an RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with an "echo-peak"-technique simulating internal standard injection was developed. The analyzed samples of potatoes and sweet potatoes showed amounts of approximately 0.1-8 microg/kg single ceramides and amounts up to 500 microg/kg glucocerebrosides, with C16:0h-glucosyl-4,8-sphingadienine as the major component.

  3. Characterization of a novel drought-induced 34-kDa protein located in the thylakoids of Solanum tuberosum L. plants.

    PubMed

    Pruvot, G; Cuiné, S; Peltier, G; Rey, P

    1996-01-01

    Using two-dimensional electrophoresis and Coomassie Blue staining, the accumulation of a 34-kDa protein (named cdsp 34 for chloroplastic drought-induced stress protein) is shown in the thylakoids of Solanum tuberosum plants subjected to a progressive and reversible water deficit. In-vivo labeling experiments showed an increased synthesis of cdsp 34 from the early stages of drought stress (leaf relative water content around 85%) and throughout the constraint. Sequences of the N-terminal part and of four tryptic-digest peptides did not reveal significant homology between the cdsp 34 protein and other known proteins. Western blotting analysis, using a serum raised against the N-terminal part of cdsp 34, confirmed the accumulation of cdsp 34 in thylakoids upon drought stress. From immunoblot analysis of different chloroplastic subfractions, the cdsp 34 protein appears to be an extrinsic protein preferentially located in unstacked stroma thylakoids. Immunoprecipitation of in-vitro-translated products, as well as Southern analysis, showed that the cdsp 34 protein is nuclear encoded. After rewatering of water-stressed plants, the level of cdsp 34 synthesis was reduced, but remained substantially higher than in control plants. Western analysis showed the persistence of a high amount of cdsp 34 in rewatered plants for at least two weeks. Based on the abundance and on the location of cdsp 34 within thylakoids, a putative role for this novel chloroplastic protein is discussed in relation to the tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants to dehydration.

  4. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  5. [Chemical constituents from the tubers of Ipomoea batata].

    PubMed

    Yin, Yong-Qin; Shen, Zhi-Bin; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents from the tubers of Ipomoea batata. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by solvent extraction together with various chromatographic techniques. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physiochemical property and spectral data. 6 compounds were identified from the CHCl3 extract as Batatinoside I (1), citrusin C(2), octadecyl caffeate (3), beta-amyrin acetate (4), caffeic acid (5), scopoletin (6). Compound 1 is isolated from Ipomoea batata for the first time.

  6. A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, João Renato

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species. Resumo Uma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

  7. IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1 gene) is Involved in Tuberous Root Initiation in Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas)

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Amy Tsu; Huang, Yi-Shiuan; Wang, Yu-Shu; Ma, Daifu; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The tuberization mechanism of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) has long been studied using various approaches. Morphological data have revealed that the tuberizing events result from the activation of the cambium, followed by cell proliferation. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the regulators participating in this signal-transduction pathway. An attempt was made to characterize the role of one MADS-box transcription factor, which was preferentially expressed in sweet potato roots at the early tuberization stage. Methods A differential expression level of IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1) was detected temporally and spatially in sweet potato tissues. IbMADS1 responses to tuberization-related hormones were assessed. In order to identify the evolutionary significance, the expression pattern of IbMADS1 was surveyed in two tuber-deficient Ipomoea relatives, I. leucantha and I. trifida, and compared with sweet potato. In functional analyses, potato (Solanum tuberosum) was employed as a heterologous model. The resulting tuber morphogenesis was examined anatomically in order to address the physiological function of IbMADS1, which should act similarly in sweet potato. Key Results IbMADS1 was preferentially expressed as tuberous root development proceeded. Its expression was inducible by tuberization-related hormones, such as jasmonic acid and cytokinins. In situ hybridization data showed that IbMADS1 transcripts were specifically distributed around immature meristematic cells within the stele and lateral root primordia. Inter-species examination indicated that IbMADS1 expression was relatively active in sweet potato roots, but undetectable in tuber-deficient Ipomoea species. IbMADS1-transformed potatoes exhibited tuber morphogenesis in the fibrous roots. The partial swellings along fibrous roots were mainly due to anomalous proliferation and differentiation in the xylem. Conclusions Based on this study, it is proposed that IbMADS1 is an

  8. IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1 gene) is involved in tuberous root initiation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Ku, Amy Tsu; Huang, Yi-Shiuan; Wang, Yu-Shu; Ma, Daifu; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-07-01

    The tuberization mechanism of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) has long been studied using various approaches. Morphological data have revealed that the tuberizing events result from the activation of the cambium, followed by cell proliferation. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the regulators participating in this signal-transduction pathway. An attempt was made to characterize the role of one MADS-box transcription factor, which was preferentially expressed in sweet potato roots at the early tuberization stage. A differential expression level of IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1) was detected temporally and spatially in sweet potato tissues. IbMADS1 responses to tuberization-related hormones were assessed. In order to identify the evolutionary significance, the expression pattern of IbMADS1 was surveyed in two tuber-deficient Ipomoea relatives, I. leucantha and I. trifida, and compared with sweet potato. In functional analyses, potato (Solanum tuberosum) was employed as a heterologous model. The resulting tuber morphogenesis was examined anatomically in order to address the physiological function of IbMADS1, which should act similarly in sweet potato. IbMADS1 was preferentially expressed as tuberous root development proceeded. Its expression was inducible by tuberization-related hormones, such as jasmonic acid and cytokinins. In situ hybridization data showed that IbMADS1 transcripts were specifically distributed around immature meristematic cells within the stele and lateral root primordia. Inter-species examination indicated that IbMADS1 expression was relatively active in sweet potato roots, but undetectable in tuber-deficient Ipomoea species. IbMADS1-transformed potatoes exhibited tuber morphogenesis in the fibrous roots. The partial swellings along fibrous roots were mainly due to anomalous proliferation and differentiation in the xylem. Based on this study, it is proposed that IbMADS1 is an important integrator at the initiation of tuberization

  9. Solanum section Petota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum section Petota includes the cultivated potato and its approximately 110 wild species relatives. This monographic treatment covers the 18 wild potato species that occur in Argentina. It includes keys to these 18 species, full synonymies with lectotypifications when necessary, descriptions, st...

  10. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  11. [Somatic hybrids among transgenic Solanum tuberosum and transplastomic Solanum rickii].

    PubMed

    Marveeva, N A; Shakhovskiĭ, A M; Kuchuk, N V

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid plants with transformed plastids were regenerated after fusion of mesophyll protoplasts of Solanum rickii with aadA chloroplast selective marker gene and Solanum tuberosum with nptII nuclear selective marker gene. The hybrid callus clones were selected on the medium containing streptomycine, spectinomycine and kanamycine. The hybrids were identified on the base of PCR analysis of nuclear and plastid DNAs. The analysis have shown that regenerated plants were somatic hybrids containing aadA and nptII genes, Solanum rickii and Solanum tuberosum nuclear and chloroplast DNA.

  12. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of catechol oxidase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) containing a type-3 dicopper center.

    PubMed

    Eicken, C; Zippel, F; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, K; Krebs, B

    1998-10-02

    Two catechol oxidases have been isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) and purified to homogeneity. The two isozymes have been characterized by EXAFS, EPR-, UV/Vis-spectroscopy, isoelectric focusing, and MALDI-MS and have been shown to contain a dinuclear copper center. Both are monomers with a molecular mass of 39 kDa and 40 kDa, respectively. Substrate specificity and NH2-terminal sequences have been determined. EXAFS data for the 39 kDa enzyme reveal a coordination number of four for each Cu in the resting form and suggest a Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.9 A for the native met form and 3.8 A for the oxy form.

  13. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  14. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Van Eck, Joyce; Snyder, Ada

    2006-01-01

    Eggplant is an economically important vegetable crop in Asia and Africa, and although it is grown in Europe and the United States, it does not account for a significant percentage of agricultural production. It is susceptible to a number of pathogens and insects, with bacterial and fungal wilts being the most devastating. Attempts to improve resistance through introgression of traits from wild relatives have had limited success owing to sexual incompatibilities. Therefore, a crop improvement approach that combines both conventional breeding and biotechnological techniques would be beneficial. This chapter describes an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for eggplant based on inoculation of seedling explants (cotyledons and hypocotyls) and leaves. We have used this protocol to recover transformants from two different types of eggplant, a Solanum melongena L. breeding line, and S. melongena L. var. Black Eggplant. The selectable marker gene used was neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and the selection agent was kanamycin. In vitro grown transformants acclimated readily to greenhouse conditions.

  15. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Millam, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a globally important crop plant producing high yields of nutritionally valuable food in the form of tubers. It has been the focus of substantial study because of its use both as a staple food crop and as a potentially significant source of compounds of interest. This has included the development and application of transgenic technology for introducing novel traits of fundamental and applied interest. This chapter describes a rapid, efficient, and cost-effective system for the routine transformation of this crop plant at rates above 40% efficiency, calculated as the mean number of Southern blot- confirmed independent transgenics per number of internodal explants originally plated. Internodal sections are co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and subjected to a two-stage callus induction/shoot outgrowth system under kanamycin selection. Shoot regeneration rates are high using the described method, and excised independent shoots rooting from the cut end of the stem after two further subcultures on kanamycin are 95% certain to be transformed. The transgenic status can be confirmed by molecular analysis and the plants grown on for tuber production enabling a wide spectrum of further studies.

  16. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  17. Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  18. Revision of the Solanum medians complex (Solanum section Petota)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum medians is a widely distributed wild potato species growing along the coast and along the western slopes of the Andes from central Peru and northern Chile, from along the coastal lomas near sea level to 3800 m. Fertile diploid and triploid cytotypes are common, are believed to associated wit...

  19. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  20. A genome-wide BAC-end sequence survey provides first insights into sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genome composition.

    PubMed

    Si, Zengzhi; Du, Bing; Huo, Jinxi; He, Shaozhen; Liu, Qingchang; Zhai, Hong

    2016-11-21

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is an important food crop widely grown in the world. However, little is known about the genome of this species because it is a highly heterozygous hexaploid. Gaining a more in-depth knowledge of sweetpotato genome is therefore necessary and imperative. In this study, the first bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of sweetpotato was constructed. Clones from the BAC library were end-sequenced and analyzed to provide genome-wide information about this species. The BAC library contained 240,384 clones with an average insert size of 101 kb and had a 7.93-10.82 × coverage of the genome, and the probability of isolating any single-copy DNA sequence from the library was more than 99%. Both ends of 8310 BAC clones randomly selected from the library were sequenced to generate 11,542 high-quality BAC-end sequences (BESs), with an accumulative length of 7,595,261 bp and an average length of 658 bp. Analysis of the BESs revealed that 12.17% of the sweetpotato genome were known repetitive DNA, including 7.37% long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, 1.15% Non-LTR retrotransposons and 1.42% Class II DNA transposons etc., 18.31% of the genome were identified as sweetpotato-unique repetitive DNA and 10.00% of the genome were predicted to be coding regions. In total, 3,846 simple sequences repeats (SSRs) were identified, with a density of one SSR per 1.93 kb, from which 288 SSRs primers were designed and tested for length polymorphism using 20 sweetpotato accessions, 173 (60.07%) of them produced polymorphic bands. Sweetpotato BESs had significant hits to the genome sequences of I. trifida and more matches to the whole-genome sequences of Solanum lycopersicum than those of Vitis vinifera, Theobroma cacao and Arabidopsis thaliana. The first BAC library for sweetpotato has been successfully constructed. The high quality BESs provide first insights into sweetpotato genome composition, and have significant hits to the genome

  1. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass. PMID:21562638

  2. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg(-1) d(-1)), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg(-1) d(-1)) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg(-1) d(-1)) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass.

  3. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa.

  4. A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based strategy to integrate chemistry, morphology, and evolution of eggplant (Solanum) species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi-Biao; Meyer, Rachel S; Whitaker, Bruce D; Litt, Amy; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    This study presents a strategy based on repeatable reversed-phase LC-TOF-MS methods and statistical tools, including untargeted PCA and targeted PLS/OPLS-DA models, to analyze 31 accessions representing 24 species in the eggplant genus Solanum (Solanaceae), including eight species whose metabolic profiles were studied for the first time. Sixty-two Solanum metabolites were identified after detailed analysis of UV absorbance spectra, mass spectral fragmentation patterns, NMR spectra, and/or co-injection experiments with authentic standards. Among these were two new 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives that were identified by analyzing their MS/MS fragmentation. Based on these results, a Solanum metabolic database (SMD) and a detailed biosynthetic pathway of Solanum metabolites were created. Results of analyses identified seven marker metabolites that distinguish four Solanum sections, and revealed species-specific chemical patterns. Combining LC-MS data with multivariate statistical analysis was proven effective in studying the metabolic network within the large genus Solanum, allowing for integration of complicated chemistry, morphology, and evolutionary relationships.

  5. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, D.; Halide, H.; Wahab, A. W.; Kurniawan, D.

    2014-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  6. Chemical optimization of protein extraction from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteins isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) have been shown to possess antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties. The objective of this study was to chemically optimize a process for extracting proteins from sweet potato peel. The extraction procedure involved mixing pe...

  7. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, D. Halide, H. Kurniawan, D.; Wahab, A. W.

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  8. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Manoko, Mkabwa L. K.; van Weerden, Gerard M.; van Berg, Ronald G.; Mariani, Celestina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits. PMID:23233812

  9. [Meiosis passing age dependence in Solanum linnaeum L. x solanum incanum L. F1 interspecific hybrid].

    PubMed

    Montvid, P Iu

    2011-01-01

    Meiosis passing in the first- and second-year-plants of F1 interspecific hybrid Solanum linnaeum L. x Solanum incanum L. has been carried out. Fruit with seeds were formed during a second year of vegetation. The quantities of uni- and tetravalents and main disorders frequency lowered with plant age. Meiosis in parental forms was normal. The conclusion was drawn about F1 Solanum linnaeum L. x Solanum incanum L. meiosis regularity connection with heterozygous genotype, influence of environmental factors and plant age.

  10. Characterization and immunostimulatory activity of an (1-->6)-a-D-glucan from the root of Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guohua; Kan, Jianquan; Li, Zhixiao; Chen, Zongdao

    2005-08-01

    The polysaccharide PSPP (purified sweet potato polysaccharide), isolated and purified from the roots of Ipomoea batatas, was found to be a glucan with a molecular weight of 53.2 kDa and specific rotation of +115.0 degrees (ca. 0.80, H(2)O). On the basis of methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, infra-red spectroscopy, and (13)C NMR, the polysaccharide was confirmed as a (1-->6)-alpha-D-glucan. We evaluated the effects of polysaccharide PSPP on the in vivo immune function of mouse. Mice were treated with the polysaccharide PSPP (50, 150, and 250 mg/kg body weight) for 7 days. Phagocytic function, proliferation of lymphocytes, natural killer cell activity, hemolytic activity, and serum IgG concentration of the mice were studied. At the dose of 50 mg/kg, significant increments in proliferation of lymphocytes (P<0.05) and serum IgG concentration (P<0.05) were observed. At the dose of 150 and 250 mg/kg, significant increments (P<0.01 or P<0.05) were observed in all tested immunological indexes. A dose-dependent manner was demonstrated in phagocytic function, hemolytic activity, and serum IgG concentration, but not in proliferation of lymphocytes and natural killer cell activity. This suggests that PSPP improve the immune system and could be regarded as a biological response modifier.

  11. Demographic comparison of sweetpotato weevil reared on a major host, Ipomoea batatas, and an alternative host, I. triloba

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Chi, Hisn

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we collected life table data for the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius, grown on Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea triloba, and analyzed them using an age-stage, two-sex life table. We also demonstrated the growth potential of C. formicarius on these two host plants by using population projection. These data will be useful to the growers to the selection or eradication of host plants in an integrated control strategy for C. formicarius for the entire area of the targeted areas. We found that C. formicarius developed faster on I. batatas than on I. triloba. The developmental times of the larval and pupal stages on I. batatas than on I. triloba were 37.01 and 8.3 days. The adult females emerged before and began to produce eggs at 42 days earlier when reared on I. batatas. The fecundity of females was 90.0 eggs on I. batatas significantly higher than the mean fecundity of 68.5 eggs on I. triloba. Although this insect has a higher intrinsic rate of increase on I. batatas, the study indicated that C. formicarius can successfully survive and reproduce on both host plants. PMID:26156566

  12. Oil and fatty acids in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and some related and unrelated Solanum Spp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The seed oil content of 305 genebank accessions of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ), six related specied (S. aethiopicum L., S. incanum L., S. anaguivi Lam., S linnaeanum Hepper & P.M.L. Jaeger, S. litchensteinii L., and S. macrocarpon L.) and 25 additional Solanum species, was determined by NMR. Eg...

  13. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M. Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S. Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S. Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade) is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco) of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M. Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:22171167

  14. Radical scavenging capacity and antimutagenic properties of purified proteins from Solanum betaceum fruits and Solanum tuberosum tubers.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Roxana Mabel; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Rodríguez, Fabiola; Cattaneo, Florencia; Sayago, Jorge Esteban; Isla, María Inés

    2011-08-24

    In this study, antioxidant activities in free-radical-mediated oxidative systems and the genotoxic/antigenotoxic effects of two proteins with molecular mass around 17 kDa, purified from Solanum betaceum fruits (cyphomine) and Solanum tuberosum tubers (solamarine), were investigated. Both proteins inhibited uric acid formation with IC(50) values between 55 and 60 μg/mL, and both proteins were able to reduce oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the DPPH• reduction assay showed SC(50) values of 55-73 μg/mL. Cyphomine and solamarine were able to retain their antioxidant activity after heat treatment at 80 °C for 15 min. Allium cepa and Salmonella /microsome assays showed no genotoxic and mutagenic effects. Solamarine showed an antimutagenic effect against a direct mutagen (4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine). Consequently, the present study showed that the investigated proteins are promising ingredients for the development of functional foods with a beneficial impact on human health and an important source for the production of bioactive peptides.

  15. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) for Peru

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native sp...

  16. Anthocyanins in callus induced from purple storage root of Ipomoea batatas L.

    PubMed

    Terahara, N; Konczak-Islam, I; Nakatani, M; Yamakawa, O; Goda, Y; Honda, T

    2000-08-01

    Two anthocyanins were isolated from the highly pigmented callus derived from the storage root of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivar 'Ayamurasaki'. One was identified as cyanidin 3-O-sophoroside-5-O-glucoside, and the other as cyanidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucop yranoside)-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, by chemical and spectroscopic analysis.

  17. Two new South American species of Solanum section Crinitum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Farruggia, Frank T.; Bohs, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles Solanum crinitum and Solanum lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to Solanum sycophanta butdiffers from the latter in having prominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to Solanum sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador. PMID:22171169

  18. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status.

  19. Comparative physiological responses of Solanum nigrum and Solanum torvum to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Zhu, Yiyong; Ge, Qing; Li, Yulong; Sun, Jianhang; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Xiaojing

    2012-10-01

    • Under cadmium (Cd) stress, Solanum nigrum accumulated threefold more Cd in its leaves and was tolerant to Cd, whereas its low Cd-accumulating relative, Solanum torvum, suffered reduced growth and marked oxidative damage. However, the physiological mechanisms that are responsible for differential Cd accumulation and tolerance between the two Solanum species are largely unknown. • Here, the involvement of antioxidative capacity and the accumulation of organic and amino acids in response to Cd stress in the two Solanum species were assessed. • Solanum nigrum contains higher antioxidative capacity than does S. torvum under Cd toxicity. Metabolomics analysis indicated that Cd treatment also markedly increased the production of several organic and amino acids in S. nigrum. Pretreatment with proline and histidine increased Cd accumulation; moreover, pretreatment with citric acid increased Cd accumulation in leaves but decreased Cd accumulation in roots, which indicates that its biosynthesis could be linked to Cd long-distance transport and accumulation in leaves. • Our data provide novel metabolite evidence regarding the enhancement of citric acid and amino acid biosynthesis in Cd-treated S. nigrum, support the role of these metabolites in improving Cd tolerance and accumulation, and may help to provide a better understanding of stress adaptation in other Solanum species. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Solanum jamesii - new traits and hybrids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the two wild potato relatives native to the USA is Solanum jamesii (jam). The genebank has collected and studied over 120 samples since 1958. This species has been shown to have extreme late blight resistance, and its tubers have extremely long dormancy, high antioxidants, and compounds tha...

  1. Taxonomic changes in Solanum section Petota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1990, the latest comprehensive taxonomic monograph of Solanum section Petota Dumort. recognized 236 species partitioned into 21 series. Of these, 227 were tuber-bearing and nine non-tuber-bearing. NSF-sponsored research has drastically altered knowledge of their species boundaries and interrelati...

  2. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  3. Pyrophosphorylases in Solanum tuberosum1

    PubMed Central

    Sowokinos, Joseph R.

    1981-01-01

    Pyrophosphorylytic kinetic constants (S0.5, Vmax) of partially purified UDP-glucose- and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases from potato tubers were determined in the presence of various intermediary metabolites. The S0.5 of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase for UDP-glucose (0.17 millimolar) or pyrophosphate (0.30 millimolar) and the Vmax were not influenced by high concentrations (2 millimolar) of these substances. The most efficient activator of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was 3-P-glycerate (A0.5 = 4.5 × 10−6 molar). The S0.5 for ADP-glucose and pyrophosphate was increased 3.5-fold (0.83 to 0.24 millimolar) and 1.8-fold (0.18 to 0.10 millimolar), respectively, with 0.1 millimolar 3-P-glycerate while the Vmax was increased nearly 4-fold. The magnitude of 3-P-glycerate stimulation was dependent upon the integrity of key sulfhydryl groups (−SH) and pH. Oxidation or blockage of −SH groups resulted in a marked reduction of enzyme activity. Stimulations of 3.1-, 2.9-, 4.8-, and 9.5-fold were observed at pH 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0, respectively, in the presence of 3-P-glycerate (2 millimolar). The most potent inhibitor of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was orthophosphate (I0.5 = 8.8 × 10−5. molar). This inhibition was reversed with 3-P-glycerate (1.2 × 10−4 molar), resulting in an increased I0.5 value of 1.5 × 10−3 molar. Likewise, orthophosphate (7.5 × 10−4 molar) caused a decrease in the activation efficiency of 3-P-glycerate (A0.5 from 4.5 × 10−6 molar to 6.7 × 10−5 molar). The significance of 3-P-glycerate activation and orthophosphate inhibition in the regulation of α-glucan biosynthesis in Solanum tuberosum is discussed. PMID:16662027

  4. A new species of spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum is described from Peru. Solanum junctum S. Stern & M. Nee, sp nov. is a member of the Torva clade of the spiny solanums (Leptostemonum clade). The narrow corolla lobes and recurved prickles of Solanum junctum are similar to species in the Micracantha clade, but Solanum junctum differs in its branched inflorescences and upright green fruits. These characteristics are shared with other members the Torva clade; within this section Solanum junctum is morphologically most similar to Solanum subinerme and Solanum poinsettiifolium. Solanum subinerme has larger flowers, longer cauline prickles, and often has long straight prickles on the adaxial leaf surface that are lacking in Solanum junctum. Solanum poinsettiifolium has fewer spines, dense white tomentum on the abaxial leaf surfaces, stout unbranched inflorescences, and more extensive interpetalar corolla tissue than Solanum junctum. PMID:25197223

  5. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Miller, Richard E.; Scotland, Robert W.; Wood, John R. I.; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A.; Jarret, Robert L.; Yencho, G. C.; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  6. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    PubMed

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  7. Advances in functional use of sweet potato, [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    PubMed

    Barnes, Sandra L; Sanders, Sheila A

    2012-08-01

    This article reviews the patents that have been presented over the past two decades related to alternative functional use of the Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. The major categories of available patents include alternative food products such as Sweet potato chips and fries, Sweet potato ornamental products, and fuel ethanol production from Sweet potato. The majority of recent patents fall under the category of ornamental products and alternative food products, with only a few fuel ethanol products. Figure 1 shows the major categories of patented alternative products from Sweet potato.

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in tissue cultures of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.).

    PubMed

    Liu, J R; Cantliffe, D J

    1984-06-01

    Leaf, shoot-tip, stem, and root explants of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.) gave rise to two kinds of callus on nutrient agar medium containing 0.5 to 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. One callus, bright- to pale-yellow, was compact and organized, while the other was dull-yellow and friable. The former callus gave rise to numerous globular and heart-shaped embryoids. When transferred onto hormone-free medium, the embryoids readily developed into a torpedo-shape before germination. The plantlets were transplanted to soil where they flowered and formed storage roots at maturity.

  9. On the identity and typification of Solanum brasilianum Dunal (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Silva, Suelma; Knapp, Sandra; Proença, Carolyn E B

    2017-01-01

    Solanum brasilianum Dunal was described by Dunal in 1813 with reference only to an illustration in an 18(th) century work by Leonard Plukenet. The plate is difficult to interpret and no explicitly related specimens were available so the name Solanum brasilianum has long been regarded as "unresolved" and has never been used. Material matching the Plukenet plate was discovered in the herbarium of the University of Oxford (OXF) by Stephen Harris during his study of the English privateer William Dampier's Brazilian collection. The specimen is referable to a common Brazilian Solanum that is a member of the Torva clade, Solanum paniculatum L., making Solanum brasilianum Dunal a heterotypic synonym. We lectotypify Solanum brasilianum here, and designate an epitype using the Dampier material from OXF.

  10. On the identity and typification of Solanum brasilianum Dunal (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Silva, Suelma; Knapp, Sandra; Proença, Carolyn E.B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Solanum brasilianum Dunal was described by Dunal in 1813 with reference only to an illustration in an 18th century work by Leonard Plukenet. The plate is difficult to interpret and no explicitly related specimens were available so the name Solanum brasilianum has long been regarded as “unresolved” and has never been used. Material matching the Plukenet plate was discovered in the herbarium of the University of Oxford (OXF) by Stephen Harris during his study of the English privateer William Dampier’s Brazilian collection. The specimen is referable to a common Brazilian Solanum that is a member of the Torva clade, Solanum paniculatum L., making Solanum brasilianum Dunal a heterotypic synonym. We lectotypify Solanum brasilianum here, and designate an epitype using the Dampier material from OXF. PMID:28228684

  11. A Functional mathematical index for predicting effects of food processing on eight sweet potato(Ipomoea batatas)cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this paper we apply an improved functional mathematical index (FMI), modified from those presented in previous publications, to define the influence of different cooking processes of eight sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars on composition of six bioactive phenolic compounds (flavonoids). Th...

  12. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    PubMed

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  13. Reconstruction of muon tracks in a buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, S.; Insolia, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Trovato, E.

    2012-10-01

    The BATATA muon counter was designed as one of the foreseen detector upgrades of the Pierre Auger Observatory with the main goal of quantifying the electromagnetic contamination of the muon signal as a function of the depth for cosmic ray shower energies above 10 PeV. Nevertheless BATATA offers also the possibility of measuring the incoming direction of secondary muons from both GeV and PeV primary cosmic rays. Large efforts have been already done to quantify from simulations the amount of the electromagnetic contamination and the expected muon identification performances. The present work is focused on the evaluation of the detector performances for muon track reconstruction. To this aim and in view of the detector installation in the field, expected to be completed by the first half of current year, we performed a GEANT4 end-to-end simulation of such device and set up a track reconstruction procedure. Typical results concerning achieved acceptance and angular resolution for muons are presented.

  14. IgE response to two new allergen proteins of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant).

    PubMed

    Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-12-01

    A number of allergens from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) have been previously identified. In this study, we could detect IgE reactivity of two allergic subjects' sera towards two protein bands of molecular mass of about 35 and 15 kDa. As IgE were reactive to both raw and cooked eggplant extracts, a heat-stable nature of these novel allergens is apparent. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative functional genomic analysis of Solanum glandular trichome types.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Eric T; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A; Gang, David R

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors.

  16. Antioxidant glucosylated caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in the invasive tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The eggplant (Solanum melongena) and other species within the “spiny solanums” (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) contain diverse and abundant antioxidant caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives. The fruit of an aggressive invasive species in the spiny solanums, Solanum viarum, contain numerous CQA deri...

  17. Phylogeny of Solanum Series Piurana and Putatively Related Species in Solanum Section Petota Based on Five Conserved Ortholog Sequences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are about 190 wild potato species (Solanum L. section Petota Dumort.) and their morphological similarity has led to widely conflicting taxonomic treatments. Solanum series Piurana Hawkes is one of 21 series recognized in section Petota in the latest comprehensive taxonomic treatment by Hawkes ...

  18. Antibiotic Action of Solanum incanum Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Beaman-Mbaya, V.; Muhammed, S. I.

    1976-01-01

    The fruits of Solanum incanum Linnaeus are extensively used in Kenya for the treatment of cutaneous mycotic infections and other pathological conditions. The therapeutic activity of the berries has been attributed to their content of solanine and related glycoalkaloids, which are saponins and cytostatic poisons. In the present study, however, a simpler more potent antimicrobial substance with a phosphorylated structure similar to the purine adenine was isolated from the berries. The crystals of this compound were effective inhibitors of the growth of gram-positive and -negative bacteria, yeasts, dermatophytes, and some pathogens of agricultural produce. High concentrations of the substance caused hemolysis of erythrocytes. Images PMID:945715

  19. Hybrid incompatibility "snowballs" between Solanum species.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Leonie C; Nakazato, Takuya

    2010-09-17

    Among the reproductive barriers that can isolate species, hybrid sterility is frequently due to dysfunctional interactions between loci that accumulate between differentiating lineages. Theory describing the evolution of these incompatibilities has generated the prediction, still empirically untested, that loci underlying hybrid incompatibility should accumulate faster than linearly with time--the "snowball effect." We evaluated the accumulation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) between species in the plant group Solanum and found evidence for a faster-than-linear accumulation of hybrid seed sterility QTL, thus empirically evaluating and confirming this theoretical prediction. In comparison, loci underlying traits unrelated to hybrid sterility show no evidence for an accelerating rate of accumulation between species.

  20. Rapid and reliable method of extracting DNA and RNA from sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L). Lam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hyung; Hamada, Tatsuro

    2005-12-01

    A quick, simple and reliable method of extracting DNA from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has been developed. The method was applied successfully for extraction of total DNA from leaves and total RNA from leaves and various tissues. The yield of DNA extracted by this procedure was high (about 1 mg/g leaf tissue). The extracted DNA was completely digested by restriction endonucleases indicating the absence of common contaminating compounds. The absorbancy ratios of A260/A230 and A260/A280 of isolated RNA were approx. 2 and the yield was about 0.2 mg/g fresh wt. CIPK and tublin genes were successfully amplified by RT-PCR, suggesting the integrity of isolated RNA. The total DNA and RNA isolated by this method was of sufficient quality for subsequent molecular analysis.

  1. Calf thymus DNA-binding ability study of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes ( Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Xirui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2011-07-13

    A total of 10 anthocyanin compounds were identified from five purple sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties, Qunzi, Zishu038, Ji18, Jingshu6, and Ziluolan, by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to assess their calf thymus DNA-binding ability in vitro. The interaction between anthocyanins and calf thymus DNA in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 6.9) was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe, fluorescence quenching of the emission peak was seen in the DNA-EB system when anthocyanins were added, indicating that the anthocyanins bound with DNA. The acylated groups influenced the ability of the interaction with DNA. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato with more acylated groups in sorphorose have a stronger binding ability with DNA.

  2. New polyphenol derivative in Ipomoea batatas tubers and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dini, Irene; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Dini, Antonio

    2006-11-15

    Four different polyphenolic compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods from methanolic and hydromethanolic extracts of Ipomoea batatas tuber flour. On the basis of UV, mass, and NMR analysis procedures, the structure of the isolated compounds were determined as 4,5-di-O-caffeoyldaucic acid (1), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (2), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), and 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and characterization of compound 1. Then, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of daucic acid derivative by using DPPH and FRAP methods together with authentic antioxidant standards, l-ascorbic acid, tert-butyl-4-hydroxy toluene (BHT), and gallic acid. The activity of compound 1 in both methods was higher than that of all standards used at the same molar concentration.

  3. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam)--a valuable medicinal food: a review.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Remya; Sivasankar, Subha

    2014-07-01

    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, also known as sweet potato, is an extremely versatile and delicious vegetable that possesses high nutritional value. It is also a valuable medicinal plant having anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Sweet potato is now considered a valuable source of unique natural products, including some that can be used in the development of medicines against various diseases and in making industrial products. The overall objective of this review is to give a bird's-eye view of the nutritional value, health benefits, phytochemical composition, and medicinal properties of sweet potato. Specifically, this review outlines the biological activities of some of the sweet potato compounds that have been isolated, the pharmacological action of the sweet potato extract, clinical studies, and plausible medicinal applications of sweet potato (along with a safety evaluation), and demonstrates the potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food.

  4. Central diabetes insipidus following digestion Solanum indicum L. concentrated solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Fang, Ji-Tseng

    2008-04-01

    In Taiwan, Solanum indicum L. has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, toothache, ascites, edema, and wound infection. The plant is rich in solanine, an alkaloidal glycoside. We report a 43-year-old man who developed polyuria and polydipsia after taking seven doses of concentrated solution of Solanum indicum L. over two weeks. A water deprivation test and a low serum antidiuretic hormone level helped to confirm a diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus. We suggest that excessive doses of Solanum indicum L. may cause central diabetes insipidus.

  5. Antiproliferative Effect of Solanum nigrum on Human Leukemic Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gabrani, Reema; Jain, Ramya; Sharma, Anjali; Sarethy, Indira P.; Dang, Shweta; Gupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Solanum nigrum is used in various traditional medical systems for antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, antiseizure and hepatoprotective activities. We have evaluated organic solvent and aqueous extracts obtained from berries of Solanum nigrum for antiproliferative activity on leukemic cell lines, Jurkat and HL-60 (Human promyelocytic leukemia cells). The cell viability after the treatment with Solanum nigrum extract was measured by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results indicated increased cytotoxicity with increasing extract concentrations. Comparative analysis indicated that 50% inhibitory concentration value of methanol extract is the lowest on both cell lines. PMID:23716874

  6. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region.

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum) are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes Solanum atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, Solanum nitidibaccatum Bitter, Solanum physalifolium Rusby, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn. and Solanum tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated Solanum anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa.

  7. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum) are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes Solanum atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, Solanum nitidibaccatum Bitter, Solanum physalifolium Rusby, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn. and Solanum tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated Solanum anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa. PMID:28127235

  8. Overview of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) candidate pathogen recognition genes reveals important Solanum R locus dynamics.

    PubMed

    Andolfo, G; Sanseverino, W; Rombauts, S; Van de Peer, Y; Bradeen, J M; Carputo, D; Frusciante, L; Ercolano, M R

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the genome-wide spatial arrangement of R loci, a complete catalogue of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) nucleotide-binding site (NBS) NBS, receptor-like protein (RLP) and receptor-like kinase (RLK) gene repertories was generated. Candidate pathogen recognition genes were characterized with respect to structural diversity, phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal distribution. NBS genes frequently occur in clusters of related gene copies that also include RLP or RLK genes. This scenario is compatible with the existence of selective pressures optimizing coordinated transcription. A number of duplication events associated with lineage-specific evolution were discovered. These findings suggest that different evolutionary mechanisms shaped pathogen recognition gene cluster architecture to expand and to modulate the defence repertoire. Analysis of pathogen recognition gene clusters associated with documented resistance function allowed the identification of adaptive divergence events and the reconstruction of the evolution history of these loci. Differences in candidate pathogen recognition gene number and organization were found between tomato and potato. Most candidate pathogen recognition gene orthologues were distributed at less than perfectly matching positions, suggesting an ongoing lineage-specific rearrangement. Indeed, a local expansion of Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-NBS-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) (TNL) genes in the potato genome was evident. Taken together, these findings have implications for improved understanding of the mechanisms of molecular adaptive selection at Solanum R loci. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF EXTRACTS OF SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumar, R.; Velmurugan, K.; Srinivasan, D.; Krishna, Raghu Ram

    2003-01-01

    Antibacterial activity pf various parts (stem, leaf and fruits) of solvent extracts (petroleum ether, alcohol and acetone) of Solanum xanthocarpum against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus cereus were detected by zone of inhibition. The extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum showed high sensitivity to Kiebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, moderate sensitivity to Escherichia coli and less sensitivity and resistant to Bacillus cereus. In control, there is no inhibitory zone observed. PMID:22557117

  10. Plastid transformation in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Verma, S S; Bansal, K C

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a method for plastid transformation in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), a solanaceous plant species. Plastid transformation in eggplant was achieved by bombardment of green stem segments with pPRV111A plastid expression vector carrying the aadA gene encoding aminoglycoside 3''-adenylyltransferase. Biolistic delivery of the pPRV111A plasmid yielded transplastomic plants at a frequency of two per 21 bombarded plates containing 25 stem explants each. Integration of the aadA gene in the plastome was verified by PCR analysis and also by Southern blotting using 16S rDNA (targeting sequence) and the aadA gene as a probe. Transplastomic expression of the aadA gene was verified by RT-PCR. The development of transplastomic technology in eggplant may open up exciting possibilities for novel gene introduction and expression in the engineered plastome for agronomic or pharmaceutical traits.

  11. Physiology of Tuberization in Solanum tuberosum L

    PubMed Central

    Mauk, Craighton S.; Langille, Alan R.

    1978-01-01

    Using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cucumber cotyledon bioassay, and mass spectrometry a cytokinin isolated from Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Katahdin plant tissues has been identified as cis-zeatin riboside. Zeatin riboside (ZR) levels in plants grown under inducing conditions (28 C day and 13 C night with a 10-hour photoperiod) were significantly higher than those in plants grown under noninducing conditions (30 C day and 28 C night with an 18-hour photoperiod). The highest level of ZR was noted in below-ground tissue after 4 days exposure to inducing conditions, with tuber initiation observed after 8 days. A companion study conducted to determine the effect of ZR on in vitro tuberization of noninduced rhizomes revealed that after 1 month in culture, controls exhibited 0% tuberization, while ZR treatments of 0.3 and 3.0 milligrams per liter showed 39 and 75% tuberization, respectively. PMID:16660533

  12. Steroidal alkaloid glycosides from Solanum suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Ripperger, H; Porzel, A

    1997-12-01

    In addition to khasianine, solamargine, xylosylsolamargine and solasonine, three steroidal alkaloid glycosides, solasuaveoline, dihydrosolasuaveoline and isosolasuaveoline, have been isolated from aerial parts of Solanum suaveolens. The structures have been assigned by NMR investigations as (25R)-3 beta-{O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D- galactopyranosyloxy}-22 alpha N-spirosol-5-ene, (25R)-3 beta-{O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O- beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D - galactopyranosyloxy}-5 alpha, 22 alpha N-spirosolane and (25R)-3 beta-{O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O- beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D - galactopyranosyloxy}-22 alpha N-spirosol-5-ene, respectively.

  13. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  14. Transient gene expression in electroporated Solanum protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Jones, H; Ooms, G; Jones, M G

    1989-11-01

    Electroporation was used to evaluate parameters important in transient gene expression in potato protoplasts. The protoplasts were from leaves of wild potato Solanum brevidens, and from leaves, tubers and suspension cells of cultivated Solanum tuberosum cv. Désirée. Reporter enzyme activity, chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, depended on the field strength and the pulse duration used for electroporation. Using field pulses of 85 ms duration, the optimum field strengths for maximum CAT activity were: S. brevidens mesophyll protoplasts--250 V/cm; Désirée mesophyll protoplasts--225 V/cm; Désirée suspension culture protoplasts--225 V/cm; and Désirée tuber protoplasts--150 V/cm. The optimum field strengths correlated inversely with the size of the protoplasts electroporated; this is consistent with biophysical theory. In time courses, maximum CAT activity (in Désirée mesophyll protoplasts) occurred 36-48 h after electroporation. Examination at optimised conditions of a chimaeric gene consisting of a class II patatin promoter linked to the beta-glucuronidase (gus) gene, showed expression (at DNA concentrations between 0-10 pmol/ml) comparable to the CaMV 35S promoter in both tuber and mesophyll protoplasts. At higher DNA concentrations (20-30 pmol/ml) the patatin promoter directed 4-5 times higher levels of gus expression. Implications and potential contributions towards studying gene expression, in particular of homologous genes in potato, are discussed.

  15. Antimutagenic and Anticarcinogenic Effect of Methanol Extracts of Sweetpotato (Ipomea batata) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hwan-Goo; Cho, Joon-Hyoung

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the antimutagenic potential of the methanolic extract from the leaves of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas, IB) with the SOS chromotest (umu test) and Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. The anticarcinogenic effects were also studied by calculation of the IC50 on human cancer cell lines and investigating the function of gap junction in rat liver epithelial cells. The IB extract inhibited dose-dependently the β-galactosidase activity induced spontaneously at concentration of more than 200 mg/ml in S. typhimurium TA 1535/pSK 1002, and decreased significantly (p < 0.01) the β-galactosidase activities induced by mutagen 6-chloro-9-[3- (2-chloroethylamino) proylamino]-2-methoxyacridine dihydrochloride (ICR) at dose of more than 0.4 mg/0.1 ml. The IB extract showed no effect on the spontaneous reversions of S. typhimurium TA 98 and 100 but benzo (α) pyrene (BaP) -stimulated reversions were decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.01) at the concentration of more than 100 mg/ml. The IC50 value of stomach cancer cells was lower than that of normal rat liver epithelial cells, but the values of colon and uterine cancer cell lines were similar to those of normal rat liver epithelial cells. The transfer of dye through gap junctions was not affected by treatment of the IB extracts at any concentration during treatment periods. The simultaneously treatment of IB extract and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) effectively prevented the inhibition of dye transfer induced by TPA 1 hour after treatment at all exposed concentrations. The number of gap junctions was significantly (p < 0.01) increased by the treatment with IB extract at concentrations of more than 40 μg/ml. The inhibition of the expression of gap junction proteins by TPA (0.01 μg/ml) was recovered dose dependently by the simultaneous treatment of IB extracts. Our data suggest that Ipomea batatas has antimutagenic and anticarcionogenic activity in vitro. PMID:24278503

  16. Antimutagenic and Anticarcinogenic Effect of Methanol Extracts of Sweetpotato (Ipomea batata) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hwan-Goo; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Joon-Hyoung

    2010-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the antimutagenic potential of the methanolic extract from the leaves of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas, IB) with the SOS chromotest (umu test) and Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. The anticarcinogenic effects were also studied by calculation of the IC50 on human cancer cell lines and investigating the function of gap junction in rat liver epithelial cells. The IB extract inhibited dose-dependently the β-galactosidase activity induced spontaneously at concentration of more than 200 mg/ml in S. typhimurium TA 1535/pSK 1002, and decreased significantly (p < 0.01) the β-galactosidase activities induced by mutagen 6-chloro-9-[3- (2-chloroethylamino) proylamino]-2-methoxyacridine dihydrochloride (ICR) at dose of more than 0.4 mg/0.1 ml. The IB extract showed no effect on the spontaneous reversions of S. typhimurium TA 98 and 100 but benzo (α) pyrene (BaP) -stimulated reversions were decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.01) at the concentration of more than 100 mg/ml. The IC50 value of stomach cancer cells was lower than that of normal rat liver epithelial cells, but the values of colon and uterine cancer cell lines were similar to those of normal rat liver epithelial cells. The transfer of dye through gap junctions was not affected by treatment of the IB extracts at any concentration during treatment periods. The simultaneously treatment of IB extract and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) effectively prevented the inhibition of dye transfer induced by TPA 1 hour after treatment at all exposed concentrations. The number of gap junctions was significantly (p < 0.01) increased by the treatment with IB extract at concentrations of more than 40 μg/ml. The inhibition of the expression of gap junction proteins by TPA (0.01 μg/ml) was recovered dose dependently by the simultaneous treatment of IB extracts. Our data suggest that Ipomea batatas has antimutagenic and anticarcionogenic activity in vitro.

  17. A proteomic analysis of storage stress responses in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. tuberous root.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yusong; Chen, Cheng; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jianxi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2012-08-01

    During post-harvest storage, tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) usually undergo a biotic and abiotic stress influencing protein expression pattern and substance contents. This research compared the change of total proteins and carbohydrate content in tuberous roots of sweet potato during the storage period. The result of the two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there were 25 differentially expressed proteins between day 0 and day 75 during the storage. Among these proteins, 11 proteins were down-regulated and the other 14 were up-regulated. The results from MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analyses and mascot database searching showed that 11 of the 25 differentially expressed proteins were identified as store-stress regulated proteins. It was also found that the proteins involved in the energy metabolism and the stress-response were drastically up-regulated, whereas those in biomacromolecule synthesis were markedly down-regulated. Meanwhile, under the experimental conditions, the content of the starch and the cellulose was decreased by more than a quarter and the amylase activity was increased moderately.

  18. [Characterization of Ipomoea batatas extract to be used as nutrient basis for culture media].

    PubMed

    Lobaina Rodríguez, Tamara; Rodríguez Martínez, Claudio; Zhurbenko, Raisa

    2007-01-01

    An Ipomoea batatas extract obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha amylase was characterized to be used as nutrient basis. Among its quality indicators, it had a content of over 50% whole carbohydrates with respect to the nominal mass, estimated by phenol-sulphur method. The same content of aminonitrogen detected and quantified by potentiometric titration using formaldehyde and of total nitrogen (0,23%) by Kjeldahl method were detected. The content of necessary mineral elements for microbial culture was determined by the atom absorption method. The study of biological reactivity of the vegetal extract showed the existence of essential aminoacids such as triptophane, cystine and cysteine for microorganisms. It was proved that the vegetal extract, when used as the only source of nutrients at various concentration levels (2, 4 and 10%), is capable of stimulating the growth of bacteriae and yeasts. The increase of two Candida albicans biomass, determined in a specially designed medium (SIGMA, USA), was significantly higher to that of other nutrient bases like soy peptone, yeast extract, triptone and micological peptone. It was evinced that the vegetal extract as a culture medium component did not have antimicrobial effect compounds since at 15-30 g/L concentrations, this extract did stimulate the microbial growth up to values (UFC/mL) similar to those of the reference media called agar triptone soy.

  19. Fractionation, enzyme inhibitory and cellular antioxidant activity of bioactives from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Rodríguez-Werner, Miriam; Schlösser, Anke; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2017-04-15

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is mainly cultivated in Asia. The deep purple color of purple sweet potato (PSP) is due to the high content of acylated anthocyanins. In the present study, PSP-derived polyphenols were identified using HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses. After concentration of the polyphenols from PSP, preparative separation into two fractions, designated anthocyanins (AF) and copigments (CF), was carried out using adsorptive membrane chromatography. In enzyme inhibitory assays, all PSP samples inhibited the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase. Additionally, the cell signaling cellular antioxidant properties of the PSP extracts were investigated in cultured cells. PSP induced the transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates the expression of genes encoding heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Furthermore, PSP enhanced cellular glutathione concentrations and decreased lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, these results suggest that PSP extracts exhibit enzyme inhibitory and cellular antioxidant properties, especially PSP CF.

  20. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    PubMed Central

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  1. Chemical optimization of protein extraction from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Katherine P; Truong, Van-Den; Allen, Jonathan C

    2012-11-01

    Proteins isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) have been shown to possess antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties. The objective of this study was to chemically optimize a process for extracting proteins from sweet potato peel. The extraction procedure involved mixing peel with saline solvent to dissolve proteins and then precipitating with CaCl(2). Quadratic and segmented models were used to determine the optimum NaCl concentration and peel to solvent ratio to maximize protein solubility while minimizing solvent usage. A segmented model was also used to optimize the concentration of CaCl(2) used for precipitation. The highest yield was obtained by mixing blanched peelings with 59.7 mL of 0.025 mM NaCl per g peel and then precipitating with 6.8 mM CaCl(2). The results of this study show that potentially valuable proteins can be extracted from peel generated during processing of sweet potatoes and industrial costs can be minimized by using these optimum conditions. Potentially valuable proteins can be extracted from sweet potato peel, a waste product of sweet potato processing. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Uptake of iodine-131 in tropical crops. [Ipomoea batatas; Ipomoea reptans; Lycopersicon

    SciTech Connect

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Vegetable crops which include sweet potato tops (Ipomoea batatas), kangkong (Ipomoea repitans) and tomato plants were grown in dark-painted jars containing Hoagland-Arnon modified nutrient solution, utilizing the technique of hydroponics. The experiments for sweet potato tops and kangkong plants were duplicated for replicate studies and steady-state conditions were simulated throughout. Tomato plants were grown in the same manner but growth was observed to be hampered when starting from mature plants. Radioiodine was added to the nutrient medium containing 0.5% non-radioactive NaI solution. The solution in the jar was adjusted daily so as to maintain a constant concentration which would simulate routine releases that are essentially continuous. After incorporating the radioiodine to the solution, 10 ml aliquot was taken and counted for radioactivity by means of a 5'' x 5'' NaI(T1) detector connected to the multichannel gamma analyzer. Both plants and solution were counted for radioactivity at different time intervals using the same geometry. Results indicate that the activity in the plants were relatively higher than that of the solution. The activity tends to level off or decrease after a few days. The concentration factor which is the ratio of the activity in the plant (uCi/gm) over the activity in the medium (uCi/ml) varied for each time interval. 12 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Cryopreservation of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) and its pathogen eradication by cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chaohong; Yin, Zhenfang; Ma, Yanli; Zhang, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Wang, Biao; Li, Baiquan; Huang, Yushen; Wang, Qiaochun

    2011-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) ranks as the seventh most important staple crop in the world and the fifth in developing countries after rice, wheat, maize and cassava. Sweetpotato is mainly grown in developing countries, which account for more than 95% of total production of the whole world. Genetic resources, including cultivated varieties and wild species, are a prerequisite for novel sweetpotato breeding in both conventional and genetic engineering programs. Various cryopreservation protocols have been developed for shoot tips and embryogenic tissues. The former explants are preferred for long-term conservation of sweetpotato genetic resources, while the latter are valuable for sweetpotato genetic improvement. This review provides update comprehensive information on cryopreservation of sweetpotato shoot tips and embryogenic tissues. Plant pathogens such as viruses and phytoplasma severely hamper high yield and high quality production of sweetpotato. Thus, usage of pathogen-free planting materials is pivotal for sustainable sweetpotato production. Cryotherapy of shoot tips can efficiently eradicate sweetpotato pathogens such as viruses and phytoplasma. The mechanism behind pathogen eradication by cryotherapy of shoot tips has been elucidated. Pathogen eradication by cryotherapy provides an alternative, efficient strategy for production of pathogen-free plants. In addition, cryopreserved tissues may also be considered to be safer for exchange of germplasm between countries and regions.

  4. Granulosain I, a cysteine protease isolated from ripe fruits of Solanum granuloso-leprosum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Vallés, Diego; Bruno, Mariela; López, Laura M I; Caffini, Néstor O; Cantera, Ana María B

    2008-08-01

    A new cysteine peptidase (Granulosain I) was isolated from ripe fruits of Solanum granuloso-leprosum Dunal (Solanaceae) by means of precipitation with organic solvent and cation exchange chromatography. The enzyme showed a single band by SDS-PAGE, its molecular mass was 24,746 Da (MALDI-TOF/MS) and its isoelectric point was higher than 9.3. It showed maximum activity (more than 90%) in the pH range 7-8.6. Granulosain I was completely inhibited by E-64 and activated by the addition of cysteine or 2-mercaptoethanol, confirming its cysteinic nature. The kinetic studies carried out with PFLNA as substrate, showed an affinity (Km 0.6 mM) slightly lower than those of other known plant cysteine proteases (papain and bromelain). The N-terminal sequence of granulosain I (DRLPASVDWRGKGVLVLVKNQGQC) exhibited a close homology with other cysteine proteases belonging to the C1A family.

  5. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergenic protein from Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Jain, Abha; Salunke, Dinakar Masanu

    2015-02-01

    Solanum melongena (eggplant), a member of the Solanaceae family, is a widely cultivated vegetable crop and is commonly used as a food throughout the world. Allergic reactions caused by members of this family are well known. However, mechanistic analyses to understand their molecular basis have not been adequately explored. In order to address this issue, the 7S vicilin protein (SM80.1) of size 45 kDa was purified from seeds of S. melongena by ammonium sulfate fractionation and size-exclusion chromatography. Significant homology of SM80.1 to an allergy-related protein from S. lycopersicum was identified through a BLAST search. Crystallization attempts with purified protein using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method led to hexagonal-shaped crystals. The crystals diffracted to 2.21 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6322, with unit-cell parameters a = 117.9, c = 123.5 Å.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding endonuclease from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Knud

    2005-11-01

    A cDNA, StEN1, encoding a potato (Solanum tuberosum) endonuclease was cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of this clone contains an open reading frame of 906 nucleotides encoding a protein of 302 amino acids, and with a calculated molecular mass of 34.4kDa and a Pi of 5.6. The deduced StEN1 protein contains a putative signal sequence of 25 amino acid residues. The StEN1 encoded protein shows substantial homology to both plant and fungal endonucleases isolated and cloned from other sources. The highest identity (73%) was observed with AgCEL I from celery, Apium graveolens, ZEN1 from Zinnia elegans (69%) and DSA6 from daylily, Hemerocallis (68%). RT-PCR expression analysis demonstrated that the potato StEN1 gene is constitutively expressed in potato, although minor differences in expression level in different tissues were observed.

  7. Purification of a novel lipoxygenase from eggplant (Solanum melongena) fruit chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; López-Nicolás, José Manuel; García Carmona, Francisco

    2001-03-01

    A novel membrane lipoxygenase (LOX; EC 1.13.11.12) from eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. Belleza negra) fruit chloroplasts has been purified 20-fold to a specific activity of 207 enzymatic units per mg of protein with a yield of 72%. The purification was carried out by sonicating the chloroplastic membranes in the presence of Triton X-114 followed by phase partitioning and anion exchange chromatography. The purified membrane LOX preparation consisted of a single major band with an apparent molecular mass of 97 kDa after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results obtained using intact chloroplasts indicate that the enzyme is not localized in the stroma. When the enzyme reacts with linoleic acid, it produces a single peak, which comigrates with standard 9-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoic acid. A physiological role for this chloroplastic LOX is proposed.

  8. Ploidy and morphological characteristics of Solanum tuberosum x Solanum phureja hybrids.

    PubMed

    Dolničar, Peter; Bohanec, Borut

    2000-01-01

    In attempt to induce doubled haploids in potato we studied interspecific hybrids between tetraploid Solanum tuberosum cultivars Igor, Jana, Vesna, Romano, Arinda, Fianna, Donald and Vital and Solanum phureja (clone IVP 48). Four out of eight cultivars produced 21 berries in total and 149 seedlings were obtained. Their ploidy was measured using flow cytometry. Analysis revealed 137 tetraploids, 10 triploids and 2 haploids. One haploid, 6 triploids and most of the tetraploids produced tubers. Nine out of 10 triploids were produced in a cross between cv. Igor and S. phureja. The vigour of the haploid plant was weak and produced characteristic long light yellow tubers. Triploid plants were characterized by a dark violet coloration of the stem, which was the same as the coloration of the S. phureja. Tubers had violet skin colour of various intensities and deep eyes. The majority of the tetraploid plants (135) were phenotypically similar to the S. tuberosum, while two plants had a similar violet stem and tubers as the triploids. Triploids were interspecific hybrids and tetraploids were produced by spontaneous chromosome doubling from S. tuberosum gametes. Two tetraploid plants expressing violet coloration might have been interspecific hybrids formed from 2n S. phureja gametes. Further studies are needed to confirm these assumptions.

  9. Spirosolane-containing Solanum species and induction of congenital craniofacial malformations.

    PubMed

    Keeler, R F; Baker, D C; Gaffield, W

    1990-01-01

    Comparison by GC analysis of purified alkaloid extracts of Solanum species revealed no measurable free solasodine, other spirosolanes, or any non-spirosolane steroidal alkaloid aglycones in unhydrolyzed total alkaloid fractions of fruit of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (silverleaf nightshade), Solanum sarrachoides (S. villosum Lam.--hairy nightshade), Solanum dulcamara L. (European bittersweet nightshade) or Solanum melongena L. (eggplant). All alkaloidal material was apparently present as glycoside. Conversely, sprouts of Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) contained 67% of its alkaloids as glycosides, which was freed only upon hydrolysis with the remaining 33% present as free solanidine. GC/MS analysis of hydrolysates of purified extracts of the test Solanum species revealed that solasodine was a principal or sole aglycone of the alkaloid glycosides in each of the test species except Solanum tuberosum. In the latter, solanidine was the sole aglycone. Among the test species, exclusive of S. tuberosum, only S. dulcamara contained aglycones other than solasodine. In addition to solasodine, S. dulcamara contained appreciable amounts of an unknown spirosolane, an aglycone provisionally identified as soladulcidine. The induction of congenital craniofacial malformations in hamsters by high oral doses of the four Solanum species that contained mainly solasodine glycosides--S. elaeagnifolium, S. dulcamara, S. sarrachoides and S. melongena was compared to inductions of malformations by Solanum tuberosum, that contained mainly solanidane glycosides. Compared to controls, Solanum elaeagnifolium and Solanum dulcamara fruit both induced a high percentage incidence of deformed litters (20.4 and 16.3, respectively) that was statistically significant (P less than 0.001 level) while percentage incidence of deformed litters induced by Solanum sarrachoides and Solanum melongena fruit (9.5 and 7.6 respectively) were both higher than controls (3.4%), in neither case was the incidence

  10. A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from South Africa related to the cultivated eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsova, M.S.; Knapp, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new andromonoecious species related to the eggplant and belonging to Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Africa is described. Solanum umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is found in the eastern part of South Africa, and is sympatric with its close relative Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.M-L.Jaeger. It is morphologically very similar to Solanum cerasiferum Dunal of northern tropical Africa. A comparison table with similar and closely related species is provided, as are a distribution map and illustration of Solanum umtuma. PMID:22287927

  11. Plant-growth regulators alter phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality in Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Talei, Daryush; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Mohamed, Mahmud Tengku Muda; Puteh, Adam; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan A

    2016-05-28

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is one of the most important consumed crops in many parts of the world because of its economic importance and content of health-promoting phytochemicals. With the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) as our model, we investigated the exogenous effects of three plant-growth regulators methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA) on major phytochemicals in relation to phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. Specifically, we investigated the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), and total β-carotene content (TCC). Individual phenolic and flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Antioxidant activities of treated plants were evaluated using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and a β-carotene bleaching assay. Anticancer activity of extracts was evaluated against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. TPC, TFC, TAC, and TCC and antioxidant activities were substantially increased in MeJA-, SA-, and ABA-treated plants. Among the secondary metabolites identified in this study, MeJA application significantly induced production of quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Luteolin synthesis was significantly induced by SA application. Compared with control plants, MeJA-treated sweet potato exhibited the highest PAL activity, followed by SA and ABA treatment. The high DPPH activity was observed in MeJA followed by SA and ABA, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.40, 3.0, and 3.40 mg/mL compared with α-tocopherol (1.1 mg/mL). Additionally, MeJA-treated sweet potato showed the highest β-carotene bleaching activity, with an IC50 value of 2.90 mg/mL, followed by SA (3.30 mg/mL), ABA (3.70 mg/mL), and control plants (4.5 mg/mL). Extracts of sweet potato root treated

  12. Purification and characterization of p-coumaroyl-D-glucose hydroxylase of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Kojima, M

    1991-01-01

    p-Coumaroyl-D-glucose hydroxylase in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) has been purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity using a combination of anion-and cation-exchange, hydrophobic and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular weight of 33,000 and pI of 8.3. The purified enzyme showed not only hydroxylase activity but also polyphenol oxidase activity. L-Ascorbic acid was the best electron donor for the hydroxylation reaction, which had an optimum pH of 7.0. The enzyme hydroxylated p-coumaroyl-D-glucose, p-coumaric acid, and p-cresol but did not act on o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid or L-tyrosine. While the enzyme utilized p-coumaroyl-D-glucose and p-coumaric acid equally at pH 7.0, it hydroxylated only p-coumaroyl-D-glucose at pH 5.5. The enzyme oxidized diphenols such as D,L-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine and caffeic acid, but exhibited no clear pH optimum in this reaction characteristic of polyphenol oxidase. Both the hydroxylase and the polyphenol oxidase activities were strongly inhibited by beta-mercaptoethanol, diethyldithiocarbamate, KCN, and p-coumaric acid (in concentrations higher than 5 mM). Ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride activated the hydroxylase activity but not the polyphenol oxidase activity of the enzyme. The enzyme activity and L-ascorbic acid contents changed in a manner suggesting their involvements in chlorogenic acid biosynthesis during incubation of sliced sweet potato root tissues.

  13. Extract from Dioscorea batatas ameliorates insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Jwa, Hyejeong; Yanagawa, Yasuko; Park, Taesun

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Dioscorea batatas (DB) extract attenuates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in the visceral adipose tissues of mice, and by what mechanism(s). Mice were fed a HFD for 4 weeks to induce the early development of insulin resistance. The DB extract was administered to mice fed a HFD by oral gavage at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 weeks. Biochemical parameters in blood were measured using enzymatic kits, and the expression levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), phosphorylated (p-)S6K1, phosphorylated v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (p-AKT), and phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase (p-ERK) in epididymal fat tissue were determined by western blot analyses. The DB extract effectively reversed the HFD-induced elevations in plasma glucose and insulin levels, and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance and oral glucose tolerance test values. The level of p-AKT protein was up-regulated, whereas the levels of p-ERK and p-S6K1 proteins were down-regulated in the adipose tissues of DB mice compared with HFD mice. Furthermore, the DB extract significantly reversed the HFD-induced decrease in the plasma membrane GLUT4 level in the adipose tissue of mice. The DB extract improved glucose metabolism in HFD-fed mice through the up-regulation of plasma membrane GLUT4 content in the visceral adipose tissue. Activation of the insulin signaling cascade leading to GLUT4 translocation was the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of the DB extract on early-stage obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  14. Analyses of the complete genome and gene expression of chloroplast of sweet potato [Ipomoea batata].

    PubMed

    Yan, Lang; Lai, Xianjun; Li, Xuedan; Wei, Changhe; Tan, Xuemei; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] ranks among the top seven most important food crops cultivated worldwide and is hexaploid plant (2n=6x=90) in the Convolvulaceae family with a genome size between 2,200 to 3,000 Mb. The genomic resources for this crop are deficient due to its complicated genetic structure. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of sweet potato, which is a circular molecule of 161,303 bp in the typical quadripartite structure with large (LSC) and small (SSC) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs). The chloroplast DNA contains a total of 145 genes, including 94 protein-encoding genes of which there are 72 single-copy and 11 double-copy genes. The organization and structure of the chloroplast genome (gene content and order, IR expansion/contraction, random repeating sequences, structural rearrangement) of sweet potato were compared with those of Ipomoea (L.) species and some basal important angiosperms, respectively. Some boundary gene-flow and gene gain-and-loss events were identified at intra- and inter-species levels. In addition, by comparing with the transcriptome sequences of sweet potato, the RNA editing events and differential expressions of the chloroplast functional-genes were detected. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on 77 protein-coding genes from 33 taxa and the result may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution progress of the genus Ipomoea (L.), including phylogenetic relationships, intraspecific differentiation and interspecific introgression.

  15. Analyses of the Complete Genome and Gene Expression of Chloroplast of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batata

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lang; Lai, Xianjun; Li, Xuedan; Wei, Changhe; Tan, Xuemei; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] ranks among the top seven most important food crops cultivated worldwide and is hexaploid plant (2n=6x=90) in the Convolvulaceae family with a genome size between 2,200 to 3,000 Mb. The genomic resources for this crop are deficient due to its complicated genetic structure. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of sweet potato, which is a circular molecule of 161,303 bp in the typical quadripartite structure with large (LSC) and small (SSC) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs). The chloroplast DNA contains a total of 145 genes, including 94 protein-encoding genes of which there are 72 single-copy and 11 double-copy genes. The organization and structure of the chloroplast genome (gene content and order, IR expansion/contraction, random repeating sequences, structural rearrangement) of sweet potato were compared with those of Ipomoea (L.) species and some basal important angiosperms, respectively. Some boundary gene-flow and gene gain-and-loss events were identified at intra- and inter-species levels. In addition, by comparing with the transcriptome sequences of sweet potato, the RNA editing events and differential expressions of the chloroplast functional-genes were detected. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on 77 protein-coding genes from 33 taxa and the result may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution progress of the genus Ipomoea (L.), including phylogenetic relationships, intraspecific differentiation and interspecific introgression. PMID:25874767

  16. Quality improvement of sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) roots as feed by ensilage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y H; Huang, T C; Huang, C

    1988-07-01

    1. Sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) strips (SPS) mixed with maize powder (CP) in proportions 10:0, 9:1, 8:2, and 7:3 were ensiled for 1, 2 or 3 months. 2. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) decreased during ensilage in samples of all treatments while the SPS-CP mixture (7:3, w/w) ensiled for 3 months contained the lowest TIA. 3. SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) dried or ensiled for 2 months, or ensiled for 2 months and dried, were each mixed with twice the amount of control diet (1:2, w/w) to make three diets. These three diets together with the control diet were used for a feeding experiment with rats to evaluate the nutritive value. 4. General composition analysis (including metabolizable energy), fatty acid composition and amino acid analysis (including percentage of essential amino acids) of the samples did not change during ensilage to an extent which could explain the improved performance of rats fed on ensiled diets. 5. Rats fed on diets containing dried SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) showed significantly lower (P less than 0.05) body-weight gain than rats fed on the control diet or ensiled SPS diets, at the end of the 8th week. They also showed enlargement of the pancreas. The adverse effect of SPS was associated with TIA which seemed to be prevented to some extent by ensilage. 6. The possibility that the starch of SPS may also contribute to the adverse effect cannot be excluded at present.

  17. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João R

    2014-01-01

    Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern.

  18. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, João R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern. PMID:25009438

  19. Carotenoids gene markers for sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam): applications in genetic mapping, diversity evaluation and cross-species transference.

    PubMed

    Arizio, C M; Costa Tártara, S M; Manifesto, M M

    2014-04-01

    Carotenoids play essential biological roles in plants, and genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway are evolutionarily conserved. Orange sweetpotato is an important source of β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A. In spite of this, only a few research studies have focussed on the molecular aspects of carotenoid genes regarding their specific sequence and structure. In this study, we used published carotenoid gene sequences from Ipomoea and other species for "exon-primed intron-crossing" approaches. Fifteen pairs of primers representing six carotenoid genes were designed for different introns, eleven of which amplified scorable and reproducible alleles. The sequence of PCR products showed high homology to the original ones. Moreover, the structure and sequence of the introns and exons from five carotenoid structural genes were partially defined. Intron length polymorphism and intron single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in amplified sequences. Marker dosages and allelic segregations were analysed in a mapping population. The developed markers were evaluated in a set of Ipomoeas batatas accessions so as to analyse genetic diversity and conservation applicability. Using CG strategy combined with EPIC-PCR technique, we developed carotenoid gene markers in sweetpotato. We reported the first set of polymorphic Candidate Gene markers for I. batatas, and demonstrated transferability in seven wild Ipomoea species. We described the sequence and structure of carotenoid genes and introduced new information about genomic constitution and allele dosage.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of the sweetpotato in Ipomoea series Batatas (Convolvulaceae) based on nuclear beta-amylase gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Sriyani; Nilmalgoda, Sasanda D; Molnar, Matthew; Ballard, Robert E; Austin, Daniel F; Bohac, Janice R

    2004-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 13 accessions and a cultivar representing the sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., and its wild progenitors, were investigated using the nucleotide sequence variation of a nuclear-encoded beta-amylase gene. A 1.1-1.3 kb fragment of the gene spanning two exons separated by a long intron was PCR-amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Exon sequences proved highly conservative, while intron sequences yielded large differences. Intron analyses grouped species in a phylogenetic context according to the presence of two genome types: A and B. These groups are consistent with results of previous analyses, save for the novel placement of I. tiliacea, among the A-genome species. Sequences specific to both A and B genome species have been identified. Exon sequences indicate that I. ramosissima and I. umbraticola are quite different from other A-genome species. Placement of I. littoralis is questionable; its intron is similar to other B-genome species, but its exons are quite different. Exon evolution indicates that the B-genome has evolved faster than the A-genome. Interspecific intron and exon variation indicates I. trifida, I. tabascana, and I. batatas form a monophyletic group.

  1. Natural diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) invertases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Invertases are ubiquitous enzymes that irreversibly cleave sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plant invertases play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism, plant development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), invertases are involved in 'cold-induced sweetening' of tubers, an adaptive response to cold stress, which negatively affects the quality of potato chips and French fries. Linkage and association studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tuber sugar content and chip quality that colocalize with three independent potato invertase loci, which together encode five invertase genes. The role of natural allelic variation of these genes in controlling the variation of tuber sugar content in different genotypes is unknown. Results For functional studies on natural variants of five potato invertase genes we cloned and sequenced 193 full-length cDNAs from six heterozygous individuals (three tetraploid and three diploid). Eleven, thirteen, ten, twelve and nine different cDNA alleles were obtained for the genes Pain-1, InvGE, InvGF, InvCD141 and InvCD111, respectively. Allelic cDNA sequences differed from each other by 4 to 9%, and most were genotype specific. Additional variation was identified by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in an association-mapping population of 219 tetraploid individuals. Haplotype modeling revealed two to three major haplotypes besides a larger number of minor frequency haplotypes. cDNA alleles associated with chip quality, tuber starch content and starch yield were identified. Conclusions Very high natural allelic variation was uncovered in a set of five potato invertase genes. This variability is a consequence of the cultivated potato's reproductive biology. Some of the structural variation found might underlie functional variation that influences important agronomic traits such as tuber sugar content. The associations found between specific invertase alleles and

  2. Production and characterization of arboreous and fertile Solanum melongena + Solanum marginatum somatic hybrid plants.

    PubMed

    Borgato, Lorena; Conicella, Clara; Pisani, Federica; Furini, Antonella

    2007-09-01

    In crop plants the shift from being annuals to perennials may allow future agricultural systems requiring less energy inputs. The practicability of this was tested for Solanum melongena. Leaf protoplasts of S. melongena (2n = 2x = 24) and one of the related arborescent species Solanum marginatum (2n = 2x = 24) were electrofused and fertile somatic hybrids with arborescent habit regenerated. The magnetic cell sorter (MACS) technique was used for the selection of heterokaryons. The hybrid nature of 18 regenerated plants was assessed on the banding patterns generated by inter-simple sequence repeat PCR. When taken to maturity in the greenhouse, hybrids grew more vigorously compared to the parental species. Their morphological traits were intermediate between those of S. melongena and S. marginatum. Hybrids flowered and produced an average of 85% stainable viable pollen and fertile fruits. The somatic hybrids were maintained in the greenhouse for more than 3 years and continued to produce flowers developing into two types of fruits with plentiful seeds. Fruits were either striated green containing non-germinable seeds or yellow with fully germinable seeds. Their S(1) progenies showed common features with S(0) hybrids, including fertility and arborescent habit. Cytologically, somatic hybrids exhibited the expected chromosome number of 2n = 4x = 48, while chromosome pairing during microsporogenesis was associated with a low frequency of intergenomic pairing. It is concluded that an arborescent perennial species has been obtained by somatic hybridization. The usefulness of this species per se or in eggplant breeding will depend not only on the transmission of the arborescent habit to cultivated eggplant varieties, but also on the variability that should be created from backcrossing the S. melongena + S. marginatum hybrids to S. melongena.

  3. Core collections of potato (Solanum) species native to the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato has two wild relatives native to the USA, Solanum jamesii (jam) and S. fendleri (fen). Core collections are a useful tool for genebanks, identifying a ranked minimum number of samples that together encompass most of the total diversity. With diversity measured as presence of AFLP bands, core ...

  4. Management of Solanum elaeagnifolium in the Mediterranean Basin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (silverleaf nightshade, SOLEL) is a prominent invasive alien weed in many countries of the Mediterranean Basin since its introduction in the mid-20th century, originating from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It reproduces vegetatively and by seeds that...

  5. [Solanum torvum, toxicological evaluation on microorganisms and sperm cells].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Odio, Aníbal; Puente-Zapata, Edgar; Pérez-Andrés, Irela Yolaine; Salas-Pérez, Hilario

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the toxic effect of an aqueous extract of Solanum torvum on microorganisms responsible for genitourinary infections as well as the adverse effects on sperm cells. it was determined the microbial toxicity of a freeze-dried aqueous extract (obtained from the leaves and stems of Solanum torvum), against wild strains of Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Candida albicans, using the test of poisoning in culture medium at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL. The response-was evaluated with the colony diameter (mm). Then, it was evaluated the toxicological potential on male reproductive system using the testing of morphology of the sperm head in NMRI mice. the Solanum torvum had bacteriostatic antibacterial activity. There were not observed alterations in quantity and quality characteristics in semen with the oral and doses used of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of weight. the Solanum torvum described, inhibits the growth of bacteria and produces no disturbance on semen quality in the species studied.

  6. New steroidal glycosides from the fruits of Solanum anguivi.

    PubMed

    Honbu, Takehiko; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Zhu, Xing-Hua; Yoshihara, Osamu; Okawa, Masafumi; Nafady, Alaa M; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2002-12-01

    Four new steroidal saponins, anguiviosides III (1), XI (2), XV (3), and XVI (4), were isolated and characterized from the fruits of Solanum anguivi. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The occurrence of the cholestane glycosides 3 and 4 is considered from a biogenetic point of view.

  7. Solanum Section Petota for the Flora of North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 species of plants native or naturalized in North America north of Mexico, about 7% of the world's total. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild potatoes (Solanum section Petota) occurring in North Ameri...

  8. Variation for tuber greening in the wild potato solanum microdontum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greening of the tuber skin is an undesirable defect. Tubers of 90 Solanum microdontum families represented by 12 individuals each were generated in the winter greenhouse in 2009-2010. These were evaluated in two trials of family bulks after four days of exposure to 200 ft candles of fluorescent whit...

  9. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Series Conicibaccata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum series Conicibaccata Bitter previously contained 40 wild potato (sect. Petota Dumort.) species distributed from southern Mexico to central Bolivia. It contained diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x= 48) and hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72). We previously reported the morphological phenetic...

  10. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Series Piurana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum series Piurana Hawkes is one of 21 series recognized in section Petota Dumort. in the latest comprehensive taxonomic treatment by Hawkes in 1990. Species from this and related series are distributed from southern Colombia, south through Ecuador to central Peru. The limits of the series and v...

  11. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  12. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  13. A reassessment of Solanum maglia in the origin of Chilean landraces of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum Chilotanum Group)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Landrace potato cultivars of Solanum tuberosum occur in two broad geographic regions; the high Andes from western Venezuela south to northern Argentina (S. tuberosum Andigenum Group), and lowland south central Chile (S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group). Chilotanum is adapted to long days, has a 241 bp pl...

  14. The enigma of Solanum maglia in the origin of the Chilean cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum Chilotanum group

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Landrace potato cultivars of Solanum tuberosum occur in two broad geographic regions; the high Andes from western Venezuela south to northern Argentina (S. tuberosum Andigenum Group), and lowland south central Chile (S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group). Chilotanum Group landraces are adapted to long days...

  15. Characterization and development of EST-derived SSR markers in cultivated sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently there exists a limited availability of genetic marker resources in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), which is hindering genetic research in this species. It is necessary to develop more molecular markers for potential use in sweetpotato genetic research. With the newly developed next generation sequencing technology, large amount of transcribed sequences of sweetpotato have been generated and are available for identifying SSR markers by data mining. Results In this study, we investigated 181,615 ESTs for the identification and development of SSR markers. In total, 8,294 SSRs were identified from 7,163 SSR-containing unique ESTs. On an average, one SSR was found per 7.1 kb of EST sequence with tri-nucleotide motifs (42.9%) being the most abundant followed by di- (41.2%), tetra- (9.2%), penta- (3.7%) and hexa-nucleotide (3.1%) repeat types. The top five motifs included AG/CT (26.9%), AAG/CTT (13.5%), AT/TA (10.6%), CCG/CGG (5.8%) and AAT/ATT (4.5%). After removing possible duplicate of published EST-SSRs of sweetpotato, a total of non-repeat 7,958 SSR motifs were identified. Based on these SSR-containing sequences, 1,060 pairs of high-quality SSR primers were designed and used for validation of the amplification and assessment of the polymorphism between two parents of one mapping population (E Shu 3 Hao and Guang 2k-30) and eight accessions of cultivated sweetpotatoes. The results showed that 816 primer pairs could yield reproducible and strong amplification products, of which 195 (23.9%) and 342 (41.9%) primer pairs exhibited polymorphism between E Shu 3 Hao and Guang 2k-30 and among the 8 cultivated sweetpotatoes, respectively. Conclusion This study gives an insight into the frequency, type and distribution of sweetpotato EST-SSRs and demonstrates successful development of EST-SSR markers in cultivated sweetpotato. These EST-SSR markers could enrich the current resource of molecular markers for the sweetpotato community and would be useful for

  16. Life history parameters of the biocontrol agent Gratiana spadicea (Chrysomelidae), reared on the natural host plant Solanum sisymbriifolium and the non-target crop Solanum melongena (Solanaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gratiana spadicea (Klug), a leaf-feeding tortoise beetle native to South America, was released in South Africa for the biological control of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamarck (wild tomato), despite its ability to develop on cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) during laboratory host-specificity ...

  17. A Morphometric Study of Species Boundaries of the Wild Potato Solanum Series Piurana (Solanaceae) and putatively related species from seven other series in Solanum Sect. Petota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are about 190 wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species distributed from the southwestern United States to central Argentina and adjacent Chile and Uruguay. Their overall morphological similarity has led to widely conflicting taxonomic treatments. Solanum series Piurana is one of 21 series ...

  18. Two new non-spiny Solanum species from the Bolivian Andes (Morelloid Clade)

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra; Nee, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new Bolivian species are described from the Morelloid clade of Solanum (section Solanum in the traditional sense). Solanum alliariifolium M.Nee & Särkinen, sp. nov. is found in montane forests between 1,900 and 3,200 m and is morphologically most similar to Solanum leptocaulon Van Heurck & Müll.Arg., also from montane forests in southern Peru and Bolivia. Solanum rhizomatum Särkinen & M.Nee, sp. nov. is found in seasonally dry forests and matorral vegetation in lower elevations between 1,300 and 2,900 m and is most similar to Solanum pygmaeum Cav., a species native to sub-tropical Argentina but introduced in subtropical and temperate areas worldwide. PMID:25878556

  19. Detecting bugweed (Solanum mauritianum) abundance in plantation forestry using multisource remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peerbhay, Kabir; Mutanga, Onisimo; Lottering, Romano; Bangamwabo, Victor; Ismail, Riyad

    2016-11-01

    The invasive weed Solanum mauritianum (bugweed) has infested large areas of plantation forests in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Bugweed often forms dense infestations and rapidly capitalises on available natural resources hindering the production of forest resources. Precise assessment of bugweed canopy cover, especially at low abundance cover, is essential to an effective weed management strategy. In this study, the utility of AISA Eagle airborne hyperspectral data (393-994 nm) with the new generation Worldview-2 multispectral sensor (427-908 nm) was compared to detect the abundance of bugweed cover within the Hodgsons Sappi forest plantation. Using sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis (SPLS-DA), the best detection results were obtained when performing discrimination using the remotely sensing images combined with LiDAR. Overall classification accuracies subsequently improved by 10% and 11.67% for AISA and Worldview-2 respectively, with improved detection accuracies for bugweed cover densities as low as 5%. The incorporation of LiDAR worked well within the SPLS-DA framework for detecting the abundance of bugweed cover using remotely sensed data. In addition, the algorithm performed simultaneous dimension reduction and variable selection successfully whereby wavelengths in the visible (393-670 nm) and red-edge regions (725-734 nm) of the spectrum were the most effective.

  20. Starch-branching enzyme I gene (IbSBEI) from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas); molecular cloning and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Tatsuro; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Shimada, Takiko

    2006-08-01

    The cDNA of the starch-branching enzyme I gene (IbSBEI) in the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) has been cloned and sequenced. The IbSBEI amino acid sequence was 81% identical to that of potato StSBEI. DNA gel-blot analyses demonstrated that at least two copies of IbSBEI are present in the sweet potato genome. IbSBEI was strongly expressed in tuberous roots. Transcript levels in the roots of single leaf cuttings were extremely low during the first 15-40 d after planting and continuously increased up to 50 d, by which time the tuberous roots had almost completely developed. This indicates that IbSBEI may work in concert with the AGPase large subunit during the primary phase of starch granule formation.

  1. Expressed nifH Genes of Endophytic Bacteria Detected in Field-Grown Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Terakado-Tonooka, Junko; Ohwaki, Yoshinari; Yamakawa, Hiromoto; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Fujihara, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    We examined the nitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria expressed in field-grown sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Gene fragments corresponding to nifH were amplified from mRNA obtained from the stems and storage roots of field-grown sweet potatoes several months after planting. Sequence analysis revealed that these clones were homologous to the nifH sequences of Bradyrhizobium, Pelomonas, and Bacillus sp. in the DNA database. Investigation of the nifH genes amplified from the genomic DNA extracted from these sweet potatoes also showed high similarity to various α-proteobacteria including Bradyrhizobium, β-proteobacteria, and cyanobacteria. These results suggest that bradyrhizobia colonize and express nifH genes not only in the root nodules of leguminous plants but also in sweet potatoes as diazotrophic endophytes.

  2. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of total flavonoids from sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunguang; Zhang, Lianying

    2013-08-01

    The in vivo anti-fatigue activity of the total flavonoids from sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf was investigated in male Kunming mice. The total flavonoids from sweet potato leaf (TFSL) were orally administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks and the anti-fatigue effect was studied using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with the determination of serum urea nitrogen (SUN), blood lactic acid (BLA) and hepatic and muscle glycogen contents. The results showed that TFSL had significant anti-fatigue effects. TFSL extended the exhaustive swimming time, effectively inhibited the increase of BLA, decreased the level of SUN and increased the hepatic and muscle glycogen content of mice. Thus, TFSL may have potential as an anti-fatigue agent.

  3. Characterization of a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor from Solanum tuberosum having lectin activity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kunal R; Patel, Dhaval K; Pappachan, Anju; Prabha, C Ratna; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2016-02-01

    Plant lectins and protease inhibitors constitute a class of proteins which plays a crucial role in plant defense. In our continuing investigations on lectins from plants, we have isolated, purified and characterized a protein of about 20 kDa, named PotHg, showing hemagglutination activity from tubers of Indian potato, Solanum tuberosum. De novo sequencing and MS/MS analysis confirmed that the purified protein was a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor having two chains (15 kDa and 5 kDa). SDS and native PAGE analysis showed that the protein was glycosylated and was a heterodimer of about 15 and 5 kDa subunits. PotHg agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes with specific activity of 640 H.U./mg which was inhibited by complex sugars like fetuin. PotHg retained hemagglutination activity over a pH range 4-9 and up to 80°C. Mannose and galactose interacted with the PotHg with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.5×10(-3) M and 2.8×10(-3) M, respectively as determined through fluorescence studies. Fluorescence studies suggested the involvement of a tryptophan in sugar binding which was further confirmed through modification of tryptophan residues using N-bromosuccinimide. Circular dichroism (CD) studies showed that PotHg contains mostly β sheets (∼45%) and loops which is in line with previously characterized protease inhibitors and modeling studies. There are previous reports of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors showing lectin like activity from Peltophorum dubium and Labramia bojeri. This is the first report of a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor showing lectin like activity from a major crop plant and this makes PotHg an interesting candidate for further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-01-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change. PMID:23531982

  5. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity.

    PubMed

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-06-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change.

  6. Four new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) species from South America

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of “non-spiny” Solanum from South America are described. Solanum longifilamentum Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is widespread from Ecuador to Bolivia and is most similar to Solanum macrotonum Dunal from Central and northern South America. Solanum antisuyo Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found on the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the widespread lower elevation species Solanum polytrichostylum Bitter. Solanum arenicola Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found in low elevation habitats on the eastern Andean slopes and in Amazonia of Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the higher elevation species Solanum aloysiifolium Dunal of Bolivia and Argentina. Solanum mariae Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Potato clade) is endemic to Cajamarca Department in Peru, and is most similar to the widespread Solanum caripense Dunal. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:25698893

  7. RFLP analysis of the wild potato species, Solanum acaule Bitter (Solanum sect. Petota).

    PubMed

    Hosaka, K; Spooner, D M

    1992-09-01

    Intraspecific variation of a wild potato species, Solanum acaule Bitt., was analyzed by RFLPs of genomic DNA. One hundred and five accessions were selected throughout the distribution area, including all subspecies, i.e., ssp. albicans (hexaploid), ssp. punae (tetraploid), ssp. acaule (tetraploid) and ssp. aemulans (tetraploid). Twenty-seven low-copy DNA clones (probes) were Southern hybridized with EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, and XbaI digests of total DNA of all accessions. In total, 238 RFLPs were detected from 94 enzyme x probe combinations. Among them, 49 RFLPs were specific to ssp. albicans, suggesting that the additional third genome is distinct from its two other genomes. RFLPs between and within subspecies were analyzed by principal component analysis. DNA similarities between subspecies coincided with a former taxonomic treatment in the sense that ssp. albicans is the most distantly related to ssp. acaule and ssp. aemulans is distantly related. Subspecies acaule and ssp. punae were indistinguishable. In addition, RFLPs could be used to distinguish groups within subspecies. Subspecies aemulans, confined to Argentina, was divided into two populations, one from the province of La Rioja and the other from the province of Jujuy. In ssp. acaule, some accessions from the southernmost distribution area were clearly distinguishable, while the others varied continuously, showing a geographical cline from Peru to Argentina.

  8. Molecular analysis of a UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) gene from purple potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Hu, Chaoyang; Gong, Yifu; Jin, Si; Zhu, Qing

    2011-01-01

    In anthocyanin biosynthesis, UDP-glucose: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) catalyzes the transfer of the glucosyl moiety from UDP-glucose to the 3-hydroxyl group of anthocyanidins, producing the first stable anthocyanins. The full-length cDNA of UFGT (designated as StUFGT) was isolated and characterized from Solanum tuberosum. The full-length cDNA of StUFGT was 1536 bp containing a 1344 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 448 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 49.9 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.62. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that StUFGT has extensive homology with UFGTs from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that StUFGT belongs to the plant UFGT cluster. StUFGT was found to be expressed in roots, stems, leafstalks and leaves. Expression profiling analysis revealed that StUFGT expression was induced correspondingly by exogenous elicitors including gibberellic acid and sucrose, suggesting that UFGT might play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Solanum tuberosum at the transcriptional level.

  9. Emerging food allergens: Identification of polyphenol oxidase as an important allergen in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Harish Babu, Bheemanapalli N; Wilfred, Anthony; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2017-02-01

    Although many allergens have been detected in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), their identity have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polyphenol oxidase (PPO), an important eggplant enzyme, acts as an allergen. The proteins of eggplant peel extract were separated on phenyl-Sepharose (PS), and analyzed by skin prick test (SPT), ELISA and IgE-immunoblotting; the components were analyzed for PPO activity, presence of protein-bound copper, and recognition by rabbit polyclonal anti-sweet potato PPO antiserum. LC-MS/MS and in silico analysis were employed to identify the separated allergens and prediction of IgE epitopes. Eggplant allergens were separated into 5 components (PS1-PS5), of which component PS2 exhibited high specific PPO activity. SPT and ELISA with PPO-rich pool (PS2) were positive in all 6 eggplant-allergic subjects; the 43, 64 and 71kDa proteins displayed strong IgE-binding ability. The 64 and 71kDa IgE-binding proteins show PPO activity, presence of copper, and recognition by anti-sweet potato PPO antiserum, clearly identifying them as PPOs; the 43kDa protein appears to be a degradation product of the 64 or 71kDa proteins based on enzymic activity and recognition by PPO antiserum. The 64kDa protein upon further resolution by SDS-PAGE displayed two components (identified as eggplant PPO1 and PPO4 by LC-MS/MS). Based on bioinformatics approaches, PPO4 has been identified as an allergen since it harbors an IgE epitope. This study clearly demonstrates that the 64 and 71kDa allergens in eggplant peel are PPOs based on enzymic activity and recognition by PPO antiserum; the 64kDa copper-containing protein is identified as one of the several eggplant allergens (Sola m PPO4). This is the first instance of polyphenol oxidase being identified as a new food allergen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Transmission and recombination of homeologous Solanum sitiens chromosomes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Pertuzé, Ricardo A; Ji, Yuanfu; Chetelat, Roger T

    2003-11-01

    The goal of the present experiments was to transfer the chromosomes of Solanum sitiens (syn. Solanum rickii) into cultivated tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum). By crossing an allotetraploid L. esculentum x Solanum sitiens hybrid to sesquidiploid L. esculentum x S. lycopersicoides, a trigenomic hybrid (2n+14=38) was obtained. Analysis of the latter by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) indicated it contained a full set of 12 S. sitiens chromosomes, plus two extras from S. lycopersicoides. This and other complex hybrids were pollinated with Lycopersicon pennellii-derived bridging lines to overcome unilateral incompatibility. A total of 40 progeny were recovered by embryo rescue, including diploids and aneuploids (up to 2n+8). In order to determine the origin of chromosomes and the location of introgressed segments, progeny were genotyped with RFLP markers. S. sitiens-specific markers on all chromosomes, except 6 and 11, were detected in the progeny. Several S. sitiens chromosomes were transmitted intact, either through chromosome addition (i.e., trisomics) or substitution (i.e., disomics). Recombination between S. sitiens and L. esculentum was detected on most chromosomes, in both diploid and aneuploid progeny. A monosomic alien addition line for S. sitiens chromosome 8 was identified, and the extra chromosome was stably transmitted to approximately 13% of the backcross progeny. This study demonstrates the feasibility of gene transfer from S. sitiens to L. esculentum through chromosome addition, substitution, and recombination in the progeny of complex aneuploid hybrids.

  11. Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and Persistent Outside of its Natural Range

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild potato (Solanum section Petota) contains about 110 species that are native to the Americas from the southwestern United States to central Chile and adjacent Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. Landrace populations of the cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, are native to the Ame...

  12. Comparative Functional Genomic Analysis of Solanum Glandular Trichome Types1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Eric T.; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors. PMID:21098679

  13. Taxonomy of wild potatoes and their relatives in southern South America (Solanum sect. Petota, sect. Etuberosum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum section Petota, which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, is distributed from the southwestern United States to central Argentina and adjacent Chile. Section Etuberosum, a closely related outgroup section, is distributed in Argentina and Chile. Our taxo...

  14. A new cryptically dioecious species of bush tomato (Solanum) from the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Symon, David E.; Evans, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of dioecious Solanum from the Australian “Dioicum Complex” of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum cowiei Martine sp. nov., is allied with other members of this problematic lineage, but differs in its slender leaves, limited armature and diminutive habit. The species was first segregated by botanists at the Northern Territory Herbarium as Solanum sp. Litchfield (I.D. Cowie 1428); and specimens representing this species have also been referred to by Symon as Solanum sp. Fitzmaurice River. Collections suggest that this is an endemic of the sub-arid tropical zone of the Northern Territory. SEM images support initial assumptions that the new species is cryptically dioecious via production of inaperturate pollen grains in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers. PMID:24399898

  15. Identification of Novel Associations of Candidate Genes with Resistance to Late Blight in Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, María F.; Angarita, Myrian; Delgado, María C.; García, Celsa; Jiménez-Gomez, José; Gebhardt, Christiane; Mosquera, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The genetic basis of quantitative disease resistance has been studied in crops for several decades as an alternative to R gene mediated resistance. The most important disease in the potato crop is late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Quantitative disease resistance (QDR), as any other quantitative trait in plants, can be genetically mapped to understand the genetic architecture. Association mapping using DNA-based markers has been implemented in many crops to dissect quantitative traits. We used an association mapping approach with candidate genes to identify the first genes associated with quantitative resistance to late blight in Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja. Twenty-nine candidate genes were selected from a set of genes that were differentially expressed during the resistance response to late blight in tetraploid European potato cultivars. The 29 genes were amplified and sequenced in 104 accessions of S. tuberosum Group Phureja from Latin America. We identified 238 SNPs in the selected genes and tested them for association with resistance to late blight. The phenotypic data were obtained under field conditions by determining the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) in two seasons and in two locations. Two genes were associated with QDR to late blight, a potato homolog of thylakoid lumen 15 kDa protein (StTL15A) and a stem 28 kDa glycoprotein (StGP28). Key message: A first association mapping experiment was conducted in Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja germplasm, which identified among 29 candidates two genes associated with quantitative resistance to late blight. PMID:28674545

  16. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the β-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin.

  17. Purification and characterisation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bibhuti B; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2012-10-15

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which negatively affects its quality upon cutting and postharvest processing due to enzymatic browning. PPO inhibitors, from natural or synthetic sources, are used to tackle this problem. One isoform of PPO was 259-fold purified using standard chromatographic procedures. The PPO was found to be a 112 kDa homodimer. The enzyme showed very low K(m) (0.34 mM) and high catalytic efficiency (3.3×10(6)) with 4-methyl catechol. The substrate specificity was in the order: 4-methyl catechol>tert-butylcatechol>dihydrocaffeic acid>pyrocatechol. Cysteine hydrochloride, potassium metabilsulphite, ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, resorcylic acid and kojic acid showed competitive inhibition, whereas, citric acid and sodium azide showed mixed inhibition of PPO activity. Cysteine hydrochloride was found to be an excellent inhibitor with the low inhibitor constant of 1.8 μM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification of a polyphenol oxidase isoform from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Marri, Costanza; Frazzoli, Alessandra; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Poggi, Valeria

    2003-08-01

    A different expression pattern of polyphenol oxidases has been observed during storage in cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) featuring different length of dormancy: a short-dormant cultivar showed, at the end of the dormancy, both the highest polyphenol oxidase activity and the largest number of enzyme isoforms. An isoform of polyphenol oxidase isolated at the end of the physiological dormancy from a short-dormant cultivar has been purified to homogeneity by means of column chromatography on phenyl Sepharose and on Superdex 200. The purification factor has been determined equal to 88, and the molecular mass of the purified isoform has been estimated to be 69 and 340 kDa by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration on Superdex 200, respectively, indicating this PPO isoform as a multimer. The corresponding zymogram features a diffused single band at the cathodic region of the gel and the pI of this polyphenol oxidase has been calculated equal to 6.5.

  19. Expression, purification and characterization of Solanum tuberosum recombinant cytosolic pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Auslender, Evgenia L; Dorion, Sonia; Dumont, Sébastien; Rivoal, Jean

    2015-06-01

    The cDNA encoding for a Solanum tuberosum cytosolic pyruvate kinase 1 (PKc1) highly expressed in tuber tissue was cloned in the bacterial expression vector pProEX HTc. The construct carried a hexahistidine tag in N-terminal position to facilitate purification of the recombinant protein. Production of high levels of soluble recombinant PKc1 in Escherichia coli was only possible when using a co-expression strategy with the chaperones GroES-GroEL. Purification of the protein by Ni(2 +) chelation chromatography yielded a single protein with an apparent molecular mass of 58kDa and a specific activity of 34unitsmg(-1) protein. The recombinant enzyme had an optimum pH between 6 and 7. It was relatively heat stable as it retained 80% of its activity after 2min at 75°C. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed with ADP and UDP whereas sigmoidal saturation was observed during analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate binding. Among possible effectors tested, aspartate and glutamate had no effect on enzyme activity, whereas α-ketoglutarate and citrate were the most potent inhibitors. When tested on phosphoenolpyruvate saturation kinetics, these latter compounds increased S0.5. These findings suggest that S. tuberosum PKc1 is subject to a strong control by respiratory metabolism exerted via citrate and other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. UDP-glucose:solasodine glucosyltransferase from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) leaves: partial purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, C; Kalinowska, M; Wojciechowski, Z A

    1997-01-01

    Uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose-dependent glucosyltransferase which catalyzes the glycosylation of solasodine i.e. UDP-glucose:solasodine glucosyltransferase, is present in leaves, roots, unripe fruits and unripe seeds of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). The glucosylation product is chromatographically identical with authentic solasodine 3 beta-D-monoglucoside, a putative intermediate in the biosynthesis of solasodine-based glycoalkaloids characteristic of the eggplant. The enzyme was purified about 50-fold from crude cytosol fraction of eggplant leaves by ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100. The native enzyme has a molecular mass of approx. 55 kDa and pH optimum of 8.5. Divalent metal ions are not required for its activity but the presence of free-SH groups is essential. Besides solasodine (Km = 0.04 microM), the enzyme effectively glucosylates tomatidine, another steroidal alkaloid of the spirosolane type, but it is virtually inactive towards the solanidane-type steroidal alkaloids such as solanidine or demissidine. The enzyme is specific for UDP-glucose (Km = 2.1 microM) since unlabelled ADP-, GDP-, CDP- or TDP-glucose could not effectively compete with UDP-[14C]glucose used as the sugar donor for solasodine glucosylation. Moreover, no synthesis of labelled solasodine galactoside was observed when UDP-[14C]glucose was replaced with UDP-[14C]galactose.

  1. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  2. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP “Tainung 73,” which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  3. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected.

  4. Effect of high pressure on the saccharification of starch in the tuberous root of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Toru; Furukawa, Naho; Takaoka, Ryo; Hayashi, Mayumi; Sasao, Shoji; Ueno, Shigeaki; Nakajima, Kanako; Kido, Miyuki; Nomura, Kazuki; Iguchi, Akinori

    2017-05-01

    We analyzed the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on reducing sugar production in the tuberous root of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), based on pressure-gelatinization of starch and subsequent saccharification by internal amylases. HHP treatment at up to 600MPa at ambient temperature for 10min did not apparently affect the reducing sugar concentration in tuberous root. However, HHP treatment at 100 to 500MPa and 60°C or 70°C for 10min increased reducing sugar concentration as both the pressure and temperature increased. The reducing sugar concentration after HHP treatment at 500MPa and 70°C for 10min was roughly comparable to that of the thermal treatment control (80°C for 10min under atmospheric pressure). HHP treatment enabled the gelatinization and enzymatic saccharification of starch in the tuberous root of sweet potato, at a lower temperature than required by thermal treatment at atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP "Tainung 73," which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries.

  6. Preparative isolation of anthocyanins from Japanese purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Montilla, Elyana Cuevas; Hillebrand, Silke; Butschbach, Daniela; Baldermann, Susanne; Watanabe, Naoharu; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-09-22

    Purple-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) contain a very complex anthocyanin profile due to the presence of several non-, mono-, and diacylated glucosides of cyanidin and peonidin. In this study, the anthocyanin composition of four Japanese purple sweet potato cultivars (Chiran Murasaki, Tanegashima Murasaki, Naka Murasaki, and Purple Sweet) were investigated by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MSn analyses. The HPLC chromatograms of the different cultivars show a remarkable variation of the two major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, respectively. According to this, they can be categorized into two groups on the basis of the peonidin/cyanidin ratio: the cultivars Chiran Murasaki and Purple Sweet showed a high content of peonidin derivatives (peonidin type), whereas the varieties Tanegashima Murasaki and Naka Murasaki were classified as cyanidin types. By means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) the nonacylated 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside of cyanidin was isolated on a preparative scale. Furthermore, it was possible to isolate the monoacylated cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside as well as three diacylated major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6'',6'''-dicaffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxy-benzoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxybenzoyl-sophoroside)-5-glucoside. The purity and identity of the so-obtained pigments were confirmed by NMR measurements.

  7. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Bahado-Singh, Perceval S; Riley, Cliff K; Wheatley, Andrew O; Lowe, Henry I C

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years). The GI varied between 41 ± 5-93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5-50 ± 3), while those processed by baking (82 ± 3-94 ± 3) and roasting (79 ± 4-93 ± 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. A high-density SNP genetic map consisting of a complete set of homologous groups in autohexaploid sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas)

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Tanaka, Masaru; Takahata, Yasuhiro; Ma, Daifu; Cao, Qinghe; Liu, Qingchang; Zhai, Hong; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Cheol Jeong, Jae; Yoon, Ung-Han; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Hirakawa, Hideki; Isobe, Sachiko

    2017-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) is an autohexaploid species with 90 chromosomes (2n = 6x = 90) and a basic chromosome number of 15, and is therefore regarded as one of the most challenging species for high-density genetic map construction. Here, we used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing based on next-generation sequencing technology to construct a map for sweetpotato. We then aligned the sequence reads onto the reference genome sequence of I. trifida, a likely diploid ancestor of sweetpotato, to detect SNPs. In addition, to simplify analysis of the complex genetic mode of autohexaploidy, we used an S1 mapping population derived from self-pollination of a single parent. As a result, 28,087 double-simplex SNPs showing a Mendelian segregation ratio in the S1 progeny could be mapped onto 96 linkage groups (LGs), covering a total distance of 33,020.4 cM. Based on the positions of the SNPs on the I. trifida genome, the LGs were classified into 15 groups, each with roughly six LGs and six small extra groups. The molecular genetic techniques used in this study are applicable to high-density mapping of other polyploid plant species, including important crops. PMID:28281636

  9. The physicochemical properties of microwave-assisted encapsulated anthocyanins from Ipomoea batatas as affected by different wall materials

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Nawi, Norazlina; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Mohd Marsin, Aishah

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of different wall materials on the physicochemical properties of microwave-assisted encapsulated anthocyanins from Ipomoea batatas. Using the powder characterization technique, purple sweet potato anthocyanin (PSPAs) powders were analysed for moisture content, water activity, dissolution time, hygroscopicity, color and morphology. PSPAs were produced using different wall materials: maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and a combination of gum arabic and maltodextrin (GA + MD) at a 1:1 ratio. Each of the wall materials was homogenized to the core material at a core/wall material ratio of 5 and were microencapsulated by microwave-assisted drying at 1100 W. Results indicated that encapsulated powder with the GA and MD combination presented better quality of powder with the lowest value of moisture content and water activity. With respect to morphology, the microcapsule encapsulated with GA + MD showed several dents in coating surrounding its core material, whereas other encapsulated powders showed small or slight dents entrapped onto the bioactive compound. Colorimetric analysis showed changes in values of L, a*, b*, hue and chroma in the reconstituted powder compared to the initial powder. PMID:25838887

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and turkey berry (Solanum torvum Sw.): phylogenomics and disease resistance analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu; Cheng, Yu-Fu; Deng, Cao; Ma, Yan; Wang, Zhi-Wen; Chen, Xue-Hao; Xue, Lin-Bao

    2014-05-31

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and turkey berry (S. torvum Sw.), a wild ally of eggplant with promising multi-disease resistance traits, are of great economic, medicinal and genetic importance, but genomic resources for these species are lacking. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of eggplant and turkey berry to accelerate research on these two non-model species. We built comprehensive, high-quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of the two Leptostemonum clade Solanum species from short-read RNA-Sequencing data. We obtained 34,174 unigenes for eggplant and 38,185 unigenes for turkey berry. Functional annotations based on sequence similarity to known plant datasets revealed a distribution of functional categories for both species very similar to that of tomato. Comparison of eggplant, turkey berry and another 11 plant proteomes resulted in 276 high-confidence single-copy orthologous groups, reasonable phylogenetic tree inferences and reliable divergence time estimations. From these data, it appears that eggplant and its wild Leptostemonum clade relative turkey berry split from each other in the late Miocene, ~6.66 million years ago, and that Leptostemonum split from the Potatoe clade in the middle Miocene, ~15.75 million years ago. Furthermore, 621 and 815 plant resistance genes were identified in eggplant and turkey berry respectively, indicating the variation of disease resistance genes between them. This study provides a comprehensive transcriptome resource for two Leptostemonum clade Solanum species and insight into their evolutionary history and biological characteristics. These resources establish a foundation for further investigations of eggplant biology and for agricultural improvement of this important vegetable. More generally, we show that RNA-Seq is a fast, reliable and cost-effective method for assessing genome evolution in non-model species.

  11. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Solanum commersonii and its application to chloroplast genotype in somatic hybrids with Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Hong, Su-Young; Cho, Ji-Hong; Im, Ju-Seong; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Yu, Yei-Soo; Park, Tae-Ho

    2016-10-01

    Chloroplast genome of Solanum commersonii and S olanum tuberosum were completely sequenced, and Indel markers were successfully applied to distinguish chlorotypes demonstrating the chloroplast genome was randomly distributed during protoplast fusion. Somatic hybridization has been widely employed for the introgression of resistance to several diseases from wild Solanum species to overcome sexual barriers in potato breeding. Solanum commersonii is a major resource used as a parent line in somatic hybridization to improve bacterial wilt resistance in interspecies transfer to cultivated potato (S. tuberosum). Here, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genomes of Lz3.2 (S. commersonii) and S. tuberosum (PT56), which were used to develop fusion products, then compared them with those of five members of the Solanaceae family, S. tuberosum, Capsicum annum, S. lycopersicum, S. bulbocastanum and S. nigrum and Coffea arabica as an out-group. We then developed Indel markers for application in chloroplast genotyping. The complete chloroplast genome of Lz3.2 is composed of 155,525 bp, which is larger than the PT56 genome with 155,296 bp. Gene content, order and orientation of the S. commersonii chloroplast genome were highly conserved with those of other Solanaceae species, and the phylogenetic tree revealed that S. commersonii is located within the same node of S. tuberosum. However, sequence alignment revealed nine Indels between S. commersonii and S. tuberosum in their chloroplast genomes, allowing two Indel markers to be developed. The markers could distinguish the two species and were successfully applied to chloroplast genotyping (chlorotype) in somatic hybrids and their progenies. The results obtained in this study confirmed the random distribution of the chloroplast genome during protoplast fusion and its maternal inheritance and can be applied to select proper plastid genotypes in potato breeding program.

  12. A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of  Solanum L. (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Dulcamaroid clade of Solanum contains 45 species of mostly vining or weakly scandent species, including the common circumboreal weed Solanum dulcamara L. The group comprises members of the previously recognised infrageneric groupings sect. Andropedas Rusby, sect. Californisolanum A. Child, sect. Dulcamara (Moench) Dumort., sect. Holophylla (G.Don) Walp., sect. Jasminosolanum (Bitter) Seithe, sect.Lysiphellos (Bitter) Seithe, subsect. Nitidum A.Child and sect. Subdulcamara Dunal. These infrageneric groups are not monophyletic as traditionally recognised, and the complex history of the classification of the dulcamaroid solanums is reviewed. Many of the species in the clade are quite variable morphologically; plants are shrubs, herbaceous vines or woody canopy lianas, and habits can vary between these states in a single locality. Variation in leaf shape and pubescence density and type is also extreme and has lead to the description of many minor morphological variants as distinct species. The flowers of members of the group are generally very showy, and several species (e.g., Solanum crispum Ruiz & Pav., Solanum laxum Spreng., Solanum seaforthianum Andrews) are popular ornamental plants that have occasionally escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. The clade is here divided into five morphologically and geographically delimited species groups to facilitate further study. One new species from southern Ecuador, Solanum agnoston S.Knapp sp. nov., is described here. Full descriptions and synonymies (including designations of lectotypes or neotypes), preliminary conservation assessments, illustrations, distribution maps, and an extensive list of localities are provided for all species. PMID:23794937

  13. A Deluge of Complex Repeats: The Solanum Genome

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Mrigaya; Gangwar, Indu; Shankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive elements have lately emerged as key components of genome, performing varieties of roles. It has now become necessary to have an account of repeats for every genome to understand its dynamics and state. Recently, genomes of two major Solanaceae species, Solanum tuberosum and Solanum lycopersicum, were sequenced. These species are important crops having high commercial significance as well as value as model species. However, there is a reasonable gap in information about repetitive elements and their possible roles in genome regulation for these species. The present study was aimed at detailed identification and characterization of complex repetitive elements in these genomes, along with study of their possible functional associations as well as to assess possible transcriptionally active repetitive elements. In this study, it was found that ~50–60% of genomes of S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum were composed of repetitive elements. It was also found that complex repetitive elements were associated with >95% of genes in both species. These two genomes are mostly composed of LTR retrotransposons. Two novel repeat families very similar to LTR/ERV1 and LINE/RTE-BovB have been reported for the first time. Active existence of complex repeats was estimated by measuring their transcriptional abundance using Next Generation Sequencing read data and Microarray platforms. A reasonable amount of regulatory components like transcription factor binding sites and miRNAs appear to be under the influence of these complex repetitive elements in these species, while several genes appeared to possess exonized repeats. PMID:26241045

  14. Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Divergence among Lycopersicon and Related Solanum Species

    PubMed Central

    McClean, Phillip E.; Hanson, Maureen R.

    1986-01-01

    Sequence divergence among the mitochondrial (mt) DNA of nine Lycopersicon and two closely related Solanum species was estimated using the shared fragment method. A portion of each mt genome was highlighted by probing total DNA with a series of plasmid clones containing mt-specific DNA fragments from Lycopersicon pennellii. A total of 660 fragments were compared. As calculated by the shared fragment method, sequence divergence among the mtDNAs ranged from 0.4% for the L. esculentum-L. esculentum var. cerasiforme pair to 2.7% for the Solanum rickii-L. pimpinellifolium and L. cheesmanii-L. chilense pairs. The mtDNA divergence is higher than that reported for Lycopersicon chloroplast (cp) DNA, which indicates that the DNAs of the two plant organelles are evolving at different rates. The percentages of shared fragments were used to construct a phenogram that illustrates the present-day relationships of the mtDNAs. The mtDNA-derived phenogram places L. hirsutum closer to L. esculentum than taxonomic and cpDNA comparisons. Further, the recent assignment of L. pennellii to the genus Lycopersicon is supported by the mtDNA analysis. PMID:17246320

  15. Solanum Tuber-bearing Species Resistance Behavior Against Nacobbus aberrans

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Eliseo J.; Clausen, Andrea. M.; Franco, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Naccobus aberrans is a major pest of the potato crop in the Andean regions of Argentina, Bolivia, and Perú. It is endemic in northwest Argentina and is also found in lowlands. The resistance of eleven Andean potato landraces and three accessions of the wild tuber-bearing species Solanum acaule, S. infundibuliforme, and S. megistacrolobum were evaluated against a population of N. aberrans from Coctaca, Jujuy province, while Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum ‘Spunta’, ‘Kennebec’, and ‘Frital INTA’ were evaluated against a population from the southeast of Buenos Aires province. The presence, the number of galls, and the number of individuals were recorded. In addition, a reproduction factor was calculated and races were determined. Results showed that the N. aberrans population from Coctaca corresponded to race 2 and the population from the lowlands belonged to the sugar beet group. Landrace Azul, one genotype of S. megistacrolobum, and two genotypes of S. acaule showed resistance towards the race from Coctaca while no infection was recorded in potato cultivars with the Naccobus race from the lowland area. PMID:22661771

  16. Wild Solanum resistance to aphids: antixenosis or antibiosis?

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Vincent; Dugravot, Sébastien; Campan, Erick; Dubois, Françoise; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2008-04-01

    The type (antixenosis or antibiosis) of resistance against the aphids Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) was characterized for the wild tuber-bearing potatoes, Solanum chomatophilum Bitter and Solanum stoloniferum Schltdl. & Bouché through behavioral (olfactometry and electrical penetration graph) and physiological studies. In dual-choice assays, only S. stoloniferum exerted attraction to M. euphorbiae. This ruled out the possibility that plant volatiles of S. chomatophilum and S. stoloniferum may contribute to the high resistance expressed. In electrical penetration graph experiments, aphids feeding on S. stoloniferum showed increased salivation phases, whereas phloem ingestion was drastically reduced for both aphid species. Because reaching phloem elements was not delayed in both species, the resistance mechanism was phloem-located. The antixenosis exhibited by S. stoloniferum was similar on young and mature leaves. S. chomatophilum also showed phloem-located antixenosis against M. persicae. In contrast, M. euphorbiae had no difficulty to reach S. chomatophilum phloem tissues and to ingest sap. S. chomatophilum resistance against M. euphorbiae was antibiosis and only expressed in mature leaves, where a complete nymphal mortality was observed.

  17. Stochastic changes affect Solanum wild species following autopolyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Carputo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidy is very common within angiosperms, and several studies are in progress to ascertain the effects of early polyploidization at the molecular, physiological, and phenotypic level. Extensive studies are available only in synthetic allopolyploids. By contrast, less is known about the consequences of autopolyploidization. The current study aimed to assess the occurrence and extent of genetic, epigenetic, and anatomical changes occurring after oryzaline-induced polyploidization of Solanum commersonii Dunal and Solanum bulbocastanum Dunal, two diploid (2n=2×=24) potato species widely used in breeding programmes. Microsatellite analysis showed no polymorphisms between synthetic tetraploids and diploid progenitors. By contrast, analysis of DNA methylation levels indicated that subtle alterations at CG and CHG sites were present in tetraploids of both species. However, no change occurred concurrently in all tetraploids analysed with respect to their diploid parent, revealing a stochastic trend in the changes observed. The morpho-anatomical consequences of polyploidization were studied in leaf main veins and stomata. With only a few exceptions, analyses showed no clear superiority of tetraploids in terms of leaf thickness and area, vessel number, lumen size and vessel wall thickness, stomata pore length and width, guard cell width, and stomatal density compared with their diploid progenitors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that there are no traits systematically associated with autopolyploidy. PMID:23307917

  18. Accumulation, functional annotation, and comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), the third pole of the genus Solanum species after tomato and potato.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Negoro, Satomi; Miyatake, Koji; Ohyama, Akio

    2010-01-15

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a widely grown vegetable crop that belongs to the genus Solanum, which is comprised of more than 1000 species of wide genetic and phenotypic variation. Unlike tomato and potato, Solanum crops that belong to subgenus Potatoe and have been targets for comprehensive genomic studies, eggplant is endemic to the Old World and belongs to a different subgenus, Leptostemonum, and therefore, would be a unique member for comparative molecular biology in Solanum. In this study, more than 60,000 eggplant cDNA clones from various tissues and treatments were sequenced from both the 5'- and 3'-ends, and a unigene set consisting of 16,245 unique sequences was constructed. Functional annotations based on sequence similarity to known plant reference datasets revealed a distribution of functional categories almost similar to that of tomato, while 1316 unigenes were suggested to be eggplant-specific. Sequence-based comparative analysis using putative orthologous gene groups setup by reciprocal sequence comparison among six solanaceous species suggested that eggplant and its wild ally Solanum torvum were clustered separately from subgenus Potatoe species, and then, all Solanum species were clustered separately from the genus Capsicum. Microsatellite motif distribution was different among species and likely to be coincident with the phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, the eggplant unigene dataset exhibited its utility in transcriptome analysis by the SAGE strategy where a considerable number of short tag sequences of interest were successfully assigned to unigenes and their functional annotations. The eggplant ESTs and 16k unigene set developed in this study would be a useful resource not only for molecular genetics and breeding in eggplant itself, but for expanding the scope of comparative biology in Solanum species.

  19. A new species of Solanum sect. Acanthophora (Solanaceae) from Argentina and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Franco E.; Mentz, Lilian Auler

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum belonging to section Acanthophora (subgenus Leptostemonum) from Argentina and Brazil is described. Solanum neei Chiarini & L.A.Mentz, sp. nov. is found in clearings of semideciduous forests and in secondary formations, from the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in Brazil to the Misiones province in Argentina. It is morphologically similar to Solanum incarceratum Ruiz & Pav. from Peru, Bolivia and Western-Central Brazil, differing mainly by its pedunculate inflorescences. A key to related species is provided, as well a photograph of the holotype, a distribution map and illustration. PMID:23730189

  20. A new species of Solanum sect. Acanthophora (Solanaceae) from Argentina and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Franco E; Mentz, Lilian Auler

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Solanum belonging to section Acanthophora (subgenus Leptostemonum) from Argentina and Brazil is described. Solanum neei Chiarini & L.A.Mentz, sp. nov. is found in clearings of semideciduous forests and in secondary formations, from the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in Brazil to the Misiones province in Argentina. It is morphologically similar to Solanum incarceratum Ruiz & Pav. from Peru, Bolivia and Western-Central Brazil, differing mainly by its pedunculate inflorescences. A key to related species is provided, as well a photograph of the holotype, a distribution map and illustration.

  1. Solanum watneyi, a new bush tomato species from the Northern Territory, Australia named for Mark Watney of the book and film “The Martian”

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Cantley, Jason T.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of andromonoecious Solanum from the Australian “bush tomato clade” of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum watneyi Martine & Frawley, sp. nov. is closely allied with Solanum eburneum, and is sympatric with it in parts of its range in the Northern Territory. The new species has been recognized as a variant of Solanum eburneum for decades, at times being referred to by local botanists as Solanum sp. “Bullita” because of its relative abundance in the vicinity of the Bullita Station area of Judbarra/Gregory National Park. Morphometric analyses show that Solanum watneyi differs statistically from Solanum eburneum in several key reproductive and vegetative characters and field observations suggest that the two sister species may represent a case of edaphic speciation. We provide morphometric evidence for the novelty of Solanum watneyi, a complete description, and cite specimens for both species. PMID:27081345

  2. Differential Protein Expression in Response to Abiotic Stress in Two Potato Species: Solanum commersonii Dun and Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Folgado, Raquel; Panis, Bart; Sergeant, Kjell; Renaut, Jenny; Swennen, Rony; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2013-03-01

    Better knowledge on responses to dehydration stress could help to improve the existing cryopreservation protocols for potato, since plant tissues processed for cryopreservation are often submitted to similar in vitro stress conditions. Cryopreservation (the best method of conservation for vegetatively propagated plants) of potato still needs to be standardized to make it available and to conserve the wide diversity of this crop. In the present work, the response to osmotic stress and chilling temperature was investigated in two potato species, Solanum tuberosum and its relative, frost-tolerant S. commersonii. After 14 days of exposure, different growth parameters, such as shoot length and number of leaves, were measured. Furthermore, differentially abundant proteins were identified after performing 2-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-DIGE) experiments, and soluble carbohydrates were analyzed by High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD). The results show different responses in both species depending on the stress treatment. Focusing on the differences in growth parameters during the treatments, Solanum commersonii seems to be more affected than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. At the molecular level, there are some differences and similarities between the two potato species studied that are dependent on the type of stressor.

  3. Assessment of pollen reward and pollen availability in Solanum stramoniifolium and Solanum paniculatum for buzz-pollinating carpenter bees.

    PubMed

    Burkart, A; Schlindwein, C; Lunau, K

    2014-03-01

    The two widespread tropical Solanum species S. paniculatum and S. stramoniifolium are highly dependent on the visits of large bees that pollinate the flowers while buzzing them. Both Solanum species do not offer nectar reward; the rewarding of bees is thus solely dependent on the availability of pollen. Flower visitors are unable to visually assess the amount of pollen, because the pollen is hidden in poricidal anthers. In this study we ask whether and how the amount of pollen determines the attractiveness of flowers for bees. The number of pollen grains in anthers of S. stramoniifolium was seven times higher than in S. paniculatum. By contrast, the handling time per five flowers for carpenter bees visiting S. paniculatum was 3.5 times shorter than of those visiting S. stramoniifolium. As a result foraging carpenter bees collected a similar number of pollen grains per unit time on flowers of both species. Experimental manipulation of pollen availability by gluing the anther pores showed that the carpenter bees were unable to detect the availability of pollen by means of chemical cues before landing and without buzzing. Our study shows that the efficiency of pollen collecting on S. paniculatum is based on large inflorescences with short between-flower search times and short handling time of individual flowers, whereas that of S. stramoniifolium relies on a large amount of pollen per flower. Interestingly, large carpenter bees are able to adjust their foraging behaviour to drastically different strategies of pollen reward in otherwise very similar plant species.

  4. Analysis of plastome and chondriome genome types in potato somatic hybrids from Solanum tuberosum × Solanum etuberosum.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Jagesh K; Chandel, Poonam; Singh, Bir Pal; Bhardwaj, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasm types of the potato somatic hybrids from Solanum tuberosum × Solanum etuberosum were analysed using chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) organelle genomes-specific markers. Of the 29 markers (15 cpDNA and 14 mtDNA) amplified in the 26 genotypes, 5 cpDNA (H3, NTCP4, NTCP8, NTCP9, and ALC1/ALC3) and 13 mtDNA markers showed polymorphism. The cluster analysis based on the mtDNA markers detected higher diversity compared with the cpDNA markers. Presence of new mtDNA fragments of the markers, namely, T11-2, Nsm1, pumD, Nsm3, and Nsm4, were observed, while monomorphic loci revealed highly conserved genomic regions in the somatic hybrids. The study revealed that the somatic hybrids had diverse cytoplasm types consisting predominantly of T-, W-, and C-, with a few A- and S-type cp genomes; and α-, β-, and γ-type mt genomes. Somatic hybridization has unique potential to widen the cytoplasm types of the cultivated gene pools from wild species through introgression by breeding methods.

  5. In vitro trypanocidal activity of solamargine and extracts from Solanum palinacanthum and Solanum lycocarpum of Brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Raquel R D; Martins, Gilmarcio Z; Magalhães, Nathália O; Almeida, Adélia E; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R; Silva, Flávia A J; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation was to evaluate the potential trypanocidal activity of crude ethanolic extract of the fruits of Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum lycocarpum and the glycoalcaloid, solamargine. S. palinacanthum and S. lycocarpum fruit powders were submitted to exhaustively extraction with 96% ethanol and solamargine were isolated from the extract of S. palinacanthum. Both extracts and solamargine were analysed for trypanocidal activity by using MTT colorimetric assay. Extracts of S. palinacanthum showed to be more active (IC50 = 175.9 µg.ml-1) than S. lycocarpum (IC50 = 194.7 µg.ml-1). Solamargine presented a strong activity (IC50 = 15.3 µg.ml-1), which can explain the better activity of the both extracts. Benznidazol (IC50 = 9.0 µg.ml-1) is the only drug used to treat Chagas' disease. These findings demonstrate for the first time that ethanol extracts obtained from both fruits of S. palinacanthum and S. lycocarpum and also solamargine have a potential anti-trypanosomal activity.

  6. Genomic analysis of the native European Solanum species, S. dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet, climbing nightshade) is one of the few species of the Solanaceae family native to Europe. As a common weed it is adapted to a wide range of ecological niches and it has long been recognized as one of the alternative hosts for pathogens and pests responsible for many important diseases in potato, such as Phytophthora. At the same time, it may represent an alternative source of resistance genes against these diseases. Despite its unique ecology and potential as a genetic resource, genomic research tools are lacking for S. dulcamara. We have taken advantage of next-generation sequencing to speed up research on and use of this non-model species. Results In this work, we present the first large-scale characterization of the S. dulcamara transcriptome. Through comparison of RNAseq reads from two different accessions, we were able to predict transcript-based SNP and SSR markers. Using the SNP markers in combination with genomic AFLP and CAPS markers, the first genome-wide genetic linkage map of bittersweet was generated. Based on gene orthology, the markers were anchored to the genome of related Solanum species (tomato, potato and eggplant), revealing both conserved and novel chromosomal rearrangements. This allowed a better estimation of the evolutionary moment of rearrangements in a number of cases and showed that chromosomal breakpoints are regularly re-used. Conclusion Knowledge and tools developed as part of this study pave the way for future genomic research and exploitation of this wild Solanum species. The transcriptome assembly represents a resource for functional analysis of genes underlying interesting biological and agronomical traits and, in the absence of the full genome, provides a reference for RNAseq gene expression profiling aimed at understanding the unique biology of S. dulcamara. Cross-species orthology-based marker selection is shown to be a powerful tool to quickly generate a comparative genetic map, which

  7. Endogenous pararetroviral sequences in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and related species

    PubMed Central

    Staginnus, Christina; Gregor, Wolfgang; Mette, M Florian; Teo, Chee How; Borroto-Fernández, Eduviges Glenda; Machado, Margit Laimer da Câmara; Matzke, Marjori; Schwarzacher, Trude

    2007-01-01

    Background Endogenous pararetroviral sequences (EPRVs) are a recently discovered class of repetitive sequences that is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. The potential contribution of EPRVs to plant pathogenicity or, conversely, to virus resistance is just beginning to be explored. Some members of the family Solanaceae are particularly rich in EPRVs. In previous work, EPRVs have been characterized molecularly in various species of Nicotiana including N.tabacum (tobacco) and Solanum tuberosum (potato). Here we describe a family of EPRVs in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and a wild relative (S.habrochaites). Results Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis revealed that tomato EPRVs (named LycEPRVs) are most closely related to those in tobacco. The sequence similarity of LycEPRVs in S.lycopersicum and S.habrochaites indicates they are potentially derived from the same pararetrovirus. DNA blot analysis revealed a similar genomic organization in the two species, but also some independent excision or insertion events after species separation, or flanking sequence divergence. LycEPRVs share with the tobacco elements a disrupted genomic structure and frequent association with retrotransposons. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that copies of LycEPRV are dispersed on all chromosomes in predominantly heterochromatic regions. Methylation of LycEPRVs was detected in CHG and asymmetric CHH nucleotide groups. Although normally quiescent EPRVs can be reactivated and produce symptoms of infection in some Nicotiana interspecific hybrids, a similar pathogenicity of LycEPRVs could not be demonstrated in Solanum L. section Lycopersicon [Mill.] hybrids. Even in healthy plants, however, transcripts derived from multiple LycEPRV loci and short RNAs complementary to LycEPRVs were detected and were elevated upon infection with heterologous viruses encoding suppressors of PTGS. Conclusion The analysis of LycEPRVs provides further evidence for the extensive

  8. Endogenous pararetroviral sequences in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and related species.

    PubMed

    Staginnus, Christina; Gregor, Wolfgang; Mette, M Florian; Teo, Chee How; Borroto-Fernández, Eduviges Glenda; Machado, Margit Laimer da Câmara; Matzke, Marjori; Schwarzacher, Trude

    2007-05-21

    Endogenous pararetroviral sequences (EPRVs) are a recently discovered class of repetitive sequences that is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. The potential contribution of EPRVs to plant pathogenicity or, conversely, to virus resistance is just beginning to be explored. Some members of the family Solanaceae are particularly rich in EPRVs. In previous work, EPRVs have been characterized molecularly in various species of Nicotiana including N.tabacum (tobacco) and Solanum tuberosum (potato). Here we describe a family of EPRVs in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and a wild relative (S.habrochaites). Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis revealed that tomato EPRVs (named LycEPRVs) are most closely related to those in tobacco. The sequence similarity of LycEPRVs in S.lycopersicum and S.habrochaites indicates they are potentially derived from the same pararetrovirus. DNA blot analysis revealed a similar genomic organization in the two species, but also some independent excision or insertion events after species separation, or flanking sequence divergence. LycEPRVs share with the tobacco elements a disrupted genomic structure and frequent association with retrotransposons. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that copies of LycEPRV are dispersed on all chromosomes in predominantly heterochromatic regions. Methylation of LycEPRVs was detected in CHG and asymmetric CHH nucleotide groups. Although normally quiescent EPRVs can be reactivated and produce symptoms of infection in some Nicotiana interspecific hybrids, a similar pathogenicity of LycEPRVs could not be demonstrated in Solanum L. section Lycopersicon [Mill.] hybrids. Even in healthy plants, however, transcripts derived from multiple LycEPRV loci and short RNAs complementary to LycEPRVs were detected and were elevated upon infection with heterologous viruses encoding suppressors of PTGS. The analysis of LycEPRVs provides further evidence for the extensive invasion of pararetroviral

  9. Successful treatment of Solanum dulcamara intoxication in a Labrador retriever puppy.

    PubMed

    Kees, Megan; Beckel, Nicole; Sharp, Claire

    2015-12-01

    A 10-week-old intact male Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute onset of weakness, ataxia, and generalized muscle tremors. The puppy was suffering respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression, was mildly pyrexic, and vomited plant material that was identified as creeping nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). He responded well to supportive care and was discharged successfully. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Solanum dulcamara toxicity occurring in a dog.

  10. Successful treatment of Solanum dulcamara intoxication in a Labrador retriever puppy

    PubMed Central

    Kees, Megan; Beckel, Nicole; Sharp, Claire

    2015-01-01

    A 10-week-old intact male Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute onset of weakness, ataxia, and generalized muscle tremors. The puppy was suffering respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression, was mildly pyrexic, and vomited plant material that was identified as creeping nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). He responded well to supportive care and was discharged successfully. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of Solanum dulcamara toxicity occurring in a dog. PMID:26663926

  11. Improved Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Expressing Spinach Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH) was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait improvement in

  12. Utilization of ensiled sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) leaves as a protein supplement in diets for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Van An, L; Hong, T T T; Ogle, B; Lindberg, J E

    2005-01-01

    Four diets were formulated with protein from fishmeal (FM), groundnut cake (GC), ensiled sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam.)) leaves (SP) or ensiled sweet potato leaves with lysine (SPL). In experiment 1, 24 crossbred (Large White x Mong Cai) growing pigs were allocated randomly by sex into four groups of six pigs and given one of four diets. Experiment 2 was conducted using 16 crossbred pigs (Large White x Mong Cai) at four farms. On each farm, pigs were allocated to two experimental groups. One group was fed the FM diet and the other group the SPL diet. In experiment 1, the daily live weight gains (DLWG) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for the FM and SPL treatments (542 and 536 g/day, respectively) than for the GC and SP treatments (464 and 482 g/day, respectively). Feed intake was highest (2.0 kg/day) for the SPL and lowest (1.7 kg/day) for the GC treatment (p < 0.05) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was highest (3.8 kg/kg gain) for SP and lowest (3.5 kg/kg gain) for FM (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences for carcase measurements among diets (p > 0.05). The feed cost per kg live weight gain was lowest for the SP and SPL diets compared to the FM and GC diets. The results of experiment 2 show that there were no significant differences in feed intake, DLWG and FCR between the two diets (p > 0.05). In conclusion, sweet potato leaves can replace fishmeal and groundnut cake in traditional Vietnamese diets for growing pigs.

  13. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel.

  14. Digital gene expression analysis based on integrated de novo transcriptome assembly of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiang; Gu, Ying-Hong; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Wen; Li, Xiao; Zhao, Chuan-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.]) ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to get a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and better understanding of gene expression patterns in different tissues and at various developmental stages. Illumina paired-end (PE) RNA-Sequencing was performed, and generated 48.7 million of 75 bp PE reads. These reads were de novo assembled into 128,052 transcripts (≥ 100 bp), which correspond to 41.1 million base pairs, by using a combined assembly strategy. Transcripts were annotated by Blast2GO and 51,763 transcripts got BLASTX hits, in which 39,677 transcripts have GO terms and 14,117 have ECs that are associated with 147 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, transcriptome differences of seven tissues were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling and numerous differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified. Moreover, the expression characteristics of genes involved in viral genomes, starch metabolism and potential stress tolerance and insect resistance were also identified. The combined de novo transcriptome assembly strategy can be applied to other organisms whose reference genomes are not available. The data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest in sweet potato. Characterization of sweet potato transcriptome provides an effective tool for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular processes including development of leaves and storage roots, tissue-specific gene expression, potential biotic and abiotic stress response in sweet

  15. H(+) -pyrophosphatase IbVP1 promotes efficient iron use in sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.].

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijuan; Wang, Hongxia; Wu, Yinliang; Yang, Nan; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies limiting crop production globally, especially in arid regions because of decreased availability of iron in alkaline soils. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] grows well in arid regions and is tolerant to Fe deficiency. Here, we report that the transcription of type I H(+) -pyrophosphatase (H(+) -PPase) gene IbVP1 in sweet potato plants was strongly induced by Fe deficiency and auxin in hydroponics, improving Fe acquisition via increased rhizosphere acidification and auxin regulation. When overexpressed, transgenic plants show higher pyrophosphate hydrolysis and plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase activity compared with the wild type, leading to increased rhizosphere acidification. The IbVP1-overexpressing plants showed better growth, including enlarged root systems, under Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient conditions. Increased ferric precipitation and ferric chelate reductase activity in the roots of transgenic lines indicate improved iron uptake, which is also confirmed by increased Fe content and up-regulation of Fe uptake genes, e.g. FRO2, IRT1 and FIT. Carbohydrate metabolism is significantly affected in the transgenic lines, showing increased sugar and starch content associated with the increased expression of AGPase and SUT1 genes and the decrease in β-amylase gene expression. Improved antioxidant capacities were also detected in the transgenic plants, which showed reduced H2 O2 accumulation associated with up-regulated ROS-scavenging activity. Therefore, H(+) -PPase plays a key role in the response to Fe deficiency by sweet potato and effectively improves the Fe acquisition by overexpressing IbVP1 in crops cultivated in micronutrient-deficient soils. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato.

  17. An Ipomoea batatas Iron-Sulfur Cluster Scaffold Protein Gene, IbNFU1, Is Involved in Salt Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuejin; He, Shaozhen; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis involving the nitrogen fixation (Nif) proteins has been proposed as a general mechanism acting in various organisms. NifU-like protein may play an important role in protecting plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. An iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein gene, IbNFU1, was isolated from a salt-tolerant sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) line LM79 in our previous study, but its role in sweetpotato stress tolerance was not investigated. In the present study, the IbNFU1 gene was introduced into a salt-sensitive sweetpotato cv. Lizixiang to characterize its function in salt tolerance. The IbNFU1-overexpressing sweetpotato plants exhibited significantly higher salt tolerance compared with the wild-type. Proline and reduced ascorbate content were significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde (MDA) content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthesis were significantly enhanced in the transgenic plants. H2O2 was also found to be significantly less accumulated in the transgenic plants than in the wild-type. Overexpression of IbNFU1 up-regulated pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) genes under salt stress. The systemic up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging genes was found in the transgenic plants under salt stress. These findings suggest that IbNFU1gene is involved in sweetpotato salt tolerance and enhances salt tolerance of the transgenic sweetpotato plants by regulating osmotic balance, protecting membrane integrity and photosynthesis and activating ROS scavenging system. PMID:24695556

  18. An Ipomoea batatas iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein gene, IbNFU1, is involved in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Degao; Wang, Lianjun; Liu, Chenglong; Song, Xuejin; He, Shaozhen; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis involving the nitrogen fixation (Nif) proteins has been proposed as a general mechanism acting in various organisms. NifU-like protein may play an important role in protecting plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. An iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein gene, IbNFU1, was isolated from a salt-tolerant sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) line LM79 in our previous study, but its role in sweetpotato stress tolerance was not investigated. In the present study, the IbNFU1 gene was introduced into a salt-sensitive sweetpotato cv. Lizixiang to characterize its function in salt tolerance. The IbNFU1-overexpressing sweetpotato plants exhibited significantly higher salt tolerance compared with the wild-type. Proline and reduced ascorbate content were significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde (MDA) content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthesis were significantly enhanced in the transgenic plants. H2O2 was also found to be significantly less accumulated in the transgenic plants than in the wild-type. Overexpression of IbNFU1 up-regulated pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) genes under salt stress. The systemic up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging genes was found in the transgenic plants under salt stress. These findings suggest that IbNFU1gene is involved in sweetpotato salt tolerance and enhances salt tolerance of the transgenic sweetpotato plants by regulating osmotic balance, protecting membrane integrity and photosynthesis and activating ROS scavenging system.

  19. A comparative study of proteomic differences between pencil and storage roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeung Joo; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kwak, Youn-Sig; An, Jae Young; Kim, Pil Joo; Lee, Byung Hyun; Kumar, Vikranth; Park, Kee Woong; Chang, Eun Sil; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-02-01

    Fibrous roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) usually develop into both pencil and storage roots. To understand protein function in root development, a proteomic analysis was conducted on the pencil and storage roots of the light orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar, Yulmi. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that expression of 30 protein spots differed between pencil and storage roots: 15 proteins were up-regulated or expressed in pencil roots and 15 in storage roots. Differentially expressed proteins spots were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, and 10 proteins from pencil roots were identified as binding protein isoform A, catechol oxidase, peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, endochitinase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and unknown proteins. Of the proteins up-regulated in, or restricted to, storage roots, 13 proteins were identified as protein disulfide isomerase, anionic peroxidase, putative ripening protein, sporamin B, sporamin A and sporamin A precursor. An analysis of enzyme activity revealed that catechol oxidase and peroxidase as the first and last enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway, and ascorbate peroxidase had higher activities in pencil than in storage roots. The total concentration of phenolic compounds was also far higher in pencil than in storage roots, and lignin accumulated only in pencil roots. These results provide important insight into sweetpotato proteomics, and imply that lignin biosynthesis and stress-related proteins are up-regulated or uniquely expressed in pencil roots. The results indicate that the reduction of carbon flow toward phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and its delivery to carbohydrate metabolism is a major event in storage root formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of xylanase with high specific activity from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis A1 in transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Peilong; Wang, Yaru; Bai, Yingguo; Meng, Kun; Luo, Huiying; Yuan, Tiezheng; Fan, Yunliu; Yao, Bin

    2007-04-01

    The gene, xynB, from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis A1 encoding xylanase, XYNB, with a high specific activity for xylan, was transformed into potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The integration of xynB into genomic DNA was confirmed by PCR and reverse transcriptase-PCR. The gene was expressed under the control of a constitutive double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Both SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis showed high levels of expression of the 21 kDa and 31 kDa XYNB proteins in transgenic potato plants transformed by the binary vectors pBinXy and signal peptide contained pBinSPXy, respectively. The recombinant XYNB protein was present at up to 5% of total soluble leaf protein in the cytoplasm. In transgenic leaf and tuber extracts, xylanase activity was up to 87 micromol min(-1) g(-1) fresh leaf (9.7 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) total soluble protein). The xylanase was stable at 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C in buffers (pH 5.2) for 5 min. Furthermore, the xylanase enzymatic activity remained virtually unchanged over several generations of potato. These results demonstrate that the transgenic potato can be used to produce recombinant xylanase with high specific enzyme activity and can potentially be an alternative to present-day xylanase additives to animal feed.

  1. Biological activity of alkaloids from Solanum dulcamara L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Padma; Sharma, Bindu; Bakshi, Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known for their antimicrobial activity. Though all natural alkaloids come from plants, not all plants produce alkaloids. Plants of the Solanaceae family are known for their high alkaloid content. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. In the present study, those plant parts of Solanum dulcamara were selected which have been reported to produce a high content of a specific alkaloid: solanine (from unripe fruits), solasodine (from flowers) and beta-solamarine (from roots). These alkaloids were extracted from various parts of S. dulcamara by well-established methods and were screened for their antibacterial activity. Human pathogenic bacteria, viz., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, were selected for the study. All three alkaloids inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. However, no significant activity was observed against E. aerogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were also evaluated.

  2. Identification of the antimicrobial substances produced by Solanum palinacanthum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Aline C; Oliveira, Denilson F; Silva, Geraldo H; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Cavalheiro, Albero J; Carvalho, Douglas A; Souza, Luciana P; Chalfoun, Sára M

    2008-09-01

    To find out natural antimicrobial agents as alternative in therapeutics and to preserve food, the methanol extract of Solanum palinacanthum aerial parts was submitted to purification steps guided by antibacterial and antifungal assays. As a consequence, the flavonoid rutin and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were isolated by column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, and identified by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the quinic acid derivative against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Aspergillus ochraceus were 250, 1000, 1000 and > 568 microg/mL, respectively. Against the same microorganisms, MIC for rutin were 1000, > 1000, > 1000 and 35 microg/mL, respectively. Rutin was very promising for A. ochraceus control, since its MIC against such fungus was close to the one observed for benzalkonium chloride, which is used as a fungicide in Brazil.

  3. In vitro antioxidant activities of Solanum surattense leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Muruhan, Sridevi; Selvaraj, Senthil; Viswanathan, Pugalendi Kodukkur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant activity of alcoholic leaf-extract of Solanum surattense (Solanaceae) (S. surattense). Methods Leaf extract were tested for in vitro free radical scavenging assays, such as hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide, inhibition of superoxide anion radical and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), total antioxidant activity and reducing ability. Further, total phenolic content of S. surattense was analyzed. Results S. surattense extract effectively scavenged free radicals at all different concentrations and showed its potent antioxidant activity. Further, these effects were in a dose dependent manner. Results were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. Conclusions S. surattense have strong antioxidant potential. Further the study validates the therapeutic benefits of the Indian system of medicine. PMID:23570013

  4. Toxicity of nightshade berries (Solanum dulcamara) in mice.

    PubMed

    Hornfeldt, C S; Collins, J E

    1990-01-01

    Ripened nightshade berries (Solanum dulcamara) are among the most commonly reported plant ingestions in Minnesota. Because of the lack of adequate information regarding the toxic qualities of S. dulcamara berries, the ingestion of even small quantities by children is usually treated conservatively with syrup of ipecac. The toxicity of S. dulcamara berries was studied by gavaging mice with a preparation of lyophilized berries, ripened and unripened, collected at various times of the year. Mice receiving unripened fruit from early in the season had gastrointestinal tissue changes consistent with solanine toxicity. Animals dosed with unripened fruit from the latter part of the year showed behavioral signs suggestive of solanine toxicity, however gastrointestinal lesions were not observed. In no case did the ripened fruit produce behavioral or histologic toxicity. Aggressive treatment of children ingesting limited amounts of ripened S. dulcamara berries appears to be unnecessary.

  5. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    PubMed

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  6. Inheritance of morphological characters and glycoalkaloids in potatoes of somatic hybrids between dihaploid Solanum acauleand tetraploid Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Kozukue, N; Misoo, S; Yamada, T; Kamijima, O; Friedman, M

    1999-10-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids occur in potatoes and are reported to impart resistance to phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, and insects. Because glycoalkaloids can be passed to progenies during breeding programs designed to develop improved potatoes, it is of importance to determine the quality of desired characteristics and the composition of glycoalkaloids of new somatic hybrids. The objective of this study was to determine the appearance, size, and shape (morphological characters) as well as the glycoalkaloid content of potato tubers of somatic hybrids between tetraploid Solanum tuberosum cv. Dejima (2n = 4x = 48 chromosomes) and the dihaploid clone ATDH-1 (2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes) induced by anther culture from Solanum acuale-T (acl-T, 2n = 4x = 48 chromosomes). Tuber size and shape in somatic hybrids were in accord with those of cv. Dejima, whereas the tuber skin color resembled that of ATDH-1. Thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry studies showed that the two steroidal glycoalkaloids (alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine) were present in the tubers of S. tuberosum, whereas acl-T and ATDH-1 tubers were found to contain alpha-tomatine and demissine. The concentrations of total glycoalkaloids in both acl-T and ATDH-1 was >100 mg/100 g of fresh weight tuber cortex, much higher than in S. tuberosum. All somatic hybrids, except one clone, contained four glycoalkaloids (alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, alpha-tomatine, and demissine) derived from the fusion parents. The lack of alpha-tomatine in the remaining clone may be due to somaclonal variation. The results show that character expression is influenced by ploidy level and that total glycoalkaloid levels in most somatic hybrids were intermediate between those of the fusion parents. The possible significance of these findings for plant breeding and food safety is discussed.

  7. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kim, Gi-Beum; Na, Chong-Sam; Song, Choon-Ho; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (STZ), and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin). After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) compared to STZ (100%): 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001) in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%), total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%), and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%). There were also significant increases (p < 0.001) in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%), GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%), and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%). The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85%) together with increases (p < 0.01) in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145%) and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%). The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose

  8. Toxicological, Antidiarrheal and Spasmolytic Activities of Solanum paniculatum.

    PubMed

    Clementino-Neto, José; Pereira, Joedna C; Vasconcelos, Luiz H C; de Souza, Iara L L; Silva, Anne D S; Silva, Telma M G; Ramos, Natalia S M; Pessôa, Hilzeth L F; Silva, Tania M S; da Silva, Bagnólia A; de Cavalcante, Fabiana A

    2016-01-01

    Solanum paniculatum is popularly known as "jurubeba-verdadeira". In folk medicine, its roots, stems, and leaves are used as tonics, anti-inflammatories, carminatives, diuretics, and for gastrointestinal disorders. This species is listed in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and belongs to the "Relação Nacional de Plantas Medicinais de Interesse ao SUS". Based on folk medicine data of the Solanum genus, we decided to investigate whether the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts presents toxicological, antidiarrheal, and spasmolytic activities. The crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts did not produce in vitro or in vivo toxicity and showed dose-dependent antidiarrheal activity, inhibiting equipotently both the defecation frequency (ED50 = 340.3 ± 35.1 mg/kg) and liquid stool formation (ED50 = 370.1 ± 19.4 mg/kg) in mice. Conversely, the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts did not inhibit normal intestinal transit, even though it has shown a dose-dependent reduction of both the castor oil-induced intestinal transit (Emax = 36.9 ± 1.3 %, ED50 = 242.0 ± 8.6 mg/kg) and intestinal fluid content (Emax = 74.8 ± 2.4 %, ED50 = 328.9 ± 15.9 mg/kg). Additionally, the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts was approximately 2-fold more potent in antagonizing the phasic contractions induced with histamine (IC50 = 63.7 ± 3.5 µg/mL) than carbachol 10(-6) M (IC50 = 129.3 ± 14.1 µg/mL). Therefore, we concluded that the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts presents antidiarrheal activity in mice related to the inhibition of small intestinal motility and secretion as well as nonselective spasmolytic activity on the guinea pig ileum. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Distribution models and species discovery: the story of a new Solanum species from the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Peru is described here. Solanum pseudoamericanum Särkinen, Gonzáles & S.Knapp sp. nov. is a member of the Morelloid clade of Solanum, and is characterized by the combination of mostly forked inflorescences, flowers with small stamens 2.5 mm long including the filament, and strongly exerted styles with capitate stigmas. The species was first thought to be restricted to the seasonally dry tropical forests of southern Peru along the dry valleys of Río Pampas and Río Apurímac. Results from species distribution modelling (SDM) analysis with climatic predictors identified further potential suitable habitat areas in northern and central Peru. These areas were visited during field work in 2013. A total of 17 new populations across the predicted distribution were discovered using the model-based sampling method, and five further collections were identified amongst herbarium loans. Although still endemic to Peru, Solanum pseudoamericanum is now known from across northern, central and southern Peru. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of SDM for predicting new occurrences of rare plants, especially in the Andes where collection densities are still low in many areas and where many new species remain to be discovered. PMID:24399901

  10. Distribution models and species discovery: the story of a new Solanum species from the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Peru is described here. Solanum pseudoamericanum Särkinen, Gonzáles & S.Knapp sp. nov. is a member of the Morelloid clade of Solanum, and is characterized by the combination of mostly forked inflorescences, flowers with small stamens 2.5 mm long including the filament, and strongly exerted styles with capitate stigmas. The species was first thought to be restricted to the seasonally dry tropical forests of southern Peru along the dry valleys of Río Pampas and Río Apurímac. Results from species distribution modelling (SDM) analysis with climatic predictors identified further potential suitable habitat areas in northern and central Peru. These areas were visited during field work in 2013. A total of 17 new populations across the predicted distribution were discovered using the model-based sampling method, and five further collections were identified amongst herbarium loans. Although still endemic to Peru, Solanum pseudoamericanum is now known from across northern, central and southern Peru. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of SDM for predicting new occurrences of rare plants, especially in the Andes where collection densities are still low in many areas and where many new species remain to be discovered.

  11. Tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon spp.) phylogenetic study: aligned genomic sequences for 47 markers used to analyze introgression in domesticated tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) is composed of 12 wild Solanum spp. and one domesticated (S. lycopersicum) taxon. Crop improvement for development of new cultivars and their spread to all regions of the globe has greatly relied on interspecific hybrid crosses with wild species taxa beginning i...

  12. Chloroplast-coded atrazine resistance in Solanum nigrum: psbA loci from susceptible and resistant biotypes are isogenic except for a single codon change.

    PubMed Central

    Goloubinoff, P; Edelman, M; Hallick, R B

    1984-01-01

    The 32-kDa photosystem II protein of the chloroplast is thought to be a target molecule for the herbicide atrazine. The psbA gene coding for this protein was cloned from Solanum nigrum atrazine-susceptible ('S') and atrazine-resistant ('R') biotypes. The 'S' and 'R' genes are identical in nucleotide sequence except for an A to G transition, predicting a Ser to Gly change at codon 264. The same predicted amino acid change in psbA was previously shown for an Amaranthus hybridus 'S' and 'R' biotypes which had, in addition, two silent nucleotide changes between the genes (Hirschberg, J. and McIntosh, L., Science 222, 1346-1349, 1983). Occurrence of the identical, non-silent change in psbA in different 'S' and 'R' weed biotype pairs suggests a functional, herbicide-related role for this codon position. Images PMID:6514581

  13. Metabolic and Molecular Changes of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Lines Carrying Different Solanum pennellii Wild Chromosomal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Rigano, Maria Manuela; Raiola, Assunta; Docimo, Teresa; Ruggieri, Valentino; Calafiore, Roberta; Vitaglione, Paola; Ferracane, Rosalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Solanum lycopersicum represents an important dietary source of bioactive compounds including the antioxidants flavonoids and phenolic acids. We previously identified two genotypes (IL7-3 and IL12-4) carrying loci from the wild species Solanum pennellii, which increased antioxidants in the fruit. Successively, these lines were crossed and two genotypes carrying both introgressions at the homozygous condition (DHO88 and DHO88-SL) were selected. The amount of total antioxidant compounds was increased in DHOs compared to both ILs and the control genotype M82. In order to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying the positive interaction between the two wild regions pyramided in DHO genotypes, detailed analyses of the metabolites accumulated in the fruit were carried out by colorimetric methods and LC/MS/MS. These analyses evidenced a lower content of flavonoids in DHOs and in ILs, compared to M82. By contrast, in the DHOs the relative content of phenolic acids increased, particularly the fraction of hexoses, thus evidencing a redirection of the phenylpropanoid flux toward the biosynthesis of phenolic acid glycosides in these genotypes. In addition, the line DHO88 exhibited a lower content of free phenolic acids compared to M82. Interestingly, the two DHOs analyzed differ in the size of the wild region on chromosome 12. Genes mapping in the introgression regions were further investigated. Several genes of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway were identified, such as one 4-coumarate:CoA ligase and two UDP-glycosyltransferases in the region 12-4 and one chalcone isomerase and one UDP-glycosyltransferase in the region 7-3. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrated a different expression of the detected genes in the ILs and in the DHOs compared to M82. These analyses, combined with biochemical analyses, suggested a central role of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase in redirecting the phenylpropanoid pathways toward the biosynthesis of phenolic acids in the pyramided lines

  14. Kunitz-type protease inhibitors group B from Solanum palustre.

    PubMed

    Speransky, Anna S; Cimaglia, Fabio; Krinitsina, Anastasya A; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Fasano, Pasqua; Bogacheva, Anna M; Valueva, Tatiana A; Halterman, Dennis; Shevelev, Alexei B; Santino, Angelo

    2007-11-01

    Five Kunitz protease inhibitor group B genes were isolated from the genome of the diploid non-tuber-forming potato species Solanum palustre. Three of five new genes share 99% identity to the published KPI-B genes from various cultivated potato accessions, while others exhibit 96% identity. Spls-KPI-B2 and Spls-KPI-B4 proteins contain unique substitutions of the most conserved residues usually involved to trypsin and chymotrypsin-specific binding sites of Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI)-B, respectively. To test the inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin by Spls-KPI proteins, five of them were produced in E. coli purified using a Ni-sepharose resin and ion-exchange chromatography. All recombinant Spls-KPI-B inhibited trypsin; K(i) values ranged from 84.8 (Spls-KPI-B4), 345.5 (Spls-KPI-B1), and 1310.6 nM (Spls-KPI-B2) to 3883.5 (Spls-KPI-B5) and 8370 nM (Spls-KPI-B3). In addition, Spls-KPI-B1 and Spls-KPI-B4 inhibited chymotrypsin. These data suggest that regardless of substitutions of key active-center residues both Spls-KPI-B4 and Spls-KPI-B1 are functional trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors.

  15. Solanidine isolation from Solanum tuberosum by centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Attoumbré, Jacques; Giordanengo, Philippe; Baltora-Rosset, Sylvie

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was the preparative isolation of solanidine (aglycone of the two main potato glycoalkaloids: α-chaconine and α-solanine) from fresh Solanum tuberosum (cv. Pompadour) material by implementing a new preparation scheme using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). A setup for obtaining solanidine by hydrolysis of the glycoalkaloids found in the skin and sprouts of S. tuberosum was first developed. Then its isolation was carried out by the development of CPC conditions: the solvent system used for separation was ethyl acetate/butanol/water in the ratio 42.5:7.5:50 v/v/v, 0.6 g of crude extract were separated with a 8 mL/min flow rate of mobile phase while rotating at 2500 rpm. A run yielded 98 mg of solanidine (86.7% recovery from the crude extract) in a one-step separation. The purity of the isolated solanidine was over 98%. Thus, CPC has proven to be the method of choice to get solanidine of very high purity from S. tuberosum biomass in large quantities.

  16. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lan-Huan; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Solanum rostratum is a “super weed” that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS) and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH) of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum. PMID:27258320

  17. Accumulation of vitamin E in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Elizabeth F; McGrath, J Mitchell; Douches, David S

    2008-04-01

    Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a powerful antioxidant essential for human health and synthesized only by photosynthetic organisms. The effects of over-expression of tocopherol biosynthetic enzymes have been studied in leaves and seeds, but not in a non-photosynthetic, below-ground plant organ. Genetic and molecular approaches were used to determine if increased levels of tocopherols can be accumulated in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers through metabolic engineering. Two transgenes were constitutively over-expressed in potato: Arabidopsis thaliana p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (At-HPPD) and A. thaliana homogentisate phytyltransferase (At-HPT). alpha-Tocopherol levels in the transgenic plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In potato tubers, over-expression of At-HPPD resulted in a maximum 266% increase in alpha-tocopherol, and over-expression of At-HPT yielded a 106% increase. However, tubers from transgenic plants still accumulated approximately 10- and 100-fold less alpha-tocopherol than leaves or seeds, respectively. The results indicate that physiological and regulatory constraints may be the most limiting factors for tocopherol accumulation in potato tubers. Studying regulation and induction of tocopherol biosynthesis should reveal approaches to more effectively engineer crops with enhanced tocopherol content.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic activities of Solanum khasianum Clarke.

    PubMed

    Jarald, E Edwin; Edwin, S; Saini, V; Deb, L; Gupta, V B; Wate, S P; Busari, K P

    2008-02-15

    In order to scientifically appraise some of the folkloric uses of Solanum khasianum Clarke (Solanaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic properties of the berries of ethanol extract. Anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema method at three dose level of 200, 300, and 400 mg kg(-1) respectively, Diclofenac sodium (100 mg kg(-1)) was used as the reference standard. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was compared with standard and control. The anthelmintic activity of the extract was tested on tape worm, liver fluke, thread worm, and hook worm using two different concentrations, 100 and 200 mg mL(-1) respectively. Time taken for the inhibition of motility was noted and compared with the standard drug, Piperazine citrate 15 mg mL. The plant extract significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the inflammation of the rats when compared to the control group. Also, the ethanol extract of the plant paralyzed the worms followed by death, which was comparable with that of the standard. This study supports the folk claim.

  19. Homeologous Recombination in Solanum lycopersicoides Introgression Lines of Cultivated Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Canady, Michael A.; Ji, Yuanfu; Chetelat, Roger T.

    2006-01-01

    A library of “introgression lines” containing Solanum lycopersicoides chromosome segments in the genetic background of cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was used to study factors affecting homeologous recombination. Recombination rates were estimated in progeny of 43 heterozygous introgressions and whole-chromosome substitution lines, together representing 11 of the 12 tomato chromosomes. Recombination within homeologous segments was reduced to as little as 0–10% of expected frequencies. Relative recombination rates were positively correlated with the length of introgressed segments on the tomato map. The highest recombination (up to 40–50% of normal) was observed in long introgressions or substitution lines. Double-introgression lines containing two homeologous segments on opposite chromosome arms were synthesized to increase their combined length. Recombination was higher in the double than in the single segment lines, despite a preference for crossovers in the region of homology between segments. A greater increase in homeologous recombination was obtained by crossing the S. lycopersicoides introgression lines to L. pennellii—a phylogenetically intermediate species—or to L. esculentum lines containing single L. pennellii segments on the same chromosome. Recombination rates were highest in regions of overlap between S. lycopersicoides and L. pennellii segments. The potential application of these results to breeding with introgression lines is discussed. PMID:17057228

  20. Molecular diversity analysis of eggplant (Solanum melongena) genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Ali, Z; Xu, Z L; Zhang, D Y; He, X L; Bahadur, S; Yi, J X

    2011-06-14

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena), a vegetable that is cultivated worldwide, is of considerable importance to agriculture in China. We analyzed the diversity of this plant using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and RAPD procedures to subdivide 143 Chinese-cultivated eggplants based on coefficient of parentage, genetic diversity index (GDI) and canonical discriminant analysis. ISSR markers were more effective than RAPD markers for detecting genetic diversity, which ranged from 0.10-0.51, slightly lower than what is known from other crops. Our ISSR/RAPD data provide molecular evidence that coincides with morphological-based classification into three varieties and further subdivision into eight groups, except for two groups. Intensive use of elite parents and extensive crossing within groups have resulted in increased coefficient of parentage and proportional contribution but decreased GDI during the past decades. The mean coefficient of parentage and proportional contribution increased from 0.05 to 0.10% and from 3.22 to 6.46% during 1980-1991 and 1992-2003, respectively. The GDI of landraces was 0.21, higher than the 0.09 and 0.08 calculated for the hybrid cultivars released during the two periods. The recent introduction of alien genotypes into eggplant breeding programs may broaden the genetic base.

  1. Virus-induced gene silencing in eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiping; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Yan, Huaxue; Shen, Xiaoying; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2012-06-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is an economically important vegetable requiring investigation into its various genomic functions. The current limitation in the investigation of genomic function in eggplant is the lack of effective tools available for conducting functional assays. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has played a critical role in the functional genetic analyses. In this paper, TRV-mediated VIGS was successfully elicited in eggplant. We first cloned the CDS sequence of PDS (PHYTOENE DESATURASE) in eggplant and then silenced the PDS gene. Photo-bleaching was shown on the newly-developed leaves four weeks after agroinoculation, indicating that VIGS can be used to silence genes in eggplant. To further illustrate the reliability of VIGS in eggplant, we selected Chl H, Su and CLA1 as reporters to elicit VIGS using the high-pressure spray method. Suppression of Chl H and Su led to yellow leaves, while the depletion of CLA1 resulted in albino. In conclusion, four genes, PDS, Chl H, Su (Sulfur), CLA1, were down-regulated significantly by VIGS, indicating that the VIGS system can be successfully applied in eggplant and is a reliable tool for the study of gene function. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Components from the Root of Solanum erianthum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chang; Lee, Hong-Zin; Chen, Hsin-Chun; Wen, Chi-Luan; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wang, Guei-Jane

    2013-01-01

    Two new norsesquiterpenoids, solanerianones A and B (1–2), together with nine known compounds, including four sesquiterpenoids, (−)-solavetivone (3), (+)-anhydro-β-rotunol (4), solafuranone (5), lycifuranone A (6); one alkaloid, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (7); one fatty acid, palmitic acid (8); one phenylalkanoid, acetovanillone (9), and two steroids, β-sitosterol (10) and stigmasterol (11) were isolated from the n-hexane-soluble part of the roots of Solanum erianthum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physical and spectroscopic data analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity of these isolates was monitored by nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. The cytotoxicity towards human lung squamous carcinoma (CH27), human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep 3B), human oral squamous carcinoma (HSC-3) and human melanoma (M21) cell lines was also screened by using an MTT assay. Of the compounds tested, 3 exhibited the strongest NO inhibition with the average maximum inhibition (Emax) at 100 μM and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 98.23% ± 0.08% and 65.54 ± 0.18 μM, respectively. None of compounds (1–9) was found to possess cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 30 μM. PMID:23771024

  3. Architectural effects mimic floral sexual dimorphism in Solanum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Diggle, Pamela K; Miller, Jill S

    2004-12-01

    Factors underlying apparent floral sexual dimorphism were examined in six species of andromonoecious Solanum section Lasiocarpa (Solanaceae). Both multivariate and univariate analyses show that hermaphroditic flowers are significantly larger than staminate flowers for all features measured. Thus, flowers could be characterized as sexually size dimorphic. However, when size variation due to flower position (architecture) is controlled experimentally, differences between the floral genders for the nongynoecial characters disappear; there is no difference in corolla or androecium size. Staminate flowers appear to be generally smaller than hermaphroditic flowers, not because of any difference related to primary sexual function, but because they tend to occur in the distal regions of each inflorescence. In contrast, significant differences between hermaphroditic and staminate flowers for primary female traits (ovary, style, and stigma) remain after controlling for position: the two floral types are truly dimorphic for these characters. We show that consideration of architectural effects can direct and refine hypotheses concerning the evolution of andromonoecy. More generally, if architectural effects on flower size are common among taxa with unisexual flowers, then these effects may contribute to the common perception of size dimorphism in taxa with unisexual flowers.

  4. Optimizing TILLING and Ecotilling techniques for potato (Solanum tuberosum L)

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Rana; Till, Bradley J; Mba, Chikelu; Al-Safadi, Bassam

    2009-01-01

    Background The TILLING and Ecotilling techniques for the discovery of nucleotide polymorphisms were applied to three potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars treated with gamma irradiation. The three mutant cultivars tested were previously shown to exhibit salinity tolerance, an important trait in countries like Syria where increasing soil salinity is affecting agricultural production. Findings Three gene-specific primer pairs were designed from BAC sequence to amplify ~1 to 1.5 kb of gene target. One of the three primer pairs amplified a single gene target. We used this primer pair to optimize enzymatic mismatch cleavage and fluorescence DNA detection for polymorphism discovery. We identified 15 putative nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase. Nine discovered polymorphisms were unique to one of the three tetraploid cultivars tested. Conclusion This work shows the utility of enzymatic mismatch cleavage for TILLING and Ecotilling in different varieties of potato. The method allows for rapid germplasm characterization without the cost and high informatics load of DNA sequencing. It is also suitable for mutation discovery in high-throughput reverse genetic screens. PMID:19615043

  5. Soil compost amendment enhances tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) quality.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Bellino, Alessandro; Alfani, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important crops in the world and represents a key crop in southern Italy. With the aim to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of tomato fruits in relation to NPK and compost fertilisation, the concentrations of the main nutrients, toxic elements, primary metabolites and total phenols were determined in two varieties (Lido and San Marzano). Each variety was cultivated in a different experimental field, subjected to different agronomic techniques. Concentrations of toxic elements (Cd and Pb) were below the limits indicated by the EU Regulation (2011) in all the fruits analysed. Moreover, fruits obtained from San Marzano plants grown on organic amended soils showed a better overall quality than those obtained on mineral fertilised soil, being characterised by lower N (attributed to lower nitrate and nitrite concentrations), lower Cd, and higher soluble sugar concentrations. Higher concentrations of soluble sugars in fruits from organic amended soils were also observed in the Lido variety. The agricultural use of quality compost represents an effective strategy to obtain high quality products in an economically and environmentally sustainable way. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum corymbiflorum leaves.

    PubMed

    Piana, Mariana; Camponogara, Camila; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Machado, Michel Mansur; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2016-02-17

    Solanum corymbiflorum is popularly known as "baga-de-veado" and its leaves are applied on inflamed legs, scabies, tick bite, boils, mastitis, low back pain and otitis. The aim of this study was evaluate anti-inflammatory in vivo activity and relate this activity with antioxidant compounds present in the extract of S. corymbiflorum leaves. The extract from S. corymbiflorum leaves topically applied was able to reduce the croton oil-induced ear edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity with maximum inhibition of 87±3% and 45±7%, rescpectively in the dose of 1mg/ear. Similar results were found for positive control dexamethasone, which presented inhibitions of ear edema and MPO activity of 89±3% and 50±3%, respectively in a dose of 0.1mg/ear. These findings are due, at least in part, the presence of polyphenols (195.28mg GAE/g) and flavonoids, as chlorogenic acid (59.27mg/g), rutin (12.72mg/g), rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and gallic acid found by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. This species showed potencial antioxidant by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and carbonyl groups in proteins methods which may be related with the presence of this compounds. This species possess anti-inflammatory activity confirming their popular use for the local treatment of skin inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sucrose Metabolism in Tubers of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ross, H. A.; Davies, H. V.

    1992-01-01

    Excision of developing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers from the mother plant, followed by storage at 10°C, resulted in a rapid, substantial decrease in sucrose synthase activity and considerable increases in hexose content and acid invertase activity. A comparison of the response of three genotypes, known to accumulate different quantities of hexoses in storage, showed that both sucrose synthase activity and the extent to which activity declined following excision were similar in all cases. However, there was significant genotypic variation in the extent to which acid invertase activity developed, with tubers accumulating the highest hexose content also developing the highest extractable activity of invertase. Similar effects were found in nondetached tubers when growing plants were maintained in total darkness for a prolonged period. Furthermore, supplying sucrose to detached tubers through the cut stolon surface prevented the decline in sucrose synthase activity. Maltose proved to be ineffective. Western blots using antibodies raised against maize sucrose synthase showed that the decline in sucrose synthase activity was associated with the loss of protein rather than the effect of endogenous inhibitors. Although there were indications that maintaining a flux of sucrose into isolated tubers could prevent the increase in acid invertase activity, the results were not conclusive. ImagesFigure 7 PMID:16668626

  8. Rheological and biochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch.

    PubMed

    Di-Medeiros, Maria Carolina B; Pascoal, Aline M; Batista, Karla A; Bassinello, Priscila Z; Lião, Luciano M; Leles, Maria Inês G; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2014-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rheological and physicochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch. The thermogravimetric analysis of S. lycocarpum starch showed a typical three-step weight loss pattern. Microscopy revealed significant changes in the granule morphology after hydrothermal treatment. Samples hydrothermally treated at 50°C for 10 min lost 52% of their crystallinity, which was recovered after storage for 7 days at 4°C. However, samples hydrothermally treated at 65°C were totally amorphous. This treatment was sufficient to completely disrupt the starch granule, as evidenced by the absence of an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. The RVA of S. lycocarpum starch revealed 4440.7cP peak viscosity, 2660.5cP breakdown viscosity, 2414.1cP final viscosity, 834.3cP setback viscosity, and a pasting temperature of 49.6°C. The low content of resistant starch (10.25%) and high content of digestible starch (89.78%) in S. lycocarpum suggest that this starch may be a good source for the production of hydrolysates, such as glucose syrup and its derivatives.

  9. Extrafloral nectar secretion from wounds of Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Lortzing, Tobias; Calf, Onno W; Böhlke, Marlene; Schwachtje, Jens; Kopka, Joachim; Geuß, Daniel; Kosanke, Susanne; van Dam, Nicole M; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-04-25

    Plants usually close wounds rapidly to prevent infections and the loss of valuable resources such as assimilates(1). However, herbivore-inflicted wounds on the bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara appear not to close completely and produce sugary wound secretions visible as droplets. Many plants across the plant kingdom secrete sugary nectar from extrafloral nectaries(2) to attract natural enemies of herbivores for indirect defence(3,4). As ants forage on wound edges of S. dulcamara in the field, we hypothesized that wound secretions are a form of extrafloral nectar (EFN). We show that, unlike EFN from known nectaries, wound secretions are neither associated with any specific structure nor restricted to certain locations. However, similar to EFN, they are jasmonate-inducible and the plant controls their chemical composition. Wound secretions are attractive for ants, and application of wound secretion mimics increases ant attraction and reduces herbivory on S. dulcamara plants in a natural population. In greenhouse experiments, we reveal that ants can defend S. dulcamara from two of its native herbivores, slugs and flea beetle larvae. Since nectar is defined by its ecological function as a sugary secretion involved in interactions with animals(5), such 'plant bleeding' could be a primitive mode of nectar secretion exemplifying an evolutionary origin of structured extrafloral nectaries.

  10. An extensive proteome map of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit pericarp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaxin; Pascual, Laura; Aurand, Rémy; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Valot, Benoît; Zivy, Michel; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2013-10-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the model species for studying fleshy fruit development. An extensive proteome map of the fruit pericarp is described in light of the high-quality genome sequence. The proteomes of fruit pericarp from 12 tomato genotypes at two developmental stages (cell expansion and orange-red) were analyzed. The 2DE reference map included 506 spots identified by nano-LC/MS and the International Tomato Annotation Group Database searching. A total of 425 spots corresponded to unique proteins. Thirty-four spots resulted from the transcription of genes belonging to multigene families involving two to six genes. A total of 47 spots corresponded to a mixture of different proteins. The whole protein set was classified according to Gene Ontology annotation. The quantitative protein variation was analyzed in relation to genotype and developmental stage. This tomato fruit proteome dataset is currently the largest available and constitutes a valuable tool for comparative genetic studies of tomato genome expression at the protein level. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000105.

  11. Natural variation in folate levels among tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Pallawi; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Tamboli, Vajir; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2017-02-15

    Folate content was estimated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions using microbiological assay (MA) and by LC-MS. The MA revealed that in red-ripe fruits folate levels ranged from 4 to 60μg/100g fresh weight. The LC-MS estimation of red-ripe fruits detected three folate forms, 5-CH3-THF, 5-CHO-THF, 5,10-CH(+)THF and folate levels ranged from 14 to 46μg/100g fresh weight. In mature green and red ripe fruit, 5-CH3-THF was the most abundant folate form. Comparison of LC-MS with MA revealed that MA inaccurately estimates folate levels. The accumulation of folate forms and their distribution varied among accessions. The single nucleotide polymorphism was examined in the key genes of the folate pathway to understand its linkage with folate levels. Despite the significant variation in folate levels among tomato accessions, little polymorphism was found in folate biosynthesis genes. Our results indicate that variation in folate level is governed by a more complex regulation at cellular homeostasis level.

  12. Ipomoea batatas (Convolvulaceae)-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for controlling mosquito vectors of Aedes albopictus, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pavithra Bharathi, V; Ragavendran, C; Murugan, N; Natarajan, D

    2016-12-08

    We proposed an effective and eco-friendly control of dengue, malaria, and filariasis-causing vectors. We tested Ipomoea batatas leaves-mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against first to fourth instar larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus at different concentrations. The synthesized AgNPs showed broad spectrum of larvicidal and adulticidal effects after 48 h of exposure. The characterization of synthesized AgNPs was done using various spectral and microscopy analyses. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the adult of Ae. albopictus with the LC50 and LC90 values were 10.069 and 15.657 μg/mL, respectively, followed by others.

  13. The Effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Zheng, Jie; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fruits have different effects on alcohol metabolism and alcohol-induced liver injury. The present work selected three fruits and aimed at studying the effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were treated daily with alcohol and fruit juices for fifteen days. Chronic treatment with alcohol increased the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL), triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and decreased total protein (TP). Histopathological evaluation also showed that ethanol induced extensive fat droplets in hepatocyte cytoplasm. Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis normalized various biochemical parameters. Solanum muricatum increased the level of ALT and induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver. These results strongly suggest that treatment with Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis could protect liver from the injury of alcohol, while Solanum muricatum could aggravate the damage. PMID:27681723

  14. Collinearity between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and wild relatives assessed by comparative cytogenetic mapping.

    PubMed

    Gaiero, Paola; van de Belt, José; Vilaró, Francisco; Schranz, M Eric; Speranza, Pablo; de Jong, Hans

    2017-03-01

    A major bottleneck to introgressive hybridization is the lack of genome collinearity between the donor (alien) genome and the recipient crop genome. Structural differences between the homeologs may create unbalanced segregation of chromosomes or cause linkage drag. To assess large-scale collinearity between potato and two of its wild relatives (Solanum commersonii and Solanum chacoense), we used BAC-FISH mapping of sequences with known positions on the RH potato map. BAC probes could successfully be hybridized to the S. commersonii and S. chachoense pachytene chromosomes, confirming their correspondence with linkage groups in RH potato. Our study shows that the order of BAC signals is conserved. Distances between BAC signals were quantified and compared; some differences found suggest either small-scale rearrangements or reduction/amplification of repeats. We conclude that S. commersonii and S. chacoense are collinear with cultivated Solanum tuberosum on the whole chromosome scale, making these amenable species for efficient introgressive hybridization breeding.

  15. Leaf epidermal characters of Solanum sect. polytrichum (Solanaceae) as taxonomic evidence.

    PubMed

    Nurit-Silva, Kiriaki; De Fátima Agra, Maria

    2011-12-01

    The morphological similarities among the species of Solanum are remarkable, and are often very difficult one clear distinction between them. This paper presents a comparative anatomical study of the leaf epidermis of five Brazilian species of Solanum sect. Polytrichum, carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. The leaf epidermis surfaces were investigated to evaluate their taxonomic significance to be used for separation and delimitation of the species of the section. As results, some micro-morphological characters of the leaf epidermis, such as density, distribution and type of stellate trichomes, and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and also the type and distribution of stomata proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation and delimitation of the species, and also may contribute as an additional support to the interspecific taxonomy and systematic of Solanum sect. Polytrichum.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a Solanum tuberosum subtilisin-like protein with caspase-3 activity (StSBTc-3).

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Belén; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Guevara, María Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteases with caspase-like enzymatic activity have been widely studied during the last decade. Previously, we have reported the presence and induction of caspase-3 like activity in the apoplast of potato leaves during Solanum tuberosum- Phytophthora infestans interaction. In this work we have purified and identified a potato extracellular protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity from potato leaves infected with P. infestans. Results obtained from the size exclusion chromatography show that the isolated protease is a monomeric enzyme with an estimated molecular weight of 70 kDa approximately. Purified protease was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, showing a 100% of sequence identity with the deduced amino acid sequence of a putative subtilisin-like protease from S. tuberosum (Solgenomics protein ID: PGSC0003DMP400018521). For this reason the isolated protease was named as StSBTc-3. This report constitutes the first evidence of isolation and identification of a plant subtilisin-like protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity. In order to elucidate the possible function of StSBTc-3 during plant pathogen interaction, we demonstrate that like animal caspase-3, StSBTc-3 is able to produce in vitro cytoplasm shrinkage in plant cells and to induce plant cell death. This result suggest that, StSBTc-3 could exert a caspase executer function during potato- P. infestans interaction, resulting in the restriction of the pathogen spread during plant-pathogen interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation and Purification of a Novel Deca-Antifungal Peptide from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Jopung) Against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Kook; Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Park, Yoonkyung

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, an antifungal protein, AFP-J, was purified from tubers of the potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. L Jopung) and by gel filtration and HPLC. In this study, the functional peptide was characterized by partial acid digestion using HCl and HPLC. We obtained three peaks from the AFP-J, the first and third peaks were not active in the tested fungal strain. However, the second peak, which was named Potide-J, was active (MIC; 6.25 μg/mL) against Candida albicans. The amino acid sequences were analyzed by automated Edman degradation, and the amino acid sequence of Potide-J was determined to be Ala-Val-Cys-Glu-Asn-Asp-Leu-Asn-Cys-Cys. Mass spectrometry showed that its molecular mass was 1083.1 Da. Finally, we confirmed that a disulfide bond was present between Cys3 and Cys9 or Cys10. Using this structure, Potide-J was synthesized via solid-phase methods. In these experiments, only the linear sequence was shown to display strong activity against Candida albicans. These results suggest that Potide-J may be an excellent candidate compound for the development of commercially applicable antibiotic agents. PMID:22605963

  18. Isolation and purification of a novel deca-antifungal peptide from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Jopung) against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Kook; Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Park, Yoonkyung

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, an antifungal protein, AFP-J, was purified from tubers of the potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. L Jopung) and by gel filtration and HPLC. In this study, the functional peptide was characterized by partial acid digestion using HCl and HPLC. We obtained three peaks from the AFP-J, the first and third peaks were not active in the tested fungal strain. However, the second peak, which was named Potide-J, was active (MIC; 6.25 μg/mL) against Candida albicans. The amino acid sequences were analyzed by automated Edman degradation, and the amino acid sequence of Potide-J was determined to be Ala-Val-Cys-Glu-Asn-Asp-Leu-Asn-Cys-Cys. Mass spectrometry showed that its molecular mass was 1083.1 Da. Finally, we confirmed that a disulfide bond was present between Cys(3) and Cys(9) or Cys(10). Using this structure, Potide-J was synthesized via solid-phase methods. In these experiments, only the linear sequence was shown to display strong activity against Candida albicans. These results suggest that Potide-J may be an excellent candidate compound for the development of commercially applicable antibiotic agents.

  19. Draft genome sequence of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.): the representative solanum species indigenous to the old world.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Miyatake, Koji; Nunome, Tsukasa; Negoro, Satomi; Ohyama, Akio; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Sato, Shusei; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other important Solanaceae crops such as tomato, potato, chili pepper, and tobacco, all of which originated in South America and are cultivated worldwide, eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is indigenous to the Old World and in this respect it is phylogenetically unique. To broaden our knowledge of the genomic nature of solanaceous plants further, we dissected the eggplant genome and built a draft genome dataset with 33,873 scaffolds termed SME_r2.5.1 that covers 833.1 Mb, ca. 74% of the eggplant genome. Approximately 90% of the gene space was estimated to be covered by SME_r2.5.1 and 85,446 genes were predicted in the genome. Clustering analysis of the predicted genes of eggplant along with the genes of three other solanaceous plants as well as Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that, of the 35,000 clusters generated, 4,018 were exclusively composed of eggplant genes that would perhaps confer eggplant-specific traits. Between eggplant and tomato, 16,573 pairs of genes were deduced to be orthologous, and 9,489 eggplant scaffolds could be mapped onto the tomato genome. Furthermore, 56 conserved synteny blocks were identified between the two species. The detailed comparative analysis of the eggplant and tomato genomes will facilitate our understanding of the genomic architecture of solanaceous plants, which will contribute to cultivation and further utilization of these crops. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.): the Representative Solanum Species Indigenous to the Old World

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Miyatake, Koji; Nunome, Tsukasa; Negoro, Satomi; Ohyama, Akio; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Sato, Shusei; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other important Solanaceae crops such as tomato, potato, chili pepper, and tobacco, all of which originated in South America and are cultivated worldwide, eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is indigenous to the Old World and in this respect it is phylogenetically unique. To broaden our knowledge of the genomic nature of solanaceous plants further, we dissected the eggplant genome and built a draft genome dataset with 33,873 scaffolds termed SME_r2.5.1 that covers 833.1 Mb, ca. 74% of the eggplant genome. Approximately 90% of the gene space was estimated to be covered by SME_r2.5.1 and 85,446 genes were predicted in the genome. Clustering analysis of the predicted genes of eggplant along with the genes of three other solanaceous plants as well as Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that, of the 35,000 clusters generated, 4,018 were exclusively composed of eggplant genes that would perhaps confer eggplant-specific traits. Between eggplant and tomato, 16,573 pairs of genes were deduced to be orthologous, and 9,489 eggplant scaffolds could be mapped onto the tomato genome. Furthermore, 56 conserved synteny blocks were identified between the two species. The detailed comparative analysis of the eggplant and tomato genomes will facilitate our understanding of the genomic architecture of solanaceous plants, which will contribute to cultivation and further utilization of these crops. PMID:25233906

  1. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  2. The membrane proteome of male gametophyte in Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Paul, Puneet; Chaturvedi, Palak; Selymesi, Mario; Ghatak, Arindam; Mesihovic, Anida; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Simm, Stefan; Schleiff, Enrico

    2016-01-10

    Pollen cells possess specialized cellular compartments separated by membranes. Consequently, mature pollen contains proteinaceous factors for inter- and intracellular transport of metabolites or ions to facilitate the upcoming energy exhausting processes - germination and fertilization. Despite the current advancement in the understanding of pollen development little is known about the role and molecular nature of the membrane proteome that participates in functioning and development of male gametophyte. We dissected the membrane proteome of mature pollen from economically important crop Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Isolated membrane fractions from mature pollen of two tomato cultivars (cv. Moneymaker and cv. Red setter) were subjected to shotgun proteomics (GEL-LC-Orbitrap-MS). The global tomato protein assignment was achieved by mapping the peptides on reference genome (cv. Heinz 1706) and de novo assembled transcriptome based on mRNA sequencing from the respective cultivar. We identified 687 proteins, where 176 were assigned as putative membrane proteins. About 58% of the identified membrane proteins participate in transport processes. In depth analysis revealed proteins corresponding to energy related pathways (Glycolysis and Krebs cycle) as prerequisite for mature pollen, thereby revealing a reliable model of energy reservoir of the male gametophyte. Mature pollen plays an indispensable role in plant fertility and crop production. To decipher the functionality of pollen global proteomics studies have been undertaken. However, these datasets are deficient in membrane proteins due to their low abundance and solubility. The work presented here provides a comprehensive investigation of membrane proteome of male gametophyte of an agriculturally important crop plant tomato. The analysis of membrane enriched fractions from two tomato cultivars ensured an effective profiling of the pollen membrane proteome. Particularly proteins of the Krebs cycle or the glycolysis

  3. Transcriptomes of Ralstonia solanacearum during Root Colonization of Solanum commersonii

    PubMed Central

    Puigvert, Marina; Guarischi-Sousa, Rodrigo; Zuluaga, Paola; Coll, Núria S.; Macho, Alberto P.; Setubal, João C.; Valls, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt of potatoes—also called brown rot—is a devastating disease caused by the vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that leads to significant yield loss. As in other plant-pathogen interactions, the first contacts established between the bacterium and the plant largely condition the disease outcome. Here, we studied the transcriptome of R. solanacearum UY031 early after infection in two accessions of the wild potato Solanum commersonii showing contrasting resistance to bacterial wilt. Total RNAs obtained from asymptomatic infected roots were deep sequenced and for 4,609 out of the 4,778 annotated genes in strain UY031 were recovered. Only 2 genes were differentially-expressed between the resistant and the susceptible plant accessions, suggesting that the bacterial component plays a minor role in the establishment of disease. On the contrary, 422 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in planta compared to growth on a synthetic rich medium. Only 73 of these genes had been previously identified as DE in a transcriptome of R. solanacearum extracted from infected tomato xylem vessels. Virulence determinants such as the Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) and its effector proteins, motility structures, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying enzymes were induced during infection of S. commersonii. On the contrary, metabolic activities were mostly repressed during early root colonization, with the notable exception of nitrogen metabolism, sulfate reduction and phosphate uptake. Several of the R. solanacearum genes identified as significantly up-regulated during infection had not been previously described as virulence factors. This is the first report describing the R. solanacearum transcriptome directly obtained from infected tissue and also the first to analyze bacterial gene expression in the roots, where plant infection takes place. We also demonstrate that the bacterial transcriptome in planta can be studied when pathogen numbers are low by

  4. Gene transfer into Solanum tuberosum via Rhizobium spp.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Winckelmann, Dominik; Mullins, Ewen

    2011-04-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) is the preferred technique for gene transfer into crops. A major disadvantage of the technology remains the complexity of the patent landscape that surrounds ATMT which restricts its use for commercial applications. An alternative system has been described (Broothaerts et al. in Nature 433:629-633, 2005) detailing the propensity of three rhizobia to transform the model crop Arabidopsis thaliana, the non-food crop Nicotiana tabacum and, at a very low frequency, the monocotyledonous crop Oryza sativa. In this report we describe for the first time the genetic transformation of Solanum tuberosum using the non-Agrobacterium species Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium sp. NGR234 and Mesorhizobium loti. This was achieved by combining an optimal bacterium and host co-cultivation period with a low antibiotic regime during the callus and shoot induction stages. Using this optimized protocol the transformation frequency (calculated as % of shoots equipped with root systems with the ability to grow in rooting media supplemented with 25 μg/ml hygromycin) of the rhizobia strains was calculated at 4.72, 5.85 and 1.86% for S. meliloti, R. sp. NGR234 and M. loti respectively, compared to 47.6% for the A. tumefaciens control. Stable transgene integration and expression was confirmed via southern hybridisation, quantitative PCR analysis and histochemical screening of both leaf and/or tuber tissue. In light of the rapid advances in potato genomics, combined with the sequencing of the potato genome, the ability of alternative bacteria species to genetically transform this major food crop will provide a novel resource to the Solanaceae community as it continues to develop potato as both a food and non-food crop.

  5. Crystal structure of nonspecific lipid transfer protein from Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Jain, Abha; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2017-10-01

    Lipids are considered to protect protein allergens from proteolysis and are generally seen to exist in a bound form. One of the well-known plant protein families with bound lipids is non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). Structure-function relationships in the case of the members of non-specific lipid transfer protein family are not clearly understood. As part of exploring the seed proteome, we have analyzed the proteome of a member of Solanaceae family, Solanum melongena (eggplant) and a non-specific lipid transfer protein from S. melongena, SM80.2 was purified, crystallized and the structure was determined at 1.87 Å resolution. Overall, the tertiary structure is a cluster of α-helices forming an internal hydrophobic cavity. Absence of conserved Tyr79, known to govern the plasticity of hydrophobic cavity, and formation of hydrogen bond between Asn79 and Asn36 further reduced the pocket size. Structural analysis of SM80.2 thus gives insight about a new hydrogen bond mediated mechanism followed in closure of the binding pocket. Extra electron densities observed at two different places on the protein surface and not in the cavity could provide interesting physiological relevance. In light of allergenic properties, probably overlapping of epitopic region and ligand binding on surface could be a main reason. This work shows first crystal structure of A-like nsLTP with a close binding pocket and extra density on the surface suggesting a plausible intermediate state during transfer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Segregation distortion and linkage analysis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Barchi, Lorenzo; Lanteri, Sergio; Portis, Ezio; Stàgel, Anikò; Valè, Giampiero; Toppino, Laura; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo

    2010-10-01

    An anther-derived doubled haploid (DH) population and an F2 mapping population were developed from an intraspecific hybrid between the eggplant breeding lines 305E40 and 67/3. The former incorporates an introgressed segment from Solanum aethiopicum Gilo Group carrying the gene Rfo-sa1, which confers resistance to Fusarium oxysporum; the latter is a selection from an intraspecific cross involving two conventional eggplant varieties and lacks Rfo-sa1. Initially, 28 AFLP primer combinations (PCs) were applied to a sample of 93 F2 individuals and 93 DH individuals, from which 170 polymorphic AFLP fragments were identified. In the DH population, the segregation of 117 of these AFLPs as well as markers closely linked to Rfo-sa1 was substantially distorted, while in the F2 population, segregation distortion was restricted to just 10 markers, and thus the latter was chosen for map development. A set of 141 F2 individuals was genotyped with 73 AFLP PCs (generating 406 informative markers), 32 SSRs, 4 tomato RFLPs, and 3 CAPS markers linked to Rfo-sa1. This resulted in the assignment of 348 markers to 12 major linkage groups. The framework map covered 718.7 cM, comprising 238 markers (212 AFLPs, 22 SSRs, 1 RFLP, and the Rfo-sa1 CAPS). Marker order and inter-marker distances in this eggplant map were largely consistent with those reported in a recently published SSR-based map. From an eggplant breeding perspective, DH populations produced by anther culture appear to be subject to massive segregation distortion and thus may not be very efficient in capturing the full range of genetic variation present in the parental lines.

  7. Mechanism and Control of Solanum lycocarpum Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Lilian V. A.; Da silva, Edvaldo A. A.; Davide, Antonio C.; De Jesus, Valquíria A. Mendes; Toorop, Peter E.; Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Solanaceae seed morphology and physiology have been widely studied but mainly in domesticated crops. The present study aimed to compare the seed morphology and the physiology of germination of Solanum lycocarpum, an important species native to the Brazilian Cerrado, with two species with endospermic seeds, tomato and coffee. Methods Morphological parameters of fruits and seeds were determined by microscopy. Germination was monitored for 40 d under different temperature regimes. Endosperm digestion and resistance, with endo-β-mannanase activity and required force to puncture the endosperm cap as respective markers, were measured during germination in water and in abscisic acid. Key Results Fruits of S. lycocarpum contain dormant seeds before natural dispersion. The best germination condition found was a 12-h alternating light/dark and high/low (20/30 °C) temperature cycle, which seemed to target properties of the endosperm cap. The endosperm cap contains 7–8 layers of elongated polygonal cells and is predestined to facilitate radicle protrusion. The force required to puncture the endosperm cap decreased in two stages during germination and showed a significant negative correlation with endo-β-mannanase activity. As a result of the thick endosperm cap, the puncture force was significantly higher in S. lycocarpum than in tomato and coffee. Endo-β-mannanase activity was detected in the endosperm cap prior to radicle protrusion. Abscisic acid inhibited germination, increase of embryo weight during imbibition, the second stage of weakening of the endosperm cap and of endo-β-mannanase activity in the endosperm cap. Conclusions The germination mechanism of S. lycocarpum bears resemblance to that of tomato and coffee seeds. However, quantitative differences were observed in embryo pressure potential, endo-β-mannanase activity and endosperm cap resistance that were related to germination rates across the three species. PMID:17855380

  8. New steroidal saponins and antiulcer activity from Solanum paniculatum L.

    PubMed

    Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; da Rocha, Cláudia Quintino; de Souza Rodrigues, Tamires; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Vilegas, Wagner

    2015-11-01

    Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) is a plant species widespread throughout tropical America, especially in the Brazilian Savanna region. It is used in Brazil for culinary purposes and in folk medicine to treat liver and gastric dysfunctions, as well as hangovers. Fractionation of the ethanolic extracts (70%) from aerial parts (leaves and twigs) of S. paniculatum led to the isolation of the two new saponins (22R, 23S, 25R)-3β, 6α, 23-trihydroxy-5α-spirostane 6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1" → 3"')-O-[β-D-quinovopyranosyl(1″' → 2')]-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1" → 3')]-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside (1) and diosgenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1" → 6')-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) together with four know compounds: caffeic acid (3), diosgenin β-D-glucopyranoside (4), rutin (5), and quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1"' → 6 ″)-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (6). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments along with HRESIMS analyses. Different doses (31.25-500 mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of leaves from S. paniculatum were evaluated against gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats. The lower dose of extract able to promote antiulcer effect was 125 mg/kg. The treatment with S. paniculatum by oral route was able to decrease gastric lesion area and also reduced levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the gastric mucosa. Our results reveal for the first time, steroidal saponins from S. paniculatum and the antiulcer effect of this species at this lower dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcriptomes of Ralstonia solanacearum during Root Colonization of Solanum commersonii.

    PubMed

    Puigvert, Marina; Guarischi-Sousa, Rodrigo; Zuluaga, Paola; Coll, Núria S; Macho, Alberto P; Setubal, João C; Valls, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt of potatoes-also called brown rot-is a devastating disease caused by the vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that leads to significant yield loss. As in other plant-pathogen interactions, the first contacts established between the bacterium and the plant largely condition the disease outcome. Here, we studied the transcriptome of R. solanacearum UY031 early after infection in two accessions of the wild potato Solanum commersonii showing contrasting resistance to bacterial wilt. Total RNAs obtained from asymptomatic infected roots were deep sequenced and for 4,609 out of the 4,778 annotated genes in strain UY031 were recovered. Only 2 genes were differentially-expressed between the resistant and the susceptible plant accessions, suggesting that the bacterial component plays a minor role in the establishment of disease. On the contrary, 422 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in planta compared to growth on a synthetic rich medium. Only 73 of these genes had been previously identified as DE in a transcriptome of R. solanacearum extracted from infected tomato xylem vessels. Virulence determinants such as the Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) and its effector proteins, motility structures, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying enzymes were induced during infection of S. commersonii. On the contrary, metabolic activities were mostly repressed during early root colonization, with the notable exception of nitrogen metabolism, sulfate reduction and phosphate uptake. Several of the R. solanacearum genes identified as significantly up-regulated during infection had not been previously described as virulence factors. This is the first report describing the R. solanacearum transcriptome directly obtained from infected tissue and also the first to analyze bacterial gene expression in the roots, where plant infection takes place. We also demonstrate that the bacterial transcriptome in planta can be studied when pathogen numbers are low by

  10. Salt tolerance in Solanum pennellii: antioxidant response and related QTL

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Excessive soil salinity is an important problem for agriculture, however, salt tolerance is a complex trait that is not easily bred into plants. Exposure of cultivated tomato to salt stress has been reported to result in increased antioxidant content and activity. Salt tolerance of the related wild species, Solanum pennellii, has also been associated with similar changes in antioxidants. In this work, S. lycopersicum M82, S. pennellii LA716 and a S. pennellii introgression line (IL) population were evaluated for growth and their levels of antioxidant activity (total water-soluble antioxidant activity), major antioxidant compounds (phenolic and flavonoid contents) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase) under both control and salt stress (150 mM NaCl) conditions. These data were then used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for controlling the antioxidant parameters under both stress and nonstress conditions. Results Under control conditions, cultivated tomato had higher levels of all antioxidants (except superoxide dismutase) than S. pennellii. However, under salt stress, the wild species showed greater induction of all antioxidants except peroxidase. The ILs showed diverse responses to salinity and proved very useful for the identification of QTL. Thus, 125 loci for antioxidant content under control and salt conditions were detected. Eleven of the total antioxidant activity and phenolic content QTL matched loci identified in an independent study using the same population, thereby reinforcing the validity of the loci. In addition, the growth responses of the ILs were evaluated to identify lines with favorable growth and antioxidant profiles. Conclusions Plants have a complex antioxidant response when placed under salt stress. Some loci control antioxidant content under all conditions while others are responsible for antioxidant content only under saline or nonsaline

  11. Identification and characterization of histone deacetylases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linmao; Lu, Jingxia; Zhang, Jianxia; Wu, Pei-Ying; Yang, Songguang; Wu, Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play crucial roles in the regulation of eukaryotic gene activity. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the importance of histone deacetylation/acetylation on genome stability, transcriptional regulation, development and response to stress in Arabidopsis. However, the biological functions of HDACs in tomato have not been investigated previously. Fifteen HDACs identified from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can be grouped into RPD3/HDA1, SIR2 and HD2 families based on phylogenetic analysis. Meanwhile, 10 members of the RPD3/HDA1 family can be further subdivided into four groups, namely Class I, Class II, Class III, and Class IV. High similarities of protein sequences and conserved domains were identified among SlHDACs and their homologs in Arabidopsis. Most SlHDACs were expressed in all tissues examined with different transcript abundance. Transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that SlHDA8, SlHDA1, SlHDA5, SlSRT1 and members of the HD2 family were localized to the nucleus, whereas SlHDA3 and SlHDA4 were localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The difference in the expression patterns and subcellular localization of SlHDACs suggest that they may play distinct functions in tomato. Furthermore, we found that three members of the RPD3/HDA1 family, SlHDA1, SIHDA3 and SlHDA4, interacted with TAG1 (TOMATO AGAMOUS1) and TM29 (TOMATO MADS BOX29), two MADS-box proteins associated with tomato reproductive development, indicating that these HDACs may be involved in gene regulation in reproductive development. PMID:25610445

  12. Fatty acid ω-hydroxylases from Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Bjelica, Anica; Haggitt, Meghan L; Woolfson, Kathlyn N; Lee, Daniel P N; Makhzoum, Abdullah B; Bernards, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Potato StCYP86A33 complements the Arabidopsis AtCYP86A1 mutant, horst - 1. Suberin is a cell-wall polymer that comprises both phenolic and aliphatic components found in specialized plant cells. Aliphatic suberin is characterized by bi-functional fatty acids, typically ω-hydroxy fatty acids and α,ω-dioic acids, which are linked via glycerol to form a three-dimensional polymer network. In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), over 65 % of aliphatics are either ω-hydroxy fatty acids or α,ω-dioic acids. Since the biosynthesis of α,ω-dioic acids proceeds sequentially through ω-hydroxy fatty acids, the formation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids represents a significant metabolic commitment during suberin deposition. Four different plant cytochrome P450 subfamilies catalyze ω-hydroxylation, namely, 86A, 86B, 94A, and 704B; though to date, only a few members have been functionally characterized. In potato, CYP86A33 has been identified and implicated in suberin biosynthesis through reverse genetics (RNAi); however, attempts to express the CYP86A33 protein and characterize its catalytic function have been unsuccessful. Herein, we describe eight fatty acid ω-hydroxylase genes (three CYP86As, one CYP86B, three CYP94As, and a CYP704B) from potato and demonstrate their tissue expression. We also complement the Arabidopsis cyp86A1 mutant horst-1 using StCYP86A33 under the control of the Arabidopsis AtCYP86A1 promoter. Furthermore, we provide preliminary analysis of the StCYP86A33 promoter using a hairy root transformation system to monitor pStCYP86A33::GUS expression constructs. These data confirm the functional role of StCYP86A33 as a fatty acid ω-hydroxylase, and demonstrate the utility of hairy roots in the study of root-specific genes.

  13. Development of interspecific Solanum lycopersicum and screening for Tospovirus resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Bhattacharya, P.S.; Rana, D.; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Pande, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Tospovirus has emerged as a serious viral pathogen for several crops including tomato. The tomato production is being severely affected worldwide by Tospovirus. Some reports have been published about the association of plant virus and development of human disease either by direct or indirect consumption. Resistance to this virus has been identified as good source in wild tomato species (Lycopersicum peruvianum). But the introgression of resistance genes into cultivated tomato lines and the development of interspecific hybrid are hampered due to incompatibility, fertilization barriers and embryo abortion. But this barrier has been broken by applying the embryo rescue methods. This study describes the development of interspecific hybrid tomato plants by highly efficient embryo rescue method and screening for Tospovirus resistance. The interspecific hybrid tomato plants were developed by making a cross between wild tomato species (L. peruvianum) and cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The immature embryos were cultured in standardized medium and interspecific hybrids were developed from embryogenic callus. The immature embryos excised from 7 to 35 days old fruits were used for embryo rescue and 31 days old embryos showed very good germination capabilities and produced the highest number of plants. Developed plants were hardened enough and shifted to green house. The hybrid nature of interspecific plants was further confirmed by comparing the morphological characters from their parents. The F1, F2 and F3 plants were found to have varying characters especially for leaf type, color of stem, fruits, size, shapes and they were further screened for virus resistance both in lab and open field followed by Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay confirmation. Finally, a total of 11 resistant plants were selected bearing red color fruits with desired shape and size. PMID:26587001

  14. Solanum nigrum: a model ecological expression system and its tools.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Dominik D; Kessler, André; Kessler, Danny; Schmidt, Silvia; Lim, Michelle; Gase, Klaus; Baldwin, Ian T

    2004-05-01

    Plants respond to environmental stresses through a series of complicated phenotypic responses, which can be understood only with field studies because other organisms must be recruited for their function. If ecologists are to fully participate in the genomics revolution and if molecular biologists are to understand adaptive phenotypic responses, native plant ecological expression systems that offer both molecular tools and interesting natural histories are needed. Here, we present Solanum nigrum L., a Solanaceous relative of potato and tomato for which many genomic tools are being developed, as a model plant ecological expression system. To facilitate manipulative ecological studies with S. nigrum, we describe: (i) an Agrobacterium-based transformation system and illustrate its utility with an example of the antisense expression of RuBPCase, as verified by Southern gel blot analysis and real-time quantitative PCR; (ii) a 789-oligonucleotide microarray and illustrate its utility with hybridizations of herbivore-elicited plants, and verify responses with RNA gel blot analysis and real-time quantitative PCR; (iii) analyses of secondary metabolites that function as direct (proteinase inhibitor activity) and indirect (herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds) defences; and (iv) growth and fitness-estimates for plants grown under field conditions. Using these tools, we demonstrate that attack from flea beetles elicits: (i) a large transcriptional change consistent with elicitation of both jasmonate and salicylate signalling; and (ii) increases in proteinase inhibitor transcripts and activity, and volatile organic compound release. Both flea beetle attack and jasmonate elicitation increased proteinase inhibitors and jasmonate elicitation decreased fitness in field-grown plants. Hence, proteinase inhibitors and jasmonate-signalling are targets for manipulative studies.

  15. Development of interspecific Solanum lycopersicum and screening for Tospovirus resistance.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D; Kamal, Mohammad A; Pande, M K

    2015-11-01

    Tospovirus has emerged as a serious viral pathogen for several crops including tomato. The tomato production is being severely affected worldwide by Tospovirus. Some reports have been published about the association of plant virus and development of human disease either by direct or indirect consumption. Resistance to this virus has been identified as good source in wild tomato species (Lycopersicum peruvianum). But the introgression of resistance genes into cultivated tomato lines and the development of interspecific hybrid are hampered due to incompatibility, fertilization barriers and embryo abortion. But this barrier has been broken by applying the embryo rescue methods. This study describes the development of interspecific hybrid tomato plants by highly efficient embryo rescue method and screening for Tospovirus resistance. The interspecific hybrid tomato plants were developed by making a cross between wild tomato species (L. peruvianum) and cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The immature embryos were cultured in standardized medium and interspecific hybrids were developed from embryogenic callus. The immature embryos excised from 7 to 35 days old fruits were used for embryo rescue and 31 days old embryos showed very good germination capabilities and produced the highest number of plants. Developed plants were hardened enough and shifted to green house. The hybrid nature of interspecific plants was further confirmed by comparing the morphological characters from their parents. The F1, F2 and F3 plants were found to have varying characters especially for leaf type, color of stem, fruits, size, shapes and they were further screened for virus resistance both in lab and open field followed by Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay confirmation. Finally, a total of 11 resistant plants were selected bearing red color fruits with desired shape and size.

  16. Identification of Loci Affecting Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Tomato Fruit of a Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum chmielewskii Introgression Line Population.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; Molthoff, Jos; Grandillo, Silvana; Viquez-Zamora, Marcela; de Vos, Ric; de Maagd, Ruud A; van Heusden, Sjaak; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2016-01-01

    Semi-polar metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids are very important health-related compounds in tomato. As a first step to identify genes responsible for the synthesis of semi-polar metabolites, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence the semi-polar metabolite content in red-ripe tomato fruit were identified, by characterizing fruits of a population of introgression lines (ILs) derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii. By analyzing fruits of plants grown at two different locations, we were able to identify robust metabolite QTLs for changes in phenylpropanoid glycoconjugation on chromosome 9, for accumulation of flavonol glycosides on chromosome 5, and for alkaloids on chromosome 7. To further characterize the QTLs we used a combination of genome sequencing, transcriptomics and targeted metabolomics to identify candidate key genes underlying the observed metabolic variation.

  17. Identification of Loci Affecting Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Tomato Fruit of a Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum chmielewskii Introgression Line Population

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; Molthoff, Jos; Grandillo, Silvana; Viquez-Zamora, Marcela; de Vos, Ric; de Maagd, Ruud A.; van Heusden, Sjaak; Bovy, Arnaud G.

    2016-01-01

    Semi-polar metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids are very important health-related compounds in tomato. As a first step to identify genes responsible for the synthesis of semi-polar metabolites, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence the semi-polar metabolite content in red-ripe tomato fruit were identified, by characterizing fruits of a population of introgression lines (ILs) derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii. By analyzing fruits of plants grown at two different locations, we were able to identify robust metabolite QTLs for changes in phenylpropanoid glycoconjugation on chromosome 9, for accumulation of flavonol glycosides on chromosome 5, and for alkaloids on chromosome 7. To further characterize the QTLs we used a combination of genome sequencing, transcriptomics and targeted metabolomics to identify candidate key genes underlying the observed metabolic variation. PMID:27733856

  18. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Jensen, Poul Erik; Jakobsen, Jette

    2013-06-01

    Changes in vitamin D(3) and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method including Diels-Alder derivatisation. Vitamin D(3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3) were found in the leaves of all plants after UVB-treatment. S. glaucophyllum had the highest content, 200 ng vitamin D(3)/g dry weight and 31 ng 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)/g dry weight, and was the only plant that also contained 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D(3) in both free (32 ng/g dry weight) and glycosylated form (17 ng/g dry weight).

  19. Novel somatic hybrids (Solanum tuberosum L.+Solanum tarnii) and their fertile BC1 progenies express extreme resistance to potato virus Y and late blight.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Antonova, Olga; Schubert, Jörg; Nachtigall, Marion; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Solanum tarnii, a wild diploid, tuber-bearing Mexican species belonging to the series Pinnatisecta is highly resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY) and Colorado potato beetle and shows a strong hypersensitive reaction to Phytophthora infestans. Therefore, it could be a potential source of resistance to pathogens for potato breeders. S. tarnii (2n=2x=24) is reproductively isolated from tetraploid Solanum tuberosum and hence difficult to include in potato breeding programmes. In this study, interspecific somatic hybrids were produced for the first time by protoplast electrofusion of the cells of potato cv. Delikat (Solanum tuberosum L.) and Solanum tarnii. The hybrid nature of the regenerants was confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and by morphological analysis and flow cytometry. Selected somatic hybrids were successfully backcrossed with cv. Delikat. Parental lines, primary somatic hybrids and BC1 progeny were assessed for resistance to PVY by mechanical inoculation, grafting and exposure to viruliferous aphid vectors in the field, and resistance to late blight (P. infestans) by detached leaflet and whole tuber tests. The somatic hybrids showed no symptoms of viral infection and most of them displayed high levels of resistance to foliage blight. The BC1 progenies were highly resistant to PVY and a few were resistant to foliage blight. Selected hybrids and BC1 clones were evaluated in the field for tuber quality and tuber yield. Some BC1 clones produced yields of good quality tubers. The results confirm that both the resistance to PVY and to late blight of S. tarnii is expressed in somatic hybrids, and PVY resistance is transferred to BC1 progeny, whereas blight resistance is harder to transfer. Somatic hybridization again proved to be a valuable tool for producing pre-breeding material with increased genetic diversity.

  20. A comparison of the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of three plant species that differ in freezing tolerance: Solanum commersonii, Solanum tuberosum, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pino, María-Teresa; Jeknić, Zoran; Zou, Cheng; Shiu, Shin-Han; Chen, Tony H. H.; Thomashow, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Solanum commersonii and Solanum tuberosum are closely related plant species that differ in their abilities to cold acclimate; whereas S. commersonii increases in freezing tolerance in response to low temperature, S. tuberosum does not. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cold-regulated genes have been shown to contribute to freezing tolerance, including those that comprise the CBF regulon, genes that are controlled by the CBF transcription factors. The low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of S. commersonii and S. tuberosum were therefore compared to determine whether there might be differences that contribute to their differences in ability to cold acclimate. The results indicated that both plants alter gene expression in response to low temperature to similar degrees with similar kinetics and that both plants have CBF regulons composed of hundreds of genes. However, there were considerable differences in the sets of genes that comprised the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of the two species. Thus differences in cold regulatory programmes may contribute to the differences in freezing tolerance of these two species. However, 53 groups of putative orthologous genes that are cold-regulated in S. commersonii, S. tuberosum, and A. thaliana were identified. Given that the evolutionary distance between the two Solanum species and A. thaliana is 112–156 million years, it seems likely that these conserved cold-regulated genes—many of which encode transcription factors and proteins of unknown function—have fundamental roles in plant growth and development at low temperature. PMID:21511909

  1. A comparison of the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of three plant species that differ in freezing tolerance: Solanum commersonii, Solanum tuberosum, and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Carvallo, Marcela A; Pino, María-Teresa; Jeknic, Zoran; Zou, Cheng; Doherty, Colleen J; Shiu, Shin-Han; Chen, Tony H H; Thomashow, Michael F

    2011-07-01

    Solanum commersonii and Solanum tuberosum are closely related plant species that differ in their abilities to cold acclimate; whereas S. commersonii increases in freezing tolerance in response to low temperature, S. tuberosum does not. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cold-regulated genes have been shown to contribute to freezing tolerance, including those that comprise the CBF regulon, genes that are controlled by the CBF transcription factors. The low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of S. commersonii and S. tuberosum were therefore compared to determine whether there might be differences that contribute to their differences in ability to cold acclimate. The results indicated that both plants alter gene expression in response to low temperature to similar degrees with similar kinetics and that both plants have CBF regulons composed of hundreds of genes. However, there were considerable differences in the sets of genes that comprised the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of the two species. Thus differences in cold regulatory programmes may contribute to the differences in freezing tolerance of these two species. However, 53 groups of putative orthologous genes that are cold-regulated in S. commersonii, S. tuberosum, and A. thaliana were identified. Given that the evolutionary distance between the two Solanum species and A. thaliana is 112-156 million years, it seems likely that these conserved cold-regulated genes-many of which encode transcription factors and proteins of unknown function-have fundamental roles in plant growth and development at low temperature.

  2. Characterization of spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative Solanum richardii Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Whitaker, Bruce D; Trouth, Frances; Shangguan, Lingfei; Dong, Wen; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that have an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, we identified and characterized a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild relative S. richardii, designated as SmSHT and SrSHT, respectively. SmSHT was abundant in flowers and fruits, whereas the level of SrSHT was remarkably low in all tissues. Heat-shock/drought treatment stimulated the expression of SmSHT in both leaves and fruits, indicating its involvement in plant stress response. Both SHT polypeptides had extremely high identity with just five amino-acid substitutions. Recombinant SmSHT catalyzed the synthesis of mono-, bi- and tri- acylated polyamines. Using caffeoyl-CoA as the acyl donor, SmSHT preferred spermidine as the acyl acceptor. When spermidine was the acyl acceptor, the donor preference order for SmSHT was caffeoyl-CoA>feruloyl-CoA>ρ-coumaroyl-CoA. SrSHT exhibited the same substrate specificity as SmSHT, yet exhibited significantly higher catalytic activity than SmSHT. For example, under caffeoyl-CoA and spermidine, Kcat of SrSHT was 37.3% higher than SmSHT. Molecular modeling suggests that five amino-acid substitutions in SrSHT result in four alterations in their predicted 3D structures. In particular, the conserved Lys402 adjacent to the DFGWG motif, and Cys200 in the crossover loop in SmSHT were replaced by Glu and Ser in SrSHT. These substitutions may contribute to the enhanced activity in SrSHT. Our study provides a platform to generate HCAA rich fruits for eggplant and other solanaceous crops. PMID:28018606

  3. Characterization of spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative Solanum richardii Dunal.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Whitaker, Bruce D; Trouth, Frances; Shangguan, Lingfei; Dong, Wen; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that have an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, we identified and characterized a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild relative S. richardii, designated as SmSHT and SrSHT, respectively. SmSHT was abundant in flowers and fruits, whereas the level of SrSHT was remarkably low in all tissues. Heat-shock/drought treatment stimulated the expression of SmSHT in both leaves and fruits, indicating its involvement in plant stress response. Both SHT polypeptides had extremely high identity with just five amino-acid substitutions. Recombinant SmSHT catalyzed the synthesis of mono-, bi- and tri- acylated polyamines. Using caffeoyl-CoA as the acyl donor, SmSHT preferred spermidine as the acyl acceptor. When spermidine was the acyl acceptor, the donor preference order for SmSHT was caffeoyl-CoA>feruloyl-CoA>ρ-coumaroyl-CoA. SrSHT exhibited the same substrate specificity as SmSHT, yet exhibited significantly higher catalytic activity than SmSHT. For example, under caffeoyl-CoA and spermidine, Kcat of SrSHT was 37.3% higher than SmSHT. Molecular modeling suggests that five amino-acid substitutions in SrSHT result in four alterations in their predicted 3D structures. In particular, the conserved Lys402 adjacent to the DFGWG motif, and Cys200 in the crossover loop in SmSHT were replaced by Glu and Ser in SrSHT. These substitutions may contribute to the enhanced activity in SrSHT. Our study provides a platform to generate HCAA rich fruits for eggplant and other solanaceous crops.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Is Possible Using Genome Admixture of Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme

    PubMed Central

    Ranc, Nicolas; Muños, Stephane; Xu, Jiaxin; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bounon, Rémi; Rolland, Sophie; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Brunel, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association mapping is an efficient way to identify quantitative trait loci controlling the variation of phenotypes, but the approach suffers severe limitations when one is studying inbred crops like cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Such crops exhibit low rates of molecular polymorphism and high linkage disequilibrium, which reduces mapping resolution. The cherry type tomato (S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) genome has been described as an admixture between the cultivated tomato and its wild ancestor, S. pimpinellifolium. We have thus taken advantage of the properties of this admixture to improve the resolution of association mapping in tomato. As a proof of concept, we sequenced 81 DNA fragments distributed on chromosome 2 at different distances in a core collection of 90 tomato accessions, including mostly cherry type tomato accessions. The 81 Sequence Tag Sites revealed 352 SNPs and indels. Molecular diversity was greatest for S. pimpinellifolium accessions, intermediate for S. l. cerasiforme accessions, and lowest for the cultivated group. We assessed the structure of molecular polymorphism and the extent of linkage disequilibrium over genetic and physical distances. Linkage disequilibrium decreased under r2 = 0.3 within 1 cM, and minimal estimated value (r2 = 0.13) was reached within 20 kb over the physical regions studied. Associations between polymorphisms and fruit weight, locule number, and soluble solid content were detected. Several candidate genes and quantitative trait loci previously identified were validated and new associations detected. This study shows the advantages of using a collection of S. l. cerasiforme accessions to overcome the low resolution of association mapping in tomato. PMID:22908034

  5. Genome-wide association mapping in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is possible using genome admixture of Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme.

    PubMed

    Ranc, Nicolas; Muños, Stephane; Xu, Jiaxin; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bounon, Rémi; Rolland, Sophie; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Brunel, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association mapping is an efficient way to identify quantitative trait loci controlling the variation of phenotypes, but the approach suffers severe limitations when one is studying inbred crops like cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Such crops exhibit low rates of molecular polymorphism and high linkage disequilibrium, which reduces mapping resolution. The cherry type tomato (S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) genome has been described as an admixture between the cultivated tomato and its wild ancestor, S. pimpinellifolium. We have thus taken advantage of the properties of this admixture to improve the resolution of association mapping in tomato. As a proof of concept, we sequenced 81 DNA fragments distributed on chromosome 2 at different distances in a core collection of 90 tomato accessions, including mostly cherry type tomato accessions. The 81 Sequence Tag Sites revealed 352 SNPs and indels. Molecular diversity was greatest for S. pimpinellifolium accessions, intermediate for S. l. cerasiforme accessions, and lowest for the cultivated group. We assessed the structure of molecular polymorphism and the extent of linkage disequilibrium over genetic and physical distances. Linkage disequilibrium decreased under r(2) = 0.3 within 1 cM, and minimal estimated value (r(2) = 0.13) was reached within 20 kb over the physical regions studied. Associations between polymorphisms and fruit weight, locule number, and soluble solid content were detected. Several candidate genes and quantitative trait loci previously identified were validated and new associations detected. This study shows the advantages of using a collection of S. l. cerasiforme accessions to overcome the low resolution of association mapping in tomato.

  6. Two new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone of southern Ecuador and northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Stephen; Bohs, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Ecuador and northern Peru are described here. Solanum rubicaule S. Stern, sp. nov., is a member of sect. Torva and is characterized by a festooning, scandent growth form and fruits held horizontally on recurved pedicels. Solanum achorum S. Stern, sp. nov., is a member of sect. Erythrotrichum and is characterized by 4–12-flowered inflorescences, small seeds, and a small calyx. Both species are distributed in the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone of the Andes in northern Peru and southern Ecuador. PMID:22171168

  7. Breeding for resistance to early blight in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. We have identified two early blight resistant clones EB24-24 and EB24-3, which are hybrids between the cultivated (S. tuberosum) potato clone US-W4 (2x=24) ...

  8. New source of bacterial soft rot resistance in wild potato (Solanum chacoense) tubers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya species can cause major losses to the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) industry, mostly due to tuber rot in storage. There are few germplasm resources for soft rot resistance breeding. Here, we introduce a resistant diploid wild potato relative, M...

  9. Analysis of polyphenols, anthocyanins and carotenoids in tubers from Solanum tuberosum group Phureja, Stenotomum and Andigena

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixty-five Solanum tuberosum group Andigena, Phureja and Stenotomum genotypes from an initial population of 1500 were analyzed for phenylpropanoids, carotenoids, and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content ranged from 3 to 49 mg/g DW, total carotenoids from 4.1 to 154 µg/g DW, anthocyanins fro...

  10. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  11. Morphological and cytomolecular assessment of intraspecific variability in scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum aethiopicum L. (scarlet eggplant), native to Sub-Saharan Africa, can now be found grown as a crop in many parts of the world including tropical Africa, South and North America, Asia, and southern Europe. The specific use of this crop depends on the geographic area and/or plant type. Fruit, l...

  12. Enzimatic Activation Against (Phytophthora Infestans Mont., de Bary) in Solanum Species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is assumed that resistance of wild Solanum species to Phytophthora infestans is multigenic on the basis of the exposure of such species to a wide range of pathogenic races of the oomycete. In order to quantify some enzymatic reactions in the host plants to the attack of the pathogen, three resist...

  13. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  14. Differential expression of invertase genes in internal and external phloem tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hedley, P E; Maddison, A L; Davidson, D; Machray, G C

    2000-04-01

    The cloning of promoter sequences of two invertase genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is described. Histochemical analysis of series of reporter transgenic lines reveals phloem-specific expression from both promoters, with one expressed preferentially in internal phloem and the other in external phloem of stem vascular bundles.

  15. FOLIAR AND TUBER BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN A SOLANUM TUBEROSUM BREEDING LINES.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this research was to identify the genetic basis of foliar and tuber resistance to Phytophthora infestans in a potato breeding population developed from a cross between two tetraploid Solanum tuberosum lines, NY121 and NY115. The parent with high foliar resistance, NY121, was highly s...

  16. Foliar and tuber late blight resistance in a Solanum tuberosum potato mapping population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foliar and tuber resistance to Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in a mapping population (n=94) developed between two Solanum tuberosum breeding lines, NY121 x NY115. Foliar disease severity of the progeny clones was measured by the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) in field tests in...

  17. A spontaneous eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) color mutant conditions anthocyanin-free fruit pigmentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Induced or spontaneously occuring color mutants in plants provide valuable tools for elucidating the genetic and developmental regulation of genes that influence pigmentation. We identified a single plant of the eggplant (Solanum melongena) cultivar Black Beauty bearing green fruit. Black Beauty no...

  18. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  19. Tropical soda apple mosaic virus Identified in Solanum capsicoides in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red soda apple (Solanum capsicoides All.), a member of the Solanaceae, is a weed originally from Brazil. It is a perennial in southern Florida and is characterized by abundant prickles on stems, petioles and leaves. Prickles on stems are more dense than on its larger noxious weed relative, tropica...

  20. Four New Vining Species of Solanum (Dulcamaroid Clade) from Montane Habitats in Tropical America

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Background Solanum (Solanaceae), with approximately 1500 species, is one of the largest genera of flowering plants, and has a centre of diversity in the New World tropics. The genus is divided into 13 major clades, of which two, the Dulcamaroid clade and the “African Non-Spiny” clade, exhibit vine morphology with twining petioles. I am currently preparing a worldwide monograph of these two groups, comprising some 70 species. Methods I formally describe here four new species of Solanum from montane Mexico and South America all belonging to the Dulcamaroid clade (including the traditionally recognised section Jasminosolanum Bitter). Descriptions, discussions of closely related species and preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species; all species are illustrated. This paper is also a test case for the electronic publication of new names in flowering plants. Conclusions These new species are all relatively rare, but not currently of conservation concern. Solanum aspersum sp. nov. is distributed in Colombia and Ecuador, S. luculentum sp. nov. in Colombia and Venezuela, S. sanchez-vegae sp. nov. is endemic to northern Peru and S. sousae sp. nov. to southern Mexico. Solanum luculentum has the morphology of a dioecious species; this is the first report of this breeding system in the Dulcamaroid clade. PMID:20463921

  1. Variation in seed traits and germination potential of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. Following its invasion in Greece

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Silverleaf nightshade) is presently considered to be one of the worst agricultural weeds around the world including the Mediterranean basin. Plant’s native range is considered to be an area expanding from Southern US to Northern Mexico. Introduced unintentionally from so...

  2. Resistance level to an aphid potato pest varies between genotypes from the same Solanum accession.

    PubMed

    Pompon, Julien; Li, Xiu-Qing; Pelletier, Yvan

    2011-06-01

    Plant resistance to aphids can be improved by introgressing resistant traits from wild Solanum species into the potato germplasm. Breeding parents are commonly selected from the different accessions of each species. Accessions originate from several seeds collected in a restricted area and are conserved as seeds in genebanks. Genetic heterogeneity may be expected between genotypes from the same accession and could influence resistance level. Working with the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and the accession PI243340 of Solanum chomatophilum (Bitter), which has been previously rated as resistant to M. euphorbiae, we genetically identified and assessed the resistance level of genotypes within the accession. A combination of two multilplex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) discriminated the 13 plant genotypes assessed. Survival of M. euphorbiae, measured using clip cages, varied significantly between five genotypes, randomly selected among the 13 previously assessed, but did not differ between same-genotype plants. Survival among genotypes ranged from 0 to > 60% 12 d after adult molt, and the least resistant genotype exhibited survival close to the susceptible standard, Solanum tuberosum L. Our results support the use of PCR multiplex methods to assess genetic heterogeneity in wild Solanum, and suggest that within accession genetic heterogeneity is sufficient to influence resistance level to aphids. Fine screening at the genotype level is preferable when assessing resistance to aphids.

  3. Phosphorous uptake by potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) from biochar amended with anaerobic digested dairy manure effluent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorption of plant nutrients by biochar from dairy storage lagoons and use as a supplemental fertilizer off site is a beneficial strategy to reduce nutrient contamination around dairies and supply nutrients to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and other crops. This research evaluated potato growth respo...

  4. Variation for tuber greening in the diploid wild potato Solanum microdontum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greening of the tuber skin is an undesirable defect in fresh and processed potato. Tubers of 92 Solanum microdontum families represented by 12 individuals each were generated in the winter greenhouse in 2009-2010. These were evaluated in two trials of family bulks after four days of exposure to 200 ...

  5. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (Solanum L. section Petota)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We analyzed the contemporary ex situ conservation coverage of the wild relatives of cultivated potato (Solanum section Petota) to set priorities and guide future collections and conservation. We conducted a gap analysis for 73 taxa involving seven, 63 and three species from the primary, secondary an...

  6. Factors influencing plant regeneration from seedling explants of Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A good model plant to investigate plant – pathogen interactions would be easy to grow, have a short life cycle, be a natural host of many pathogens, and be easy to manipulate genetically. Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) is a ubiquitous, fast growing weed that produces copious amounts of see...

  7. Inhibition of ethylene synthesis reduces salt-tolerance in tomato wild relative species Solanum chilense.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Lepoint, Gilles; Vanpee, Brigitte; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to salinity induces a burst in ethylene synthesis in the wild tomato halophyte plant species Solanum chilense. In order to gain information on the role of ethylene in salt adaptation, plants of Solanum chilense (accession LA4107) and of cultivated glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Ailsa Craig) were cultivated for 7days in nutrient solution containing 0 or 125mM NaCl in the presence or absence of the inhibitor of ethylene synthesis (aminovinylglycine (AVG) 2μM). Salt-induced ethylene synthesis in S. chilense occurred concomitantly with an increase in stomatal conductance, an efficient osmotic adjustment and the maintenance of carbon isotope discrimination value (Δ(13)C). In contrast, in S. lycopersicum, salt stress decreased stomatal conductance and Δ(13)C values while osmotic potential remained higher than in S. chilense. Inhibition of stress-induced ethylene synthesis by AVG decreased stomatal conductance and Δ(13)C in S. chilense and compromised osmotic adjustment. Solanum chilense behaved as an includer and accumulated high amounts of Na in the shoot but remained able to maintain K nutrition in the presence of NaCl. This species however did not stimulate the expression of genes coding for high-affinity K transport but genes coding for ethylene responsive factor ERF5 and JREF1 were constitutively more expressed in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. It is concluded that ethylene plays a key role in salt tolerance of S. chilense.

  8. Useful promoters and terminators from Solanum bulbocastanum for use in potatoes and other crops.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two polyubiquitin genes, bul409 and bul427, were isolated from a Solanum bulbocastanum BAC library. The bul409 and bul427 genes encode hexameric and heptameric polyproteins, respectively. Chimeric transgenes encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) translationally fused to the first ubiquitin-coding units ...

  9. Conditioning and aversion to toxic Solanum bonariense (naranjillo) leaves in calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum bonariense is a perennial poisonous shrub that induces cerebellar cortical degeneration when eaten by cattle. The aim of this research was to outline a protocol to induce a conditioned aversion to this plant. During the pre-conditioning period ten calves (126±12kg BW) were maintained at half...

  10. Identification of a solanum pennellii chromosome 4 fruit flavor and nutritional quality-associated metabolite QTL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major resource for tomato quality improvement and gene discovery is the collection of introgression lines (ILs) of cultivated Solanum lycopersicum that contain different, defined chromosomal segments derived from the wild tomato relative, S. pennellii. Among these lines, IL4-4, in which the bottom...

  11. New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...

  12. Preliminary phylogeny of Solanum series Conicibaccata based on morphological and molecular data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum series Conicibaccata contains about 40 wild potato (sect. Petota) species distributed from southern Mexico to central Bolivia. It contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48) and hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72) and some polyploids are likely allopolyploids. Previous morphological s...

  13. ESTABLISHMENT, SPREAD AND INITIAL IMPACTS OF GRATIANA BOLIVIANA (CHRYSOMELIDAE) ON SOLANUM VIARUM IN FLORIDA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) is an invasive perennial shrub in southeastern USA. Native to South America, it was first found in Florida in 1988, and it has already invaded more than 400,000 ha of grasslands and conservation areas in 11 states. Currently recommended control tactics for this we...

  14. Molecular and Cytological aspects of native periderm maturation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mature native periderm that exhibits resistance to excoriation (RE) is the primary defense for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers against abiotic and biotic challenges. However, little is known about the physiology of periderm maturation and associated gene expressions. In this study, periderm m...

  15. Spontaneous autotetraploidy and its impact on morphological traits and pollen viability in Solanum aethiopicum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report for the first time the incidence of spontaneous autotetraploidy in Solanum aethiopicum (PI 636107). Stomatal dimensions and frequency, chloroplast numbers per guard cell, flow cytometry, and chromosome counts were used to differentiate the diploid plants from tetraploids. The impact of inc...

  16. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200 bp (total of 24 kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Results Each marker was mapped with high confidence (e<1 x 10-30) to a single genomic location using BLASTN against tomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Conclusion Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive

  17. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles.

    PubMed

    Labate, Joanne A; Robertson, Larry D

    2012-08-07

    Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200 bp (total of 24 kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Each marker was mapped with high confidence (e<1 x 10-30) to a single genomic location using BLASTN against tomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive identification of introgressed

  18. Evolution of a Complex Locus for Terpene Biosynthesis in Solanum[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Matsuba, Yuki; Nguyen, Thuong T.H.; Wiegert, Krystle; Falara, Vasiliki; Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Leong, Bryan; Schäfer, Petra; Kudrna, David; Wing, Rod A.; Bolger, Anthony M.; Usadel, Björn; Tissier, Alain; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Barry, Cornelius S.; Pichersky, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Functional gene clusters, containing two or more genes encoding different enzymes for the same pathway, are sometimes observed in plant genomes, most often when the genes specify the synthesis of specialized defensive metabolites. Here, we show that a cluster of genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; Solanaceae) contains genes for terpene synthases (TPSs) that specify the synthesis of monoterpenes and diterpenes from cis-prenyl diphosphates, substrates that are synthesized by enzymes encoded by cis-prenyl transferase (CPT) genes also located within the same cluster. The monoterpene synthase genes in the cluster likely evolved from a diterpene synthase gene in the cluster by duplication and divergence. In the orthologous cluster in Solanum habrochaites, a new sesquiterpene synthase gene was created by a duplication event of a monoterpene synthase followed by a localized gene conversion event directed by a diterpene synthase gene. The TPS genes in the Solanum cluster encoding cis-prenyl diphosphate–utilizing enzymes are closely related to a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; Solanaceae) diterpene synthase encoding Z-abienol synthase (Nt-ABS). Nt-ABS uses the substrate copal-8-ol diphosphate, which is made from the all-trans geranylgeranyl diphosphate by copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase (Nt-CPS2). The Solanum gene cluster also contains an ortholog of Nt-CPS2, but it appears to encode a nonfunctional protein. Thus, the Solanum functional gene cluster evolved by duplication and divergence of TPS genes, together with alterations in substrate specificity to utilize cis-prenyl diphosphates and through the acquisition of CPT genes. PMID:23757397

  19. Retrospective view of North American potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding in the 20th and 21st centuries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid, has been bred for distinct market classes including fresh market, pigmented flesh, and processing varieties. Breeding efforts have relied on phenotypic selection of populations developed from intra- and inter-market ...

  20. Genetic structure of the four wild tomato species in the Solanum peruvianum s.l. species complex.

    PubMed

    Labate, Joanne A; Robertson, Larry D; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A

    2014-03-01

    The most diverse wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum sensu lato (s.l.) has been reclassified into four separate species: Solanum peruvianum sensu stricto (s.s.), Solanum corneliomuelleri, Solanum huaylasense, and Solanum arcanum. However, reproductive barriers among the species are incomplete and this can lead to discrepancies regarding genetic identity of germplasm. We used genotyping by sequencing (GBS) of S. peruvianum s.l., Solanum neorickii, and Solanum chmielewskii to develop tens of thousands of mapped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to analyze genetic relationships within and among species. The data set was condensed to 14,043 SNPs with no missing data across 46 sampled plants. Origins of accessions were mapped using geographical information systems (GIS). Isolation by distance, pairwise genetic distances, and number of clusters were estimated using population genetics approaches. Isolation by distance was strongly supported, especially between interspecific pairs. Eriopersicon (S. peruvianum s.s., S. corneliomuelleri, S. huaylasense) and Arcanum (S. arcanum, S. neorickii, S. chmielewskii) species groups were genetically distinct, except for S. huaylasense which showed 50% membership proportions in each group. Solanum peruvianum and S. corneliomuelleri were not significantly differentiated from each other. Many thousands of SNP markers were identified that could potentially be used to distinguish pairs of species, including S. peruvianum versus S. corneliomuelleri, if they are verified on larger numbers of samples. Diagnostic markers will be valuable for delimiting morphologically similar and interfertile species in germplasm management. Approximately 12% of the SNPs rejected a genome-wide test of selective neutrality based on differentiation among species of S. peruvianum s.l. These are candidates for more comprehensive studies of microevolutionary processes within this species complex.

  1. PG-2, a Potent AMP against Pathogenic Microbial Strains, from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Gogu Valley) Tubers Not Cytotoxic against Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Young; Gopal, Ramamourthy; Kim, Sang Young; Seo, Chang Ho; Lee, Hyang Burm; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Park, Yoonkyung

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier study, we isolated potamin-1 (PT-1), a 5.6-kDa trypsin-chymotrypsin protease inhibitor, from the tubers of a potato strain (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Gogu Valley). We established that PT-1 strongly inhibits pathogenic microbial strains, but not human bacterial strains, and that its sequence shows 62% homology with a serine protease inhibitor. In the present study, we isolated an antifungal and antibacterial peptide with no cytotoxicity from tubers of the same potato strain. The peptide (peptide-G2, PG-2) was isolated using salt-extraction, ultrafiltration and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) showed the protein to have a molecular mass of 3228.5 Da, while automated Edman degradation showed the N-terminal sequence of PG-2 to be LVKDNPLDISPKQVQALCTDLVIRCMCCC-. PG-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, a human pathogenic yeast strain, and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, a plant late blight strain. PG-2 also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, but did not lyse human red blood cells and was thermostable. Overall, these results suggest PG-2 may be a good candidate to serve as a natural antimicrobial agent, agricultural pesticide and/or food additive. PMID:23429275

  2. Differential strengths of selection on S-RNases from Physalis and Solanum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Paape, Timothy; Kohn, Joshua R

    2011-08-19

    The S-RNases of the Solanaceae are highly polymorphic self-incompatibility (S-) alleles subject to strong balancing selection. Relatively recent diversification of S-alleles has occurred in the genus Physalis following a historical restriction of S-allele diversity. In contrast, the genus Solanum did not undergo a restriction of S-locus diversity and its S-alleles are generally much older. Because recovery from reduced S-locus diversity should involve increased selection, we employ a statistical framework to ask whether S-locus selection intensities are higher in Physalis than Solanum. Because different S-RNase lineages diversify in Physalis and Solanum, we also ask whether different sites are under selection in different lineages. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian coalescent methods found higher intensities of selection and more sites under significant positive selection in the 48 Physalis S-RNase alleles than the 49 from Solanum. Highest posterior densities of dN/dS (ω) estimates show that the strength of selection is greater for Physalis at 36 codons. A nested maximum likelihood method was more conservative, but still found 16 sites with greater selection in Physalis. Neither method found any codons under significantly greater selection in Solanum. A random effects likelihood method that examines data from both taxa jointly confirmed higher selection intensities in Physalis, but did not find different proportions of sites under selection in the two datasets. The greatest differences in strengths of selection were found in the most variable regions of the S-RNases, as expected if these regions encode self-recognition specificities. Clade-specific likelihood models indicated some codons were under greater selection in background Solanum lineages than in specific lineages of Physalis implying that selection on sites may differ among lineages. Likelihood and Bayesian methods provide a statistical approach to testing differential selection across populations or

  3. Differential strengths of selection on S-RNases from Physalis and Solanum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The S-RNases of the Solanaceae are highly polymorphic self-incompatibility (S-) alleles subject to strong balancing selection. Relatively recent diversification of S-alleles has occurred in the genus Physalis following a historical restriction of S-allele diversity. In contrast, the genus Solanum did not undergo a restriction of S-locus diversity and its S-alleles are generally much older. Because recovery from reduced S-locus diversity should involve increased selection, we employ a statistical framework to ask whether S-locus selection intensities are higher in Physalis than Solanum. Because different S-RNase lineages diversify in Physalis and Solanum, we also ask whether different sites are under selection in different lineages. Results Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian coalescent methods found higher intensities of selection and more sites under significant positive selection in the 48 Physalis S-RNase alleles than the 49 from Solanum. Highest posterior densities of dN/dS (ω) estimates show that the strength of selection is greater for Physalis at 36 codons. A nested maximum likelihood method was more conservative, but still found 16 sites with greater selection in Physalis. Neither method found any codons under significantly greater selection in Solanum. A random effects likelihood method that examines data from both taxa jointly confirmed higher selection intensities in Physalis, but did not find different proportions of sites under selection in the two datasets. The greatest differences in strengths of selection were found in the most variable regions of the S-RNases, as expected if these regions encode self-recognition specificities. Clade-specific likelihood models indicated some codons were under greater selection in background Solanum lineages than in specific lineages of Physalis implying that selection on sites may differ among lineages. Conclusions Likelihood and Bayesian methods provide a statistical approach to testing differential

  4. Plastidial α-glucan phosphorylase 1 complexes with disproportionating enzyme 1 in Ipomoea batatas storage roots for elevating malto-oligosaccharide metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Chen; Chang, Shih-Chung; Juang, Rong-Huay

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that malto-oligosaccharides (MOSs) are possibly recycled back into amylopectin biosynthesis via the sequential reactions catalyzed by plastidial α-glucan phosphorylase 1 (Pho1) and disproportionating enzyme 1 (Dpe1). In the present study, the reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments using specific antibodies against Pho1 and Dpe1 demonstrated that these two enzymes can form a complex (the PD complex) in Ipomoea batatas storage roots. The immunohistochemistry analyses also revealed the co-localization of Pho1 and Dpe1 in the amyloplasts, and the protein levels of Pho1 and Dpe1 increased gradually throughout sweet potato storage root development. A high molecular weight PD complex was co-purified from sweet potato storage root lysates by size exclusion chromatography. Enzyme kinetic analyses showed that the PD complex can catalyze maltotriose and maltotetraose to generate glucose-1-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate, and it also performs greater Dpe1 activity toward MOSs than does free form Dpe1. These data suggest that Pho1 and Dpe1 may form a metabolon complex, which provides elevated metabolic fluxes for MOS metabolism via a direct transfer of sugar intermediates, resulting in recycling of glucosyl units back into amylopectin biosynthesis more efficiently. PMID:28472155

  5. Fibrin(ogen)olytic and antiplatelet activities of a subtilisin-like protease from Solanum tuberosum (StSBTc-3).

    PubMed

    Pepe, Alfonso; Frey, María Eugenia; Muñoz, Fernando; Fernández, María Belén; Pedraza, Anabela; Galbán, Gustavo; García, Diana Noemí; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Guevara, María Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Plant serine proteases have been widely used in food science and technology as well as in medicine. In this sense, several plant serine proteases have been proposed as potential anti-coagulants and anti-platelet agents. Previously, we have reported the purification and identification of a plant serine protease from Solanum tuberosum leaves. This potato enzyme, named as StSBTc-3, has a molecular weight of 72 kDa and it was characterized as a subtilisin like protease. In this work we determine and characterize the biochemical and medicinal properties of StSBTc-3. Results obtained show that, like the reported to other plant serine proteases, StSBTc-3 is able to degrade all chains of human fibrinogen and to produces fibrin clot lysis in a dose dependent manner. The enzyme efficiently hydrolyzes β subunit followed by partially hydrolyzed α and γ subunits of human fibrinogen. Assays performed to determine StSBTc-3 substrate specificity using oxidized insulin β-chain as substrate, show seven cleavage sites: Asn3-Gln4; Cys7-Gly8; Glu13-Ala14; Leu15-Tyr16; Tyr16-Leu17; Arg22-Gly23 and Phe25-Tyr26, all of them were previously reported for other serine proteases with fibrinogenolytic activity. The maximum StSBTc-3 fibrinogenolytic activity was determined at pH 8.0 and at 37 C. Additionally, we demonstrate that StSBTc-3 is able to inhibit platelet aggregation and is unable to exert cytotoxic activity on human erythrocytes in vitro at all concentrations assayed. These results suggest that StSBTc-3 could be evaluated as a new agent to be used in the treatment of thromboembolic disorders such as strokes, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  6. The novel Solanum tuberosum calcium dependent protein kinase, StCDPK3, is expressed in actively growing organs.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Verónica; Bialer, Magalí; Santin, Franco; Lin, Tian; Hannapel, David J; Ulloa, Rita M

    2012-12-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key components of calcium regulated signaling cascades in plants. In this work, isoform StCDPK3 from Solanum tuberosum was studied and fully described. StCDPK3 encodes a 63 kDa protein with an N-terminal variable domain (NTV), rich in prolines and glutamines, which presents myristoylation and palmitoylation consensus sites and a PEST sequence indicative of rapid protein degradation. StCDPK3 gene (circa 11 kb) is localized in chromosome 3, shares the eight exons and seven introns structure with other isoforms from subgroup IIa and contains an additional intron in the 5'UTR region. StCDPK3 expression is ubiquitous being transcripts more abundant in early elongating stolons (ES), leaves and roots, however isoform specific antibodies only detected the protein in leaf particulate extracts. The recombinant 6xHis-StCDPK3 is an active kinase that differs in its kinetic parameters and calcium requirements from StCDPK1 and 2 isoforms. In vitro, StCDPK3 undergoes autophosphorylation regardless of the addition of calcium. The StCDPK3 promoter region (circa 1,800 bp) was subcloned by genome walking and fused to GUS. Light and ABRE responsive elements were identified in the promoter region as well as elements associated to expression in roots. StCDPK3 expression was enhanced by ABA while GA decreased it. Potato transgenic lines harboring StCDPK3 promoter∷GUS construct were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated plant transformation. Promoter activity was detected in leaves, root tips and branching points, early ES, tuber eyes and developing sprouts indicating that StCDPK3 is expressed in actively growing organs.

  7. Genome-wide identification of galactinol synthase (GolS) genes in Solanum lycopersicum and Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Filiz, Ertugrul; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker; Vatansever, Recep

    2015-10-01

    GolS genes stand as potential candidate genes for molecular breeding and/or engineering programs in order for improving abiotic stress tolerance in plant species. In this study, a total of six galactinol synthase (GolS) genes/proteins were retrieved for Solanum lycopersicum and Brachypodium distachyon. GolS protein sequences were identified to include glyco_transf_8 (PF01501) domain structure, and to have a close molecular weight (36.40-39.59kDa) and amino acid length (318-347 aa) with a slightly acidic pI (5.35-6.40). The sub-cellular location was mainly predicted as cytoplasmic. S. lycopersicum genes located on chr 1 and 2, and included one segmental duplication while genes of B. distachyon were only on chr 1 with one tandem duplication. GolS sequences were found to have well conserved motif structures. Cis-acting analysis was performed for three abiotic stress responsive elements, including ABA responsive element (ABRE), dehydration and cold responsive elements (DRE/CRT) and low-temperature responsive element (LTRE). ABRE elements were found in all GolS genes, except for SlGolS4; DRE/CRT was not detected in any GolS genes and LTRE element found in SlGolS1 and BdGolS1 genes. AU analysis in UTR and ORF regions indicated that SlGolS and BdGolS mRNAs may have a short half-life. SlGolS3 and SlGolS4 genes may generate more stable transcripts since they included AATTAAA motif for polyadenylation signal POLASIG2. Seconder structures of SlGolS proteins were well conserved than that of BdGolS. Some structural divergences were detected in 3D structures and predicted binding sites exhibited various patterns in GolS proteins.

  8. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19(th) century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species.

  9. Anti-fungal sesquiterpenoid from the root exudate of Solanum abutiloides.

    PubMed

    Yokose, Toshiyuki; Katamoto, Kozue; Park, Sun; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2004-12-01

    The Solanum abutiloides plant is highly resistant to soil-borne pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae, Verticillium dahliae, and Ralstonia solanacearum. This species is utilized as a mating source of resistant cultivars and is also used as a rootstock. The root exudate of Solanum abutiloides was extracted from a soil system composed of charcoal and vermiculite. Anti-fungal activity was found in the extract, and an active ingredient was isolated. The chemical structure of the active compound was determined to be 3-beta-acetoxysolavetivone, a new sesquiterpenoid. The anti-fungal activity of 3-beta-acetoxysolavetivone examined by the inhibition of spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum was close to that of lubimin, and higher than that of solavetivone.

  10. Two new non-spiny Solanum species from the Bolivian Andes (Morelloid Clade).

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra; Nee, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Two new Bolivian species are described from the Morelloid clade of Solanum (section Solanum in the traditional sense). Solanumalliariifolium M.Nee & Särkinen, sp. nov. is found in montane forests between 1,900 and 3,200 m and is morphologically most similar to Solanumleptocaulon Van Heurck & Müll.Arg., also from montane forests in southern Peru and Bolivia. Solanumrhizomatum Särkinen & M.Nee, sp. nov. is found in seasonally dry forests and matorral vegetation in lower elevations between 1,300 and 2,900 m and is most similar to Solanumpygmaeum Cav., a species native to sub-tropical Argentina but introduced in subtropical and temperate areas worldwide.

  11. Solanum habrochaites, a potential source of resistance against Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum".

    PubMed

    Levy, Julien; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia

    2014-06-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, also known as tomato psyllid, is a serious pest of solanaceous plants. Its host selection criteria are poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether the Solanum habrochaites (PI127826), a wild solanaceous plant known for its property to repel whiteflies, was repellent to potato psyllids. Using a combination of nonchoice assays and choice assays on different psyllid stages, we demonstrated that S. habrochaites is both repelling and toxic to potato psyllids compared with Solanum lycopersicum. However, those properties were not sufficient to avoid. transmission of the plant bacterial pathogen "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" vectored by potato psyllids, the causative agent of potato zebra chip disease. However, a lower bacterial transmission rate to S. habrochaites was observed compared with S. lycopersicum.

  12. Quantitative trait loci pyramiding can improve the nutritional potential of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits.

    PubMed

    Rigano, Maria Manuela; Raiola, Assunta; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Monti, Daria Maria; Del Giudice, Rita; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2014-11-26

    Solanum lycopersicum represents an important source of antioxidants and other bioactive compounds. Previously two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL 7-3 and IL 12-4) were identified as carrying quantitative trait loci (QTL) increasing fruit ascorbic acid and phenolics content. Novel tomato lines were obtained by pyramiding these selected QTLs in the genetic background of the cultivated line M82. Pyramided lines revealed significant increases of total phenolics, phenolic acids, ascorbic acid, and total antioxidant activity compared to parental lines IL 7-3 and IL 12-4 and the cultivated line M82. In addition, tomato extracts obtained from the pyramided lines had no cytotoxic effect on normal human cells while exhibiting a selective cytotoxic effect on aggressive cancer cells. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that it is possible to incorporate favorable wild-species QTLs in the cultivated genetic background to obtain genotypes with higher nutritional value.

  13. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19th century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  14. Influence of near null magnetic field on in vitro growth of potato and wild Solanum species.

    PubMed

    Rakosy-Tican, Lenuta; Aurori, C M; Morariu, V V

    2005-10-01

    The influence of near null magnetic field on in vitro growth of different cultures of potato and related Solanum species was investigated for various exposure times and dates. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) in vitro cultures of shoot tips or nodal segments were used. Three different exposure periods revealed either stimulation or inhibition of root, stem, or leaf in vitro growth after 14 or 28 days of exposure. In one experiment the significant stimulation of leaf growth was also demonstrated at biochemical level, the quantity of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids increasing more than two-fold. For the wild species Solanum chacoense, S. microdontum, and S. verrucosum, standardized in vitro cultures of nodal stem segments were used. Root and stem growth was either stimulated or slightly inhibited after 9 days exposure to near null magnetic field. Callus cultures obtained from potato dihaploid line 120/19 were maintained in near null magnetic field in 2 different months. For these experiments as well as for Solanum verrucosum, callus cultures recorded either slight inhibition or no effect on fresh weight. For all experiments significant growth variation was brought about only when geomagnetic activity (AP index) showed variations at the beginning of in vitro growth and when the explant had at least one meristematic tissue. Moreover longer maintenance in near null magnetic field, 28 days as compared to 14 days or the controls, can also make a difference in plant growth in response to geomagnetic field variations when static component was reduced to zero value. These results of in vitro plant growth stimulation by variable component of geomagnetic field also sustain the so-called seasonal "window" effect. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. The production and properties of an antiserum to potato (Solanum tuberosum) lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Ashford, D; Allen, A K; Neuberger, A

    1982-01-01

    Precipitation of potato (Solanum tuberosum) lectin by antisera was not affected by treatments that abolish lectin activity. An antiserum precipitated glycosylated derivatives of the lectin but not a deglycosylated peptide. The haemagglutination inhibition titre of this antiserum was not affected by removing anti-glycopeptide antibodies. This evidence suggests that the antiserum contains two populations of antibodies, specific for different domains of the lectin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6807287

  16. Large Scale Magnetic Separation of Solanum tuberosum Tuber Lectin from Potato Starch Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Horska, Katerina; Martinez, Lluis M.; Safarikova, Mirka

    2010-12-01

    A simple procedure for large scale isolation of Solanum tuberosum tuber lectin from potato starch industry waste water has been developed. The procedure employed magnetic chitosan microparticles as an affinity adsorbent. Magnetic separation was performed in a flow-through magnetic separation system. The adsorbed lectin was eluted with glycine/HCl buffer, pH 2.2. The specific activity of separated lectin increased approximately 27 times during the isolation process.

  17. Morphological and Cytomolecular Assessment of Intraspecific Variability in Scarlet Eggplant ( Solanum aethiopicum L.)

    Treesearch

    Hamidou F. Sakhanokho; M. Nurul Islam-Faridi; Eugene K. Blythe; Barbara J. Smith; Kanniah Rajasekaran; M. A. Majid

    2014-01-01

    Solanum aethiopicum L. is native to sub-Saharan Africa but is now found in many parts of the world. It is used for food, medicinal, and ornamental purposes. It has also been used as a rootstock for tomato and common eggplant because of its resistance to certain pathogens. However, very little is known about its genetics, so the purpose of this work was to assess...

  18. Species-Specific Identification from Incomplete Sampling: Applying DNA Barcodes to Monitoring Invasive Solanum Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling–through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application. PMID:23409092

  19. Solanum jobsonii, a novel andromonoecious bush tomato species from a new Australian national park.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L Mae; Cantley, Jason T; Martine, Christopher T

    2017-01-01

    A new species of Solanum from the Australian "andromonoecious bush tomato clade" of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum jobsonii Martine, J.Cantley, & L.M.Lacey, sp. nov. is part of the S. eburneum Symon species group. It most closely resembles S. eburneum and S. watneyi Martine & Frawley of the northwestern part of the Northern Territory, but is separated geographically from them by the Sturt Plateau. Morphometric analyses show that S. jobsonii differs statistically from S. eburneum, S. watneyi, and S. diversiflorum F.Muell. - a similar species in habit and leaf characters - in several key reproductive and vegetative characters. We provide morphometric evidence for the recognition of S. jobsonii, a complete description, a table of comparisons within its species group, and a map showing species group distributions. One of the first new species to be described from Limmen National Park (established 2012), S. jobsonii is a testament to the value of designating and protecting public lands, as well as supporting science relating to them.

  20. Solanum jobsonii, a novel andromonoecious bush tomato species from a new Australian national park

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, L. Mae; Cantley, Jason T.; Martine, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum from the Australian “andromonoecious bush tomato clade” of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum jobsonii Martine, J.Cantley, & L.M.Lacey, sp. nov. is part of the S. eburneum Symon species group. It most closely resembles S. eburneum and S. watneyi Martine & Frawley of the northwestern part of the Northern Territory, but is separated geographically from them by the Sturt Plateau. Morphometric analyses show that S. jobsonii differs statistically from S. eburneum, S. watneyi, and S. diversiflorum F.Muell. – a similar species in habit and leaf characters – in several key reproductive and vegetative characters. We provide morphometric evidence for the recognition of S. jobsonii, a complete description, a table of comparisons within its species group, and a map showing species group distributions. One of the first new species to be described from Limmen National Park (established 2012), S. jobsonii is a testament to the value of designating and protecting public lands, as well as supporting science relating to them. PMID:28794678

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure in the tomato-like nightshades Solanum lycopersicoides and S. sitiens

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Elena; Escobar, Miguel; Chetelat, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Two closely related, wild tomato-like nightshade species, Solanum lycopersicoides and Solanum sitiens, inhabit a small area within the Atacama Desert region of Peru and Chile. Each species possesses unique traits, including abiotic and biotic stress tolerances, and can be hybridized with cultivated tomato. Conservation and utilization of these tomato relatives would benefit from an understanding of genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations. Methods Levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure were investigated by genotyping representative accessions of each species with a set of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and allozyme markers. Key Results As expected for self-incompatible species, populations of S. lycopersicoides and S. sitiens were relatively diverse, but contained less diversity than the wild tomato Solanum chilense, a related allogamous species native to this region. Populations of S. lycopersicoides were slightly more diverse than populations of S. sitiens according to SSRs, but the opposite trend was found with allozymes. A higher coefficient of inbreeding was noted in S. sitiens. A pattern of isolation by distance was evident in both species, consistent with the highly fragmented nature of the populations in situ. The populations of each taxon showed strong geographical structure, with evidence for three major groups, corresponding to the northern, central and southern elements of their respective distributions. Conclusions This information should be useful for optimizing regeneration strategies, for sampling of the populations for genes of interest, and for guiding future in situ conservation efforts. PMID:20154348

  2. Species-specific identification from incomplete sampling: applying DNA barcodes to monitoring invasive solanum plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling-through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application.

  3. Multilocus sequence data reveal extensive departures from equilibrium in domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Labate, J A; Robertson, L D; Baldo, A M

    2009-09-01

    Limited genetic variation has been observed within tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), although no studies have extensively surveyed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity among tomato landraces. We estimated intraspecific DNA sequence variation by analyzing 50 gene fragments (23.2 kb) per plant in a 31 plant diversity panel. The majority of loci (80%) were polymorphic with the minor allele at a frequency of 10% or less for most (141 of 155) SNPs. Mean diversity as estimated by theta and pi was approximately 1.5 SNPs per kb. Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between 19% of locus pairs, and within-locus population recombination estimates were negligible. We also sequenced 43 gene fragments from wild tomato Solanum arcanum Peralta as an outgroup. Various statistical tests rejected a neutral equilibrium model of molecular evolution at 10 of 50 loci. Rare, highly diverged alleles were observed, involving at least seven tomato lines and five loci. Some of these may represent introgressions that originated both from natural hybridization with Solanum pimpinellifolium L. and from crosses with S. pimpinellifolium and additional wild relatives for crop improvement. The former was reported from classical field studies carried out by CM Rick; the latter has been extensively documented in the crop, particularly for transfer of disease resistance alleles. Extensive introgression and frequent bottlenecks within S. lycopersicum will pose a challenge to reconstructing the genetic bases of domestication and selection using methods that rely on patterns of molecular polymorphism.

  4. Concurrent ivermectin and Solanum spp. toxicosis in a herd of horses.

    PubMed

    Norman, T E; Chaffin, M K; Norton, P L; Coleman, M C; Stoughton, W B; Mays, T

    2012-01-01

    Representatives from a herd of horses with acute onset of neurologic signs after administration of ivermectin presented for evaluation and treatment. Describe clinical signs of horses intoxicated by ingestion of Solanum sp. and administered ivermectin. Six of 11 affected unrelated horses presented for evaluation and treatment. The remaining 5 affected horses were treated at the farm. Four additional horses, housed separately, were unaffected. Case series is presented. Serum ivermectin concentrations were evaluated in the 6 hospitalized horses. The remnants of the tubes of ivermectin paste were analyzed for ivermectin concentration. The hay fed to the affected horses was analyzed for the presence of toxic plants. Serum ivermectin concentrations were higher than expected, given the dosage of ivermectin administered. The ivermectin concentration remaining in the administration tubes did not exceed specifications. The hay was heavily contaminated by 2 Solanum species. All horses returned to normal neurologic function with supportive care. Horses might exhibit signs of ivermectin toxicity after appropriate dosing of the drug if they concurrently consume toxic plants of the Solanum family. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Complex genetics controls natural variation among seed quality phenotypes in a recombinant inbred population of an interspecific cross between Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Rashid H; Khan, Noorullah; Willems, Leo A J; VAN Heusden, Adriaan W; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2012-05-01

    Seed quality in tomato is associated with many complex physiological and genetic traits. While plant processes are frequently controlled by the action of small- to large-effect genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that seed quality is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Using a recombinant inbred line population of Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing seed quality phenotypes under non-stress, as well as salt, osmotic, cold, high-temperature and oxidative stress conditions. In total, 42 seed quality traits were analysed and 120 QTLs were identified for germination traits under different conditions. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed between germination traits under optimal conditions, as well as under different stress conditions. In conclusion, one or more QTLs were identified for each trait with some of these QTLs co-locating. Co-location of QTLs for different traits can be an indication that a locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. However, several QTLs also dissected seed quality in its separate components, suggesting different physiological mechanisms and signalling pathways for different seed quality attributes.

  6. Salicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stress.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lutts, Stanley; Quinet, Muriel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Glycoalkaloid aglycone accumulations associated with infection by Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus in potato species Solanum acaule and Solanum tuberosum and their interspecific somatic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Rokka, V-M; Laurila, J; Tauriainen, A; Laakso, I; Larkka, J; Metzler, M; Pietilä, L

    2005-03-01

    Solanum acaule Bitt., a wild potato species, is closely related to cultivated potato (Solanum. tuberosum L.). Incorporation of desirable traits from allotetraploid [2n=4x=48, 2 endosperm balance number (EBN)] S. acaule (acl) into autotetraploid (2n=4x=48, 4EBN) S. tuberosum (tbr) is difficult due to incongruity boundaries. In this study, three hybrid combinations, each with a specific genome constitution, were produced through protoplast fusion: (1) hexaploid 2x acl (+) 4x tbr, (2) tetraploid 2x acl (+) 2x tbr, and (3) hexaploid 4x acl (+) 2x tbr hybrids. In terms of glycoalkaloid aglycones, the hybrids produced demissidine, tomatidine and solanidine, similarly to the S. acaule parental species, but S. tuberosum synthesised only solanidine. Inoculations with Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), which is the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato, yielded significantly lower total glycoalkaloid aglycone accumulation both in S. acaule plants and in interspecific hybrids in comparison with the corresponding mock-inoculated plants. However, in S. tuberosum the aglycone levels were either higher or unchanged as a result of infection by Cms. To incorporate the desirable traits of the interspecific somatic hybrids into 4EBN S. tuberosum, sexual backcrosses were carried out. The hexaploid 4x acl (+) 2x tbr hybrids with the hypothetical 4EBN showed the greatest capacity to undergo backcrosses with S. tuberosum.

  8. Solanum diploconos fruits: profile of bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of different parts of the fruit.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Lima, José L F C; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2016-05-18

    Solanum diploconos is an unexploited Brazilian native fruit that belongs to the same genus of important food crops, such as tomato (Solanum lycorpersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In this study, we determined, for the first time, the profile of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols) of the freeze-dried pulp and peel of Solanum diploconos fruits, as well as of an extract obtained from the whole fruit. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the whole fruit extract was evaluated in vitro, against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Eighteen phenolic compounds were identified in the peel and pulp and 6 compounds were found in the whole fruit extract. Coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid derivatives were revealed to be the major phenolic constituents. All-trans-β-carotene was the major carotenoid (17-38 μg g(-1), dry basis), but all-trans-lutein and 9-cis-β-carotene were also identified. The peel and pulp presented <2 μg per mL of tocopherols, and ascorbic acid was not detected. The whole fruit extract exhibited scavenging capacity against all tested ROS and RNS (IC50 = 14-461 μg mL(-1)) with high antioxidant efficiency against HOCl. Thus, Solanum diploconos fruits may be seen as a promising source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant potential against the most physiologically relevant ROS and RNS.

  9. Allele mining in the gene pool of wild Solanum species for homologues of late blight resistance gene RB/Rpi-blb1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum bulbocastanum comprising a CC-NBS-LRR gene RB/Rpi-blb1 confers broad-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora infestans and is currently employed in potato breeding for durable late blight (LB) resistance. Genomes of several Solanum species were reported to contain RB homologues with confirmed b...

  10. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  11. Biogeographic implications of the striking discovery of a 4000 kilometer disjunct population of the wild potato Solanum morelliforme in South America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum morelliforme is an epiphytic wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species widely distributed throughout central Mexico to Honduras. A strikingly disjunct (4000 km) population was recently discovered in Bolivia, representing the first record of this species in South America. Our maximum entro...

  12. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato. PMID:26973669

  13. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of L-Dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations using a crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] as enzymatic source.

    PubMed

    Fatibello-Filho, O; da Cruz Vieira, I

    1997-04-01

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of L-dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations. After selection of the extraction medium (e.g., buffer-to-tissue ratio, pH, buffer concentration, protective agents and/or stabilizers) and storage conditions, crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was used as an enzymatic source of polyphenol oxidase (Tyrosinase; catechol oxidase; EC.1.14.18.1) directly in the carrier. This enzyme catalyses the oxidation of these catecholamines to the corresponding dopaquinone. Further, dopaquinone undergoes a rapid spontaneous auto-oxidation to leucodopachrome, which is in turn oxidized to dopachrome; this last compound has a strong absorption at 480 and 360 nm for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively. For the optimum extraction conditions found the enzyme activity of the crude extract did not vary for at least 5 months when stored at 4 degrees C and decreased by only 4-5% during an 8 h working period at 25 degrees C. The results obtained for L-dopa and carbidopa by the proposed enzymatic FI method were in close agreement with the label values (r1 = 0.9699 and r2 = 0.9999) and also with those obtained using a pharmacopeial method (r3 = 0.9675). The throughput was 26 samples h-1, and 2.30 ml of crude extract were consumed in each determination, corresponding to only 72 mg of the original sweet potato root. The detection limit (three times the signal blank/slope) was 1.5 x 10(-5) and 2.0 x 10(-5) mol l-1 for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively; the recovery of L-dopa and carbidopa from three samples ranged from 98.6 to 106.3% of the added amount.

  14. Probing anthocyanin profiles in purple sweet potato cell line (Ipomoea batatas L. Cv. Ayamurasaki) by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qingguo; Konczak, Izabela; Schwartz, Steven J

    2005-08-10

    A purple line cell line (PL) generated from the storage root of purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cv. Ayamurasaki produces a complex mixture of anthocyanins, and seven major anthocyanins have been isolated and identified to date. All these anthocyanins are exclusively cyanidin or peonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucosides and their acylated derivatives. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to photodiode array (PDA) detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) on a triple quadrupole instrument was employed to further investigate the anthocyanin composition of the PL extract. Precursor-ion analysis, product-ion analysis, and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) MS/MS experiments were conducted sequentially to screen and characterize anthocyanins in the aqueous extract of the PL cell line. Precursor-ion analysis specifically detected the molecular cations of each category of anthocyanins by scanning the precursors of anthocyanidins (cyanidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin). The detected molecular cation of each anthocyanin was fragmented using product-ion analysis by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD). MS/MS using SRM detection was conducted to further confirm the fragmentation observed during product-ion analysis. In comparison to the commonly used product-ion analysis technique, the combined use of precursor-ion analysis, product-ion analysis, and SRM is particularly useful for positive identification of anthocyanins in complex matrixes and provides important information to confirm the proposed structures. Twenty-six anthocyanins were detected and characterized in the aqueous extract of the PL cell line. Several anthocyanins, including two pelargonidin derivatives, were tentatively identified for the first time in these cells.

  15. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato.

  16. Bone and faecal minerals and scanning electron microscopic assessments of femur in rats fed phytic acid extract from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Dilworth, Lowell; Omoruyi, Felix O; Reid, Walton; Asemota, Helen N

    2008-04-01

    Phytic acid was extracted from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and fed to Wistar rats with or without zinc for 3 weeks. Animals were then sacrificed and bone and faecal minerals were assessed. The ultra-structure of the bones was examined via scanning electron microscopy. Phytic acid extract or commercial phytic acid supplemented diets (D + Zn + PE or D + PE) displayed reduced bone calcium levels (101.27 +/- 59.11 and 119.27 +/- 45.36 g/kg) compared to the other test groups. Similarly, reduced calcium were observed in the control groups (D + Zn and D) fed formulated diets with or without zinc supplementation (213.14 +/- 15.31 and 210 +/- 6.88 g/kg) compared to the other test groups. The group fed supplemented commercial phytic acid diet (D + CP) demonstrated the lowest femur magnesium (3.72 +/- 0.13 g/kg) while the group fed phytic acid extract supplementation (D + PE) recorded the highest level (4.84 +/- 0.26 g/kg) amongst the groups. Femur iron was highest in the group fed commercial phytic acid supplemented diet (D + CP -115.74 +/- 2.41 g/kg) compared to the other groups. Faecal magnesium levels were significantly higher in the two test groups fed phytic acid extract with or without zinc (D + Zn + PE or D + PE) compared to all other groups. All the groups which had phytic acid supplemented diets had significantly thinner bone in the trabecular region, compared to the groups fed formulated diet or zinc supplemented formulated diet (D or D + Zn). These observations suggest that the consumption of foods high in phytic acid may contribute to a reduction in the minerals available for essential metabolic processes in rats.

  17. A new MADS-box gene (IbMADS10) from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is involved in the accumulation of anthocyanin.

    PubMed

    Lalusin, Antonio G; Nishita, Koichi; Kim, Sung-Hyung; Ohta, Masaru; Fujimura, Tatsuhito

    2006-01-01

    A new MADS-box gene designated as IbMADS10 was cloned and its expression was characterized from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Beniazuma. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene indicated high homology with members of the MADS-box family of transcription factors. IbMADS10 shares high amino acid sequence similarity with the DEFH28 of Antirrhinum majus (64%) and with BpMADS4 of Betula pendula (61%) of the SQUA subfamily. Southern blot analysis revealed that the IbMADS10 is present in one or low copy number in the sweet potato genome. The gene is specifically expressed in the pigmented tissues such as in the flower bud, in the pink and in red roots, and hence, it was speculated that the IbMADS10 gene might be correlated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in sweet potato. RNA blot expression of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes encoding for CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFTG carried out in the tissues where the IbMADS10 gene was expressed revealed similar transcript levels in all tissues where the IbMADS10 gene is highly expressed, indicating that the IbMADS10 gene is highly correlated with the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Another important aspect is the pigmented phenotypes of transgenic calli that ectopically express the IbMADS10 gene, thereby supporting its involvement in the developmental regulation of pigment formation. Tissue printing result further strengthens the hypothesis that the IbMADS10 gene is indeed involved in anthocyanin pigmentation in sweet potato. As the purpose of the IbMADS10 gene is pigmentation, its function, therefore, resembles that of the transparent testa (tt) genes of Arabidopsis.

  18. Confirming the identity of two enigmatic “spiny solanums” (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum, Solanaceae) collected by Jean-Baptiste Leschenault in Java

    PubMed Central

    Aubriot, Xavier; Loup, Caroline; Knapp, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Taxonomic revision of the tropical Asian species of Solanum revealed two names, Solanum poka Dunal and Solanum graciliflorum Dunal, whose identities were uncertain and whose application has always been tentative. Material collected in Java at the beginning of the 19th century by Jean-Baptiste Leschenault de la Tour and used to describe these taxa has not been found, despite extensive searches in European herbaria. We here stabilise use of these names by comparing herbarium specimens and drawings of original material made by the artist Toussaint François Node-Véran. Detailed descriptions with synonymy, preliminary conservation assessments and specimen citations are provided for both species. Lectotypes are designated for all names (including synonyms) and epitypes designated for Solanum poka and Solanum graciliflorum to stabilise usage. PMID:27829800

  19. A new species of Solanum named for Jeanne Baret, an overlooked contributor to the history of botany

    PubMed Central

    Tepe, Eric. J.; Ridley, Glynis; Bohs, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We describe Solanum baretiae sp. nov., a new species of Solanum section Anarrhichomenum, named in honor of Jeanne Baret, who sailed as the assistant to botanist Philibert Commerson on Louis Antoine de Bougainville’s global circumnavigation (1766–1769). The species is similar to Solanum chimborazense, but differs in having larger flowers, more flowers per inflorescence, and different patterns of pubescence on the filaments (pubescent adaxially and glabrous abaxially) and style (papillose to sparsely pubescent). A description, illustration, photos, and comparisons to similar species are included. Also included is a preliminary conservation assessment, along with a brief account of the important role played by Baret during the expedition. The new species appears to be restricted to the Amotape-Huancabamba zone, an area of southern Ecuador and northern Peru known for its exceptional biodiversity. PMID:22287929

  20. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Kaṇṭakāri) extract in laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    More, Shraddha K.; Lande, Anirudha A.; Jagdale, Priti G.; Adkar, Prafulla P.; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Kaṇṭakāri) is a diffuse herb with prickly stem, traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation and one in the group of daśamūla (group of ten herbs) herbs commonly used drug in Ayurveda. Aims: In continuation of search for potent natural anti-inflammatory agents, the present research work was planned to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of S. xanthocarpum whole plant. Settings and Design: The ethanol extract was evaluated at dose 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg p.o. in rats. Materials and Methods: Using pharmacological screening models carrageenan induced rat paw edema, histamine induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance followed by post-hoc Dunnett test, P < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results: Acute treatment didn’t show anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and histamine induced paw edema. However, administration of 100 mg/kg p.o for 7 day reduced the granuloma formation in cotton pellet granuloma model. Conclusions: Present results support the traditional use of plant for anti-inflammatory activity. In brief, the results provide scientific pharmacological basis for the therapeutic use of S. xanthocarpum. PMID:24991071

  1. Bioactivity of Ruta graveolens and Satureja montana Essential Oils on Solanum tuberosum Hairy Roots and Solanum tuberosum Hairy Roots with Meloidogyne chitwoodi Co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Faria, Jorge M S; Rodrigues, Ana M; Sena, Inês; Moiteiro, Cristina; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2016-10-12

    As a nematotoxics screening biotechnological system, Solanum tuberosum hairy roots (StHR) and S. tuberosum hairy roots with Meloidogyne chitwoodi co-cultures (StHR/CRKN) were evaluated, with and without the addition of the essential oils (EOs) of Satureja montana and Ruta graveolens. EOs nematotoxic and phytotoxic effects were followed weekly by evaluating nematode population density in the co-cultures as well as growth and volatile profiles of both in vitro cultures types. Growth, measured by the dissimilation method and by fresh and dry weight determination, was inhibited after EO addition. Nematode population increased in control cultures, while in EO-added cultures numbers were kept stable. In addition to each of the EOs main components, and in vitro cultures constitutive volatiles, new volatiles were detected by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in both culture types. StHR with CRKN co-cultures showed to be suitable for preliminary assessment of nematotoxic EOs.

  2. Characterization of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) protein phosphatases type 2A catalytic subunits and their involvement in stress responses.

    PubMed

    País, Silvia Marina; González, Marina Alejandra; Téllez-Iñón, María Teresa; Capiati, Daniela Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation plays critical roles in stress responses in plants. This report presents a comparative characterization of the serine/threonine PP2A catalytic subunit family in Solanum tuberosum (potato) and S. lycopersicum (tomato), two important food crops of the Solanaceae family, based on the sequence analysis and expression profiles in response to environmental stress. Sequence homology analysis revealed six isoforms in potato and five in tomato clustered into two subfamilies (I and II). The data presented in this work show that the expression of different PP2Ac genes is regulated in response to environmental stresses in potato and tomato plants and suggest that, in general, mainly members of the subfamily I are involved in stress responses in both species. However, the differences found in the expression profiles between potato and tomato suggest divergent roles of PP2A in the plant defense mechanisms against stress in these closely related species.

  3. Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO sub 2 in five C sub 3 species. [Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Brassica oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, R.F. ); Sharkey, T.D. ); Seemann, J.R. )

    1989-02-01

    The effect of long-term (weeks to months) CO{sub 2} enhancement on (a) the gas-exchange characteristics, (b) the content and activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), and (c) leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dry weight per area were studied in five C{sub 3} species (Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, and Brassica oleracea) grown at CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 300 or 900 to 1000 microbars. Long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} affected the CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis in one of three ways: (a) the initial slope of the CO{sub 2} response was unaffected, but the photosynthetic rate at high CO{sub 2} increased (S. tuberosum); (b) the initial slope decreased but the CO{sub 2}-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased (B. oleracea, S. melongena). In all five species, growth at high CO{sub 2} increased the extent to which photosynthesis was stimulated following a decrease in the partial pressure of O{sub 2} or an increase in measurement CO{sub 2} above 600 microbars. This stimulation indicates that a limitation on photosynthesis by the capacity to regenerate orthophosphate was reduced or absent after acclimation to high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen per area either increased (S. tuberosum, S. melongena) or was little changed by CO{sub 2} enhancement. The content of rubisco was lower in only two of the fives species, yet its activation state was 19% to 48% lower in all five species following long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that during growth in CO{sub 2}-enriched air, leaf rubisco content remains in excess of that required to support the observed photosynthetic rates.

  4. Salinity-induced expression of HKT may be crucial for Na(+) exclusion in the leaf blade of huckleberry (Solanum scabrum Mill.), but not of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Assaha, Dekoum V M; Mekawy, Ahmad Mohammad M; Ueda, Akihiro; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2015-05-01

    Reduced Na(+) accumulation in the leaf blade is an important aspect of salinity tolerance and high affinity K(+) transporters (HKTs) are known to play a significant role in the process. Huckleberry and eggplant have previously been shown to display 'excluder' and 'includer' characteristics, respectively, under salt stress, but the underlying mechanisms have not been investigated. Here, we isolated the cDNA of the HKT homologs, Solanum scabrum HKT (SsHKT) from huckleberry and Solanum melongena HKT (SmHKT) from eggplant, and analyzed their expressions in different tissues under salt stress. SsHKT expression was markedly induced in the root (28-fold) and stem (7-fold), with a corresponding increase in Na(+) accumulation of 52% and 29%, respectively. Conversely, eggplant accumulated 60% total Na(+) in the leaf blade, with a lower SmHKT expression level in the root (3-fold). Huckleberry also maintained a higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the leaf blade compared to eggplant, due to the reduction of its Na(+) concentration and unaltered K(+) concentration. Functional analysis demonstrated that SsHKT-mediated Na(+) influx inhibited yeast growth under Na(+) stress, and that SsHKT did not complement the growth of the K(+) uptake-deficient CY162 strain under K(+)-limiting conditions. These results suggest that the Na(+) accumulation characteristics of both plants are caused by the differential expression of HKT genes, with SsHKT exerting a greater control over the ability of Na(+) to reach the leaf blade in huckleberry, than SmHKT does in eggplant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Demographic Comparison of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Reared on Three Cultivars of Solanum melongena L. and a Wild Hostplant Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zai-Ling; Li, Chuan-Ren; Yuan, Jiang-Jiang; Li, Shi-Xiang; Wang, Xiang-Ping; Chi, Hsin

    2017-09-06

    Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) is a widespread pest found on many solanaceous vegetables. The development and fecundity of H. vigintioctopunctata were studied on three cultivars ('Zihong', 'Eyou', and 'Baijiao') of eggplant, Solanum melongena L., using the two-sex life table theory. These results were then compared with similar parameters from a wild alternate host, Solanum nigrum. Our results showed that there were no significant differences between the developmental times of the larval stages, pupae, oviposition period, adult longevity, and the fecundity of H. vigintioctopunctata reared on the three eggplant cultivars. The survival rates of H. vigintioctopunctata larvae reared on the three eggplant cultivars were higher than that on S. nigrum. The fecundity of H. vigintioctopunctata adults reared on S. nigrum (724.12 eggs), however, was significantly higher than on each of the three eggplant cultivars. The values for the intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) for H. vigintioctopunctata when reared on S. nigrum were 0.1225 d-1,1.1303 d-1, and 299.6 offspring, respectively. Each of these was significantly higher than comparable values when reared on the cultivar Eyou and Baijiao but were not different from those reared on the Zihong. Our results indicated that H. vigintioctopunctata is well adapted to all tested host plant cultivars and that S. nigrum is an important alternate wild hostplant that may potentially contribute to future outbreaks of H. vigintioctopunctata if not taken into consideration when planning an integrated control strategy against the pest. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. ISSR and isozyme characterization of androgenetic dihaploids reveals tetrasomic inheritance in tetraploid somatic hybrids between Solanum melongena and Solanum aethiopicum group Gilo.

    PubMed

    Toppino, Laura; Mennella, Giuseppe; Rizza, Fulvia; D'Alessandro, Antonietta; Sihachakr, Darasinh; Rotino, Giuseppe L

    2008-01-01

    Gene exchanges between Solanum melongena and its allied relative Solanum aethiopicum are a crucial prerequisite for introgression of useful traits from the allied species into the cultivated eggplant. In order to evaluate the extent of genetic recombination between the 2 species, biochemical and molecular markers were employed. A dihaploid population obtained through anther culture of the corresponding tetraploid somatic hybrids was genetically analyzed. The extent of disomic/tetrasomic inheritance and segregation ratios of 3 isozyme systems and intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were evaluated. The dihaploids, being derived from microspores, allowed for simple, complete, and accurate analyses. The segregation of 280 ISSR markers (110 aethiopicum-specific, 104 melongena-specific, and 66 monomorphic) were evaluated in 71 dihaploids. According to the genetic constitution (simplex/duplex/triplex), almost 64% of the fragments revealed the tetrasomic and/or disomic inheritance. With regard to the assigned species-specific fragments, 68% and 4% were unambiguously the result of tetrasomic and disomic inheritance, respectively. Twenty-four of the 66 monomorphic ISSRs were inherited according to random chromatid segregation. The phenotypes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), and shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH) were studied in 70 dihaploids and inferences were made about the allelic state of their 5 loci. The isozyme markers segregated in the dihaploids in a distorted manner, their segregations did not fit in with any of the expected segregation ratios. However, tetrasomic inheritance might be suggested for G-6-PDH 2 and SKDH 1 loci. Our results demonstrated that gene exchanges occurred readily in the somatic hybrids between S. melongena and S. aethiopicum gr. Gilo.

  7. Bin mapping of tomato diversity array (DArT) markers to genomic regions of Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pennellii introgression lines.

    PubMed

    Van Schalkwyk, Antoinette; Wenzl, Peter; Smit, Sandra; Lopez-Cobollo, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Bishop, Gerard; Hefer, Charles; Berger, Dave K

    2012-03-01

    Marker-trait association studies in tomato have progressed rapidly due to the availability of several populations developed between wild species and domesticated tomato. However, in the absence of whole genome sequences for each wild species, molecular marker methods for whole genome comparisons and fine mapping are required. We describe the development and validation of a diversity arrays technology (DArT) platform for tomato using an introgression line (IL) population consisting of wild Solanum pennellii introgressed into Solanum lycopersicum (cv. M82). A tomato diversity array consisting of 6,912 clones from domesticated tomato and twelve wild tomato/Solanaceous species was constructed. We successfully bin-mapped 990 polymorphic DArT markers together with 108 RFLP markers across the IL population, increasing the number of markers available for each S. pennellii introgression by tenfold on average. A subset of DArT markers from ILs previously associated with increased levels of lycopene and carotene were sequenced, and 44% matched protein coding genes. The bin-map position and order of sequenced DArT markers correlated well with their physical position on scaffolds of the draft tomato genome sequence (SL2.40). The utility of sequenced DArT markers was illustrated by converting several markers in both the S. pennellii and S. lycopersicum phases to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. Genotype scores from the CAPS markers confirmed the genotype scores from the DArT hybridizations used to construct the bin map. The tomato diversity array provides additional "sequence-characterized" markers for fine mapping of QTLs in S. pennellii ILs and wild tomato species.

  8. Genome sequence of a virus isolate from tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) in Colombia: evidence for a new potyvirus.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Pablo A; Alzate, Juan F; Marín Montoya, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    Based on the results of a deep sequencing transcriptome study of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum), we report the genome sequence of a virus from this host plant. Since this probably represents a new member of the genus Potyvirus, the name tamarillo leaf malformation virus (TaLMV) has been proposed. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TaLMV is the closest relative of Colombian datura virus (CDV), followed by three other potyviruses: tobacco etch virus, potato virus A and tobacco vein mottling virus. This is the first sequence of a potyvirus infecting Solanum betaceum containing the complete polyprotein coding region.

  9. Efficacy of Strychnos spinosa (Lam.) and Solanum incanum L. aqueous fruit extracts against cattle ticks.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Nyahangare, Emmanuel T; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Hove, Thokozani; Belmain, Steve R; Stevenson, Philip C; Mvumi, Brighton M

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa aqueous fruit extracts was evaluated against cattle ticks in on-station experiments and laboratory tick bioassays. In the on-station experiment using cattle, fruit extracts were applied at three concentrations 5, 10, and 20 % (w/v) and compared with a commercial acaricide, Tickbuster (amitraz) spray (positive control) and no treatment (negative control). The treatments were applied at weekly intervals for 6 weeks as surface sprays on 32 Mashona cattle in a completely randomized design experiment. Ticks on individual cattle were identified, counted, and recorded daily. Peripheral blood samples were collected for parasite screening. In the laboratory, tick bioassays were conducted at four concentrations, 5, 10, 20, and 40% (w/v) fruit extracts compared to Tickbuster (amitraz) spray (positive control) and distilled water (negative control). The extracts were incubated with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus tick larvae and mortalities for each treatment level recorded after 24 and 48 h. The 5% Solanum incanum treatment had higher efficacy ratio (P < 0.05) than the other fruit extract concentrations of the same plant species. Efficacy ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in the 5% S. spinosa-treated cattle than in the untreated control but lower (P < 0.05) than that for the amitraz treatment. The bioassays indicated that there was a high efficacy ratio for the lowest fruit extract concentrations when ticks were exposed to acaricidal treatments for 48 h compared to 24 h. Overall, the results indicate that Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa individually have some acaricidal effect.

  10. Anti-inflammatory lignanamides from the roots of Solanum melongena L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Gu, Yu-Fan; Su, Xiao-Qin; Li, Man-Man; Huo, Hui-Xia; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yun-Fang; Li, Jun; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-10-01

    Four new lignanamides, melongenamides A-D (1-4), together with six known ones (5-10), were isolated from the roots of Solanum melongena L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments and by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with the literature values. Compounds 2-8 exhibited inhibitions of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values ranging from 16.2 to 58.5 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative antimicrobial activity of callus and natural plant extracts of Solanum trilobatum L

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, S.M.; Kandasamy, S.; Chinnappa, R.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of natural plant and callus extracts of Solanum trilobatum L. was studied against two bacteria and fungi, for their antimicrobial activity using cup diffusion method. Various solvents such as chloroform, petroleum ether and ethanol were used. The leaf and stem segments of the plant were culturedon Murashige and S koog basal medium supplemented with various growth regulators. Maximum callus was recorded on medium containing 0.5 mg/lNAA and 0.5 mgj IKinetin. The results reveals that the stem and leaf callus extracts has shown significant activity against the tested microorganisms than the natural sample. PMID:22557312

  12. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cutttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell, C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cutting of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamp (LPS/CWF). Results suggested that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  13. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cutttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell, C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cutting of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamp (LPS/CWF). Results suggested that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  14. Pheophorbide A from Solanum diflorum interferes with NF-kappa B activation.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, M; Bork, P M; Schmitz, M L; Rimpler, H; Frei, B; Sticher, O

    2001-03-01

    Continuing our search for biogenic NF-kappa B inhibitors we investigated Solanum diflorum, used by the Istmo Sierra Zapotec Indians of Mexico in the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions. It became obvious very early that the active substance seems to be a degradation product of chlorophyll. Pheophorbide A was identified as one of the key compounds responsible for the NF-kappa B inhibitory activity. The compound interferes with NF-kappa B activation, was cytotoxic if exposed to light, but devoid of any cytotoxic activity in the dark.

  15. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-10-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine.

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  17. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations

    PubMed Central

    Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense. We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp.) and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense, resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved. PMID:28133579

  18. Comprehensive identification and expression analysis of Hsp90s gene family in Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Zai, W S; Miao, L X; Xiong, Z L; Zhang, H L; Ma, Y R; Li, Y L; Chen, Y B; Ye, S G

    2015-07-14

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a protein produced by plants in response to adverse environmental stresses. In this study, we identified and analyzed Hsp90 gene family members using a bioinformatic method based on genomic data from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The results illustrated that tomato contains at least 7 Hsp90 genes distributed on 6 chromosomes; protein lengths ranged from 267-794 amino acids. Intron numbers ranged from 2-19 in the genes. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Hsp90 genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) could be divided into 5 groups, which included 3 pairs of orthologous genes and 4 pairs of paralogous genes. Expression analysis of RNA-sequence data showed that the Hsp90-1 gene was specifically expressed in mature fruits, while Hsp90-5 and Hsp90-6 showed opposite expression patterns in various tissues of cultivated and wild tomatoes. The expression levels of the Hsp90-1, Hsp90-2, and Hsp90- 3 genes in various tissues of cultivated tomatoes were high, while both the expression levels of genes Hsp90-3 and Hsp90-4 were low. Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that these genes were involved in the responses to yellow leaf curl virus in tomato plant leaves. Our results provide a foundation for identifying the function of the Hsp90 gene in tomato.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) fruit to identify putative allergens and their epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Kumar Ramagoni; Hemalatha, R; Vijayendra, Chary Anchoju; Arshi, Uz Zaman Syed; Dushyant, Singh Baghel; Dinesh, Kumar Bharadwaj

    2016-01-15

    Eggplant is the third most important Solanaceae crop after tomato and potato, particularly in India and China. A transcriptome analysis of eggplant's fruit was performed to study genes involved in medicinal importance and allergies. Illumina HiSeq 2000 system generated 89,763,638 raw reads (~18 Gb) from eggplant. High quality reads (59,039,694) obtained after trimming process, were assembled into a total of 149,224 non redundant set of transcripts. Out of 80,482 annotated sequences of eggplant fruit (BLASTx results against nr-green plant database), 40,752 transcripts showed significant similarity with predicted proteins of Solanum tuberosum (51%) followed by Solanum lycopersicum (34%) and other sequenced plant genomes. With BLASTx top hit analysis against existing allergens, a total of 1986 homologous allergen sequences were found, which had >37% similarity with 48 different allergens existing in the database. From the 48 putative allergens, 526 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. Transcript sequences generated from this study can be used to map epitopes of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera from patients. With the support of this whole transcriptome catalogue of eggplant fruit, complete list of genes can be predicted based on which secondary structures of proteins may be modeled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solanaceous steroidal glycoalkaloids and poisoning by Solanum torvum, the normally edible susumber berry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silas W; Giesbrecht, Esther; Thompson, Margaret; Nelson, Lewis S; Hoffman, Robert S

    2008-11-01

    Ingestion of immature, environmentally stressed, or cultivar-specific Solanum species (particularly the potato) has been previously associated with gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms caused by solanaceous steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs). We report on two geographically, temporally disparate outbreaks of poisoning by susumber berries (Solanum torvum- Solanaceae) and on detection of alkaloids not present in non-toxic berries. Five family members in New York City participated in a traditional evening meal containing Jamaican susumber berries. All those consuming berries were symptomatic the following morning with varying degrees of gastrointestinal distress, dizziness, slurred speech, cranial nerve deficits, and ataxia. The most seriously afflicted patient developed hypertension, confusion, proximal upper extremity weakness, and hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. A separate cohort of six patients in Toronto ate unripe Jamaican susumber berries. They presented 14h post-ingestion with varying degrees of diarrhea, weakness, facial paralysis, slurred speech, ataxia, early hypertension, and proximal weakness. Two patients had ventilatory decompensation; one required intubation. Poisonous berries appeared indistinguishable from non-toxic varieties. We isolated solasonine, larger amounts of solamargine, and other steroidal glycoalkaloids in the toxic berry strains. S. torvum poisoning can produce significant neurological and gastrointestinal effects which appear to be mediated by SGAs present in the berries.

  1. Epigenetic patterns newly established after interspecific hybridization in natural populations of Solanum

    PubMed Central

    Cara, Nicolás; Marfil, Carlos F; Masuelli, Ricardo W

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is known for triggering genetic and epigenetic changes, such as modifications on DNA methylation patterns and impact on phenotypic plasticity and ecological adaptation. Wild potatoes (Solanum, section Petota) are adapted to multiple habitats along the Andes, and natural hybridizations have proven to be a common feature among species of this group. Solanum × rechei, a recently formed hybrid that grows sympatrically with the parental species S. kurtzianum and S. microdontum, represents an ideal model for studying the ecologically and evolutionary importance of hybridization in generating of epigenetic variability. Genetic and epigenetic variability and their correlation with morphological variation were investigated in wild and ex situ conserved populations of these three wild potato species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) techniques. We observed that novel methylation patterns doubled the number of novel genetic patterns in the hybrid and that the morphological variability measured on 30 characters had a higher correlation with the epigenetic than with the genetic variability. Statistical comparison of methylation levels suggested that the interspecific hybridization induces genome demethylation in the hybrids. A Bayesian analysis of the genetic data reveled the hybrid nature of S. × rechei, with genotypes displaying high levels of admixture with the parental species, while the epigenetic information assigned S. × rechei to its own cluster with low admixture. These findings suggested that after the hybridization event, a novel epigenetic pattern was rapidly established, which might influence the phenotypic plasticity and adaptation of the hybrid to new environments. PMID:24198938

  2. Reproductive ecology and genetic variability in natural populations of the wild potato, Solanum kurtzianum.

    PubMed

    Marfil, C F; Masuelli, R W

    2014-03-01

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) has more than 200 related wild species distributed along the Andes, adapted to a wide range of geographical and ecological areas. Since the last century, several collection expeditions were carried out to incorporate genetic variability into the potato germplasm around the world. However, little is known about the reproductive ecology and genetic population structure of natural potato population from field studies. The aim of this work is to study, in the field, the genetic variability and reproductive strategies of populations of one of the most widely distributed potato species in Argentina, Solanum kurtzianum, growing in Mendoza province. AFLP markers showed that the genetic variability is mainly present among plants within populations, indicating that in the sampled populations, sexual reproduction is more relevant than clonal multiplication (by tubers). Additional evidence was obtained evaluating the genetic diversity in populations with a distribution in patches, where several genotypes were always detected. From a field study performed in the Villavicencio Natural Reserve, we found that the average number of plump seeds per fruit was 94.3, identified and calculated the foraging distance of four insect pollinators, and demonstrated the seed dispersal by storm water channels. We argue that the breeding system, the two modes of reproduction and the ecological interaction described here may have a prominent role in determining the genetic structure of S. kurtzianum populations, and discuss the importance of field studies on population genetics, reproductive biology and ecology to design collections and conservation strategies.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of γ-ferric oxide nanoparticles and their effect on Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Pavani, Tambur; Rao, K Venkateswara; Chakra, Ch Shilpa; Prabhu, Y T

    2016-05-01

    γ-Ferric oxide nanoparticles are synthesized through modern and facile ayurvedic route followed by normal and special purification steps, which are both cost-effective and eco-friendly. These synthesized γ-ferric oxide nanoparticles were applied on Solanum lycopersicum to search the effect on chlorophyll content. This process involves multiple filtration and calcination steps. The synthesized samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and particle size analysis (PSA) to identify the purification step's influence on the structural, optical, morphological, magnetic, and particle size properties of ferric oxide nanoparticles (γ-phase). X-ray diffraction has revealed that ferric oxide nanoparticles have rhombohedral structure of α-phase (hematite) in initial purification process later transformed into cubic structure γ-phase (maghemite). UV-vis spectroscopy analysis has clearly shown that by repetitive purification steps, λmax has increased from 230 to 340 nm. TEM result has an intercorrelation with XRD results. γ-Ferric oxide nanoparticles were tested on Solanum lycopersicum (tomato seeds). The changes in the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total carotene were studied using spectral measurements at two different dosages-0.5 and 2 M. As a result, at 0.5-M concentration, magnetic nanoparticles exhibit fruitful results by increasing the crop yield and being more resistant to chlorosis.

  4. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  5. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-14

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ(114/110)Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  6. Comparison of polyphenol oxidase expression in glandular trichomes of solanum and lycopersicon species.

    PubMed

    Yu, H; Kowalski, S P; Steffens, J C

    1992-12-01

    Tetralobulate glandular trichomes are present on the foliage of many solanaceous species. Resistance of many of these species to insects is conditioned by the ability of trichomes to rupture upon contact and to rapidly polymerize their contents, resulting in entrapment of insects in hardened trichome exudate. In the wild potato, Solanum berthaultii, polymerization of trichome exudate is initiated by a soluble M(r) 59,000 polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a dominant protein constituent of the organ. PPOs, although ubiquitous in angiosperms, typically display great heterogeneity in molecular weight and are found at low levels in plant cells. Because of the unusually high accumulation and tissue-specific expression of the M(r) 59,000 PPO in S. berthaultii glandular trichomes, we analyzed trichome proteins of a number of Lycopersicon and Solanum species to assess the extent to which possession of the M(r) 59,000 PPO is conserved. Trichomes were collected manually and examined for PPO activity, immuno-cross-reactivity with S. berthaultiiM(r) 59,000 PPO, and protein content. In addition, N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for five trichome PPOs. All species analyzed possessed trichome PPOs similar in structure and level of expression to that of S. berthaultii. The relationship between sequences and structures of these conserved PPOs and the variable PPOs of leaf is discussed.

  7. A binomial sequential sampling plan for Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Solanum lycopersicum (Solanales: Solanacea).

    PubMed

    Prager, Sean M; Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2014-04-01

    The tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of many solanaceous plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). In tomato, feeding by nymphs is associated with "psyllid yellows." B. cockerelli also vectors "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous," an infectious bacterium that causes "vein greening" disease. Decisions about management action are much more effective when guided by robust sampling. However, there are few previous studies of potato psyllid spatial distribution in tomato fields, and no published sequential sampling plans for the pest in tomato. We studied B. cockerelli in various tomato fields in California and used these data to generate a sequential sampling plan. We found that juvenile B. cockerelli in tomato fields exhibit an edge effect, an aggregated distribution, and individuals are primarily located on the bottom of leaves. Psyllids were concentrated in the upper segments of plants, but this changed over time. Finally, we present three binominal sequential sampling plans for managing tomato psyllids in tomato fields. These plans differed from both those for bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and potato, indicating that B. cockerelli needs to be sampled using crop-specific sampling plans.

  8. Possibility of the use of Solanum brevides based soft rot resistance in potato breeding.

    PubMed

    Kallai, M; Csitari, G; Polgar, Z

    2006-01-01

    In our experiments we dealt with the bacterial soft rot of potato caused by Erwinia species. In the experiments back cross progenies (BC1, BC2, BC3 and BC4) of Solanum brevidens + Solanum tuberosum somatic hybrids produced by the Potato Research Centre, Keszthely were tested to the infection of E. carotovora ssp. carotovora (Eca) and E. chrysanthemi (Echr). All together 29 BC genotypes pre selected from several hundred breeding lines based on their preferred agronomical appearance and virus resistance characters as well as 2 varieties (White lady and Hópehely) as controls were involved into the experiments. Tuber slices from each genotype were artificially infected after 2 and 5 months of harvest with bacteria suspension (Eca strain D3, and Echr strain CHR 1492) and incubated at 27 degrees C with 100% relative air humidity for 48 h before evaluation. Dry matter and starch content of tubers were determined right before the tests. Volume of rotted tuber tissue was determined in mm3 and used for comparison of the level of resistance or susceptibility of the genotypes. Relationship between the reaction to the bacteria strains and dry matter/starch content was examined also.

  9. Development and characterization of potato-Solanum brevidens chromosomal addition/substitution lines.

    PubMed

    Dong, F; Tek, A L; Frasca, A B L; McGrath, J M; Wielgus, S M; Helgeson, J P; Jiang, J

    2005-01-01

    Solanum brevidens is a wild diploid potato species possessing high levels of resistances to several major potato diseases. We previously developed fertile somatic hybrids between S. brevidens and the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) in order to introgress disease resistances from this wild species into potato. A series of backcross progenies was developed from a hexaploid somatic hybrid A206. Using a combination of S. brevidens-specific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and a sequential genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, we identified all 12 S. brevidens chromosomes in the backcross progenies. Seven potato-S. brevidens monosomic chromosome addition lines (chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10) and one monosomic substitution line (chromosome 6) were identified, and the remaining four S. brevidens chromosomes (2, 7, 11, and 12) were included in two other lines. These chromosomal addition/substitution stocks provide valuable tools for potato cytogenetic research, and can be used to introgress disease resistances from S. brevidens into potato.

  10. Comparison of Polyphenol Oxidase Expression in Glandular Trichomes of Solanum and Lycopersicon Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haifeng; Kowalski, Stanley P.; Steffens, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Tetralobulate glandular trichomes are present on the foliage of many solanaceous species. Resistance of many of these species to insects is conditioned by the ability of trichomes to rupture upon contact and to rapidly polymerize their contents, resulting in entrapment of insects in hardened trichome exudate. In the wild potato, Solanum berthaultii, polymerization of trichome exudate is initiated by a soluble Mr 59,000 polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a dominant protein constituent of the organ. PPOs, although ubiquitous in angiosperms, typically display great heterogeneity in molecular weight and are found at low levels in plant cells. Because of the unusually high accumulation and tissue-specific expression of the Mr 59,000 PPO in S. berthaultii glandular trichomes, we analyzed trichome proteins of a number of Lycopersicon and Solanum species to assess the extent to which possession of the Mr 59,000 PPO is conserved. Trichomes were collected manually and examined for PPO activity, immuno-cross-reactivity with S. berthaultiiMr 59,000 PPO, and protein content. In addition, N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for five trichome PPOs. All species analyzed possessed trichome PPOs similar in structure and level of expression to that of S. berthaultii. The relationship between sequences and structures of these conserved PPOs and the variable PPOs of leaf is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16653213

  11. Resistance of wild Solanum accessions to aphids and other potato pests in Quebec field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fréchette, B; Bejan, M; Lucas, E; Giordanengo, P; Vincent, C

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae.

  12. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae. PMID:21054161

  13. Solanum pennellii backcross inbred lines (BILs) link small genomic bins with tomato traits.

    PubMed

    Ofner, Itai; Lashbrooke, Justin; Pleban, Tzili; Aharoni, Asaph; Zamir, Dani

    2016-07-01

    We present a resource for fine mapping of traits derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pennellii (LA0716). The population of backcross inbred lines (BILs) is composed of 446 lines derived after a few generations of backcrosses of the wild species with cultivated tomato (cultivar M82; LA3475), followed by more than seven generations of self-pollination. The BILs were genotyped using the 10K SOL-CAP single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -Chip, and 3700 polymorphic markers were used to map recombination break points relative to the physical map of Solanum lycopersicum. The BILs carry, on average, 2.7 introgressions per line, with a mean introgression length of 11.7 Mbp. Whereas the classic 76 introgression lines (ILs) partitioned the genome into 106 mapping bins, the BILs generated 633 bins, thereby enhancing the mapping resolution of traits derived from the wild species. We demonstrate the power of the BILs for rapid fine mapping of simple and complex traits derived from the wild tomato species. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mapping of loci from Solanum lycopersicoides conferring resistance or susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in tomato.

    PubMed

    Davis, Joel; Yu, Daozhan; Evans, Wendy; Gokirmak, Tufan; Chetelat, Roger T; Stotz, Henrik U

    2009-07-01

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, syn. Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to the necrotrophic ascomycete and causal agent of gray mold, Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to this fungal pathogen is elevated in wild relatives of tomato, including Solanum lycopersicoides. An introgression line population (IL) containing chromosomal segments of S. lycopersicoides within the background of tomato cv. VF36 was used to screen the genome for foliar resistance and susceptibility to B. cinerea. Based on this screen, putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, five for resistance and two for susceptibility. Four resistance QTL decreased infection frequency while the fifth reduced lesion diameter. One susceptibility QTL increased infection frequency whereas the other increased lesion diameter. Overlapping chromosomal segments provided strong evidence for partial resistance on chromosomes 1 and 9 and for elevated susceptibility on chromosome 11. Segregation analysis confirmed the major resistance QTL on the long arm of chromosome 1 and susceptibility on chromosome 11. Linkage of partial resistance to chromosome 9 could not be confirmed. The usefulness of these data for resistance breeding and for map-based cloning of foliar resistance to B. cinerea is discussed.

  15. Low functional redundancy among mammalian browsers in regulating an encroaching shrub (Solanum campylacanthum) in African savannah.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Robert M; Goheen, Jacob R; Palmer, Todd M; Charles, Grace K; DeFranco, Elyse; Hohbein, Rhianna; Ford, Adam T; Tarnita, Corina E

    2014-06-22

    Large herbivorous mammals play an important role in structuring African savannahs and are undergoing widespread population declines and local extinctions, with the largest species being the most vulnerable. The impact of these declines on key ecological processes hinges on the degree of functional redundancy within large-herbivore assemblages, a subject that has received little study. We experimentally quantified the effects of three browser species (elephant, impala and dik-dik) on individual- and population-level attributes of Solanum campylacanthum (Solanum incanum sensu lato), an encroaching woody shrub, using semi-permeable exclosures that selectively removed different-sized herbivores. After nearly 5 years, shrub abundance was lowest where all browser species were present and increased with each successive species deletion. Different browsers ate the same plant species in different ways, thereby exerting distinct suites of direct and indirect effects on plant performance and density. Not all of these effects were negative: elephants and impala also dispersed viable seeds and indirectly reduced seed predation by rodents and insects. We integrated these diffuse positive effects with the direct negative effects of folivory using a simple population model, which reinforced the conclusion that different browsers have complementary net effects on plant populations, and further suggested that under some conditions, these net effects may even differ in direction.

  16. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  17. Low functional redundancy among mammalian browsers in regulating an encroaching shrub (Solanum campylacanthum) in African savannah

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Robert M.; Goheen, Jacob R.; Palmer, Todd M.; Charles, Grace K.; DeFranco, Elyse; Hohbein, Rhianna; Ford, Adam T.; Tarnita, Corina E.

    2014-01-01

    Large herbivorous mammals play an important role in structuring African savannahs and are undergoing widespread population declines and local extinctions, with the largest species being the most vulnerable. The impact of these declines on key ecological processes hinges on the degree of functional redundancy within large-herbivore assemblages, a subject that has received little study. We experimentally quantified the effects of three browser species (elephant, impala and dik-dik) on individual- and population-level attributes of Solanum campylacanthum (Solanum incanum sensu lato), an encroaching woody shrub, using semi-permeable exclosures that selectively removed different-sized herbivores. After nearly 5 years, shrub abundance was lowest where all browser species were present and increased with each successive species deletion. Different browsers ate the same plant species in different ways, thereby exerting distinct suites of direct and indirect effects on plant performance and density. Not all of these effects were negative: elephants and impala also dispersed viable seeds and indirectly reduced seed predation by rodents and insects. We integrated these diffuse positive effects with the direct negative effects of folivory using a simple population model, which reinforced the conclusion that different browsers have complementary net effects on plant populations, and further suggested that under some conditions, these net effects may even differ in direction. PMID:24789900

  18. Enzyme Activity Profiles during Fruit Development in Tomato Cultivars and Solanum pennellii1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Steinhauser, Dirk; Koehl, Karin; Carrari, Fernando; Gibon, Yves; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes interact to generate metabolic networks. The activities of more than 22 enzymes from central metabolism were profiled during the development of fruit of the modern tomato cultivar Solanum lycopersicum ‘M82’ and its wild relative Solanum pennellii (LA0716). In S. pennellii, the mature fruit remains green and contains lower sugar and higher organic acid levels. These genotypes are the parents of a widely used near introgression line population. Enzymes were also profiled in a second cultivar, S. lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’, for which data sets for the developmental changes of metabolites and transcripts are available. Whereas most enzyme activities declined during fruit development in the modern S. lycopersicum cultivars, they remained high or even increased in S. pennellii, especially enzymes required for organic acid synthesis. The enzyme profiles were sufficiently characteristic to allow stages of development and cultivars and the wild species to be distinguished by principal component analysis and clustering. Many enzymes showed coordinated changes during fruit development of a given genotype. Comparison of the correlation matrices revealed a large overlap between the two modern cultivars and considerable overlap with S. pennellii, indicating that despite the very different development responses, some basic modules are retained. Comparison of enzyme activity, metabolite profiles, and transcript profiles in S. lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’ revealed remarkably little connectivity between the developmental changes of transcripts and enzymes and even less between enzymes and metabolites. We discuss the concept that the metabolite profile is an emergent property that is generated by complex network interactions. PMID:20335402

  19. Systemin in Solanum nigrum. The tomato-homologous polypeptide does not mediate direct defense responses.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Silvia; Baldwin, Ian T

    2006-12-01

    We extend Ryan's seminal work on the 18-amino acid polypeptide systemin in tomato's (Solanum lycopersicum) systemic wound response to the closely related solanaceous species Solanum nigrum. We compared wild-type plants to plants transformed with an inverted repeat prosystemin construct (IRSys) to silence the expression of the endogenous S. nigrum prosystemin gene. In wild-type plants elicited with wounding + oral secretions from Manduca sexta larvae, trypsin-proteinase inhibitors (TPIs) accumulated even though prosystemin transcripts were down-regulated. Neither reducing the endogenous systemin levels by RNAi nor complementing the plants with systemin by exogenously supplying the polypeptide through excised stems significantly increased TPI activity, indicating that systemin and TPIs are not correlated in S. nigrum. The performance of two herbivore species from two feeding guilds, M. sexta larvae and Myzus persicae nicotianae, did not differ between wild-type and IRSys plants, demonstrating that varying endogenous systemin levels do not alter the direct defenses of S. nigrum. Field experiments with wild-type and IRSys plants and the flea beetle Epitrix pubescens supported these glasshouse data. That levels of oral secretion-elicited jasmonic acid did not differ between wild-type and IRSys plants suggests that systemin is unlikely to mediate jasmonate signaling in S. nigrum as it does in tomato. We conclude that the tomato-homologous polypeptide does not mediate direct defense responses in S. nigrum.

  20. First report of seed-borne cherry leaf roll virus in wild potato, Solanum acaule, from South America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A virus, designated JCM-79, was isolated from wild potato (Solanum acaule Bitt.) plants grown from true seed received at USDA-APHIS Potato Quarantine Program from Peru. JCM-79 was mechanically transmissible to Nicotiana clevelandii, N.tabacum cv. Samsun NN, and Chenopodium quinoa. Symptoms in the ...

  1. Extensive Variation in Fried Chip Color and Tuber Composition in Cold-Stored Tubers of Wild Potato (Solanum) Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum. To date, research in these areas excluded wild relatives of potato. This is the first assessment of cold-stored tuber c...

  2. A New LC-MS-based Strategy to integrate chemistry, morphology, and evolution of eggplant (Solanum) species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The economically valuable giant genus Solanum, containing dozens of functional food species such as eggplant and tomato, affords an excellent system to compare and correlate metabolic chemistry with species morphology and evolution. Here, we devised a strategy based on repeatable reversed-phase LC-T...

  3. In vitro regeneration of solanum aethiopicum L. (scarlet eggplant), an african vegetable crop with potential ornamental value

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Successful in vitro regeneration of plantlets was obtained from shoot tips of five Solanum aethiopicum (African eggplants) accessions evaluated in two media, M1 and M2. The M1 medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salt mixture supplemented with 20 g/L sucrose, 0.75 g/L MgCl2, and 2 g/L ...

  4. Heritability of Chip Color and Specific Gravity in a Long-Day Adapted Solanum phureja-S. stenotomum Population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acceptable chip color and high specific gravity are important characteristics for chipping potatoes. High specific gravity in U.S. chipping varieties traces back to B5141-6 (‘Lenape’). In an effort to expand the germplasm base for high specific gravity, a long-day adapted diploid hybrid Solanum p...

  5. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  6. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize “trample burr” dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Cantley, Jason T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Butler, Alice R.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic “Dioicum Complex” lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent “trample burr” seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum ‘Tanami.’ Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA. PMID:27489475

  7. Extensive variation in fried chip color and tuber composition in cold-stored tubers of wild potato (solanum) germplasm.

    PubMed

    McCann, Leah C; Bethke, Paul C; Simon, Philipp W

    2010-02-24

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum because of its importance to the potato-processing industry. Prior research has not characterized wild Solanum relatives of potato for tuber composition and has not determined if relationships between tuber composition and chip color after cold storage in wild species are comparable to those found for cultivated potato. Extensive inter- and intraspecific variation for chip color and tuber composition were found in the wild Solanum species examined. Tuber sugar profiles suggested that invertase activity at low temperatures differed between and within species. Tuber fructose, glucose, and sucrose concentrations partially explained chip color variation in most accessions, but asparagine concentration and percent dry matter did not. Most wild species had reducing sugar concentrations and chip color scores after 2 degrees C storage that were less than those in S. tuberosum cultivar Snowden. Sugar profiles and relationships between specific sugars and chip color in Solanum pinnatisectum were unique among the species examined.

  8. Identification of salt-induced changes in leaf and root proteomes of the wild tomato solanum chilense

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper reports salt-induced changes in leaf and root proteomes after wild tomato (Solanum chilense) plants were treated with 200 mmol NaCl. In the leaf tissues, a total of 176 protein spots showed significant changes (P<0.05), of which 104 spots were induced and 72 spots suppressed. Salt induc...

  9. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  10. Genetic structure of the four wil tomato species in the Solanum peruvianum s.l. species complex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The most diverse wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum sensu lato (s.l.) has been reclassified into four separate species. However, reproductive barriers among the species are incomplete and this can lead to discrepancies regarding genetic identity of germplasm. We used genotyping by sequencing (...

  11. Solanum Nigrum polysaccharide (SNL) extract effects in transplanted tumor-bearing mice--erythrocyte membrane fluidity and blocking of functions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hong-Liang; Liu, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Ying-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Solanum nigrum L. has been used in traditional Chinese medicine because of its diuretic and antipyretic effects. The present research concerned effects of crude polysaccharides isolated from Solanum nigrum L. on erythrocyte membranes of tumor-bearing S180 and H22 in mice. Fluorescence- labeled red blood cell membranes were used with DPH fluorescence spectrophotometry to examine erythrocyte membrane fluidity, and colorimetry to determine degree of erythrocyte surface membrane blocking. Extent of reaction by tumor-bearing mice with the enzyme erythrocyte membrane bubble shadow detection of red cell membrane variation in the degree of closure before and after administration. Solanum nigrum polysaccharide could significantly improve the S180 and H22 tumor-bearing mice erythrocyte membrane fluidity, compared with the control group, the difference was significant (p<0.01), SNL can significantly improve the red blood cell membrane and then S180 tumor-bearing mice sealing ability, compared with the negative control group, the difference was significant(p<0.05, p<0.01). H22 tumor-bearing mice can increase red cell membrane and then sealing ability, the difference was significant (p<0.05). Solanum nigrum polysaccharide degree of fluidity and blocking two transplanted tumors in mice restored the ability to raise the red cell membrane has a significant effect. Solanum nigrum L.-type mice transplanted tumor can affect the red blood cell membrane fluidity and re-closed, through the red cell membrane of red blood cells to enhance the immune function of the possibility of erythrocyte immunity against tumor formation garland provide experimental basis.

  12. The Tnt1 family member Retrosol copy number and structure disclose retrotransposon diversification in different Solanum species.

    PubMed

    Manetti, M E; Rossi, M; Nakabashi, M; Grandbastien, M A; Van Sluys, Marie Anne

    2009-03-01

    Eukaryotic genome expansion/retraction caused by LTR-retrotransposon activity is dependent on the expression of full length copies to trigger efficient transposition and recombination-driven events. The Tnt1 family of retrotransposons has served as a model to evaluate the diversity among closely related elements within Solanaceae species and found that members of the family vary mainly in their U3 region of the long terminal repeats (LTRs). Recovery of a full length genomic copy of Retrosol was performed through a PCR-based approach from wild potato, Solanum oplocense. Further characterization focusing on both LTR sequences of the amplified copy allowed estimating an approximate insertion time at 2 million years ago thus supporting the occurrence of transposition cycles after genus divergence. Copy number of Tnt1-like elements in Solanum species were determined through genomic quantitative PCR whereby results sustain that Retrosol in Solanum species is a low copy number retrotransposon (1-4 copies) while Retrolyc1 has an intermediate copy number (38 copies) in S. peruvianum. Comparative analysis of retrotransposon content revealed no correlation between genome size or ploidy level and Retrosol copy number. The tetraploid cultivated potato with a cellular genome size of 1,715 Mbp harbours similar copy number per monoploid genome than other diploid Solanum species (613-884 Mbp). Conversely, S. peruvianum genome (1,125 Mbp) has a higher copy number. These results point towards a lineage specific dynamic flux regarding the history of amplification/activity of Tnt1-like elements in the genome of Solanum species.

  13. Variation of biometric parameters and C, N, and P concentrations of Oryza glumaepatula at different depths of an Amazonian lake impacted by bauxite tailings (Lake Batata, Pará, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Enrich-Prast, A; Esteves, F A; Breves, A R

    2002-02-01

    Lake Batata is a typical Amazonian clear water lake which has undergone anthropogenic impacts. Thirty percent of its total area has been covered with bauxite tailings. Thus, it is possible to distinguish two areas in this ecosystem: the impacted and the natural. The goal of this research was to study C, N, and P content variation and the values of biomass, length, density, and culm diameter of Oryza glumaepatula at different depths in the natural and impacted areas of Lake Batata. The results obtained in this research suggest that the availability of P and N, in both water and sediment, is lower at the shallow site when compared to the deeper sites. On the other hand, C concentrations decreased as P and N concentrations increased. This may be explained by the structural function of C in aquatic macrophytes. At shallower sites, due to the reduced water column, individuals invest in supporting structures that display high C concentrations. The higher density and biomass of O. glumaepatula at the intermediate site indicate that this area presents the best conditions for germination and establishment of individuals of this species. The chemical composition and biometric parameters of O. glumaepatula have shown that this population has higher spatial variation in the natural area. In the impacted area, the absence of significant variations in N and P concentrations in O. glumaepatula among the three sampled sites promotes higher homogeneity in the stands. The high C:P and N:P ratios indicate that, in the impacted area, P is more limiting to the development of O. glumaepatula than it is in the natural area. The reduced values of biomass and density of O. glumaepatula in the impacted area suggest that the bauxite tailings limit the development of this population.

  14. Optimization of the genomic DNA extraction method of silverleaf nightshade/ (Solanum elaeagnifolium /Cav.), an invasive plant in the cultivated areas within the Mediterranean region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The geographical origin of an invasive in the cultivated area within the Mediterranean region, silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav, (Solanaceae) should be identified through the analysis of genetic similarities between native and introduced populations using microsatellite markers. Bef...

  15. Solanum torvum responses to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Solanum torvum Sw is worldwide employed as rootstock for eggplant cultivation because of its vigour and resistance/tolerance to the most serious soil-borne diseases as bacterial, fungal wilts and root-knot nematodes. The little information on Solanum torvum (hereafter Torvum) resistance mechanisms, is mostly attributable to the lack of genomic tools (e.g. dedicated microarray) as well as to the paucity of database information limiting high-throughput expression studies in Torvum. Results As a first step towards transcriptome profiling of Torvum inoculated with the nematode M. incognita, we built a Torvum 3’ transcript catalogue. One-quarter of a 454 full run resulted in 205,591 quality-filtered reads. De novo assembly yielded 24,922 contigs and 11,875 singletons. Similarity searches of the S. torvum transcript tags catalogue produced 12,344 annotations. A 30,0000 features custom combimatrix chip was then designed and microarray hybridizations were conducted for both control and 14 dpi (day post inoculation) with Meloidogyne incognita-infected roots samples resulting in 390 differentially expressed genes (DEG). We also tested the chip with samples from the phylogenetically-related nematode-susceptible eggplant species Solanum melongena. An in-silico validation strategy was developed based on assessment of sequence similarity among Torvum probes and eggplant expressed sequences available in public repositories. GO term enrichment analyses with the 390 Torvum DEG revealed enhancement of several processes as chitin catabolism and sesquiterpenoids biosynthesis, while no GO term enrichment was found with eggplant DEG. The genes identified from S. torvum catalogue, bearing high similarity to known nematode resistance genes, were further investigated in view of their potential role in the nematode resistance mechanism. Conclusions By combining 454 pyrosequencing and microarray technology we were able to conduct a cost-effective global transcriptome profiling

  16. Evidences of antihypertensive potential of extract from Solanum capsicoides All. in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Simões, L O; Conceição-Filho, G; Ribeiro, T S; Jesus, A M; Fregoneze, J B; Silva, A Q G; Petreanu, M; Cechinel-Filho, V; Niero, R; Niero, H; Tamanaha, M S; Silva, D F

    2016-05-15

    Solanum capsicoides All. is morphologically similar to Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. which is used in folk medicine in South America for antihypertensive and diuretics purposes. This similarity has led to species identification errors, which therefore may result in errors by patients. To evaluate the antihypertensive and diuretics potential of the methanol extract from Solanum capsicoides All. (MeOH-Sc), in vitro and in vivo, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Initial experiments were performed in rat mesenteric artery to evaluate the in vitro vascular effect of MeOH-Sc and its fractions, in addition to the mechanisms involved during the observed effect. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in non-anesthetised hypertensive and normotensive rats. In another set of experiments, MeOH-Sc was administered for 21 consecutive days. Daily body weight measurements were conducted and MAP, HR and urinary volume were measured every 5 days. The mesenteric artery from treated animals was tested for phenylephrine and sodium nitroprussiate (SNP) sensitivity. Initially, MeOH-Sc and fractions relaxed phenylephrine-induced contractions in mesenteric artery rings. The vasorelaxant effect was not changed in the presence of a blocker of eNOS (L-NAME) in rings with an intact endothelium. In denuded-endothelium rings, the vasorelaxant response was significantly reduced in the presence of a cAMP inhibitor (SQ 22536 10 µM) in SHR but not in Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). However, in the presence of a cGMP inhibitor (ODQ 10 µM), a curve shift to the right was observed in WKY animals, but not in SHR. Intravenous bolus injections of MeOH-Sc into non-anesthetised SHR and WKY, induced hypotension that was associated with an increase in HR. A significant antihypertensive effect was observed in animals that received MeOH-Sc orally for 21 days, which also prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Urine volume from animals treated with MeOH-Sc significantly

  17. A Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium Linkage Map of Tomato Displaying Genomic Locations of R-Genes, RGAs, and Candidate Resistance/Defense-Response ESTs

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arun; Zhang, Liping; Niño-Liu, David; Ashrafi, Hamid; Foolad, Majid R.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified an accession (LA2093) within the tomato wild species Solanum pimpinellifolium with many desirable characteristics, including biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and good fruit quality. To utilize the full genetic potential of LA2093 in tomato breeding, we have developed a linkage map based on an F2 population of a cross between LA2093 and a tomato breeding line, using 115 RFLP, 94 EST, and 41 RGA markers. The map spanned 1002.4 cM of the 12 tomato chromosomes with an average marker distance of 4.0 cM. The length of the map and linear order of the markers were in good agreement with the published maps of tomato. The ESTs were chosen based on their sequence similarities with known resistance or defense-response genes, signal-transduction factors, transcriptional regulators, and genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. Locations of several ESTs and RGAs coincided with locations of several known tomato resistance genes and quantitative resistance loci (QRLs), suggesting that candidate-gene approach may be effective in identifying and mapping new R genes. This map will be useful for marker-assisted exploitation of desirable traits in LA2093 and other S. pimpinellifolium accessions, and possibly for utilization of genetic variation within S. lycopersicum. PMID:19223983

  18. A Solanum lycopersicum x Solanum pimpinellifolium linkage map of tomato displaying genomic locations of R-genes, RGAs, and candidate resistance/defense-response ESTs.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arun; Zhang, Liping; Niño-Liu, David; Ashrafi, Hamid; Foolad, Majid R

    2008-01-01

    We have identified an accession (LA2093) within the tomato wild species Solanum pimpinellifolium with many desirable characteristics, including biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and good fruit quality. To utilize the full genetic potential of LA2093 in tomato breeding, we have developed a linkage map based on an F(2) population of a cross between LA2093 and a tomato breeding line, using 115 RFLP, 94 EST, and 41 RGA markers. The map spanned 1002.4 cM of the 12 tomato chromosomes with an average marker distance of 4.0 cM. The length of the map and linear order of the markers were in good agreement with the published maps of tomato. The ESTs were chosen based on their sequence similarities with known resistance or defense-response genes, signal-transduction factors, transcriptional regulators, and genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. Locations of several ESTs and RGAs coincided with locations of several known tomato resistance genes and quantitative resistance loci (QRLs), suggesting that candidate-gene approach may be effective in identifying and mapping new R genes. This map will be useful for marker-assisted exploitation of desirable traits in LA2093 and other S. pimpinellifolium accessions, and possibly for utilization of genetic variation within S. lycopersicum.

  19. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J; Strömvik, Martina V

    2016-05-19

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha(-1) was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency.

  20. Solanum nigrum L. weed plants as a remediation tool for metalaxyl-polluted effluents and soils.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jorge; Sousa, Alexandra de; Azenha, Manuel; Moreira, José Tiago; Fidalgo, Fernanda; Fernando Silva, A; Faria, Joaquim L; Silva, Adrián M T

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the phytoremediation potential of metalaxyl, a commonly used persistent, mobile and leachy fungicide, by Solanum nigrum L. plants was studied. The study revealed that this plant species can be used as an excellent metalaxyl phytoremediation tool, thus providing a cost effective and environmentally friendly clean technology for the decontamination of sites and effluents. As it can be sowed directly in the remediation site, is able to complete its life cycle without suffering major stress. Because it accumulates high amounts of the fungicide in the aboveground tissues, enables its concentration and proper disposal by cutting off the corresponding plant part. The study also suggests that the tolerance to metalaxyl is due to a suitable antioxidant response comprising proline accumulation and guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase enhanced activities, that reduce oxidative damage to the plant organs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of tolerance of egg plant (Solanum melangena L.) to field application of dimethoate.

    PubMed

    Khillar, R; Acharya, S; Mohapatra, P K

    2010-07-01

    Dimethoate, at field concentration (1.419 mg g(-1) fr wt), caused inhibition of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of Solanum melangena L. on first treatment but subsequent treatments caused adaptation and recovery of these parameters. The variable fluorescence (F(v)), dissipation (DI(0)/RC), 2 ms relative variable fluorescence (V(j)), net rate of PS II closure (M(0)), and maximum trapping rate of active PS II (TR(0)/RC) increased initially but reduced to the control value with repetition of treatment. However, fluorescence yield (TR(0)/Abs), electron transport probability (ET(0)/TR(0)) and activity of RC (ET(0)/RC) increased with each treatment. With each subsequent treatment there was enhancement of activities of esterases and decrease of insecticide content of leaves.

  2. Molecular characterization of a new begomovirus that infects Euphorbia heterophylla and Solanum lycopersicum in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Karla; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-02-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequence of a begomovirus isolate infecting Euphorbia heterophylla and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in central Venezuela. Based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the isolate was shown to represent a novel species, tentatively named Euphorbia mosaic Venezuela virus (EuMVV). Its DNA-A is most closely related to those of Euphorbia-infecting begomoviruses from the Caribbean and Central America. The DNA B component forms a phylogenetic cluster with Euphorbia and Sida-infecting begomoviruses from the squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) cluster. EuMVV is transmissible to S. lycopersicum and Capsicum annuum by biolistics of infectious cloned DNA-A and DNA-B components and induces characteristic leaf downward curling and yellowing in S. lycopersicum and and yellowing and leaf distortion in Capsicum annuum.

  3. Induced Resistance in Solanum lycopersicum by Algal Elicitor Extracted from Sargassum fusiforme

    PubMed Central

    Sbaihat, Layth; Takeyama, Keiko; Koga, Takeharu; Takemoto, Daigo; Kawakita, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides, which is undesired by health- and environment-concerned consumers. Environment-friendly methods of controlling tomato diseases include agroecological practices, organic fungicides, and biological control. Plants' resistance against pathogens is induced by applying agents called elicitors to the plants and would lead to disease prevention or reduced severity. We investigated the ability of a novel elicitor extracted from the brown sea algae (Sargassum fusiforme) to elicit induced resistance in tomato. The studied elicitor induced hypersensitive cell death and O2 − production in tomato tissues. It significantly reduced severities of late blight, grey mold, and powdery mildew of tomato. Taken together, our novel elicitor has not shown any direct antifungal activity against the studied pathogens, concluding that it is an elicitor of induced resistance. PMID:25802893

  4. Simple sequence repeat-based association analysis of fruit traits in eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Ge, H Y; Liu, Y; Zhang, J; Han, H Q; Li, H Z; Shao, W T; Chen, H Y

    2013-11-18

    Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) provides a promising tool to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in plant resources. A total of 141 eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) accessions were selected to detect simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with nine fruit traits. Population structure analysis was performed with 105 SSR markers, which revealed that two subgroups were present in this population. LD analysis exhibited an extensive long-range LD of approximately 11 cM. A total of 49 marker associations related to eight phenotypic traits were identified to involve 24 different markers, although no association was found with the trait of fruit glossiness. To our knowledge, this is the 1st approach to use a genome-wide association study in eggplant with SSR markers. These results suggest that the association analysis approach could be a useful alternative to traditional linkage mapping to detect putative QTLs in eggplant.

  5. Chemical Composition and Ultrastructure of Suberin from Hollow Heart Tissue of Potato Tubers (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Dean, B B; Kolattukudy, P E; Davis, R W

    1977-05-01

    The disorder of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum var. Russet Burbank) called "hollow heart" is manifested by the occurrence of hollow regions in internal parts of the tuber. The structure and composition of the suberin from the tissue lining of these internal cavities were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of the LiAlH(4)-hydrogenolysis products. Identification of octadecene-1,18-diol as the major component and the presence of hexadecane-1,16-diol and very long chain (>C(18)) alcohols in the hydrogenolysate showed that the suberin lining the internal cavities is quite similar to that found in the periderm of external wounds and the natural skin. Electron microscopic examination showed similar lamellar structure for the suberin of hollow heart, external wound periderm, and the natural skin of potato tubers. The results show that suberin can develop in a tissue which is not exposed to the external environment.

  6. Metabolic differences in ripening of Solanum lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig' and three monogenic mutants.

    PubMed

    Beisken, Stephan; Earll, Mark; Baxter, Charles; Portwood, David; Ament, Zsuzsanna; Kende, Aniko; Hodgman, Charlie; Seymour, Graham; Smith, Rebecca; Fraser, Paul; Seymour, Mark; Salek, Reza M; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Application of mass spectrometry enables the detection of metabolic differences between groups of related organisms. Differences in the metabolic fingerprints of wild-type Solanum lycopersicum and three monogenic mutants, ripening inhibitor (rin), non-ripening (nor) and Colourless non-ripening (Cnr), of tomato are captured with regard to ripening behaviour. A high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry system coupled to liquid chromatography produced a time series of the ripening behaviour at discrete intervals with a focus on changes post-anthesis. Internal standards and quality controls were used to ensure system stability. The raw data of the samples and reference compounds including study protocols have been deposited in the open metabolomics database MetaboLights via the metadata annotation tool Isatab to enable efficient re-use of the datasets, such as in metabolomics cross-study comparisons or data fusion exercises.

  7. Potential of Gibberellic Acid 3 (GA3) for Enhancing the Phytoremediation Efficiency of Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Ji, Puhui; Tang, Xiwang; Jiang, Yongji; Tong, Yan'an; Gao, Pengcheng; Han, Wenshe

    2015-12-01

    A microcosm experiment with artificially contaminated soils was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) on phytoremediation efficiency of Solanum nigrum L. The GA3 was applied at three different concentrations (10, 100, 1000 mg L(-1)) to S. nigrum. Results indicated that GA3 can significantly (p < 0.05) increase the biomass of S. nigrum by 56 % at 1000 mg L(-1). Concurrently, GA3 application increased Cd concentrations in the shoot of S. nigrum by 16 %. The combined effects resulted in an increase in the amount of Cd extracted by a single plant by up to 124 %. Therefore, it is possible to use GA3 to promote the Cd phytoremediation efficiency of S. nigrum.

  8. Measurement of Selected Enzymatic Activities in Solanum nigrum-Treated Biomphalaria arabica Snails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Daihan, Sooad

    In the present study, glucose, acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP), α-amylase and lipase were measured for the first time in tissue homogenates of Biomphalaria arabica snails, molluscan intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. Also, the effect of sublethal concentrations (LC25) of dry powdered Solanum nigrum leaf was tested as plant molluscicide against this snail species. The tested enzymes were altered in molluscicide-treated snails compared to control. While ALP and amylase were slightly affected, ACP and lipase were significantly altered. Glucose as an important energy source for a successful schistosome-snail relationship was significantly reduced in molluscicide-treated snails. In conclusion, sublethal concentration of the molluscicide showed potent effect in disturbing snail biochemistry which may render them physiologically unsuitable for the developing of schistosome parasite. This could be considered as a promising strategy to control the disease.

  9. Comparison between Solanum torvum Sw. and S. melongena L. after Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation.

    PubMed

    Aribaud, M; Noirot, M; Fock-Bastide, I; Vaniet, S; Kodja, H

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is one of the most devastating plant diseases, affecting some economically important Solanaceae crops. In contrast, Solanum torvum, also known as wild eggplant, does not wilt when infested with R. solanacearum. In order to describe the mechanism underlying the response of S. torvum, it was compared with the cultivated eggplant, S. melongena, when both were infected with the same R. solanacearum strain. No wilting occurred in S. torvum, although the bacteria colonised roots and stems in both species within the first 24 h. There were marked differences beyond 24 h, consisting of high bacterial mortality in S. torvum. Using the calli model, our investigations revealed an increase in cell wall monoamine oxidase activity in S. torvum after R. solanacearum inoculation, which did not occur in S. melongena. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria

    2004-08-01

    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 and EC 1.14.18.1) was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine.

  11. Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Glandular Trichomes of Solanum berthaultii.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, S P; Eannetta, N T; Hirzel, A T; Steffens, J C

    1992-10-01

    Type A glandular trichomes of the wild potato (Solanum berthaultii Hawkes) entrap insects by rapidly polymerizing the trichome contents after breakage by insect contact. Polymerization of trichome exudate appears to be driven by a soluble polyphenol oxidase (PPO). PPO constitutes up to 70% of the protein in individually collected trichomes and reaches a concentration approaching 200 mum in these organs. Trichome PPO has been purified and shown to be a monomeric copper metalloprotein with an isoelectric point of 5.5, possessing only o-diphenol oxygen oxido-reductase activity, and is larger than most other reported PPOs, with relative molecular weight of 59,000. Chlorogenic and caffeic acid were the most readily oxidized of 14 phenolic substrates tested. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the relative molecular weight 59,000 S. berthaultii trichome PPO were used to show that S. tuberosum L. trichomes express low levels of a cross-reactive protein that lacks detectable PPO activity.

  12. Plant growth-promoting potential of endophytic fungi isolated from Solanum nigrum leaves.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Gun-Seok; Jung, Byung Kwon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Fungal endophytes have been characterized as producers of phytohormones and potent promoters of plant growth. In this study, two fungal endophytes, Fusarium tricinctum RSF-4L and Alternaria alternata RSF-6L, were isolated from the leaves of Solanum nigrum. Culture filtrates (CFs) from each isolate were initially screened for indole compounds, and assayed for their ability to promote the growth of Dongjin rice plants. Nearly all plant growth attributes examined (i.e., chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production) were significantly enhanced upon treatment with fungal CFs. Subsequently, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses were utilized to confirm the presence of phytohormones in the CF of each fungal endophytic isolate. These analyses revealed that RSF-4L and RSF-6L produced 54 and 30 µg/mL indole acetic acid, respectively, within their respective cultures. These findings suggest that the endophytes isolated in this study synthesize bioactive compounds that could play important roles in promoting plant growth.

  13. Development of a sparging technique for volatile emissions from potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdis, Elizabeth; Peterson, Barbara Vieux; Yorio, Neil C.; Batten, Jennifer; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1993-01-01

    Accumulation of volatile emissions from plants grown in tightly closed growth chambers may have allelopathic or phytotoxic properties. Whole air analysis of a closed chamber includes both biotic and abiotic volatile emissions. A method for characterization and quantification of biogenic emissions solely from plantlets was developed to investigate this complex mixture of volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) were isolated, separated and identified using an in-line configuration consisting of a purge and trap concentrator with sparging vessels coupled to a GC/MS system. Analyses identified plant volatile compounds: transcaryophyllene, alpha-humulene, thiobismethane, hexanal, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and cis-3-hexenyl acetate.

  14. [Results of using Solanum tuberosum sprouts extract for the treatment of ophthalmoherpes].

    PubMed

    Alimbarova, L M; Lazarenko, A A; Kiselev, A V; Tanirbergenov, T B; Stovbun, E V

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy, tolerability and safety of the extract of Solanum tuberosum sprouts (Panavir eyedrops) have been studied on the model of ophthalmic disorder in rabbits caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1. It is established that Panavir applied via 6 instillations per day for a period of days has potent therapeutic efficacy and prevents the development of gross corneal opacity in rabbits. Instillation of Panavir eyedrops does not cause irritation, toxic and allergic effects and are well tolerated by rabbits. The fastest and most pronounced effect of Panavir eyedrops was observed in the treatment of epithelial keratitis, as well as for not prolonged persistence of HSV. The effectiveness of Panavir eyedrops is comparable with that of the reference preparation OphthalmoferonR.

  15. Construction of Artificial miRNAs to Prevent Drought Stress in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Wyrzykowska, Anna; Pieczynski, Marcin; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    The use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) is still a relatively new technique in molecular biology with a wide range of applications in life sciences. Here, we describe the silencing of the CBP80/ABH1 gene in Solanum tuberosum with the use of amiRNA. The CBP80/ABH1 protein is part of the Cap Binding Complex (CBC), which is involved in plant responses to drought stress conditions. Transformed plants with a decreased level of CBP80/ABH1 display increased tolerance to water shortage conditions. We describe how to design amiRNA with the Web MicroRNA Designer platform in detail. Additionally, we explain how to perform all steps of a procedure aiming to obtain transgenic potato plants with the use of designed amiRNA, through callus tissue regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 as a transgene carrier.

  16. Solanum incanum and S. heteracanthum as sources of biologically active steroid glycosides: confirmation of their synonymy.

    PubMed

    Manase, Mahenina Jaovita; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Pertuit, David; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Delemasure, Stéphanie; Dutartre, Patrick; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2012-09-01

    A new spirostanol saponin (1), along with four known saponins, dioscin (2), protodioscin (3), methyl-protodioscin (4), and indioside D (5), and one known steroid glycoalkaloid solamargine (6) were isolated from the two synonymous species, Solanum incanum and S. heteracanthum. The structure of the new saponin was established as (23S,25R)-spirost-5-en-3β,23-diol 3-O-{β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}, by using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR techniques including (1)H, (13)C, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC experiments and by mass spectrometry. The compounds 1, 3, 4 and 5 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines and for antioxidant and cytoprotective activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inbreeding alters volatile signalling phenotypes and influences tri-trophic interactions in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.).

    PubMed

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Mauck, Kerry E; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C

    2012-04-01

    The ecological consequences of inter-individual variation in plant volatile emissions remain largely unexplored. We examined the effects of inbreeding on constitutive and herbivore-induced volatile emissions in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) and on the composition of the insect community attracted to herbivore-damaged and undamaged plants in the field. Inbred plants exhibited higher constitutive emissions, but weaker induction of volatiles following herbivory. Moreover, many individual compounds previously implicated in the recruitment of predators and parasitoids (e.g. terpenes) were induced relatively weakly (or not at all) in inbred plants. In trapping experiments, undamaged inbred plants attracted greater numbers of generalist insect herbivores than undamaged outcrossed plants. But inbred plants recruited fewer herbivore natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) when damaged. Taken together, these findings suggest that inbreeding depression negatively impacts the overall pattern of volatile emissions - increasing the apparency of undamaged plants to herbivores, while reducing the recruitment of predatory insects to herbivore-damaged plants.

  18. Carotenoids in fresh and processed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits protect cells from oxidative stress injury.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Rita; Petruk, Ganna; Raiola, Assunta; Barone, Amalia; Monti, Daria Maria; Rigano, Maria Manuela

    2017-03-01

    Lipophilic antioxidants in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits exert important functions in reducing the risk of human diseases. Here the effect of thermal processing on the antioxidant activity of lipophilic extracts from the commercial tomato hybrid 'Zebrino' was analysed. Carotenoid content and lipophilic antioxidant activity were determined and the ability of tomato extracts in rescuing cells from oxidative stress was assessed. Lipophilic antioxidant activity was completely retained after heat treatment and extracts were able to mitigate the detrimental effect induced by oxidative stress on different cell lines. Lycopene alone was able to rescue cells from oxidative stress, even if to a lower extent compared with tomato extracts. These results were probably due to the synergistic effect of tomato compounds in protecting cells from oxidative stress injury. The current study provides valuable insights into the health effect of the dietary carotenoids present in fresh and processed tomato fruits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Glycoconjugate histochemistry in the small and large intestine of normal and Solanum glaucophyllum-intoxicated rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zanuzzi, C N; Barbeito, C G; Ortíz, M L; Lozza, F A; Fontana, P A; Portiansky, E L; Gimeno, E J

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin D participates in mineral homeostasis, immunomodulation, cell growth and differentiation. The leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum contain high levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as glycoside derivatives and their chronic ingestion generates a hypervitaminosis D-like state. We analyzed changes on carbohydrate expression as a cell differentiation indicator on samples of the small and large intestine of S. glaucophyllum-intoxicated rabbits, using conventional and lectin histochemistry. Male New Zealand white rabbits were intoxicated with S. glaucophyllum during two or four weeks and killed the day after. A group of animals ("possibly recovered group") were intoxicated during 15 days and killed at day 45 of the beginning of the experiment. We found changes in the lectin binding pattern in the small and large intestine of the intoxicated rabbits. Some of these changes were reverted in the possibly recovered group. Vitamin D could be a new regulator factor of the intestinal glycosylation process.

  20. Salicylic acid is important for basal defense of Solanum tuberosum against Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Halim, Vincentius A; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Altmann, Simone; Birschwilks, Mandy; Scheel, Dierk; Rosahl, Sabine

    2007-11-01

    The importance of the signaling compound salicylic acid for basal defense of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) against Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, was assessed using transgenic NahG potato plants which are unable to accumulate salicylic acid. Although the size of lesions caused by P. infestans was not significantly different in wild-type and transgenic NahG plants, real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed a drastic enhancement of pathogen growth in potato plants depleted of salicylic acid. Increased susceptibility of NahG plants correlated with compromised callose formation and reduced early defense gene expression. NahG plants pretreated with the salicylic acid analog 2,6-dichloro-isonicotinic acid allowed pathogen growth to a similar extent as did wild-type plants, indicating that salicylic acid is an important compound required for basal defense of potato against P. infestans.

  1. [Effects of light quality on microtuber induction of Solanum tuberosum L].

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong; Wang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Di; Zhang, Feng

    2009-08-01

    With the detoxified test-tube seedlings of two Solanum tuberosum L. varieties as test materials, this paper studied their development and microtuber induction under effects of different light quality (red, blue, and white lights). Under red light, the seedlings leaf net photosynthetic rate, soluble sugar content, and biomass were the highest, and the leaf number was the greatest. Blue light increased the seedlings dry matter content and microtuber number, advanced the date of microtuber initiation, but inhibited seedlings height. Under white light, the seedlings had the lowest net photosynthetic rate and dry matter content. Different S. tuberosum varieties had definite differences in the demand of light quality for their microtuber induction. Applying red light at seedlings development stage and supplying blue light at microtuber induction stage could gain higher productivity.

  2. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves.

  3. Single- versus Multiple-Pest Infestation Affects Differently the Biochemistry of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig').

    PubMed

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Drungowski, Mario; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2015-11-25

    Tomato is susceptible to pest infestations by both spider mites and aphids. The effects of each individual pest on plants are known, whereas multiple-pest infestations have received little interest. We studied the effects of single- versus multiple-pest infestation by Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae on tomato biochemistry (Solanum lycopersicum) by combining a metabolomic approach and analyses of carotenoids using UHPLC-ToF-MS and volatiles using GC-MS. Plants responded differently to aphids and mites after 3 weeks of infestation, and a multiple infestation induced a specific metabolite composition in plants. In addition, we showed that volatiles emissions differed between the adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermes and identified compounds emitted particularly in response to a multiple infestation (cyclohexadecane, dodecane, aromadendrene, and β-elemene). Finally, the carotenoid concentrations in leaves and stems were more affected by multiple than single infestations. Our study highlights and discusses the interplay of biotic stressors within the terpenoid metabolism.

  4. Physiological effects of ozone exposure on De Colgar and Rechaiga II tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Maamar, Benchohra; Maatoug, Mohamed; Iriti, Marcello; Dellal, Abdelkader; Ait hammou, Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    The sensitivity of two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars, Rechaiga II and De Colgar, to 50, 80, and 100 ppb ozone (O3) exposures was assessed in fumigation chamber, during 4 h per day over a period of 7 days. The Rechaiga II variety was shown to be sensitive to the dose of 50 ppb, showing chlorotic spots on the adaxial leaf surface and alterations of some physiological parameters. During 1-week fumigation, ozone caused a decrease in stomatal conductance, chlorophylls a and b, total chlorophylls, and carotenoids, although soluble sugars and membrane integrity were significantly increased in fumigated plants compared to controls. This trend was similar for the three pollutant doses used in fumigation. The De Colgar tomato remained asymptomatic.

  5. Profiling of melatonin in the model tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Masateru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Melatonin exists in a considerable variety of plant species. However, the physiological roles of melatonin in plants are not well understood. In this study, the distribution and accumulation of melatonin during leaf and fruit development were analyzed in Micro-Tom, a model cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Melatonin was extracted using an acetone-methanol method and measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Melatonin was detected in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seedlings and seeds in the range of 1.5-66.6 ng/g fresh weight, with seeds containing the highest concentration of melatonin. In fruits and leaves, melatonin concentrations varied depending on the developmental stage, suggesting that melatonin controls some of the processes involved in plant maturation.

  6. Hypoxic stress inhibits multiple aspects of the potato tuber wound response. [Solanum tuberosum L

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, W.; Cook, L.; Vayda, M.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers subjected to wounding under hypoxic stress do not synthesize RNA species that are induced in response to wounding in aerobic conditions. Further, wound-response proteins fail to be synthesized when wounded tubers are transferred to hypoxic conditions although messenger RNAs which encode them persist for many hours after transfer. Hypoxic stress also prevents the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine by wounded tubers that occurs in aerobic conditions. In contrast, hypoxic tubers accumulate and translate transcripts of genes whose products are involved in anaerobic metabolism whether or not they are wounded. Both the hypoxic response and the aerobic wound response preclude the synthesis of proteins encoded by messenger RNAs which accumulated during the tuberization process and which can be translated in vitro. Finally, wounding elicits the degradation of a subset of these tuberization-associated transcripts. These data indicate a complex and precise regulation of gene expression at several levels of macromolecular synthesis.

  7. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H.; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J.; Strömvik, Martina V.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha−1 was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency. PMID:27193058

  8. Lovastatin-producing endophytic fungus isolated from a medicinal plant Solanum xanthocarpum.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Ramalingam; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Lovastatin is a potent drug for lowering blood cholesterol. An endophytic fungus Phomopsis vexans was isolated from the healthy leaf tissues of Solanum xanthocarpum, a medicinal plant, and screened for lovastatin production. The fungus was identified by their characteristic cultural morphology and molecular analysis. The strain had a component with the same TLC Rf value and HPLC retention time as authentic lovastatin. The presence of lovastatin was further confirmed by FT-IR, UV, (1)H, (13)C NMR and LC-MS analyses. The amount of lovastatin produced by this endophytic fungus was quantified to be 550 mg/L, and thus the fungus can serve as a potential material to improve the production of lovastatin.

  9. Effect of Solanum surattense seed on the oxidative potential of cauda epididymal spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Thirumalai, T; David, E; Viviyan, Therasa S; Elumalai, EK

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of Solanum surattense (S. surattense) on the oxidative potential of cauda epididymal spermatozoa. Methods S. surattense seed extract was orally administered at the dosage of 10 mg/kg b.w. for 15 days, after which aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), citric acid and iso-citrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) were assayed. Results The activity levels of the enzymes AST and ALT, which are considered to be the androgenicity in the sperm suspension, were depleted in the extract fed rats. The activity level of the enzyme ICDH, was reduced significantly in the treated group (P<0.001). Conclusions It can be concluded that the oral administration of the aqueous seed extract of S. surattense can deplete the oxidative stress of cauda epididymal spermatozoa in albino rats. PMID:23569828

  10. Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana P G C; Oliveira, Rui S; Samardjieva, Kalina A; Pissarra, José; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2007-02-01

    Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622 mg Zn kg(-1). The presence of both Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Zn by S. nigrum (up to 83 and 49% higher Zn accumulation, respectively). The main deposits of the metal were found in the intercellular spaces and in the cell walls of the root tissues, as revealed by autometallography, with the inoculation with different AMF species causing no differences in the location of Zn accumulation. These findings indicate that S. nigrum inoculated with selected heavy metal tolerant AMF presents extracting and accumulating capacities, constituting a potentially suitable remediation method for Zn polluted soils.

  11. Involvement of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in Response to Potato virus Y

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Špela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant–pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence. PMID:25111695

  12. Characterization and functional analysis of a pollen-specific gene st901 in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Qian; Ao, Guangming; Yu, Jingjuan

    2006-07-01

    A pollen-specific gene, sb401, which was isolated from a cDNA library of in vitro geminated pollen of the diploid potato species Solanum berthaultii, belongs to the class of genes expressed late during pollen development. Using sb401 as a probe, a pollen-specific gene st901 was isolated from the genomic library of a potato species Solanum tuberosum cv. Desiree. Sequencing and RT-PCR analysis showed that the st901 genomic gene is 2,889 bp long, contains three exons and two introns, and encodes a putative polypeptide of 217 residues. The predicted protein sequence contains four imperfect repeated motifs of V-V-E-K-K-N/E-E; the core sequence of the repeats (K-K-N/E-E) resembles a microtubule-binding domain of the microtubule-associated protein MAP1B from mouse. The examination of a promoter-reporter construct in transgenic potato plants revealed that the st901 is expressed exclusively in mature pollen grains, which is consistent with the results of Northern blot and RT-PCR. For analysis of the function of st901, transgenic plants harboring antisense copies of st901 cDNA driven by a native st901 promoter were generated. Suppression of st901 gene in potato resulted in aberrant pollen at maturation and pollen viability of transgenic plants ranged from 4.4 to 14.8%, while that of control plants were more than 90%. These results strongly suggest that st901 has an essential role in pollen development.

  13. Long-distance transport of cadmium from roots to leaves of Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qin; Li, Xuemei; Zhuang, Jie; Weng, Liping; Liu, Wan; Tai, Peidong

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake by roots and translocation from roots to leaves of two eggplant species (Solanum melongena and Solanum torvum) under relatively low Cd concentrations were investigated using stable (108)Cd isotope through a number of hydroponic experiments. The uptake and translocation of (108)Cd was compared with those of (70)Zn and (15)N. The results showed more (108)Cd was loaded to the vascular channels and translocated upward to the leaves in S. melongena than in S. torvum, while the (108)Cd concentrations were significantly lower in the roots of S. melongena than in S. torvum. When the phloem and xylem were wounded by grafting treatments, the foliar (108)Cd concentrations were decreased by more than 66% regardless of the rootstock species, whereas the uptake of (108)Cd in the root was not inhibited by grafting. Similar grafting effects were observed for (70)Zn. Hence, wounding phloem and xylem by grafting disturbed the upward transport of (108)Cd and (70)Zn to the eggplant leaves. Similarly, interruption of the phloem by the girdling treatment reduced the concentrations of (108)Cd in the leaves of S. melongena by approximately 51%, though the uptake of (108)Cd by roots was not reduced by the interruption of phloem. In contrast, neither (70)Zn concentrations nor stable N isotope ratio (δ(15)N) values in the roots and leaves of S. melongena were significantly influenced by the interruption of phloem. In conclusion, the phloem played a dominant role in the long-distance transport of Cd from the root to the leaf of S. melongena, whereas the xylem was the main channel for the translocation of Zn and N.

  14. Detailed mapping of a resistance locus against Fusarium wilt in cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Koji; Saito, Takeo; Negoro, Satomi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Ohyama, Akio; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    This is the first report on genetic mapping of a resistance locus against Fusarium wilt caused by the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae in cultivated eggplant. Fusarium wilt, caused by the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae, is a major soil-borne disease threatening stable production in eggplant (Solanum melongena). Although three eggplant germplasms, LS1934, LS174, and LS2436, are known to be highly resistant to the pathogen, their resistance loci have not been mapped. In this study, we performed quantitative trait locus analyses in F2:3 populations and detected a resistance locus, FM1, at the end of chromosome 2, with two alleles, Fm1(L) and Fm1(E), in the F2 populations LWF2 [LS1934 × WCGR112-8 (susceptible)] and EWF2 [EPL-1 (derived from LS174) × WCGR112-8], respectively. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by Fm1(L) derived from LS1934 was 75.0% [Logarithm of the odds (LOD) = 29.3], and that explained by Fm1(E) derived from EPL-1 was 92.2% (LOD = 65.8). Using backcrossed inbred lines, we mapped FM1 between two simple sequence repeat markers located ~4.881 cM apart from each other. Comparing the location of the above locus to those of previously reported ones, the resistance locus Rfo-sa1 from an eggplant ally (Solanum aethiopicum gr. Gilo) was mapped very close to FM1, whereas another resistance locus, from LS2436, was mapped to the middle of chromosome 4. This is the first report of mapping of a Fusarium resistance locus in cultivated eggplant. The availability of resistance-linked markers will enable the application of marker-assisted selection to overcome problems posed by self-incompatibility and introduction of negative traits because of linkage drag, and will lead to clear understanding of genetic mechanism of Fusarium resistance.

  15. The potential for crop to wild hybridization in eggplant (Solanum melongena; Solanaceae) in southern India.

    PubMed

    Davidar, Priya; Snow, Allison A; Rajkumar, Muthu; Pasquet, Remy; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Mutegi, Evans

    2015-01-01

    • In India and elsewhere, transgenic Bt eggplant (Solanum melongena) has been developed to reduce insect herbivore damage, but published studies of the potential for pollen-mediated, crop- to- wild gene flow are scant. This information is useful for risk assessments as well as in situ conservation strategies for wild germplasm.• In 2010-2014, we surveyed 23 populations of wild/weedy eggplant (Solanum insanum; known as wild brinjal), carried out hand-pollination experiments, and observed pollinators to assess the potential for crop- to- wild gene flow in southern India.• Wild brinjal is a spiny, low-growing perennial commonly found in disturbed sites such as roadsides, wastelands, and sparsely vegetated areas near villages and agricultural fields. Fourteen of the 23 wild populations in our study occurred within 0.5 km of cultivated brinjal and at least nine flowered in synchrony with the crop. Hand crosses between wild and cultivated brinjal resulted in seed set and viable F1 progeny. Wild brinjal flowers that were bagged to exclude pollinators did not set fruit, and fruit set from manual self-pollination was low. The exserted stigmas of wild brinjal are likely to promote outcrossing. The most effective pollinators appeared to be bees (Amegilla, Xylocopa, Nomia, and Heterotrigona spp.), which also were observed foraging for pollen on crop brinjal.• Our findings suggest that hybridization is possible between cultivated and wild brinjal in southern India. Thus, as part of the risk assessment process, we assume that transgenes from the crop could spread to wild brinjal populations that occur nearby. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  16. Effects of steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) on in vitro bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Panter, K E; Gaffield, W; Evans, R C; Bunch, T D

    2005-02-01

    alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine are two naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and solanidine-N-oxide is a corresponding steroidal aglycone. The objective of this research was to screen potential cyto-toxicity of these potato glycoalkaloids using bovine oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization techniques and subsequent embryonic development as the in vitro model. A randomized complete block design with four in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) treatments (Experiment 1) and four in vitro embryo culture (IVC) treatments (Experiment 2) was used. In Experiment 1, bovine oocytes (n=2506) were matured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVM medium only. The in vitro matured oocytes were then subject to routine IVF and IVC procedures. Results indicated that exposure of bovine oocytes to the steroidal glycoalkaloids during in vitro maturation inhibited subsequent pre-implantation embryo development. Potency of the embryo-toxicity varied between these steroidal glycoalkaloids. In Experiment 2, IVM/IVF derived bovine embryos (n=2370) were cultured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVC medium only. The results showed that the pre-implantation embryo development is inhibited by exposure to these glycoalkaloids. This effect is significant during the later pre-implantation embryo development period as indicated by fewer numbers of expanded and hatched blastocysts produced in the media containing these alkaloids. Therefore, we conclude that in vitro exposure of oocytes and fertilized ova to the steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes inhibits pre-implantation embryo development. Furthermore, we suggest that ingestion of Solanum species containing toxic amounts of glycoalkaloids may have negative effects on pre-implantation embryonic survival.

  17. In vitro & in vivo estrogenic activity of glycoside fractions of Solanum nigrum fruit

    PubMed Central

    Jisha, S.; Sreeja, S.; Manjula, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: The mature fruits of Solanum nigrum contains steroidal glycosides. These are often used as vegetable and there are evidences on tribal use of these fruits as an oral contraceptive. The present study was carried out to evaluate the estrogenic potential of S. nigrum fruits by in vitro and in vivo assays. Methods: Defatted methanol extract of dried S. nigrum fruits was column fractionated and the glycoside positive fractions pooled. Definite concentrations of the fraction were used for in vitro and in vivo assays. The effect on cell viability was analyzed in MCF-7 cell lines by MTT assay followed by in vitro evaluation of estrogenicity by hydroxy apatite (HAP) binding assay. The results were further evaluated in vivo by performing uterotrophic assay in ovariectomized mouse models. Results: At low concentration (40 μg/ml), SNGF induced a dose-dependent increase in MCF-7 cell proliferation, while higher extract concentrations (80-320 μg/ml) caused progressive cell growth inhibition. The competitive binding assay using 3H-E2 suggests that this effect is mediated by estrogen receptor. Mouse uterotrophic assay revealed a classical uterotrophic response in ovariectomized mice in response to S. nigrum glycoside fraction (SNGF). SNGF at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body wt induced the maximum height of luminal epithelial cells which indicated an increase of 30.8 per cent over control (P<0.01) with a correlated increase in uterine wet wt (150% increase over control). Higher doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body wt) of SNGF did not induce any uterotrophic effect. Interpretation & conclusions: Our preliminary data demonstrate the hormone like activity of Solanum glycosides both in vitro and in vivo in mouse, which needs to be further explored to evaluate the possible mechanism and clinical implications. PMID:21985821

  18. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of three common potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hesam, Faride; Balali, Gholam Reza; Tehrani, Reza Taheri

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), as a whole food, contains high levels of vitamins and important antioxidants including phenolic acids, carotenoids and flavonoids. The objective of this study was to determine the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of three common potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Iran i.e., Savalan, Agria and Sante. Materials and Methods: Phenolic compound extraction of samples was done with methanol and total phenolic on the basis of folin-ciocalteu assay was estimated as 16.58 to 36.24 mg GAE/100g dry sample. The antioxidant activities of potato extracts on the basis of inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH assay were compared with a commercially available antioxidant, α -tocopherol. Results: Savalan had the highest phenolic content and the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with EC50 value of 41.815±mg/ml (DB). Also Savalan had the best inhibitory action against linoleic acid oxidation at 94.10±1.89% at 50 mg/ml sample concentration. Methanolic potato extracts had better antioxidant activity than α-tocopherol. Significant (p<0.01) negative correlation was observed between total phenolic content and the EC50 for DPPH radical scavenging activity(R=-0.877), but there was no correlation between total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Metanolic extracts of three potato cultivars are able to inhibit the oxidation process. The correlation between total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity indicates that phenolic compounds are responsible for antiradical activity. PMID:25050234

  20. Transport and sorting of the solanum tuberosum sucrose transporter SUT1 is affected by posttranslational modification.

    PubMed

    Krügel, Undine; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M; Langbein, Jennifer; Wiederhold, Elena; Liesche, Johannes; Friedrich, Thomas; Grimm, Bernhard; Martinoia, Enrico; Poolman, Bert; Kühn, Christina

    2008-09-01

    The plant sucrose transporter SUT1 from Solanum tuberosum revealed a dramatic redox-dependent increase in sucrose transport activity when heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plant plasma membrane vesicles do not show any change in proton flux across the plasma membrane in the presence of redox reagents, indicating a SUT1-specific effect of redox reagents. Redox-dependent sucrose transport activity was confirmed electrophysiologically in Xenopus laevis oocytes with SUT1 from maize (Zea mays). Localization studies of green fluorescent protein fusion constructs showed that an oxidative environment increased the targeting of SUT1 to the plasma membrane where the protein concentrates in 200- to 300-nm raft-like microdomains. Using plant plasma membranes, St SUT1 can be detected in the detergent-resistant membrane fraction. Importantly, in yeast and in plants, oxidative reagents induced a shift in the monomer to dimer equilibrium of the St SUT1 protein and increased the fraction of dimer. Biochemical methods confirmed the capacity of SUT1 to form a dimer in plants and yeast cells in a redox-dependent manner. Blue native PAGE, chemical cross-linking, and immunoprecipitation, as well as the analysis of transgenic plants with reduced expression of St SUT1, confirmed the dimerization of St SUT1 and Sl SUT1 (from Solanum lycopersicum) in planta. The ability to form homodimers in plant cells was analyzed by the split yellow fluorescent protein technique in transiently transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves and protoplasts. Oligomerization seems to be cell type specific since under native-like conditions, a phloem-specific reduction of the dimeric form of the St SUT1 protein was detectable in SUT1 antisense plants, whereas constitutively inhibited antisense plants showed reduction only of the monomeric form. The role of redox control of sucrose transport in plants is discussed.

  1. Glycoalkaloids of wild and cultivated Solanum: effects on specialist and generalist insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Altesor, Paula; García, Álvaro; Font, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Haralambides, Alejandra; Vilaró, Francisco; Oesterheld, Martín; Soler, Roxina; González, Andrés

    2014-06-01

    Plant domestication by selective breeding may reduce plant chemical defense in favor of growth. However, few studies have simultaneously studied the defensive chemistry of cultivated plants and their wild congeners in connection to herbivore susceptibility. We compared the constitutive glycoalkaloids (GAs) of cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, and a wild congener, S. commersonii, by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. We also determined the major herbivores present on the two species in field plots, and tested their preference for the plants and their isolated GAs in two-choice bioassays. Solanum commersonii had a different GA profile and higher concentrations than S. tuberosum. In the field, S. tuberosum was mostly attacked by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, and by the specialist flea beetle Epitrix argentinensis. In contrast, the most common herbivore on S. commersonii was the specialist sawfly Tequus sp. Defoliation levels were higher on the wild species, probably due to the chewing feeding behavior of Tequus sp. As seen in the field, M. persicae and E. argentinensis preferred leaf disks of the cultivated plant, while Tequus sp. preferred those of the wild one. Congruently, GAs from S. commersonii were avoided by M. persicae and preferred by Tequus sp. The potato aphid performed well on both species and was not deterred by S. commersonii GAs. These observations suggest that different GA profiles explain the feeding preferences of the different herbivores, and that domestication has altered the defensive capacity of S. tuberosum. However, the wild relative is still subject to severe defoliation by a specialist herbivore that may cue on the GAs.

  2. Inbreeding depression in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae), a species with a plastic self-incompatibility response

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Solanum carolinense (horsenettle) is a highly successful weed with a gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system. Previous studies reveal that the strength of SI in S. carolinense is a plastic trait, associated with particular S-alleles. The importance of this variation in self-fertility on the ability of horsenettle to found and establish new populations will depend, to a large extent, on the magnitude of inbreeding depression. We performed a series of greenhouse and field experiments to determine the magnitude of inbreeding depression in S. carolinense, whether inbreeding depression varies by family, and whether the estimates of inbreeding depression vary under field and greenhouse conditions. We performed a series of controlled self- and cross-pollinations on 16 genets collected from a large population in Pennsylvania to obtain progeny with different levels of inbreeding. We grew the selfed and outcrossed progeny in the greenhouse and under field conditions and recorded various measures of growth and reproductive output. Results In the greenhouse study we found (1) a reduction in flower, fruit and seed production per fruit in inbred (selfed) progeny when compared to outbred (outcrossed) progeny; (2) a reduction in growth of resprouts obtained from rhizome cuttings of selfed progeny; and (3) an increase in the ability to self-fertilize in the selfed progeny. In the field, we found that (1) outcrossed progeny produced more leaves than their selfed siblings; (2) herbivory seems to add little to inbreeding depression; and (3) outcrossed plants grew faster and were able to set more fruits than selfed plants. Conclusion Solanum carolinense experiences low levels of inbreeding depression under greenhouse conditions and slightly more inbreeding depression under our field conditions. The combined effects of low levels of inbreeding depression and plasticity in the strength of SI suggest that the production of selfed progeny may play an important role in the

  3. Phytohormone profiling in relation to osmotic adjustment in NaCl-treated plants of the halophyte tomato wild relative species Solanum chilense comparatively to the cultivated glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Hichri, Imène; Dobrev, Petre I; Motyka, Václav; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley

    2017-05-01

    A holistic approach was used to investigate the hormonal profile in relation with osmotic adjustment under salinity in Solanum lycopersicum and its halophyte wild relative Solanum chilense. Plants were subjected to 125mM NaCl for 7days. Solanum chilense displayed a contrasting behaviour comparatively to S. lycopersicum, not only for mineral nutrition, but also regarding the modalities of osmotic adjustment and phytohormonal profiling. The extent of osmotic adjustment was higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. Ions K(+) and Na(+) were the major contributors of osmotic adjustment in S. chilense, accounting respectively for 47 and 60% of osmotic potential. In contrast the contributions of proline and soluble sugars remained marginal for the two species although salt-induced accumulation of proline was higher in S. lycopersicum than in S. chilense. Both species also differed for their hormonal status under salinity and concentrations of most hormonal compounds were higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. Interestingly, salicylic acid, ethylene and cytokinins were positively correlated with osmotic potential in S. chilense under salinity while these hormones were negatively correlated with osmotic adjustment in S. lycopersicum. Our results suggested that the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica may improve salt resistance in S.chilense and that phytohormones could be involved in this process.

  4. Molecular dissection of Tomato leaf curl virus resistance in tomato line TY172 derived from Solanum peruvianum.

    PubMed

    Anbinder, Ilana; Reuveni, Moshe; Azari, Raviv; Paran, Ilan; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Lapidot, Moshe; Levin, Ilan

    2009-08-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is devastating to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops and resistant cultivars are highly effective in controlling the disease. The breeding line TY172, originating from Solanum peruvianum, is highly resistant to TYLCV. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling TYLCV resistance in TY172, appropriate segregating populations were analyzed using 69 polymorphic DNA markers spanning the entire tomato genome. Results show that TYLCV resistance in TY172 is controlled by a previously unknown major QTL, originating from the resistant line, and four additional minor QTLs. The major QTL, we term Ty-5, maps to chromosome 4 and accounts for 39.7-46.6% of the variation in symptom severity among segregating plants (LOD score 33-35). The minor QTLs, originated either from the resistant or susceptible parents, were mapped to chromosomes 1, 7, 9 and 11, and contributed 12% to the variation in symptom severity in addition to Ty-5.

  5. Sequence-Based SSR Marker Development and Their Application in Defining the Introgressions of LA0716 (Solanum pennellii) in the Background of cv. M82 (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Long, Wenbo; Li, Ye; Zhou, Wenjuan; Ling, Hong-Qing; Zheng, Shusong

    2013-01-01

    The introgression lines (ILs) from cv. M82 (Solanum lycopersicum) × LA0716 (S. pennellii) have been proven to be exceptionally useful for genetic analysis and gene cloning. The introgressions were originally defined by RFLP markers at their development. The objectives of this study are to develop polymorphic SSR markers, and to re-define the DNA introgression from LA0716 in the ILs. Tomato sequence data was scanned by software to generate SSR markers. In total, 829 SSRs, which could be robustly amplified by PCR, were developed. Among them, 658 SSRs were dinucleotide repeats, 162 were trinucleotide repeats, and nine were tetranucleotide repeats. The 829 SSRs together with 96 published RFLPs were integrated into the physical linkage map of S. lycopersicum. Introgressions of DNA fragments from LA0716 were re-defined among the 75 ILs using the newly developed SSRs. A specific introgression of DNA fragment from LA0716 was identified in 72 ILs as described previously by RFLP, whereas the specific DNA introgression described previously were not detected in the ILs LA4035, LA4059 and LA4091. The physical location of each investigated DNA introgression was finely determined by SSR mapping. Among the 72 ILs, eight ILs showed a shorter and three ILs (IL3-2, IL12-3 and IL12-3-1) revealed a longer DNA introgression than that framed by RFLPs. Furthermore, 54 previously undefined segments were found in 21 ILs, ranging from 1 to 11 DNA introgressions per IL. Generally, the newly developed SSRs provide additional markers for genetic studies of tomatoes, and the fine definition of DNA introgressions from LA0716 would facilitate the use of the ILs for genetic analysis and gene cloning. PMID:24339899

  6. Sequence-based SSR marker development and their application in defining the Introgressions of LA0716 (Solanum pennellii) in the background of cv. M82 (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Long, Wenbo; Li, Ye; Zhou, Wenjuan; Ling, Hong-Qing; Zheng, Shusong

    2013-01-01

    The introgression lines (ILs) from cv. M82 (Solanum lycopersicum) × LA0716 (S. pennellii) have been proven to be exceptionally useful for genetic analysis and gene cloning. The introgressions were originally defined by RFLP markers at their development. The objectives of this study are to develop polymorphic SSR markers, and to re-define the DNA introgression from LA0716 in the ILs. Tomato sequence data was scanned by software to generate SSR markers. In total, 829 SSRs, which could be robustly amplified by PCR, were developed. Among them, 658 SSRs were dinucleotide repeats, 162 were trinucleotide repeats, and nine were tetranucleotide repeats. The 829 SSRs together with 96 published RFLPs were integrated into the physical linkage map of S. lycopersicum. Introgressions of DNA fragments from LA0716 were re-defined among the 75 ILs using the newly developed SSRs. A specific introgression of DNA fragment from LA0716 was identified in 72 ILs as described previously by RFLP, whereas the specific DNA introgression described previously were not detected in the ILs LA4035, LA4059 and LA4091. The physical location of each investigated DNA introgression was finely determined by SSR mapping. Among the 72 ILs, eight ILs showed a shorter and three ILs (IL3-2, IL12-3 and IL12-3-1) revealed a longer DNA introgression than that framed by RFLPs. Furthermore, 54 previously undefined segments were found in 21 ILs, ranging from 1 to 11 DNA introgressions per IL. Generally, the newly developed SSRs provide additional markers for genetic studies of tomatoes, and the fine definition of DNA introgressions from LA0716 would facilitate the use of the ILs for genetic analysis and gene cloning.

  7. Transcriptome analysis and molecular marker discovery in Solanum incanum and S. aethiopicum, two close relatives of the common eggplant (Solanum melongena) with interest for breeding.

    PubMed

    Gramazio, P; Blanca, J; Ziarsolo, P; Herraiz, F J; Plazas, M; Prohens, J; Vilanova, S

    2016-04-23

    Solanum incanum is a close wild relative of S. melongena with high contents of bioactive phenolics and drought tolerance. S. aethiopicum is a cultivated African eggplant cross-compatible with S. melongena. Despite their great interest in S. melongena breeding programs, the genomic resources for these species are scarce. RNA-Seq was performed with NGS from pooled RNA of young leaf, floral bud and young fruit tissues, generating more than one hundred millions raw reads per species. The transcriptomes were assembled in 83,905 unigenes for S. incanum and in 87,084 unigenes for S. aethiopicum with an average length of 696 and 722 bp, respectively. The unigenes were structurally and functionally annotated based on comparison with public databases by using bioinformatic tools. The single nucleotide variant calling analysis (SNPs and INDELs) was performed by mapping our S. incanum and S. aethiopicum reads, as well as reads from S. melongena and S. torvum available on NCBI database (National Center for Biotechnology Information), against the eggplant genome. Both intraspecific and interspecific polymorphisms were identified and subsets of molecular markers were created for all species combinations. 36 SNVs were selected for validation in the S. incanum and S. aethiopicum accessions and 96 % were correctly amplified confirming the polymorphisms. In addition, 976 and 1,278 SSRs were identified in S. incanum and S. aethiopicum transcriptomes respectively, and a set of them were validated. This work provides a broad insight into gene sequences and allelic variation in S. incanum and S. aethiopicum. This work is a first step toward better understanding of target genes involved in metabolic pathways relevant for eggplant breeding. The molecular markers detected in this study could be used across all the eggplant genepool, which is of interest for breeding programs as well as to perform marker-trait association and QTL analysis studies.

  8. Dissection of the style's response to pollination using transcriptome profiling in self-compatible (Solanum pimpinellifolium) and self-incompatible (Solanum chilense) tomato species.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Panfeng; Zhang, Lida; Zhao, Lingxia

    2015-05-15

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) self-compatibility (SC) is defined as self-pollen tubes that can penetrate their own stigma, elongate in the style and fertilize their own ovules. Self-incompatibility (SI) is defined as self-pollen tubes that are prevented from developing in the style. To determine the influence of gene expression on style self-pollination, a transcriptome-wide comparative analysis of SC and SI tomato unpollinated/pollinated styles was performed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data. Transcriptome profiles of 24-h unpollination (UP) and self-pollination (P) styles from SC and SI tomato species were generated using high-throughput next generation sequencing. From the comparison of SC self-pollinated and unpollinated styles, 1341 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 753 were downregulated and 588 were upregulated. From the comparison of SI self-pollinated and unpollinated styles, 804 DEGs were identified, of which 215 were downregulated and 589 were upregulated. Nine gene ontology (GO) terms were enriched significantly in SC and 78 GO terms were enriched significantly in SI. A total of 105 enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were identified in SC and 80 enriched KEGG pathways were identified in SI, among which "Cysteine and methionine metabolism pathway" and "Plant hormone signal transduction pathway" were significantly enriched in SI. This study is the first global transcriptome-wide comparative analysis of SC and SI tomato unpollinated/pollinated styles. Advanced bioinformatic analysis of DEGs uncovered the pathways of "Cysteine and methionine metabolism" and "Plant hormone signal transduction", which are likely to play important roles in the control of pollen tubes growth in SI species.

  9. Microarray analysis of gene expression patterns in the leaf during potato tuberization in the potato somatic hybrid Solanum tuberosum and Solanum etuberosum.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Jagesh Kumar; Devi, Sapna; Sundaresha, S; Chandel, Poonam; Ali, Nilofer; Singh, Brajesh; Bhardwaj, Vinay; Singh, Bir Pal

    2015-06-01

    Genes involved in photoassimilate partitioning and changes in hormonal balance are important for potato tuberization. In the present study, we investigated gene expression patterns in the tuber-bearing potato somatic hybrid (E1-3) and control non-tuberous wild species Solanum etuberosum (Etb) by microarray. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and leaves were collected at eight tuber developmental stages for microarray analysis. A t-test analysis identified a total of 468 genes (94 up-regulated and 374 down-regulated) that were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) and differentially expressed in E1-3 and Etb. Gene Ontology (GO) characterization of the 468 genes revealed that 145 were annotated and 323 were of unknown function. Further, these 145 genes were grouped based on GO biological processes followed by molecular function and (or) PGSC description into 15 gene sets, namely (1) transport, (2) metabolic process, (3) biological process, (4) photosynthesis, (5) oxidation-reduction, (6) transcription, (7) translation, (8) binding, (9) protein phosphorylation, (10) protein folding, (11) ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, (12) RNA processing, (13) negative regulation of protein, (14) methylation, and (15) mitosis. RT-PCR analysis of 10 selected highly significant genes (p ≤ 0.01) confirmed the microarray results. Overall, we show that candidate genes induced in leaves of E1-3 were implicated in tuberization processes such as transport, carbohydrate metabolism, phytohormones, and transcription/translation/binding functions. Hence, our results provide an insight into the candidate genes induced in leaf tissues during tuberization in E1-3.

  10. Different combinations of morpho-physiological traits are responsible for tolerance to drought in wild tomatoes Solanum chilense and Solanum peruvianum.

    PubMed

    Tapia, G; Méndez, J; Inostroza, L

    2016-05-01

    Herbaceous species can modify leaf structure during the growing season in response to drought stress and water loss. Evolution can select combinations of traits in plants for efficient water use in restricted environments. We investigated plant traits that mediate adaptation and acclimation to water stress in two herbaceous drought-tolerant species. Anatomical, morphological and physiological traits related to stems and leaves were examined under optimal watering (OW) and a long period of restricted watering (RW) in 11 accessions from three Solanaceae species (Solanum chilense, S. peruvianum and S. lycopersicum). The relationships between these traits were tested using linear regression and PCA. There were significant differences in anatomical traits between the species under both OW and RW, where leaf area correlated with stem diameter. Proline and total carbohydrates accumulated highly in S. chilense and S. peruvianum, respectively, and these osmolytes were strongly correlated with increased osmotic potential. Stomatal density varied between species but not between acclimation treatments, while stomatal rate was significantly higher in wild tomatoes. There was a strong positive relationship between stem growth rate and a group of traits together expressed as total stomatal number. Total stomata is described by integration of leaf area, stomatal density, height and internode length. It is proposed that constitutive adaptations and modifications through acclimation that mediate RW play an important role in tolerance to drought stress in herbaceous plants. The capacity for growth under drought stress was not associated with any single combination of traits in wild tomatoes, since the two species differed in relative levels of expression of various phenotypic traits.

  11. Molluscicidal activity of Solanum elaeagnifolium seeds against Galba truncatula intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica: Identification of β-solamarine.

    PubMed

    Njeh, Fatma; Feki, Houda; Koubaa, Imed; Hamed, Nejia; Damak, Mohamed; Ayadi, Ali; Hammami, Hayet; Mezghani-Jarraya, Raoudha

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of fascioliasis in many developing countries urges the search for simple, cheap, and effective substances. In this view, plants provide interesting molluscicidal activities thanks to the secondary metabolites they produce. The genus Solanum is known for its potent effect on vector snails. The molluscicidal activity of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Solanaceae) seeds against Galba truncatula Müll. (Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica L. (Fasciolidae), was evaluated. Solanum elaeagnifolium seeds were powdered and successively extracted using n-hexane, methylene chloride, acetone, and methanol, for 20 h each. After filtration, solvents were evaporated. An acid-base treatment was conducted on seed methanolic extract to isolate total alkaloids and β-solamarine. Total saponins fraction was obtained after successive macerations and evaporations. The molluscicidal activity was evaluated by subjecting snails, in groups of 10, for 48 h to 500 mL of extracts, fractions, and pure product aqueous solutions, each containing amounts, ranging from 1 to 50 mg of plant material in 5 mg increments. The methanolic extract of seeds, β-solamarine isolated for the first time from this plant and total saponins fraction showed very potent activities on snails, giving respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 1.18, 0.49, and 0.94 mg/L. Total alkaloids fraction obtained from the methanolic extract was less active giving an LC50 value of 14.67 mg/L. This study emphasizes that glycoalkaloids and saponins of Solanum elaeagnifolium are potent molluscicidal agents. Seed methanolic extract, β-solamarine, and total saponins fraction may be used as molluscicides.

  12. Wild Relatives of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): New Understanding of Species Names in a Complex Group

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.; Prohens, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the “spiny” solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely based on crossing and other biosystematics data has been in use for approximately a decade. This system recognises several forms of two broadly conceived species, S. incanum L. and S. melongena. Recent morphological and molecular work has shown that species-level differences exist between these entities, and a new species-level nomenclature has been identified as necessary for plant breeders and for the maintenance of accurately named germplasm. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined herbarium specimens from throughout the wild species ranges as part of a larger revision of the spiny solanums of Africa. Based on these morphological and molecular studies, we delimited species in the group to which the common eggplant belongs and constructed identification keys for the group. We also examined the monophyly of the group considered as the eggplant relatives by previous authors. Conclusions/Significance We recognise ten species in this group: S. aureitomentosum Bitter, S. campylacanthum A.Rich., S. cerasiferum Dunal, S. incanum L., S. insanum L., S. lichtensteinii Willd., S. linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger, S. melongena L., S. rigidum Lam. and S. umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp. We review the history of naming and provide keys and character lists for all species. Ploidy level differences have not been investigated in the eggplant wild relatives; we identify this as a priority for improvement of crop wild relative use in breeding. The application of species-level names to these entities will help focus new collecting efforts for brinjal eggplant improvement and help facilitate information exchange. PMID:23451138

  13. Wild relatives of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): new understanding of species names in a complex group.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S; Prohens, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the "spiny" solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely based on crossing and other biosystematics data has been in use for approximately a decade. This system recognises several forms of two broadly conceived species, S. incanum L. and S. melongena. Recent morphological and molecular work has shown that species-level differences exist between these entities, and a new species-level nomenclature has been identified as necessary for plant breeders and for the maintenance of accurately named germplasm. We examined herbarium specimens from throughout the wild species ranges as part of a larger revision of the spiny solanums of Africa. Based on these morphological and molecular studies, we delimited species in the group to which the common eggplant belongs and constructed identification keys for the group. We also examined the monophyly of the group considered as the eggplant relatives by previous authors. WE RECOGNISE TEN SPECIES IN THIS GROUP: S. aureitomentosum Bitter, S. campylacanthum A.Rich., S. cerasiferum Dunal, S. incanum L., S. insanum L., S. lichtensteinii Willd., S. linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger, S. melongena L., S. rigidum Lam. and S. umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp. We review the history of naming and provide keys and character lists for all species. Ploidy level differences have not been investigated in the eggplant wild relatives; we identify this as a priority for improvement of crop wild relative use in breeding. The application of species-level names to these entities will help focus new collecting efforts for brinjal eggplant improvement and help facilitate information exchange.

  14. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Solanum Melongena Linn. in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity study according to OECD425 guidelines was done to find out the LD50 of test drug. Carrageenan induced paw oedema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena L. (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg b.w.) was used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st h, 3rd h, and 5th h after the carrageenan injection. Results: In acute oral toxicity study none of the animals died at the dose of 2000mg/kg. Aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn leaf in the dose of 200mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p <0.05) at 3rd hr and highly significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.001) at 5th hr; in the dose of 400 mg/kg, test drug showed p<0.01 at 3rd and p<0.001 at 5th hr and in the dose of 100mg/kg it showed significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at 5th hr. In doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of S. melongena L showed the percentage of inhibition of 42.62% which is less than the standard drug aspirin which showed 64.5% inhibition. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn has anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25738003

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of solanum melongena linn. In experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Umamageswari, M S; Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity. Acute oral toxicity study according to OECD425 guidelines was done to find out the LD50 of test drug. Carrageenan induced paw oedema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena L. (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg b.w.) was used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1(st) h, 3(rd) h, and 5(th) h after the carrageenan injection. In acute oral toxicity study none of the animals died at the dose of 2000mg/kg. Aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn leaf in the dose of 200mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p <0.05) at 3(rd) hr and highly significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.001) at 5(th) hr; in the dose of 400 mg/kg, test drug showed p<0.01 at 3(rd) and p<0.001 at 5(th) hr and in the dose of 100mg/kg it showed significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at 5(th) hr. In doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of S. melongena L showed the percentage of inhibition of 42.62% which is less than the standard drug aspirin which showed 64.5% inhibition. Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn has anti-inflammatory activity.

  16. BATATA: a buried muon hodoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, F.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Paic, G.; Salazar, M. E. Patiño; D'Olivo, J. C.; Molina, R. Alfaro

    2009-04-01

    Muon hodoscopes have several applications, ranging from astrophysics to fundamental particle physics. In this work, we present a detector dedicated to the study, at ground level, of the main signals of cosmic-ray induced showers above 6 PeV. The whole detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes buried at fix depths ranging from 120 g/cm2 to 600 g/cm2 and by a triangular array of water cerenkov detectors located nearby on ground.

  17. Ameliorative potential of Solanum trilobatum leaf extract and fractions on lipid profile and oxidative stress in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, KhaderSyed Zameer; Sidhra, Syed Zameer Ahmed; Ponmurugan, Ponnusamy; Kumar, Balasubramanian Senthil

    2016-09-01

    Solanum trilobatum Linn is a medicinal plants used in India from many centuries to cure various diseases. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the ameliorative potential of the ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Solanum trilobatum (St) against alloxan induced diabetic rats. Solanum trilobatum leaf extract and fractions were administered orally at two different concentration (100-200mg/kg body weight) to alloxan induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic efficacy was validated through various biochemical parameters, enzyme assays, renal markers and antioxidant properties were also determined. The phytochemical analyses of St leaves were done by estimating their Chlorophyll, carotenoids, total sugar, protein, amino acid and minerals contents. The results revealed that the leaf extracts and fractions of St were efficient anti hyperglycemic agents and posses potent nephro-protective activity. However, the extracts of St leaves at a concentration of 200mg/kg bw exhibit higher efficacy in all tested concentrations. From the result it can be concluded that the leaf extracts of St can be a potential candidate in treating the hyperglycemic conditions and justifies its use in ethano medicine and can be exploits in the management of diabetes.

  18. A comparative genetic linkage map of eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its implications for genome evolution in the solanaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Doganlar, Sami; Frary, Anne; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Lester, Richard N; Tanksley, Steven D

    2002-01-01

    A molecular genetic linkage map based on tomato cDNA, genomic DNA, and EST markers was constructed for eggplant, Solanum melongena. The map consists of 12 linkage groups, spans 1480 cM, and contains 233 markers. Comparison of the eggplant and tomato maps revealed conservation of large tracts of colinear markers, a common feature of genome evolution in the Solanaceae and other plant families. Overall, eggplant and tomato were differentiated by 28 rearrangements, which could be explained by 23 paracentric inversions and five translocations during evolution from the species' last common ancestor. No pericentric inversions were detected. Thus, it appears that paracentric inversion has been the primary mechanism for chromosome evolution in the Solanaceae. Comparison of relative distributions of the types of rearrangements that distinguish pairs of solanaceous species also indicates that the frequency of different chromosomal structural changes was not constant over evolutionary time. On the basis of the number of chromosomal disruptions and an approximate divergence time for Solanum, approximately 0.19 rearrangements per chromosome per million years occurred during the evolution of eggplant and tomato from their last ancestor. This result suggests that genomes in Solanaceae, or at least in Solanum, are evolving at a moderate pace compared to other plant species. PMID:12196412

  19. Syzygium jambos and Solanum guaraniticum show similar antioxidant properties but induce different enzymatic activities in the brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Gabriela; Bitencourt, Paula Rodrigues; Bona, Karine Santos de; Silva, Priscila Sabino da; Jantsch, Letícia B; Pigatto, Aline S; Boligon, Aline; Athayde, Margareth L; Gonçalves, Thissiane L; Moretto, Maria Beatriz

    2013-07-31

    Syzygium jambos and Solanum guaraniticum are both employed in Brazil as medicinal plants, even though their potential toxicity is not well established and they are frequently misused. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of both plants on δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities and the antioxidant action against oxidative damage induced by sodium nitroprusside in rats, using in vitro assays. In addition, the presence of gallic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids, as well as rutin, quercetin and kaempferol as bioactive compounds in the extracts was identified by HPLC and their levels quantified. The antioxidant activities of both extracts were assessed by their capabilities to scavenge nitric oxide and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Only Syzygium jambos presented thiol-peroxidase-like activity. Although neither extract affected the AChE activity, the aqueous extract of Solanum guaraniticum inhibited brain δ-ALA-D activity, suggesting a possible impairment effect on the central nervous system. Our results showed that both extracts exhibited efficient free radical scavenger activity and are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, although Solanum guaraniticum extract could have neurotoxicity properties and we therefore suggest that its use should be restricted to ensure the health of the population.

  20. Characterization and mapping of RPi-ber, a novel potato late blight resistance gene from Solanum berthaultii.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, G M; Smart, C D; Simko, I; Bonierbale, M; Mayton, H; Greenland, A; Fry, W E

    2006-02-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, threatens potato production worldwide. An important tool in the management of the disease is the use of resistant varieties. Eleven major resistance genes have been identified and introgressed from Solanum demissum. However, new sources of resistance are continually sought. Here, we report the characterization and refined genetic localization of a resistance gene previously identified as Rber in a backcross progeny of Solanum tuberosum and Solanum berthaultii. In order to further characterize Rber, we developed a set of P. infestans isolates capable of identifying each of the 11 R-genes known to confer resistance to late blight in potato. Our results indicate that Rber is a new resistance gene, different from those recognized in S. demissum, and therefore, it has been named RPi-ber according to the current system of nomenclature. In order to add new molecular markers around RPi-ber, we used a PCR-based mapping technique, named MASP-map, which located RPi-ber in a 3.9 cM interval between markers CT240 and TG63 on potato chromosome X. The location of RPi-ber coincides with an area involved in resistance to different pathogens of potato and tomato.

  1. Effect of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis extracts on histamine and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the chicken skin.

    PubMed

    Lomash, V; Parihar, S K; Jain, N K; Katiyar, A K

    2010-02-09

    We studied anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum leaves and Ricinus communis root bark using chicken skin as model. Leaves of these plants were dried under shade and powdered. 5% Ethanol extracts were prepared using Soxhlet and injected intraperitoneally (400 mg/kg) 1 hour prior to the induction of inflammation. Inflammatory lesion were induced by intradermal injection of 0.02 ml 0.05%w/v histamine (0-2 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr and 6 hr) and 1% w/v carrageenan (0-2 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr and 48 hr) in different group of birds. Increase in vascular permeability was studied using Evans blue as a permeability marker both qualitatively and quantitatively. Cellular events were studied in skin lesions at various time intervals and cells were counted at high power objective under microscope. Both, extracts exhibited significant decrease in permeability response at an early stage (0-2 min) of histamine as well as in carrageenan induced inflammatory lesions. There was a significant (p< 0.05) suppression in the emigration of heterophils, monocytoid cells, basophils and total leukocytosis in Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis pretreated chicken skin lesions as compared to the control. The present study suggested antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis.

  2. Intrusive trichome bases in the leaves of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium; Solanaceae) do not facilitate fluorescent tracer uptake.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Geoffrey E; White, Rosemary G; Harper, John D I; Heady, Roger D; Stanton, Rex A; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Wu, Hanwen; Lemerle, Deirdre

    2013-12-01

    Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade), having originated in the Americas, is now a serious summer-growing, perennial weed in many countries, including Australia. Most surfaces of the plants have a dense covering of trichomes, giving them a silvery-white appearance, hence the common name. We aimed to identify structural and functional properties of its leaves, especially the trichomes, that may affect the uptake of foliar-applied tracer dyes. The structure of leaves of Solanum elaeagnifolium was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The potential for transport of materials between trichomes and veins was studied with symplastic (carboxyfluorescein diacetate) and apoplastic (lucifer yellow) tracer dyes. Mature leaves had a dense covering of complex, stellate trichomes on both surfaces, particularly the abaxial. The basal cells of Solanum elaeagnifolium trichomes penetrated into the underlying palisade mesophyll layers. The innermost lobes of these basal cells sometimes contacted the bundle sheath of the veins, but were not observed to directly contact the xylem or phloem. We found that neither symplastic nor apoplastic dyes were transferred between the basal cells of the trichomes and the vascular tissues. The trichome layer repelled water-based tracer dyes, while one of four adjuvants tested facilitated entry of both symplastic and apoplastic dyes. Our results did not support a transport function for the trichomes. The trichomes may protect the mesophytic leaves from invertebrate herbivory, while also probably decreasing radiation absorbed resulting in cooler leaves in this summer-growing species.

  3. Influence of incorporated wild Solanum genomes on potato properties in terms of starch nanostructure and glycoalkaloid content.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Tiina; Ikonen, Teemu; Rokka, Veli-Matti; Kuronen, Pirjo; Serimaa, Ritva; Ollilainen, Velimatti

    2005-06-29

    Interspecific somatic hybrids produced by protoplast fusion between two wild Solanum species (S. acaule, acl; S. brevidens, brd) and cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum (tbr) were analyzed in terms of the starch nanometer-range structure and glycoalkaloid (GA) contents. The crystallinity of starch granules, the average size of starch crystallites, and the lamellar distances were obtained from tuber samples using wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering methods. These measurements showed that incorporation of wild genomes from either nontuberous (brd) or tuberous (acl) Solanum species caused no significant modifications of the nanostructure of potato starch. In contrast, the GA profiles of the hybrids, which were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS in both tuber and foliage samples, differed considerably from those of cultivated potato. Regardless of the low total tuber GA concentrations (approximately 9 mg/100 g of fresh weight), the somatic hybrids contained GAs not detected in the parental species. A high proportion of spirotype GAs consisting of 5,6-dihydrogenated aglycons, for example, alpha-tomatine and tomatidine bound with solatriose, and chacotriose were found in the hybrids. In conclusion, the foliage of interspecific hybrids contained a higher variation in the structures of GAs than did the tubers.

  4. Functionally Divergent Alleles and Duplicated Loci Encoding an Acyltransferase Contribute to Acylsugar Metabolite Diversity in Solanum Trichomes[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Moghe, Gaurav D.; Fan, Pengxiang; Ghosh, Banibrata; Ning, Jing; Jones, A. Daniel; Last, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Glandular trichomes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and other species in the Solanaceae produce and secrete a mixture of O-acylsugars (aliphatic esters of sucrose and glucose) that contribute to insect defense. Despite their phylogenetic distribution and diversity, relatively little is known about how these specialized metabolites are synthesized. Mass spectrometric profiling of acylsugars in the S. lycopersicum x Solanum pennellii introgression lines identified a chromosome 11 locus containing a cluster of BAHD acyltransferases with one gene (named Sl-ASAT3) expressed in tip cells of type I trichomes where acylsugars are made. Sl-ASAT3 was shown to encode an acyl-CoA-dependent acyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of short (four to five carbons) branched acyl chains to the furanose ring of di-acylsucrose acceptors to produce tri-acylsucroses, which can be further acetylated by Sl-ASAT4 (previously Sl-AT2). Among the wild tomatoes, diversity in furanose ring acyl chains on acylsucroses was most striking in Solanum habrochaites. S. habrochaites accessions from Ecuador and northern Peru produced acylsucroses with short (≤C5) or no acyl chains on the furanose ring. Accessions from central and southern Peru had the ability to add short or long (up to C12) acyl chains to the furanose ring. Multiple ASAT3-like sequences were found in most accessions, and their in vitro activities correlated with observed geographical diversity in acylsugar profiles. PMID:25862303

  5. Elicitation Based Enhancement of Secondary Metabolites in Rauwolfia serpentina and Solanum khasianum Hairy Root Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Mrinalini; Sharma, Swati; Misra, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rauwolfia serpentina and Solanum khasianum are well-known medicinally important plants contained important alkaloids in their different parts. Elicitation of these alkaloids is important because of associated pharmaceutical properties. Targeted metabolites were ajmaline and ajmalicine in R. serpentina; solasodine and α-solanine in S. khasianum. Objective: Enhancement of secondary metabolites through biotic and abiotic elicitors in hairy root cultures of R. serpentina and S. khasianum. Materials and Methods: In this report, hairy root cultures of these two plants were established through Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation by optimizing various parameters as age of explants, duration of preculture, and co-cultivation period. NaCl was used as abiotic elicitors in these two plants. Cellulase from Aspergillus niger was used as biotic elicitor in S. khasianum and mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in R. serpentina. Results: First time we have reported the effect of biotic and abiotic elicitors on the production of important metabolites in hairy root cultures of these two plants. Ajmalicine production was stimulated up to 14.8-fold at 100 mM concentration of NaCl after 1 week of treatment. Ajmaline concentration was also increased 2.9-fold at 100 mg/l dose of mannan after 1 week. Solasodine content was enhanced up to 4.0-fold and 3.6-fold at 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, respectively, after 6 days of treatments. Conclusion: This study explored the potential of the elicitation strategy in A. rhizogenes transformed cell cultures and this potential further used for commercial production of these pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites. SUMMARY Hairy roots of Rauwolfia serpentina were subjected to salt (abiotic stress) and mannan (biotic stress) treatment for 1 week. Ajmaline and ajmalicine secondary metabolites were quantified before and after stress treatmentAjmalicine yield was enhanced up to 14.8-fold at 100 mM concentration of Na

  6. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae

    PubMed Central

    Zasada, Inga A.; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A.; Ingham, Russ E.

    2013-01-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. ‘Russet Burbank,’ ‘Desiree,’ ‘Modac,’ ‘Norland,’ ‘Umatilla,’ and ‘Yukon Gold’ were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties ‘Maris Piper,’ ‘Atlantic,’ and ‘Satina,’ all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera

  7. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae.

    PubMed

    Zasada, Inga A; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A; Ingham, Russ E

    2013-09-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. 'Russet Burbank,' 'Desiree,' 'Modac,' 'Norland,' 'Umatilla,' and 'Yukon Gold' were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties 'Maris Piper,' 'Atlantic,' and 'Satina,' all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera ellingtonae hatched readily in PRD and TRD

  8. Phytoremediation Potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the Deleterious Effects of Methylmercury on the Reproductive System of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Frenedoso da Silva, Raquel; Missassi, Gabriela; dos Santos Borges, Cibele; Silva de Paula, Eloísa; Hornos Carneiro, Maria Fernanda; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n = 20) were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water), MeHg group (140 μg/Kg), Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow), and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group). The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg. PMID:24772420

  9. Phytoremediation potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the deleterious effects of methylmercury on the reproductive system of rats.

    PubMed

    Frenedoso da Silva, Raquel; Missassi, Gabriela; dos Santos Borges, Cibele; Silva de Paula, Eloísa; Hornos Carneiro, Maria Fernanda; Grotto, Denise; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n = 20) were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water), MeHg group (140 μg/Kg), Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow), and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group). The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg.

  10. Responses of grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersiocon L.) to abiotic stresses in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Abdulaziz; Hejazi, Ahmad; Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul

    2017-09-01

    Quantity and quality of irrigation water are considered the most imperative limiting factors for plant production in arid environment. Adoptions of strategies can minimize crop water consumption while nonexistent yield reduction is considered challenge for scholars especially in arid environment. Grafting is regarded as a promising tool to avoid or reduce yield loss caused by abiotic stresses. Tomato (Solanum lycopersium Mill.), commercial cultivar Faridah was grafted on Unifort rootstock and grown under regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) (100%, 80% and 60% ETc), using two types of irrigation water, fresh (EC = 0.86 dS/m) and brackish (EC = 3.52 dS/m). The effects of grafting and RDI on water use efficiency, vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality were investigated. Plant vegetative growth was reduced under water and salinity stresses. Grafting the plant significantly improves the vegetative growth under both conditions. The results showed that crop yield, Ca(+2) and K(+) were considerably increased in grafted tomato compared to non-grafted plants under water and salinity stresses. Grafted tomato plants accumulated less Na(+) and Cl(-), especially under high levels of salinity compared to non-grafted plants. Grafting tomato plants showed a slight decrease on the fruit quality traits such as vitamin C, titratable acidity (TA) and total soluble solids (TSS). This study confirmed that grafted tomato plants can mitigate undesirable impact of salt stress on growth and fruit quality.

  11. Infra-red Thermography for High Throughput Field Phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum

    PubMed Central

    Prashar, Ankush; Yildiz, Jane; McNicol, James W.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Jones, Hamlyn G.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions. PMID:23762433

  12. Metabolic Biosynthesis of Potato (Solanum tuberosum l.) Antioxidants and Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Lovat, Christie; Nassar, Atef M K; Kubow, Stan; Li, Xiu-Qing; Donnelly, Danielle J

    2016-10-25

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is common, affordable, readily stored, easily prepared for consumption, and nutritious. For these reasons, potato has become one of the top five crops consumed worldwide. Consequently, it is important to understand its contribution to both our daily and long-term health. Potato is one of the most important sources of antioxidants in the human diet. As such, it supports the antioxidant defense network in our bodies that reduces cellular and tissue toxicities that result from free radical-induced protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and DNA damage. In this way, potato antioxidants may reduce the risk for cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and even radiation damage. A better understanding of these components of potato is needed by the food industry, health professionals, and consumers. This review provides referenced summaries of all of the antioxidant groups present in potato tubers and updated schematics including genetic regulation for the major antioxidant biosynthesis pathways. This review complements current knowledge on the role of potato in human health. We hope it will provide impetus toward breeding efforts to develop cultivars with increased antioxidant capacity as 'functional foods' and encourage potato consumers and processors to work toward preservation of antioxidant capacity in cooked potato and potato products.

  13. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molluscicidal Activity of Some Solanum Species Extracts against the Snail Biomphalaria alexandrina

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T.; Zayed, Rawia A.; El-Sherbini, Eman T.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Snails' species are associated with transmission parasitic disease as intermediate host. Biological control stands to be a better alternative to the chemical controls aimed against snails. The search of herbal preparations that do not produce any adverse effects in the non-target organisms and are easily biodegradable remains a top research issue for scientists associated with alternative molluscicides control. Method. Solvent extracts of fresh mature leaves of S. nigrum, S. villosum, and S. sinaicum were tested against Biomphalaria alexandrina, a common intermediate host of schistosoma mansoni. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform: ethanol extract was performed to search for active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined. Results. Extracts isolated from mature leaves of Solanum species were found to be having molluscicidal properties. S. nigrum extract was recorded as the highest mortality rate. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (P < .05) mortality was recorded at a concentration of 90 ppm of ethanol extract of S. nigrum. Conclusion. Extract of mature leaves of S. nigrum exhibited molluscicidal activity followed by S. sinaicum and the less one was S. villosum. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for snails' molluscicidal agents. PMID:20721329

  15. Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities of the Egyptian weed, Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A H; Ramzy, R M

    1997-12-01

    The molluscicidal properties of Solanum nigrum L. were tested against three Egyptian snail species (Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Lymnaea natalensis), each an intermediate host of parasites causing human schistosomiasis or fascioliasis. The plant was collected in two regions within Egypt: Fayium and Giza. Snails were exposed for 24 and 48 h, to the dry powdered fruits and leaves or to crude water extracts of the powders, and mortality was recorded. The water extract of the leaves collected in Fayium (FLWE) had the highest molluscicidal activity, with median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 18.6 mg/litre for Bi. alexandrina, 14.5 mg/litre for Bu. truncatus and 17.7 mg/litre for L. natalensis. When Bi. alexandrina infected with Schistosoma mansoni were exposed to FLWE (20 or 25 mg/litre), they shed significantly fewer cercariae than unexposed snails (P < 0.02). The cercaricidal properties of FLWE were directly tested against S. haematobium, S. mansoni and Fasciola gigantica cercariae and a time-concentration relationship was observed; the concentrations needed to kill all cercariae (LC100) within 30 min of exposure were 30 mg/litre for both S. haematobium and S. mansoni and 40 mg/litre for F. gigantica.

  16. Photosynthetic and fluorescence responses of Solanum melangena L. to field application of dimethoate.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P K; Khillar, Rinakhi; Hansdah, Bishnupriya; Mohanty, R C

    2010-01-01

    The organophosphorus insecticide dimethoate, at field concentration (1.419+/-0.086mga.i.g(-1)fr.wt. of leaf tissue) did not cause any significant degradation of chlorophylls and carotenoids in Solanum melangena L. On the other hand, there was significant reduction of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance during 6h after spray application of the insecticide. Distinct change of OJIP fluorescence transient with increase of J and I rise and corresponding decrease in P rise was observed during 6h after insecticide application. The fluorescence parameters, viz., relative variable fluorescence at J level (V(j)), net rate of PS II closure (M(0)), energy dissipation (DI(0)/RC) and maximum trapping rate of active PS II (TR(0)/RC), during the same treatment period, showed significant increase but variable fluorescence (F(v)), fluorescence yield (TR(0)/Abs), electron transport probability (ET(0)/TR(0)), and activity of RC (ET(0)/RC) showed significant decrease. All physiological and fluorescence parameters, and the OJIP fluorescence transient recovered steadily to the control level during 48h after insecticide application. There was continuous reduction in the insecticide content of the leaf tissue during the observation period.

  17. Developmental plasticity, genetic assimilation, and the evolutionary diversification of sexual expression in Solanum.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Pamela K; Miller, Jill S

    2013-06-01

    For over a century, it has been hypothesized that selection can convert an environmentally induced phenotype (i.e., plasticity) into a fixed (constitutively produced) phenotype, a process known as genetic assimilation. While evidence of assimilation is accumulating, the role of plasticity generally and assimilation specifically in evolutionary diversification has rarely been examined from a comparative phylogenetic perspective. • We combined experimental analyses of plasticity with ancestral state reconstructions to examine the evolutionary dynamics of sexual expression in two well-characterized sections (Acanthophora and Lasiocarpa) in Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum. We examined sexual expression phenotypes and the proportion of staminate flowers produced under contrasting resource conditions in 10 species and combined these data with previous studies. • Staminate flower production was phenotypically plastic for nine of 14 species and unaffected by treatment in five species. Two of the nonplastic species bore few staminate flowers, and three constitutively produced large numbers of staminate flowers. For individuals and species producing staminate flowers, these flowers occurred in a distinctive architectural pattern that was qualitatively the same in both plastic and nonplastic species. Parsimony and Bayesian reconstructions demonstrate that plasticity is ancestral among the species studied. • Plasticity has been lost independently in sections Acanthophora and Lasiocarpa, and the consequence of its loss results in evolutionary diversification of sexual expression. In section Acanthophora, loss of plasticity represents a reversion to production of predominantly hermaphroditic flowers. In contrast, the fixed production of staminate flowers in Lasiocarpa has the hallmarks of evolution via genetic assimilation.

  18. Correlated evolution of fruit size and sexual expression in andromonoecious Solanum sections Acanthophora and Lasiocarpa (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Miller, Jill S; Diggle, Pamela K

    2007-10-01

    Andromonoecy is hypothesized to evolve as a mechanism enabling plants to independently allocate resources to female and male function. If staminate flower production is a mechanism to regulate allocation to female function (i.e., fruit production), then large-fruited species should be more strongly andromonoecious than smaller-fruited taxa because more resources are required to mature large fruit. We combined phylogenetically independent contrast analyses with extensive phenotypic characterization under common greenhouse conditions to examine the predicted relationship between fruit mass and the strength of andromonoecy among 13 species in Solanum sections Acanthophora and Lasiocarpa. The strength of andromonoecy, defined as the proportion of staminate flowers produced within inflorescences, was significantly and positively associated with fruit mass in both naïve and phylogenetically independent analyses. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that andromonoecy functions as a mechanism to regulate allocation to female function and suggest that the strength of andromonoecy is also associated with resource limitation. In general, we find that strong andromonoecy appears to arise via reductions in hermaphroditic flower number. However, increases in staminate flowers have also contributed to transitions to strong andromonoecy in certain species. Finally, our analyses identified a suite of correlated characters (flower size, ovary width, fruit mass) that are associated with changes in the sexual expression of andromonoecy.

  19. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils by using Solanum nigrum: A review.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Zia Ur; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Ok, Yong Sik; Ishaque, Wajid; Saifullah; Nawaz, Muhammad Farrakh; Akmal, Fatima; Waqar, Maqsooda

    2017-09-01

    Heavy metals are among the major environmental pollutants and the accumulation of these metals in soils is of great concern in agricultural production due to the toxic effects on crop growth and food quality. Phytoremediation is a promising technique which is being considered as an alternative and low-cost technology for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Solanum nigrum is widely studied for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils owing to its ability for metal uptake and tolerance. S. nigrum can tolerate excess amount of certain metals through different mechanism including enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and metal deposition in non-active parts of the plant. An overview of heavy metal uptake and tolerance in S. nigrum is given. Both endophytic and soil microorganisms can play a role in enhancing metal tolerance in S. nigrum. Additionally, optimization of soil management practices and exogenous application of amendments can also be used to enhance metal uptake and tolerance in this plant. The main objective of the present review is to highlight and discuss the recent progresses in using S. nigrum for remediation of metal contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molluscicidal Activity of Some Solanum Species Extracts against the Snail Biomphalaria alexandrina.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Zayed, Rawia A; El-Sherbini, Eman T

    2009-01-01

    Background. Snails' species are associated with transmission parasitic disease as intermediate host. Biological control stands to be a better alternative to the chemical controls aimed against snails. The search of herbal preparations that do not produce any adverse effects in the non-target organisms and are easily biodegradable remains a top research issue for scientists associated with alternative molluscicides control. Method. Solvent extracts of fresh mature leaves of S. nigrum, S. villosum, and S. sinaicum were tested against Biomphalaria alexandrina, a common intermediate host of schistosoma mansoni. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform: ethanol extract was performed to search for active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined. Results. Extracts isolated from mature leaves of Solanum species were found to be having molluscicidal properties. S. nigrum extract was recorded as the highest mortality rate. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (P < .05) mortality was recorded at a concentration of 90 ppm of ethanol extract of S. nigrum. Conclusion. Extract of mature leaves of S. nigrum exhibited molluscicidal activity followed by S. sinaicum and the less one was S. villosum. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for snails' molluscicidal agents.

  1. Nutrient composition of the leaves and flowers of Colocasia esculenta and the fruits of Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Ejoh, A R; Mbiapo, F T; Fokou, E

    1996-02-01

    The nutrient composition, of Colocasia esculenta flowers (CF) and leaves (CL), and the green fruits of Solanum melongena (SM) were carried out as a means to determine their nutritional potential. Results showed that these food materials had high moisture and fiber levels which ranged between 888 and 906 g.kg-1; and 204 and 303 g.kg-1 dry weight (dw) for moisture and fiber respectively. The calorific values were between 3889 and 4001 kcals.kg-1 dw, while the total lipids ranged from 53 in CF to 71 g.kg-1 dw in SM. The leaves of Colocasia esculenta had the highest crude protein value of 307 g.kg-1 dw. The flowers had 149 g.kg-1 dw while SM had 138 g.kg-1 dw. The amino acid profile in the flowers and leaves of Colocasia esculenta in contrast to SM were balanced comparable to the reference FAO pattern. Ash values were high (ranging from 76 in SM to 98 g.kg-1 in CL) with potassium being the principal element. Iron and Zinc levels were also high especially in CF (with 303 and 82 mg.kg-1 dw respectively). These foods also contained moderate quantities of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium but were poor in manganese and copper.

  2. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area. PMID:26902649

  3. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Stultiens, Catharina L. M.; de Groot, Peter F. M.; Powers, Stephen J.; Tikunov, Yury M.; Bovy, Arnoud G.; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development. PMID:25883382

  4. Rapid flooding-induced adventitious root development from preformed primordia in Solanum dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Thikra; Rieu, Ivo; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Derksen, Emiel B.; Mariani, Celestina; Visser, Eric J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Flooding is a common stress factor in both natural and agricultural systems, and affects plant growth by the slow diffusion rate of gases in water. This results in low oxygen concentrations in submerged tissues, and hence in a decreased respiration rate. Understanding the responses of plants to flooding is essential for the management of wetland ecosystems, and may benefit research to improve the flood tolerance of crop species. This study describes the response to partial submergence of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara). Bittersweet is a Eurasian species that grows both in dry habitats such as coastal dunes, and in wetlands, and therefore is a suitable model plant for studying responses to a variety of environmental stresses. A further advantage is that the species is closely related to flood-intolerant crops such as tomato and eggplant. The species constitutively develops dormant primordia on the stem, which we show to have a predetermined root identity. We investigated adventitious root growth from these primordia during flooding. The synchronized growth of roots from the primordia was detected after 2–3 days of flooding and was due to a combination of cell division and cell elongation. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the molecular response to flooding began within 2 h and included activation of hypoxia and ethylene signalling genes. Unexpectedly, these early changes in gene expression were very similar in primordia and adjacent stem tissue, suggesting that there is a dominant general response in tissues during early flooding. PMID:24790121

  5. Incidence of pests and viral disease on pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Sato, Takuma; Shinohara, Hirosuke; Takahata, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The solanaceous fruit crop pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.), originating in the Andes, is grown commercially in South American countries and New Zealand. In these areas, pests and diseases of pepino have been identified well; however, to date, these have seldom been investigated in detail in Japan. Herein, we attempt to reconstruct an agricultural production system for commercial pepino crops in Japan, and evaluate the incidence of pests and viral diseases on pepino. The findings of this study will facilitate in developing a better crop system for the commercial cultivation of healthy pepino fruits. New information A total of 11 species, comprising nine insects and two mites, were recognized as pests of pepino plants in our experimental fields in Kanagawa Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Of these pest species, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 and the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877, were remarkably abundant than the other pest species. Eventually, 13 species, including two previously recorded, are currently recognized as the pests of pepino in Japan. With regard to viruses, we tested two species Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), as well as three genera Carlavirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus. No virus was detected in symptomatic pepino leaves collected in our experimental fields. This is a first report on the identification of pests on pepino plants in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and elucidates the relationship between currently occurring pests of pepino plants and potential viral pathogens that they can transmit. PMID:28947875

  6. In vivo antitussive activity of a pectic arabinogalactan isolated from Solanum virginianum L. in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Raja, Washim; Nosalova, Gabriela; Ghosh, Kanika; Sivova, Veronika; Nosal, Slavomir; Ray, Bimalendu

    2014-10-28

    Solanum virginianum L. is used for the management of fever, bronchial asthma and cough for thousands of years. While the link to a particular indication has been established in human, the active principle of the formulation remains unknown. Herein, we have investigated a polysaccharide isolated from its leaves. Utilizing traditional aqueous extraction protocol and using chemical, chromatographic, spectroscopic and biological methods we have analysed an antitussive pectic arabinogalactan isolated from its leaves. The water extracted polymer (WEP) is a highly branched arabinogalactan containing, inter alia, (1,3)-, (1,6)- and (1,3,6)-linked β-Galp residues, terminal-, (1,5)- and (1,3,5)-linked units of α-Araf together with (1,2)- and (1,2,4)-linked Rhap. In vivo investigation on the citric-acid induced cough efforts in guinea pigs shows that the antitussive activity of the orally administered pectic arabinogalactan is greater than codeine phosphate. Remarkably, this macromolecule neither altered specific airway smooth muscle reactivity significantly nor it induced considerable change on levels of NO in expiratory flow in guinea pigs. Thus, traditional aqueous extraction method provides a molecular entity, which induces antitussive activity without addiction: this could represent an attractive approach in phytotherapeutic management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antigenotoxic and Antioxidant Properties of Solanum cernuum and Its Alkaloid, Cernumidine.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Jaqueline Lopes; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Miranda, Mariza Abreu; Lima, Marina; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-01-01

    Solanum cernuum VE. has been used extensively for the treatment of urinary disorders, gonorrhea and skin infections; cernumidine is a major component of S. cernuum (SC) hydroalcoholic extract. The micronucleus test in V79 cells was used to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of SC and cernumidine. For antigenotoxicity assessment, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, 44 µg/mL) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 3.5 µg/mL) were added as inducers of chromosome damage. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Significantly higher frequencies of micronuclei were observed in cell cultures treated with SC concentrations of 160 and 320 µg/mL in comparison with the negative control, demonstrating a genotoxic effect. There was no significant difference in the frequency of micronuclei between cell cultures treated with a combination of SC and MMS and those treated only with MMS. On the other hand, a significant reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was observed for V79 cells treated with SC or cernumidine plus H2O2 compared to those treated only with H2O2. Furthermore, SC and cernumidine were able to scavenge free radicals in the DPPH assay. Thus, the protective effect of SC and cernumidine against H2O2 can be attributed to antioxidant activity.

  8. Identification and QTL mapping of whitefly resistance components in Solanum galapagense.

    PubMed

    Firdaus, Syarifin; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Hidayati, Nurul; Supena, Ence Darmo Jaya; Mumm, Roland; de Vos, Ric C H; Visser, Richard G F; Vosman, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Solanum galapagense is closely related to the cultivated tomato and can show a very good resistance towards whitefly. A segregating population resulting from a cross between the cultivated tomato and a whitefly resistant S. galapagense was created and used for mapping whitefly resistance and related traits, which made it possible to study the genetic basis of the resistance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for adult survival co-localized with type IV trichome characteristics (presence, density, gland longevity and gland size). A major QTL (Wf-1) was found for adult survival and trichome characters on Chromosome 2. This QTL explained 54.1 % of the variation in adult survival and 81.5 % of the occurrence of type IV trichomes. A minor QTL (Wf-2) for adult survival and trichome characters was identified on Chromosome 9. The major QTL was confirmed in F3 populations. Comprehensive metabolomics, based on GCMS profiling, revealed that 16 metabolites segregating in the F2 mapping population were associated with Wf-1 and/or Wf-2. Analysis of the 10 most resistant and susceptible F2 genotypes by LCMS showed that several acyl sugars were present in significantly higher concentration in the whitefly resistant genotypes, suggesting a role for these components in the resistance as well. Our results show that whitefly resistance in S. galapagense seems to inherit relatively simple compared to whitefly resistance from other sources and this offers great prospects for resistance breeding as well as elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of the resistance.

  9. Quantitative resistance against Bemisia tabaci in Solanum pennellii: Genetics and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    van den Oever-van den Elsen, Floor; Lucatti, Alejandro F; van Heusden, Sjaak; Broekgaarden, Colette; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel; Vosman, Ben

    2016-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious threat in tomato cultivation worldwide as all varieties grown today are highly susceptible to this devastating herbivorous insect. Many accessions of the tomato wild relative Solanum pennellii show a high resistance towards B. tabaci. A mapping approach was used to elucidate the genetic background of whitefly-resistance related traits and associated biochemical traits in this species. Minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for whitefly adult survival (AS) and oviposition rate (OR) were identified and some were confirmed in an F2 BC1 population, where they showed increased percentages of explained variance (more than 30%). Bulked segregant analyses on pools of whitefly-resistant and -susceptible F2 plants enabled the identification of metabolites that correlate either with resistance or susceptibility. Genetic mapping of these metabolites showed that a large number of them co-localize with whitefly-resistance QTLs. Some of these whitefly-resistance QTLs are hotspots for metabolite QTLs. Although a large number of metabolite QTLs correlated to whitefly resistance or susceptibility, most of them are yet unknown compounds and further studies are needed to identify the metabolic pathways and genes involved. The results indicate a direct genetic correlation between biochemical-based resistance characteristics and reduced whitefly incidence in S. pennellii.

  10. Platelets and atherogenesis: Platelet anti-aggregation activity and endothelial protection from tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    PALOMO, IVÁN; FUENTES, EDUARDO; PADRÓ, TERESA; BADIMON, LINA

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that platelets are not only involved in the arterial thrombotic process, but also that they play an active role in the inflammatory process of atherogenesis from the beginning. The interaction between platelets and endothelial cells occurs in two manners: activated platelets unite with intact endothelial cells, or platelets in resting adhere to activated endothelium. In this context, inhibition of the platelet function (adhesion/aggregation) could contribute to the prevention of atherothrombosis, the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity. This can be achieved with antiplatelet agents. However, at the public health level, the level of primary prevention, a healthy diet has also been shown to exert beneficial effects. Among those elements of a healthy diet, the consumption of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) stands out for its effect on platelet anti-aggregation activity and endothelial protection, which may be beneficial for cardiovascular health. This article briefly discusses the involvement of platelets in atherogenesis and the possible mechanisms of action provided by tomatoes for platelet anti-aggregation activity and endothelial protection. PMID:22969932

  11. Stomatal Response to Light of Solanum pennellii, Lycopersicon esculentum, and a Graft-induced Chimera 1

    PubMed Central

    Heichel, Gary H.; Anagnostakis, Sandra L.

    1978-01-01

    To learn how species differences in stomatal behavior are regulated, the response of epidermal and leaf diffusive resistance to light was investigated in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanum pennellii Corr., and a periclinal chimera having an S. pennellii epidermis and an L. esculentum mesophyll that was produced from a graft of the two species. S. pennellii has about 23% fewer stomata per square millimeter than does L. esculentum, and the two species have contrasting stomatal sensitivities to light. The abaxial stomata of L. esculentum open in dimmer light and to a greater extent than the adaxial stomata. The abaxial and adaxial stomata of S. pennellii respond similarly to light incident on the adaxial epidermis and are less open at all quantum flux densities than comparable stomata of L. esculentum. The patterns of response to light of the abaxial and adaxial stomata of the chimera were practically identical to those of L. esculentum, and quite unlike those of S. pennellii. Thus, the pattern of stomatal light response in the chimera was regulated by the L. esculentum mesophyll. The reduction in stomatal frequency of the chimera, which was regulated by the epidermis of S. pennellii, contributed to the 40% difference in leaf diffusive resistance between the plants in moderate light. PMID:16660523

  12. Mobilization of storage materials during light-induced germination of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Jagiełło-Flasińska, Dominika; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Hermanowicz, Paweł; Appenroth, Klaus-J; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of storage materials in germinating tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds and to determine whether it is regulated by light via phytochromes. Wild type, single and multiple phytochrome A, B1 and B2 mutants were investigated. Imbibed seeds were briefly irradiated with far-red or far-red followed by red light, and germinated in darkness. Triacylglycerols and starch were quantified using biochemical assays in germinating seeds and seedlings during the first 5 days of growth. To investigate the process of fat-carbohydrate transformation, the activity of the glyoxylate cycle was assessed. Our results confirm the role of phytochrome in the control of tomato seed germination. Phytochromes A and B2 were shown to play specific roles, acting antagonistically in far-red light. While the breakdown of triacylglycerols proceeded independently of light, phytochrome control was visible in the next stages of the lipid-carbohydrate transformation. The key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, were regulated by phytochrome(s). This was reflected in a greater increase of starch content during seedling growth in response to additional red light treatment. This study is the first attempt to build a comprehensive image of storage material metabolism regulation by light in germinating dicotyledonous seeds.

  13. Histopathogenesis of the Galls Induced by Nothanguina phyllobia in Solanum elaeagnifolium

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, J. A.; Orr, C. C.; Robinson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    The histopathogenesis of the foliar galls induced by Nothanguina phyllobia Thorne in Solanum elaeagnilolium Cav. was examined via serial sections prepared from plant shoots at 11 time intervals (0.5-30 days) following inoculation. Nematodes infected the blades and petioles of young leaves surrounding the shoot apex. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the palisade, pith, cortical, and vascular parenchyma resulted in the formation of confluent leaf, petiole, and stem galls up to 25 cm³ in volume. Externally, leaf galls were irregular, light-green, convoluted spheroid bulges distending the abaxial surface. Mature galls contained a cavity lined with parenchymogenous nutritive tissue comprising intercellular spaces and actively dividing hypertrophied cells. These cells contained granular cytoplasm, hypertrophied nuclei, and brightly stained large nucleoli. Vascular tissues were not discernibly affected during the early stages of gall development. As gall development progressed, however, vascular elements were often displaced and disoriented. The histopathology of this nematode indicates that N. phyllobia is a highly specialized parasite and, for that reason, is suitable as a biological control agent. PMID:19300686

  14. The systemin precursor gene regulates both defensive and developmental genes in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Vasquez, Javier; Ryan, Clarence A

    2002-11-26

    Transformation of Solanum tuberosum, cv. Desiree, with the tomato prosystemin gene, regulated by the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter, resulted in constitutive increase in defensive proteins in potato leaves, similar to its effects in tomato plants, but also resulted in a dramatic increase in storage protein levels in potato tubers. Tubers from selected transformed lines contained 4- to 5-fold increases in proteinase inhibitor I and II proteins, >50% more soluble and dry weight protein, and >50% more total nitrogen and total free amino acids than found in wild-type tubers. These results suggest that the prosystemin gene plays a dual role in potato plants in regulating proteinase inhibitor synthesis in leaves in response to wounding and in regulating storage protein synthesis in potato tubers in response to developmental cues. The results indicated that components of the systemin signaling pathway normally found in leaves have been recruited by potato plants to be developmentally regulated to synthesize and accumulate large quantities of storage proteins in tubers.

  15. Functional characterization of the pollen-specific SBgLR promoter from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Lang, Zhihong; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jingjuan; Ao, Guangming; Zhao, Qian

    2008-01-01

    SBgLR (Solanum tuberosum genomic lysine-rich) gene was isolated from a potato genomic library using SB401 (S. berthaultii 401) cDNA as probe. RT-PCR analysis of SBgLR gene expression profile and microscopic analysis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in tobacco plants transformed with SBgLR promoter-GFP reporters indicate that SBgLR is a pollen-specific gene. A series of 5'deletions of SBgLR promoter were fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and stably introduced into tobacco plants. Histochemical and quantitative assays of GUS expression in transgenic plants allowed us to localize an enhancer of SBgLR promoter to the region -345 to -269 relative to the translation start site. This 76 bp (-345 to -269) fragment enhanced GUS expression in leaves, stems and roots when fused to -90/+6 CaMV 35S minimal promoter. Deletion analysis showed that a cis-element, which can repress gene expression in root hairs, was located in the region -345 to -311. Further study indicated that the -269 to -9 region was sufficient to confer pollen-specific expression of GFP when fused to CaMV 35S enhancer.

  16. Chemical-assisted phytoremediation of CD-PAHs contaminated soils using Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuanjie; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Hu, Yahu; Bao, Yanyu

    2011-09-01

    A well-characterized cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant Solanum nigrum was grown in Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil that was repeatedly amended with chemicals, including EDTA, cysteine (CY), salicylic acid (Sa), and Tween 80 (TW80), to test individual and combined treatment effects on phytoremediation of Cd-PAHs contaminated soils. Plant growth was negatively affected by exogenous chemicals except for EDTA. S. nigrum could accumulate Cd in tissues without assistant chemicals, while there was no visible effect on the degradation of PAHs. Cysteine had significant effects on phytoextraction of Cd and the highest metal extraction ratio (1.27%) was observed in 0.9 mmol/kg CY treatment. Both salicylic acid and Tween 80 had stimulative effects on the degradation of PAHs and there was the maximal degradation rate (52.6%) of total PAHs while 0.9 mmol/kg Sa was applied. Furthermore, the combined treatment T(0.1EDTA+0.9CY+0.5TW80) and T(0.5EDTA+0.9CY+03Sa) could not only increase the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, but also promote the degradation of PAHs. These results indicated that S. nigrum might be effective in phytoextracting Cd and enhancing the biodegradation of PAHs in the co-contaminated soils with assistant chemicals.

  17. Plant nutritional status modulates glutamine synthetase levels in ripe tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom).

    PubMed

    Scarpeci, Telma E; Marro, Martin L; Bortolotti, Santiago; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

    2007-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening implies that chloroplastic proteins are degraded and new proteins are synthesized. Supplementary nutrition is frequently required when tomato plants begin to fruit and continues until the end of the plant's life cycle. Ammonium assimilation is crucial in these fruit maturation and ripening processes. Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), the main ammonium-fixing enzyme in plants, could not be detected in red fruits of several tomato varieties when growing under standard nutrition. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nutritional status on the ammonium assimilation capacity of ripe tomato (cv. Micro-Tom) fruit. For this purpose, GS expression and protein profiles were followed in mature green and red fruits harvested from plants grown under standard or supplemented nutrition. Under standard nutrient regime (weekly supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution) GS activity was found in chloroplasts (GS2) of mature green fruits, but it was not detected either in the chromoplasts or in the cytosol of red fruits. When plants were shifted to a supplemented nutritional regime (daily supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution), GS was found in red fruits. Also, cytosolic transcripts (gs1) preferentially accumulated in red fruits under high nutrition. These results indicate that mature green Micro-Tom fruits assimilate ammonia through GS2 under standard nutrition, while ripe red fruits accumulate GS1 under high nutrition, probably in order to assimilate the extra N-compounds made available through supplemented nutrition.

  18. Anthocyanin accumulation and molecular analysis of anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli; Chu, Guihua; Huang, Cheng; Tian, Shibing; Zhao, Zhiping; Chen, Guoping

    2014-04-02

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an edible fruit vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide. The purple eggplant is more eye-catching and popular for the health-promoting anthocyanins contained in the fruit skin. Two kinds of anthocyanin were separated and identified from purple cultivar (Zi Chang) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in eggplant, the transcripts of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in the fruit skin and the flesh of the purple cultivar and the white cultivar (Bai Xue). Compared with the other tissues, SmMYB1 and all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes except PAL were dramatically upregulated in the fruit skin of the purple cultivar. Overexpression of SmMYB1 activated abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the regenerating shoots of eggplant. These results prove that transcriptional activation of SmMYB1 accounts for constitutive upregulation of most anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the onset of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar.

  19. A new γ-alkylated-γ-butyrolactone from the roots of Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Huo, Hui-Xia; Huang, Zheng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jun; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2015-09-01

    A new γ-alkylated-γ-butyrolactone, named melongenolide A (1), along with nine known compounds were obtained from the roots of Solanum melongena, and their structures were identified as melongenolide A (1), (+)-syringaresinol (2), (+)-lyoniresinol (3), 5,5'-dimethoxy lariciresinol (4), (+)-(7R,8R)-4-hydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8',9'-dinor-8,4'-oxyneoligna-7, 9-diol-7'-aldehyde (5), kaempferol-3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl)-β-glucoside (6), arjunolic acid (7), vanillic acid (8), scoparone (9), and β-sitosterol (10). Compounds 2, 6, and 7 showed potent inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC50 values being 5.62 ± 0.86, 11.47 ± 0.98, and 27.75 ± 1.26 μmol·L(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae): comments on.

    PubMed

    Samuels, John

    2013-04-01

    In the recent paper by Meyer et al. (2012) some of the taxonomic assumptions relating to the closest wild relatives of Solanum melongena L., the brinjal eggplant, are unsupported. This group is well-known for its taxonomic difficulties, therefore a consistent approach to the identification, nomenclature and species concepts of experimental plant material is essential to the fullest interpretation of the results of a genomic study such as theirs. Effectively, Meyer et al., treat several of the brinjal wild relatives in their study as being conspecific. Neither their nrITS nor AFLP analysis gives confirmation of this. On this basis, the correct name for the taxon known as S. melongena group F is S. cumingii Dunal. This species is distinct from S. incanum L., which is found only as far eastwards as northern India. S. incanum and S. insanum sensu Lester and Hasan are distinct taxa. Meyer et al. hypothesise that there were two separate domestication events for brinjal; re-examination of their data suggests that there was a single domestication event, that took place in India. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinico-Immunological Analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Allergy Indicates Preponderance of Allergens in the Peel.

    PubMed

    Babu, Bheemanapalli N Harish; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2009-09-01

    : Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking. : The objective is to investigate sensitization to different parts of eggplant fruit, and detection of the allergens. : Six eggplant-allergic subjects were assessed for sensitization to eggplant (peel/pulp, and raw/cooked) by skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE, and immunoblots. Allergens were analyzed for glycoprotein nature by staining/lectinoblots, and in vitro stability in simulated gastric fluid. : All the eggplant-sensitized subjects showed positive skin prick test with peel, pulp, raw, and cooked eggplant extracts; allergen-specific IgE to all these was positive. Raw eggplant contains 5 allergens in the range 36-71 kD. Most allergens are localized in the eggplant peel (9 allergens; 26-71 kD range) than the pulp (3 allergens; 52-71 kD); among these, the 26, 28, 36, and 71 kD allergens seem to be heat-stable. The 43, 45, 64, and 71 kD allergens are detected as glycoproteins; the 26, 64, and 71 kD allergens are stable displaying retention of IgE-binding ability in simulated gastric fluid digestion. : Eggplant is a multiallergenic vegetable in the context of presence of allergens in all edible parts of eggplant having preponderance in the peel.

  2. Short-Term Water Deficit Changes Cuticular Sterol Profile in the Eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Haliński, Łukasz P; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Crop irrigation uses a majority of a total world water supply, at the same time displaying low efficiency. As the expected, future water requirements are higher than the current ones; there is a risk of a growing deficit of water for the agricultural use. Hence, there is an arising need for better understanding the effects of water deprivation on the crop plants. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a vegetable crop cultivated in arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Because of its high water demands, the eggplant is a convenient model organism for studies concerning the effects of water deficit on the plant growth. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of short-term water deficit on eggplant leaf cuticular waxes and total sterols. Water deprivation did not affect the amount and composition of aliphatic components of cuticular waxes. Significant decrease in the total cuticular sterols and the increase in cuticular cholesterol were observed as an effect of water deficit. In contrast, some of the free internal sterols were more abundant in water-deprived plants. The possible importance of these observations, including increased biosynthesis of defensive compounds and the need to maintain the cell membrane stability, was discussed. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Development of SSR markers derived from SSR-enriched genomic library of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Nunome, Tsukasa; Negoro, Satomi; Kono, Izumi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Miyatake, Koji; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Ohyama, Akio; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2009-10-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), also known as aubergine or brinjal, is an important vegetable in many countries. Few useful molecular markers have been reported for eggplant. We constructed simple sequence repeat (SSR)-enriched genomic libraries in order to develop SSR markers, and sequenced more than 14,000 clones. From these sequences, we designed 2,265 primer pairs to flank SSR motifs. We identified 1,054 SSR markers from amplification of 1,399 randomly selected primer pairs. The markers have an average polymorphic information content of 0.27 among eight lines of S. melongena. Of the 1,054 SSR markers, 214 segregated in an intraspecific mapping population. We constructed cDNA libraries from several eggplant tissues and obtained 6,144 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. From these sequences, we designed 209 primer pairs, 7 of which segregated in the mapping population. On the basis of the segregation data, we constructed a linkage map, and mapped the 236 segregating markers to 14 linkage groups. The linkage map spans a total length of 959.1 cM, with an average marker distance of 4.3 cM. The markers should be a useful resource for qualitative and quantitative trait mapping and for marker-assisted selection in eggplant breeding.

  4. Profiling and characterization of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) microRNAs and their targets.

    PubMed

    Din, Muhammad; Barozai, Muhammad Younas Khan

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-protein coding and functional RNAs. They play negative regulatory role in gene regulation. They are endogenous in nature and are ~21 nucleotides in length. They are reported in many plant species, but still missing and need to be identified in other important plants like; eggplant. The comparative genomic methodology due to their conserved nature is a reasonable approach for the novel miRNAs discovery. In this research, total 76 novel miRNAs from 67 families were identified in the important vegetable eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). All precursor miRNAs form stable minimum free energy secondary structures and the mature miRNAs reside in the stem regions. Furthermore, eight miRNAs were randomly selected and experimentally validated through RT-PCR. A total of 345 putative targets were also identified for the novel 76 eggplant miRNAs. Their targets are involved in regulation, metabolism, transcription factors, growth and development and other physiological processes. These findings provide a baseline to unravel the miRNAs role in eggplant and utilize them for the improvement of the plant biology.

  5. Clinico-Immunological Analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Allergy Indicates Preponderance of Allergens in the Peel

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking. Objective The objective is to investigate sensitization to different parts of eggplant fruit, and detection of the allergens. Methods Six eggplant-allergic subjects were assessed for sensitization to eggplant (peel/pulp, and raw/cooked) by skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE, and immunoblots. Allergens were analyzed for glycoprotein nature by staining/lectinoblots, and in vitro stability in simulated gastric fluid. Results All the eggplant-sensitized subjects showed positive skin prick test with peel, pulp, raw, and cooked eggplant extracts; allergen-specific IgE to all these was positive. Raw eggplant contains 5 allergens in the range 36-71 kD. Most allergens are localized in the eggplant peel (9 allergens; 26-71 kD range) than the pulp (3 allergens; 52-71 kD); among these, the 26, 28, 36, and 71 kD allergens seem to be heat-stable. The 43, 45, 64, and 71 kD allergens are detected as glycoproteins; the 26, 64, and 71 kD allergens are stable displaying retention of IgE-binding ability in simulated gastric fluid digestion. Conclusions Eggplant is a multiallergenic vegetable in the context of presence of allergens in all edible parts of eggplant having preponderance in the peel. PMID:23283148

  6. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) polyphenol oxidase multi-gene family: a phylogenetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jukanti, Aravind Kumar; Bhatt, Ramakrishna

    2015-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) in different Solanum species including eggplant have been studied. PPOs have been implicated in undesirable enzymatic browning of eggplant fruit and also in plant defense. The main objective of this study was to identify and accelerate the further functional characterization of additional eggplant PPOs that are involved in food biochemistry and defense-related functions. Eggplant PPOs identified earlier were used in "Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST)" search against expressed sequence tag and nucleotide databases. We have identified seven additional sequences which were almost complete in length. The sequences of the PPOs were aligned and their phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships established. The sequences are quite diverse, broadly falling into two major clusters; three PPOs form a separate branch/minor cluster. The thirteen sequences had conserved copper A binding sites but copper B binding sites differed considerably in two new PPO sequences (AFJ79642 and ACR61398). A third conserved 'Histidine-rich' region has been identified at the 'C' terminus of the eggplant PPOs. In addition, all the seven new PPOs exhibited at least one glycosylated sequon in the mature PPO sequence. Identification of additional PPO genes will further help in functional and biological characterization of these PPOs.

  7. Nonomuraea solani sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from eggplant root (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Jidong; Shen, Yue; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Chao; Xiang, Wensheng

    2013-07-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Z6(T), was isolated from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) root. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain NEAU-Z6(T) belonged to the genus Nonomuraea, with highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea monospora PT 708(T) (98.83 %), Nonomuraea rosea GW 12687(T) (98.55 %) and Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM 67092(T) (98.02 %). Sequence similarities between strain NEAU-Z6(T) and other species of the genus Nonomuraea ranged from 97.94 % (Nonomuraea candida HMC10(T)) to 96.30 % (Nonomuraea wenchangensis 210417(T)). Key morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain NEAU-Z6(T) were congruent with the description of the genus Nonomuraea. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.51 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness and comparative analysis of physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain NEAU-Z6(T) from closely related species. Thus, strain NEAU-Z6(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea solani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Z6(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7037(T) = DSM 45729(T)).

  8. Metal translocation patterns in Solanum melongena grown in close proximity to traffic.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Zereini, Fathi; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine tissue patterns of metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in Solanum melongena cultivated in close proximity to traffic to help elucidate associated elemental deposition and soil-to-root and root-to-shoot transfers. Plants were cultivated in a commercial soil mix at three sites in Toronto, Canada. Metal concentrations were determined on microwave-digested bulk and rhizosphere soil and tissue samples per ICP-MS, along with two standard reference materials (NIST #1570a and #2709a). Unwashed and washed S. melongena samples were also analyzed, along with Origanum vulgare plants from the same sites, to assess the effectiveness of washing in reducing metal concentrations. The tissue distribution of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb demonstrated variability as a function of traffic proximity. Copper was found to easily translocate to roots in soils susceptible to waterlogging, while Cd had the highest soil-to-root and root-to-shoot translocation. The translocation of Cd was highest at the roadside site, due to a greater relative enrichment of this metal in the rhizosphere of S. melongena plants. Washing O. vulgare leaves was more effective in removing metal-associated particles compared to S. melongena samples. Cadmium uptake is of greatest concern given its toxicity and translocation potential.

  9. [Bioinformatic prediction of conserved microRNAs and their target genes in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Chao, Jiang-Tao; Cui, Meng-Meng; Chen, Ya-Qiong; Zong, Peng; Sun, Yu-He

    2011-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a recently discovered class of small (-21nt), non-coding, endogenous, single-stranded RNAs in eukaryotes, regulate gene expression negatively at the post-transcriptional levels depending on the extent of complementation between miRNA and mRNA. To date, a large number of miRNAs have been reported in many species, but none for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). In this paper, a computational homology search approach based on the conservation of miRNA sequences and the stem-loop hairpin secondary structures of miRNAs was adopted. The search was started with the known plant miRNAs compared to eggplant expressed sequence tags (EST) databases to find potential miRNAs. Following a range of filtering criteria, a total of 16 potential miRNAs belonging to 12 families were identified. Three pairs of sense and antisense strand eggplant miRNAs belonging to three different miRNA families were also found. Furthermore, miR390 and miR399 sense/antisense pairs are identified for the first time in plants. Using online software psRNATarget, we further predicted the target genes of these 16 miRNAs and got 71 potential targets genes on base of 15 eggplant miRNAs. Most of these target genes were predicted to encode proteins that play key role in eggplant growth, development, metabolism, and stress responses.

  10. Proteomic evaluation of wound-healing processes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Inês; Pinheiro, Carla; Paiva, Jorge A P; Planchon, Sébastien; Sergeant, Kjell; Renaut, Jenny; Graça, José A; Costa, Gonçalo; Coelho, Ana V; Ricardo, Cândido P Pinto

    2009-09-01

    Proteins from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber slices, related to the wound-healing process, were separated by 2-DE and identified by an MS analysis in MS and MS/MS mode. Slicing triggered differentiation processes that lead to changes in metabolism, activation of defence and cell-wall reinforcement. Proteins related to storage, cell growth and division, cell structure, signal transduction, energy production, disease/defence mechanisms and secondary metabolism were detected. Image analysis of the 2-DE gels revealed a time-dependent change in the complexity of the polypeptide patterns. By microscopic observation the polyalyphatic domain of suberin was clearly visible by D4, indicating that a closing layer (primary suberisation) was formed by then. A PCA of the six sampling dates revealed two time phases, D0-D2 and D4-D8, with a border position between D2 and D4. Moreover, a PCA of differentially expressed proteins indicated the existence of a succession of proteomic events leading to wound-periderm reconstruction. Some late-expressed proteins (D6-D8), including a suberisation-associated anionic peroxidase, have also been identified in the native periderm. Despite this, protein patterns of D8 slices and native periderm were still different, suggesting that the processes of wound-periderm formation are extended in time and not fully equivalent. The information presented in this study gives clues for further work on wound healing-periderm formation processes.

  11. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and. alpha. -tocopherol content of stored potato tubers. [Solanum tuberosum L

    SciTech Connect

    Spychalla, J.P.; Desborough, S.L. )

    1990-11-01

    Activated oxygen or oxygen free radical mediated damage to plants has been established or implicated in many plant stress situations. The extent of activated oxygen damage to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers during low temperature storage and long-term storage is not known. Quantitation of oxygen free radical mediated damage in plant tissues is difficult. However, it is comparatively easy to quantitate endogenous antioxidants, which detoxify potentially damaging forms of activated oxygen. Three tuber antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol were assayed from four potato cultivars stored at 3{degree}C and 9{degree}C for 40 weeks. Tubers stored at 3{degree}C demonstrated increased superoxide dismutase activities (up to 72%) compared to tubers stored at 9{degree}C. Time dependent increases in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol occurred during the course of the 40 week storage. The possible relationship between these increases in antioxidants and the rate of activated oxygen production in the tubers is discussed.

  12. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. "Longshu No. 3") plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  13. Induction of systemic resistance in different varieties of Solanum tuberosum by pure and crude elicitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Bariya, Himanshu S; Thakkar, Vasudev R; Thakkar, Amit N; Subramanian, R B

    2011-02-01

    A 10 kD elicitor protein (infestin) produced by Phytopthora infestans was purified and its efficacy for induction of systemic resistance in resistant and susceptible varieties of Solanum tuberosum was studied. Culture filtrates from P. infestans with and without purified elicitor (infestin) were used as elicitors to understand the effect of purified elicitor (infestin) on development of systemic resistance. Culture filtrate and purified elicitor (infestin) were found to induce hypersensitive reaction on the leaves of resistant varieties, but not on susceptible varieties after 48 h. Culture filtrate devoid of purified elicitor (infestin) did not induce any necrotic spots even on resistant variety. Purified elicitor (infestin) was found to induce glucose oxidase, NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, catalase and peroxidase enzymes in resistant S. tuberosum plants, however the induction of these enzymes was low in susceptible varieties. The oxidative enzymes were found to induce earlier than antioxidative enzymes and there was negative correlation between these two groups of enzymes. Levels of salicylic acid, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), beta-1, 3 glucanase and chitinase activities were also found higher in resistant than in susceptible varieties. It was observed that purified elicitor (infestin) was superior to crude culture filtrate, but was not capable of inducing systemic resistance in susceptible varieties.

  14. Invasion of Solanum tuberosum L. by Aspergillus terreus: a microscopic and proteomics insight on pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Roy, Pranab; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Singh, Mohendro Wakambam; Chandradev, Sharma K; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-06-10

    Aspergillus terreus is one of the most harmful filamentous fungal pathogen of humans, animals and plants. Recently, researchers have discovered that A. terreus can cause foliar blight disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). We used light and scanning electron microscopy, and performed proteomics analysis in an attempt to dissect the invasion process of A. terreus in this important crop. Microscopic study revealed that invasion of leaf tissue is marked by rapid germination of A. terreus phialidic conidia (PC) by 4 h after inoculation. By 8 h after inoculation, primary germ tubes from PC differentiated into irregular protuberance, often displayed stomata atropism, and failed to penetrate via the epidermal cells. Colonization of leaf tissues was associated with high rate of production of accessory conidia (AC). These analyses showed the occurrence of a unique opposing pattern of AC, tissue-specific and produced on melanized colonizing hyphae during the infection of leaf tissue. A significant proteome change hallmarked by differential expression of class I patatin, lipoxygenase, catalase-peroxidase complex, and cysteine proteinase inhibitor were observed during tuber colonization. These proteins are often involved in signal transduction pathways and crosstalk in pathogenic responses. A. terreus abundantly produced AC and multipolar germinating PC to invade potato leaf tissue. Additionally, A. terreus differentially induced enzymes in potato tuber during colonization which facilitates rapid disease development.

  15. A large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Koszela-Piotrowska, Izabela; Matkovic, Karolina; Szewczyk, Adam; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2009-11-11

    In the present study, we describe the existence of a novel potassium channel in the plant [potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber] mitochondrial inner membrane. We found that substances known to modulate large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity influenced the bioenergetics of potato tuber mitochondria. In isolated mitochondria, Ca2+ and NS1619 {1,3-dihydro-1-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-ben-zimidazole-2-one; a potassium channel opener} were found to depolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential and to stimulate resting respiration. These effects were blocked by iberiotoxin (a potassium channel inhibitor) in a potassium-dependent manner. Additionally, the electrophysiological properties of the large-conductance potassium channel present in the potato tuber inner mitochondrial membrane are described in a reconstituted system, using planar lipid bilayers. After incorporation in 50/450 mM KCl gradient solutions, we recorded large-conductance potassium channel activity with conductance from 502+/-15 to 615+/-12 pS. The probability of channel opening was increased by Ca2+ and reduced by iberiotoxin. Immunological analysis with antibodies raised against the mammalian plasma-membrane large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channel identified a pore-forming alpha subunit and an auxiliary beta2 subunit of the channel in potato tuber mitochondrial inner membrane. These results suggest that a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel similar to that of mammalian mitochondria is present in potato tuber mitochondria.

  16. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia: screening of Solanum macrocarpon Linn (Solanaceae) as a medicinal plant in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Dougnon, Tamègnon Victorien; Bankolé, Honoré Sourou; Klotoé, Jean Robert; Sènou, Maximin; Fah, Lauris; Koudokpon, Hornel; Akpovi, Casimir; Dougnon, Tossou Jacques; Addo, Phyllis; Loko, Frédéric; Boko, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100. Materials and Methods: The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o.) for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were analyzed by the Brown-Forsythe ANOVA, Dunnett’s T3 multiple comparison test, and Dunnett’s t test. All tests were done at the 5% significance level. Results: Administration of S. macrocarpon (fruits as well as leaves) resulted in a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the treated groups compared with the untreated hypercholesterolemic group, regardless of the administrated doses. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was observed in the treated groups. Hepatic disorders due to the Triton have been corrected by S. macrocarpon. Conclusions: This vegetable effectively suppresses experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats, suggesting a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Its use by individuals at risk should be promoted. PMID:25050314

  17. Shade affects responses to drought and flooding - acclimation to multiple stresses in bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L.).

    PubMed

    Visser, E J W; Zhang, Q; De Gruyter, F; Martens, S; Huber, H

    2016-01-01

    Plants exposed to environmental stress often respond by a change in their phenotypic traits. These changes in trait expression may alleviate the negative effect of such stress factors. However, if multiple stresses are present, responses are likely to be less predictable and hence do not necessarily correlate to plant performance. This study tested if this expectation was true, by subjecting Solanum dulcamara plants to various simultaneous stress factors. Plants were grown in well-watered conditions, drought or flooding, and exposed to either full light or shade for 4 weeks. Shoot and root biomass, stem morphological parameters, such as height, number of nodes and length of stem internodes, and leaf traits like length, specific leaf area, chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance were determined. Both variation in light and in water availability typically caused slower growth, and resulted in distinct phenotypic changes in stem, leaf and root traits. However, effects of stresses on the expression of traits were not always additive. Instead, some combined stress responses (e.g. leaf size) appeared to be limited by physical or physiological constraints, whereas other responses were opposite to each other (e.g. root:shoot ratio), resulting in an intermediate phenotype in the combined stress treatment. These data suggest that in natural conditions, where combined stress factors are likely to be present, the optimal phenotype may not necessarily be expressed. Responses of plants to multiple stress factors may therefore not be associated with immediate advantages in terms of increased performance.

  18. Gene expression analysis of metallothionein and mineral elements uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Kısa, Dursun; Öztürk, Lokman; Tekin, Şaban

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals such as Cd are considered to be the most important pollutants in soil contamination. Cd is a non-essential element adversely affecting plant growth and development, and it has caused some physiological and molecular changes. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, and metal binding proteins. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the MT gene expression levels and minerals uptake in the tissues of Solanum lycopersicum exposed to Cd. The transcriptional expression of the MT genes was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The MT genes were regulated by the Cd and the mineral elements uptake changed tissue type and applied doses. The MT1 and MT2 transcript levels increased in the roots, the leaves and the fruits of the tomato. The MT3 and MT4 transcript pattern changed according to the tissue types. The Cd treatment on the growth medium increased the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and fruits of the tomato. However, the Cd affected the mineral levels in the roots depending on the mineral types and doses. Also, the Cd content increased in the roots, the leaves, and the fruits of the tomato, respectively. The results presented in this study show that Cd has synergistic and/or antagonistic effects on minerals depending on the tissue types. These results indicate that the MT1 and MT2 expression pattern increased together with the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and the fruits of the tomato.

  19. Identification of a Solanum pennellii Chromosome 4 Fruit Flavor and Nutritional Quality-Associated Metabolite QTL

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongyuan; Alseekh, Saleh; Brotman, Yariv; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Tieman, Denise M.; Giovannoni, James J.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Klee, Harry J.

    2016-01-01

    A major resource for tomato quality improvement and gene discovery is the collection of introgression lines (ILs) of cultivated Solanum lycopersicum that contain different, defined chromosomal segments derived from the wild tomato relative, S. pennellii. Among these lines, IL4-4, in which the bottom of S. lycopersicum (cv. M82) chromosome 4 is replaced by the corresponding S. pennellii segment, is altered in many primary and secondary metabolites, including many related to fruit flavor and nutritional quality. Here, we provide a comprehensive profile of IL4-4 ripe fruit metabolites, the transcriptome and fine mapping of sub-ILs. Remarkably, out of 327 quantified metabolites, 185 were significantly changed in IL4-4 fruit, compared to the control. These altered metabolites include volatile organic compounds, primary and secondary metabolites. Partial least squares enhanced discriminant analysis of the metabolite levels among sub-ILs indicated that a genome region encompassing 20 putative open reading frames is responsible for most of the metabolic changes in IL4-4 fruit. This work provides comprehensive insights into IL4-4 fruit biochemistry, identifying a small region of the genome that has major effects on a large and diverse set of metabolites. PMID:27881988

  20. Potential use of Solanum melongena in agricultural areas with high mercury background concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M J; Millán, R; Esteban, E

    2008-06-01

    Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) is a native culture from India, found throughout the world, and is one of the most popular vegetables in the Mediterranean area. This work evaluates the potential use of eggplant as an economic alternative in an area with high mercury background concentrations. This implies the study of several factors such as the mercury absorption capacity of eggplant and the capacity of the soil for agricultural use. The research work has been carried out using soil from the mercury mining district of Almadén (Spain), where total mercury concentration was on average 14.16+/-0.65mgkg(-1). In this area, eggplant is a typical crop that is widely used for human consumption. The experimental work was performed in pots under greenhouse conditions. Three samplings were performed during the entire cultivation cycle. Mercury concentration was determined in the different plant organs, where the highest concentration was located in the root system. The results obtained show that the consumption of eggplant, growing under these controlled conditions, does not suppose a risk for human health according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization.