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Sample records for da batata solanum

  1. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield RESUMO A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl. Nos conduzirémos os três experimentos para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação da Brazília-DF, no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças no 1990. Os três experimentos (latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado, latossolo vermelho novo x adubo 4:14:8 NPK, latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK) no casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com total 29 combinações, no 5-5-3 repetições com total parcelas de 116. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA e MANOVA. Nossos principal resultados estam apresentándo abaixo. 1. A mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% de esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm, peso total de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. 2. Há um efeito grande crescente das doses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. 3. Analise-se do latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK experimento os resultados apresentárám-se que entre nas misturas também foi melhor a 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral. Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a outra mistura. Nossos resultados

  2. Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum).

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Bareeba, F B; Sabiiti, E N; Ledin, I

    2009-12-01

    Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed basal diets of market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) (SEP) were examined in two experiments. In experiment I, the effect of presentation method (chopping, hanging or adding molasses) on the intake of SEP and SPV was evaluated. Presentation method did not influence the intake of SPV while hanging resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) intake of SEP. In experiment II, 24 male growing goats were supplemented with a concentrate (25% cottonseed cake +75% maize bran) in four dietary groups: SEPD, SPVD, SEP+SPV and Control where elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was offered as the roughage. SEP were offered by hanging, while SPV were chopped. The goats were slaughtered after 12 weeks of feeding. Goats in the SEPD group constantly lost weight, hence were not followed to the end. Average daily gain and hot carcass weight were highest (P < 0.05) in the SPVD group (44 g/d and 8.4 kg, respectively), but similar between the SEP+SPV (19 and 6.8) and Control (21 and 6.9) groups. In conclusion, SPV can support goat meat production where standard feed resources are scarce when fed with an energy-protein concentrate. SEP are poorly consumed by goats, hence cannot be used as their sole basal feed.

  3. Analysis of sphingolipids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Bartke, Nana; Fischbeck, Anne; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    Ceramides and glucocerebrosides of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were analyzed using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Ceramides and glucocerebrosides containing the three different long-chain bases 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)), 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)), and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)) acylated to saturated and unsaturated hydroxy- and nonhydroxy fatty acids with 16-26 carbon atoms were detected. For ceramides and glucocerebrosides 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)) was found as the major long-chain base, with lesser amounts of 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)) and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)). 2-(Alpha-)hydroxypalmitic acid (C16:0h) was the major fatty acid, which was found to be acylated to the long-chain bases. For quantification of these compounds, an RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with an "echo-peak"-technique simulating internal standard injection was developed. The analyzed samples of potatoes and sweet potatoes showed amounts of approximately 0.1-8 microg/kg single ceramides and amounts up to 500 microg/kg glucocerebrosides, with C16:0h-glucosyl-4,8-sphingadienine as the major component.

  4. Analysis of sphingolipids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Bartke, Nana; Fischbeck, Anne; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    Ceramides and glucocerebrosides of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were analyzed using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Ceramides and glucocerebrosides containing the three different long-chain bases 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)), 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)), and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)) acylated to saturated and unsaturated hydroxy- and nonhydroxy fatty acids with 16-26 carbon atoms were detected. For ceramides and glucocerebrosides 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)) was found as the major long-chain base, with lesser amounts of 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)) and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)). 2-(Alpha-)hydroxypalmitic acid (C16:0h) was the major fatty acid, which was found to be acylated to the long-chain bases. For quantification of these compounds, an RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with an "echo-peak"-technique simulating internal standard injection was developed. The analyzed samples of potatoes and sweet potatoes showed amounts of approximately 0.1-8 microg/kg single ceramides and amounts up to 500 microg/kg glucocerebrosides, with C16:0h-glucosyl-4,8-sphingadienine as the major component. PMID:17103377

  5. Apoptosis induced by glycoprotein (150-kDa) isolated from Solanum nigrum L. is not related to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HCT-116 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2006-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the apoptotic effects of glycoprotein [Solanum nigrum L. (SNL) glycoprotein, 150-kDa] isolated from Solanum nigrum L., which has been used as an antipyretic and anticancer agent in folk medicine. With the purified SNL glycoprotein, we evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of SNL glycoprotein on HCT-116 cells, DNA fragmentation and nuclear staining assays, respectively. SNL glycoprotein has an apparent cytotoxic and apoptotic effect at a concentration of 40 microg/ml after 4 h. To further verify the apoptotic effect, we investigated the changes in activity of the apoptotic-related proteins [Bid, cytochrome c, caspases and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)] triggered by SNL glycoprotein, using a western blot analysis. The results in this study indicated that SNL glycoprotein has a stimulatory effect on Bid activation, resulting in the release of cytochrome c, the stimulation of caspase-8, -9 and -3 activities, and the cleavage of PARP in HCT-116 cells. However, SNL glycoprotein did not significantly stimulate an increase in levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). From the results in this experiment, it is suggested that SNL glycoprotein induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic signal pathway in HCT-116 cells, rather than through intracellular ROS. PMID:16208518

  6. Characterization of a novel drought-induced 34-kDa protein located in the thylakoids of Solanum tuberosum L. plants.

    PubMed

    Pruvot, G; Cuiné, S; Peltier, G; Rey, P

    1996-01-01

    Using two-dimensional electrophoresis and Coomassie Blue staining, the accumulation of a 34-kDa protein (named cdsp 34 for chloroplastic drought-induced stress protein) is shown in the thylakoids of Solanum tuberosum plants subjected to a progressive and reversible water deficit. In-vivo labeling experiments showed an increased synthesis of cdsp 34 from the early stages of drought stress (leaf relative water content around 85%) and throughout the constraint. Sequences of the N-terminal part and of four tryptic-digest peptides did not reveal significant homology between the cdsp 34 protein and other known proteins. Western blotting analysis, using a serum raised against the N-terminal part of cdsp 34, confirmed the accumulation of cdsp 34 in thylakoids upon drought stress. From immunoblot analysis of different chloroplastic subfractions, the cdsp 34 protein appears to be an extrinsic protein preferentially located in unstacked stroma thylakoids. Immunoprecipitation of in-vitro-translated products, as well as Southern analysis, showed that the cdsp 34 protein is nuclear encoded. After rewatering of water-stressed plants, the level of cdsp 34 synthesis was reduced, but remained substantially higher than in control plants. Western analysis showed the persistence of a high amount of cdsp 34 in rewatered plants for at least two weeks. Based on the abundance and on the location of cdsp 34 within thylakoids, a putative role for this novel chloroplastic protein is discussed in relation to the tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants to dehydration.

  7. Isozymes of Ipomoea batatas catechol oxidase differ in catalase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Gerdemann, C; Eicken, C; Magrini, A; Meyer, H E; Rompel, A; Spener, F; Krebs, B

    2001-07-01

    The amino acid sequences of two isozymes of catechol oxidase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) were determined by Edman degradation of BrCN cleavage fragments of the native protein and by sequencing of amplified cDNA fragments. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of plant catechol oxidases revealed about 80% equidistance between the two I. batatas catechol oxidases and approximately 40--60% to catechol oxidases of other plants. When H(2)O(2) was applied as substrate the 39 kDa isozyme, but not the 40 kDa isozyme, showed catalase-like activity. The structure of the 40 kDa isozyme was modeled on the basis of the published crystal structure of the 39 kDa isozyme [T. Klabunde et al., Nat. Struct. Biol. 5 (1998) 1084]. The active site model closely resembled that of the 39 kDa isozyme determined by crystallography, except for a mutation of Thr243 (40 kDa isozyme) to Ile241 (39 kDa isozyme) close to the dimetal center. This residue difference affects the orientation of the Glu238/236 residue, which is thought to be responsible for the catalase-like activity of the 39 kDa isozyme for which a catalytic mechanism is proposed. PMID:11451442

  8. Isozymes of Ipomoea batatas catechol oxidase differ in catalase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Gerdemann, C; Eicken, C; Magrini, A; Meyer, H E; Rompel, A; Spener, F; Krebs, B

    2001-07-01

    The amino acid sequences of two isozymes of catechol oxidase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) were determined by Edman degradation of BrCN cleavage fragments of the native protein and by sequencing of amplified cDNA fragments. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of plant catechol oxidases revealed about 80% equidistance between the two I. batatas catechol oxidases and approximately 40--60% to catechol oxidases of other plants. When H(2)O(2) was applied as substrate the 39 kDa isozyme, but not the 40 kDa isozyme, showed catalase-like activity. The structure of the 40 kDa isozyme was modeled on the basis of the published crystal structure of the 39 kDa isozyme [T. Klabunde et al., Nat. Struct. Biol. 5 (1998) 1084]. The active site model closely resembled that of the 39 kDa isozyme determined by crystallography, except for a mutation of Thr243 (40 kDa isozyme) to Ile241 (39 kDa isozyme) close to the dimetal center. This residue difference affects the orientation of the Glu238/236 residue, which is thought to be responsible for the catalase-like activity of the 39 kDa isozyme for which a catalytic mechanism is proposed.

  9. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  10. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  11. A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João Renato

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species.ResumoUma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

  12. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants. PMID:25416251

  13. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  14. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  15. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of catechol oxidase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) containing a type-3 dicopper center.

    PubMed

    Eicken, C; Zippel, F; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, K; Krebs, B

    1998-10-01

    Two catechol oxidases have been isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) and purified to homogeneity. The two isozymes have been characterized by EXAFS, EPR-, UV/Vis-spectroscopy, isoelectric focusing, and MALDI-MS and have been shown to contain a dinuclear copper center. Both are monomers with a molecular mass of 39 kDa and 40 kDa, respectively. Substrate specificity and NH2-terminal sequences have been determined. EXAFS data for the 39 kDa enzyme reveal a coordination number of four for each Cu in the resting form and suggest a Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.9 A for the native met form and 3.8 A for the oxy form.

  16. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of catechol oxidase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) containing a type-3 dicopper center.

    PubMed

    Eicken, C; Zippel, F; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, K; Krebs, B

    1998-10-01

    Two catechol oxidases have been isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) and purified to homogeneity. The two isozymes have been characterized by EXAFS, EPR-, UV/Vis-spectroscopy, isoelectric focusing, and MALDI-MS and have been shown to contain a dinuclear copper center. Both are monomers with a molecular mass of 39 kDa and 40 kDa, respectively. Substrate specificity and NH2-terminal sequences have been determined. EXAFS data for the 39 kDa enzyme reveal a coordination number of four for each Cu in the resting form and suggest a Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.9 A for the native met form and 3.8 A for the oxy form. PMID:9781698

  17. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Van Eck, Joyce; Snyder, Ada

    2006-01-01

    Eggplant is an economically important vegetable crop in Asia and Africa, and although it is grown in Europe and the United States, it does not account for a significant percentage of agricultural production. It is susceptible to a number of pathogens and insects, with bacterial and fungal wilts being the most devastating. Attempts to improve resistance through introgression of traits from wild relatives have had limited success owing to sexual incompatibilities. Therefore, a crop improvement approach that combines both conventional breeding and biotechnological techniques would be beneficial. This chapter describes an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for eggplant based on inoculation of seedling explants (cotyledons and hypocotyls) and leaves. We have used this protocol to recover transformants from two different types of eggplant, a Solanum melongena L. breeding line, and S. melongena L. var. Black Eggplant. The selectable marker gene used was neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and the selection agent was kanamycin. In vitro grown transformants acclimated readily to greenhouse conditions.

  18. Revision of the Solanum medians complex (Solanum section Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum medians is a widely distributed wild potato species growing along the coast and along the western slopes of the Andes from central Peru and northern Chile, from along the coastal lomas near sea level to 3800 m. Fertile diploid and triploid cytotypes are common, are believed to associated wit...

  19. The Veratrum and Solanum alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Heretsch, Philipp; Giannis, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    This survey on steroidal alkaloids of the Veratrum and Solanum family isolated between 1974 and 2014 includes 187 compounds and 197 references. New developments in the chemistry and biology of this family of natural products with a special focus on the medicinal relevance of the jervanine alkaloid cyclopamine are discussed. PMID:25845062

  20. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  1. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  2. Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.: a rich source of lipophilic phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Freitas, Nélia; Faria, Marisa; Gouveia, Manuela

    2013-12-18

    The lipophilic extracts from the storage root of 13 cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the aim to valorize them and offer information on their nutritional properties and potential health benefits. The amount of lipophilic extractives ranged from 0.87 to 1.32% dry weight. Fatty acids and sterols were the major families of compounds identified. The most abundant saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid (182-428 mg/kg) and octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (133-554 mg/kg), respectively. β-Sitosterol was the principal phytosterol, representing 55.2-77.6% of this family, followed by campesterol. Long-chain aliphatic alcohols and α-tocopherol were also detected but in smaller amounts. The results suggest that sweet potato should be considered as an important dietary source of lipophilic phytochemicals. PMID:24345069

  3. Studies on aldose reductase inhibitors from natural products. IV. Constituents and aldose reductase inhibitory effect of Chrysanthemum morifolium, Bixa orellana and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Terashima, S; Shimizu, M; Horie, S; Morita, N

    1991-12-01

    The hot water extracts of Chrysanthemum morifolium, Bixa orellana and Ipomoea batatas, were found to have potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose reductase (AR). Ellagic acid (4) was isolated from C. morifolium and I. batatas, isoscutellarein (7) from B. orellana and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (10) from I. batatas, respectively, as potent inhibitors. PMID:1814628

  4. [Chemical constituents from Solanum rostratum].

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Juan; Wang, Shan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wei, Shou-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Ten compounds were isolated from the aerial part of Solanum rostratum by means of various chromatographic techniques such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as dioscin (1), hypoglaucin H (2), hyperin (3), isoquercitrin (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (5), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (6), smilaxchinoside A (7), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3beta, 20alpha,26-triol-25 (R) -delta5,22-dienofurostan-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2) -[ alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)] -beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), beta-sitosterol (9), and daucosterol (10), on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Among them ,compounds 7 and 8 were isolated from the genus Solanum for the first time, and the remaining compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  5. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa.

  6. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa. PMID:26688970

  7. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Manoko, Mkabwa L. K.; van Weerden, Gerard M.; van Berg, Ronald G.; Mariani, Celestina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits. PMID:23233812

  8. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, D.; Halide, H.; Wahab, A. W.; Kurniawan, D.

    2014-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  9. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, D. Halide, H. Kurniawan, D.; Wahab, A. W.

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  10. Steroidal glycoalkaloids in Solanum chacoense.

    PubMed

    Mweetwa, Alice M; Hunter, Danielle; Poe, Rebecca; Harich, Kim C; Ginzberg, Idit; Veilleux, Richard E; Tokuhisa, James G

    2012-03-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a domesticated species that is the fourth most important world agricultural commodity, requires significant management to minimize the effects of herbivore and pathogen damage on crop yield. A wild relative, Solanum chacoense Bitt., has been of interest to plant breeders because it produces an abundance of novel steroidal glycoalkaloid compounds, leptines and leptinines, which are particularly effective deterrents of herbivory by the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Biochemical approaches were used in this study to investigate the formation and accumulation of SGAs in S. chacoense. SGA contents were determined in various organs at different stages of organ maturity during a time course of plant development. Leptines and leptinines were the main contributors to the increased levels in SGA concentration measured in the aerial versus the subterranean organs of S. chacoense accession 8380-1. Leptines were not detected in aboveground stolons until the stage where shoots had formed mature chlorophyllous leaves. To gain insights into SGA biosynthesis, the abundance of SGAs and steady-state transcripts of genes coding for enzymes of the central terpene and SGA-specific pathways in various plant organs at anthesis were compared. For two genes of primary terpene metabolism, transcript and SGA abundances were correlated, although with some discrepancies. For genes associated with SGA biosynthesis, transcripts were not detected in some tissues containing SGAs; however these transcripts were detected in the progenitor tissues, indicating the possibility that under our standard growth conditions, SGA biosynthesis is largely limited to highly proliferative tissues such as shoot, root and floral meristems.

  11. IgE response to two new allergen proteins of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant).

    PubMed

    Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-12-01

    A number of allergens from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) have been previously identified. In this study, we could detect IgE reactivity of two allergic subjects' sera towards two protein bands of molecular mass of about 35 and 15 kDa. As IgE were reactive to both raw and cooked eggplant extracts, a heat-stable nature of these novel allergens is apparent. PMID:26455782

  12. IgE response to two new allergen proteins of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant).

    PubMed

    Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-12-01

    A number of allergens from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) have been previously identified. In this study, we could detect IgE reactivity of two allergic subjects' sera towards two protein bands of molecular mass of about 35 and 15 kDa. As IgE were reactive to both raw and cooked eggplant extracts, a heat-stable nature of these novel allergens is apparent.

  13. Oil and fatty acids in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and some related and unrelated Solanum Spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seed oil content of 305 genebank accessions of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ), six related specied (S. aethiopicum L., S. incanum L., S. anaguivi Lam., S linnaeanum Hepper & P.M.L. Jaeger, S. litchensteinii L., and S. macrocarpon L.) and 25 additional Solanum species, was determined by NMR. Eg...

  14. Demographic comparison of sweetpotato weevil reared on a major host, Ipomoea batatas, and an alternative host, I. triloba

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Chi, Hisn

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we collected life table data for the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius, grown on Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea triloba, and analyzed them using an age-stage, two-sex life table. We also demonstrated the growth potential of C. formicarius on these two host plants by using population projection. These data will be useful to the growers to the selection or eradication of host plants in an integrated control strategy for C. formicarius for the entire area of the targeted areas. We found that C. formicarius developed faster on I. batatas than on I. triloba. The developmental times of the larval and pupal stages on I. batatas than on I. triloba were 37.01 and 8.3 days. The adult females emerged before and began to produce eggs at 42 days earlier when reared on I. batatas. The fecundity of females was 90.0 eggs on I. batatas significantly higher than the mean fecundity of 68.5 eggs on I. triloba. Although this insect has a higher intrinsic rate of increase on I. batatas, the study indicated that C. formicarius can successfully survive and reproduce on both host plants. PMID:26156566

  15. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M. Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S. Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S. Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade) is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco) of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M. Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:22171167

  16. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) for Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native sp...

  17. Two new South American species of Solanum section Crinitum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Farruggia, Frank T.; Bohs, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles Solanum crinitum and Solanum lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to Solanum sycophanta butdiffers from the latter in having prominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to Solanum sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador. PMID:22171169

  18. Characterization of Secondary Metabolites from Purple Ipomoea batatas Leaves and Their Effects on Glucose Uptake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Lee, Shou-Lun; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Chun; Kao, Ming-Ching; Liu, Chuan-Hao; Chen, Jau-Yang; Lai, Yen-Ting; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas has long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycemia or as a food additive for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. However, neither the plant extract nor its active components have been evaluated systematically. In this work four crude extracts, including n-hexane- (IBH), 95% MeOH- (IBM), n-BuOH- (IBB), and H₂O-soluble (IBW) fractions, were prepared by fractionation of a methanolic extract of purple I. batatas leaves. Twenty-four pure compounds 1-24 were then isolated by various chromatographic techniques and their structures identified from NMR and MS data. Glucose uptake assays in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rat primary hepatocytes, as well as western blot analysis, were carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of this species. The IBH crude fraction, with methyl decanoate (22) as a major and active compound, showed the greatest effect on glucose uptake, most likely via activation of Glut4 and regulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Quercetin 3-O-β-d-sophoroside (1), quercetin (3), benzyl β-d-glucoside (10), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (12), and methyl decanoate (22) could be important components contributing to the antidiabetic effects. We conclude that purple I. batatas leaves have potential as an antidiabetic plant source and the active constituents 1, 3, 10, 12, and 22 are promising lead candidates for future investigation. PMID:27338312

  19. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  20. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  1. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  2. Solanum jamesii - new traits and hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the two wild potato relatives native to the USA is Solanum jamesii (jam). The genebank has collected and studied over 120 samples since 1958. This species has been shown to have extreme late blight resistance, and its tubers have extremely long dormancy, high antioxidants, and compounds tha...

  3. The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Durmus, A; Eicken, C; Sift, B H; Kratel, A; Kappl, R; Hüttermann, J; Krebs, B

    1999-03-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis. PMID:10102999

  4. The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Durmus, A; Eicken, C; Sift, B H; Kratel, A; Kappl, R; Hüttermann, J; Krebs, B

    1999-03-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis.

  5. A new species of spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum is described from Peru. Solanum junctum S. Stern & M. Nee, sp nov. is a member of the Torva clade of the spiny solanums (Leptostemonum clade). The narrow corolla lobes and recurved prickles of Solanum junctum are similar to species in the Micracantha clade, but Solanum junctum differs in its branched inflorescences and upright green fruits. These characteristics are shared with other members the Torva clade; within this section Solanum junctum is morphologically most similar to Solanum subinerme and Solanum poinsettiifolium. Solanum subinerme has larger flowers, longer cauline prickles, and often has long straight prickles on the adaxial leaf surface that are lacking in Solanum junctum. Solanum poinsettiifolium has fewer spines, dense white tomentum on the abaxial leaf surfaces, stout unbranched inflorescences, and more extensive interpetalar corolla tissue than Solanum junctum. PMID:25197223

  6. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Miller, Richard E.; Scotland, Robert W.; Wood, John R. I.; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A.; Jarret, Robert L.; Yencho, G. C.; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  7. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    PubMed

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  8. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    PubMed

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum. PMID:25144460

  9. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    PubMed

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  10. Analysis of genetic diversity in a sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) germplasm collection using DNA amplification fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    He, G; Prakash, C S; Jarret, R L

    1995-10-01

    A DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) approach was employed to develop individual-specific profiles and analyze genetic relationships among 73 plant introductions of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) including unadapted lines from around the world and a few selected U.S.A. cultivars. Reliable and informative fingerprint profiles were obtained employing single octamer primers and Stoffel fragment Taq polymerase in the polymerase chain reaction, polyacrylamide-based vinyl polymer for electrophoresis, and silver staining to visualize the DNA. Using seven highly informative octamer primers, individual-specific DAF profiles were obtained for all accessions tested. The degree of polymorphism in the sweetpotato collection was very large, indicating a high level of genetic variability. Several accessions clustered together based on their geographic source. Most U.S.A. cultivars formed a separate cluster in the phenogram, while accessions from Papua New Guinea exhibited the highest genetic diversity. The wild species I. triloba and tetraploid I. batatas formed a group distinct from the cultivated sweetpotato. DAF appears to be useful in sweetpotato germplasm characterization and may be employed to identify duplicate accessions or for creation of core subsets. DAF data may also be useful for facilitating the selection of parents for a breeding program to ensure a broad genetic base.

  11. Antioxidant glucosylated caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in the invasive tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eggplant (Solanum melongena) and other species within the “spiny solanums” (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) contain diverse and abundant antioxidant caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives. The fruit of an aggressive invasive species in the spiny solanums, Solanum viarum, contain numerous CQA deri...

  12. Purification of catecholase from Solanum melangena (brinjal).

    PubMed

    Goswami, Anita P; Amarapurkar, Sudha V

    2003-12-01

    Catecholase was purified from cortex of Solanum melangena (brinjal) on natural affiant, lignin. The elution profile showed seven peaks with the 6th peak having 4616-fold purity. The 6th pure fraction loaded on PAGE showed two protein bands on staining with Coomassie brilliant blue, one at the point of application and other near the dye front. These bands exhibited catecholase activity, when stained with 4-methyl catechol and proline, Basic fuschin and ethidium bromide showed positive tests, indicating that catecholase is a ribonucleoglycoprotein.

  13. Antiproliferative Effect of Solanum nigrum on Human Leukemic Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gabrani, Reema; Jain, Ramya; Sharma, Anjali; Sarethy, Indira P.; Dang, Shweta; Gupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Solanum nigrum is used in various traditional medical systems for antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, antiseizure and hepatoprotective activities. We have evaluated organic solvent and aqueous extracts obtained from berries of Solanum nigrum for antiproliferative activity on leukemic cell lines, Jurkat and HL-60 (Human promyelocytic leukemia cells). The cell viability after the treatment with Solanum nigrum extract was measured by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results indicated increased cytotoxicity with increasing extract concentrations. Comparative analysis indicated that 50% inhibitory concentration value of methanol extract is the lowest on both cell lines. PMID:23716874

  14. Central diabetes insipidus following digestion Solanum indicum L. concentrated solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Fang, Ji-Tseng

    2008-04-01

    In Taiwan, Solanum indicum L. has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, toothache, ascites, edema, and wound infection. The plant is rich in solanine, an alkaloidal glycoside. We report a 43-year-old man who developed polyuria and polydipsia after taking seven doses of concentrated solution of Solanum indicum L. over two weeks. A water deprivation test and a low serum antidiuretic hormone level helped to confirm a diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus. We suggest that excessive doses of Solanum indicum L. may cause central diabetes insipidus.

  15. Calf thymus DNA-binding ability study of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes ( Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Xirui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2011-07-13

    A total of 10 anthocyanin compounds were identified from five purple sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties, Qunzi, Zishu038, Ji18, Jingshu6, and Ziluolan, by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to assess their calf thymus DNA-binding ability in vitro. The interaction between anthocyanins and calf thymus DNA in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 6.9) was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe, fluorescence quenching of the emission peak was seen in the DNA-EB system when anthocyanins were added, indicating that the anthocyanins bound with DNA. The acylated groups influenced the ability of the interaction with DNA. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato with more acylated groups in sorphorose have a stronger binding ability with DNA.

  16. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam)--a valuable medicinal food: a review.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Remya; Sivasankar, Subha

    2014-07-01

    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, also known as sweet potato, is an extremely versatile and delicious vegetable that possesses high nutritional value. It is also a valuable medicinal plant having anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Sweet potato is now considered a valuable source of unique natural products, including some that can be used in the development of medicines against various diseases and in making industrial products. The overall objective of this review is to give a bird's-eye view of the nutritional value, health benefits, phytochemical composition, and medicinal properties of sweet potato. Specifically, this review outlines the biological activities of some of the sweet potato compounds that have been isolated, the pharmacological action of the sweet potato extract, clinical studies, and plausible medicinal applications of sweet potato (along with a safety evaluation), and demonstrates the potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food.

  17. Calf thymus DNA-binding ability study of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes ( Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Xirui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2011-07-13

    A total of 10 anthocyanin compounds were identified from five purple sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties, Qunzi, Zishu038, Ji18, Jingshu6, and Ziluolan, by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to assess their calf thymus DNA-binding ability in vitro. The interaction between anthocyanins and calf thymus DNA in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 6.9) was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe, fluorescence quenching of the emission peak was seen in the DNA-EB system when anthocyanins were added, indicating that the anthocyanins bound with DNA. The acylated groups influenced the ability of the interaction with DNA. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato with more acylated groups in sorphorose have a stronger binding ability with DNA. PMID:21678894

  18. Rapid and reliable method of extracting DNA and RNA from sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L). Lam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hyung; Hamada, Tatsuro

    2005-12-01

    A quick, simple and reliable method of extracting DNA from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has been developed. The method was applied successfully for extraction of total DNA from leaves and total RNA from leaves and various tissues. The yield of DNA extracted by this procedure was high (about 1 mg/g leaf tissue). The extracted DNA was completely digested by restriction endonucleases indicating the absence of common contaminating compounds. The absorbancy ratios of A260/A230 and A260/A280 of isolated RNA were approx. 2 and the yield was about 0.2 mg/g fresh wt. CIPK and tublin genes were successfully amplified by RT-PCR, suggesting the integrity of isolated RNA. The total DNA and RNA isolated by this method was of sufficient quality for subsequent molecular analysis.

  19. An explosive innovation: Phylogenetic relationships of Solanum section Gonatotrichum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Stephen; Bohs, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Solanum is one of the largest plant genera and exhibits a wide range of morphological diversity. Solanum section Gonatotrichum, the focus of this study, is unique within the genus because of its fruits that swell with turgor pressure and explosively dehisce to disperse the seeds. We infer phylogenetic relationships within section Gonatotrichum using DNA sequence data from two nuclear regions (ITS and the granule-bound starch synthase gene [GBSSI or waxy]) and the chloroplast region trnT-F. The resulting phylogenetic trees support the monophyly of the section with the inclusion of Solanum lignescens, a species not previously thought to belong to the group due to the presence of stellate hairs. This inclusion of this species in section Gonatotrichum suggests that the simple, often geniculate hairs of species in the group may represent reduced stellate hairs. The presence of heterantherous flowers appears to be derived in the section, but this character is largely lost in Solanum parcistrigosum. PMID:22287931

  20. Plastid transformation in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Verma, S S; Bansal, K C

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a method for plastid transformation in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), a solanaceous plant species. Plastid transformation in eggplant was achieved by bombardment of green stem segments with pPRV111A plastid expression vector carrying the aadA gene encoding aminoglycoside 3''-adenylyltransferase. Biolistic delivery of the pPRV111A plasmid yielded transplastomic plants at a frequency of two per 21 bombarded plates containing 25 stem explants each. Integration of the aadA gene in the plastome was verified by PCR analysis and also by Southern blotting using 16S rDNA (targeting sequence) and the aadA gene as a probe. Transplastomic expression of the aadA gene was verified by RT-PCR. The development of transplastomic technology in eggplant may open up exciting possibilities for novel gene introduction and expression in the engineered plastome for agronomic or pharmaceutical traits.

  1. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  2. Antimutagenic and Anticarcinogenic Effect of Methanol Extracts of Sweetpotato (Ipomea batata) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hwan-Goo; Cho, Joon-Hyoung

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the antimutagenic potential of the methanolic extract from the leaves of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas, IB) with the SOS chromotest (umu test) and Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. The anticarcinogenic effects were also studied by calculation of the IC50 on human cancer cell lines and investigating the function of gap junction in rat liver epithelial cells. The IB extract inhibited dose-dependently the β-galactosidase activity induced spontaneously at concentration of more than 200 mg/ml in S. typhimurium TA 1535/pSK 1002, and decreased significantly (p < 0.01) the β-galactosidase activities induced by mutagen 6-chloro-9-[3- (2-chloroethylamino) proylamino]-2-methoxyacridine dihydrochloride (ICR) at dose of more than 0.4 mg/0.1 ml. The IB extract showed no effect on the spontaneous reversions of S. typhimurium TA 98 and 100 but benzo (α) pyrene (BaP) -stimulated reversions were decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.01) at the concentration of more than 100 mg/ml. The IC50 value of stomach cancer cells was lower than that of normal rat liver epithelial cells, but the values of colon and uterine cancer cell lines were similar to those of normal rat liver epithelial cells. The transfer of dye through gap junctions was not affected by treatment of the IB extracts at any concentration during treatment periods. The simultaneously treatment of IB extract and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) effectively prevented the inhibition of dye transfer induced by TPA 1 hour after treatment at all exposed concentrations. The number of gap junctions was significantly (p < 0.01) increased by the treatment with IB extract at concentrations of more than 40 μg/ml. The inhibition of the expression of gap junction proteins by TPA (0.01 μg/ml) was recovered dose dependently by the simultaneous treatment of IB extracts. Our data suggest that Ipomea batatas has antimutagenic and anticarcionogenic activity in vitro. PMID:24278503

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding endonuclease from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Knud

    2005-11-01

    A cDNA, StEN1, encoding a potato (Solanum tuberosum) endonuclease was cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of this clone contains an open reading frame of 906 nucleotides encoding a protein of 302 amino acids, and with a calculated molecular mass of 34.4kDa and a Pi of 5.6. The deduced StEN1 protein contains a putative signal sequence of 25 amino acid residues. The StEN1 encoded protein shows substantial homology to both plant and fungal endonucleases isolated and cloned from other sources. The highest identity (73%) was observed with AgCEL I from celery, Apium graveolens, ZEN1 from Zinnia elegans (69%) and DSA6 from daylily, Hemerocallis (68%). RT-PCR expression analysis demonstrated that the potato StEN1 gene is constitutively expressed in potato, although minor differences in expression level in different tissues were observed. PMID:16323278

  4. Purification and characterisation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bibhuti B; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2012-10-15

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which negatively affects its quality upon cutting and postharvest processing due to enzymatic browning. PPO inhibitors, from natural or synthetic sources, are used to tackle this problem. One isoform of PPO was 259-fold purified using standard chromatographic procedures. The PPO was found to be a 112 kDa homodimer. The enzyme showed very low K(m) (0.34 mM) and high catalytic efficiency (3.3×10(6)) with 4-methyl catechol. The substrate specificity was in the order: 4-methyl catechol>tert-butylcatechol>dihydrocaffeic acid>pyrocatechol. Cysteine hydrochloride, potassium metabilsulphite, ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, resorcylic acid and kojic acid showed competitive inhibition, whereas, citric acid and sodium azide showed mixed inhibition of PPO activity. Cysteine hydrochloride was found to be an excellent inhibitor with the low inhibitor constant of 1.8 μM.

  5. Granulosain I, a cysteine protease isolated from ripe fruits of Solanum granuloso-leprosum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Vallés, Diego; Bruno, Mariela; López, Laura M I; Caffini, Néstor O; Cantera, Ana María B

    2008-08-01

    A new cysteine peptidase (Granulosain I) was isolated from ripe fruits of Solanum granuloso-leprosum Dunal (Solanaceae) by means of precipitation with organic solvent and cation exchange chromatography. The enzyme showed a single band by SDS-PAGE, its molecular mass was 24,746 Da (MALDI-TOF/MS) and its isoelectric point was higher than 9.3. It showed maximum activity (more than 90%) in the pH range 7-8.6. Granulosain I was completely inhibited by E-64 and activated by the addition of cysteine or 2-mercaptoethanol, confirming its cysteinic nature. The kinetic studies carried out with PFLNA as substrate, showed an affinity (Km 0.6 mM) slightly lower than those of other known plant cysteine proteases (papain and bromelain). The N-terminal sequence of granulosain I (DRLPASVDWRGKGVLVLVKNQGQC) exhibited a close homology with other cysteine proteases belonging to the C1A family.

  6. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergenic protein from Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Jain, Abha; Salunke, Dinakar Masanu

    2015-02-01

    Solanum melongena (eggplant), a member of the Solanaceae family, is a widely cultivated vegetable crop and is commonly used as a food throughout the world. Allergic reactions caused by members of this family are well known. However, mechanistic analyses to understand their molecular basis have not been adequately explored. In order to address this issue, the 7S vicilin protein (SM80.1) of size 45 kDa was purified from seeds of S. melongena by ammonium sulfate fractionation and size-exclusion chromatography. Significant homology of SM80.1 to an allergy-related protein from S. lycopersicum was identified through a BLAST search. Crystallization attempts with purified protein using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method led to hexagonal-shaped crystals. The crystals diffracted to 2.21 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6322, with unit-cell parameters a = 117.9, c = 123.5 Å.

  7. Purification and characterisation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bibhuti B; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2012-10-15

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which negatively affects its quality upon cutting and postharvest processing due to enzymatic browning. PPO inhibitors, from natural or synthetic sources, are used to tackle this problem. One isoform of PPO was 259-fold purified using standard chromatographic procedures. The PPO was found to be a 112 kDa homodimer. The enzyme showed very low K(m) (0.34 mM) and high catalytic efficiency (3.3×10(6)) with 4-methyl catechol. The substrate specificity was in the order: 4-methyl catechol>tert-butylcatechol>dihydrocaffeic acid>pyrocatechol. Cysteine hydrochloride, potassium metabilsulphite, ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, resorcylic acid and kojic acid showed competitive inhibition, whereas, citric acid and sodium azide showed mixed inhibition of PPO activity. Cysteine hydrochloride was found to be an excellent inhibitor with the low inhibitor constant of 1.8 μM. PMID:23442630

  8. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    PubMed Central

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  9. In vivo wound healing and antiulcer properties of white sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Hermes, Daniele; Dudek, Débora N; Maria, Mariana D; Horta, Lívia P; Lima, Eliete N; de Fátima, Ângelo; Sanches, Andréia C C; Modolo, Luzia V

    2013-07-01

    The potential of tuber flour of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. cv. Brazlândia Branca (white sweet potato) as wound healing and antiulcerogenic agent was investigated in vivo in animal model. Excision on the back of Wistar rats was performed to induce wounds that were topically treated with Beeler's base containing tuber flour of white sweet potato at 2.5%. Number of cells undergoing metaphase and the degree of tissue re-epithelialization were investigated 4, 7 and 10 days post-treatment. The protective effect of aqueous suspension of tuber flour (75 and 100 mg/kg animal weight) on gastric mucosa of Wistar rats was also studied by using the ethanol-induced ulceration model. Ointment based on white sweet potato at 2.5% effectively triggered the healing of cutaneous wound as attested by the increased number of cells undergoing metaphase and tissue re-epithelialization regardless the time of wound treatment. Tuber flour potentially prevented ethanol-induced gastric ulceration by suppressing edema formation and partly protecting gastric mucosa wrinkles. Crude extracts also exhibited potential as free radical scavengers. The results from animal model experiments indicate the potential of tuber flour of white sweet potato to heal wounds.

  10. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves as nutritional and functional foods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongnan; Mu, Taihua; Xi, Lisha; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the nutritional compositions of leaves from 40 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars were assessed. The correlations between antioxidant activity and crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, carbohydrate, and polyphenol contents were determined. The crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, carbohydrate and ash contents ranged between 16.69-31.08, 9.15-14.26, 2.08-5.28, 42.03-61.36, and 7.39-14.66g/100gdryweight(DW), respectively. According to the index of nutritional quality, sweet potato leaves are good sources of protein, fiber, and minerals, especially K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Cu. The correlation coefficient between antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content was the highest (0.76032, p<0.0001), indicating that polyphenols are important antioxidants in sweet potato leaves. Sweet potato leaves, which contain several nutrients and bioactive compounds, should be consumed as leafy vegetables in an attempt to reduce malnutrition, especially in developing countries.

  11. Uptake of iodine-131 in tropical crops. [Ipomoea batatas; Ipomoea reptans; Lycopersicon

    SciTech Connect

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Vegetable crops which include sweet potato tops (Ipomoea batatas), kangkong (Ipomoea repitans) and tomato plants were grown in dark-painted jars containing Hoagland-Arnon modified nutrient solution, utilizing the technique of hydroponics. The experiments for sweet potato tops and kangkong plants were duplicated for replicate studies and steady-state conditions were simulated throughout. Tomato plants were grown in the same manner but growth was observed to be hampered when starting from mature plants. Radioiodine was added to the nutrient medium containing 0.5% non-radioactive NaI solution. The solution in the jar was adjusted daily so as to maintain a constant concentration which would simulate routine releases that are essentially continuous. After incorporating the radioiodine to the solution, 10 ml aliquot was taken and counted for radioactivity by means of a 5'' x 5'' NaI(T1) detector connected to the multichannel gamma analyzer. Both plants and solution were counted for radioactivity at different time intervals using the same geometry. Results indicate that the activity in the plants were relatively higher than that of the solution. The activity tends to level off or decrease after a few days. The concentration factor which is the ratio of the activity in the plant (uCi/gm) over the activity in the medium (uCi/ml) varied for each time interval. 12 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  12. In vivo wound healing and antiulcer properties of white sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas)

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Daniele; Dudek, Débora N.; Maria, Mariana D.; Horta, Lívia P.; Lima, Eliete N.; de Fátima, Ângelo; Sanches, Andréia C.C.; Modolo, Luzia V.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of tuber flour of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. cv. Brazlândia Branca (white sweet potato) as wound healing and antiulcerogenic agent was investigated in vivo in animal model. Excision on the back of Wistar rats was performed to induce wounds that were topically treated with Beeler’s base containing tuber flour of white sweet potato at 2.5%. Number of cells undergoing metaphase and the degree of tissue re-epithelialization were investigated 4, 7 and 10 days post-treatment. The protective effect of aqueous suspension of tuber flour (75 and 100 mg/kg animal weight) on gastric mucosa of Wistar rats was also studied by using the ethanol-induced ulceration model. Ointment based on white sweet potato at 2.5% effectively triggered the healing of cutaneous wound as attested by the increased number of cells undergoing metaphase and tissue re-epithelialization regardless the time of wound treatment. Tuber flour potentially prevented ethanol-induced gastric ulceration by suppressing edema formation and partly protecting gastric mucosa wrinkles. Crude extracts also exhibited potential as free radical scavengers. The results from animal model experiments indicate the potential of tuber flour of white sweet potato to heal wounds. PMID:25685447

  13. Cryopreservation of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) and its pathogen eradication by cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chaohong; Yin, Zhenfang; Ma, Yanli; Zhang, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Wang, Biao; Li, Baiquan; Huang, Yushen; Wang, Qiaochun

    2011-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) ranks as the seventh most important staple crop in the world and the fifth in developing countries after rice, wheat, maize and cassava. Sweetpotato is mainly grown in developing countries, which account for more than 95% of total production of the whole world. Genetic resources, including cultivated varieties and wild species, are a prerequisite for novel sweetpotato breeding in both conventional and genetic engineering programs. Various cryopreservation protocols have been developed for shoot tips and embryogenic tissues. The former explants are preferred for long-term conservation of sweetpotato genetic resources, while the latter are valuable for sweetpotato genetic improvement. This review provides update comprehensive information on cryopreservation of sweetpotato shoot tips and embryogenic tissues. Plant pathogens such as viruses and phytoplasma severely hamper high yield and high quality production of sweetpotato. Thus, usage of pathogen-free planting materials is pivotal for sustainable sweetpotato production. Cryotherapy of shoot tips can efficiently eradicate sweetpotato pathogens such as viruses and phytoplasma. The mechanism behind pathogen eradication by cryotherapy of shoot tips has been elucidated. Pathogen eradication by cryotherapy provides an alternative, efficient strategy for production of pathogen-free plants. In addition, cryopreserved tissues may also be considered to be safer for exchange of germplasm between countries and regions.

  14. A proteomic analysis of storage stress responses in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. tuberous root.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yusong; Chen, Cheng; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jianxi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2012-08-01

    During post-harvest storage, tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) usually undergo a biotic and abiotic stress influencing protein expression pattern and substance contents. This research compared the change of total proteins and carbohydrate content in tuberous roots of sweet potato during the storage period. The result of the two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there were 25 differentially expressed proteins between day 0 and day 75 during the storage. Among these proteins, 11 proteins were down-regulated and the other 14 were up-regulated. The results from MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analyses and mascot database searching showed that 11 of the 25 differentially expressed proteins were identified as store-stress regulated proteins. It was also found that the proteins involved in the energy metabolism and the stress-response were drastically up-regulated, whereas those in biomacromolecule synthesis were markedly down-regulated. Meanwhile, under the experimental conditions, the content of the starch and the cellulose was decreased by more than a quarter and the amylase activity was increased moderately.

  15. Resistance to bacterial wilt in somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum and Solanum phureja.

    PubMed

    Fock, I; Collonnier, C; Purwito, A; Luisetti, J; Souvannavong, V; Vedel, F; Servaes, A; Ambroise, A; Kodja, H; Ducreux, G; Sihachakr, D

    2000-12-01

    Somatic hybrid plants were produced after protoplast electrofusion between a dihaploid potato, cv. BF15, and a wild tuber-bearing relative, Solanum phureja, with a view to transferring bacterial wilt resistance into potato lines. A total of ten putative hybrids were selected. DNA analysis using flow cytometry revealed that six were tetraploids, two mixoploids, one amphiploid and one octoploid. In the greenhouse, the putative hybrids exhibited strong vigor and were morphologically intermediate, including leaf form, flowers and tuber characteristics. The hybrid nature of the ten selected plants was confirmed by examining isoenzyme patterns for esterases and peroxidases, and analysis of RAPD and SSR markers. Analysis of chloroplast genome revealed that eight hybrids possessed chloroplast (ct) DNA of the wild species, S. phureja, and only two contained Solanum tuberosum ct type. Six hybrid clones, including five tetraploids and one amphiploid, were evaluated for resistance to bacterial wilt by using race 1 and race 3 strains of Ralstonia solanacearum, originating from Reunion Island. Inoculations were performed by an in vitro root dipping method. The cultivated potato was susceptible to both bacterial strains tested. All somatic hybrids except two were tolerant to race 1 strain, and susceptible to race 3 strain. Interestingly, the amphiploid hybrid clone showed a good tolerance to both strains.

  16. Chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed at determining the chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities. The compounds were isolated by various chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, chemical methods, and comparison with reported spectroscopic data. One new phenolic glycoside, methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with 12 known compounds (2-13), were isolated from the aerial parts of Solanum coagulans. Compound 1 was a new phenolic glycoside, and 2-6 were isolated from Solanum genus for the first time. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Compound 7 showed remarkable antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes, M. gypseum and E. floccosum with MIC values being 3.13, 1.56 and 3.13 μg·mL(-1), respectively. PMID:27114320

  17. A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from South Africa related to the cultivated eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsova, M.S.; Knapp, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new andromonoecious species related to the eggplant and belonging to Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Africa is described. Solanum umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is found in the eastern part of South Africa, and is sympatric with its close relative Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.M-L.Jaeger. It is morphologically very similar to Solanum cerasiferum Dunal of northern tropical Africa. A comparison table with similar and closely related species is provided, as are a distribution map and illustration of Solanum umtuma. PMID:22287927

  18. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, João R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern. PMID:25009438

  19. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João R

    2014-01-01

    Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern.

  20. Production and characterization of arboreous and fertile Solanum melongena + Solanum marginatum somatic hybrid plants.

    PubMed

    Borgato, Lorena; Conicella, Clara; Pisani, Federica; Furini, Antonella

    2007-09-01

    In crop plants the shift from being annuals to perennials may allow future agricultural systems requiring less energy inputs. The practicability of this was tested for Solanum melongena. Leaf protoplasts of S. melongena (2n = 2x = 24) and one of the related arborescent species Solanum marginatum (2n = 2x = 24) were electrofused and fertile somatic hybrids with arborescent habit regenerated. The magnetic cell sorter (MACS) technique was used for the selection of heterokaryons. The hybrid nature of 18 regenerated plants was assessed on the banding patterns generated by inter-simple sequence repeat PCR. When taken to maturity in the greenhouse, hybrids grew more vigorously compared to the parental species. Their morphological traits were intermediate between those of S. melongena and S. marginatum. Hybrids flowered and produced an average of 85% stainable viable pollen and fertile fruits. The somatic hybrids were maintained in the greenhouse for more than 3 years and continued to produce flowers developing into two types of fruits with plentiful seeds. Fruits were either striated green containing non-germinable seeds or yellow with fully germinable seeds. Their S(1) progenies showed common features with S(0) hybrids, including fertility and arborescent habit. Cytologically, somatic hybrids exhibited the expected chromosome number of 2n = 4x = 48, while chromosome pairing during microsporogenesis was associated with a low frequency of intergenomic pairing. It is concluded that an arborescent perennial species has been obtained by somatic hybridization. The usefulness of this species per se or in eggplant breeding will depend not only on the transmission of the arborescent habit to cultivated eggplant varieties, but also on the variability that should be created from backcrossing the S. melongena + S. marginatum hybrids to S. melongena.

  1. Analyses of the Complete Genome and Gene Expression of Chloroplast of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batata

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lang; Lai, Xianjun; Li, Xuedan; Wei, Changhe; Tan, Xuemei; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] ranks among the top seven most important food crops cultivated worldwide and is hexaploid plant (2n=6x=90) in the Convolvulaceae family with a genome size between 2,200 to 3,000 Mb. The genomic resources for this crop are deficient due to its complicated genetic structure. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of sweet potato, which is a circular molecule of 161,303 bp in the typical quadripartite structure with large (LSC) and small (SSC) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs). The chloroplast DNA contains a total of 145 genes, including 94 protein-encoding genes of which there are 72 single-copy and 11 double-copy genes. The organization and structure of the chloroplast genome (gene content and order, IR expansion/contraction, random repeating sequences, structural rearrangement) of sweet potato were compared with those of Ipomoea (L.) species and some basal important angiosperms, respectively. Some boundary gene-flow and gene gain-and-loss events were identified at intra- and inter-species levels. In addition, by comparing with the transcriptome sequences of sweet potato, the RNA editing events and differential expressions of the chloroplast functional-genes were detected. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on 77 protein-coding genes from 33 taxa and the result may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution progress of the genus Ipomoea (L.), including phylogenetic relationships, intraspecific differentiation and interspecific introgression. PMID:25874767

  2. Management of Solanum elaeagnifolium in the Mediterranean Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (silverleaf nightshade, SOLEL) is a prominent invasive alien weed in many countries of the Mediterranean Basin since its introduction in the mid-20th century, originating from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It reproduces vegetatively and by seeds that...

  3. Variation for tuber greening in the wild potato solanum microdontum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greening of the tuber skin is an undesirable defect. Tubers of 90 Solanum microdontum families represented by 12 individuals each were generated in the winter greenhouse in 2009-2010. These were evaluated in two trials of family bulks after four days of exposure to 200 ft candles of fluorescent whit...

  4. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON SOLANUM SURATTENSE BURM.F. SEEDS

    PubMed Central

    Shahiladevi, S.; Jayanthi, G.; Jegadeesan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Solanum surattense Burm.f. has been largely used in the indigenous system of medicine. A preliminary pharmacognostical study of the seed has been undertaken and the physico-chemical, fluorescent and qualitative phytochemical tests have been worked out and the results were presented. PMID:22557226

  5. Core collections of potato (Solanum) species native to the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato has two wild relatives native to the USA, Solanum jamesii (jam) and S. fendleri (fen). Core collections are a useful tool for genebanks, identifying a ranked minimum number of samples that together encompass most of the total diversity. With diversity measured as presence of AFLP bands, core ...

  6. A reassessment of Solanum maglia in the origin of Chilean landraces of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum Chilotanum Group)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landrace potato cultivars of Solanum tuberosum occur in two broad geographic regions; the high Andes from western Venezuela south to northern Argentina (S. tuberosum Andigenum Group), and lowland south central Chile (S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group). Chilotanum is adapted to long days, has a 241 bp pl...

  7. The enigma of Solanum maglia in the origin of the Chilean cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum Chilotanum group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landrace potato cultivars of Solanum tuberosum occur in two broad geographic regions; the high Andes from western Venezuela south to northern Argentina (S. tuberosum Andigenum Group), and lowland south central Chile (S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group). Chilotanum Group landraces are adapted to long days...

  8. A Morphometric Study of Species Boundaries of the Wild Potato Solanum Series Piurana (Solanaceae) and putatively related species from seven other series in Solanum Sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are about 190 wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species distributed from the southwestern United States to central Argentina and adjacent Chile and Uruguay. Their overall morphological similarity has led to widely conflicting taxonomic treatments. Solanum series Piurana is one of 21 series ...

  9. Life history parameters of the biocontrol agent Gratiana spadicea (Chrysomelidae), reared on the natural host plant Solanum sisymbriifolium and the non-target crop Solanum melongena (Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gratiana spadicea (Klug), a leaf-feeding tortoise beetle native to South America, was released in South Africa for the biological control of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamarck (wild tomato), despite its ability to develop on cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) during laboratory host-specificity ...

  10. Characterization of a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor from Solanum tuberosum having lectin activity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kunal R; Patel, Dhaval K; Pappachan, Anju; Prabha, C Ratna; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2016-02-01

    Plant lectins and protease inhibitors constitute a class of proteins which plays a crucial role in plant defense. In our continuing investigations on lectins from plants, we have isolated, purified and characterized a protein of about 20 kDa, named PotHg, showing hemagglutination activity from tubers of Indian potato, Solanum tuberosum. De novo sequencing and MS/MS analysis confirmed that the purified protein was a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor having two chains (15 kDa and 5 kDa). SDS and native PAGE analysis showed that the protein was glycosylated and was a heterodimer of about 15 and 5 kDa subunits. PotHg agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes with specific activity of 640 H.U./mg which was inhibited by complex sugars like fetuin. PotHg retained hemagglutination activity over a pH range 4-9 and up to 80°C. Mannose and galactose interacted with the PotHg with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.5×10(-3) M and 2.8×10(-3) M, respectively as determined through fluorescence studies. Fluorescence studies suggested the involvement of a tryptophan in sugar binding which was further confirmed through modification of tryptophan residues using N-bromosuccinimide. Circular dichroism (CD) studies showed that PotHg contains mostly β sheets (∼45%) and loops which is in line with previously characterized protease inhibitors and modeling studies. There are previous reports of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors showing lectin like activity from Peltophorum dubium and Labramia bojeri. This is the first report of a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor showing lectin like activity from a major crop plant and this makes PotHg an interesting candidate for further investigation. PMID:26645142

  11. Characterization of a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor from Solanum tuberosum having lectin activity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kunal R; Patel, Dhaval K; Pappachan, Anju; Prabha, C Ratna; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2016-02-01

    Plant lectins and protease inhibitors constitute a class of proteins which plays a crucial role in plant defense. In our continuing investigations on lectins from plants, we have isolated, purified and characterized a protein of about 20 kDa, named PotHg, showing hemagglutination activity from tubers of Indian potato, Solanum tuberosum. De novo sequencing and MS/MS analysis confirmed that the purified protein was a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor having two chains (15 kDa and 5 kDa). SDS and native PAGE analysis showed that the protein was glycosylated and was a heterodimer of about 15 and 5 kDa subunits. PotHg agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes with specific activity of 640 H.U./mg which was inhibited by complex sugars like fetuin. PotHg retained hemagglutination activity over a pH range 4-9 and up to 80°C. Mannose and galactose interacted with the PotHg with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.5×10(-3) M and 2.8×10(-3) M, respectively as determined through fluorescence studies. Fluorescence studies suggested the involvement of a tryptophan in sugar binding which was further confirmed through modification of tryptophan residues using N-bromosuccinimide. Circular dichroism (CD) studies showed that PotHg contains mostly β sheets (∼45%) and loops which is in line with previously characterized protease inhibitors and modeling studies. There are previous reports of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors showing lectin like activity from Peltophorum dubium and Labramia bojeri. This is the first report of a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor showing lectin like activity from a major crop plant and this makes PotHg an interesting candidate for further investigation.

  12. Two new non-spiny Solanum species from the Bolivian Andes (Morelloid Clade)

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra; Nee, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new Bolivian species are described from the Morelloid clade of Solanum (section Solanum in the traditional sense). Solanum alliariifolium M.Nee & Särkinen, sp. nov. is found in montane forests between 1,900 and 3,200 m and is morphologically most similar to Solanum leptocaulon Van Heurck & Müll.Arg., also from montane forests in southern Peru and Bolivia. Solanum rhizomatum Särkinen & M.Nee, sp. nov. is found in seasonally dry forests and matorral vegetation in lower elevations between 1,300 and 2,900 m and is most similar to Solanum pygmaeum Cav., a species native to sub-tropical Argentina but introduced in subtropical and temperate areas worldwide. PMID:25878556

  13. Four new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) species from South America

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of “non-spiny” Solanum from South America are described. Solanum longifilamentum Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is widespread from Ecuador to Bolivia and is most similar to Solanum macrotonum Dunal from Central and northern South America. Solanum antisuyo Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found on the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the widespread lower elevation species Solanum polytrichostylum Bitter. Solanum arenicola Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found in low elevation habitats on the eastern Andean slopes and in Amazonia of Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the higher elevation species Solanum aloysiifolium Dunal of Bolivia and Argentina. Solanum mariae Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Potato clade) is endemic to Cajamarca Department in Peru, and is most similar to the widespread Solanum caripense Dunal. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:25698893

  14. Phytochemical and biological studies of Solanum schimperianum Hochst

    PubMed Central

    Al-Oqail, Mai; Hassan, Wafaa H.B.; Ahmad, Mohammad S.; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical reinvestigation of the aerial parts of Solanum schimperianum Hochst led to the isolation of ten compounds, lupeol (1), β-sitosterol (2), β-sitosterol glucoside (3), oleanolic acid (4), teferidin (5), teferin (6), ferutinin (7), 5-hydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (8), retusin (9) and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10). Compounds 5–7 were isolated for the first time from Solanaceae and compounds 1–4 and 8–9 for the first time from Solanum schimperianum. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based on careful inspection of spectral data including 1D (1H and 13C NMR), 2D (1H–H COSY, HMQC and HMBC, ROESY), UV, MS and IR, in addition to, comparison with literatures. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds was tested. Only hexane extract showed activity against Bacillus subtilus and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23960812

  15. Expressed nifH Genes of Endophytic Bacteria Detected in Field-Grown Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Terakado-Tonooka, Junko; Ohwaki, Yoshinari; Yamakawa, Hiromoto; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Fujihara, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    We examined the nitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria expressed in field-grown sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Gene fragments corresponding to nifH were amplified from mRNA obtained from the stems and storage roots of field-grown sweet potatoes several months after planting. Sequence analysis revealed that these clones were homologous to the nifH sequences of Bradyrhizobium, Pelomonas, and Bacillus sp. in the DNA database. Investigation of the nifH genes amplified from the genomic DNA extracted from these sweet potatoes also showed high similarity to various α-proteobacteria including Bradyrhizobium, β-proteobacteria, and cyanobacteria. These results suggest that bradyrhizobia colonize and express nifH genes not only in the root nodules of leguminous plants but also in sweet potatoes as diazotrophic endophytes.

  16. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-01-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change. PMID:23531982

  17. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity.

    PubMed

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-06-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change.

  18. Starch synthesis, and tuber storage protein genes are differently expressed in Solanum tuberosum and in Solanum brevidens.

    PubMed

    Bánfalvi, Z; Molnar, A; Molnar, G; Lakatos, L; Szabo, L

    1996-04-01

    Studying in vitro stem cuttings of Solanum tuberosum induced for tuberization and those of a non-tuberizing Solanum species, differences both in morphology and in gene expression were detected. Stolon formation essentially depended on light while tuberization was triggered by the elevated level of sucrose in the medium. Genes involved in starch synthesis were induced by sucrose in both species, however, starch granules were detected only in potato. A new tuber specific cDNA clone, GM7, encoding a putative metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor and the cDNA of a proline rich cell wall protein with S. brevidens specific expression were isolated by differential screening. Sucrose mediated transcription of the tuber storage proteins like patatin and proteinase inhibitors (Kunitz-type, winI, GM7) failed in S. brevidens.

  19. Comparative Functional Genomic Analysis of Solanum Glandular Trichome Types1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Eric T.; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors. PMID:21098679

  20. Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and Persistent Outside of its Natural Range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild potato (Solanum section Petota) contains about 110 species that are native to the Americas from the southwestern United States to central Chile and adjacent Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. Landrace populations of the cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, are native to the Ame...

  1. A comparative study of mucilage and pulp polysaccharides from tamarillo fruit (Solanum betaceum Cav.).

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Georgia Erdmann; Iacomini, Marcello; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C

    2016-07-01

    A comparative study of mucilage (locular tissue) and pulp polysaccharides from ripe tamarillo fruits (Solanum betaceum Cav.) was carried out. After aqueous and alkaline extractions and various purification steps (freeze-thaw and α-amylase - EC 3.2.1.1 treatments, Fehling precipitation and ultrafiltration through 50 kDa cut-off membrane), the obtained fractions from mucilage were analyzed by sugar composition, HPSEC, and NMR spectroscopy analyses. The results showed that the mucilage of tamarillo contains a highly methoxylated homogalacturonans mixed with type I arabinogalactans, a linear (1 → 5)-linked α-L-arabinan, and a linear (1 → 4)-β-D-xylan. A comparison with polysaccharides extracted from the pulp revealed that differences were observed in the yield and in the ratio of extracted polysaccharides. Moreover, structural differences between pulp and mucilage polysaccharides were also observed, such as in the length of side chains of the pectins, and in the degree of branching of the xylans. PMID:27163609

  2. Purification of a polyphenol oxidase isoform from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Marri, Costanza; Frazzoli, Alessandra; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Poggi, Valeria

    2003-08-01

    A different expression pattern of polyphenol oxidases has been observed during storage in cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) featuring different length of dormancy: a short-dormant cultivar showed, at the end of the dormancy, both the highest polyphenol oxidase activity and the largest number of enzyme isoforms. An isoform of polyphenol oxidase isolated at the end of the physiological dormancy from a short-dormant cultivar has been purified to homogeneity by means of column chromatography on phenyl Sepharose and on Superdex 200. The purification factor has been determined equal to 88, and the molecular mass of the purified isoform has been estimated to be 69 and 340 kDa by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration on Superdex 200, respectively, indicating this PPO isoform as a multimer. The corresponding zymogram features a diffused single band at the cathodic region of the gel and the pI of this polyphenol oxidase has been calculated equal to 6.5. PMID:12877914

  3. Expression, purification and characterization of Solanum tuberosum recombinant cytosolic pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Auslender, Evgenia L; Dorion, Sonia; Dumont, Sébastien; Rivoal, Jean

    2015-06-01

    The cDNA encoding for a Solanum tuberosum cytosolic pyruvate kinase 1 (PKc1) highly expressed in tuber tissue was cloned in the bacterial expression vector pProEX HTc. The construct carried a hexahistidine tag in N-terminal position to facilitate purification of the recombinant protein. Production of high levels of soluble recombinant PKc1 in Escherichia coli was only possible when using a co-expression strategy with the chaperones GroES-GroEL. Purification of the protein by Ni(2 +) chelation chromatography yielded a single protein with an apparent molecular mass of 58kDa and a specific activity of 34unitsmg(-1) protein. The recombinant enzyme had an optimum pH between 6 and 7. It was relatively heat stable as it retained 80% of its activity after 2min at 75°C. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed with ADP and UDP whereas sigmoidal saturation was observed during analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate binding. Among possible effectors tested, aspartate and glutamate had no effect on enzyme activity, whereas α-ketoglutarate and citrate were the most potent inhibitors. When tested on phosphoenolpyruvate saturation kinetics, these latter compounds increased S0.5. These findings suggest that S. tuberosum PKc1 is subject to a strong control by respiratory metabolism exerted via citrate and other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates.

  4. Patatin, the tuber storage protein of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Wenn; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2003-07-16

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber storage protein, patatin, was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of 45 kDa. The purified patatin showed antioxidant or antiradical activity by a series of in vitro tests, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (half-inhibition concentration, IC(50), was 0.582 mg/mL) scavenging activity assays, anti-human low-density lipoprotein peroxidation tests, and protections against hydroxyl radical-mediated DNA damages and peroxynitrite-mediated dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidations. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for hydroxyl radical detections, it was found that the intensities of the EPR signal were decreased by the increased amounts of patatin added (IC(50) was 0.775 mg/mL). Through modifications of patatin by iodoacetamide or N-bromosuccinimide, it was found that the antiradical activities of modified patatin against DPPH or hydroxyl radicals were decreased. It was suggested that cysteine and tryptophan residues in patatin might contribute to its antioxidant activities against radicals.

  5. Expression, purification and characterization of Solanum tuberosum recombinant cytosolic pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Auslender, Evgenia L; Dorion, Sonia; Dumont, Sébastien; Rivoal, Jean

    2015-06-01

    The cDNA encoding for a Solanum tuberosum cytosolic pyruvate kinase 1 (PKc1) highly expressed in tuber tissue was cloned in the bacterial expression vector pProEX HTc. The construct carried a hexahistidine tag in N-terminal position to facilitate purification of the recombinant protein. Production of high levels of soluble recombinant PKc1 in Escherichia coli was only possible when using a co-expression strategy with the chaperones GroES-GroEL. Purification of the protein by Ni(2 +) chelation chromatography yielded a single protein with an apparent molecular mass of 58kDa and a specific activity of 34unitsmg(-1) protein. The recombinant enzyme had an optimum pH between 6 and 7. It was relatively heat stable as it retained 80% of its activity after 2min at 75°C. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed with ADP and UDP whereas sigmoidal saturation was observed during analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate binding. Among possible effectors tested, aspartate and glutamate had no effect on enzyme activity, whereas α-ketoglutarate and citrate were the most potent inhibitors. When tested on phosphoenolpyruvate saturation kinetics, these latter compounds increased S0.5. These findings suggest that S. tuberosum PKc1 is subject to a strong control by respiratory metabolism exerted via citrate and other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. PMID:25573389

  6. Novel inter-series hybrids in Solanum, section Petota.

    PubMed

    Dinu, I I; Hayes, R J; Kynast, R G; Phillips, R L; Thill, C A

    2005-02-01

    Sexual hybrids between distantly related Solanum species can undergo endosperm failure, a post-zygotic barrier in inter-species hybridizations. This barrier is explained by the endosperm balance number (EBN) hypothesis, which states that parents must have corresponding EBNs for viable seed formation. Tests for inter-crossability were made involving the Mexican species Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal. (series Pinnatisecta, ApiApi, 1EBN), autotetraploids of this species, Solanum verrucosum Schlechtd. (series Tuberosa, AA, 2EBN), haploids (2x, 2EBN) of the South American S. tuberosum L. (series Tuberosa, A1A1A2A2, 4EBN), and F2 haploid-species hybrids with South American species (AA, 2EBN) S. berthaultii Hawkes, S. sparsipilum (Bitter.) Juz. and Bukasov and S. chacoense Bitter. The development of hybrid endosperms was investigated for these combinations by confocal microscopy with regard to cell-division timing and tissue collapse. Novel sexual diploid (AApi) and triploid (AApiApi) inter-series hybrids were generated from S. verrucosum x S. pinnatisectum crosses by using post-pollination applications of auxin. F1 embryos were rescued in vitro. The hybrid status of recovered plants was verified by microsatellite marker analysis, and the ploidy was determined by chromosome counting. The application of phytohormones in inter-ploidy S. pinnatisectum x S. tuberosum crosses, however, did not delay endosperm collapse, and embryos were not formed. Other diploid, 1EBN species tested in remote hybridizations with Group Tuberosum were S. cardiophyllum Lindl., S. trifidum Correll, and S. tarnii Hawkes and Hjert., series Pinnatisecta, and S. bulbocastanum Dunal., series Bulbocastana. Based on the analysis of post-zygotic reproductive barriers among isolated species of section Petota, we propose strategies to overcome such incompatibilities. PMID:15517147

  7. Novel inter-series hybrids in Solanum, section Petota.

    PubMed

    Dinu, I I; Hayes, R J; Kynast, R G; Phillips, R L; Thill, C A

    2005-02-01

    Sexual hybrids between distantly related Solanum species can undergo endosperm failure, a post-zygotic barrier in inter-species hybridizations. This barrier is explained by the endosperm balance number (EBN) hypothesis, which states that parents must have corresponding EBNs for viable seed formation. Tests for inter-crossability were made involving the Mexican species Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal. (series Pinnatisecta, ApiApi, 1EBN), autotetraploids of this species, Solanum verrucosum Schlechtd. (series Tuberosa, AA, 2EBN), haploids (2x, 2EBN) of the South American S. tuberosum L. (series Tuberosa, A1A1A2A2, 4EBN), and F2 haploid-species hybrids with South American species (AA, 2EBN) S. berthaultii Hawkes, S. sparsipilum (Bitter.) Juz. and Bukasov and S. chacoense Bitter. The development of hybrid endosperms was investigated for these combinations by confocal microscopy with regard to cell-division timing and tissue collapse. Novel sexual diploid (AApi) and triploid (AApiApi) inter-series hybrids were generated from S. verrucosum x S. pinnatisectum crosses by using post-pollination applications of auxin. F1 embryos were rescued in vitro. The hybrid status of recovered plants was verified by microsatellite marker analysis, and the ploidy was determined by chromosome counting. The application of phytohormones in inter-ploidy S. pinnatisectum x S. tuberosum crosses, however, did not delay endosperm collapse, and embryos were not formed. Other diploid, 1EBN species tested in remote hybridizations with Group Tuberosum were S. cardiophyllum Lindl., S. trifidum Correll, and S. tarnii Hawkes and Hjert., series Pinnatisecta, and S. bulbocastanum Dunal., series Bulbocastana. Based on the analysis of post-zygotic reproductive barriers among isolated species of section Petota, we propose strategies to overcome such incompatibilities.

  8. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  9. [Review about mechanisms of anti-cancer of Solanum nigrum].

    PubMed

    An, Lei; Tang, Jin-tian; Liu, Xin-min; Gao, Nan-nan

    2006-08-01

    This paper gave a brief introduction of the effect of Solanum nigrum on anti-cancer. The experimental results showed that the total alkaloid isolated from S. nigrum interfered structure and function of tumor cell membrane, disturbed the synthesis of DNA and RNA, changed the cell cycle distribution, so that total alkaloids could play in inhibabition to tumor cells, while the glycoprotein (150 x 10(3)) isolated from S. nigrum might have shown anti-cancer abilities by blocking the anti-apoptotic pathway of NF-kappaB, activating caspase cascades reaction and increasing the production of nitric oxide. PMID:17048560

  10. A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of  Solanum L. (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Dulcamaroid clade of Solanum contains 45 species of mostly vining or weakly scandent species, including the common circumboreal weed Solanum dulcamara L. The group comprises members of the previously recognised infrageneric groupings sect. Andropedas Rusby, sect. Californisolanum A. Child, sect. Dulcamara (Moench) Dumort., sect. Holophylla (G.Don) Walp., sect. Jasminosolanum (Bitter) Seithe, sect.Lysiphellos (Bitter) Seithe, subsect. Nitidum A.Child and sect. Subdulcamara Dunal. These infrageneric groups are not monophyletic as traditionally recognised, and the complex history of the classification of the dulcamaroid solanums is reviewed. Many of the species in the clade are quite variable morphologically; plants are shrubs, herbaceous vines or woody canopy lianas, and habits can vary between these states in a single locality. Variation in leaf shape and pubescence density and type is also extreme and has lead to the description of many minor morphological variants as distinct species. The flowers of members of the group are generally very showy, and several species (e.g., Solanum crispum Ruiz & Pav., Solanum laxum Spreng., Solanum seaforthianum Andrews) are popular ornamental plants that have occasionally escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. The clade is here divided into five morphologically and geographically delimited species groups to facilitate further study. One new species from southern Ecuador, Solanum agnoston S.Knapp sp. nov., is described here. Full descriptions and synonymies (including designations of lectotypes or neotypes), preliminary conservation assessments, illustrations, distribution maps, and an extensive list of localities are provided for all species. PMID:23794937

  11. A Deluge of Complex Repeats: The Solanum Genome.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mrigaya; Gangwar, Indu; Shankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive elements have lately emerged as key components of genome, performing varieties of roles. It has now become necessary to have an account of repeats for every genome to understand its dynamics and state. Recently, genomes of two major Solanaceae species, Solanum tuberosum and Solanum lycopersicum, were sequenced. These species are important crops having high commercial significance as well as value as model species. However, there is a reasonable gap in information about repetitive elements and their possible roles in genome regulation for these species. The present study was aimed at detailed identification and characterization of complex repetitive elements in these genomes, along with study of their possible functional associations as well as to assess possible transcriptionally active repetitive elements. In this study, it was found that ~50-60% of genomes of S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum were composed of repetitive elements. It was also found that complex repetitive elements were associated with >95% of genes in both species. These two genomes are mostly composed of LTR retrotransposons. Two novel repeat families very similar to LTR/ERV1 and LINE/RTE-BovB have been reported for the first time. Active existence of complex repeats was estimated by measuring their transcriptional abundance using Next Generation Sequencing read data and Microarray platforms. A reasonable amount of regulatory components like transcription factor binding sites and miRNAs appear to be under the influence of these complex repetitive elements in these species, while several genes appeared to possess exonized repeats. PMID:26241045

  12. Solanum Tuber-bearing Species Resistance Behavior Against Nacobbus aberrans

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Eliseo J.; Clausen, Andrea. M.; Franco, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Naccobus aberrans is a major pest of the potato crop in the Andean regions of Argentina, Bolivia, and Perú. It is endemic in northwest Argentina and is also found in lowlands. The resistance of eleven Andean potato landraces and three accessions of the wild tuber-bearing species Solanum acaule, S. infundibuliforme, and S. megistacrolobum were evaluated against a population of N. aberrans from Coctaca, Jujuy province, while Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum ‘Spunta’, ‘Kennebec’, and ‘Frital INTA’ were evaluated against a population from the southeast of Buenos Aires province. The presence, the number of galls, and the number of individuals were recorded. In addition, a reproduction factor was calculated and races were determined. Results showed that the N. aberrans population from Coctaca corresponded to race 2 and the population from the lowlands belonged to the sugar beet group. Landrace Azul, one genotype of S. megistacrolobum, and two genotypes of S. acaule showed resistance towards the race from Coctaca while no infection was recorded in potato cultivars with the Naccobus race from the lowland area. PMID:22661771

  13. A Deluge of Complex Repeats: The Solanum Genome

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Mrigaya; Gangwar, Indu; Shankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive elements have lately emerged as key components of genome, performing varieties of roles. It has now become necessary to have an account of repeats for every genome to understand its dynamics and state. Recently, genomes of two major Solanaceae species, Solanum tuberosum and Solanum lycopersicum, were sequenced. These species are important crops having high commercial significance as well as value as model species. However, there is a reasonable gap in information about repetitive elements and their possible roles in genome regulation for these species. The present study was aimed at detailed identification and characterization of complex repetitive elements in these genomes, along with study of their possible functional associations as well as to assess possible transcriptionally active repetitive elements. In this study, it was found that ~50–60% of genomes of S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum were composed of repetitive elements. It was also found that complex repetitive elements were associated with >95% of genes in both species. These two genomes are mostly composed of LTR retrotransposons. Two novel repeat families very similar to LTR/ERV1 and LINE/RTE-BovB have been reported for the first time. Active existence of complex repeats was estimated by measuring their transcriptional abundance using Next Generation Sequencing read data and Microarray platforms. A reasonable amount of regulatory components like transcription factor binding sites and miRNAs appear to be under the influence of these complex repetitive elements in these species, while several genes appeared to possess exonized repeats. PMID:26241045

  14. Accumulation, functional annotation, and comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), the third pole of the genus Solanum species after tomato and potato.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Negoro, Satomi; Miyatake, Koji; Ohyama, Akio

    2010-01-15

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a widely grown vegetable crop that belongs to the genus Solanum, which is comprised of more than 1000 species of wide genetic and phenotypic variation. Unlike tomato and potato, Solanum crops that belong to subgenus Potatoe and have been targets for comprehensive genomic studies, eggplant is endemic to the Old World and belongs to a different subgenus, Leptostemonum, and therefore, would be a unique member for comparative molecular biology in Solanum. In this study, more than 60,000 eggplant cDNA clones from various tissues and treatments were sequenced from both the 5'- and 3'-ends, and a unigene set consisting of 16,245 unique sequences was constructed. Functional annotations based on sequence similarity to known plant reference datasets revealed a distribution of functional categories almost similar to that of tomato, while 1316 unigenes were suggested to be eggplant-specific. Sequence-based comparative analysis using putative orthologous gene groups setup by reciprocal sequence comparison among six solanaceous species suggested that eggplant and its wild ally Solanum torvum were clustered separately from subgenus Potatoe species, and then, all Solanum species were clustered separately from the genus Capsicum. Microsatellite motif distribution was different among species and likely to be coincident with the phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, the eggplant unigene dataset exhibited its utility in transcriptome analysis by the SAGE strategy where a considerable number of short tag sequences of interest were successfully assigned to unigenes and their functional annotations. The eggplant ESTs and 16k unigene set developed in this study would be a useful resource not only for molecular genetics and breeding in eggplant itself, but for expanding the scope of comparative biology in Solanum species.

  15. A new species of Solanum sect. Acanthophora (Solanaceae) from Argentina and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Franco E.; Mentz, Lilian Auler

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum belonging to section Acanthophora (subgenus Leptostemonum) from Argentina and Brazil is described. Solanum neei Chiarini & L.A.Mentz, sp. nov. is found in clearings of semideciduous forests and in secondary formations, from the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in Brazil to the Misiones province in Argentina. It is morphologically similar to Solanum incarceratum Ruiz & Pav. from Peru, Bolivia and Western-Central Brazil, differing mainly by its pedunculate inflorescences. A key to related species is provided, as well a photograph of the holotype, a distribution map and illustration. PMID:23730189

  16. Preparative isolation of anthocyanins from Japanese purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Montilla, Elyana Cuevas; Hillebrand, Silke; Butschbach, Daniela; Baldermann, Susanne; Watanabe, Naoharu; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-09-22

    Purple-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) contain a very complex anthocyanin profile due to the presence of several non-, mono-, and diacylated glucosides of cyanidin and peonidin. In this study, the anthocyanin composition of four Japanese purple sweet potato cultivars (Chiran Murasaki, Tanegashima Murasaki, Naka Murasaki, and Purple Sweet) were investigated by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MSn analyses. The HPLC chromatograms of the different cultivars show a remarkable variation of the two major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, respectively. According to this, they can be categorized into two groups on the basis of the peonidin/cyanidin ratio: the cultivars Chiran Murasaki and Purple Sweet showed a high content of peonidin derivatives (peonidin type), whereas the varieties Tanegashima Murasaki and Naka Murasaki were classified as cyanidin types. By means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) the nonacylated 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside of cyanidin was isolated on a preparative scale. Furthermore, it was possible to isolate the monoacylated cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside as well as three diacylated major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6'',6'''-dicaffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxy-benzoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxybenzoyl-sophoroside)-5-glucoside. The purity and identity of the so-obtained pigments were confirmed by NMR measurements.

  17. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Bahado-Singh, Perceval S; Riley, Cliff K; Wheatley, Andrew O; Lowe, Henry I C

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years). The GI varied between 41 ± 5-93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5-50 ± 3), while those processed by baking (82 ± 3-94 ± 3) and roasting (79 ± 4-93 ± 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP "Tainung 73," which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries.

  19. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves suppressed oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro and in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Miu; Tani, Mariko; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Iizuka, Maki; Saita, Emi; Toyozaki, Miku; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Kondo, Kazuo

    2011-05-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves are consumed as vegetables around the world, especially in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of sweet potato leaves on low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro and in human subjects. We compared the antioxidant activity of 8 kinds of sweet potato leaves. Every sweet potato leaf had high radical scavenging activity and prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. We found that sweet potato leaves contained abundant polyphenol compounds and the radical scavenging activity and prolongation rate of lag time were highly correlated with total polyphenol content. We also confirmed that thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production was increased in endothelial cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which was decreased by treatment with sweet potato leaves. We further measured the low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in 13 healthy volunteers after their intake of 18 g of "Suioh", raw sweet potato leaves. "Suioh" prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation and decreased low-density lipoprotein mobility. These results suggest that sweet potato leaves have antioxidant activity leading to the suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

  20. Preparative isolation of anthocyanins from Japanese purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Montilla, Elyana Cuevas; Hillebrand, Silke; Butschbach, Daniela; Baldermann, Susanne; Watanabe, Naoharu; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-09-22

    Purple-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) contain a very complex anthocyanin profile due to the presence of several non-, mono-, and diacylated glucosides of cyanidin and peonidin. In this study, the anthocyanin composition of four Japanese purple sweet potato cultivars (Chiran Murasaki, Tanegashima Murasaki, Naka Murasaki, and Purple Sweet) were investigated by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MSn analyses. The HPLC chromatograms of the different cultivars show a remarkable variation of the two major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, respectively. According to this, they can be categorized into two groups on the basis of the peonidin/cyanidin ratio: the cultivars Chiran Murasaki and Purple Sweet showed a high content of peonidin derivatives (peonidin type), whereas the varieties Tanegashima Murasaki and Naka Murasaki were classified as cyanidin types. By means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) the nonacylated 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside of cyanidin was isolated on a preparative scale. Furthermore, it was possible to isolate the monoacylated cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside as well as three diacylated major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6'',6'''-dicaffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxy-benzoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxybenzoyl-sophoroside)-5-glucoside. The purity and identity of the so-obtained pigments were confirmed by NMR measurements. PMID:20731350

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP "Tainung 73," which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  2. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected.

  3. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bahado-Singh, Perceval S.; Riley, Cliff K.; Wheatley, Andrew O.; Lowe, Henry I. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years). The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3), while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3) and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22132322

  4. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP “Tainung 73,” which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  5. The physicochemical properties of microwave-assisted encapsulated anthocyanins from Ipomoea batatas as affected by different wall materials

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Nawi, Norazlina; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Mohd Marsin, Aishah

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of different wall materials on the physicochemical properties of microwave-assisted encapsulated anthocyanins from Ipomoea batatas. Using the powder characterization technique, purple sweet potato anthocyanin (PSPAs) powders were analysed for moisture content, water activity, dissolution time, hygroscopicity, color and morphology. PSPAs were produced using different wall materials: maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and a combination of gum arabic and maltodextrin (GA + MD) at a 1:1 ratio. Each of the wall materials was homogenized to the core material at a core/wall material ratio of 5 and were microencapsulated by microwave-assisted drying at 1100 W. Results indicated that encapsulated powder with the GA and MD combination presented better quality of powder with the lowest value of moisture content and water activity. With respect to morphology, the microcapsule encapsulated with GA + MD showed several dents in coating surrounding its core material, whereas other encapsulated powders showed small or slight dents entrapped onto the bioactive compound. Colorimetric analysis showed changes in values of L, a*, b*, hue and chroma in the reconstituted powder compared to the initial powder. PMID:25838887

  6. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  7. [The effect of infection by Fusarium solani f. sp. batatas on endogenous hormone levels in sweet potato seedling].

    PubMed

    Chai, Yi-Qiu; Chen, Li-Feng; Wang, Jin-Sheng

    2007-08-01

    The endogenous hormone ABA concentrations increased in the leaves, shoots and roots of sweet potato plants infected with Fusarium solani f. sp. batatas (FSB) or treated by its culture filtrate. The accumulation of ABA occurred firstly in the roots, but the highest concentration was in the shoots. The endogenous GA(1/3) concentration of leaves, shoots and roots of infected sweet potato kept at markedly low levels during the period of experiments.The ABA concentration of sweet potato seedlings increased observably after 9 h treatment with FSB culture filtrate, but decreased significantly after 15 h, and the GA(1/3) concentration increased markedly after 15 h treatment with 10(1), 10(2) dilution of FSB culture filtrate (after 12 h treatment with 10(3) dilution). The disease symptoms may be induced by the changes in concentration of ABA and GA(1/3) in the plants. The root rot-infected sweet potatoes grew upright without tailing, having aerial roots in knots near the ground, and were in full bloom in autumn.

  8. Differential Protein Expression in Response to Abiotic Stress in Two Potato Species: Solanum commersonii Dun and Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed Central

    Folgado, Raquel; Panis, Bart; Sergeant, Kjell; Renaut, Jenny; Swennen, Rony; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    Better knowledge on responses to dehydration stress could help to improve the existing cryopreservation protocols for potato, since plant tissues processed for cryopreservation are often submitted to similar in vitro stress conditions. Cryopreservation (the best method of conservation for vegetatively propagated plants) of potato still needs to be standardized to make it available and to conserve the wide diversity of this crop. In the present work, the response to osmotic stress and chilling temperature was investigated in two potato species, Solanum tuberosum and its relative, frost-tolerant S. commersonii. After 14 days of exposure, different growth parameters, such as shoot length and number of leaves, were measured. Furthermore, differentially abundant proteins were identified after performing 2-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-DIGE) experiments, and soluble carbohydrates were analyzed by High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD). The results show different responses in both species depending on the stress treatment. Focusing on the differences in growth parameters during the treatments, Solanum commersonii seems to be more affected than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. At the molecular level, there are some differences and similarities between the two potato species studied that are dependent on the type of stressor. PMID:23455465

  9. Assessment of pollen reward and pollen availability in Solanum stramoniifolium and Solanum paniculatum for buzz-pollinating carpenter bees.

    PubMed

    Burkart, A; Schlindwein, C; Lunau, K

    2014-03-01

    The two widespread tropical Solanum species S. paniculatum and S. stramoniifolium are highly dependent on the visits of large bees that pollinate the flowers while buzzing them. Both Solanum species do not offer nectar reward; the rewarding of bees is thus solely dependent on the availability of pollen. Flower visitors are unable to visually assess the amount of pollen, because the pollen is hidden in poricidal anthers. In this study we ask whether and how the amount of pollen determines the attractiveness of flowers for bees. The number of pollen grains in anthers of S. stramoniifolium was seven times higher than in S. paniculatum. By contrast, the handling time per five flowers for carpenter bees visiting S. paniculatum was 3.5 times shorter than of those visiting S. stramoniifolium. As a result foraging carpenter bees collected a similar number of pollen grains per unit time on flowers of both species. Experimental manipulation of pollen availability by gluing the anther pores showed that the carpenter bees were unable to detect the availability of pollen by means of chemical cues before landing and without buzzing. Our study shows that the efficiency of pollen collecting on S. paniculatum is based on large inflorescences with short between-flower search times and short handling time of individual flowers, whereas that of S. stramoniifolium relies on a large amount of pollen per flower. Interestingly, large carpenter bees are able to adjust their foraging behaviour to drastically different strategies of pollen reward in otherwise very similar plant species.

  10. Differential Protein Expression in Response to Abiotic Stress in Two Potato Species: Solanum commersonii Dun and Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Folgado, Raquel; Panis, Bart; Sergeant, Kjell; Renaut, Jenny; Swennen, Rony; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2013-03-01

    Better knowledge on responses to dehydration stress could help to improve the existing cryopreservation protocols for potato, since plant tissues processed for cryopreservation are often submitted to similar in vitro stress conditions. Cryopreservation (the best method of conservation for vegetatively propagated plants) of potato still needs to be standardized to make it available and to conserve the wide diversity of this crop. In the present work, the response to osmotic stress and chilling temperature was investigated in two potato species, Solanum tuberosum and its relative, frost-tolerant S. commersonii. After 14 days of exposure, different growth parameters, such as shoot length and number of leaves, were measured. Furthermore, differentially abundant proteins were identified after performing 2-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-DIGE) experiments, and soluble carbohydrates were analyzed by High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD). The results show different responses in both species depending on the stress treatment. Focusing on the differences in growth parameters during the treatments, Solanum commersonii seems to be more affected than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. At the molecular level, there are some differences and similarities between the two potato species studied that are dependent on the type of stressor.

  11. Analysis of plastome and chondriome genome types in potato somatic hybrids from Solanum tuberosum × Solanum etuberosum.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Jagesh K; Chandel, Poonam; Singh, Bir Pal; Bhardwaj, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasm types of the potato somatic hybrids from Solanum tuberosum × Solanum etuberosum were analysed using chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) organelle genomes-specific markers. Of the 29 markers (15 cpDNA and 14 mtDNA) amplified in the 26 genotypes, 5 cpDNA (H3, NTCP4, NTCP8, NTCP9, and ALC1/ALC3) and 13 mtDNA markers showed polymorphism. The cluster analysis based on the mtDNA markers detected higher diversity compared with the cpDNA markers. Presence of new mtDNA fragments of the markers, namely, T11-2, Nsm1, pumD, Nsm3, and Nsm4, were observed, while monomorphic loci revealed highly conserved genomic regions in the somatic hybrids. The study revealed that the somatic hybrids had diverse cytoplasm types consisting predominantly of T-, W-, and C-, with a few A- and S-type cp genomes; and α-, β-, and γ-type mt genomes. Somatic hybridization has unique potential to widen the cytoplasm types of the cultivated gene pools from wild species through introgression by breeding methods.

  12. Solanum watneyi, a new bush tomato species from the Northern Territory, Australia named for Mark Watney of the book and film “The Martian”

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Cantley, Jason T.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of andromonoecious Solanum from the Australian “bush tomato clade” of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum watneyi Martine & Frawley, sp. nov. is closely allied with Solanum eburneum, and is sympatric with it in parts of its range in the Northern Territory. The new species has been recognized as a variant of Solanum eburneum for decades, at times being referred to by local botanists as Solanum sp. “Bullita” because of its relative abundance in the vicinity of the Bullita Station area of Judbarra/Gregory National Park. Morphometric analyses show that Solanum watneyi differs statistically from Solanum eburneum in several key reproductive and vegetative characters and field observations suggest that the two sister species may represent a case of edaphic speciation. We provide morphometric evidence for the novelty of Solanum watneyi, a complete description, and cite specimens for both species. PMID:27081345

  13. Solanum watneyi, a new bush tomato species from the Northern Territory, Australia named for Mark Watney of the book and film "The Martian".

    PubMed

    Martine, Christopher T; Frawley, Emma S; Cantley, Jason T; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E

    2016-01-01

    A new species of andromonoecious Solanum from the Australian "bush tomato clade" of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum watneyi Martine & Frawley, sp. nov. is closely allied with Solanum eburneum, and is sympatric with it in parts of its range in the Northern Territory. The new species has been recognized as a variant of Solanum eburneum for decades, at times being referred to by local botanists as Solanum sp. "Bullita" because of its relative abundance in the vicinity of the Bullita Station area of Judbarra/Gregory National Park. Morphometric analyses show that Solanum watneyi differs statistically from Solanum eburneum in several key reproductive and vegetative characters and field observations suggest that the two sister species may represent a case of edaphic speciation. We provide morphometric evidence for the novelty of Solanum watneyi, a complete description, and cite specimens for both species. PMID:27081345

  14. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize "trample burr" dispersal.

    PubMed

    Martine, Christopher T; Cantley, Jason T; Frawley, Emma S; Butler, Alice R; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E

    2016-01-01

    A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic "Dioicum Complex" lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent "trample burr" seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum 'Tanami.' Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA. PMID:27489475

  15. Successful treatment of Solanum dulcamara intoxication in a Labrador retriever puppy.

    PubMed

    Kees, Megan; Beckel, Nicole; Sharp, Claire

    2015-12-01

    A 10-week-old intact male Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute onset of weakness, ataxia, and generalized muscle tremors. The puppy was suffering respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression, was mildly pyrexic, and vomited plant material that was identified as creeping nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). He responded well to supportive care and was discharged successfully. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Solanum dulcamara toxicity occurring in a dog. PMID:26663926

  16. Successful treatment of Solanum dulcamara intoxication in a Labrador retriever puppy

    PubMed Central

    Kees, Megan; Beckel, Nicole; Sharp, Claire

    2015-01-01

    A 10-week-old intact male Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute onset of weakness, ataxia, and generalized muscle tremors. The puppy was suffering respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression, was mildly pyrexic, and vomited plant material that was identified as creeping nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). He responded well to supportive care and was discharged successfully. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of Solanum dulcamara toxicity occurring in a dog. PMID:26663926

  17. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of alpha- and beta-tubulin from potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon-Sung; Kalme, Satish; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Lee, Su-Jae; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have investigated microtubules from plants that host pathogenic fungi. Considerable efforts are underway to find an antimitotic agent against plant pathogens like Phytophthora infestans. However, screening the effects of antifungal agents on plant tubulin in vivo or using purified native microtubule in vitro is a time consuming process. A recombinant, correctly folded, microtubule-like structure forming tubulin could accelerate research in this area. In this study, we cloned full length cDNAs isolated from potato leaves using reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Solanum tuberosum (Stub) alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin were predicted to encode 449 and 451 amino acid long proteins with molecular masses of 57 kDa and 60 kDa, respectively. Average yields of alpha- and beta-tubulin were 2.0-3.5 mg l(-1) and 1.3-3.0 mg l(-1) of culture, respectively. The amino acids, His6, Glu198, and Phe170 involved in benomyl sensitivity were conserved in Stub tubulin. The dimerization of tubulin monomers was confirmed by western blot analysis. When combined under appropriate conditions, these recombinant alpha- and beta-tubulins were capable of polymerizing into microtubules. Accessibility of cysteine residues of tubulin revealed that important ligand binding sites were folded correctly. This recombinant tubulin could serve as a control of phytotoxicity of selected antimitotic fungicide compounds during in vitro screening experiments.

  18. Pollen embryogenesis in anther cultures of Solanum carolinense L.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T L

    1986-08-01

    The direct differentiation of bicellular pollen grains of Solanum carolinense L. (Horse-nettle; Solanaceae) into embryoids and plantlets was induced by culturing whole anthers on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with IAA. The highest frequency of embryogenic induction occurred at 10 mg/l IAA. Developmentally, both the generative and vegetative cells of the pollen grain contributed to embryoid formation whose pattern of development was similar to that of zygotic embryos. In a previous study, it was show that 2,4-D promoted callus formation by pollen grains in cultured anthers of S. carolinense. It appears then that there are two distinct pathways of androgenesis in this species that are determined by the type of auxin present in the medium.

  19. Evaluation of Solanum xanthocarpum extracts as mosquito larvicides.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Lalit; Sharma, Preeti; Srivastava, C N

    2005-06-01

    Mosquito larvicidal activity of crude carbon-tetra-chloride, methanol and petroleum ether extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum fruits was examined against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, carbon-tetra-chloride extract was the most effective with LC50 values of 5.11 ppm after 24 hours and 1.27 ppm after 48 hours of treatment against An. stephensi. In the case of Cx. quinquefasciatus the petroleum ether extract was observed as most toxic with LC50 values of 62.62 ppm after 24 hours and 59.45 ppm after 48 hours of exposure period respectively. It is, therefore, suggested that S. xanthocarpum can be applied as an ideal potential larvicide against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  20. Biological activity of alkaloids from Solanum dulcamara L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Padma; Sharma, Bindu; Bakshi, Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known for their antimicrobial activity. Though all natural alkaloids come from plants, not all plants produce alkaloids. Plants of the Solanaceae family are known for their high alkaloid content. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. In the present study, those plant parts of Solanum dulcamara were selected which have been reported to produce a high content of a specific alkaloid: solanine (from unripe fruits), solasodine (from flowers) and beta-solamarine (from roots). These alkaloids were extracted from various parts of S. dulcamara by well-established methods and were screened for their antibacterial activity. Human pathogenic bacteria, viz., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, were selected for the study. All three alkaloids inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. However, no significant activity was observed against E. aerogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were also evaluated.

  1. Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH) was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait improvement in

  2. Elevated compartmentalization of Na+ into vacuoles improves salt and cold stress tolerance in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijuan; Deng, Gaifang; Wang, Hongxia; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Salinity and low temperature are the main limiting factors for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) growth and agricultural productivity. Various studies have shown that plant NHX-type antiporter plays a crucial role in regulating plant tolerance to salt stress by intracellular Na(+) compartmentalization. The Arabidopsis thaliana AtNHX1 gene that encodes a vacuolar Na(+) /H(+) antiporter was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Xushu-22 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to confer abiotic stress tolerance. Stable insertion of AtNHX1 into the sweet potato genome and its expression was confirmed by Southern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A remarkably higher Na(+) /H(+) exchange activity of tonoplast membrane from transgenic sweet potato lines (NOE) in comparison with wild-type (WT) plants confirmed the vacuolar antiporter function in mediating Na(+) /H(+) exchange. Under salt stress, NOE plants accumulated higher Na(+) and K(+) levels in their tissues compared with WT plants, maintaining high K(+) /Na(+) ratios. Consequently, NOE plants showed enhanced protection against cell damage due to the increased proline accumulation, preserved cell membrane integrity, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging (e.g. increased superoxide dismutase activity), and reduced H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Moreover, the transgenic plants showed improved cold tolerance through multiple mechanisms of action, revealing the first molecular evidence for NHX1 function in cold response. The transgenic plants showed better biomass production and root yield under stressful conditions. These findings demonstrate that overexpressing AtNHX1 in sweet potato renders the crop tolerant to both salt and cold stresses, providing a greater capacity for the use of AtNHX1 in improving crop performance under combined abiotic stress conditions.

  3. Improved Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Expressing Spinach Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH) was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait improvement in

  4. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato. PMID:21958713

  5. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel. PMID:26521567

  6. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel.

  7. Distribution models and species discovery: the story of a new Solanum species from the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Peru is described here. Solanum pseudoamericanum Särkinen, Gonzáles & S.Knapp sp. nov. is a member of the Morelloid clade of Solanum, and is characterized by the combination of mostly forked inflorescences, flowers with small stamens 2.5 mm long including the filament, and strongly exerted styles with capitate stigmas. The species was first thought to be restricted to the seasonally dry tropical forests of southern Peru along the dry valleys of Río Pampas and Río Apurímac. Results from species distribution modelling (SDM) analysis with climatic predictors identified further potential suitable habitat areas in northern and central Peru. These areas were visited during field work in 2013. A total of 17 new populations across the predicted distribution were discovered using the model-based sampling method, and five further collections were identified amongst herbarium loans. Although still endemic to Peru, Solanum pseudoamericanum is now known from across northern, central and southern Peru. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of SDM for predicting new occurrences of rare plants, especially in the Andes where collection densities are still low in many areas and where many new species remain to be discovered. PMID:24399901

  8. Distribution models and species discovery: the story of a new Solanum species from the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Peru is described here. Solanum pseudoamericanum Särkinen, Gonzáles & S.Knapp sp. nov. is a member of the Morelloid clade of Solanum, and is characterized by the combination of mostly forked inflorescences, flowers with small stamens 2.5 mm long including the filament, and strongly exerted styles with capitate stigmas. The species was first thought to be restricted to the seasonally dry tropical forests of southern Peru along the dry valleys of Río Pampas and Río Apurímac. Results from species distribution modelling (SDM) analysis with climatic predictors identified further potential suitable habitat areas in northern and central Peru. These areas were visited during field work in 2013. A total of 17 new populations across the predicted distribution were discovered using the model-based sampling method, and five further collections were identified amongst herbarium loans. Although still endemic to Peru, Solanum pseudoamericanum is now known from across northern, central and southern Peru. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of SDM for predicting new occurrences of rare plants, especially in the Andes where collection densities are still low in many areas and where many new species remain to be discovered. PMID:24399901

  9. The Use and Limits of AFLP Data in the Taxonomy of Polyploid Wild Potato Species in Solanum Series Conicibaccata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum sect. Petota (tuber-bearing wild and cultivated potatoes) are a group of approximately 190 wild species distributed throughout the Americas from the southwestern United States south to Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. Solanum series Conicibaccata are a group of approximately 40 species within ...

  10. Metabolic and Molecular Changes of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Lines Carrying Different Solanum pennellii Wild Chromosomal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Rigano, Maria Manuela; Raiola, Assunta; Docimo, Teresa; Ruggieri, Valentino; Calafiore, Roberta; Vitaglione, Paola; Ferracane, Rosalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Solanum lycopersicum represents an important dietary source of bioactive compounds including the antioxidants flavonoids and phenolic acids. We previously identified two genotypes (IL7-3 and IL12-4) carrying loci from the wild species Solanum pennellii, which increased antioxidants in the fruit. Successively, these lines were crossed and two genotypes carrying both introgressions at the homozygous condition (DHO88 and DHO88-SL) were selected. The amount of total antioxidant compounds was increased in DHOs compared to both ILs and the control genotype M82. In order to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying the positive interaction between the two wild regions pyramided in DHO genotypes, detailed analyses of the metabolites accumulated in the fruit were carried out by colorimetric methods and LC/MS/MS. These analyses evidenced a lower content of flavonoids in DHOs and in ILs, compared to M82. By contrast, in the DHOs the relative content of phenolic acids increased, particularly the fraction of hexoses, thus evidencing a redirection of the phenylpropanoid flux toward the biosynthesis of phenolic acid glycosides in these genotypes. In addition, the line DHO88 exhibited a lower content of free phenolic acids compared to M82. Interestingly, the two DHOs analyzed differ in the size of the wild region on chromosome 12. Genes mapping in the introgression regions were further investigated. Several genes of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway were identified, such as one 4-coumarate:CoA ligase and two UDP-glycosyltransferases in the region 12-4 and one chalcone isomerase and one UDP-glycosyltransferase in the region 7-3. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrated a different expression of the detected genes in the ILs and in the DHOs compared to M82. These analyses, combined with biochemical analyses, suggested a central role of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase in redirecting the phenylpropanoid pathways toward the biosynthesis of phenolic acids in the pyramided lines

  11. Extrafloral nectar secretion from wounds of Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Lortzing, Tobias; Calf, Onno W; Böhlke, Marlene; Schwachtje, Jens; Kopka, Joachim; Geuß, Daniel; Kosanke, Susanne; van Dam, Nicole M; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Plants usually close wounds rapidly to prevent infections and the loss of valuable resources such as assimilates(1). However, herbivore-inflicted wounds on the bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara appear not to close completely and produce sugary wound secretions visible as droplets. Many plants across the plant kingdom secrete sugary nectar from extrafloral nectaries(2) to attract natural enemies of herbivores for indirect defence(3,4). As ants forage on wound edges of S. dulcamara in the field, we hypothesized that wound secretions are a form of extrafloral nectar (EFN). We show that, unlike EFN from known nectaries, wound secretions are neither associated with any specific structure nor restricted to certain locations. However, similar to EFN, they are jasmonate-inducible and the plant controls their chemical composition. Wound secretions are attractive for ants, and application of wound secretion mimics increases ant attraction and reduces herbivory on S. dulcamara plants in a natural population. In greenhouse experiments, we reveal that ants can defend S. dulcamara from two of its native herbivores, slugs and flea beetle larvae. Since nectar is defined by its ecological function as a sugary secretion involved in interactions with animals(5), such 'plant bleeding' could be a primitive mode of nectar secretion exemplifying an evolutionary origin of structured extrafloral nectaries. PMID:27243650

  12. Effect of ozone on indicators of leaf aging. [Solanum tuberosum

    SciTech Connect

    Yisheng Ni; Yaoren Dai; Fayek Negm; Reddy, N. Flores, H.; Arteca, R.; Pell, E. )

    1991-05-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) stress induces accelerated foliar senescence, as measured by a decline in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). The authors wish to determine (1) whether the decline in rubisco is under genetic regulation and (2) what role is played by ethylene and polyamines in modulating this response. Plants of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland were grown in a charcoal filtered greenhouse and treated with 0.15 {mu}1 1{sup {minus}1} O{sub 3} in continuous stirred tank reactors for 4 h. Immediately, 4 h and 20 h after O{sub 3} exposure, the fourth, seventh and tenth leaves from the apex were harvested and the tissue analyzed for ethylene emission, ethylene forming enzyme, malonyl transferase, ACC, malonyl ACC, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, ornithine decarboxylase and messenger RNA for the large and small subunits of rubisco. Ozone induced changes in most of the variables studied and the response was most evident in the younger tissue. In contrast O{sub 3} induces accelerated senescence of the oldest tissue. The relationship between O{sub 3}-induced changes in younger foliage and accelerated aging of older tissue will be the subject of further investigation.

  13. Natural variation in folate levels among tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Pallawi; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Tamboli, Vajir; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2017-02-15

    Folate content was estimated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions using microbiological assay (MA) and by LC-MS. The MA revealed that in red-ripe fruits folate levels ranged from 4 to 60μg/100g fresh weight. The LC-MS estimation of red-ripe fruits detected three folate forms, 5-CH3-THF, 5-CHO-THF, 5,10-CH(+)THF and folate levels ranged from 14 to 46μg/100g fresh weight. In mature green and red ripe fruit, 5-CH3-THF was the most abundant folate form. Comparison of LC-MS with MA revealed that MA inaccurately estimates folate levels. The accumulation of folate forms and their distribution varied among accessions. The single nucleotide polymorphism was examined in the key genes of the folate pathway to understand its linkage with folate levels. Despite the significant variation in folate levels among tomato accessions, little polymorphism was found in folate biosynthesis genes. Our results indicate that variation in folate level is governed by a more complex regulation at cellular homeostasis level. PMID:27664678

  14. Phylogeny of kangaroo apples (Solanum subg. Archaesolanum, Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Poczai, Péter; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Symon, David E

    2011-11-01

    Kangaroo apples, subgenus Archaesolanum, are a unique and still poorly known group within the genus Solanum. Here we aimed to reveal phylogeny, historical biogeography and age of diversification of Archaesolanum. We sampled all recognized species of the group and sequenced three chloroplast regions, the trnT-trnL spacer, trnL intron and trnL-trnF spacer to calibrate a molecular clock to estimate the age of the group. Distributional data were combined with the results of phylogenetic analysis to track the historical processes responsible for the current range of the group. Our analysis supported the monophyly of the kangaroo apples and the biogeographical disjunction between the two subclades within the group. Based on the divergence time estimates the most recent common ancestor of kangaroo apples is from the late Miocene age (~9 MYA). Based on the age estimate the common ancestors of the kangaroo apples are presumed to have arrived in Australia by long-distance dispersal. The two distinct lineages within the group have separated during the aridification of the continent and further speciated in the brief resurgence of rainforests during the Pliocene.

  15. Virus-induced gene silencing in eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiping; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Yan, Huaxue; Shen, Xiaoying; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2012-06-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is an economically important vegetable requiring investigation into its various genomic functions. The current limitation in the investigation of genomic function in eggplant is the lack of effective tools available for conducting functional assays. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has played a critical role in the functional genetic analyses. In this paper, TRV-mediated VIGS was successfully elicited in eggplant. We first cloned the CDS sequence of PDS (PHYTOENE DESATURASE) in eggplant and then silenced the PDS gene. Photo-bleaching was shown on the newly-developed leaves four weeks after agroinoculation, indicating that VIGS can be used to silence genes in eggplant. To further illustrate the reliability of VIGS in eggplant, we selected Chl H, Su and CLA1 as reporters to elicit VIGS using the high-pressure spray method. Suppression of Chl H and Su led to yellow leaves, while the depletion of CLA1 resulted in albino. In conclusion, four genes, PDS, Chl H, Su (Sulfur), CLA1, were down-regulated significantly by VIGS, indicating that the VIGS system can be successfully applied in eggplant and is a reliable tool for the study of gene function.

  16. Molecular diversity analysis of eggplant (Solanum melongena) genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Ali, Z; Xu, Z L; Zhang, D Y; He, X L; Bahadur, S; Yi, J X

    2011-06-14

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena), a vegetable that is cultivated worldwide, is of considerable importance to agriculture in China. We analyzed the diversity of this plant using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and RAPD procedures to subdivide 143 Chinese-cultivated eggplants based on coefficient of parentage, genetic diversity index (GDI) and canonical discriminant analysis. ISSR markers were more effective than RAPD markers for detecting genetic diversity, which ranged from 0.10-0.51, slightly lower than what is known from other crops. Our ISSR/RAPD data provide molecular evidence that coincides with morphological-based classification into three varieties and further subdivision into eight groups, except for two groups. Intensive use of elite parents and extensive crossing within groups have resulted in increased coefficient of parentage and proportional contribution but decreased GDI during the past decades. The mean coefficient of parentage and proportional contribution increased from 0.05 to 0.10% and from 3.22 to 6.46% during 1980-1991 and 1992-2003, respectively. The GDI of landraces was 0.21, higher than the 0.09 and 0.08 calculated for the hybrid cultivars released during the two periods. The recent introduction of alien genotypes into eggplant breeding programs may broaden the genetic base.

  17. Physicochemical properties of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) hydrocolloid fractions.

    PubMed

    Gannasin, Sri Puvanesvari; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is an underutilised fruit in Malaysia. The fruit, however, contains good proportions of soluble fibre, protein, starch, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Amongst the fruits, only tamarillo mesocarp contains both polar (anthocyanins) and non-polar (carotenoids) pigments. The ability to retain both polar and non-polar pigments in the mesocarp could be related to the unique properties of its hydrocolloids. To understand the pigment-hydrocolloid interaction in the fruit, information on the physicochemical characteristics of the hydrocolloids is required. Therefore, hydrocolloids from the anthocyanin-rich seed mucilage fraction of the tamarillo and its carotenoid-rich pulp fraction were extracted and characterised. Water and 1% citric acid were used to extract the seed mucilage hydrocolloid while 72% ethanol and 20mM HEPES buffer were used for pulp hydrocolloid extraction. Seed mucilage hydrocolloid was primarily composed of arabinogalactan protein-associated pectin whereas pulp hydrocolloid was composed of hemicellulosic polysaccharides with some naturally interacting proteins and neutral polysaccharides. PMID:25842340

  18. Virus-induced gene silencing in eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiping; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Yan, Huaxue; Shen, Xiaoying; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2012-06-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is an economically important vegetable requiring investigation into its various genomic functions. The current limitation in the investigation of genomic function in eggplant is the lack of effective tools available for conducting functional assays. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has played a critical role in the functional genetic analyses. In this paper, TRV-mediated VIGS was successfully elicited in eggplant. We first cloned the CDS sequence of PDS (PHYTOENE DESATURASE) in eggplant and then silenced the PDS gene. Photo-bleaching was shown on the newly-developed leaves four weeks after agroinoculation, indicating that VIGS can be used to silence genes in eggplant. To further illustrate the reliability of VIGS in eggplant, we selected Chl H, Su and CLA1 as reporters to elicit VIGS using the high-pressure spray method. Suppression of Chl H and Su led to yellow leaves, while the depletion of CLA1 resulted in albino. In conclusion, four genes, PDS, Chl H, Su (Sulfur), CLA1, were down-regulated significantly by VIGS, indicating that the VIGS system can be successfully applied in eggplant and is a reliable tool for the study of gene function. PMID:22268843

  19. Solanidine isolation from Solanum tuberosum by centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Attoumbré, Jacques; Giordanengo, Philippe; Baltora-Rosset, Sylvie

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was the preparative isolation of solanidine (aglycone of the two main potato glycoalkaloids: α-chaconine and α-solanine) from fresh Solanum tuberosum (cv. Pompadour) material by implementing a new preparation scheme using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). A setup for obtaining solanidine by hydrolysis of the glycoalkaloids found in the skin and sprouts of S. tuberosum was first developed. Then its isolation was carried out by the development of CPC conditions: the solvent system used for separation was ethyl acetate/butanol/water in the ratio 42.5:7.5:50 v/v/v, 0.6 g of crude extract were separated with a 8 mL/min flow rate of mobile phase while rotating at 2500 rpm. A run yielded 98 mg of solanidine (86.7% recovery from the crude extract) in a one-step separation. The purity of the isolated solanidine was over 98%. Thus, CPC has proven to be the method of choice to get solanidine of very high purity from S. tuberosum biomass in large quantities.

  20. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lan-Huan; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Solanum rostratum is a "super weed" that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS) and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH) of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum.

  1. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lan-Huan; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Solanum rostratum is a “super weed” that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS) and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH) of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum. PMID:27258320

  2. Rheological and biochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch.

    PubMed

    Di-Medeiros, Maria Carolina B; Pascoal, Aline M; Batista, Karla A; Bassinello, Priscila Z; Lião, Luciano M; Leles, Maria Inês G; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2014-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rheological and physicochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch. The thermogravimetric analysis of S. lycocarpum starch showed a typical three-step weight loss pattern. Microscopy revealed significant changes in the granule morphology after hydrothermal treatment. Samples hydrothermally treated at 50°C for 10 min lost 52% of their crystallinity, which was recovered after storage for 7 days at 4°C. However, samples hydrothermally treated at 65°C were totally amorphous. This treatment was sufficient to completely disrupt the starch granule, as evidenced by the absence of an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. The RVA of S. lycocarpum starch revealed 4440.7cP peak viscosity, 2660.5cP breakdown viscosity, 2414.1cP final viscosity, 834.3cP setback viscosity, and a pasting temperature of 49.6°C. The low content of resistant starch (10.25%) and high content of digestible starch (89.78%) in S. lycocarpum suggest that this starch may be a good source for the production of hydrolysates, such as glucose syrup and its derivatives.

  3. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lan-Huan; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Solanum rostratum is a "super weed" that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS) and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH) of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum. PMID:27258320

  4. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Kim, Gi-Beum; Na, Chong-Sam; Song, Choon-Ho; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (STZ), and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin). After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) compared to STZ (100%): 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001) in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%), total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%), and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%). There were also significant increases (p < 0.001) in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%), GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%), and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%). The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85%) together with increases (p < 0.01) in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145%) and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%). The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose

  5. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kim, Gi-Beum; Na, Chong-Sam; Song, Choon-Ho; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (STZ), and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin). After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) compared to STZ (100%): 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001) in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%), total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%), and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%). There were also significant increases (p < 0.001) in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%), GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%), and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%). The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85%) together with increases (p < 0.01) in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145%) and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%). The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose

  6. Leaf epidermal characters of Solanum sect. polytrichum (Solanaceae) as taxonomic evidence.

    PubMed

    Nurit-Silva, Kiriaki; De Fátima Agra, Maria

    2011-12-01

    The morphological similarities among the species of Solanum are remarkable, and are often very difficult one clear distinction between them. This paper presents a comparative anatomical study of the leaf epidermis of five Brazilian species of Solanum sect. Polytrichum, carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. The leaf epidermis surfaces were investigated to evaluate their taxonomic significance to be used for separation and delimitation of the species of the section. As results, some micro-morphological characters of the leaf epidermis, such as density, distribution and type of stellate trichomes, and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and also the type and distribution of stomata proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation and delimitation of the species, and also may contribute as an additional support to the interspecific taxonomy and systematic of Solanum sect. Polytrichum.

  7. The Effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Zheng, Jie; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fruits have different effects on alcohol metabolism and alcohol-induced liver injury. The present work selected three fruits and aimed at studying the effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were treated daily with alcohol and fruit juices for fifteen days. Chronic treatment with alcohol increased the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL), triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and decreased total protein (TP). Histopathological evaluation also showed that ethanol induced extensive fat droplets in hepatocyte cytoplasm. Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis normalized various biochemical parameters. Solanum muricatum increased the level of ALT and induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver. These results strongly suggest that treatment with Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis could protect liver from the injury of alcohol, while Solanum muricatum could aggravate the damage. PMID:27681723

  8. Isolation and characterization of a Solanum tuberosum subtilisin-like protein with caspase-3 activity (StSBTc-3).

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Belén; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Guevara, María Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteases with caspase-like enzymatic activity have been widely studied during the last decade. Previously, we have reported the presence and induction of caspase-3 like activity in the apoplast of potato leaves during Solanum tuberosum- Phytophthora infestans interaction. In this work we have purified and identified a potato extracellular protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity from potato leaves infected with P. infestans. Results obtained from the size exclusion chromatography show that the isolated protease is a monomeric enzyme with an estimated molecular weight of 70 kDa approximately. Purified protease was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, showing a 100% of sequence identity with the deduced amino acid sequence of a putative subtilisin-like protease from S. tuberosum (Solgenomics protein ID: PGSC0003DMP400018521). For this reason the isolated protease was named as StSBTc-3. This report constitutes the first evidence of isolation and identification of a plant subtilisin-like protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity. In order to elucidate the possible function of StSBTc-3 during plant pathogen interaction, we demonstrate that like animal caspase-3, StSBTc-3 is able to produce in vitro cytoplasm shrinkage in plant cells and to induce plant cell death. This result suggest that, StSBTc-3 could exert a caspase executer function during potato- P. infestans interaction, resulting in the restriction of the pathogen spread during plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:25486023

  9. Isolation and characterization of a Solanum tuberosum subtilisin-like protein with caspase-3 activity (StSBTc-3).

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Belén; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Guevara, María Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteases with caspase-like enzymatic activity have been widely studied during the last decade. Previously, we have reported the presence and induction of caspase-3 like activity in the apoplast of potato leaves during Solanum tuberosum- Phytophthora infestans interaction. In this work we have purified and identified a potato extracellular protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity from potato leaves infected with P. infestans. Results obtained from the size exclusion chromatography show that the isolated protease is a monomeric enzyme with an estimated molecular weight of 70 kDa approximately. Purified protease was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, showing a 100% of sequence identity with the deduced amino acid sequence of a putative subtilisin-like protease from S. tuberosum (Solgenomics protein ID: PGSC0003DMP400018521). For this reason the isolated protease was named as StSBTc-3. This report constitutes the first evidence of isolation and identification of a plant subtilisin-like protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity. In order to elucidate the possible function of StSBTc-3 during plant pathogen interaction, we demonstrate that like animal caspase-3, StSBTc-3 is able to produce in vitro cytoplasm shrinkage in plant cells and to induce plant cell death. This result suggest that, StSBTc-3 could exert a caspase executer function during potato- P. infestans interaction, resulting in the restriction of the pathogen spread during plant-pathogen interaction.

  10. Draft genome sequence of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.): the representative solanum species indigenous to the old world.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Miyatake, Koji; Nunome, Tsukasa; Negoro, Satomi; Ohyama, Akio; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Sato, Shusei; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other important Solanaceae crops such as tomato, potato, chili pepper, and tobacco, all of which originated in South America and are cultivated worldwide, eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is indigenous to the Old World and in this respect it is phylogenetically unique. To broaden our knowledge of the genomic nature of solanaceous plants further, we dissected the eggplant genome and built a draft genome dataset with 33,873 scaffolds termed SME_r2.5.1 that covers 833.1 Mb, ca. 74% of the eggplant genome. Approximately 90% of the gene space was estimated to be covered by SME_r2.5.1 and 85,446 genes were predicted in the genome. Clustering analysis of the predicted genes of eggplant along with the genes of three other solanaceous plants as well as Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that, of the 35,000 clusters generated, 4,018 were exclusively composed of eggplant genes that would perhaps confer eggplant-specific traits. Between eggplant and tomato, 16,573 pairs of genes were deduced to be orthologous, and 9,489 eggplant scaffolds could be mapped onto the tomato genome. Furthermore, 56 conserved synteny blocks were identified between the two species. The detailed comparative analysis of the eggplant and tomato genomes will facilitate our understanding of the genomic architecture of solanaceous plants, which will contribute to cultivation and further utilization of these crops. PMID:25233906

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.): the Representative Solanum Species Indigenous to the Old World

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Miyatake, Koji; Nunome, Tsukasa; Negoro, Satomi; Ohyama, Akio; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Sato, Shusei; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other important Solanaceae crops such as tomato, potato, chili pepper, and tobacco, all of which originated in South America and are cultivated worldwide, eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is indigenous to the Old World and in this respect it is phylogenetically unique. To broaden our knowledge of the genomic nature of solanaceous plants further, we dissected the eggplant genome and built a draft genome dataset with 33,873 scaffolds termed SME_r2.5.1 that covers 833.1 Mb, ca. 74% of the eggplant genome. Approximately 90% of the gene space was estimated to be covered by SME_r2.5.1 and 85,446 genes were predicted in the genome. Clustering analysis of the predicted genes of eggplant along with the genes of three other solanaceous plants as well as Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that, of the 35,000 clusters generated, 4,018 were exclusively composed of eggplant genes that would perhaps confer eggplant-specific traits. Between eggplant and tomato, 16,573 pairs of genes were deduced to be orthologous, and 9,489 eggplant scaffolds could be mapped onto the tomato genome. Furthermore, 56 conserved synteny blocks were identified between the two species. The detailed comparative analysis of the eggplant and tomato genomes will facilitate our understanding of the genomic architecture of solanaceous plants, which will contribute to cultivation and further utilization of these crops. PMID:25233906

  12. Draft genome sequence of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.): the representative solanum species indigenous to the old world.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Miyatake, Koji; Nunome, Tsukasa; Negoro, Satomi; Ohyama, Akio; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Sato, Shusei; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other important Solanaceae crops such as tomato, potato, chili pepper, and tobacco, all of which originated in South America and are cultivated worldwide, eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is indigenous to the Old World and in this respect it is phylogenetically unique. To broaden our knowledge of the genomic nature of solanaceous plants further, we dissected the eggplant genome and built a draft genome dataset with 33,873 scaffolds termed SME_r2.5.1 that covers 833.1 Mb, ca. 74% of the eggplant genome. Approximately 90% of the gene space was estimated to be covered by SME_r2.5.1 and 85,446 genes were predicted in the genome. Clustering analysis of the predicted genes of eggplant along with the genes of three other solanaceous plants as well as Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that, of the 35,000 clusters generated, 4,018 were exclusively composed of eggplant genes that would perhaps confer eggplant-specific traits. Between eggplant and tomato, 16,573 pairs of genes were deduced to be orthologous, and 9,489 eggplant scaffolds could be mapped onto the tomato genome. Furthermore, 56 conserved synteny blocks were identified between the two species. The detailed comparative analysis of the eggplant and tomato genomes will facilitate our understanding of the genomic architecture of solanaceous plants, which will contribute to cultivation and further utilization of these crops.

  13. In vivo breakdown products of the 32 kDa thylakoid herbicide binding protein. [Spirodela oligorrhiza

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.M.; Mattoo, A.K.; Gaba, V.; Edelman, M.

    1986-04-01

    The 32 kDa herbicide binding protein of PSII is degraded rapidly in the light. This phenomenon was investigated in Spirodela oligorrhiza. When fronds were radiolabeled in the presence of cycloheximide only the chloroplast-encoded proteins were labeled. Under these conditions, a breakdown product of 23.5 kDa was observed. This polypeptide was further degraded with kinetics similar to that of the 32 kDa protein. The 23.5 kDa polypeptide cross-reacted with an antibody specific to the 32 kDa protein. By protease digestion it was determined that the 23.5 kDa polypeptide is the intact N-terminal piece of the 32 kDa protein. Thus, this product corresponds to the membrane anchor of the 32 kDa protein. Using the same antibody, breakdown products of 16 kDa, 14 kDa and 12 kDa were observed. These products have also been observed in Zea mays and Solanum nigrum. Using DCMU during pulse-chase experiments at different light intensities, evidence was obtained that the 23.5 kDa breakdown product is generated in vivo.

  14. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  15. [Cadmium-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and its accumulating characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-he; Zhou, Qi-xing; Wang, Xin

    2005-05-01

    It is main groundwork and the first step of phytoextraction of its commercial application on a large scale to screen out a series of ideal hyperaccumulators that can effectively remedy contaminated soil by heavy metals, which is also difficult point and front field of contaminated environment phytoremediation. With the properties of strong endurance to adverse environment, fast growing and high reproduction, especially the characteristic of the biomass could increase sharply under feasible environmental factors, weed can supply a gap of discovered hyperaccumulating plants, so it is a kind of ideal remediative resource. A cadmium-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. (weed) was first discovered by using the pot-culture method arranged in outdoor and sampling-analyzing experiments carried out in heavy metal contaminated areas. The pot-culture experiments show that the average concentration of Cd in stems and leaves of S. nigrum growing in soil added with 25 mg/kg of Cd were all greater than the accepted critical concentration of 100 mg/kg what Cd hyperaccumulator should accumulate. The Cd concentration in its overground parts was higher than that in its roots, and the Cd accumulation coefficient in its overground parts was higher than 1 too. Compared with the control, the overground biomass of S. nigrum under the condition of 25 mg/kg (Cd) was not decreased significantly. Furthermore, it was also confirmed that S. nigrum had basic characteristics of Cd-hyperaccumulator by sample-analyze experiment in contaminated area with heavy metals. This kind of method of identifying hyper accumulators in a clean area is useful to the discovery of materials applied to the phytoremediation of contaminated soils with Cd. PMID:16124492

  16. Gene transfer into Solanum tuberosum via Rhizobium spp.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Winckelmann, Dominik; Mullins, Ewen

    2011-04-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) is the preferred technique for gene transfer into crops. A major disadvantage of the technology remains the complexity of the patent landscape that surrounds ATMT which restricts its use for commercial applications. An alternative system has been described (Broothaerts et al. in Nature 433:629-633, 2005) detailing the propensity of three rhizobia to transform the model crop Arabidopsis thaliana, the non-food crop Nicotiana tabacum and, at a very low frequency, the monocotyledonous crop Oryza sativa. In this report we describe for the first time the genetic transformation of Solanum tuberosum using the non-Agrobacterium species Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium sp. NGR234 and Mesorhizobium loti. This was achieved by combining an optimal bacterium and host co-cultivation period with a low antibiotic regime during the callus and shoot induction stages. Using this optimized protocol the transformation frequency (calculated as % of shoots equipped with root systems with the ability to grow in rooting media supplemented with 25 μg/ml hygromycin) of the rhizobia strains was calculated at 4.72, 5.85 and 1.86% for S. meliloti, R. sp. NGR234 and M. loti respectively, compared to 47.6% for the A. tumefaciens control. Stable transgene integration and expression was confirmed via southern hybridisation, quantitative PCR analysis and histochemical screening of both leaf and/or tuber tissue. In light of the rapid advances in potato genomics, combined with the sequencing of the potato genome, the ability of alternative bacteria species to genetically transform this major food crop will provide a novel resource to the Solanaceae community as it continues to develop potato as both a food and non-food crop.

  17. Identification and characterization of histone deacetylases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linmao; Lu, Jingxia; Zhang, Jianxia; Wu, Pei-Ying; Yang, Songguang; Wu, Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play crucial roles in the regulation of eukaryotic gene activity. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the importance of histone deacetylation/acetylation on genome stability, transcriptional regulation, development and response to stress in Arabidopsis. However, the biological functions of HDACs in tomato have not been investigated previously. Fifteen HDACs identified from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can be grouped into RPD3/HDA1, SIR2 and HD2 families based on phylogenetic analysis. Meanwhile, 10 members of the RPD3/HDA1 family can be further subdivided into four groups, namely Class I, Class II, Class III, and Class IV. High similarities of protein sequences and conserved domains were identified among SlHDACs and their homologs in Arabidopsis. Most SlHDACs were expressed in all tissues examined with different transcript abundance. Transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that SlHDA8, SlHDA1, SlHDA5, SlSRT1 and members of the HD2 family were localized to the nucleus, whereas SlHDA3 and SlHDA4 were localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The difference in the expression patterns and subcellular localization of SlHDACs suggest that they may play distinct functions in tomato. Furthermore, we found that three members of the RPD3/HDA1 family, SlHDA1, SIHDA3 and SlHDA4, interacted with TAG1 (TOMATO AGAMOUS1) and TM29 (TOMATO MADS BOX29), two MADS-box proteins associated with tomato reproductive development, indicating that these HDACs may be involved in gene regulation in reproductive development. PMID:25610445

  18. Development of interspecific Solanum lycopersicum and screening for Tospovirus resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Bhattacharya, P.S.; Rana, D.; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Pande, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Tospovirus has emerged as a serious viral pathogen for several crops including tomato. The tomato production is being severely affected worldwide by Tospovirus. Some reports have been published about the association of plant virus and development of human disease either by direct or indirect consumption. Resistance to this virus has been identified as good source in wild tomato species (Lycopersicum peruvianum). But the introgression of resistance genes into cultivated tomato lines and the development of interspecific hybrid are hampered due to incompatibility, fertilization barriers and embryo abortion. But this barrier has been broken by applying the embryo rescue methods. This study describes the development of interspecific hybrid tomato plants by highly efficient embryo rescue method and screening for Tospovirus resistance. The interspecific hybrid tomato plants were developed by making a cross between wild tomato species (L. peruvianum) and cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The immature embryos were cultured in standardized medium and interspecific hybrids were developed from embryogenic callus. The immature embryos excised from 7 to 35 days old fruits were used for embryo rescue and 31 days old embryos showed very good germination capabilities and produced the highest number of plants. Developed plants were hardened enough and shifted to green house. The hybrid nature of interspecific plants was further confirmed by comparing the morphological characters from their parents. The F1, F2 and F3 plants were found to have varying characters especially for leaf type, color of stem, fruits, size, shapes and they were further screened for virus resistance both in lab and open field followed by Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay confirmation. Finally, a total of 11 resistant plants were selected bearing red color fruits with desired shape and size. PMID:26587001

  19. New steroidal saponins and antiulcer activity from Solanum paniculatum L.

    PubMed

    Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; da Rocha, Cláudia Quintino; de Souza Rodrigues, Tamires; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Vilegas, Wagner

    2015-11-01

    Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) is a plant species widespread throughout tropical America, especially in the Brazilian Savanna region. It is used in Brazil for culinary purposes and in folk medicine to treat liver and gastric dysfunctions, as well as hangovers. Fractionation of the ethanolic extracts (70%) from aerial parts (leaves and twigs) of S. paniculatum led to the isolation of the two new saponins (22R, 23S, 25R)-3β, 6α, 23-trihydroxy-5α-spirostane 6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1" → 3"')-O-[β-D-quinovopyranosyl(1″' → 2')]-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1" → 3')]-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside (1) and diosgenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1" → 6')-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) together with four know compounds: caffeic acid (3), diosgenin β-D-glucopyranoside (4), rutin (5), and quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1"' → 6 ″)-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (6). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments along with HRESIMS analyses. Different doses (31.25-500 mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of leaves from S. paniculatum were evaluated against gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats. The lower dose of extract able to promote antiulcer effect was 125 mg/kg. The treatment with S. paniculatum by oral route was able to decrease gastric lesion area and also reduced levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the gastric mucosa. Our results reveal for the first time, steroidal saponins from S. paniculatum and the antiulcer effect of this species at this lower dose. PMID:25976806

  20. Development of interspecific Solanum lycopersicum and screening for Tospovirus resistance.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D; Kamal, Mohammad A; Pande, M K

    2015-11-01

    Tospovirus has emerged as a serious viral pathogen for several crops including tomato. The tomato production is being severely affected worldwide by Tospovirus. Some reports have been published about the association of plant virus and development of human disease either by direct or indirect consumption. Resistance to this virus has been identified as good source in wild tomato species (Lycopersicum peruvianum). But the introgression of resistance genes into cultivated tomato lines and the development of interspecific hybrid are hampered due to incompatibility, fertilization barriers and embryo abortion. But this barrier has been broken by applying the embryo rescue methods. This study describes the development of interspecific hybrid tomato plants by highly efficient embryo rescue method and screening for Tospovirus resistance. The interspecific hybrid tomato plants were developed by making a cross between wild tomato species (L. peruvianum) and cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The immature embryos were cultured in standardized medium and interspecific hybrids were developed from embryogenic callus. The immature embryos excised from 7 to 35 days old fruits were used for embryo rescue and 31 days old embryos showed very good germination capabilities and produced the highest number of plants. Developed plants were hardened enough and shifted to green house. The hybrid nature of interspecific plants was further confirmed by comparing the morphological characters from their parents. The F1, F2 and F3 plants were found to have varying characters especially for leaf type, color of stem, fruits, size, shapes and they were further screened for virus resistance both in lab and open field followed by Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay confirmation. Finally, a total of 11 resistant plants were selected bearing red color fruits with desired shape and size. PMID:26587001

  1. Segregation distortion and linkage analysis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Barchi, Lorenzo; Lanteri, Sergio; Portis, Ezio; Stàgel, Anikò; Valè, Giampiero; Toppino, Laura; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo

    2010-10-01

    An anther-derived doubled haploid (DH) population and an F2 mapping population were developed from an intraspecific hybrid between the eggplant breeding lines 305E40 and 67/3. The former incorporates an introgressed segment from Solanum aethiopicum Gilo Group carrying the gene Rfo-sa1, which confers resistance to Fusarium oxysporum; the latter is a selection from an intraspecific cross involving two conventional eggplant varieties and lacks Rfo-sa1. Initially, 28 AFLP primer combinations (PCs) were applied to a sample of 93 F2 individuals and 93 DH individuals, from which 170 polymorphic AFLP fragments were identified. In the DH population, the segregation of 117 of these AFLPs as well as markers closely linked to Rfo-sa1 was substantially distorted, while in the F2 population, segregation distortion was restricted to just 10 markers, and thus the latter was chosen for map development. A set of 141 F2 individuals was genotyped with 73 AFLP PCs (generating 406 informative markers), 32 SSRs, 4 tomato RFLPs, and 3 CAPS markers linked to Rfo-sa1. This resulted in the assignment of 348 markers to 12 major linkage groups. The framework map covered 718.7 cM, comprising 238 markers (212 AFLPs, 22 SSRs, 1 RFLP, and the Rfo-sa1 CAPS). Marker order and inter-marker distances in this eggplant map were largely consistent with those reported in a recently published SSR-based map. From an eggplant breeding perspective, DH populations produced by anther culture appear to be subject to massive segregation distortion and thus may not be very efficient in capturing the full range of genetic variation present in the parental lines.

  2. Identification of Loci Affecting Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Tomato Fruit of a Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum chmielewskii Introgression Line Population

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; Molthoff, Jos; Grandillo, Silvana; Viquez-Zamora, Marcela; de Vos, Ric; de Maagd, Ruud A.; van Heusden, Sjaak; Bovy, Arnaud G.

    2016-01-01

    Semi-polar metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids are very important health-related compounds in tomato. As a first step to identify genes responsible for the synthesis of semi-polar metabolites, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence the semi-polar metabolite content in red-ripe tomato fruit were identified, by characterizing fruits of a population of introgression lines (ILs) derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii. By analyzing fruits of plants grown at two different locations, we were able to identify robust metabolite QTLs for changes in phenylpropanoid glycoconjugation on chromosome 9, for accumulation of flavonol glycosides on chromosome 5, and for alkaloids on chromosome 7. To further characterize the QTLs we used a combination of genome sequencing, transcriptomics and targeted metabolomics to identify candidate key genes underlying the observed metabolic variation. PMID:27733856

  3. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Jensen, Poul Erik; Jakobsen, Jette

    2013-06-01

    Changes in vitamin D(3) and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method including Diels-Alder derivatisation. Vitamin D(3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3) were found in the leaves of all plants after UVB-treatment. S. glaucophyllum had the highest content, 200 ng vitamin D(3)/g dry weight and 31 ng 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)/g dry weight, and was the only plant that also contained 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D(3) in both free (32 ng/g dry weight) and glycosylated form (17 ng/g dry weight).

  4. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Jensen, Poul Erik; Jakobsen, Jette

    2013-06-01

    Changes in vitamin D(3) and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method including Diels-Alder derivatisation. Vitamin D(3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3) were found in the leaves of all plants after UVB-treatment. S. glaucophyllum had the highest content, 200 ng vitamin D(3)/g dry weight and 31 ng 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)/g dry weight, and was the only plant that also contained 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D(3) in both free (32 ng/g dry weight) and glycosylated form (17 ng/g dry weight). PMID:23411232

  5. Genome-wide association mapping in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is possible using genome admixture of Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme.

    PubMed

    Ranc, Nicolas; Muños, Stephane; Xu, Jiaxin; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bounon, Rémi; Rolland, Sophie; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Brunel, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association mapping is an efficient way to identify quantitative trait loci controlling the variation of phenotypes, but the approach suffers severe limitations when one is studying inbred crops like cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Such crops exhibit low rates of molecular polymorphism and high linkage disequilibrium, which reduces mapping resolution. The cherry type tomato (S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) genome has been described as an admixture between the cultivated tomato and its wild ancestor, S. pimpinellifolium. We have thus taken advantage of the properties of this admixture to improve the resolution of association mapping in tomato. As a proof of concept, we sequenced 81 DNA fragments distributed on chromosome 2 at different distances in a core collection of 90 tomato accessions, including mostly cherry type tomato accessions. The 81 Sequence Tag Sites revealed 352 SNPs and indels. Molecular diversity was greatest for S. pimpinellifolium accessions, intermediate for S. l. cerasiforme accessions, and lowest for the cultivated group. We assessed the structure of molecular polymorphism and the extent of linkage disequilibrium over genetic and physical distances. Linkage disequilibrium decreased under r(2) = 0.3 within 1 cM, and minimal estimated value (r(2) = 0.13) was reached within 20 kb over the physical regions studied. Associations between polymorphisms and fruit weight, locule number, and soluble solid content were detected. Several candidate genes and quantitative trait loci previously identified were validated and new associations detected. This study shows the advantages of using a collection of S. l. cerasiforme accessions to overcome the low resolution of association mapping in tomato. PMID:22908034

  6. Breeding for resistance to early blight in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. We have identified two early blight resistant clones EB24-24 and EB24-3, which are hybrids between the cultivated (S. tuberosum) potato clone US-W4 (2x=24) ...

  7. Resistance to Early Blight in Hybrids Between a Solanum Tuberosum Haploid and S Raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic loss in many potato growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early bl...

  8. Breeding for Early Blight Resistance in Potato Using the Wild Species Solanum Raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. Growers are interested in the development of potato cultivars with resistance to early blight as a means to decrease usage of fungicide applications. Using w...

  9. Resistance to alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic loss in many potato growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early bl...

  10. ESTABLISHMENT, SPREAD AND INITIAL IMPACTS OF GRATIANA BOLIVIANA (CHRYSOMELIDAE) ON SOLANUM VIARUM IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) is an invasive perennial shrub in southeastern USA. Native to South America, it was first found in Florida in 1988, and it has already invaded more than 400,000 ha of grasslands and conservation areas in 11 states. Currently recommended control tactics for this we...

  11. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  12. Spontaneous autotetraploidy and its impact on morphological traits and pollen viability in Solanum aethiopicum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report for the first time the incidence of spontaneous autotetraploidy in Solanum aethiopicum (PI 636107). Stomatal dimensions and frequency, chloroplast numbers per guard cell, flow cytometry, and chromosome counts were used to differentiate the diploid plants from tetraploids. The impact of inc...

  13. Conditioning and aversion to toxic Solanum bonariense (naranjillo) leaves in calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum bonariense is a perennial poisonous shrub that induces cerebellar cortical degeneration when eaten by cattle. The aim of this research was to outline a protocol to induce a conditioned aversion to this plant. During the pre-conditioning period ten calves (126±12kg BW) were maintained at half...

  14. Stem-end defect in chipping potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) as influenced by mild environmental stresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global consumption of potato (Solanum tuberosum, L.) continues to shift from fresh potatoes to value-added processed food products such as potato chips. One serious tuber quality defect of chipping potatoes is stem-end chip defect, which results in chips with dark vasculature and adjacent tissues at...

  15. New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...

  16. Sources of Resistance to Pepino Mosaic Virus in Solanum habrochaites (Lycopersicon hirsutum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging disease on greenhouse tomato. A major tomato germplasm core collection was evaluated for its resistance against PepMV. These accessions included 23 Solanum lycopersicum L., 8 S. pimpinellifolium L., 33 S. peruvianum L., 18 S. chilense (Dunal) Reiche, and ...

  17. A spontaneous eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) color mutant conditions anthocyanin-free fruit pigmentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced or spontaneously occuring color mutants in plants provide valuable tools for elucidating the genetic and developmental regulation of genes that influence pigmentation. We identified a single plant of the eggplant (Solanum melongena) cultivar Black Beauty bearing green fruit. Black Beauty no...

  18. Variation in seed traits and germination potential of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. Following its invasion in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Silverleaf nightshade) is presently considered to be one of the worst agricultural weeds around the world including the Mediterranean basin. Plant’s native range is considered to be an area expanding from Southern US to Northern Mexico. Introduced unintentionally from so...

  19. Morphological and cytomolecular assessment of intraspecific variability in scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum aethiopicum L. (scarlet eggplant), native to Sub-Saharan Africa, can now be found grown as a crop in many parts of the world including tropical Africa, South and North America, Asia, and southern Europe. The specific use of this crop depends on the geographic area and/or plant type. Fruit, l...

  20. Colored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) dried into antioxidant-rich value-added foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are a significant source of antioxidants from polyphenols, carotenoids, tocopherol and ascorbic acid. In this study, retention of total antioxidants in fresh colored potatoes and processed potato flakes prepared as potential ingredients for snack foods was stu...

  1. Four New Vining Species of Solanum (Dulcamaroid Clade) from Montane Habitats in Tropical America

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Background Solanum (Solanaceae), with approximately 1500 species, is one of the largest genera of flowering plants, and has a centre of diversity in the New World tropics. The genus is divided into 13 major clades, of which two, the Dulcamaroid clade and the “African Non-Spiny” clade, exhibit vine morphology with twining petioles. I am currently preparing a worldwide monograph of these two groups, comprising some 70 species. Methods I formally describe here four new species of Solanum from montane Mexico and South America all belonging to the Dulcamaroid clade (including the traditionally recognised section Jasminosolanum Bitter). Descriptions, discussions of closely related species and preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species; all species are illustrated. This paper is also a test case for the electronic publication of new names in flowering plants. Conclusions These new species are all relatively rare, but not currently of conservation concern. Solanum aspersum sp. nov. is distributed in Colombia and Ecuador, S. luculentum sp. nov. in Colombia and Venezuela, S. sanchez-vegae sp. nov. is endemic to northern Peru and S. sousae sp. nov. to southern Mexico. Solanum luculentum has the morphology of a dioecious species; this is the first report of this breeding system in the Dulcamaroid clade. PMID:20463921

  2. Variation for tuber greening in the diploid wild potato Solanum microdontum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greening of the tuber skin is an undesirable defect in fresh and processed potato. Tubers of 92 Solanum microdontum families represented by 12 individuals each were generated in the winter greenhouse in 2009-2010. These were evaluated in two trials of family bulks after four days of exposure to 200 ...

  3. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (Solanum L. section Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed the contemporary ex situ conservation coverage of the wild relatives of cultivated potato (Solanum section Petota) to set priorities and guide future collections and conservation. We conducted a gap analysis for 73 taxa involving seven, 63 and three species from the primary, secondary an...

  4. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  5. Phosphorous uptake by potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) from biochar amended with anaerobic digested dairy manure effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption of plant nutrients by biochar from dairy storage lagoons and use as a supplemental fertilizer off site is a beneficial strategy to reduce nutrient contamination around dairies and supply nutrients to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and other crops. This research evaluated potato growth respo...

  6. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200 bp (total of 24 kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Results Each marker was mapped with high confidence (e<1 x 10-30) to a single genomic location using BLASTN against tomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Conclusion Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive

  7. PG-2, a Potent AMP against Pathogenic Microbial Strains, from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Gogu Valley) Tubers Not Cytotoxic against Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Young; Gopal, Ramamourthy; Kim, Sang Young; Seo, Chang Ho; Lee, Hyang Burm; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Park, Yoonkyung

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier study, we isolated potamin-1 (PT-1), a 5.6-kDa trypsin-chymotrypsin protease inhibitor, from the tubers of a potato strain (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Gogu Valley). We established that PT-1 strongly inhibits pathogenic microbial strains, but not human bacterial strains, and that its sequence shows 62% homology with a serine protease inhibitor. In the present study, we isolated an antifungal and antibacterial peptide with no cytotoxicity from tubers of the same potato strain. The peptide (peptide-G2, PG-2) was isolated using salt-extraction, ultrafiltration and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) showed the protein to have a molecular mass of 3228.5 Da, while automated Edman degradation showed the N-terminal sequence of PG-2 to be LVKDNPLDISPKQVQALCTDLVIRCMCCC-. PG-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, a human pathogenic yeast strain, and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, a plant late blight strain. PG-2 also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, but did not lyse human red blood cells and was thermostable. Overall, these results suggest PG-2 may be a good candidate to serve as a natural antimicrobial agent, agricultural pesticide and/or food additive. PMID:23429275

  8. Genome-wide identification of galactinol synthase (GolS) genes in Solanum lycopersicum and Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Filiz, Ertugrul; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker; Vatansever, Recep

    2015-10-01

    GolS genes stand as potential candidate genes for molecular breeding and/or engineering programs in order for improving abiotic stress tolerance in plant species. In this study, a total of six galactinol synthase (GolS) genes/proteins were retrieved for Solanum lycopersicum and Brachypodium distachyon. GolS protein sequences were identified to include glyco_transf_8 (PF01501) domain structure, and to have a close molecular weight (36.40-39.59kDa) and amino acid length (318-347 aa) with a slightly acidic pI (5.35-6.40). The sub-cellular location was mainly predicted as cytoplasmic. S. lycopersicum genes located on chr 1 and 2, and included one segmental duplication while genes of B. distachyon were only on chr 1 with one tandem duplication. GolS sequences were found to have well conserved motif structures. Cis-acting analysis was performed for three abiotic stress responsive elements, including ABA responsive element (ABRE), dehydration and cold responsive elements (DRE/CRT) and low-temperature responsive element (LTRE). ABRE elements were found in all GolS genes, except for SlGolS4; DRE/CRT was not detected in any GolS genes and LTRE element found in SlGolS1 and BdGolS1 genes. AU analysis in UTR and ORF regions indicated that SlGolS and BdGolS mRNAs may have a short half-life. SlGolS3 and SlGolS4 genes may generate more stable transcripts since they included AATTAAA motif for polyadenylation signal POLASIG2. Seconder structures of SlGolS proteins were well conserved than that of BdGolS. Some structural divergences were detected in 3D structures and predicted binding sites exhibited various patterns in GolS proteins. PMID:26232767

  9. Fibrin(ogen)olytic and antiplatelet activities of a subtilisin-like protease from Solanum tuberosum (StSBTc-3).

    PubMed

    Pepe, Alfonso; Frey, María Eugenia; Muñoz, Fernando; Fernández, María Belén; Pedraza, Anabela; Galbán, Gustavo; García, Diana Noemí; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Guevara, María Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Plant serine proteases have been widely used in food science and technology as well as in medicine. In this sense, several plant serine proteases have been proposed as potential anti-coagulants and anti-platelet agents. Previously, we have reported the purification and identification of a plant serine protease from Solanum tuberosum leaves. This potato enzyme, named as StSBTc-3, has a molecular weight of 72 kDa and it was characterized as a subtilisin like protease. In this work we determine and characterize the biochemical and medicinal properties of StSBTc-3. Results obtained show that, like the reported to other plant serine proteases, StSBTc-3 is able to degrade all chains of human fibrinogen and to produces fibrin clot lysis in a dose dependent manner. The enzyme efficiently hydrolyzes β subunit followed by partially hydrolyzed α and γ subunits of human fibrinogen. Assays performed to determine StSBTc-3 substrate specificity using oxidized insulin β-chain as substrate, show seven cleavage sites: Asn3-Gln4; Cys7-Gly8; Glu13-Ala14; Leu15-Tyr16; Tyr16-Leu17; Arg22-Gly23 and Phe25-Tyr26, all of them were previously reported for other serine proteases with fibrinogenolytic activity. The maximum StSBTc-3 fibrinogenolytic activity was determined at pH 8.0 and at 37 C. Additionally, we demonstrate that StSBTc-3 is able to inhibit platelet aggregation and is unable to exert cytotoxic activity on human erythrocytes in vitro at all concentrations assayed. These results suggest that StSBTc-3 could be evaluated as a new agent to be used in the treatment of thromboembolic disorders such as strokes, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. PMID:27039890

  10. A novel thioredoxin-like protein located in the chloroplast is induced by water deficit in Solanum tuberosum L. plants.

    PubMed

    Rey, P; Pruvot, G; Becuwe, N; Eymery, F; Rumeau, D; Peltier, G

    1998-01-01

    By analysing two-dimensional patterns of chloroplastic proteins from Solanum tuberosum, the authors observed the accumulation of a 32-kDa polypeptide in the stroma of plants subjected to water deficit. N-terminus and internal peptides of the protein, named CDSP 32 for chloroplastic drought-induced stress protein, showed no obvious homology with known sequences. Using a serum raised against the protein N-terminus, a cDNA encoding CDSP 32 was cloned by screening an expression library. The deduced mature CDSP 32 protein is 243 amino acids long and displays typical features of thioredoxins in the C-terminal region (122 residues). In particular, CDSP 32 contains a CGPC motif corresponding to a thioredoxin active site and a number of amino acids conferring thioredoxin-type structure. The CDSP 32 C-terminal region was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and was shown to possess thioredoxin activity based on reduction assay of insulin disulfide bridges. RNA blot analysis showed that CDSP 32 transcript does not accumulate upon mild water deficit conditions corresponding to leaf relative water contents (RWC) around 85%, but high levels of CDSP 32 transcripts were observed for more severe stress conditions (RWC around 70%). In vivo labelling and immunoprecipitation revealed a substantial increase in CDSP 32 synthesis upon similar stress conditions. Rewatering of wilted plants caused decreases in both transcript and protein abundances. In tomato wild-type plants and ABA-deficient mutants, a similar accumulation of a CDSP 32-related transcript was observed upon water deficit, most likely indicating no requirement for ABA in the regulation of CDSP 32 synthesis. Based on these results, it is proposed that CDSP 32 plays a role in preservation of the thiol: disulfide redox potential of chloroplastic proteins during water deficit.

  11. The novel Solanum tuberosum calcium dependent protein kinase, StCDPK3, is expressed in actively growing organs.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Verónica; Bialer, Magalí; Santin, Franco; Lin, Tian; Hannapel, David J; Ulloa, Rita M

    2012-12-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key components of calcium regulated signaling cascades in plants. In this work, isoform StCDPK3 from Solanum tuberosum was studied and fully described. StCDPK3 encodes a 63 kDa protein with an N-terminal variable domain (NTV), rich in prolines and glutamines, which presents myristoylation and palmitoylation consensus sites and a PEST sequence indicative of rapid protein degradation. StCDPK3 gene (circa 11 kb) is localized in chromosome 3, shares the eight exons and seven introns structure with other isoforms from subgroup IIa and contains an additional intron in the 5'UTR region. StCDPK3 expression is ubiquitous being transcripts more abundant in early elongating stolons (ES), leaves and roots, however isoform specific antibodies only detected the protein in leaf particulate extracts. The recombinant 6xHis-StCDPK3 is an active kinase that differs in its kinetic parameters and calcium requirements from StCDPK1 and 2 isoforms. In vitro, StCDPK3 undergoes autophosphorylation regardless of the addition of calcium. The StCDPK3 promoter region (circa 1,800 bp) was subcloned by genome walking and fused to GUS. Light and ABRE responsive elements were identified in the promoter region as well as elements associated to expression in roots. StCDPK3 expression was enhanced by ABA while GA decreased it. Potato transgenic lines harboring StCDPK3 promoter∷GUS construct were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated plant transformation. Promoter activity was detected in leaves, root tips and branching points, early ES, tuber eyes and developing sprouts indicating that StCDPK3 is expressed in actively growing organs.

  12. Fibrin(ogen)olytic and antiplatelet activities of a subtilisin-like protease from Solanum tuberosum (StSBTc-3).

    PubMed

    Pepe, Alfonso; Frey, María Eugenia; Muñoz, Fernando; Fernández, María Belén; Pedraza, Anabela; Galbán, Gustavo; García, Diana Noemí; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Guevara, María Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Plant serine proteases have been widely used in food science and technology as well as in medicine. In this sense, several plant serine proteases have been proposed as potential anti-coagulants and anti-platelet agents. Previously, we have reported the purification and identification of a plant serine protease from Solanum tuberosum leaves. This potato enzyme, named as StSBTc-3, has a molecular weight of 72 kDa and it was characterized as a subtilisin like protease. In this work we determine and characterize the biochemical and medicinal properties of StSBTc-3. Results obtained show that, like the reported to other plant serine proteases, StSBTc-3 is able to degrade all chains of human fibrinogen and to produces fibrin clot lysis in a dose dependent manner. The enzyme efficiently hydrolyzes β subunit followed by partially hydrolyzed α and γ subunits of human fibrinogen. Assays performed to determine StSBTc-3 substrate specificity using oxidized insulin β-chain as substrate, show seven cleavage sites: Asn3-Gln4; Cys7-Gly8; Glu13-Ala14; Leu15-Tyr16; Tyr16-Leu17; Arg22-Gly23 and Phe25-Tyr26, all of them were previously reported for other serine proteases with fibrinogenolytic activity. The maximum StSBTc-3 fibrinogenolytic activity was determined at pH 8.0 and at 37 C. Additionally, we demonstrate that StSBTc-3 is able to inhibit platelet aggregation and is unable to exert cytotoxic activity on human erythrocytes in vitro at all concentrations assayed. These results suggest that StSBTc-3 could be evaluated as a new agent to be used in the treatment of thromboembolic disorders such as strokes, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis.

  13. Genetic diversity of thiamin and folate in primitive cultivated and wild potato (Solanum) species.

    PubMed

    Goyer, Aymeric; Sweek, Kortney

    2011-12-28

    Biofortification of staple crops like potato via breeding is an attractive strategy to reduce human micronutrient deficiencies. A prerequisite is metabolic phenotyping of genetically diverse material which can potentially be used as parents in breeding programs. Thus, the natural genetic diversity of thiamin and folate contents was investigated in indigenous cultivated potatoes (Solanum tuberosum group Andigenum) and wild potato species (Solanum section Petota). Significant differences were found among clones and species. For about 50% of the clones there were variations in thiamin and folate contents between years. Genotypes which contained over 2-fold the thiamin and 4-fold the folate content compared to the modern variety Russet Burbank were identified and should be useful material to integrate in breeding programs which aim to enhance the nutritional value of potato. Primitive cultivars and wild species with widely different amounts of thiamin and folate will also be valuable tools to explore their respective metabolic regulation.

  14. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19th century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  15. Acute poisoning of friesian heifers by Solanum macrocarpon L. ssp dasyphyllum.

    PubMed

    Bizimenyera, E S

    2003-08-01

    Solanum macrocarpon (African eggplant) is a tropical plant widely cultivated as a delicious vegetable; the non-edible wild variety called Solanum macrocarpon L. ssp dasyphyllum (the wild African eggplant) bears thorns or spikes on the stem and leaves. Thirteen yearling heifers on a dairy farm in Uganda suffered acute poisoning after eating berries of S. macrocarpon L. ssp dasyphyllum. There was sudden onset of anorexia, copious salivation, severe dysentery and passage of red urine. The animals also had central nervous derangement (incordination, walking blindly) and exudative dermatitis. Four heifers died. Necropsy lesions were icterus, hemorrhages, gastroenteritis, lympadenomegally, and friable and bronze colored livers and kidneys. The rumen and reticulum contained masses of the plant seeds. This is the first report of cattle poisoning by this plant.

  16. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19(th) century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  17. Solanum nigrum L. Seeds as an Alternative Source of Edible Lipids and Nutriment in Congo Brazzaville

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nzikou, J. M.; Mvoula-Tsieri, M.; Matos, L.; Matouba, E.; Ngakegni-Limbili, A. C.; Linder, M.; Desobry, S.

    Solanum nigrum L. seeds have been subjected to standard analytical techniques in order to evaluate proximate composition, physicochemical properties and contents of nutritional valuable elements and fatty acids of the seeds and oils. Physicochemical analysis indicate that the oil content was 37.12±0.75 and 38.88±0.4 for Bligh and Dyer and Folch method, respectively. The seeds are rich in protein (17.66±0.67 g/100 g) and carbohydrate (33.48±35.24 g/100 g). Solanum nigrum L. seeds have ash content of 7.18% (with the presence of following minerals: Ca, K, Na and Mg) moisture content is of 3.86 ±0. 97%. Of green color Solanum nigrum L. seeds oil has the fatty acid composition following: 18:2n-6 (67.77%), 18:1n-9 (14.59%), 16:0 (12.46%) and 18:0 (4.31%) and 18:3n-3(0.63%). DSC analysis shows three peaks; two at low melting point (-36 and 21.23°C) and one high melting point at 31°C. The majors TAG in Solanum nigrum L. seeds oil are Oleodilinolein (OLL) at 56.54% of total triacylglycerols followed by palmitooleo-linolein (POL) and dioleolinolein (OOL) varying between 14.79 and 22.04%. The oil extracts exhibited good physicochemical properties and could be useful as edible oils and for industrial applications.

  18. Analysis of chemical constituents of the volatile oil from leaves of Solanum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, Alida Pérez; Rojas, Luis B; Arias, Eilen; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2010-04-01

    The volatile components from the leaves of Solanum bicolor Roemer & Schultes, was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analizad by GC/MS. A total of 20 compounds, representing 96.3 % of the oil, were identified. The dominant compounds were trans-caryophyllene (23.2%), trans-2-pentadecene (22.6%), germacrene D (12.2%), biciclogermecrene (8.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.7%).

  19. Large Scale Magnetic Separation of Solanum tuberosum Tuber Lectin from Potato Starch Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Horska, Katerina; Martinez, Lluis M.; Safarikova, Mirka

    2010-12-01

    A simple procedure for large scale isolation of Solanum tuberosum tuber lectin from potato starch industry waste water has been developed. The procedure employed magnetic chitosan microparticles as an affinity adsorbent. Magnetic separation was performed in a flow-through magnetic separation system. The adsorbed lectin was eluted with glycine/HCl buffer, pH 2.2. The specific activity of separated lectin increased approximately 27 times during the isolation process.

  20. In vitro activity of a Solanum tuberosum extract against mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, M S; Lorenzano Menna, P L; Alonso, D F; Gomez, D E

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the antitumor properties of a Solanum tuberosum extract (STE) on F3II mouse mammary carcinoma cells. STE significantly inhibited adhesion on fibronectin-coated surfaces and blocked migration of tumor cells in vitro. A major gelatinolytic activity (gelatinase) of 82 kD was identified in STE by zymographic analysis and characterized by exposure to different experimental conditions. Proteolytic activity of STE may be responsible, at least in part, for the in vitro effects on mammary carcinoma cells.

  1. Influence of near null magnetic field on in vitro growth of potato and wild Solanum species.

    PubMed

    Rakosy-Tican, Lenuta; Aurori, C M; Morariu, V V

    2005-10-01

    The influence of near null magnetic field on in vitro growth of different cultures of potato and related Solanum species was investigated for various exposure times and dates. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) in vitro cultures of shoot tips or nodal segments were used. Three different exposure periods revealed either stimulation or inhibition of root, stem, or leaf in vitro growth after 14 or 28 days of exposure. In one experiment the significant stimulation of leaf growth was also demonstrated at biochemical level, the quantity of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids increasing more than two-fold. For the wild species Solanum chacoense, S. microdontum, and S. verrucosum, standardized in vitro cultures of nodal stem segments were used. Root and stem growth was either stimulated or slightly inhibited after 9 days exposure to near null magnetic field. Callus cultures obtained from potato dihaploid line 120/19 were maintained in near null magnetic field in 2 different months. For these experiments as well as for Solanum verrucosum, callus cultures recorded either slight inhibition or no effect on fresh weight. For all experiments significant growth variation was brought about only when geomagnetic activity (AP index) showed variations at the beginning of in vitro growth and when the explant had at least one meristematic tissue. Moreover longer maintenance in near null magnetic field, 28 days as compared to 14 days or the controls, can also make a difference in plant growth in response to geomagnetic field variations when static component was reduced to zero value. These results of in vitro plant growth stimulation by variable component of geomagnetic field also sustain the so-called seasonal "window" effect.

  2. Comparative genetics of hybrid incompatibility: sterility in two Solanum species crosses.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Leonie C; Nakazato, Takuya

    2008-07-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid sterility can provide insight into the genetic and evolutionary origins of species barriers. We examine the genetics of hybrid incompatibility between two diploid plant species in the plant clade Solanum sect. Lycopersicon. Using a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) representing the wild species Solanum pennellii (formerly Lycopersicon pennellii) in the genetic background of the cultivated tomato S. lycopersicum (formerly L. esculentum), we found that hybrid pollen and seed infertility are each based on a modest number of loci, male (pollen) and other (seed) incompatibility factors are roughly comparable in number, and seed-infertility QTL act additively or recessively. These findings are remarkably consistent with our previous analysis in a different species pair, S. lycopersicum x S. habrochaites. Data from both studies contrast strongly with data from Drosophila. Finally, QTL for pollen and seed sterility from the two Solanum studies were chromosomally colocalized, indicating a shared evolutionary history for these QTL, a nonrandom genomic distribution of loci causing sterility, and/or a proclivity of certain genes to be involved in hybrid sterility. We show that comparative mapping data can delimit the probable timing of evolution of detected QTL and discern which sterility loci likely evolved earliest among species.

  3. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. leaves in rat models of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alkesh; Biswas, Subhankar; Shoja, Muhammed Haneefa; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nandakumar, K

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score (P < 0.05) was observed in the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats.

  4. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. leaves in rat models of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alkesh; Biswas, Subhankar; Shoja, Muhammed Haneefa; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nandakumar, K

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score (P < 0.05) was observed in the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats. PMID:25506066

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure in the tomato-like nightshades Solanum lycopersicoides and S. sitiens

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Elena; Escobar, Miguel; Chetelat, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Two closely related, wild tomato-like nightshade species, Solanum lycopersicoides and Solanum sitiens, inhabit a small area within the Atacama Desert region of Peru and Chile. Each species possesses unique traits, including abiotic and biotic stress tolerances, and can be hybridized with cultivated tomato. Conservation and utilization of these tomato relatives would benefit from an understanding of genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations. Methods Levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure were investigated by genotyping representative accessions of each species with a set of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and allozyme markers. Key Results As expected for self-incompatible species, populations of S. lycopersicoides and S. sitiens were relatively diverse, but contained less diversity than the wild tomato Solanum chilense, a related allogamous species native to this region. Populations of S. lycopersicoides were slightly more diverse than populations of S. sitiens according to SSRs, but the opposite trend was found with allozymes. A higher coefficient of inbreeding was noted in S. sitiens. A pattern of isolation by distance was evident in both species, consistent with the highly fragmented nature of the populations in situ. The populations of each taxon showed strong geographical structure, with evidence for three major groups, corresponding to the northern, central and southern elements of their respective distributions. Conclusions This information should be useful for optimizing regeneration strategies, for sampling of the populations for genes of interest, and for guiding future in situ conservation efforts. PMID:20154348

  6. Species-Specific Identification from Incomplete Sampling: Applying DNA Barcodes to Monitoring Invasive Solanum Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling–through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application. PMID:23409092

  7. Antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors from Ipomoea batatas leaves identified by bioassay-guided approach and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-Cai; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Hui; Xie, Xing; Fu, Zhi-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf (SPL) is an underused commercial vegetable with considerable bio-activities. By means of DPPH scavenging ability and α-glucosidase inhibitory oriented isolation, 9 and 7 compounds were isolated and identified, respectively. Among them, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl)tyramine (1), trans-N-feruloyltyramine (2), cis-N-feruloyltyramine (3), 4,5-feruloylcourmaoylquinic acid (8), caffeic acid ethyl ester (10), 7-hydroxy-5-methoxycoumarin (11), 7,3'-dimethylquercetin (13) and indole-3-carboxaldehyde (15), were firstly identified from SPL, and four of them (1, 2, 3 and 10) were firstly identified from genus Ipomoea. Phenethyl cinnamides and 3,4,5-triCQA exhibited the strongest α-glucosidase inhibition, while 3,4,5-triCQA and diCQAs were the dominant antioxidants. Structure-activity relationship revealed that higher caffeoylation of quinic acid and lower methoxylation of flavonols resulted in stronger antioxidant activity, and methylation and cis-configuration structure of phenethyl cinnamides weaken the α-glucosidase inhibition. Aforementioned results could help to explain the antioxidant activity and anti-diabetic activity of SPL, and provide theoretical basis for its further application. PMID:27132824

  8. Optimizing sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] root and plantlet formation by selection of proper embryo developmental stage and size, and gel type for fluidized sowing.

    PubMed

    Schultheis, J R; Cantliffe, D J; Chee, R P

    1990-11-01

    Potassium starch polyacrylamide, potassium acrylate, a copolymer of potassium acrylate and acrylamide, and hydroxyethylcellulose carrier gels were tested to find a fluid drilling material suited for synthetic seeding of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) somatic embryos. Somatic embryo developmental stage and size, and maturation (incubation) time were also evaluated to improve plantlet formation. All embryos suspended in the fluidized hydroxyethylcellulose gel were viable after six days and 7% developed into plantlets after two weeks. Up to 97% of the somatic embryos suspended in acrylate and/or acrylamide gels died within six days. Root development was at least 10% and plantlet development at least 30% greater when embryos were subcultured on basal medium for 16 instead of 25 days prior to placement and suspension in hydroxyethylcellulose gel. Up to 25% more plantlets were obtained from embryos at the elongated torpedo stage than those at the cotyledonary or torpedo stages of development. When suspended in hydroxyethylcellulose gel embryo length had no effect on the percentage of plantlets obtained. PMID:24227054

  9. Structural characterization and hypoglycemic effects of arabinogalactan-protein from the tuberous cortex of the white-skinned sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Sei; Oki, Naoko; Suzuki, Shiho; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2010-11-24

    An arabinogalactan-protein (WSSP-AGP) was isolated from the tuberous cortex of the white-skinned sweet potato (WSSP; Ipomoea batatas L.). It consists of 95% (w/w) carbohydrate and 5% (w/w) protein with high contents of hydroxyproline, alanine, and serine. Its sugar composition is α-L-Rha:α-L-Ara:β-D-Gal:β-D-GlcA in a molar ratio of 1.0:4.1:7.6:1.3. Its weight-average molecular weight was estimated to be 126,800 g/mol by high-performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering. Structural analysis indicated that WSSP-AGP is a (1→3)-β-D-galactan highly branched at O-6 with (1→6)-β-D-galactan, in which the branched chains are substituted at the O-3 position with α-L-Araf-(1→ and α-L-Araf-(1→5)-α-L-Araf-(1→ and at the O-6 position typically with α-L-Rhap-(1→4)-β-D-GlcAp-(1→ as terminating groups. Continuous administration of WSSP-AGP to KKAy mice significantly lowered fasting plasma glucose levels. This indicates that WSSP-AGP plays an important role in the hypoglycemic effects of WSSP. PMID:21033712

  10. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne.) on Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Son, In Suk; Lee, Jeong Soon; Lee, Ju Yeon; Kwon, Chong Suk

    2014-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne.) has long been used as a health food and oriental folk medicine because of its nutritional fortification, tonic, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and expectorant effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are known to be implicated in a range of diseases, may be important progenitors of carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effect of yam on antioxidant status and inflammatory conditions during azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. We measured the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), hemolysate antioxidant enzyme activities, colonic mucosal antioxidant enzyme gene expression, and colonic mucosal inflammatory mediator gene expression. The feeding of yam prior to carcinogenesis significantly inhibited AOM-induced colonic ACF formation. In yam-administered rats, erythrocyte levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase were increased and colonic mucosal gene expression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, and GPx were up-regulated compared to the AOM group. Colonic mucosal gene expression of inflammatory mediators (i.e., nuclear factor kappaB, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-1beta) was suppressed by the yam-supplemented diet. These results suggest that yam could be very useful for the prevention of colon cancer, as they enhance the antioxidant defense system and modulate inflammatory mediators. PMID:25054106

  11. Using "dioscorea batatas bean"-like silver nanoparticles based localized surface plasmon resonance to enhance the fluorescent signal of zinc oxide quantum dots in a DNA sensor.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chengchao; Shen, Lei; Ge, Shenguang; Ge, Lei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2014-11-15

    We reported here the preparation of "dioscorea batatas bean"-like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the unique structure provided the AgNPs good localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) property. In addition, zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) were also synthesized and found with good fluorescent property. Furthermore, the ZnO QDs decorated exfoliated graphene oxide (EGO-ZnO) was prepared via electrostatic interaction. The named nanomaterials were applied in a LSPR-induced fluorescent DNA sensor. To fabricate the DNA sensor, the EGO-ZnO was modified on the silica glass as the supporter for the capture probe ssDNA, and the complementary ssDNA was labeled on the surface of the AgNPs. After the hybridization step by step, the AgNPs was fastened on the surface of the EGO-ZnO, and the fluorescent intensity of the EGO-ZnO increased as a result. The prepared DNA sensor enabled the target ssDNA to be detected in the concentration range of 10(-19)-10(-14)M, and the limit of detection was 4.3 × 10(-20)M.

  12. Salicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stress.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lutts, Stanley; Quinet, Muriel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense. PMID:27105808

  13. A revision of the "African Non-Spiny" Clade of Solanum L. (Solanum sections Afrosolanum Bitter, Benderianum Bitter, Lemurisolanum Bitter, Lyciosolanum Bitter, Macronesiotes Bitter, and Quadrangulare Bitter: Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2016-01-01

    The African Non-Spiny (ANS) clade contains 14 species of mostly large canopy lianas or scandent shrubs confined to Madagascar (10) and continental Africa (4, with with one species reaching the southern Arabian peninsula). Members of the clade were previously classified in sections Afrosolanum Bitter, Benderianum Bitter, Lemurisolanum Bitter, Macronesiotes Bitter and Quadrangulare Bitter, and were throught to be related to a variety of New World groups. The group is an early-branching lineage of non-spiny solanums and characters shared with other vining New World solanums are homoplastic. The 14 species of the group occupy a wide range of habitats, from wet forests in western Africa to savanna and dry forests of southern Madagascar and dune habitats in South Africa. Many members of the group are highly variable morphologically, and habit can vary between shrub and canopy vine in a single locality. We here review the taxonomic history, morphology, potential relationships and ecology of these species; we provide keys for their identification, descriptions, full synonymy (including designations of lectotypes and neotypes) and nomenclatural notes. Illustrations, distribution maps and preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species. PMID:27489494

  14. Salicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stress.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lutts, Stanley; Quinet, Muriel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense.

  15. Study on the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on cellular immune function in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai; Qi, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-tumour effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne, and its relationship with the immune function of tumour-bearing organisms. MTT assay was used to observe the effect of different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on proliferation of lymphocytes in tumour-bearing mice. ELISA assay was also used to detect the levels of IL-2 in mice, and a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to detect the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on intralymphocytic free calcium ion concentration in tumour-bearing mice. Different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne significantly inhibited the growth of mouse H22 solid tumours, improved the survival time of tumour-bearing mice, increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated the levels of IL-2, and increased the concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. Polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne have certain anti-tumour effect, which is related with the cellular immune function that regulates the body. PMID:24146499

  16. Solanum diploconos fruits: profile of bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of different parts of the fruit.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Lima, José L F C; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2016-05-18

    Solanum diploconos is an unexploited Brazilian native fruit that belongs to the same genus of important food crops, such as tomato (Solanum lycorpersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In this study, we determined, for the first time, the profile of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols) of the freeze-dried pulp and peel of Solanum diploconos fruits, as well as of an extract obtained from the whole fruit. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the whole fruit extract was evaluated in vitro, against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Eighteen phenolic compounds were identified in the peel and pulp and 6 compounds were found in the whole fruit extract. Coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid derivatives were revealed to be the major phenolic constituents. All-trans-β-carotene was the major carotenoid (17-38 μg g(-1), dry basis), but all-trans-lutein and 9-cis-β-carotene were also identified. The peel and pulp presented <2 μg per mL of tocopherols, and ascorbic acid was not detected. The whole fruit extract exhibited scavenging capacity against all tested ROS and RNS (IC50 = 14-461 μg mL(-1)) with high antioxidant efficiency against HOCl. Thus, Solanum diploconos fruits may be seen as a promising source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant potential against the most physiologically relevant ROS and RNS.

  17. Solanum diploconos fruits: profile of bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of different parts of the fruit.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Lima, José L F C; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2016-05-18

    Solanum diploconos is an unexploited Brazilian native fruit that belongs to the same genus of important food crops, such as tomato (Solanum lycorpersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In this study, we determined, for the first time, the profile of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols) of the freeze-dried pulp and peel of Solanum diploconos fruits, as well as of an extract obtained from the whole fruit. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the whole fruit extract was evaluated in vitro, against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Eighteen phenolic compounds were identified in the peel and pulp and 6 compounds were found in the whole fruit extract. Coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid derivatives were revealed to be the major phenolic constituents. All-trans-β-carotene was the major carotenoid (17-38 μg g(-1), dry basis), but all-trans-lutein and 9-cis-β-carotene were also identified. The peel and pulp presented <2 μg per mL of tocopherols, and ascorbic acid was not detected. The whole fruit extract exhibited scavenging capacity against all tested ROS and RNS (IC50 = 14-461 μg mL(-1)) with high antioxidant efficiency against HOCl. Thus, Solanum diploconos fruits may be seen as a promising source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant potential against the most physiologically relevant ROS and RNS. PMID:27142444

  18. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  19. Biogeographic implications of the striking discovery of a 4000 kilometer disjunct population of the wild potato Solanum morelliforme in South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum morelliforme is an epiphytic wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species widely distributed throughout central Mexico to Honduras. A strikingly disjunct (4000 km) population was recently discovered in Bolivia, representing the first record of this species in South America. Our maximum entro...

  20. Effect of the administration of Solanum nigrum fruit on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to phenylephrine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Solanum nigrum fruit is traditionally used in Asia to manage, control, and treat diabetes but there is no scientific evidence of the efficacy of Solanum nigrum fruit in treatment of diabetes. We designed this study to investigate the effect of the administration of oral doses of aqueous extract from Solanum nigrum fruit on plasma glucose, lipid profiles, and the sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to Phenylephrine in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Material/Methods Animals were divided into 5 groups (n=10): 2 groups served as non-diabetic controls (NDC), and the other groups had diabetes induced with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Solanum nigrum-treated chronic diabetic (CD-SNE) and Solanum nigrum-treated controls (ND-SNE) received 1g/l of Solanum nigrum added to drinking water for 8 weeks. The mesenteric vascular beds were prepared using the McGregor method. Results Administration of Solanum nigrum caused Ca/Mg ratio, plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations to return to normal levels, and was shown to decrease alteration in vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that Solanum nigrum could play a role in the management of diabetes and the prevention of vascular complications in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:23660828

  1. Allele mining in the gene pool of wild Solanum species for homologues of late blight resistance gene RB/Rpi-blb1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum bulbocastanum comprising a CC-NBS-LRR gene RB/Rpi-blb1 confers broad-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora infestans and is currently employed in potato breeding for durable late blight (LB) resistance. Genomes of several Solanum species were reported to contain RB homologues with confirmed b...

  2. A new species of Solanum named for Jeanne Baret, an overlooked contributor to the history of botany

    PubMed Central

    Tepe, Eric. J.; Ridley, Glynis; Bohs, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We describe Solanum baretiae sp. nov., a new species of Solanum section Anarrhichomenum, named in honor of Jeanne Baret, who sailed as the assistant to botanist Philibert Commerson on Louis Antoine de Bougainville’s global circumnavigation (1766–1769). The species is similar to Solanum chimborazense, but differs in having larger flowers, more flowers per inflorescence, and different patterns of pubescence on the filaments (pubescent adaxially and glabrous abaxially) and style (papillose to sparsely pubescent). A description, illustration, photos, and comparisons to similar species are included. Also included is a preliminary conservation assessment, along with a brief account of the important role played by Baret during the expedition. The new species appears to be restricted to the Amotape-Huancabamba zone, an area of southern Ecuador and northern Peru known for its exceptional biodiversity. PMID:22287929

  3. A novel workflow correlating RNA-seq data to Phythophthora infestans resistance levels in wild Solanum species and potato clones

    PubMed Central

    Frades, Itziar; Abreha, Kibrom B.; Proux-Wéra, Estelle; Lankinen, Åsa; Andreasson, Erik; Alexandersson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Comparative transcriptomics between species can provide valuable understanding of plant-pathogen interactions. Here, we focus on wild Solanum species and potato clones with varying degree of resistance against Phytophthora infestans, which causes the devastating late blight disease in potato. The transcriptomes of three wild Solanum species native to Southern Sweden, Solanum dulcamara, Solanum nigrum, and Solanum physalifolium were compared to three potato clones, Desiree (cv.), SW93-1015 and Sarpo Mira. Desiree and S. physalifolium are susceptible to P. infestans whereas the other four have different degrees of resistance. By building transcript families based on de novo assembled RNA-seq across species and clones and correlating these to resistance phenotypes, we created a novel workflow to identify families with expanded or depleted number of transcripts in relation to the P. infestans resistance level. Analysis was facilitated by inferring functional annotations based on the family structure and semantic clustering. More transcript families were expanded in the resistant clones and species and the enriched functions of these were associated to expected gene ontology (GO) terms for resistance mechanisms such as hypersensitive response, host programmed cell death and endopeptidase activity. However, a number of unexpected functions and transcripts were also identified, for example transmembrane transport and protein acylation expanded in the susceptible group and a cluster of Zinc knuckle family proteins expanded in the resistant group. Over 400 expressed putative resistance (R-)genes were identified and resistant clones Sarpo Mira and SW93-1015 had ca 25% more expressed putative R-genes than susceptible cultivar Desiree. However, no differences in numbers of susceptibility (S-)gene homologs were seen between species and clones. In addition, we identified P. infestans transcripts including effectors in the early stages of P. infestans-Solanum interactions. PMID

  4. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato. PMID:26973669

  5. In silico identification and characterization of conserved miRNAs and their target genes in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

    PubMed

    Dehury, Budheswar; Panda, Debashis; Sahu, Jagajjit; Sahu, Mousumi; Sarma, Kishore; Barooah, Madhumita; Sen, Priyabrata; Modi, Mahendra

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous small non-coding micro RNAs (miRNAs), which are typically ~21-24 nt nucleotides, play a crucial role in regulating the intrinsic normal growth of cells and development of the plants as well as in maintaining the integrity of genomes. These small non-coding RNAs function as the universal specificity factors in post-transcriptional gene silencing. Discovering miRNAs, identifying their targets, and further inferring miRNA functions is a routine process to understand normal biological processes of miRNAs and their roles in the development of plants. Comparative genomics based approach using expressed sequence tags (EST) and genome survey sequences (GSS) offer a cost-effective platform for identification and characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in plants. Despite the fact that sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is an important staple food source for poor small farmers throughout the world, the role of miRNA in various developmental processes remains largely unknown. In this paper, we report the computational identification of miRNAs and their target genes in sweet potato from their ESTs. Using comparative genomics-based approach, 8 potential miRNA candidates belonging to miR168, miR2911, and miR156 families were identified from 23 406 ESTs in sweet potato. A total of 42 target genes were predicted and their probable functions were illustrated. Most of the newly identified miRNAs target transcription factors as well as genes involved in plant growth and development, signal transduction, metabolism, defense, and stress response. The identification of miRNAs and their targets is expected to accelerate the pace of miRNA discovery, leading to an improved understanding of the role of miRNA in development and physiology of sweet potato, as well as stress response.

  6. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato.

  7. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of L-Dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations using a crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] as enzymatic source.

    PubMed

    Fatibello-Filho, O; da Cruz Vieira, I

    1997-04-01

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of L-dopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations. After selection of the extraction medium (e.g., buffer-to-tissue ratio, pH, buffer concentration, protective agents and/or stabilizers) and storage conditions, crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was used as an enzymatic source of polyphenol oxidase (Tyrosinase; catechol oxidase; EC.1.14.18.1) directly in the carrier. This enzyme catalyses the oxidation of these catecholamines to the corresponding dopaquinone. Further, dopaquinone undergoes a rapid spontaneous auto-oxidation to leucodopachrome, which is in turn oxidized to dopachrome; this last compound has a strong absorption at 480 and 360 nm for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively. For the optimum extraction conditions found the enzyme activity of the crude extract did not vary for at least 5 months when stored at 4 degrees C and decreased by only 4-5% during an 8 h working period at 25 degrees C. The results obtained for L-dopa and carbidopa by the proposed enzymatic FI method were in close agreement with the label values (r1 = 0.9699 and r2 = 0.9999) and also with those obtained using a pharmacopeial method (r3 = 0.9675). The throughput was 26 samples h-1, and 2.30 ml of crude extract were consumed in each determination, corresponding to only 72 mg of the original sweet potato root. The detection limit (three times the signal blank/slope) was 1.5 x 10(-5) and 2.0 x 10(-5) mol l-1 for L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively; the recovery of L-dopa and carbidopa from three samples ranged from 98.6 to 106.3% of the added amount. PMID:9177077

  8. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato. PMID:26973669

  9. Characterization of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) protein phosphatases type 2A catalytic subunits and their involvement in stress responses.

    PubMed

    País, Silvia Marina; González, Marina Alejandra; Téllez-Iñón, María Teresa; Capiati, Daniela Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation plays critical roles in stress responses in plants. This report presents a comparative characterization of the serine/threonine PP2A catalytic subunit family in Solanum tuberosum (potato) and S. lycopersicum (tomato), two important food crops of the Solanaceae family, based on the sequence analysis and expression profiles in response to environmental stress. Sequence homology analysis revealed six isoforms in potato and five in tomato clustered into two subfamilies (I and II). The data presented in this work show that the expression of different PP2Ac genes is regulated in response to environmental stresses in potato and tomato plants and suggest that, in general, mainly members of the subfamily I are involved in stress responses in both species. However, the differences found in the expression profiles between potato and tomato suggest divergent roles of PP2A in the plant defense mechanisms against stress in these closely related species. PMID:19330349

  10. ISSR and isozyme characterization of androgenetic dihaploids reveals tetrasomic inheritance in tetraploid somatic hybrids between Solanum melongena and Solanum aethiopicum group Gilo.

    PubMed

    Toppino, Laura; Mennella, Giuseppe; Rizza, Fulvia; D'Alessandro, Antonietta; Sihachakr, Darasinh; Rotino, Giuseppe L

    2008-01-01

    Gene exchanges between Solanum melongena and its allied relative Solanum aethiopicum are a crucial prerequisite for introgression of useful traits from the allied species into the cultivated eggplant. In order to evaluate the extent of genetic recombination between the 2 species, biochemical and molecular markers were employed. A dihaploid population obtained through anther culture of the corresponding tetraploid somatic hybrids was genetically analyzed. The extent of disomic/tetrasomic inheritance and segregation ratios of 3 isozyme systems and intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were evaluated. The dihaploids, being derived from microspores, allowed for simple, complete, and accurate analyses. The segregation of 280 ISSR markers (110 aethiopicum-specific, 104 melongena-specific, and 66 monomorphic) were evaluated in 71 dihaploids. According to the genetic constitution (simplex/duplex/triplex), almost 64% of the fragments revealed the tetrasomic and/or disomic inheritance. With regard to the assigned species-specific fragments, 68% and 4% were unambiguously the result of tetrasomic and disomic inheritance, respectively. Twenty-four of the 66 monomorphic ISSRs were inherited according to random chromatid segregation. The phenotypes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), and shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH) were studied in 70 dihaploids and inferences were made about the allelic state of their 5 loci. The isozyme markers segregated in the dihaploids in a distorted manner, their segregations did not fit in with any of the expected segregation ratios. However, tetrasomic inheritance might be suggested for G-6-PDH 2 and SKDH 1 loci. Our results demonstrated that gene exchanges occurred readily in the somatic hybrids between S. melongena and S. aethiopicum gr. Gilo.

  11. Salinity-induced expression of HKT may be crucial for Na(+) exclusion in the leaf blade of huckleberry (Solanum scabrum Mill.), but not of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Assaha, Dekoum V M; Mekawy, Ahmad Mohammad M; Ueda, Akihiro; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2015-05-01

    Reduced Na(+) accumulation in the leaf blade is an important aspect of salinity tolerance and high affinity K(+) transporters (HKTs) are known to play a significant role in the process. Huckleberry and eggplant have previously been shown to display 'excluder' and 'includer' characteristics, respectively, under salt stress, but the underlying mechanisms have not been investigated. Here, we isolated the cDNA of the HKT homologs, Solanum scabrum HKT (SsHKT) from huckleberry and Solanum melongena HKT (SmHKT) from eggplant, and analyzed their expressions in different tissues under salt stress. SsHKT expression was markedly induced in the root (28-fold) and stem (7-fold), with a corresponding increase in Na(+) accumulation of 52% and 29%, respectively. Conversely, eggplant accumulated 60% total Na(+) in the leaf blade, with a lower SmHKT expression level in the root (3-fold). Huckleberry also maintained a higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the leaf blade compared to eggplant, due to the reduction of its Na(+) concentration and unaltered K(+) concentration. Functional analysis demonstrated that SsHKT-mediated Na(+) influx inhibited yeast growth under Na(+) stress, and that SsHKT did not complement the growth of the K(+) uptake-deficient CY162 strain under K(+)-limiting conditions. These results suggest that the Na(+) accumulation characteristics of both plants are caused by the differential expression of HKT genes, with SsHKT exerting a greater control over the ability of Na(+) to reach the leaf blade in huckleberry, than SmHKT does in eggplant.

  12. Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO sub 2 in five C sub 3 species. [Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Brassica oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, R.F. ); Sharkey, T.D. ); Seemann, J.R. )

    1989-02-01

    The effect of long-term (weeks to months) CO{sub 2} enhancement on (a) the gas-exchange characteristics, (b) the content and activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), and (c) leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dry weight per area were studied in five C{sub 3} species (Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, and Brassica oleracea) grown at CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 300 or 900 to 1000 microbars. Long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} affected the CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis in one of three ways: (a) the initial slope of the CO{sub 2} response was unaffected, but the photosynthetic rate at high CO{sub 2} increased (S. tuberosum); (b) the initial slope decreased but the CO{sub 2}-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased (B. oleracea, S. melongena). In all five species, growth at high CO{sub 2} increased the extent to which photosynthesis was stimulated following a decrease in the partial pressure of O{sub 2} or an increase in measurement CO{sub 2} above 600 microbars. This stimulation indicates that a limitation on photosynthesis by the capacity to regenerate orthophosphate was reduced or absent after acclimation to high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen per area either increased (S. tuberosum, S. melongena) or was little changed by CO{sub 2} enhancement. The content of rubisco was lower in only two of the fives species, yet its activation state was 19% to 48% lower in all five species following long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that during growth in CO{sub 2}-enriched air, leaf rubisco content remains in excess of that required to support the observed photosynthetic rates.

  13. Evaluation of the biological activity of the molluscicidal fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium against non target organisms.

    PubMed

    Bagalwa, Jean-Jacques M; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Sayagh, Charlotte; Bashwira, Augustin S

    2010-10-01

    The evaluation of the biocidal activity of the fruit of Solanum sisymbriifolium involving non target organisms such as aquatic insects, fish and snails lead to the isolation of the steroidal alkaloids, solamargine and β-solamarine, from the active fractions. The fractions A3 and C, with biological activity against fish, snail and aquatic insect and larvae, are able to affect the good functioning of ecosystem found on alimentary chain. The fraction B seems to be less toxic to fish and aquatic insect and larvae. The fraction B could thus be used as molluscicide in the future. PMID:20388535

  14. Anti-inflammatory lignanamides from the roots of Solanum melongena L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Gu, Yu-Fan; Su, Xiao-Qin; Li, Man-Man; Huo, Hui-Xia; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yun-Fang; Li, Jun; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-10-01

    Four new lignanamides, melongenamides A-D (1-4), together with six known ones (5-10), were isolated from the roots of Solanum melongena L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments and by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with the literature values. Compounds 2-8 exhibited inhibitions of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values ranging from 16.2 to 58.5 μM.

  15. Comparative antimicrobial activity of callus and natural plant extracts of Solanum trilobatum L

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, S.M.; Kandasamy, S.; Chinnappa, R.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of natural plant and callus extracts of Solanum trilobatum L. was studied against two bacteria and fungi, for their antimicrobial activity using cup diffusion method. Various solvents such as chloroform, petroleum ether and ethanol were used. The leaf and stem segments of the plant were culturedon Murashige and S koog basal medium supplemented with various growth regulators. Maximum callus was recorded on medium containing 0.5 mg/lNAA and 0.5 mgj IKinetin. The results reveals that the stem and leaf callus extracts has shown significant activity against the tested microorganisms than the natural sample. PMID:22557312

  16. Inhibitory effect of delphinidin from Solanum melongena on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 invasiveness in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nagase, H; Sasaki, K; Kito, H; Haga, A; Sato, T

    1998-04-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effect of eggplant (Solanum melongena var. marunasu) extract on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cell invasion of reconstituted basement membrane [Matrigel (MG)]. We found that the effective component of the plant extract was delphinidin, a flavonoid pigment contained in the peel. The extract and delphinidin did not affect tumor cell adhesion to MG or haptotactic migration to MG. HT-1080 secretes matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which degrade extracellular matrix as part of the invasive process. Delphinidin slightly inhibited the activity of MMPs, which may have been responsible, in part, for the inhibition of tumor cell invasiveness. PMID:9581517

  17. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cutttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell, C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cutting of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamp (LPS/CWF). Results suggested that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  18. Solanum pennellii backcross inbred lines (BILs) link small genomic bins with tomato traits.

    PubMed

    Ofner, Itai; Lashbrooke, Justin; Pleban, Tzili; Aharoni, Asaph; Zamir, Dani

    2016-07-01

    We present a resource for fine mapping of traits derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pennellii (LA0716). The population of backcross inbred lines (BILs) is composed of 446 lines derived after a few generations of backcrosses of the wild species with cultivated tomato (cultivar M82; LA3475), followed by more than seven generations of self-pollination. The BILs were genotyped using the 10K SOL-CAP single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -Chip, and 3700 polymorphic markers were used to map recombination break points relative to the physical map of Solanum lycopersicum. The BILs carry, on average, 2.7 introgressions per line, with a mean introgression length of 11.7 Mbp. Whereas the classic 76 introgression lines (ILs) partitioned the genome into 106 mapping bins, the BILs generated 633 bins, thereby enhancing the mapping resolution of traits derived from the wild species. We demonstrate the power of the BILs for rapid fine mapping of simple and complex traits derived from the wild tomato species. PMID:27121752

  19. Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of Native and Invasive Populations of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiali; Solís-Montero, Lislie; Lou, Anru; Vallejo-Marín, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Aims We investigate native and introduced populations of Solanum rostratum, an annual, self-compatible plant that has been introduced around the globe. This study is the first to compare the genetic diversity of Solanum rostratum between native and introduced populations. We aim to (1) determine the level of genetic diversity across the studied regions; (2) explore the likely origins of invasive populations in China; and (3) investigate whether there is the evidence of multiple introductions into China. Methods We genotyped 329 individuals at 10 microsatellite loci to determine the levels of genetic diversity and to investigate population structure of native and introduced populations of S. rostratum. We studied five populations in each of three regions across two continents: Mexico, the U.S.A. and China. Important Findings We found the highest genetic diversity among Mexican populations of S. rostratum. Genetic diversity was significantly lower in Chinese and U.S.A. populations, but we found no regional difference in inbreeding coefficients (FIS) or population differentiation (FST). Population structure analyses indicate that Chinese and U.S.A. populations are more closely related to each other than to sampled Mexican populations, revealing that introduced populations in China share an origin with the sampled U.S.A. populations. The distinctiveness between some introduced populations indicates multiple introductions of S. rostratum into China. PMID:24224008

  20. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ(114/110)Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  1. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-14

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ(114/110)Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  2. Low functional redundancy among mammalian browsers in regulating an encroaching shrub (Solanum campylacanthum) in African savannah

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Robert M.; Goheen, Jacob R.; Palmer, Todd M.; Charles, Grace K.; DeFranco, Elyse; Hohbein, Rhianna; Ford, Adam T.; Tarnita, Corina E.

    2014-01-01

    Large herbivorous mammals play an important role in structuring African savannahs and are undergoing widespread population declines and local extinctions, with the largest species being the most vulnerable. The impact of these declines on key ecological processes hinges on the degree of functional redundancy within large-herbivore assemblages, a subject that has received little study. We experimentally quantified the effects of three browser species (elephant, impala and dik-dik) on individual- and population-level attributes of Solanum campylacanthum (Solanum incanum sensu lato), an encroaching woody shrub, using semi-permeable exclosures that selectively removed different-sized herbivores. After nearly 5 years, shrub abundance was lowest where all browser species were present and increased with each successive species deletion. Different browsers ate the same plant species in different ways, thereby exerting distinct suites of direct and indirect effects on plant performance and density. Not all of these effects were negative: elephants and impala also dispersed viable seeds and indirectly reduced seed predation by rodents and insects. We integrated these diffuse positive effects with the direct negative effects of folivory using a simple population model, which reinforced the conclusion that different browsers have complementary net effects on plant populations, and further suggested that under some conditions, these net effects may even differ in direction. PMID:24789900

  3. Enzyme Activity Profiles during Fruit Development in Tomato Cultivars and Solanum pennellii1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Steinhauser, Dirk; Koehl, Karin; Carrari, Fernando; Gibon, Yves; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes interact to generate metabolic networks. The activities of more than 22 enzymes from central metabolism were profiled during the development of fruit of the modern tomato cultivar Solanum lycopersicum ‘M82’ and its wild relative Solanum pennellii (LA0716). In S. pennellii, the mature fruit remains green and contains lower sugar and higher organic acid levels. These genotypes are the parents of a widely used near introgression line population. Enzymes were also profiled in a second cultivar, S. lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’, for which data sets for the developmental changes of metabolites and transcripts are available. Whereas most enzyme activities declined during fruit development in the modern S. lycopersicum cultivars, they remained high or even increased in S. pennellii, especially enzymes required for organic acid synthesis. The enzyme profiles were sufficiently characteristic to allow stages of development and cultivars and the wild species to be distinguished by principal component analysis and clustering. Many enzymes showed coordinated changes during fruit development of a given genotype. Comparison of the correlation matrices revealed a large overlap between the two modern cultivars and considerable overlap with S. pennellii, indicating that despite the very different development responses, some basic modules are retained. Comparison of enzyme activity, metabolite profiles, and transcript profiles in S. lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’ revealed remarkably little connectivity between the developmental changes of transcripts and enzymes and even less between enzymes and metabolites. We discuss the concept that the metabolite profile is an emergent property that is generated by complex network interactions. PMID:20335402

  4. Cd hyperaccumulative characteristics of Australia ecotype Solanum nigrum L. and its implication in screening hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Clark, Gary; Doronila, Augustine Ignatius; Jin, Jian; Monsant, Alison Carol

    2013-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was used to determine the differences in uptake characteristics of a cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. discovered in China, an ecotype from Melbourne, Australia and a non-hyperaccumulator Solanum melogena Australian ecotype was not significantly different to the China ecotype. In particular, Cd concentration in leaves and shoots of S. nigrum collected from Australia were 166.0 and 146.3 mg kg(-1) respectively when 20 mg kg(-1) Cd spiked, and were not significantly different to the ecotype imported from China which had 109.8 and 85.3 mg kg(-1) respectively, in the stems and leaves. In contrast, the tolerance of the eggplant to Cd was significantly less than the two S. nigrum ecotypes. Although some morphological properties of S. nigrum collected from Australia were different from that of the plants collected from China, Cd hyperaccumulator characteristics of two ecotypes were similar. The results suggested that the tolerance and uptake of Cd may be a constitutive trait of this species. PMID:23488006

  5. Epigenetic patterns newly established after interspecific hybridization in natural populations of Solanum

    PubMed Central

    Cara, Nicolás; Marfil, Carlos F; Masuelli, Ricardo W

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is known for triggering genetic and epigenetic changes, such as modifications on DNA methylation patterns and impact on phenotypic plasticity and ecological adaptation. Wild potatoes (Solanum, section Petota) are adapted to multiple habitats along the Andes, and natural hybridizations have proven to be a common feature among species of this group. Solanum × rechei, a recently formed hybrid that grows sympatrically with the parental species S. kurtzianum and S. microdontum, represents an ideal model for studying the ecologically and evolutionary importance of hybridization in generating of epigenetic variability. Genetic and epigenetic variability and their correlation with morphological variation were investigated in wild and ex situ conserved populations of these three wild potato species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) techniques. We observed that novel methylation patterns doubled the number of novel genetic patterns in the hybrid and that the morphological variability measured on 30 characters had a higher correlation with the epigenetic than with the genetic variability. Statistical comparison of methylation levels suggested that the interspecific hybridization induces genome demethylation in the hybrids. A Bayesian analysis of the genetic data reveled the hybrid nature of S. × rechei, with genotypes displaying high levels of admixture with the parental species, while the epigenetic information assigned S. × rechei to its own cluster with low admixture. These findings suggested that after the hybridization event, a novel epigenetic pattern was rapidly established, which might influence the phenotypic plasticity and adaptation of the hybrid to new environments. PMID:24198938

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) fruit to identify putative allergens and their epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Kumar Ramagoni; Hemalatha, R; Vijayendra, Chary Anchoju; Arshi, Uz Zaman Syed; Dushyant, Singh Baghel; Dinesh, Kumar Bharadwaj

    2016-01-15

    Eggplant is the third most important Solanaceae crop after tomato and potato, particularly in India and China. A transcriptome analysis of eggplant's fruit was performed to study genes involved in medicinal importance and allergies. Illumina HiSeq 2000 system generated 89,763,638 raw reads (~18 Gb) from eggplant. High quality reads (59,039,694) obtained after trimming process, were assembled into a total of 149,224 non redundant set of transcripts. Out of 80,482 annotated sequences of eggplant fruit (BLASTx results against nr-green plant database), 40,752 transcripts showed significant similarity with predicted proteins of Solanum tuberosum (51%) followed by Solanum lycopersicum (34%) and other sequenced plant genomes. With BLASTx top hit analysis against existing allergens, a total of 1986 homologous allergen sequences were found, which had >37% similarity with 48 different allergens existing in the database. From the 48 putative allergens, 526 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. Transcript sequences generated from this study can be used to map epitopes of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera from patients. With the support of this whole transcriptome catalogue of eggplant fruit, complete list of genes can be predicted based on which secondary structures of proteins may be modeled. PMID:26424595

  7. Transcriptome and metabolome of synthetic Solanum autotetraploids reveal key genomic stress events following polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Carlo; Diretto, Gianfranco; Aversano, Riccardo; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Di Matteo, Antonio; Frusciante, Luigi; Giuliano, Giovanni; Carputo, Domenico

    2016-06-01

    Polyploids are generally classified as autopolyploids, derived from a single species, and allopolyploids, arising from interspecific hybridization. The former represent ideal materials with which to study the consequences of genome doubling and ascertain whether there are molecular and functional rules operating following polyploidization events. To investigate whether the effects of autopolyploidization are common to different species, or if species-specific or stochastic events are prevalent, we performed a comprehensive transcriptomic and metabolomic characterization of diploids and autotetraploids of Solanum commersonii and Solanum bulbocastanum. Autopolyploidization remodelled the transcriptome and the metabolome of both species. In S. commersonii, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were highly enriched in pericentromeric regions. Most changes were stochastic, suggesting a strong genotypic response. However, a set of robustly regulated transcripts and metabolites was also detected, including purine bases and nucleosides, which are likely to underlie a common response to polyploidization. We hypothesize that autopolyploidization results in nucleotide pool imbalance, which in turn triggers a genomic shock responsible for the stochastic events observed. The more extensive genomic stress and the higher number of stochastic events observed in S. commersonii with respect to S. bulbocastanum could be the result of the higher nucleoside depletion observed in this species.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) fruit to identify putative allergens and their epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Kumar Ramagoni; Hemalatha, R; Vijayendra, Chary Anchoju; Arshi, Uz Zaman Syed; Dushyant, Singh Baghel; Dinesh, Kumar Bharadwaj

    2016-01-15

    Eggplant is the third most important Solanaceae crop after tomato and potato, particularly in India and China. A transcriptome analysis of eggplant's fruit was performed to study genes involved in medicinal importance and allergies. Illumina HiSeq 2000 system generated 89,763,638 raw reads (~18 Gb) from eggplant. High quality reads (59,039,694) obtained after trimming process, were assembled into a total of 149,224 non redundant set of transcripts. Out of 80,482 annotated sequences of eggplant fruit (BLASTx results against nr-green plant database), 40,752 transcripts showed significant similarity with predicted proteins of Solanum tuberosum (51%) followed by Solanum lycopersicum (34%) and other sequenced plant genomes. With BLASTx top hit analysis against existing allergens, a total of 1986 homologous allergen sequences were found, which had >37% similarity with 48 different allergens existing in the database. From the 48 putative allergens, 526 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. Transcript sequences generated from this study can be used to map epitopes of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera from patients. With the support of this whole transcriptome catalogue of eggplant fruit, complete list of genes can be predicted based on which secondary structures of proteins may be modeled.

  9. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  10. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  11. Comprehensive identification and expression analysis of Hsp90s gene family in Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Zai, W S; Miao, L X; Xiong, Z L; Zhang, H L; Ma, Y R; Li, Y L; Chen, Y B; Ye, S G

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a protein produced by plants in response to adverse environmental stresses. In this study, we identified and analyzed Hsp90 gene family members using a bioinformatic method based on genomic data from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The results illustrated that tomato contains at least 7 Hsp90 genes distributed on 6 chromosomes; protein lengths ranged from 267-794 amino acids. Intron numbers ranged from 2-19 in the genes. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Hsp90 genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) could be divided into 5 groups, which included 3 pairs of orthologous genes and 4 pairs of paralogous genes. Expression analysis of RNA-sequence data showed that the Hsp90-1 gene was specifically expressed in mature fruits, while Hsp90-5 and Hsp90-6 showed opposite expression patterns in various tissues of cultivated and wild tomatoes. The expression levels of the Hsp90-1, Hsp90-2, and Hsp90- 3 genes in various tissues of cultivated tomatoes were high, while both the expression levels of genes Hsp90-3 and Hsp90-4 were low. Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that these genes were involved in the responses to yellow leaf curl virus in tomato plant leaves. Our results provide a foundation for identifying the function of the Hsp90 gene in tomato. PMID:26214462

  12. Effects of different maturity stages on antioxidant content of Ivorian Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L.) berries.

    PubMed

    N'dri, Denis; Calani, Luca; Mazzeo, Teresa; Scazzina, Francesca; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Rio, Daniele Del; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio

    2010-10-15

    Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L.) is a spontaneous plant widely distributed in Ivory Coast. During ripening stages, Solanum indicum L. presents different colours (green, yellow and red) and is reported to contain several albeit poorly characterized antioxidant compounds. This paper describes in detail the antioxidant profile (ascorbic acid, carotenoids and polyphenols), antioxidant capacity (FRAP test and Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the colour changes of Gnagnan berries at different ripening levels. Ascorbic acid content was similar in green and yellow berries, but significantly lower in red ones. Red berries showed a higher content of carotenoids compared to green and yellow ones. Regarding polyphenols, several phenolic acids and flavonoids were found in all berries. The content of caffeoylquinic acids, caffeic acid, flavonol glycosides and naringenin was higher in red berries, while the content of p-coumaric acid and feruloylquinic acids was similar among the three colours. The FRAP assay increased with the ripening process, whereas total polyphenols were similar among berries. Significant differences were found for the colorimetric indexes among products of different degrees of ripening. The present results show the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of Gnagnan berries.

  13. A binomial sequential sampling plan for Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Solanum lycopersicum (Solanales: Solanacea).

    PubMed

    Prager, Sean M; Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2014-04-01

    The tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of many solanaceous plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). In tomato, feeding by nymphs is associated with "psyllid yellows." B. cockerelli also vectors "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous," an infectious bacterium that causes "vein greening" disease. Decisions about management action are much more effective when guided by robust sampling. However, there are few previous studies of potato psyllid spatial distribution in tomato fields, and no published sequential sampling plans for the pest in tomato. We studied B. cockerelli in various tomato fields in California and used these data to generate a sequential sampling plan. We found that juvenile B. cockerelli in tomato fields exhibit an edge effect, an aggregated distribution, and individuals are primarily located on the bottom of leaves. Psyllids were concentrated in the upper segments of plants, but this changed over time. Finally, we present three binominal sequential sampling plans for managing tomato psyllids in tomato fields. These plans differed from both those for bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and potato, indicating that B. cockerelli needs to be sampled using crop-specific sampling plans. PMID:24772568

  14. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  15. First report of seed-borne cherry leaf roll virus in wild potato, Solanum acaule, from South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A virus, designated JCM-79, was isolated from wild potato (Solanum acaule Bitt.) plants grown from true seed received at USDA-APHIS Potato Quarantine Program from Peru. JCM-79 was mechanically transmissible to Nicotiana clevelandii, N.tabacum cv. Samsun NN, and Chenopodium quinoa. Symptoms in the ...

  16. Genetic structure of the four wil tomato species in the Solanum peruvianum s.l. species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most diverse wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum sensu lato (s.l.) has been reclassified into four separate species. However, reproductive barriers among the species are incomplete and this can lead to discrepancies regarding genetic identity of germplasm. We used genotyping by sequencing (...

  17. Extensive Variation in Fried Chip Color and Tuber Composition in Cold-Stored Tubers of Wild Potato (Solanum) Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum. To date, research in these areas excluded wild relatives of potato. This is the first assessment of cold-stored tuber c...

  18. Solitary invasive orchid bee outperforms co-occurring native bees to promote fruit set in an invasive Solanum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the potential effects of naturalized solitary or semi-social bees on the environment. We took advantage of the recent naturalization of an orchid bee, Euglossa viridissima, in southern Florida to study the effects of this semi-social bee on reproduction of Solanum torvum, an in...

  19. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize “trample burr” dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Cantley, Jason T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Butler, Alice R.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic “Dioicum Complex” lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent “trample burr” seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum ‘Tanami.’ Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA. PMID:27489475

  20. A New LC-MS-based Strategy to integrate chemistry, morphology, and evolution of eggplant (Solanum) species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economically valuable giant genus Solanum, containing dozens of functional food species such as eggplant and tomato, affords an excellent system to compare and correlate metabolic chemistry with species morphology and evolution. Here, we devised a strategy based on repeatable reversed-phase LC-T...

  1. In vitro regeneration of solanum aethiopicum L. (scarlet eggplant), an african vegetable crop with potential ornamental value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful in vitro regeneration of plantlets was obtained from shoot tips of five Solanum aethiopicum (African eggplants) accessions evaluated in two media, M1 and M2. The M1 medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salt mixture supplemented with 20 g/L sucrose, 0.75 g/L MgCl2, and 2 g/L ...

  2. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  3. 4r2Host status of different potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties and hatching in root diffusate of Globodera ellingtonae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An atypical Globodera population was detected in Oregon in 2008. As the first step towards understanding the biology of this nematode, cysts were exposed to a range of root diffusates. The Globodera population hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (Solanum tuberosum; PRD) and t...

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  5. Optimization of the genomic DNA extraction method of silverleaf nightshade/ (Solanum elaeagnifolium /Cav.), an invasive plant in the cultivated areas within the Mediterranean region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The geographical origin of an invasive in the cultivated area within the Mediterranean region, silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav, (Solanaceae) should be identified through the analysis of genetic similarities between native and introduced populations using microsatellite markers. Bef...

  6. Solanum torvum responses to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Solanum torvum Sw is worldwide employed as rootstock for eggplant cultivation because of its vigour and resistance/tolerance to the most serious soil-borne diseases as bacterial, fungal wilts and root-knot nematodes. The little information on Solanum torvum (hereafter Torvum) resistance mechanisms, is mostly attributable to the lack of genomic tools (e.g. dedicated microarray) as well as to the paucity of database information limiting high-throughput expression studies in Torvum. Results As a first step towards transcriptome profiling of Torvum inoculated with the nematode M. incognita, we built a Torvum 3’ transcript catalogue. One-quarter of a 454 full run resulted in 205,591 quality-filtered reads. De novo assembly yielded 24,922 contigs and 11,875 singletons. Similarity searches of the S. torvum transcript tags catalogue produced 12,344 annotations. A 30,0000 features custom combimatrix chip was then designed and microarray hybridizations were conducted for both control and 14 dpi (day post inoculation) with Meloidogyne incognita-infected roots samples resulting in 390 differentially expressed genes (DEG). We also tested the chip with samples from the phylogenetically-related nematode-susceptible eggplant species Solanum melongena. An in-silico validation strategy was developed based on assessment of sequence similarity among Torvum probes and eggplant expressed sequences available in public repositories. GO term enrichment analyses with the 390 Torvum DEG revealed enhancement of several processes as chitin catabolism and sesquiterpenoids biosynthesis, while no GO term enrichment was found with eggplant DEG. The genes identified from S. torvum catalogue, bearing high similarity to known nematode resistance genes, were further investigated in view of their potential role in the nematode resistance mechanism. Conclusions By combining 454 pyrosequencing and microarray technology we were able to conduct a cost-effective global transcriptome profiling

  7. A Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium Linkage Map of Tomato Displaying Genomic Locations of R-Genes, RGAs, and Candidate Resistance/Defense-Response ESTs

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arun; Zhang, Liping; Niño-Liu, David; Ashrafi, Hamid; Foolad, Majid R.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified an accession (LA2093) within the tomato wild species Solanum pimpinellifolium with many desirable characteristics, including biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and good fruit quality. To utilize the full genetic potential of LA2093 in tomato breeding, we have developed a linkage map based on an F2 population of a cross between LA2093 and a tomato breeding line, using 115 RFLP, 94 EST, and 41 RGA markers. The map spanned 1002.4 cM of the 12 tomato chromosomes with an average marker distance of 4.0 cM. The length of the map and linear order of the markers were in good agreement with the published maps of tomato. The ESTs were chosen based on their sequence similarities with known resistance or defense-response genes, signal-transduction factors, transcriptional regulators, and genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. Locations of several ESTs and RGAs coincided with locations of several known tomato resistance genes and quantitative resistance loci (QRLs), suggesting that candidate-gene approach may be effective in identifying and mapping new R genes. This map will be useful for marker-assisted exploitation of desirable traits in LA2093 and other S. pimpinellifolium accessions, and possibly for utilization of genetic variation within S. lycopersicum. PMID:19223983

  8. Protective effects of proline against cadmium toxicity in micropropagated hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Yin, HengXia; Li, Xia

    2009-02-01

    Solanum nigrum is a newly discovered Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the present study, the protective effects of proline against cadmium toxicity of callus and regenerated shoots of S. nigrum are investigated based on a high frequency in vitro shoot regeneration system. Proline pretreatment reduces the reactive oxygen species levels and protects the plasma membrane integrity of callus under cadmium stress, and therefore improves the cadmium tolerance in S. nigrum. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analysis shows that exogenous proline increases the cadmium accumulation in callus and regenerated shoots of S. nigrum. Further analysis indicates that the improvement of cadmium tolerance caused by proline pretreatment is correlated with an increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and intracellular total glutathione content. The interaction between proline and enzymic or non-enzymic antioxidants is discussed. PMID:19043719

  9. Glycoconjugate histochemistry in the small and large intestine of normal and Solanum glaucophyllum-intoxicated rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zanuzzi, C N; Barbeito, C G; Ortíz, M L; Lozza, F A; Fontana, P A; Portiansky, E L; Gimeno, E J

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin D participates in mineral homeostasis, immunomodulation, cell growth and differentiation. The leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum contain high levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as glycoside derivatives and their chronic ingestion generates a hypervitaminosis D-like state. We analyzed changes on carbohydrate expression as a cell differentiation indicator on samples of the small and large intestine of S. glaucophyllum-intoxicated rabbits, using conventional and lectin histochemistry. Male New Zealand white rabbits were intoxicated with S. glaucophyllum during two or four weeks and killed the day after. A group of animals ("possibly recovered group") were intoxicated during 15 days and killed at day 45 of the beginning of the experiment. We found changes in the lectin binding pattern in the small and large intestine of the intoxicated rabbits. Some of these changes were reverted in the possibly recovered group. Vitamin D could be a new regulator factor of the intestinal glycosylation process. PMID:20350732

  10. Regulation of Bud Rest in Tubers of Potato, Solanum tuberosum L

    PubMed Central

    Shih, C. Y.; Rappaport, Lawrence

    1971-01-01

    Using the electron microscope, we compared the effects of abscisic acid and gibberellin A3 on excised buds from resting potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. Cells of abscisic acid-treated buds became progressively more vacuolated during a 12-hour time course study as compared with control (water) and gibberellin A3-treated buds. Concentric configurations of endoplasmic reticulum were present in apical cells of freshly excised buds. After about 6 hours these configurations began to open and disperse, and after 12 hours, intact concentric configurations were no longer evident. Both abscisic acid and gibberellin A3 induced opening and dispersal of the concentric configurations, sometimes as early as 0.5 hour after excision and treatment with hormones. Images PMID:16657728

  11. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria

    2004-08-01

    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 and EC 1.14.18.1) was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine.

  12. Spiralosides A-C, Three New C27-Steroidal Glycoalkaloids from the Fruits of Solanum spirale.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Yun-Li; Qin, Xu-Jie; Liu, Lu; Yang, Xing-Wei; Chen, Ying-Ying; Wang, Bei; Wei, Xin; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-08-01

    Three new C27-steroidal glycoalkaloids, spiralosides A-C (1-3), were obtained from the total alkaloids of Solanum spirale by chromatographic methods. On the basis of spectroscopic evidence, spiralosides A-C were elucidated as (22R,25S)-22,26-epiminocholest-5-ene-3β,16α-diol-N-acetyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1), (22R,25S)-22,26-epiminocholest-5-ene-3β,16α-diol-N-acetyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (2), (22R,25S)-22,26-epiminocholest-3β,16α-diol-N-acetyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (3), respectively. The total alkaloids of S. spirale have been screened for their antitussive and expectorant effects in intact animal model. PMID:27318495

  13. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J; Strömvik, Martina V

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha(-1) was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency. PMID:27193058

  14. Measurement of Selected Enzymatic Activities in Solanum nigrum-Treated Biomphalaria arabica Snails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Daihan, Sooad

    In the present study, glucose, acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP), α-amylase and lipase were measured for the first time in tissue homogenates of Biomphalaria arabica snails, molluscan intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. Also, the effect of sublethal concentrations (LC25) of dry powdered Solanum nigrum leaf was tested as plant molluscicide against this snail species. The tested enzymes were altered in molluscicide-treated snails compared to control. While ALP and amylase were slightly affected, ACP and lipase were significantly altered. Glucose as an important energy source for a successful schistosome-snail relationship was significantly reduced in molluscicide-treated snails. In conclusion, sublethal concentration of the molluscicide showed potent effect in disturbing snail biochemistry which may render them physiologically unsuitable for the developing of schistosome parasite. This could be considered as a promising strategy to control the disease.

  15. Potential of Gibberellic Acid 3 (GA3) for Enhancing the Phytoremediation Efficiency of Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Ji, Puhui; Tang, Xiwang; Jiang, Yongji; Tong, Yan'an; Gao, Pengcheng; Han, Wenshe

    2015-12-01

    A microcosm experiment with artificially contaminated soils was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) on phytoremediation efficiency of Solanum nigrum L. The GA3 was applied at three different concentrations (10, 100, 1000 mg L(-1)) to S. nigrum. Results indicated that GA3 can significantly (p < 0.05) increase the biomass of S. nigrum by 56 % at 1000 mg L(-1). Concurrently, GA3 application increased Cd concentrations in the shoot of S. nigrum by 16 %. The combined effects resulted in an increase in the amount of Cd extracted by a single plant by up to 124 %. Therefore, it is possible to use GA3 to promote the Cd phytoremediation efficiency of S. nigrum. PMID:26471997

  16. Development of a sparging technique for volatile emissions from potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdis, Elizabeth; Peterson, Barbara Vieux; Yorio, Neil C.; Batten, Jennifer; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1993-01-01

    Accumulation of volatile emissions from plants grown in tightly closed growth chambers may have allelopathic or phytotoxic properties. Whole air analysis of a closed chamber includes both biotic and abiotic volatile emissions. A method for characterization and quantification of biogenic emissions solely from plantlets was developed to investigate this complex mixture of volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) were isolated, separated and identified using an in-line configuration consisting of a purge and trap concentrator with sparging vessels coupled to a GC/MS system. Analyses identified plant volatile compounds: transcaryophyllene, alpha-humulene, thiobismethane, hexanal, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and cis-3-hexenyl acetate.

  17. Antitumor effects of total alkaloids isolated from Solanum nigrum in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Li, Qing-Wang; Gao, Da-Wei; Han, Zeng-Sheng; Li, Kun

    2008-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the total alkaloids isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Solanum nigrum Linne (SNL-A) inhibited the growth of human cervical cancer HeLa cells in culture medium with much lower toxicity to human normal lymphocytes. By means of HE staining and TUNEL assay, our results further revealed that SNL-A induced cell death by apoptosis. An immunohistochemical assay showed down-regulation of the bcl-2 and p53 genes and no obvious change of bax gene in the SNL-A treated cells. Subcutaneous injection of HeLa cells induced tumor formation in nude mice, and SNL-A showed a significant inhibitory effect on tumor formation. These results suggested that SNL-A may be a potential, natural apoptosis-inducing agent for cervical cancer. PMID:18717490

  18. Morphological Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Solanum crispum (Natre) In Vitro Assayed on Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Ramírez, Patricia; Avello, Marcia; Villena, Fernando; Gallardo, María José; Barriga, Andrés; Manrique-Moreno, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of the antioxidant properties of Solanum crispum, aqueous extracts of its leaves were assayed on human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane. Phenolics and alkaloids were detected by HPLC-MS. Scanning electron and defocusing microscopy showed that S. crispum changed erythrocytes from the normal shape to echinocytes. These results imply that molecules present in the aqueous extracts were located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) were chosen as representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. X-ray diffraction showed that S. crispum preferentially interacted with DMPC bilayers. Experiments regarding its antioxidant properties showed that S. crispum neutralized the oxidative capacity of HClO on DMPE bilayers; defocusing microscopy and hemolysis assays demonstrated the protective effect of S. crispum against the oxidant effects of HClO on human erythrocytes. PMID:26809653

  19. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J; Strömvik, Martina V

    2016-05-19

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha(-1) was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency.

  20. Induced Resistance in Solanum lycopersicum by Algal Elicitor Extracted from Sargassum fusiforme

    PubMed Central

    Sbaihat, Layth; Takeyama, Keiko; Koga, Takeharu; Takemoto, Daigo; Kawakita, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides, which is undesired by health- and environment-concerned consumers. Environment-friendly methods of controlling tomato diseases include agroecological practices, organic fungicides, and biological control. Plants' resistance against pathogens is induced by applying agents called elicitors to the plants and would lead to disease prevention or reduced severity. We investigated the ability of a novel elicitor extracted from the brown sea algae (Sargassum fusiforme) to elicit induced resistance in tomato. The studied elicitor induced hypersensitive cell death and O2− production in tomato tissues. It significantly reduced severities of late blight, grey mold, and powdery mildew of tomato. Taken together, our novel elicitor has not shown any direct antifungal activity against the studied pathogens, concluding that it is an elicitor of induced resistance. PMID:25802893

  1. A new γ-alkylated-γ-butyrolactone from the roots of Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Huo, Hui-Xia; Huang, Zheng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jun; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2015-09-01

    A new γ-alkylated-γ-butyrolactone, named melongenolide A (1), along with nine known compounds were obtained from the roots of Solanum melongena, and their structures were identified as melongenolide A (1), (+)-syringaresinol (2), (+)-lyoniresinol (3), 5,5'-dimethoxy lariciresinol (4), (+)-(7R,8R)-4-hydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8',9'-dinor-8,4'-oxyneoligna-7, 9-diol-7'-aldehyde (5), kaempferol-3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl)-β-glucoside (6), arjunolic acid (7), vanillic acid (8), scoparone (9), and β-sitosterol (10). Compounds 2, 6, and 7 showed potent inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC50 values being 5.62 ± 0.86, 11.47 ± 0.98, and 27.75 ± 1.26 μmol·L(-1), respectively. PMID:26412430

  2. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H.; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J.; Strömvik, Martina V.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha−1 was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency. PMID:27193058

  3. A new γ-alkylated-γ-butyrolactone from the roots of Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Huo, Hui-Xia; Huang, Zheng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jun; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2015-09-01

    A new γ-alkylated-γ-butyrolactone, named melongenolide A (1), along with nine known compounds were obtained from the roots of Solanum melongena, and their structures were identified as melongenolide A (1), (+)-syringaresinol (2), (+)-lyoniresinol (3), 5,5'-dimethoxy lariciresinol (4), (+)-(7R,8R)-4-hydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8',9'-dinor-8,4'-oxyneoligna-7, 9-diol-7'-aldehyde (5), kaempferol-3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl)-β-glucoside (6), arjunolic acid (7), vanillic acid (8), scoparone (9), and β-sitosterol (10). Compounds 2, 6, and 7 showed potent inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC50 values being 5.62 ± 0.86, 11.47 ± 0.98, and 27.75 ± 1.26 μmol·L(-1), respectively.

  4. Simple sequence repeat-based association analysis of fruit traits in eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Ge, H Y; Liu, Y; Zhang, J; Han, H Q; Li, H Z; Shao, W T; Chen, H Y

    2013-11-18

    Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) provides a promising tool to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in plant resources. A total of 141 eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) accessions were selected to detect simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with nine fruit traits. Population structure analysis was performed with 105 SSR markers, which revealed that two subgroups were present in this population. LD analysis exhibited an extensive long-range LD of approximately 11 cM. A total of 49 marker associations related to eight phenotypic traits were identified to involve 24 different markers, although no association was found with the trait of fruit glossiness. To our knowledge, this is the 1st approach to use a genome-wide association study in eggplant with SSR markers. These results suggest that the association analysis approach could be a useful alternative to traditional linkage mapping to detect putative QTLs in eggplant.

  5. Construction of Artificial miRNAs to Prevent Drought Stress in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Wyrzykowska, Anna; Pieczynski, Marcin; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    The use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) is still a relatively new technique in molecular biology with a wide range of applications in life sciences. Here, we describe the silencing of the CBP80/ABH1 gene in Solanum tuberosum with the use of amiRNA. The CBP80/ABH1 protein is part of the Cap Binding Complex (CBC), which is involved in plant responses to drought stress conditions. Transformed plants with a decreased level of CBP80/ABH1 display increased tolerance to water shortage conditions. We describe how to design amiRNA with the Web MicroRNA Designer platform in detail. Additionally, we explain how to perform all steps of a procedure aiming to obtain transgenic potato plants with the use of designed amiRNA, through callus tissue regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 as a transgene carrier. PMID:26867630

  6. Clinostation influence on regeneration of cell wall in Solanum Tuberosum L. protoplasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedukha, Elena M.; Sidorov, V. A.; Samoylov, V. M.

    1994-08-01

    Regeneration of cell walls in protoplasts was investigated using light- and electronmicroscopic methods. The protoplasts were isolated from mesophyll of Solanum tuberosum leaves and were cultivated on the horizontal low rotating clinostat (2 rpm) and in control for 10 days. Using a fluorescent method (with Calcofluor white) it was demonstrated that changes in vector gravity results in an regeneration inhibition of cell wall. With electron-microscopical and electro-cytochemical methods (staining with alcianum blue) dynamics of the regeneration of cell walls in protoplasts was studied; carbohydrate matrix of cell walls is deposited at the earliest stages of this process. The influence of microgravity on the cell wall regeneration is discussed in higher plants.

  7. The use of microsatellite analysis in Solanum tuberosum l. in vitro plantlets derived from cryopreserved germplasm.

    PubMed

    Harding, K; Benson, E E

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the application of the encapsulation/dehydration cryopreservation and microsatellite analysis to the conservation of Solanum tuberosum cultivars Brodick and Golden Wonder. Cryopreserved shoot-tips were capable of up to 40% shoot and plantlet regeneration in Brodick and >60 % for Golden Wonder. Microsatellite analysis was used with genomic DNA of Golden Wonder and Desiree to establish DNA sequence length polymorphisms. As the basis of stability assessments this technique was applied to: (i) individual, field-grown, plants of Golden Wonder; (ii) individual Golden Wonder plants derived from a single parental tuber progeny; (iii) plantlets derived from in vitro cultures of Golden Wonder and Brodick and (iv) Golden Wonder and Brodick plantlets derived from cryopreserved germplasm

  8. Identification of benzodiazepines in Artemisia dracunculus and Solanum tuberosum rationalizing their endogenous formation in plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Kavvadias, D; Abou-Mandour, A A; Czygan, F C; Beckmann, H; Sand, P; Riederer, P; Schreier, P

    2000-03-01

    Sterile cultivated plant cell tissues and cell regenerates of several species were tested for their binding affinity to the central human benzodiazepine receptor. Binding activity was found in extracts of Artemisia dracunculus cell tissue (IC(50) = 7 microg/ml) and, to a lesser extent, in plant regenerates of potato herb (Solanum tuberosum). Preparative HPLC led to the isolation of fractions with a significant displacing potency in the benzodiazepine receptor binding assay. Using on-line HPLC-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) in the "selected reaction monitoring" (SRM) mode, delorazepam and temazepam were found in amounts of about 100 to 200 ng/g cell tissue of Artemisia dracunculus, whereas sterile potato herb contained temazepam and diazepam ranging approximately from 70 to 450 ng/g cell tissue. It is the first report on the endogenous formation of benzodiazepines by plant cells, as any interaction of microorganisms and environmental factors was excluded.

  9. Potential of Gibberellic Acid 3 (GA3) for Enhancing the Phytoremediation Efficiency of Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Ji, Puhui; Tang, Xiwang; Jiang, Yongji; Tong, Yan'an; Gao, Pengcheng; Han, Wenshe

    2015-12-01

    A microcosm experiment with artificially contaminated soils was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) on phytoremediation efficiency of Solanum nigrum L. The GA3 was applied at three different concentrations (10, 100, 1000 mg L(-1)) to S. nigrum. Results indicated that GA3 can significantly (p < 0.05) increase the biomass of S. nigrum by 56 % at 1000 mg L(-1). Concurrently, GA3 application increased Cd concentrations in the shoot of S. nigrum by 16 %. The combined effects resulted in an increase in the amount of Cd extracted by a single plant by up to 124 %. Therefore, it is possible to use GA3 to promote the Cd phytoremediation efficiency of S. nigrum.

  10. Comparison between Solanum torvum Sw. and S. melongena L. after Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation.

    PubMed

    Aribaud, M; Noirot, M; Fock-Bastide, I; Vaniet, S; Kodja, H

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is one of the most devastating plant diseases, affecting some economically important Solanaceae crops. In contrast, Solanum torvum, also known as wild eggplant, does not wilt when infested with R. solanacearum. In order to describe the mechanism underlying the response of S. torvum, it was compared with the cultivated eggplant, S. melongena, when both were infected with the same R. solanacearum strain. No wilting occurred in S. torvum, although the bacteria colonised roots and stems in both species within the first 24 h. There were marked differences beyond 24 h, consisting of high bacterial mortality in S. torvum. Using the calli model, our investigations revealed an increase in cell wall monoamine oxidase activity in S. torvum after R. solanacearum inoculation, which did not occur in S. melongena.

  11. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

  12. Construction of Artificial miRNAs to Prevent Drought Stress in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Wyrzykowska, Anna; Pieczynski, Marcin; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    The use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) is still a relatively new technique in molecular biology with a wide range of applications in life sciences. Here, we describe the silencing of the CBP80/ABH1 gene in Solanum tuberosum with the use of amiRNA. The CBP80/ABH1 protein is part of the Cap Binding Complex (CBC), which is involved in plant responses to drought stress conditions. Transformed plants with a decreased level of CBP80/ABH1 display increased tolerance to water shortage conditions. We describe how to design amiRNA with the Web MicroRNA Designer platform in detail. Additionally, we explain how to perform all steps of a procedure aiming to obtain transgenic potato plants with the use of designed amiRNA, through callus tissue regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 as a transgene carrier.

  13. Hypoxic stress inhibits multiple aspects of the potato tuber wound response. [Solanum tuberosum L

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, W.; Cook, L.; Vayda, M.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers subjected to wounding under hypoxic stress do not synthesize RNA species that are induced in response to wounding in aerobic conditions. Further, wound-response proteins fail to be synthesized when wounded tubers are transferred to hypoxic conditions although messenger RNAs which encode them persist for many hours after transfer. Hypoxic stress also prevents the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine by wounded tubers that occurs in aerobic conditions. In contrast, hypoxic tubers accumulate and translate transcripts of genes whose products are involved in anaerobic metabolism whether or not they are wounded. Both the hypoxic response and the aerobic wound response preclude the synthesis of proteins encoded by messenger RNAs which accumulated during the tuberization process and which can be translated in vitro. Finally, wounding elicits the degradation of a subset of these tuberization-associated transcripts. These data indicate a complex and precise regulation of gene expression at several levels of macromolecular synthesis.

  14. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp.

  15. In vitro & in vivo estrogenic activity of glycoside fractions of Solanum nigrum fruit

    PubMed Central

    Jisha, S.; Sreeja, S.; Manjula, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: The mature fruits of Solanum nigrum contains steroidal glycosides. These are often used as vegetable and there are evidences on tribal use of these fruits as an oral contraceptive. The present study was carried out to evaluate the estrogenic potential of S. nigrum fruits by in vitro and in vivo assays. Methods: Defatted methanol extract of dried S. nigrum fruits was column fractionated and the glycoside positive fractions pooled. Definite concentrations of the fraction were used for in vitro and in vivo assays. The effect on cell viability was analyzed in MCF-7 cell lines by MTT assay followed by in vitro evaluation of estrogenicity by hydroxy apatite (HAP) binding assay. The results were further evaluated in vivo by performing uterotrophic assay in ovariectomized mouse models. Results: At low concentration (40 μg/ml), SNGF induced a dose-dependent increase in MCF-7 cell proliferation, while higher extract concentrations (80-320 μg/ml) caused progressive cell growth inhibition. The competitive binding assay using 3H-E2 suggests that this effect is mediated by estrogen receptor. Mouse uterotrophic assay revealed a classical uterotrophic response in ovariectomized mice in response to S. nigrum glycoside fraction (SNGF). SNGF at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body wt induced the maximum height of luminal epithelial cells which indicated an increase of 30.8 per cent over control (P<0.01) with a correlated increase in uterine wet wt (150% increase over control). Higher doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body wt) of SNGF did not induce any uterotrophic effect. Interpretation & conclusions: Our preliminary data demonstrate the hormone like activity of Solanum glycosides both in vitro and in vivo in mouse, which needs to be further explored to evaluate the possible mechanism and clinical implications. PMID:21985821

  16. Long-distance transport of cadmium from roots to leaves of Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qin; Li, Xuemei; Zhuang, Jie; Weng, Liping; Liu, Wan; Tai, Peidong

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake by roots and translocation from roots to leaves of two eggplant species (Solanum melongena and Solanum torvum) under relatively low Cd concentrations were investigated using stable (108)Cd isotope through a number of hydroponic experiments. The uptake and translocation of (108)Cd was compared with those of (70)Zn and (15)N. The results showed more (108)Cd was loaded to the vascular channels and translocated upward to the leaves in S. melongena than in S. torvum, while the (108)Cd concentrations were significantly lower in the roots of S. melongena than in S. torvum. When the phloem and xylem were wounded by grafting treatments, the foliar (108)Cd concentrations were decreased by more than 66% regardless of the rootstock species, whereas the uptake of (108)Cd in the root was not inhibited by grafting. Similar grafting effects were observed for (70)Zn. Hence, wounding phloem and xylem by grafting disturbed the upward transport of (108)Cd and (70)Zn to the eggplant leaves. Similarly, interruption of the phloem by the girdling treatment reduced the concentrations of (108)Cd in the leaves of S. melongena by approximately 51%, though the uptake of (108)Cd by roots was not reduced by the interruption of phloem. In contrast, neither (70)Zn concentrations nor stable N isotope ratio (δ(15)N) values in the roots and leaves of S. melongena were significantly influenced by the interruption of phloem. In conclusion, the phloem played a dominant role in the long-distance transport of Cd from the root to the leaf of S. melongena, whereas the xylem was the main channel for the translocation of Zn and N. PMID:26407708

  17. Long-distance transport of cadmium from roots to leaves of Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qin; Li, Xuemei; Zhuang, Jie; Weng, Liping; Liu, Wan; Tai, Peidong

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake by roots and translocation from roots to leaves of two eggplant species (Solanum melongena and Solanum torvum) under relatively low Cd concentrations were investigated using stable (108)Cd isotope through a number of hydroponic experiments. The uptake and translocation of (108)Cd was compared with those of (70)Zn and (15)N. The results showed more (108)Cd was loaded to the vascular channels and translocated upward to the leaves in S. melongena than in S. torvum, while the (108)Cd concentrations were significantly lower in the roots of S. melongena than in S. torvum. When the phloem and xylem were wounded by grafting treatments, the foliar (108)Cd concentrations were decreased by more than 66% regardless of the rootstock species, whereas the uptake of (108)Cd in the root was not inhibited by grafting. Similar grafting effects were observed for (70)Zn. Hence, wounding phloem and xylem by grafting disturbed the upward transport of (108)Cd and (70)Zn to the eggplant leaves. Similarly, interruption of the phloem by the girdling treatment reduced the concentrations of (108)Cd in the leaves of S. melongena by approximately 51%, though the uptake of (108)Cd by roots was not reduced by the interruption of phloem. In contrast, neither (70)Zn concentrations nor stable N isotope ratio (δ(15)N) values in the roots and leaves of S. melongena were significantly influenced by the interruption of phloem. In conclusion, the phloem played a dominant role in the long-distance transport of Cd from the root to the leaf of S. melongena, whereas the xylem was the main channel for the translocation of Zn and N.

  18. Characterization and functional analysis of a pollen-specific gene st901 in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Qian; Ao, Guangming; Yu, Jingjuan

    2006-07-01

    A pollen-specific gene, sb401, which was isolated from a cDNA library of in vitro geminated pollen of the diploid potato species Solanum berthaultii, belongs to the class of genes expressed late during pollen development. Using sb401 as a probe, a pollen-specific gene st901 was isolated from the genomic library of a potato species Solanum tuberosum cv. Desiree. Sequencing and RT-PCR analysis showed that the st901 genomic gene is 2,889 bp long, contains three exons and two introns, and encodes a putative polypeptide of 217 residues. The predicted protein sequence contains four imperfect repeated motifs of V-V-E-K-K-N/E-E; the core sequence of the repeats (K-K-N/E-E) resembles a microtubule-binding domain of the microtubule-associated protein MAP1B from mouse. The examination of a promoter-reporter construct in transgenic potato plants revealed that the st901 is expressed exclusively in mature pollen grains, which is consistent with the results of Northern blot and RT-PCR. For analysis of the function of st901, transgenic plants harboring antisense copies of st901 cDNA driven by a native st901 promoter were generated. Suppression of st901 gene in potato resulted in aberrant pollen at maturation and pollen viability of transgenic plants ranged from 4.4 to 14.8%, while that of control plants were more than 90%. These results strongly suggest that st901 has an essential role in pollen development.

  19. Effects of steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) on in vitro bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Panter, K E; Gaffield, W; Evans, R C; Bunch, T D

    2005-02-01

    alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine are two naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and solanidine-N-oxide is a corresponding steroidal aglycone. The objective of this research was to screen potential cyto-toxicity of these potato glycoalkaloids using bovine oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization techniques and subsequent embryonic development as the in vitro model. A randomized complete block design with four in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) treatments (Experiment 1) and four in vitro embryo culture (IVC) treatments (Experiment 2) was used. In Experiment 1, bovine oocytes (n=2506) were matured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVM medium only. The in vitro matured oocytes were then subject to routine IVF and IVC procedures. Results indicated that exposure of bovine oocytes to the steroidal glycoalkaloids during in vitro maturation inhibited subsequent pre-implantation embryo development. Potency of the embryo-toxicity varied between these steroidal glycoalkaloids. In Experiment 2, IVM/IVF derived bovine embryos (n=2370) were cultured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVC medium only. The results showed that the pre-implantation embryo development is inhibited by exposure to these glycoalkaloids. This effect is significant during the later pre-implantation embryo development period as indicated by fewer numbers of expanded and hatched blastocysts produced in the media containing these alkaloids. Therefore, we conclude that in vitro exposure of oocytes and fertilized ova to the steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes inhibits pre-implantation embryo development. Furthermore, we suggest that ingestion of Solanum species containing toxic amounts of glycoalkaloids may have negative effects on pre-implantation embryonic survival.

  20. Inbreeding depression in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae), a species with a plastic self-incompatibility response

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Solanum carolinense (horsenettle) is a highly successful weed with a gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system. Previous studies reveal that the strength of SI in S. carolinense is a plastic trait, associated with particular S-alleles. The importance of this variation in self-fertility on the ability of horsenettle to found and establish new populations will depend, to a large extent, on the magnitude of inbreeding depression. We performed a series of greenhouse and field experiments to determine the magnitude of inbreeding depression in S. carolinense, whether inbreeding depression varies by family, and whether the estimates of inbreeding depression vary under field and greenhouse conditions. We performed a series of controlled self- and cross-pollinations on 16 genets collected from a large population in Pennsylvania to obtain progeny with different levels of inbreeding. We grew the selfed and outcrossed progeny in the greenhouse and under field conditions and recorded various measures of growth and reproductive output. Results In the greenhouse study we found (1) a reduction in flower, fruit and seed production per fruit in inbred (selfed) progeny when compared to outbred (outcrossed) progeny; (2) a reduction in growth of resprouts obtained from rhizome cuttings of selfed progeny; and (3) an increase in the ability to self-fertilize in the selfed progeny. In the field, we found that (1) outcrossed progeny produced more leaves than their selfed siblings; (2) herbivory seems to add little to inbreeding depression; and (3) outcrossed plants grew faster and were able to set more fruits than selfed plants. Conclusion Solanum carolinense experiences low levels of inbreeding depression under greenhouse conditions and slightly more inbreeding depression under our field conditions. The combined effects of low levels of inbreeding depression and plasticity in the strength of SI suggest that the production of selfed progeny may play an important role in the

  1. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  2. Cancer-preventive peptide lunasin from Solanum nigrum L. inhibits acetylation of core histones H3 and H4 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Jeong, Hyung Jin; Park, Jae Ho; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeong Rak; Lee, Hee Kyeong; Chung, Gyu Young; Choi, Jeong Doo; de Lumen, Ben O

    2007-12-26

    Lunasin, a unique 43 amino acid, 4.8 kDa cancer-chemopreventive peptide initially reported in soybean and now found in barley and wheat, has been shown to be cancer-chemopreventive in mammalian cells and in a skin cancer mouse model against oncogenes and chemical carcinogens. To identify bioactive components in traditional herbal medicines and in search for new sources of lunasin, we report here the properties of lunasin from Solanum nigrum L. (SNL), a plant indigenous to northeast Asia. Lunasin was screened in the crude extracts of five varieties of the medicinal plants of Solanaceae origin and seven other major herbal plants. An in vitro digestion stability assay for measuring bioavailability was carried out on SNL crude protein and autoclaved SNL using pepsin and pancreatin. A nonradioactive histone acetyltransferase (HAT) assay and HAT activity colorimetric assay were used to measure the inhibition of core histone acetylation. The inhibitory effect of lunasin on the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) was determined by immunoblotting against phospho-Rb. Lunasin isolated from autoclaved SNL inhibited core histone H3 and H4 acetylation, the activities of the HATs, and the phosphorylation of the Rb protein. Lunasin in the crude protein and in the autoclaved crude protein was very stable to pepsin and pancreatin in vitro digestion, while the synthetic pure lunasin was digested at 2 min after the reaction. We conclude that lunasin is a bioactive and bioavailable component in SNL and that consumption of SNL may play an important role in cancer prevention. PMID:18038993

  3. A novel pathogenesis-related protein (SsPR10) from Solanum surattense with ribonucleolytic and antimicrobial activity is stress- and pathogen-inducible.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Huang, Beibei; Lin, Juan; Fei, Jiong; Chen, Zhonghai; Pang, Yongzhen; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2006-03-01

    A cDNA clone (designated as SsPR10, GenBank Accession Number AY660753 ) encoding a PR10 protein from yellow-fruit nightshade (Solanum surattense) was isolated and characterized. SsPR10 encoded a 160-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 17.58 kDa and pI of 5.29. Sequence alignments showed that SsPR10 had high identity (68.1%) with CaPR10, but had only about 31.7% identity with JIOsPR10 at the amino acid level. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis indicated that SsPR10 belonged to a multigene family. The constitutively expressed SsPR10 was detected to be the highest in roots of the sterile seedlings cultured in jars, while SsPR10 expression was the highest in old yellow leaves from the seedlings incubated with sap containing TMV. SsPR10 always expressed at slightly higher level in senescent leaves than in tender ones under both conditions. Further expression analysis revealed that the signaling components of defense/stress pathways (MeJA, SA, ABA, GA3, H2O2 and Cu2+) up-regulated significantly the SsPR10 mRNA levels over the control. However, darkness failed to induce SsPR10 expression and its expression was also inhibited by cold treatment. The SsPR10 was successfully expressed in Eschericha coli and the expressed protein was purified to near homogeneity. The dialytically renatured SsPR10 protein without phosphorylation exhibited ribonucleolytic activity against S. surattense leaf total RNA preparations and could inhibit hyphal growth of Pyricularia oryzae. Our findings suggest that the novel stress- and pathogen-inducible SsPR10 with ribonucleolytic and antimicrobial activity participates not only in the defense/stress response pathways but also in plants' growth, development and senescence. PMID:16473659

  4. Comparison of single cell culture derived Solanum tuberosum L. plants and a model for their application in breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, G; Schieder, O; Przewozny, T; Sopory, S K; Melchers, G

    1979-03-01

    The techniques of microspore and protoplast regeneration starting from dihaploid Solanum tuberosum plants has been improved to such an extent that the production of more than 2000 microspore derived A1 plant lines and of several hundred protoplast derived plantlets has become possible. Further, from the dihaploid Solanum species S. phureja the regeneration of microspores to plants, and from the species S. infundibuliforme, S. sparsipilum and S. tarijense the regeneration of protoplasts to calluses, has been achieved. The plants descending from the two single cell culture systems are compared with reference to phenotypic markers and economic qualities. Some principles characteristic for either microspore or protoplast derived plants are examined and their significance is discussed. The results are compiled into an extended analytical synthetic breeding scheme based on a stepwise reduction of the autotetraploid to the monohaploid level and a subsequent controlled combination to a new synthetic completely heterozygous tetraploid potato.

  5. Molecular dissection of Tomato leaf curl virus resistance in tomato line TY172 derived from Solanum peruvianum.

    PubMed

    Anbinder, Ilana; Reuveni, Moshe; Azari, Raviv; Paran, Ilan; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Lapidot, Moshe; Levin, Ilan

    2009-08-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is devastating to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops and resistant cultivars are highly effective in controlling the disease. The breeding line TY172, originating from Solanum peruvianum, is highly resistant to TYLCV. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling TYLCV resistance in TY172, appropriate segregating populations were analyzed using 69 polymorphic DNA markers spanning the entire tomato genome. Results show that TYLCV resistance in TY172 is controlled by a previously unknown major QTL, originating from the resistant line, and four additional minor QTLs. The major QTL, we term Ty-5, maps to chromosome 4 and accounts for 39.7-46.6% of the variation in symptom severity among segregating plants (LOD score 33-35). The minor QTLs, originated either from the resistant or susceptible parents, were mapped to chromosomes 1, 7, 9 and 11, and contributed 12% to the variation in symptom severity in addition to Ty-5. PMID:19455299

  6. Microarray analysis of gene expression patterns in the leaf during potato tuberization in the potato somatic hybrid Solanum tuberosum and Solanum etuberosum.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Jagesh Kumar; Devi, Sapna; Sundaresha, S; Chandel, Poonam; Ali, Nilofer; Singh, Brajesh; Bhardwaj, Vinay; Singh, Bir Pal

    2015-06-01

    Genes involved in photoassimilate partitioning and changes in hormonal balance are important for potato tuberization. In the present study, we investigated gene expression patterns in the tuber-bearing potato somatic hybrid (E1-3) and control non-tuberous wild species Solanum etuberosum (Etb) by microarray. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and leaves were collected at eight tuber developmental stages for microarray analysis. A t-test analysis identified a total of 468 genes (94 up-regulated and 374 down-regulated) that were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) and differentially expressed in E1-3 and Etb. Gene Ontology (GO) characterization of the 468 genes revealed that 145 were annotated and 323 were of unknown function. Further, these 145 genes were grouped based on GO biological processes followed by molecular function and (or) PGSC description into 15 gene sets, namely (1) transport, (2) metabolic process, (3) biological process, (4) photosynthesis, (5) oxidation-reduction, (6) transcription, (7) translation, (8) binding, (9) protein phosphorylation, (10) protein folding, (11) ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, (12) RNA processing, (13) negative regulation of protein, (14) methylation, and (15) mitosis. RT-PCR analysis of 10 selected highly significant genes (p ≤ 0.01) confirmed the microarray results. Overall, we show that candidate genes induced in leaves of E1-3 were implicated in tuberization processes such as transport, carbohydrate metabolism, phytohormones, and transcription/translation/binding functions. Hence, our results provide an insight into the candidate genes induced in leaf tissues during tuberization in E1-3.

  7. Wild Relatives of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): New Understanding of Species Names in a Complex Group

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.; Prohens, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the “spiny” solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely based on crossing and other biosystematics data has been in use for approximately a decade. This system recognises several forms of two broadly conceived species, S. incanum L. and S. melongena. Recent morphological and molecular work has shown that species-level differences exist between these entities, and a new species-level nomenclature has been identified as necessary for plant breeders and for the maintenance of accurately named germplasm. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined herbarium specimens from throughout the wild species ranges as part of a larger revision of the spiny solanums of Africa. Based on these morphological and molecular studies, we delimited species in the group to which the common eggplant belongs and constructed identification keys for the group. We also examined the monophyly of the group considered as the eggplant relatives by previous authors. Conclusions/Significance We recognise ten species in this group: S. aureitomentosum Bitter, S. campylacanthum A.Rich., S. cerasiferum Dunal, S. incanum L., S. insanum L., S. lichtensteinii Willd., S. linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger, S. melongena L., S. rigidum Lam. and S. umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp. We review the history of naming and provide keys and character lists for all species. Ploidy level differences have not been investigated in the eggplant wild relatives; we identify this as a priority for improvement of crop wild relative use in breeding. The application of species-level names to these entities will help focus new collecting efforts for brinjal eggplant improvement and help facilitate information exchange. PMID:23451138

  8. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Solanum Melongena Linn. in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity study according to OECD425 guidelines was done to find out the LD50 of test drug. Carrageenan induced paw oedema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena L. (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg b.w.) was used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st h, 3rd h, and 5th h after the carrageenan injection. Results: In acute oral toxicity study none of the animals died at the dose of 2000mg/kg. Aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn leaf in the dose of 200mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p <0.05) at 3rd hr and highly significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.001) at 5th hr; in the dose of 400 mg/kg, test drug showed p<0.01 at 3rd and p<0.001 at 5th hr and in the dose of 100mg/kg it showed significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at 5th hr. In doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of S. melongena L showed the percentage of inhibition of 42.62% which is less than the standard drug aspirin which showed 64.5% inhibition. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn has anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25738003

  9. Functionally Divergent Alleles and Duplicated Loci Encoding an Acyltransferase Contribute to Acylsugar Metabolite Diversity in Solanum Trichomes[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Moghe, Gaurav D.; Fan, Pengxiang; Ghosh, Banibrata; Ning, Jing; Jones, A. Daniel; Last, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Glandular trichomes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and other species in the Solanaceae produce and secrete a mixture of O-acylsugars (aliphatic esters of sucrose and glucose) that contribute to insect defense. Despite their phylogenetic distribution and diversity, relatively little is known about how these specialized metabolites are synthesized. Mass spectrometric profiling of acylsugars in the S. lycopersicum x Solanum pennellii introgression lines identified a chromosome 11 locus containing a cluster of BAHD acyltransferases with one gene (named Sl-ASAT3) expressed in tip cells of type I trichomes where acylsugars are made. Sl-ASAT3 was shown to encode an acyl-CoA-dependent acyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of short (four to five carbons) branched acyl chains to the furanose ring of di-acylsucrose acceptors to produce tri-acylsucroses, which can be further acetylated by Sl-ASAT4 (previously Sl-AT2). Among the wild tomatoes, diversity in furanose ring acyl chains on acylsucroses was most striking in Solanum habrochaites. S. habrochaites accessions from Ecuador and northern Peru produced acylsucroses with short (≤C5) or no acyl chains on the furanose ring. Accessions from central and southern Peru had the ability to add short or long (up to C12) acyl chains to the furanose ring. Multiple ASAT3-like sequences were found in most accessions, and their in vitro activities correlated with observed geographical diversity in acylsugar profiles. PMID:25862303

  10. Elicitation Based Enhancement of Secondary Metabolites in Rauwolfia serpentina and Solanum khasianum Hairy Root Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Mrinalini; Sharma, Swati; Misra, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rauwolfia serpentina and Solanum khasianum are well-known medicinally important plants contained important alkaloids in their different parts. Elicitation of these alkaloids is important because of associated pharmaceutical properties. Targeted metabolites were ajmaline and ajmalicine in R. serpentina; solasodine and α-solanine in S. khasianum. Objective: Enhancement of secondary metabolites through biotic and abiotic elicitors in hairy root cultures of R. serpentina and S. khasianum. Materials and Methods: In this report, hairy root cultures of these two plants were established through Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation by optimizing various parameters as age of explants, duration of preculture, and co-cultivation period. NaCl was used as abiotic elicitors in these two plants. Cellulase from Aspergillus niger was used as biotic elicitor in S. khasianum and mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in R. serpentina. Results: First time we have reported the effect of biotic and abiotic elicitors on the production of important metabolites in hairy root cultures of these two plants. Ajmalicine production was stimulated up to 14.8-fold at 100 mM concentration of NaCl after 1 week of treatment. Ajmaline concentration was also increased 2.9-fold at 100 mg/l dose of mannan after 1 week. Solasodine content was enhanced up to 4.0-fold and 3.6-fold at 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, respectively, after 6 days of treatments. Conclusion: This study explored the potential of the elicitation strategy in A. rhizogenes transformed cell cultures and this potential further used for commercial production of these pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites. SUMMARY Hairy roots of Rauwolfia serpentina were subjected to salt (abiotic stress) and mannan (biotic stress) treatment for 1 week. Ajmaline and ajmalicine secondary metabolites were quantified before and after stress treatmentAjmalicine yield was enhanced up to 14.8-fold at 100 mM concentration of Na

  11. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae.

    PubMed

    Zasada, Inga A; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A; Ingham, Russ E

    2013-09-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. 'Russet Burbank,' 'Desiree,' 'Modac,' 'Norland,' 'Umatilla,' and 'Yukon Gold' were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties 'Maris Piper,' 'Atlantic,' and 'Satina,' all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera ellingtonae hatched readily in PRD and TRD

  12. Phytoremediation potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the deleterious effects of methylmercury on the reproductive system of rats.

    PubMed

    Frenedoso da Silva, Raquel; Missassi, Gabriela; dos Santos Borges, Cibele; Silva de Paula, Eloísa; Hornos Carneiro, Maria Fernanda; Grotto, Denise; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n = 20) were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water), MeHg group (140 μg/Kg), Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow), and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group). The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg.

  13. Phytoremediation Potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the Deleterious Effects of Methylmercury on the Reproductive System of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Frenedoso da Silva, Raquel; Missassi, Gabriela; dos Santos Borges, Cibele; Silva de Paula, Eloísa; Hornos Carneiro, Maria Fernanda; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n = 20) were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water), MeHg group (140 μg/Kg), Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow), and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group). The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg. PMID:24772420

  14. Flowering stage characteristics of cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and their significance to phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Zhou, Qixing; Koval, Pavel V

    2006-10-01

    The Cd accumulation and biomass characteristics of a newly found Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. were investigated at the flowering stage and the mature stage. The results showed that the concentration of Cd in the stems and leaves of S. nigrum harvested at the flowering stage was up to 83.1% and 85.5% of that at the mature stage, and the dry-weight sum of the stems and leaves of S. nigrum harvested at the flowering stage was 93.4% of that at its seed maturity. The Cd-removing ratio by the shoots of S. nigrum harvested at the flowering stage was 87.5% of that at the mature stage. It was also found by observing the growth duration of S. nigrum that the frostless period at the experimental site was at least twice as long as the growth duration from the seedling-transplanted phase to the flowering stage of the hyperaccumulator. Therefore, S. nigrum could be transplanted into contaminated soils twice in one year by harvesting the hyperaccumulator at its flowering stage based on climatic conditions of the site and traits of the plant growth. In particular, the extraction efficiency of Cd by harvesting the shoots of S. nigrum at its flowering stage twice in one year could increase 75.0% compared to that of at its single maturity. Thus, the method of multiple harvesting would be very important to increase phytoremediation efficiency in practice. PMID:16859734

  15. rbcS genes in Solanum tuberosum: conservation of transit peptide and exon shuffling during evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Wolter, F P; Fritz, C C; Willmitzer, L; Schell, J; Schreier, P H

    1988-01-01

    Five genes of the rbcS gene family of Solanum tuberosum (potato) were studied. One of these is a cDNA clone; the other four are located on two genomic clones representing two different chromosomal loci containing one (locus 1) and three genes (locus 2), respectively. The intron/exon structure of the three genes in locus 2 is highly conserved with respect to size and position. These genes contain two introns, whereas the gene from locus 1 contains three introns. Although in most cases the amino acid sequences in the transit peptide part of different rbcS genes from the same species varied considerably more than the corresponding mature amino acid sequences, one exception found in tomato and potato indicates that the transit peptide of rbcS could have a special function. A comparison of the rbcS genes of higher plants with those of prokaryotes offers suggestive evidence that introns first served as spacer material in the process of exon shuffling and then were removed stepwise during the evolution of higher plants. PMID:3422467

  16. Characterization of Solanum tuberosum multicystatin and its structural comparison with other cystatins.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Mark S; Kumar, G N Mohan; Youn, Buhyun; Knowles, D Benjamin; Lam, Ka Sum; Ballinger, W Jordan; Knowles, N Richard; Kang, Chulhee

    2009-03-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) multicystatin (PMC) is a crystalline Cys protease inhibitor present in the subphellogen layer of potato tubers. It consists of eight tandem domains of similar size and sequence. Our in vitro results showed that the pH/PO(4)(-)-dependent oligomeric behavior of PMC was due to its multidomain nature and was not a characteristic of the individual domains. Using a single domain of PMC, which still maintains inhibitor activity, we identified a target protein of PMC, a putative Cys protease. In addition, our crystal structure of a representative repeating unit of PMC, PMC-2, showed structural similarity to both type I and type II cystatins. The N-terminal trunk, alpha-helix, and L2 region of PMC-2 were most similar to those of type I cystatins, while the conformation of L1 more closely resembled that of type II cystatins. The structure of PMC-2 was most similar to the intensely sweet protein monellin from Dioscorephyllum cumminisii (serendipity berry), despite a low level of sequence similarity. We present a model for the possible molecular organization of the eight inhibitory domains in crystalline PMC. The unique molecular properties of the oligomeric PMC crystal are discussed in relation to its potential function in regulating the activity of proteases in potato tubers.

  17. Iron uptake system mediates nitrate-facilitated cadmium accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bing Fang; Du, Shao Ting; Lu, Kai Xing; Liu, Wen Jing; Lin, Xian Yong; Jin, Chong Wei

    2012-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) management is a promising agronomic strategy to minimize cadmium (Cd) contamination in crops. However, it is unclear how N affects Cd uptake by plants. Wild-type and iron uptake-inefficient tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant (T3238fer) plants were grown in pH-buffered hydroponic culture to investigate the direct effect of N-form on Cd uptake. Wild-type plants fed NO₃⁻ accumulated more Cd than plants fed NH₄⁺. Iron uptake and LeIRT1 expression in roots were also greater in plants fed NO₃⁻. However, in mutant T3238fer which loses FER function, LeIRT1 expression in roots was almost completely terminated, and the difference between NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ treatments vanished. As a result, the N-form had no effect on Cd uptake in this mutant. Furthermore, suppression of LeIRT1 expression by NO synthesis inhibition with either tungstate or L-NAME, also substantially inhibited Cd uptake in roots, and the difference between N-form treatments was diminished. Considering all of these findings, it was concluded that the up-regulation of the Fe uptake system was responsible for NO₃⁻-facilitated Cd accumulation in plants.

  18. Zebrafish bioassay-guided microfractionation identifies anticonvulsant steroid glycosides from the Philippine medicinal plant Solanum torvum.

    PubMed

    Challal, Soura; Buenafe, Olivia E M; Queiroz, Emerson F; Maljevic, Snezana; Marcourt, Laurence; Bock, Merle; Kloeti, Werner; Dayrit, Fabian M; Harvey, Alan L; Lerche, Holger; Esguerra, Camila V; de Witte, Peter A M; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Crawford, Alexander D

    2014-10-15

    Medicinal plants used for the treatment of epilepsy are potentially a valuable source of novel antiepileptic small molecules. To identify anticonvulsant secondary metabolites, we performed an in vivo, zebrafish-based screen of medicinal plants used in Southeast Asia for the treatment of seizures. Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae) was identified as having significant anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish larvae with seizures induced by the GABAA antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This finding correlates well with the ethnomedical use of this plant in the Philippines, where a water decoction of S. torvum leaves is used to treat epileptic seizures. HPLC microfractionation of the bioactive crude extract, in combination with the in vivo zebrafish seizure assay, enabled the rapid localization of several bioactive compounds that were partially identified online by UHPLC-TOF-MS as steroid glycosides. Targeted isolation of the active constituents from the methanolic extract enabled the complete de novo structure identification of the six main bioactive compounds that were also present in the traditional preparation. To partially mimic the in vivo metabolism of these triterpene glycosides, their common aglycone was generated by acid hydrolysis. The isolated molecules exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish seizure assays. These results underscore the potential of zebrafish bioassay-guided microfractionation to rapidly identify novel bioactive small molecules of natural origin. PMID:25127088

  19. Effects of the extract and glycoalkaloids of Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill on Giardia lamblia trophozoites

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Gilmarcio Z.; Moreira, Raquel R. D.; Planeta, Cleopatra S.; Almeida, Adélia E.; Bastos, Jairo K.; Salgueiro, Lígia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; do Céu Sousa, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Solanum lycocarpum has great importance for food and medicinal traditional use. Recently, it was also evidenced that extracts of S. lycocarpum St. Hill (Solanaceae) and its glycoalkaloids, solamargine (Sg) and solasonine (Sn), are active against flagellated protozoa. Objective: The aim was to assess the effects of the extract of S. lycocarpum and its glycoalkaloids, Sn, and Sg, on Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Materials and Methods: A crude extract (96%ethanol) (EB) of fruits of S. lycocarpum was prepared and fractionated by partition with 40%ethanol and n-hexane: Ethyl acetate. Glycoalkaloids, Sn, and Sg were recognized in the ethanol fraction (EF) and further isolated by column chromatography. EB, EF, the isolated Sn and Sg and a mixture (1:1) of both glycoalkaloids were tested on cultures of G. lamblia trophozoites and macrophages. Results: EB, EF and glycoalkaloids of S. lycocarpum showed activity against Giardia (95.0 < Inhibitory concentration 50 [IC50] ≤120.3 μg/mL). The mixture of glycoalkaloids (1:1) was more active (IC50 = 13.23 μg/mL) than each one individually, suggesting a synergic effect. Moreover, the mixture is nontoxic to macrophage cells. Conclusion: Results are optimistic concerning the anti-Giardia potential of the mixture Sn + Sg. Further studies, in vitro and in vivo, will be required to consolidate the usefulness of the mixture of Sn + Sg in view of a new therapeutic strategy for giardiasis. PMID:26109762

  20. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. “Longshu No. 3”) plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  1. Ultrastructural evaluation of parathyroid glands and thyroid C cells of cattle fed Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C. C.; Döbereiner, J.; Tokarnia, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    Fine structural alterations of thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells were evaluated after feeding dried leaves of the calcinogenic plant, Solanum malacoxylon, to cattle for 1, 6 and 32 days. Thyroid C cells initially were degranulated in response to the hypercalcemia, and parathyroid chief cells accumulated secretory granules. There was hypertrophy of thyroid C cells with well-developed secretory organelles but few secretory granules in the cytoplasm after 6 days of feeding S. malacoxylon. Inactive chief cells with dispersed profiles of endoplasmic reticulum and increased lysosomal bodies predominated in the parathyroid glands. Multiple foci of soft tissue mineralization were present in the heart, lung, and kidney. Thyroid C cells underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia after 32 days of S. malacoxylon, and parathyroid chief cells were inactive or atrophic in response to the long-term hypercalcemia. Severe soft tissue mineralization was present throughout the cardiovascular system, lung, kidney, and spleen. These ultrastructural changes in thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells plus the widespread soft tissue mineralization observed after feeding cattle small amounts of S. malacoxylon are consistent with the recent evidence that leaves of this plant are a potent source of the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, of vitamin D. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:869016

  2. Identification and Expression Analysis of Ribosome Biogenesis Factor Co-orthologs in Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Paul, Puneet; Keller, Mario; Einloft, Jens; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Schleiff, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis involves a large inventory of proteinaceous and RNA cofactors. More than 250 ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) have been described in yeast. These factors are involved in multiple aspects like rRNA processing, folding, and modification as well as in ribosomal protein (RP) assembly. Considering the importance of RBFs for particular developmental processes, we examined the complexity of RBF and RP (co-)orthologs by bioinformatic assignment in 14 different plant species and expression profiling in the model crop Solanum lycopersicum. Assigning (co-)orthologs to each RBF revealed that at least 25% of all predicted RBFs are encoded by more than one gene. At first we realized that the occurrence of multiple RBF co-orthologs is not globally correlated to the existence of multiple RP co-orthologs. The transcript abundance of genes coding for predicted RBFs and RPs in leaves and anthers of S. lycopersicum was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS). In combination with existing expression profiles, we can conclude that co-orthologs of RBFs by large account for a preferential function in different tissue or at distinct developmental stages. This notion is supported by the differential expression of selected RBFs during male gametophyte development. In addition, co-regulated clusters of RBF and RP coding genes have been observed. The relevance of these results is discussed. PMID:25698879

  3. Adaptation to low temperatures in the wild tomato species Solanum chilense.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, Tetyana; Böndel, Katharina B; Kumpfmüller, Gabriele; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Molecular adaptation to abiotic stresses in plants is a complex process based mainly on the modifications of gene transcriptional activity and the alteration of protein-protein interactions. We used a combination of population genetic, comparative transcriptomic and plant physiology approaches to investigate the mechanisms of adaptation to low temperatures in Solanum chilense populations distributed along Andean altitudinal gradients. We found that plants from all populations have high chilling tolerance, which does not correlate with temperatures in their native habitats. In contrast, tolerance to freezing shows a significant association with altitude and temperature variables. We also observed the differences in expression patterns of cold-response genes between plants from high- and low-altitude populations. These results suggest that genetic adaptations to low temperatures evolved in high-altitude populations of S. chilense. At the transcriptional level, these adaptations may include high levels of constitutive expression of the genes encoding ICE1, the key transcription factor of the cold signalling pathway, and chloroplast ω-3 fatty acid desaturase FAD7. At the sequence level, a signature of selection associated with the adaptation to high altitudes was detected at the C-terminal part of ICE1 encoding the ACT regulatory domain. PMID:27037798

  4. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ivanesa G M; Silva, Edvane B; Amaral, Ademir J; Machado, Erilane C L; Silva, Josenilda M

    2016-06-01

    This work evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the potato cultivar Ágata (Solanum tuberosum L.), including budding and deterioration, with the end goal of increasing shelf life. For this, four groups of samples were harvested at the maturation stage. Three of them were separately exposed to a Co-60 source, receiving respective doses of 0.10, 0.15 and 2.00 kGy, while the non-irradiated group was kept as a control. All samples were stored for 35 days at 24 °C (± 2) and at 39% relative humidity. The following aspects were evaluated: budding, rot, loss of weight, texture, flesh color, moisture, external and internal appearance, aroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, protein, starch and glucose. The results indicated that 0.15 kGy was the most effective dose to reduce sprouting and post-harvest losses, under the conditions studied. PMID:27276382

  5. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria

    2004-08-01

    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 and EC 1.14.18.1) was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine. PMID:15587701

  6. A Co-Opted Hormonal Cascade Activates Dormant Adventitious Root Primordia upon Flooding in Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Thikra; Yang, Xinping; Visser, Eric J W; Te Beek, Tim A H; Kensche, Philip R; Cristescu, Simona M; Lee, Sangseok; Floková, Kristýna; Nguyen, Duy; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR primordium reactivation in the dicot species Solanum dulcamara Transcriptome analysis indicated that flooding imposes a state of quiescence on the stem tissue, while increasing cellular activity in the AR primordia. Flooding led to ethylene accumulation in the lower stem region and subsequently to a drop in abscisic acid (ABA) level in both stem and AR primordia tissue. Whereas ABA treatment prevented activation of AR primordia by flooding, inhibition of ABA synthesis was sufficient to activate them in absence of flooding. Together, this reveals that there is a highly tissue-specific response to reduced ABA levels. The central role for ABA in the response differentiates the pathway identified here from the AR emergence pathway known from rice (Oryza sativa). Flooding and ethylene treatment also induced expression of the polar auxin transporter PIN2, and silencing of this gene or chemical inhibition of auxin transport inhibited primordium activation, even though ABA levels were reduced. Auxin treatment, however, was not sufficient for AR emergence, indicating that the auxin pathway acts in parallel with the requirement for ABA reduction. In conclusion, adaptation of S. dulcamara to wet habitats involved co-option of a hormonal signaling cascade well known to regulate shoot growth responses, to direct a root developmental program upon soil flooding. PMID:26850278

  7. Decline of rubisco activity and net photosynthesis in ozone-treated potato foliage. [Solanum tuberosum

    SciTech Connect

    Dann, M.S.; Pell, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The effect of O/sub 3/ on rubisco activity in Solanum tuberosum L. cv Norland foliage was studied as related to oxidant-induced premature senescence. Plants, 25 days old, were exposed to O/sub 3/ increasing from 0.06 to 0.08 ..mu..1/L for 6 h/day for 4 days in a controlled environment chamber. On day 5 plants were exposed to a 6 h simulated inversion in which O/sub 3/ peaked at 0.12 /sup +/1/L. The authors measured initial and total rubisco activities and net photosynthesis of leaves at full expansion on days 0,3,5,6,9 and 12. These parameters declined in both ozone and control plants throughout the course of the experiment. O/sub 3/ exacerbated the decline and produced a significantly greater decrease following the inversion. The enhanced reduction in rubisco activity over time may be an important characteristics of ozone-induced premature senescence. Rubisco activation (initial/total activity) did not change with the treatment. The decrease in activity is most likely due to a decrease in available protein rather than a decrease in the percentage of rubisco activated in vivo.

  8. Evidence from Solanum tuberosum in support of the dual-pathway hypothesis of aromatic biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.F.; Doong, R.L.; Jensen, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    Key branchpoint enzymes of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DS) and chorismate mutase (CM), have previously been shown to exist as separate compartmentalized isozymes in the chloroplasts and cytosol of tobacco, sorghum and spinach. Although additional examples of plants containing these isozyme pairs are accumulating, some studies in the literature report the presence of only the single plastidic DS or CM enzyme. Such apparent exceptions contradict the universality of pathway organization existing in higher plants that is implied by the dual-pathway hypothesis of aromatic biosynthesis. Since potato (Solanum tuberosum) exemplifies a case where only a single species of both DS and CM have been reported, we selected this system for further analysis. The DS-Mn and DS-Co isozyme pair, exhibiting all of the differential properties described in Nicotiana silvestris, have now been identified in S. tuberosum. Likwise, partial purification via DEAE-cellulose chromatography revealed two isozymes of CM in disks excised from tubers of S. tuberosum. The differential regulatory properties of these isozymes were comparable to the CM-1 and CM-2 isozymes of N. silvestris.

  9. Mobilization of storage materials during light-induced germination of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Jagiełło-Flasińska, Dominika; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Hermanowicz, Paweł; Appenroth, Klaus-J; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of storage materials in germinating tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds and to determine whether it is regulated by light via phytochromes. Wild type, single and multiple phytochrome A, B1 and B2 mutants were investigated. Imbibed seeds were briefly irradiated with far-red or far-red followed by red light, and germinated in darkness. Triacylglycerols and starch were quantified using biochemical assays in germinating seeds and seedlings during the first 5 days of growth. To investigate the process of fat-carbohydrate transformation, the activity of the glyoxylate cycle was assessed. Our results confirm the role of phytochrome in the control of tomato seed germination. Phytochromes A and B2 were shown to play specific roles, acting antagonistically in far-red light. While the breakdown of triacylglycerols proceeded independently of light, phytochrome control was visible in the next stages of the lipid-carbohydrate transformation. The key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, were regulated by phytochrome(s). This was reflected in a greater increase of starch content during seedling growth in response to additional red light treatment. This study is the first attempt to build a comprehensive image of storage material metabolism regulation by light in germinating dicotyledonous seeds. PMID:27208503

  10. Protective Effect of Sundakai (Solanum torvum) Seed Protein (SP) Against Oxidative Membrane Damage in Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sivapriya, M; Gowda, S S Thammanna; Srinivas, Leela

    2015-12-01

    Lipid peroxidation by ROS at the membrane level disturbs the inherit integrity of components activating subsequent alterations in the function. In this study, the protective effect of purified Sundakai (Solanum torvum) seed protein (SP) was tested against oxidative membrane damage in erythrocyte membrane. SP prevented oxidative RBC lysis induced by pro-oxidants; Fe:As (2:20 μmol), periodate (0.4 mM), and t-BOOH (1 mM) up to 86, 81, and 86 %, respectively. Further, SP prevented the Fe:As-induced K(+) leakage up to the tune of 95 %. The inhibition offered by SP on K(+) leakage was comparable to inhibition offered by quinine sulfate, a known K(+) channel blocker. SP dose dependently restored Na(+)K(+) ATPase and Ca(2+)Mg(2+) ATPase activities in erythrocyte membrane. The restoration of ATPase activity by SP was two times more than standard antioxidants BHA and α-tocopherol. Besides, SP at 1.6 μmol restored the membrane proteins over Fe:As induction when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, which was comparable to protection offered by BHA. In conclusion, SP is an effective antioxidant in preventing oxidative membrane damage and associated functions mediated by ROS. As SP is non-toxic, it can be used as an effective bioprotective antioxidant agent to cellular components. PMID:26374653

  11. Spermidine Derivatives in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Fruit: Sensory (Taste) versus Biofunctional (ACE-Inhibition) Properties.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Masatani, Chieko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Peterson, Devin G; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-07-01

    The bitterness in lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit is increased during processing (juicing or drying). To identify the bitter-active compounds, the ethanolic fruit pulp extract was subjected to RP-18 solid-phase extraction, and then sensory-guided fractionated by HPLC. Two spermidine derivatives, N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine and N(1),N(8)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine, were isolated and their structures confirmed by analysis of their HPLC-ESI/MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR data. The N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine was synthesized and used as an authentic sample to unequivocally confirm the structure of this compound and to quantitate it in both fresh and dried fruit. In silico analyses demonstrated that spermidine derivatives identified in lulo pulp exhibited a strong ACE-I (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) inhibitory activity. Subsequently, these results were confirmed by in vitro analyses and showed the potential use of lulo fruit pulp as an ingredient of functional foods related to the prevention of blood hypertension. PMID:27292771

  12. Invasion of Solanum tuberosum L. by Aspergillus terreus: a microscopic and proteomics insight on pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aspergillus terreus is one of the most harmful filamentous fungal pathogen of humans, animals and plants. Recently, researchers have discovered that A. terreus can cause foliar blight disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). We used light and scanning electron microscopy, and performed proteomics analysis in an attempt to dissect the invasion process of A. terreus in this important crop. Results Microscopic study revealed that invasion of leaf tissue is marked by rapid germination of A. terreus phialidic conidia (PC) by 4 h after inoculation. By 8 h after inoculation, primary germ tubes from PC differentiated into irregular protuberance, often displayed stomata atropism, and failed to penetrate via the epidermal cells. Colonization of leaf tissues was associated with high rate of production of accessory conidia (AC). These analyses showed the occurrence of a unique opposing pattern of AC, tissue-specific and produced on melanized colonizing hyphae during the infection of leaf tissue. A significant proteome change hallmarked by differential expression of class I patatin, lipoxygenase, catalase-peroxidase complex, and cysteine proteinase inhibitor were observed during tuber colonization. These proteins are often involved in signal transduction pathways and crosstalk in pathogenic responses. Conclusion A. terreus abundantly produced AC and multipolar germinating PC to invade potato leaf tissue. Additionally, A. terreus differentially induced enzymes in potato tuber during colonization which facilitates rapid disease development. PMID:24917207

  13. Regeneration of Solanum nigrum by somatic embryogenesis, involving frog egg-like body, a novel structure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedong; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Wang, Feige; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Tong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Yan; Niu, Wei; Jia, Shuzhao; Xie, Hengchang; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    A new protocol was established for the regeneration of Solanum nigrum by frog egg-like bodies (FELBs), which are novel somatic embryogenesis (SE) structures induced from the root, stem, and leaf explants. The root, stem, and leaf explants (93.33%, 85.10%, and 100.00%, respectively) were induced to form special embryonic calli on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, under dark condition. Further, special embryonic calli from the root, stem, and leaf explants (86.97%, 83.30%, and 99.47%, respectively) were developed into FELBs. Plantlets of FELBs from the three explants were induced in vitro on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and 0.1 mg/L gibberellic acid, and 100.00% plantlet induction rates were noted. However, plantlet induction in vivo on MS medium supplemented with 20 mg/L thidiazuron showed rates of 38.63%, 15.63%, and 61.30% for the root, stem, and leaf explants, respectively, which were lower than those of the in vitro culture. Morphological and histological analyses of FELBs at different development stages revealed that they are a novel type of SE structure that developed from the mesophyll (leaf) or cortex (stem and root) cells of S. nigrum.

  14. Conserved miRNAs and Their Response to Salt Stress in Wild Eggplant Solanum linnaeanum Roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yong; Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Solanaceae family includes some important vegetable crops, and they often suffer from salinity stress. Some miRNAs have been identified to regulate gene expression in plant response to salt stress; however, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in Solanaceae species. To identify salt-responsive miRNAs, high-throughput sequencing was used to sequence libraries constructed from roots of the salt tolerant species, Solanum linnaeanum, treated with and without NaCl. The sequencing identified 98 conserved miRNAs corresponding to 37 families, and some of these miRNAs and their expression were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Under the salt stress, 11 of the miRNAs were down-regulated, and 3 of the miRNAs were up-regulated. Potential targets of the salt-responsive miRNAs were predicted to be involved in diverse cellular processes in plants. This investigation provides valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs in S. linnaeanum, and would be useful for developing strategies for the genetic improvement of the Solanaceae crops. PMID:24413753

  15. Antigenotoxic and Antioxidant Properties of Solanum cernuum and Its Alkaloid, Cernumidine.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Jaqueline Lopes; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Miranda, Mariza Abreu; Lima, Marina; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-01-01

    Solanum cernuum VE. has been used extensively for the treatment of urinary disorders, gonorrhea and skin infections; cernumidine is a major component of S. cernuum (SC) hydroalcoholic extract. The micronucleus test in V79 cells was used to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of SC and cernumidine. For antigenotoxicity assessment, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, 44 µg/mL) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 3.5 µg/mL) were added as inducers of chromosome damage. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Significantly higher frequencies of micronuclei were observed in cell cultures treated with SC concentrations of 160 and 320 µg/mL in comparison with the negative control, demonstrating a genotoxic effect. There was no significant difference in the frequency of micronuclei between cell cultures treated with a combination of SC and MMS and those treated only with MMS. On the other hand, a significant reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was observed for V79 cells treated with SC or cernumidine plus H2O2 compared to those treated only with H2O2. Furthermore, SC and cernumidine were able to scavenge free radicals in the DPPH assay. Thus, the protective effect of SC and cernumidine against H2O2 can be attributed to antioxidant activity. PMID:27251494

  16. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

    PubMed

    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health.

  17. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Stultiens, Catharina L. M.; de Groot, Peter F. M.; Powers, Stephen J.; Tikunov, Yury M.; Bovy, Arnoud G.; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development. PMID:25883382

  18. Clinico-Immunological Analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Allergy Indicates Preponderance of Allergens in the Peel

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking. Objective The objective is to investigate sensitization to different parts of eggplant fruit, and detection of the allergens. Methods Six eggplant-allergic subjects were assessed for sensitization to eggplant (peel/pulp, and raw/cooked) by skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE, and immunoblots. Allergens were analyzed for glycoprotein nature by staining/lectinoblots, and in vitro stability in simulated gastric fluid. Results All the eggplant-sensitized subjects showed positive skin prick test with peel, pulp, raw, and cooked eggplant extracts; allergen-specific IgE to all these was positive. Raw eggplant contains 5 allergens in the range 36-71 kD. Most allergens are localized in the eggplant peel (9 allergens; 26-71 kD range) than the pulp (3 allergens; 52-71 kD); among these, the 26, 28, 36, and 71 kD allergens seem to be heat-stable. The 43, 45, 64, and 71 kD allergens are detected as glycoproteins; the 26, 64, and 71 kD allergens are stable displaying retention of IgE-binding ability in simulated gastric fluid digestion. Conclusions Eggplant is a multiallergenic vegetable in the context of presence of allergens in all edible parts of eggplant having preponderance in the peel. PMID:23283148

  19. Compound amino acids added in media improved Solanum nigrum L. phytoremediating CD-PAHS contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Yang, Chuanjie; Zhang, Qianru; Knorrm, Klaus-Holger; Zhan, Jie; Gao, Qianhui

    2016-01-01

    Cd hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. was a promising plant used to simultaneously remediate Cd-PAHs combined pollution soil through its extra accumulation capacity and rhizosphere degradation. This article compared the strengthening remediation role of cysteine (Cys), glycine (Gly) and glutamic acid (Glu) with EDTA and TW80. The results showed that the addition of 0.03 mmol L(-1) Cys, Gly, and Glu didn't significantly impact (p < 0.05) shoot biomass of S. nigrum, but obviously increased Cd concentration. Therefore, Cd capacity (µg pot(-1)) in shoots of S. nigrum was significantly increased (p < 0.05) by 37.7% compared to the control without reagent added. At the meantime, the PAHs degradation ratio in rhizoshpere was increased by 34.5%. Basically, the improving role of Cys, Gly, and Glu was higher than EDTA and TW80. The main reasons of enhanced the accumulation of S. nigrum to Cd might lie in the addition of Cys, Gly, and Glu which reduced pH and increased extractable Cd concentration in rhizosphere and phytochelatines (PCs) concentration in leaves. As for the degradation of PAHs in rhizosphere, increased microorganism number might be play important role.

  20. Maturity and ripening-stage specific modulation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Alka; Gupta, Aditya K; Datsenka, Tatsiana; Mattoo, Autar K; Handa, Avtar K

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is a model to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit development and ripening. We profiled gene expression during fruit development (immature green and mature green fruit) and ripening (breaker stage onwards) program to obtain a global perspective of genes whose expression is modulated at each stage of fruit development and ripening. A custom made cDNA macroarray containing cDNAs representing various metabolic pathways, defense, signaling, transcription, transport, cell structure and cell wall related functions was developed and used to quantify changes in the abundance of different transcripts. About 34 % of 1066 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) printed on the macroarray were differentially expressed during tomato fruit ripening. Out of these, 25 % genes classify under metabolism and protein biosynthesis/degradation related processes, while a significant proportion represented stress-responsive genes and about 44 % represented genes with unknown functions. RNA gel blot analysis validated changes in a few representative genes. Although the mature green fruit was found transcriptionally quiescent, the K-means cluster analysis highlighted coordinated up or down regulation of genes during progressive ripening; emphasizing that ripening is a transcriptionally active process. Many stress-related genes were found up-regulated, suggesting their role in the fruit ripening program.

  1. Four new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) species from South America.

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of "non-spiny" Solanum from South America are described. Solanumlongifilamentum Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is widespread from Ecuador to Bolivia and is most similar to Solanummacrotonum Dunal from Central and northern South America. Solanumantisuyo Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found on the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the widespread lower elevation species Solanumpolytrichostylum Bitter. Solanumarenicola Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found in low elevation habitats on the eastern Andean slopes and in Amazonia of Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the higher elevation species Solanumaloysiifolium Dunal of Bolivia and Argentina. Solanummariae Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Potato clade) is endemic to Cajamarca Department in Peru, and is most similar to the widespread Solanumcaripense Dunal. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:25698893

  2. Chemical-assisted phytoremediation of CD-PAHs contaminated soils using Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuanjie; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Hu, Yahu; Bao, Yanyu

    2011-09-01

    A well-characterized cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant Solanum nigrum was grown in Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil that was repeatedly amended with chemicals, including EDTA, cysteine (CY), salicylic acid (Sa), and Tween 80 (TW80), to test individual and combined treatment effects on phytoremediation of Cd-PAHs contaminated soils. Plant growth was negatively affected by exogenous chemicals except for EDTA. S. nigrum could accumulate Cd in tissues without assistant chemicals, while there was no visible effect on the degradation of PAHs. Cysteine had significant effects on phytoextraction of Cd and the highest metal extraction ratio (1.27%) was observed in 0.9 mmol/kg CY treatment. Both salicylic acid and Tween 80 had stimulative effects on the degradation of PAHs and there was the maximal degradation rate (52.6%) of total PAHs while 0.9 mmol/kg Sa was applied. Furthermore, the combined treatment T(0.1EDTA+0.9CY+0.5TW80) and T(0.5EDTA+0.9CY+03Sa) could not only increase the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, but also promote the degradation of PAHs. These results indicated that S. nigrum might be effective in phytoextracting Cd and enhancing the biodegradation of PAHs in the co-contaminated soils with assistant chemicals. PMID:21972521

  3. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development.

    PubMed

    Pasare, Stefania A; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Campbell, Raymond; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kohlen, Wouter; van der Krol, Sander; Bramley, Peter M; Roberts, Alison G; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    · Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it was considered timely to investigate the effects of SL production on potato development and tuber life cycle. · Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (CCD8) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). · The resulting CCD8-RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. New tubers were formed from sessile buds of the mother tubers. The apical buds of newly formed transgenic tubers grew out as shoots when exposed to light. In addition, we found that CCD8 transcript levels were rapidly downregulated in tuber buds by the application of sprout-inducing treatments. · These results suggest that SLs could have an effect, solely or in combination with other phytohormones, in the morphology of potato plants and also in controlling stolon development and maintaining tuber dormancy. PMID:23496288

  4. Nutrient composition of the leaves and flowers of Colocasia esculenta and the fruits of Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Ejoh, A R; Mbiapo, F T; Fokou, E

    1996-02-01

    The nutrient composition, of Colocasia esculenta flowers (CF) and leaves (CL), and the green fruits of Solanum melongena (SM) were carried out as a means to determine their nutritional potential. Results showed that these food materials had high moisture and fiber levels which ranged between 888 and 906 g.kg-1; and 204 and 303 g.kg-1 dry weight (dw) for moisture and fiber respectively. The calorific values were between 3889 and 4001 kcals.kg-1 dw, while the total lipids ranged from 53 in CF to 71 g.kg-1 dw in SM. The leaves of Colocasia esculenta had the highest crude protein value of 307 g.kg-1 dw. The flowers had 149 g.kg-1 dw while SM had 138 g.kg-1 dw. The amino acid profile in the flowers and leaves of Colocasia esculenta in contrast to SM were balanced comparable to the reference FAO pattern. Ash values were high (ranging from 76 in SM to 98 g.kg-1 in CL) with potassium being the principal element. Iron and Zinc levels were also high especially in CF (with 303 and 82 mg.kg-1 dw respectively). These foods also contained moderate quantities of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium but were poor in manganese and copper.

  5. Analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of parental and hybrid clones of pepino (Solanum muricatum).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Prohens, Jaime; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The volatile constituents of 10 clones (4 parents with different flavors and 6 hybrids from selected crossings among these parents) of pepino fruit (Solanum muricatum) were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor-contributing volatiles (OCVs) were detected by GC-olfactometry-MS analyses and included 24 esters (acetates, 3-methylbutanoates, and 3-methylbut-2-enoates), 7 aldehydes (especially hexenals and nonenals), 6 ketones, 9 alcohols, 3 lactones, 2 terpenes, beta-damascenone, and mesifurane. Among these compounds, 17, of which 5 had not been reported previously in pepino, were found to contribute significantly to pepino aroma. OCVs can be assigned to three groups according to their odor quality: fruity fresh (acetates and prenol), green vegetable (C6 and C9 aldehydes), and exotic (lactones, mesifuran, and beta-damascenone). Quantitative and qualitative differences between clones for these compounds are clearly related to differences in their overall flavor impression. The positive value found for the hybrid-midparent regression coefficient for volatile composition indicates that an important fraction of the variation observed is inheritable, which has important implications in breeding for improving aroma. Significant and positive correlations were found between OCVs having common precursors or related pathways.

  6. Characterization of Solanum tuberosum Multicystatin and the Significance of Core Domains[C

    PubMed Central

    Green, Abigail R.; Nissen, Mark S.; Kumar, G.N. Mohan; Knowles, N. Richard; Kang, ChulHee

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) multicystatin (PMC) is a unique cystatin composed of eight repeating units, each capable of inhibiting cysteine proteases. PMC is a composite of several cystatins linked by trypsin-sensitive (serine protease) domains and undergoes transitions between soluble and crystalline forms. However, the significance and the regulatory mechanism or mechanisms governing these transitions are not clearly established. Here, we report the 2.2-Å crystal structure of the trypsin-resistant PMC core consisting of the fifth, sixth, and seventh domains. The observed interdomain interaction explains PMC’s resistance to trypsin and pH-dependent solubility/aggregation. Under acidic pH, weakening of the interdomain interactions exposes individual domains, resulting in not only depolymerization of the crystalline form but also exposure of cystatin domains for inhibition of cysteine proteases. This in turn allows serine protease–mediated fragmentation of PMC, producing ∼10-kD domains with intact inhibitory capacity and faster diffusion, thus enhancing PMC’s inhibitory ability toward cysteine proteases. The crystal structure, light-scattering experiments, isothermal titration calorimetry, and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed the critical role of pH and N-terminal residues in these dynamic transitions between monomer/polymer of PMC. Our data support a notion that the pH-dependent structural regulation of PMC has defense-related implications in tuber physiology via its ability to regulate protein catabolism. PMID:24363310

  7. Purification and Partial Characterization of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Invertase and Its Endogenous Proteinaceous Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Whitaker, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Invertase plays an important role in the hydrolysis of sucrose in higher plants, especially in the storage organs. In potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers, and in some other plant tissues, the enzyme seems to be controlled by interaction with an endogenous proteinaceous inhibitor. An acid invertase from potato tubers (variety russet) was purified 1560-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity by consecutive use of concanvalin A-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography, Sephadex G-150 chromatography, and DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography. The enzyme contained 10.9% carbohydrate, had an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 by gel filtration, and was composed of two identical molecular weight subunits (Mr 30,000). The enzyme had a Km for sucrose of 16 millimolar at pH 4.70 and was most stable and had maximum activity around pH 5. The endogenous inhibitor was purified 610-fold to homogeneity by consecutive treatment at pH 1 to 1.5 at 37°C for 1 hour, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, Sephadex G-100 chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex G-50-120 chromatography, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The inhibitor appears to be a single polypeptide (Mr 17,000) without glyco groups. The purified inhibitor was stable over the pH range of 2 to 7 when incubated at 37°C for 1 hour. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667287

  8. Characterization of Solanum tuberosum Multicystatin and Its Structural comparison with Other Cystatins[OA

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Mark S.; Kumar, G.N. Mohan; Youn, Buhyun; Knowles, D. Benjamin; Lam, Ka Sum; Ballinger, W. Jordan; Knowles, N. Richard; Kang, ChulHee

    2009-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) multicystatin (PMC) is a crystalline Cys protease inhibitor present in the subphellogen layer of potato tubers. It consists of eight tandem domains of similar size and sequence. Our in vitro results showed that the pH/PO4−-dependent oligomeric behavior of PMC was due to its multidomain nature and was not a characteristic of the individual domains. Using a single domain of PMC, which still maintains inhibitor activity, we identified a target protein of PMC, a putative Cys protease. In addition, our crystal structure of a representative repeating unit of PMC, PMC-2, showed structural similarity to both type I and type II cystatins. The N-terminal trunk, α-helix, and L2 region of PMC-2 were most similar to those of type I cystatins, while the conformation of L1 more closely resembled that of type II cystatins. The structure of PMC-2 was most similar to the intensely sweet protein monellin from Dioscorephyllum cumminisii (serendipity berry), despite a low level of sequence similarity. We present a model for the possible molecular organization of the eight inhibitory domains in crystalline PMC. The unique molecular properties of the oligomeric PMC crystal are discussed in relation to its potential function in regulating the activity of proteases in potato tubers. PMID:19304935

  9. Antiurolithiatic Effects of Solanum xanthocarpum Fruit Extract on Ethylene-Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, PK; Patel, MA; Saralai, MG; Gandhi, TR

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract in ethylene-glycol-induced urolithiasis in the male Wistar rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in male Wistar rats by adding ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water for 28 days. Animals were divided into six groups, each containing six viz. Vehicle control, model control, S. xanthocarpum methanol extract in different doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o., Cystone (750 mg/kg, p.o.) served as a standard. Hyperoxaluria as well as an increase in the excretion of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and decrease in citrate and magnesium in urine, impairment of renal function and oxidative imbalance in kidney were observed in the calculi-induced group. Treatment with S. xanthocarpum decreases hyperoxaluria, calcium, and uric acid, improves renal function, and also produces antioxidant effects. Crystalluria was characterized by excretion calcium oxalate (CaOX) crystals, which were enormous in the lithogenic group but smaller in the drug-treated group. The histology showed that the calculi-induced group had a large deposition of CaOX crystals in kidney while the treated group had trivial and fewer deposits. The result indicates the antiurolithiatic activity of S. xanthocarpum mediated possibly by CaOX crystal inhibition, diuretic, antioxidant and maintaining balance between stone promoter and inhibitor constituents, and this study rationalized its medicinal use in urolithiasis. PMID:23112535

  10. Fruit composition diversity in land races and modern pepino (Solanum muricatum) varieties and wild related species.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Franscisco J; Raigón, María D; Vilanova, Santiago; García-Martínez, María D; Gramazio, Pietro; Plazas, Mariola; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-07-15

    Pepino (Solanum muricatum) fruits from 15 accessions of cultivated pepino as well as six accessions from wild relatives were evaluated for contents in dry matter, protein, β-carotene, chlorophylls and seven minerals. Several-fold differences among accessions were found for most traits. Average values obtained were similar to those of melon and cucumber, but the phenolic contents were much higher. Wild species had significantly higher average contents for all traits vs. the cultivated pepino accessions. And, the comparisons among the cultivated pepino varieties showed that the modern varieties were more uniform in composition, and they possessed significantly lower concentrations of protein, P, K, and Zn than local land races. Most of the significant correlations among composition traits were positive. Our studies show that regular consumption of pepino fruits could make a significant contribution to the recommended daily intake of P, K, Fe and Cu as well as to the average daily intake of phenolics. Furthermore, the higher values for most nutrients measured in the wild species and in the local land races indicate that new pepino varieties with improved fruit contents in nutrient and bioactive compounds can be developed. PMID:26948588

  11. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C K; Ghosh, C K

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we have reported a fast and eco-benign procedure to synthesis silver nanoparticle at room temperature using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion along with the study of its photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye. After addition of potato infusion to silver nitrate solution, the color of the mixture changed indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. Time dependent UV-Vis spectra were obtained to study the rate of nanoparticle formation with time. Purity and crystallinity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to detect functional bio-molecules responsible that contribute to the reduction and capping of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were used to investigate their ability to degrade methyl orange dye under sunlight irradiation and the results showed effective photocatalytic property of these biogenic silver nanoparticles. PMID:25819317

  12. Fruit composition diversity in land races and modern pepino (Solanum muricatum) varieties and wild related species.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Franscisco J; Raigón, María D; Vilanova, Santiago; García-Martínez, María D; Gramazio, Pietro; Plazas, Mariola; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-07-15

    Pepino (Solanum muricatum) fruits from 15 accessions of cultivated pepino as well as six accessions from wild relatives were evaluated for contents in dry matter, protein, β-carotene, chlorophylls and seven minerals. Several-fold differences among accessions were found for most traits. Average values obtained were similar to those of melon and cucumber, but the phenolic contents were much higher. Wild species had significantly higher average contents for all traits vs. the cultivated pepino accessions. And, the comparisons among the cultivated pepino varieties showed that the modern varieties were more uniform in composition, and they possessed significantly lower concentrations of protein, P, K, and Zn than local land races. Most of the significant correlations among composition traits were positive. Our studies show that regular consumption of pepino fruits could make a significant contribution to the recommended daily intake of P, K, Fe and Cu as well as to the average daily intake of phenolics. Furthermore, the higher values for most nutrients measured in the wild species and in the local land races indicate that new pepino varieties with improved fruit contents in nutrient and bioactive compounds can be developed.

  13. Effect of crude extract of Solanum xanthocarpum against snails and mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Changbunjong, Tanasak; Wongwit, Waranya; Leemingsawat, Somjai; Tongtokit, Yuwadee; Deesin, Vanida

    2010-03-01

    The ethanolic crude extract from Solanum xanthocarpum was investigated for its molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, and Indoplanorbis exustus, the snail vector of intestinal echinostomiasis and Schistosoma spindale, together with the larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti, mosquito vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of urban bancroftian filariasis. The bioassays were carried out following the methods recommended by the World Health Organization. For molluscicidal activity, the LC50 against Bi. glabrata and I. exustus were reported at 163.85 and 198.00 mg/l while the LC90 were 219.33 and 236.80 mg/l, respectively. Regarding mosquito larvicidal activity, the LC50 against the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 788.10 and 573.20 mg/l, while the LC90 were 1288.91 and 1066.93 mg/l, respectively. These results suggest a preparation of ingredients from this plant may be used as a biological larvicide for these vectors in the field.

  14. Gene expression analysis of metallothionein and mineral elements uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Kısa, Dursun; Öztürk, Lokman; Tekin, Şaban

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals such as Cd are considered to be the most important pollutants in soil contamination. Cd is a non-essential element adversely affecting plant growth and development, and it has caused some physiological and molecular changes. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, and metal binding proteins. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the MT gene expression levels and minerals uptake in the tissues of Solanum lycopersicum exposed to Cd. The transcriptional expression of the MT genes was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The MT genes were regulated by the Cd and the mineral elements uptake changed tissue type and applied doses. The MT1 and MT2 transcript levels increased in the roots, the leaves and the fruits of the tomato. The MT3 and MT4 transcript pattern changed according to the tissue types. The Cd treatment on the growth medium increased the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and fruits of the tomato. However, the Cd affected the mineral levels in the roots depending on the mineral types and doses. Also, the Cd content increased in the roots, the leaves, and the fruits of the tomato, respectively. The results presented in this study show that Cd has synergistic and/or antagonistic effects on minerals depending on the tissue types. These results indicate that the MT1 and MT2 expression pattern increased together with the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and the fruits of the tomato. PMID:27363704

  15. The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium accumulation of two ecotypes of Solanum photeinocarpum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Lin, Lijin; Luo, Li; Liao, Ming'an; Lv, Xiulan; Wang, Zhihui; Liang, Dong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Xun; Lai, Yunsong; Tang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The study of the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium (Cd) accumulation of two ecotypes (mining and farmland) of Solanum photeinocarpum was operated through a pot experiment. The results showed that the biomass and chlorophyll content of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum increased with increasing ABA concentration. Applying exogenous ABA increased Cd content in the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum. The maximum Cd contents in shoots of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum were obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA; shoot Cd contents respectively for the mining and farmland ecotypes were 33.92 and 24.71% higher than those for the control. Applying exogenous ABA also increased Cd extraction by the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum, and the highest Cd extraction was obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA with 569.42 μg/plant in shoots of the mining ecotype and 520.51 μg/plant in shoots of the farmland ecotype respectively. Therefore, exogenous ABA can be used for enhancing the Cd extraction ability of S. photeinocarpum, and 20 μmol/L ABA was the optimal dose. PMID:26899030

  16. Enhancement of antidandruff activity of shampoo by biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Solanum trilobatum plant leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Gaurav; Nayak, Nitesh; Gyana Prasuna, R.

    2013-10-01

    The present investigation describes simple and effective method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles via green route. Solanum trilobatum Linn extract were prepared by both conventional and homogenization method. We optimized the production of silver nanoparticles under sunlight, microwave and room temperature. The best results were obtained with sunlight irradiation, exhibiting 15-20 nm silver nanoparticles having cubic and hexagonal shape. Biosynthesized nanoparticles were highly toxic to various bacterial strains tested. In this study we report antibacterial activity against various Gram negative ( Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella typhi) and Gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus) bacterial strains. Screening was also performed for any antifungal properties of the nanoparticles against human pathogenic fungal strains ( Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis). We also demonstrated that these nanoparticles when mixed with shampoo enhance the anti-dandruff effect against dandruff causing fungal pathogens ( Pityrosporum ovale and Pityrosporum folliculitis). The present study showed a simple, rapid and economical route to synthesize silver nanoparticles and their applications hence has a great potential in biomedical field.

  17. North-South Colonization Associated with Local Adaptation of the Wild Tomato Species Solanum chilense.

    PubMed

    Böndel, Katharina B; Lainer, Hilde; Nosenko, Tetyana; Mboup, Mamadou; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    After colonization population sizes may vary across the species range depending on environmental conditions and following colonizations. An interesting question is whether local adaptation occurs more frequently in large ancestral populations or in small derived populations. A higher number of new mutations and a lower effect of genetic drift should favor selection in large populations, whereas small derived populations may require an initial local adaptation event to facilitate the colonization of new habitats. Wild tomatoes are native to a broad range of different habitats characterized by variable abiotic conditions in South America, and represent an ideal system to study this interplay between demography and natural selection. Population genetic analyses and statistical inference of past demography were conducted on pooled-sequencing data from 30 genes (8,080 single nucleotide polymorphisms) from an extensive sampling of 23 Solanum chilense populations over Chile and Peru. We reveal first a north-south colonization associated with relaxed purifying selection in the south as shown by a decrease of genetic variation and an increasing proportion of nonsynonymous polymorphism from north to south, and population substructure with at least four genetic groups. Second, we uncover a dual picture of adaptation consisting of 1) a decreasing proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions from north to south suggesting that adaptation is favored in large populations, whereas 2) signatures of local adaptation predominantly occur in the smaller populations from the marginal ranges in the south.

  18. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C K; Ghosh, C K

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we have reported a fast and eco-benign procedure to synthesis silver nanoparticle at room temperature using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion along with the study of its photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye. After addition of potato infusion to silver nitrate solution, the color of the mixture changed indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. Time dependent UV-Vis spectra were obtained to study the rate of nanoparticle formation with time. Purity and crystallinity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to detect functional bio-molecules responsible that contribute to the reduction and capping of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were used to investigate their ability to degrade methyl orange dye under sunlight irradiation and the results showed effective photocatalytic property of these biogenic silver nanoparticles.

  19. Stimulatory Effects of Polysaccharide Fraction from Solanum nigrum on RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Razali, Faizan Naeem; Ismail, Amirah; Abidin, Nurhayati Zainal; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza

    2014-01-01

    The polysaccharide fraction from Solanum nigrum Linne has been shown to have antitumor activity by enhancing the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of the T-lymphocyte subpopulation. In this study, we analyzed a polysaccharide extract of S. nigrum to determine its modulating effects on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells since macrophages play a key role in inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses. Crude polysaccharide was extracted from the stem of S. nigrum and subjected to ion-exchange chromatography to partially purify the extract. Five polysaccharide fractions were then subjected to a cytotoxicity assay and a nitric oxide production assay. To further analyze the ability of the fractionated polysaccharide extract to activate macrophages, the phagocytosis activity and cytokine production were also measured. The polysaccharide fractions were not cytotoxic, but all of the fractions induced nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the five fractions tested, SN-ppF3 was the least toxic and also induced the greatest amount of nitric oxide, which was comparable to the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression detected in the cell lysate. This fraction also significantly induced phagocytosis activity and stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Our study showed that fraction SN-ppF3 could classically activate macrophages. Macrophage induction may be the manner in which polysaccharides from S. nigrum are able to prevent tumor growth. PMID:25299340

  20. Solanum nigrum Linn. water extract inhibits metastasis in mouse melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsueh-Chun; Wu, Dun-Hao; Chang, Yun-Ching; Li, Yi-Ju; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2010-11-24

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer notoriously resistant to current cancer therapies. Thus, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Solanum nigrum Linn., commonly used in Oriental medicine, has showed antineoplastic activity in human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitive effect of S. nigrum Linn. water extract (SNWE) on melanoma metastasis and dissect the underlying mechanisms of SNWE actions. B16-F1 cells were analyzed for migrating and invasive abilities with SNWE treatment, and several putative targets involved in metastatic melanoma were examined. In parallel, primary mouse xenograft and lung metastasis of melanoma models were established to examine the therapeutic potential of SNWE. The results indicated SNWE significantly inhibited B16-F1 cell migration and invasion. Meanwhile, decreased Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions were detected in dose-dependent manners. In line with this notion, >50% reduced tumor weight and lung metastatic nodules were observed in 1% SNWE fed mice. This was associated with reduced serum MMP-9 as well as Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions. Thus, this work indicates SNWE has potential application for treating metastatic melanoma. PMID:21028816

  1. Genetic variation in potato virus M isolates infecting pepino (Solanum muricatum) in China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beibei; He, Zhen; Zhang, Zhixiang; Wang, Hongqing; Li, Shifang

    2014-12-01

    Potato virus M (PVM, genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexviridae) is considered to be one of most economically important pathogens of pepino in China. However, the details and the mechanisms underlying PVM evolution are unknown. In this study, we determined and analyzed 40 TGB 1 gene sequences, 67 TGB 2 and TGB 3 gene sequences, and 88 CP and NABP gene sequences from viruses isolated from 19 samples of pepino (Solanum muricatum) and one sample of tomato (S. lycopersicum) collected from different areas of China. Recombination analysis identified only one clear recombinant in the TGB2-TGB3-CP region, but no recombinants were detected for each of the five individual genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all PVM isolates could be divided into at least two lineages in trees derived from the TGB 2, CP, and NABP gene sequences, and the lineages seemed to reflect geographical origin. The five PVM genes in this study were found to be under strong negative selection pressure. The PVM isolates examined showed frequent gene flow between the Chinese and European populations, and also within the Chinese population. Clear star phylogenies and the neutral equilibrium model test showed that pepino isolates of PVM appear to be experiencing a new expansion after a recent introduction into China, and these isolates display low levels of genetic diversity. To our knowledge, this study is the first report describing genetic structure, recombination, and gene flow in PVM populations, and it provides strong evolutionary evidence for the virus populations from different geographic regions of China. PMID:25233939

  2. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of Solanum tuberosum L. var. Vitelotte.

    PubMed

    Bontempo, Paola; Carafa, Vincenzo; Grassi, Roberto; Basile, Adriana; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Altucci, Lucia

    2013-05-01

    Solanum tuberosum L. var. Vitelotte is a potato variety widely used for human consumption. The pigments responsible for its attractive color belong to the class of anthocyanins. The objectives of this study were to characterize and measure the concentration of anthocyanins in pigmented potatoes and to evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and their anti-proliferative effects in solid and hematological cancer cell lines. Anthocyanins exert anti-bacterial activity against different bacterial strains and a slight activity against three fungal strains. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Rhyzoctonia solani were the most affected microorganisms. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP methods; the extract showed a higher reducing capability than anti-radical activity. Moreover, we found that in different cancer cell models the anthocyanins cause inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. These biological activities are likely due to the high content of malvidin 3-O-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-O-glucoside and petunidin 3-O-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-O-glucoside. PMID:23313609

  3. Temperature-induced fluorescence changes : a screening method for frost tolerance of potato (solanum sp.).

    PubMed

    Sundbom, E; Strand, M; Hällgren, J E

    1982-11-01

    Field-grown tuber-bearing potatoes were screened for frost tolerance in a late stage of development. Three different clones of Solanum tuberosum L. and two interspecific crosses between clones of S. tuberosum and the wild potato species S. demissum Lindl. were studied. Two different methods were used. (a) Temperature-induced fluorescence changes of intact leaves were measured in freeze-thaw cycles between 20 degrees C and -10 degrees C. The variable fluorescence pattern was characterized in relation to frost tolerance. (b) Controlled freezings of plants in a climate chamber with successively increased low temperature stress, of 1 to 2 hours duration during the dark period. Freezing damages were classified visually.The short-term frost during the fluorescence measurement was compared with the long-term frost treatments in the climate chamber. The results of the two were identical to ranking of the different clones for frost tolerance. The temperature-induced fluorescence changes also monitored progressive damages to the chloroplast membranes when plants were exposed to successively lower temperatures in a controlled climate chamber freezing test. It was deduced from the fluorescence measurements that the freezing injury of potato occurs on the water splitting side of photosystem II. PMID:16662670

  4. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area. PMID:26902649

  5. Zinc Accumulation and Tolerance in Solanum nigrum are Plant Growth Dependent.

    PubMed

    Samardjieva, Kalina A; Gonçalves, Rui F; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Pissarra, José; Pereira, Susana; Tavares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Zinc tolerance, accumulation, and organic acid production by Solanum nigrum, a known Zn accumulator, was studied during pre- and post-flowering stages of development. The plants, when challenged with Zn concentrations lethal to plantlets, showed an increase in tolerance from pre-flowering to post-flowering, which was accompanied by a reduction of Zn translocation to the aerial plant parts. Treatment with Zn induced a differential response in organic acids according to the plant organ and developmental stage. In the roots, where Zn concentrations were similar in pre- and post-flowering plants, a general decrease in organic acid in pre-flowering roots contrasted with the increase observed in post-flowering plants. In the stems, Zn induced a generalized increase in organic acids at both growth stages while in the leaves, a slight increase in malic and shikimic was observed in pre-flowering plants and only shikimic acid levels were significantly increased in post-flowering plants. This work shows that Zn accumulation and tolerance in S. nigrum vary during plant development--an observation that may be important to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation approaches. Furthermore, the data suggest the involvement of specific organic acids in this response.

  6. Solanum clarum and S. morelliforme as Novel Model Species for Studies of Epiphytism.

    PubMed

    Jansky, Shelley H; Roble, Jacob; Spooner, David M

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of epiphytic plant species has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the physiology and genetics of epiphytism. This is due to difficulties associated with growing epiphytic plants and the lack of tools for genomics studies and genetic manipulations. In this study, tubers were generated from 223 accessions of 42 wild potato Solanum species, including the epiphytic species S. morelliforme and its sister species S. clarum. Lyophilized samples were analyzed for 12 minerals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Mineral levels in tubers of S. morelliforme and S. clarum were among the highest for 10 out of the 12 elements evaluated. These two wild potato relatives are native to southern Mexico and Central America and live as epiphytes or in epiphytic-like conditions. We propose the use of S. morelliforme and S. clarum as model organisms for the study of mineral uptake efficiency. They have a short life cycle, can be propagated vegetatively via tubers or cuttings, and can be easily grown in controlled environments. In addition, genome sequence data are available for potato. Transgenic manipulations and somatic fusions will allow the movement of genes from these epiphytes to cultivated potato. PMID:26973674

  7. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ivanesa G M; Silva, Edvane B; Amaral, Ademir J; Machado, Erilane C L; Silva, Josenilda M

    2016-06-01

    This work evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the potato cultivar Ágata (Solanum tuberosum L.), including budding and deterioration, with the end goal of increasing shelf life. For this, four groups of samples were harvested at the maturation stage. Three of them were separately exposed to a Co-60 source, receiving respective doses of 0.10, 0.15 and 2.00 kGy, while the non-irradiated group was kept as a control. All samples were stored for 35 days at 24 °C (± 2) and at 39% relative humidity. The following aspects were evaluated: budding, rot, loss of weight, texture, flesh color, moisture, external and internal appearance, aroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, protein, starch and glucose. The results indicated that 0.15 kGy was the most effective dose to reduce sprouting and post-harvest losses, under the conditions studied.

  8. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) effect on the growth of Solanum lycopersicum cv. Roma plants.

    PubMed

    Daresta, Barbara Elisabetta; Italiano, Francesca; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Trotta, Massimo; Tutino, Maria; Veronico, Pasqua

    2015-01-01

    This study shows the direct effect of atmospheric particulate matter on plant growth. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants were grown for 18d directly on PM10 collected on quartz fiber filters. Organic and elemental carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents were analyzed on all the tested filters. The toxicity indicators (i.e., seed germination, root elongation, shoot and/or fresh root weight, chlorophyll and carotenoids content) were quantified to study the negative and/or positive effects in the plants via root uptake. Substantial differences were found in the growth of the root apparatus with respect to that of the control plants. A 17-58% decrease of primary root elongation, a large amount of secondary roots and a decrease in shoot (32%) and root (53-70%) weights were found. Quantitative analysis of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated that an oxidative burst in response to abiotic stress occurred in roots directly grown on PM10, and this detrimental effect was also confirmed by the findings on the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll-to-carotenoid ratio.

  9. Platelets and atherogenesis: Platelet anti-aggregation activity and endothelial protection from tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    PALOMO, IVÁN; FUENTES, EDUARDO; PADRÓ, TERESA; BADIMON, LINA

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that platelets are not only involved in the arterial thrombotic process, but also that they play an active role in the inflammatory process of atherogenesis from the beginning. The interaction between platelets and endothelial cells occurs in two manners: activated platelets unite with intact endothelial cells, or platelets in resting adhere to activated endothelium. In this context, inhibition of the platelet function (adhesion/aggregation) could contribute to the prevention of atherothrombosis, the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity. This can be achieved with antiplatelet agents. However, at the public health level, the level of primary prevention, a healthy diet has also been shown to exert beneficial effects. Among those elements of a healthy diet, the consumption of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) stands out for its effect on platelet anti-aggregation activity and endothelial protection, which may be beneficial for cardiovascular health. This article briefly discusses the involvement of platelets in atherogenesis and the possible mechanisms of action provided by tomatoes for platelet anti-aggregation activity and endothelial protection. PMID:22969932

  10. Solanum clarum and S. morelliforme as Novel Model Species for Studies of Epiphytism

    PubMed Central

    Jansky, Shelley H.; Roble, Jacob; Spooner, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of epiphytic plant species has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the physiology and genetics of epiphytism. This is due to difficulties associated with growing epiphytic plants and the lack of tools for genomics studies and genetic manipulations. In this study, tubers were generated from 223 accessions of 42 wild potato Solanum species, including the epiphytic species S. morelliforme and its sister species S. clarum. Lyophilized samples were analyzed for 12 minerals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Mineral levels in tubers of S. morelliforme and S. clarum were among the highest for 10 out of the 12 elements evaluated. These two wild potato relatives are native to southern Mexico and Central America and live as epiphytes or in epiphytic-like conditions. We propose the use of S. morelliforme and S. clarum as model organisms for the study of mineral uptake efficiency. They have a short life cycle, can be propagated vegetatively via tubers or cuttings, and can be easily grown in controlled environments. In addition, genome sequence data are available for potato. Transgenic manipulations and somatic fusions will allow the movement of genes from these epiphytes to cultivated potato. PMID:26973674

  11. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-02-23

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

  12. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

    PubMed

    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health. PMID:25522521

  13. Modulation of chlorogenic acid biosynthesis in Solanum lycopersicum; consequences for phenolic accumulation and UV-tolerance.

    PubMed

    Clé, Carla; Hill, Lionel M; Niggeweg, Ricarda; Martin, Cathie R; Guisez, Yves; Prinsen, Els; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2008-08-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant phenolic compounds in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Hydroxycinnamoyl CoA quinate transferase (HQT) is the key enzyme catalysing CGA biosynthesis in tomato. We have studied the relationship between phenolic accumulation and UV-susceptibility in transgenic tomato plants with altered HQT expression. Overall, increased CGA accumulation was associated with increased UV-protection. However, the genetic manipulation of HQT expression also resulted in more complex alterations in the profiles of phenolics. Levels of rutin were relatively high in both HQT gene-silenced and HQT-overexpressing plants raised in plant growth tunnels. This suggests plasticity in the flux along different branches of phenylpropanoid metabolism and the existence of regulatory mechanisms that direct the flow of phenolic precursors in response to both metabolic parameters and environmental conditions. These changes in composition of the phenolic pool affected the relative levels of UV-tolerance. We conclude that the capability of the phenolic compounds to protect against potentially harmful UV radiation is determined both by the total levels of phenolics that accumulate in leaves as well as by the specific composition of the phenolic profile.

  14. In-vitro antiviral activity of Solanum nigrum against Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C is a major health problem causes liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. The current treatment of standard interferon in combination with ribavirin, has limited benefits due to emergence of resistant mutations during long-term treatment, adverse side effects and high cost. Hence, there is a need for the development of more effective, less toxic antiviral agents. Results The present study was designed to search anti-HCV plants from different areas of Pakistan. Ten medicinal plants were collected and tested for anti-HCV activity by infecting the liver cells with HCV 3a innoculum. Methanol and chloroform extracts of Solanum nigrum (SN) seeds exhibited 37% and more than 50% inhibition of HCV respectively at non toxic concentration. Moreover, antiviral effect of SN seeds extract was also analyzed against HCV NS3 protease by transfecting HCV NS3 protease plasmid into liver cells. The results demonstrated that chloroform extract of SN decreased the expression or function of HCV NS3 protease in a dose- dependent manner and GAPDH remained constant. Conclusion These results suggest that SN extract contains potential antiviral agents against HCV and combination of SN extract with interferon will be better option to treat chronic HCV. PMID:21247464

  15. Effects of grafting on the cadmium accumulation characteristics of the potential Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum photeinocarpum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lijin; Yang, Daiyu; Wang, Xun; Liao, Ming'an; Wang, Zhihui; Lv, Xiulan; Tang, Fuyi; Liang, Dong; Xia, Hui; Lai, Yunsong; Tang, Yi

    2016-02-01

    The effects of grafting on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation characteristics of the potential Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum photeinocarpum were studied under Cd stress in our experiment. Four treatments were used in the experiment: ungrafted (UG), self-rooted grafting by the same S. photeinocarpum seedling (SG), self-rooted grafting by two different development stages of S. photeinocarpum seedlings (DG), and grafting on the rootstock of wild potato (PG). SG and DG decreased the root, scion stem, leaf, whole shoot, and whole plant biomasses compared with UG, but increased the rootstock stem biomass, while only PG increased the root and whole plant biomasses. SG and DG increased the Cd contents in the different organs of S. photeinocarpum compared with UG, while PG decreased the Cd content compared with UG. The Cd extraction by the whole plant of S. photeinocarpum was ranked as DG > SG > UG > PG. Additionally, the antioxidant enzyme activities in SG and DG were enhanced compared with UG, while that of PG was reduced compared with UG. The grafting increased the DNA methylation levels and changed the methylation patterns of S. photeinocarpum compared with UG. Therefore, SG and DG can increase the Cd accumulation in S. photeinocarpum, which can be used for the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:26739012

  16. Plant nutritional status modulates glutamine synthetase levels in ripe tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom).

    PubMed

    Scarpeci, Telma E; Marro, Martin L; Bortolotti, Santiago; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

    2007-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening implies that chloroplastic proteins are degraded and new proteins are synthesized. Supplementary nutrition is frequently required when tomato plants begin to fruit and continues until the end of the plant's life cycle. Ammonium assimilation is crucial in these fruit maturation and ripening processes. Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), the main ammonium-fixing enzyme in plants, could not be detected in red fruits of several tomato varieties when growing under standard nutrition. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nutritional status on the ammonium assimilation capacity of ripe tomato (cv. Micro-Tom) fruit. For this purpose, GS expression and protein profiles were followed in mature green and red fruits harvested from plants grown under standard or supplemented nutrition. Under standard nutrient regime (weekly supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution) GS activity was found in chloroplasts (GS2) of mature green fruits, but it was not detected either in the chromoplasts or in the cytosol of red fruits. When plants were shifted to a supplemented nutritional regime (daily supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution), GS was found in red fruits. Also, cytosolic transcripts (gs1) preferentially accumulated in red fruits under high nutrition. These results indicate that mature green Micro-Tom fruits assimilate ammonia through GS2 under standard nutrition, while ripe red fruits accumulate GS1 under high nutrition, probably in order to assimilate the extra N-compounds made available through supplemented nutrition.

  17. Recurrent modification of floral morphology in heterantherous Solanum reveals a parallel shift in reproductive strategy.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Walker, Catriona; Friston-Reilly, Philip; Solís-Montero, Lislie; Igic, Boris

    2014-08-19

    Floral morphology determines the pattern of pollen transfer within and between individuals. In hermaphroditic species, the spatial arrangement of sexual organs influences the rate of self-pollination as well as the placement of pollen in different areas of the pollinator's body. Studying the evolutionary modification of floral morphology in closely related species offers an opportunity to investigate the causes and consequences of floral variation. Here, we investigate the recurrent modification of flower morphology in three closely related pairs of taxa in Solanum section Androceras (Solanaceae), a group characterized by the presence of two morphologically distinct types of anthers in the same flower (heteranthery). We use morphometric analyses of plants grown in a common garden to characterize and compare the changes in floral morphology observed in parallel evolutionary transitions from relatively larger to smaller flowers. Our results indicate that the transition to smaller flowers is associated with a reduction in the spatial separation of anthers and stigma, changes in the allometric relationships among floral traits, shifts in pollen allocation to the two anther morphs and reduced pollen : ovule ratios. We suggest that floral modification in this group reflects parallel evolution towards increased self-fertilization and discuss potential selective scenarios that may favour this recurrent shift in floral morphology and function.

  18. Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae): comments on.

    PubMed

    Samuels, John

    2013-04-01

    In the recent paper by Meyer et al. (2012) some of the taxonomic assumptions relating to the closest wild relatives of Solanum melongena L., the brinjal eggplant, are unsupported. This group is well-known for its taxonomic difficulties, therefore a consistent approach to the identification, nomenclature and species concepts of experimental plant material is essential to the fullest interpretation of the results of a genomic study such as theirs. Effectively, Meyer et al., treat several of the brinjal wild relatives in their study as being conspecific. Neither their nrITS nor AFLP analysis gives confirmation of this. On this basis, the correct name for the taxon known as S. melongena group F is S. cumingii Dunal. This species is distinct from S. incanum L., which is found only as far eastwards as northern India. S. incanum and S. insanum sensu Lester and Hasan are distinct taxa. Meyer et al. hypothesise that there were two separate domestication events for brinjal; re-examination of their data suggests that there was a single domestication event, that took place in India.

  19. Profiling and characterization of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) microRNAs and their targets.

    PubMed

    Din, Muhammad; Barozai, Muhammad Younas Khan

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-protein coding and functional RNAs. They play negative regulatory role in gene regulation. They are endogenous in nature and are ~21 nucleotides in length. They are reported in many plant species, but still missing and need to be identified in other important plants like; eggplant. The comparative genomic methodology due to their conserved nature is a reasonable approach for the novel miRNAs discovery. In this research, total 76 novel miRNAs from 67 families were identified in the important vegetable eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). All precursor miRNAs form stable minimum free energy secondary structures and the mature miRNAs reside in the stem regions. Furthermore, eight miRNAs were randomly selected and experimentally validated through RT-PCR. A total of 345 putative targets were also identified for the novel 76 eggplant miRNAs. Their targets are involved in regulation, metabolism, transcription factors, growth and development and other physiological processes. These findings provide a baseline to unravel the miRNAs role in eggplant and utilize them for the improvement of the plant biology.

  20. Potential use of Solanum melongena in agricultural areas with high mercury background concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M J; Millán, R; Esteban, E

    2008-06-01

    Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) is a native culture from India, found throughout the world, and is one of the most popular vegetables in the Mediterranean area. This work evaluates the potential use of eggplant as an economic alternative in an area with high mercury background concentrations. This implies the study of several factors such as the mercury absorption capacity of eggplant and the capacity of the soil for agricultural use. The research work has been carried out using soil from the mercury mining district of Almadén (Spain), where total mercury concentration was on average 14.16+/-0.65mgkg(-1). In this area, eggplant is a typical crop that is widely used for human consumption. The experimental work was performed in pots under greenhouse conditions. Three samplings were performed during the entire cultivation cycle. Mercury concentration was determined in the different plant organs, where the highest concentration was located in the root system. The results obtained show that the consumption of eggplant, growing under these controlled conditions, does not suppose a risk for human health according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization.

  1. Development of SSR markers derived from SSR-enriched genomic library of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Nunome, Tsukasa; Negoro, Satomi; Kono, Izumi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Miyatake, Koji; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Ohyama, Akio; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2009-10-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), also known as aubergine or brinjal, is an important vegetable in many countries. Few useful molecular markers have been reported for eggplant. We constructed simple sequence repeat (SSR)-enriched genomic libraries in order to develop SSR markers, and sequenced more than 14,000 clones. From these sequences, we designed 2,265 primer pairs to flank SSR motifs. We identified 1,054 SSR markers from amplification of 1,399 randomly selected primer pairs. The markers have an average polymorphic information content of 0.27 among eight lines of S. melongena. Of the 1,054 SSR markers, 214 segregated in an intraspecific mapping population. We constructed cDNA libraries from several eggplant tissues and obtained 6,144 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. From these sequences, we designed 209 primer pairs, 7 of which segregated in the mapping population. On the basis of the segregation data, we constructed a linkage map, and mapped the 236 segregating markers to 14 linkage groups. The linkage map spans a total length of 959.1 cM, with an average marker distance of 4.3 cM. The markers should be a useful resource for qualitative and quantitative trait mapping and for marker-assisted selection in eggplant breeding.

  2. [Bioinformatic prediction of conserved microRNAs and their target genes in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Chao, Jiang-Tao; Cui, Meng-Meng; Chen, Ya-Qiong; Zong, Peng; Sun, Yu-He

    2011-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a recently discovered class of small (-21nt), non-coding, endogenous, single-stranded RNAs in eukaryotes, regulate gene expression negatively at the post-transcriptional levels depending on the extent of complementation between miRNA and mRNA. To date, a large number of miRNAs have been reported in many species, but none for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). In this paper, a computational homology search approach based on the conservation of miRNA sequences and the stem-loop hairpin secondary structures of miRNAs was adopted. The search was started with the known plant miRNAs compared to eggplant expressed sequence tags (EST) databases to find potential miRNAs. Following a range of filtering criteria, a total of 16 potential miRNAs belonging to 12 families were identified. Three pairs of sense and antisense strand eggplant miRNAs belonging to three different miRNA families were also found. Furthermore, miR390 and miR399 sense/antisense pairs are identified for the first time in plants. Using online software psRNATarget, we further predicted the target genes of these 16 miRNAs and got 71 potential targets genes on base of 15 eggplant miRNAs. Most of these target genes were predicted to encode proteins that play key role in eggplant growth, development, metabolism, and stress responses.

  3. Anthocyanin accumulation and molecular analysis of anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli; Chu, Guihua; Huang, Cheng; Tian, Shibing; Zhao, Zhiping; Chen, Guoping

    2014-04-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an edible fruit vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide. The purple eggplant is more eye-catching and popular for the health-promoting anthocyanins contained in the fruit skin. Two kinds of anthocyanin were separated and identified from purple cultivar (Zi Chang) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in eggplant, the transcripts of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in the fruit skin and the flesh of the purple cultivar and the white cultivar (Bai Xue). Compared with the other tissues, SmMYB1 and all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes except PAL were dramatically upregulated in the fruit skin of the purple cultivar. Overexpression of SmMYB1 activated abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the regenerating shoots of eggplant. These results prove that transcriptional activation of SmMYB1 accounts for constitutive upregulation of most anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the onset of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar.

  4. Nonomuraea solani sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from eggplant root (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Jidong; Shen, Yue; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Chao; Xiang, Wensheng

    2013-07-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Z6(T), was isolated from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) root. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain NEAU-Z6(T) belonged to the genus Nonomuraea, with highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea monospora PT 708(T) (98.83 %), Nonomuraea rosea GW 12687(T) (98.55 %) and Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM 67092(T) (98.02 %). Sequence similarities between strain NEAU-Z6(T) and other species of the genus Nonomuraea ranged from 97.94 % (Nonomuraea candida HMC10(T)) to 96.30 % (Nonomuraea wenchangensis 210417(T)). Key morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain NEAU-Z6(T) were congruent with the description of the genus Nonomuraea. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.51 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness and comparative analysis of physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain NEAU-Z6(T) from closely related species. Thus, strain NEAU-Z6(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea solani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Z6(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7037(T) = DSM 45729(T)).

  5. Short-Term Water Deficit Changes Cuticular Sterol Profile in the Eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Haliński, Łukasz P; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Crop irrigation uses a majority of a total world water supply, at the same time displaying low efficiency. As the expected, future water requirements are higher than the current ones; there is a risk of a growing deficit of water for the agricultural use. Hence, there is an arising need for better understanding the effects of water deprivation on the crop plants. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a vegetable crop cultivated in arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Because of its high water demands, the eggplant is a convenient model organism for studies concerning the effects of water deficit on the plant growth. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of short-term water deficit on eggplant leaf cuticular waxes and total sterols. Water deprivation did not affect the amount and composition of aliphatic components of cuticular waxes. Significant decrease in the total cuticular sterols and the increase in cuticular cholesterol were observed as an effect of water deficit. In contrast, some of the free internal sterols were more abundant in water-deprived plants. The possible importance of these observations, including increased biosynthesis of defensive compounds and the need to maintain the cell membrane stability, was discussed.

  6. Metal translocation patterns in Solanum melongena grown in close proximity to traffic.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Zereini, Fathi; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine tissue patterns of metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in Solanum melongena cultivated in close proximity to traffic to help elucidate associated elemental deposition and soil-to-root and root-to-shoot transfers. Plants were cultivated in a commercial soil mix at three sites in Toronto, Canada. Metal concentrations were determined on microwave-digested bulk and rhizosphere soil and tissue samples per ICP-MS, along with two standard reference materials (NIST #1570a and #2709a). Unwashed and washed S. melongena samples were also analyzed, along with Origanum vulgare plants from the same sites, to assess the effectiveness of washing in reducing metal concentrations. The tissue distribution of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb demonstrated variability as a function of traffic proximity. Copper was found to easily translocate to roots in soils susceptible to waterlogging, while Cd had the highest soil-to-root and root-to-shoot translocation. The translocation of Cd was highest at the roadside site, due to a greater relative enrichment of this metal in the rhizosphere of S. melongena plants. Washing O. vulgare leaves was more effective in removing metal-associated particles compared to S. melongena samples. Cadmium uptake is of greatest concern given its toxicity and translocation potential.

  7. Identification and characterization of a novel plastidic adenine nucleotide uniporter from Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Leroch, Michaela; Kirchberger, Simon; Haferkamp, Ilka; Wahl, Markus; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Tjaden, Joachim

    2005-05-01

    Homologs of BT1 (the Brittle1 protein) are found to be phylogenetically related to the mitochondrial carrier family and appear to occur in both mono- and dicotyledonous plants. Whereas BT1 from cereals is probably involved in the transport of ADP-glucose, which is essential for starch metabolism in endosperm plastids, BT1 from a noncereal plant, Solanum tuberosum (StBT1), catalyzes an adenine nucleotide uniport when functionally integrated into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Import studies into intact Escherichia coli cells harboring StBT1 revealed a narrow substrate spectrum with similar affinities for AMP, ADP, and ATP of about 300-400 mum. Transiently expressed StBT1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein in tobacco leaf protoplasts showed a plastidic localization of the StBT1. In vitro synthesized radioactively labeled StBT1 was targeted to the envelope membranes of isolated spinach chloroplasts. Furthermore, we showed by real time reverse transcription-PCR a ubiquitous expression pattern of the StBT1 in autotrophic and heterotrophic potato tissues. We therefore propose that StBT1 is a plastidic adenine nucleotide uniporter used to provide the cytosol and other compartments with adenine nucleotides exclusively synthesized inside plastids.

  8. Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

    2012-07-01

    The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

  9. The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium accumulation of two ecotypes of Solanum photeinocarpum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Lin, Lijin; Luo, Li; Liao, Ming'an; Lv, Xiulan; Wang, Zhihui; Liang, Dong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Xun; Lai, Yunsong; Tang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The study of the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium (Cd) accumulation of two ecotypes (mining and farmland) of Solanum photeinocarpum was operated through a pot experiment. The results showed that the biomass and chlorophyll content of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum increased with increasing ABA concentration. Applying exogenous ABA increased Cd content in the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum. The maximum Cd contents in shoots of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum were obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA; shoot Cd contents respectively for the mining and farmland ecotypes were 33.92 and 24.71% higher than those for the control. Applying exogenous ABA also increased Cd extraction by the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum, and the highest Cd extraction was obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA with 569.42 μg/plant in shoots of the mining ecotype and 520.51 μg/plant in shoots of the farmland ecotype respectively. Therefore, exogenous ABA can be used for enhancing the Cd extraction ability of S. photeinocarpum, and 20 μmol/L ABA was the optimal dose.

  10. Drought and flooding have distinct effects on herbivore-induced responses and resistance in Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Tytgat, Tom O G; Sun, Pulu; Lortzing, Tobias; Visser, Eric J W; Cristescu, Simona M; Steppuhn, Anke; Mariani, Celestina; van Dam, Nicole M; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    In the field, biotic and abiotic stresses frequently co-occur. As a consequence, common molecular signalling pathways governing adaptive responses to individual stresses can interact, resulting in compromised phenotypes. How plant signalling pathways interact under combined stresses is poorly understood. To assess this, we studied the consequence of drought and soil flooding on resistance of Solanum dulcamara to Spodoptera exigua and their effects on hormonal and transcriptomic profiles. The results showed that S. exigua larvae performed less well on drought-stressed plants than on well-watered and flooded plants. Both drought and insect feeding increased abscisic acid and jasmonic acid (JA) levels, whereas flooding did not induce JA accumulation. RNA sequencing analyses corroborated this pattern: drought and herbivory induced many biological processes that were repressed by flooding. When applied in combination, drought and herbivory had an additive effect on specific processes involved in secondary metabolism and defence responses, including protease inhibitor activity. In conclusion, drought and flooding have distinct effects on herbivore-induced responses and resistance. Especially, the interaction between abscisic acid and JA signalling may be important to optimize plant responses to combined drought and insect herbivory, making drought-stressed plants more resistant to insects than well-watered and flooded plants.

  11. Shade affects responses to drought and flooding - acclimation to multiple stresses in bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L.).

    PubMed

    Visser, E J W; Zhang, Q; De Gruyter, F; Martens, S; Huber, H

    2016-01-01

    Plants exposed to environmental stress often respond by a change in their phenotypic traits. These changes in trait expression may alleviate the negative effect of such stress factors. However, if multiple stresses are present, responses are likely to be less predictable and hence do not necessarily correlate to plant performance. This study tested if this expectation was true, by subjecting Solanum dulcamara plants to various simultaneous stress factors. Plants were grown in well-watered conditions, drought or flooding, and exposed to either full light or shade for 4 weeks. Shoot and root biomass, stem morphological parameters, such as height, number of nodes and length of stem internodes, and leaf traits like length, specific leaf area, chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance were determined. Both variation in light and in water availability typically caused slower growth, and resulted in distinct phenotypic changes in stem, leaf and root traits. However, effects of stresses on the expression of traits were not always additive. Instead, some combined stress responses (e.g. leaf size) appeared to be limited by physical or physiological constraints, whereas other responses were opposite to each other (e.g. root:shoot ratio), resulting in an intermediate phenotype in the combined stress treatment. These data suggest that in natural conditions, where combined stress factors are likely to be present, the optimal phenotype may not necessarily be expressed. Responses of plants to multiple stress factors may therefore not be associated with immediate advantages in terms of increased performance.

  12. A Co-Opted Hormonal Cascade Activates Dormant Adventitious Root Primordia upon Flooding in Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Thikra; Yang, Xinping; Visser, Eric J W; Te Beek, Tim A H; Kensche, Philip R; Cristescu, Simona M; Lee, Sangseok; Floková, Kristýna; Nguyen, Duy; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR primordium reactivation in the dicot species Solanum dulcamara Transcriptome analysis indicated that flooding imposes a state of quiescence on the stem tissue, while increasing cellular activity in the AR primordia. Flooding led to ethylene accumulation in the lower stem region and subsequently to a drop in abscisic acid (ABA) level in both stem and AR primordia tissue. Whereas ABA treatment prevented activation of AR primordia by flooding, inhibition of ABA synthesis was sufficient to activate them in absence of flooding. Together, this reveals that there is a highly tissue-specific response to reduced ABA levels. The central role for ABA in the response differentiates the pathway identified here from the AR emergence pathway known from rice (Oryza sativa). Flooding and ethylene treatment also induced expression of the polar auxin transporter PIN2, and silencing of this gene or chemical inhibition of auxin transport inhibited primordium activation, even though ABA levels were reduced. Auxin treatment, however, was not sufficient for AR emergence, indicating that the auxin pathway acts in parallel with the requirement for ABA reduction. In conclusion, adaptation of S. dulcamara to wet habitats involved co-option of a hormonal signaling cascade well known to regulate shoot growth responses, to direct a root developmental program upon soil flooding.

  13. In vitro import of a nuclearly encoded tRNA into mitochondria of Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Delage, Ludovic; Dietrich, André; Cosset, Anne; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2003-06-01

    Some of the mitochondrial tRNAs of higher plants are nuclearly encoded and imported into mitochondria. The import of tRNAs encoded in the nucleus has been shown to be essential for proper protein translation within mitochondria of a variety of organisms. Here, we report the development of an in vitro assay for import of nuclearly encoded tRNAs into plant mitochondria. This in vitro system utilizes isolated mitochondria from Solanum tuberosum and synthetic tRNAs transcribed from cloned nuclear tRNA genes. Although incubation of radioactively labeled in vitro-transcribed tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Phe), and tRNA(Met-e) with isolated potato mitochondria resulted in importation, as measured by nuclease protection, the amount of tRNA transcripts protected at saturation was at least five times higher for tRNA(Ala) than for the two other tRNAs. This difference in in vitro saturation levels of import is consistent with the in vivo localization of these tRNAs, since cytosolic tRNA(Ala) is naturally imported into potato mitochondria whereas tRNA(Phe) and tRNA(Met-e) are not. Characterization of in vitro tRNA import requirements indicates that mitochondrial tRNA import proceeds in the absence of any added cytosolic protein fraction, involves at least one protein component on the surface of mitochondria, and requires ATP-dependent step(s) and a membrane potential.

  14. Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein SB401 from Solanum berthaultii regulates its effect on microtubules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bao-Quan; Jin, Lifeng; Zhu, Lei; Li, Jiejie; Huang, Shuli; Yuan, Ming

    2009-03-01

    We reported previously that the protein SB401 from Solanum berthaultii binds to and bundles both microtubules and F-actin. In the current study, we investigated the regulation of SB401 activity by its phosphorylation. Our experimental results showed that the phosphorylation of SB401 by casein kinase II (CKII) downregulates the activities of SB401, namely the bundling of microtubules and enhancement of the polymerization of tubulin. However, phosphorylation of SB401 had no observable effect on its bundling of F-actin. Further investigation using extract of potato pollen indicated that a CKII-like kinase may exist in potato pollen. Antibodies against CKII alpha recognized specifically a major band from the pollen extract and the pollen extract was able to phosphorylate the SB401 protein in vitro. The CKII-like kinase showed a similar ability to downregulate the bundling of microtubules. Our experiments demonstrated that phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of SB401 activity. We propose that this phosphorylation may regulate the effects of SB401 on microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton.

  15. Hydrolysis of sucrose within isolated vacuoles from Solanum tuberosum L. tubers.

    PubMed

    Isla, M I; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1998-08-01

    The soluble acid invertase (beta-D-fructofuranoside fructohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.26) from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kennebec) tubers was located in the vacuoles. Although the functionality of this invertase in the vacuoles has been assumed, the activity of the enzyme has never been shown within isolated vacuoles. Vacuoles were prepared by gentle osmotic shock from free protoplasts obtained by enzymic digestion of tuber tissues. The mean volume of these vacuoles, (0.26 +/- 0.05) x 10(-2) microliters, was estimated by optical microscopy. Sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were calculated to be 100 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM, respectively, in the vacuoles. Sucrose hydrolysis and the increase in glucose and fructose concentrations within the vacuoles were measured during vacuolar incubations. An almost identical pattern of sucrose hydrolysis by invertase was found by an in-vitro assay reproducing the vacuolar conditions. In view of the determinations of internal vacuolar pH (5.2), the possibility of spontaneous hydrolysis of sucrose was disregarded. Vacuoles were shown to be free from proteinaceous inhibitors, confirming the extravacuolar location of these inhibitors. The vacuolar hydrolytic pattern of sucrose confirms the regulatory role of the reaction products previously proposed for in-vitro assays.

  16. Somatic embryogenesis in Solanum tuberosum L.: a histological examination of key developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Millam, Steve

    2004-09-01

    A potential novel method of producing high-quality potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) nuclear seeds is through the process of somatic embryogenesis (SE). Somatic embryo formation has been successfully reported in many plant species, but in potato, reliable SE systems are still at the experimental stage. A key factor in the success of any SE system is the ability to discriminate SE-specific cellular structures from those emerging through an organogenic route. In the investigation reported here we attempted to discriminate the progression of specific stages of potato SE by histological means. Internodal segment (INS) explants from 4- to 6-week-old cv. Desiree in vitro cultures were successively cultured on SE induction (for 2 weeks) and expression/regeneration media (for 3 weeks) with and without 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (5 microM). Microscopic examination of histological slides prepared using INS explants at different stages revealed the presence of characteristic globular, heart and torpedo stages in the potato SE system along with other associated unique features such as protoderm development and discrete vascular connections. These results confirm the occurrence of potato SE as per the accepted definition of the term.

  17. Somatic hybrids Solanum nigrum (+) S. tuberosum: morphological assessment and verification of hybridity.

    PubMed

    Szczerbakowa, A; Maciejewska, U; Zimnoch-Guzowska, E; Wielgat, B

    2003-02-01

    Somatic hybrids between the cultivated potato diploid hybrid clone, ZEL-1136, and hexaploid non-tuber-bearing wild species Solanum nigrum L. exhibiting resistance to Phytophthora infestans were regenerated after PEG-mediated fusion of mesophyll protoplasts. The objective was to transfer the late-blight resistance genes from the wild species into plants of the cultivated potato clone. From a total of 59 regenerants, 40 clones survived and have been maintained in vitro on hormone-free MS/2 medium. Thirty-two somatic hybrids were identified by their intermediate morphology (leaves of nigrum type and flowers of tuberosum type) and verified by flow cytometry and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns. The RAPD analysis of nuclear DNA confirmed the hybrid nature of 29 clones. Flow cytometry revealed a wide range of ploidy in the generated hybrids, from nearly the tetra- to decaploid level. Most of the hybrid clones were stable in vitro, grew vigorously in soil, and set flowers and parthenocarpic berries. However, all of the flowering hybrids were male-sterile. Nine hybrid clones produced tuber-like structures in soil. The most vigorous flowering somatic hybrids were selected for assessment of the late-blight resistance.

  18. Rapid flooding-induced adventitious root development from preformed primordia in Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Thikra; Rieu, Ivo; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Derksen, Emiel B; Mariani, Celestina; Visser, Eric J W

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a common stress factor in both natural and agricultural systems, and affects plant growth by the slow diffusion rate of gases in water. This results in low oxygen concentrations in submerged tissues, and hence in a decreased respiration rate. Understanding the responses of plants to flooding is essential for the management of wetland ecosystems, and may benefit research to improve the flood tolerance of crop species. This study describes the response to partial submergence of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara). Bittersweet is a Eurasian species that grows both in dry habitats such as coastal dunes, and in wetlands, and therefore is a suitable model plant for studying responses to a variety of environmental stresses. A further advantage is that the species is closely related to flood-intolerant crops such as tomato and eggplant. The species constitutively develops dormant primordia on the stem, which we show to have a predetermined root identity. We investigated adventitious root growth from these primordia during flooding. The synchronized growth of roots from the primordia was detected after 2-3 days of flooding and was due to a combination of cell division and cell elongation. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the molecular response to flooding began within 2 h and included activation of hypoxia and ethylene signalling genes. Unexpectedly, these early changes in gene expression were very similar in primordia and adjacent stem tissue, suggesting that there is a dominant general response in tissues during early flooding. PMID:24790121

  19. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. "Longshu No. 3") plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  20. Product stability and sequestration mechanisms in Solanum tuberosum engineered to biosynthesize high value ketocarotenoids.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Cara L; Misawa, Norihiko; Ducreux, Laurence; Campbell, Raymond; Bramley, Peter M; Taylor, Mark; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    To produce commercially valuable ketocarotenoids in Solanum tuberosum, the 4, 4' β-oxygenase (crtW) and 3, 3' β-hydroxylase (crtZ) genes from Brevundimonas spp. have been expressed in the plant host under constitutive transcriptional control. The CRTW and CRTZ enzymes are capable of modifying endogenous plant carotenoids to form a range of hydroxylated and ketolated derivatives. The host (cv. Désirée) produced significant levels of nonendogenous carotenoid products in all tissues, but at the apparent expense of the economically critical metabolite, starch. Carotenoid levels increased in both wild-type and transgenic tubers following cold storage; however, stability during heat processing varied between compounds. Subcellular fractionation of leaf tissues revealed the presence of ketocarotenoids in thylakoid membranes, but not predominantly in the photosynthetic complexes. A dramatic increase in the carotenoid content of plastoglobuli was determined. These findings were corroborated by microscopic analysis of chloroplasts. In tuber tissues, esterified carotenoids, representing 13% of the total pigment found in wild-type extracts, were sequestered in plastoglobuli. In the transgenic tubers, this proportion increased to 45%, with esterified nonendogenous carotenoids in place of endogenous compounds. Conversely, nonesterified carotenoids in both wild-type and transgenic tuber tissues were associated with amyloplast membranes and starch granules. PMID:25845905

  1. Proteomic evaluation of wound-healing processes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Inês; Pinheiro, Carla; Paiva, Jorge A P; Planchon, Sébastien; Sergeant, Kjell; Renaut, Jenny; Graça, José A; Costa, Gonçalo; Coelho, Ana V; Ricardo, Cândido P Pinto

    2009-09-01

    Proteins from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber slices, related to the wound-healing process, were separated by 2-DE and identified by an MS analysis in MS and MS/MS mode. Slicing triggered differentiation processes that lead to changes in metabolism, activation of defence and cell-wall reinforcement. Proteins related to storage, cell growth and division, cell structure, signal transduction, energy production, disease/defence mechanisms and secondary metabolism were detected. Image analysis of the 2-DE gels revealed a time-dependent change in the complexity of the polypeptide patterns. By microscopic observation the polyalyphatic domain of suberin was clearly visible by D4, indicating that a closing layer (primary suberisation) was formed by then. A PCA of the six sampling dates revealed two time phases, D0-D2 and D4-D8, with a border position between D2 and D4. Moreover, a PCA of differentially expressed proteins indicated the existence of a succession of proteomic events leading to wound-periderm reconstruction. Some late-expressed proteins (D6-D8), including a suberisation-associated anionic peroxidase, have also been identified in the native periderm. Despite this, protein patterns of D8 slices and native periderm were still different, suggesting that the processes of wound-periderm formation are extended in time and not fully equivalent. The information presented in this study gives clues for further work on wound healing-periderm formation processes.

  2. Herbivore-induced changes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) primary metabolism: a whole plant perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinbrenner, Adam D; Gómez, Sara; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R; Orians, Colin M

    2011-12-01

    Induced changes in primary metabolism are important plant responses to herbivory, providing energy and metabolic precursors for defense compounds. Metabolic shifts also can lead to reallocation of leaf resources to storage tissues, thus increasing a plant's tolerance. We characterized whole-plant metabolic responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) 24 h after leaf herbivory by two caterpillars (the generalist Helicoverpa zea and the specialist Manduca sexta) by using GC-MS. We measured 56 primary metabolites across the leaves, stems, roots, and apex, comparing herbivore-attacked plants to undamaged plants and mechanically damaged plants. Induced metabolic change, in terms of magnitude and number of individual concentration changes, was stronger in the apex and root tissues than in undamaged leaflets of damaged leaves, indicating rapid and significant whole-plant responses to damage. Helicoverpa zea altered many more metabolites than M. sexta across most tissues, suggesting an enhanced plant response to H. zea herbivory. Helicoverpa zea herbivory strongly affected concentrations of defense-related metabolites (simple phenolics and precursor amino acids), while M. sexta altered metabolites associated with carbon and nitrogen transport. We conclude that herbivory induces many systemic primary metabolic changes in tomato, and that changes often are specific to a single tissue or type of herbivore. The potential implications of primary metabolic changes are discussed in relation to resistance and tolerance.

  3. Growth, yield and metal residues in Solanum melongena grown in fly ash amended soils.

    PubMed

    Gond, D P; Singh, Siddharth; Pal, Amit; Tewary, B K

    2013-05-01

    Fly ash from Chandrapura Thermal Power Station, Bokaro, Jharkhand (India) was used for amending soil at levels 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 tons ha(-1) in which, brinjal (Solanum melongena) was grown and elemental residues of amended soil and plant parts were enumerated. Fly ash amendments caused significant improvement in soil quality, water holding capacity (52.64-65.76), pH (6.45-7.05), composition of photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid) and few growth parameters (fresh weight, root length, shoot length) of brinjal with the increase in fly ash amendments. Fruit (edible part) of plants grown in fly ash amended soils had metal residues (mg kg(-1)) like Cr (0.80-1.16), Co (0.34-1.46), Ni (0.85-1.00), Zn (24.41-32.33), Cu (10.61-15.49), and Mo (0.49-1.46) within the permissible limits. Results indicate that soil amended with fly ash at 180 tons ha(-1), not only improved the physical properties of the soil but also contributed to the better growth and yield of brinjal.

  4. Effects of ascorbic acid on some physiological changes of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Sivaci, Aysel; Kaya, A; Duman, Sevcan

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the changes caused by chilling stress on some physiological parameters of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) plant and the effects of ascorbic acid (100 mM) applied exogenously on these changes were examined. For this purpose, the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophylls and carotenoids), ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, malondialdehyde and proline contents in leaves of pepino taken on 5th and 10th days were determined. As a result of chilling stress, it was found that while the photosynthetic pigments and proline contents decreased in pepino leaves, the ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds and malondialdehyde contents increased. In plants which were subjected to pre-treatment of ascorbic acid on the 10th day of stress, ascorbic acid and proline contents increased while a decrease was observed in malondialdehyde content, compared to stress group without pre-treated. This study may be important for explaining resistance induced by treatment of exogenous ascorbic acid in pepino exposed to chilling stress.

  5. Efficacy of a bacterial siderophore, pyoverdine, to supply iron to Solanum lycopersicum plants.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Takeshi; Oobo, Takuro; Aozasa, Osamu

    2013-06-01

    Active uptake of ferric iron in microorganisms is based on siderophores. During iron deficiency, Pseudomonas fluorescens synthesizes siderophores, called pyoverdine, which have a high affinity for ferric iron. Strategy I plants generally cannot synthesize pyoverdine or take up ferric iron. We assessed the effect of pyoverdine chelated to ferric iron on iron nutrition in Solanum lycopersicum. Weight and photosynthetic pigment concentrations in the plants supplemented with the pyoverdine and ferric iron were restored to the rates of plants supplemented with ferrous iron. Leaves and roots accumulated significant iron after pyoverdine and ferric iron supplementation than when supplemented with ferric iron alone. When leaves and roots were supplemented with pyoverdine and ferric iron, the SlFRO1 expression level was suppressed to 20% and 50% relative to those decreased with ferric iron alone, respectively. The level of SlIRT1 in roots supplemented with pyoverdine and ferric iron decreased to 50% compared with the level in roots supplemented with ferric iron alone. These results suggest that SlFRO1 and SlIRT1 expression levels were suppressed and that iron content was restored by pyoverdine and ferric iron supplementation. Thus, the downregulation may have occurred because of negative feedback on mRNA expression. Pyoverdine-mediated ferric iron uptake by tomato is suggested to be a useful strategy to increase iron uptake from the environment. PMID:23332821

  6. Regeneration of Solanum nigrum by Somatic Embryogenesis, Involving Frog Egg-Like Body, a Novel Structure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kedong; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Wang, Feige; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Tong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Yan; Niu, Wei; Jia, Shuzhao; Xie, Hengchang; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    A new protocol was established for the regeneration of Solanum nigrum by frog egg-like bodies (FELBs), which are novel somatic embryogenesis (SE) structures induced from the root, stem, and leaf explants. The root, stem, and leaf explants (93.33%, 85.10%, and 100.00%, respectively) were induced to form special embryonic calli on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, under dark condition. Further, special embryonic calli from the root, stem, and leaf explants (86.97%, 83.30%, and 99.47%, respectively) were developed into FELBs. Plantlets of FELBs from the three explants were induced in vitro on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and 0.1 mg/L gibberellic acid, and 100.00% plantlet induction rates were noted. However, plantlet induction in vivo on MS medium supplemented with 20 mg/L thidiazuron showed rates of 38.63%, 15.63%, and 61.30% for the root, stem, and leaf explants, respectively, which were lower than those of the in vitro culture. Morphological and histological analyses of FELBs at different development stages revealed that they are a novel type of SE structure that developed from the mesophyll (leaf) or cortex (stem and root) cells of S. nigrum. PMID:24896090

  7. Recurrent modification of floral morphology in heterantherous Solanum reveals a parallel shift in reproductive strategy

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Walker, Catriona; Friston-Reilly, Philip; Solís-Montero, Lislie; Igic, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Floral morphology determines the pattern of pollen transfer within and between individuals. In hermaphroditic species, the spatial arrangement of sexual organs influences the rate of self-pollination as well as the placement of pollen in different areas of the pollinator's body. Studying the evolutionary modification of floral morphology in closely related species offers an opportunity to investigate the causes and consequences of floral variation. Here, we investigate the recurrent modification of flower morphology in three closely related pairs of taxa in Solanum section Androceras (Solanaceae), a group characterized by the presence of two morphologically distinct types of anthers in the same flower (heteranthery). We use morphometric analyses of plants grown in a common garden to characterize and compare the changes in floral morphology observed in parallel evolutionary transitions from relatively larger to smaller flowers. Our results indicate that the transition to smaller flowers is associated with a reduction in the spatial separation of anthers and stigma, changes in the allometric relationships among floral traits, shifts in pollen allocation to the two anther morphs and reduced pollen : ovule ratios. We suggest that floral modification in this group reflects parallel evolution towards increased self-fertilization and discuss potential selective scenarios that may favour this recurrent shift in floral morphology and function. PMID:25002701

  8. Inbreeding Depression in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae) under Field Conditions and Implications for Mating System Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kariyat, Rupesh R.; Scanlon, Sarah R.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    The clonal weed Solanum carolinense exhibits plasticity in the strength of its self-incompatibility (SI) system and suffers low levels of inbreeding depression (δ) in the greenhouse. We planted one inbred and one outbred plant from each of eight maternal plants in a ring (replicated twice) and monitored clonal growth, herbivory, and reproduction over two years. Per ramet δ was estimated to be 0.63 in year one and 0.79 in year two, and outbred plants produced 2.5 times more ramets than inbred plants in the spring of year two. Inbred plants also suffered more herbivore damage than outbred plants in both fields, suggesting that inbreeding compromises herbivore resistance. Total per genet δ was 0.85 over the two years, indicating that S. carolinense is unlikely to become completely self-compatible, and suggesting that plasticity in the SI system is part of a stable mixed-mating system permitting self-fertilization when cross pollen limits seed production. PMID:22174810

  9. Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2.

    PubMed

    Boruah, H P Deka; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2003-06-01

    An antibiotic-producing and hydrogen-cyanide-producing rhizobacteria strain Bacillus BS2 showed a wide range of antifungal activity against many Fusarium sp. and brinjal wilt disease pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Seed bacterization with the strain BS2 promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants Solanum melongena L, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleraceae var. gongylodes and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill in terms of relative growth rate, shoot height, root length, total biomass production and total chlorophyll content of leaves. Yield of bacterized plants were increased by 10 to 49% compared to uninoculated control plants. Brinjal sapling raised through seed bacterization by the strain BS2 showed a significantly reduced wilt syndrome of brinjal caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Control of wilt disease by the bacterium was clue to the production of antibiotic-like substances, whereas plant growth-promotion was due to the activity of hydrogen cyanide. Root colonization study confirmed that the introduced bacteria colonized the roots and occupied 23-25% of total aerobic bacteria, which was confirmed using dual antibiotic (nalidixic acid and streptomycin sulphate) resistant mutant strain. The results obtained through this investigation suggested the potentiality of the strain BS2 to be used as a plant growth promoter and suppressor of wilt pathogen.

  10. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. "Longshu No. 3") plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  11. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia: screening of Solanum macrocarpon Linn (Solanaceae) as a medicinal plant in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Dougnon, Tamègnon Victorien; Bankolé, Honoré Sourou; Klotoé, Jean Robert; Sènou, Maximin; Fah, Lauris; Koudokpon, Hornel; Akpovi, Casimir; Dougnon, Tossou Jacques; Addo, Phyllis; Loko, Frédéric; Boko, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100. Materials and Methods: The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o.) for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were analyzed by the Brown-Forsythe ANOVA, Dunnett’s T3 multiple comparison test, and Dunnett’s t test. All tests were done at the 5% significance level. Results: Administration of S. macrocarpon (fruits as well as leaves) resulted in a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the treated groups compared with the untreated hypercholesterolemic group, regardless of the administrated doses. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was observed in the treated groups. Hepatic disorders due to the Triton have been corrected by S. macrocarpon. Conclusions: This vegetable effectively suppresses experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats, suggesting a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Its use by individuals at risk should be promoted. PMID:25050314

  12. Response of Solanum tuberosum to Myzus persicae infestation at different stages of foliage maturity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Adriana E; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M; Tjallingii, W Fred; Dicke, Marcel; Vosman, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Young leaves of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Kardal contain resistance factors to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and normal probing behavior is impeded. However, M. persicae can survive and reproduce on mature and senescent leaves of the cv. Kardal plant without problems. We compared the settling of M. persicae on young and old leaves and analyzed the impact of aphids settling on the plant in terms of gene expression. Settling, as measured by aphid numbers staying on young or old leaves, showed that after 21 h significantly fewer aphids were found on the young leaves. At earlier time points there were no difference between young and old leaves, suggesting that the young leaf resistance factors are not located at the surface level but deeper in the tissue. Gene expression was measured in plants at 96 h postinfestation, which is at a late stage in the interaction and in compatible interactions this is long enough for host plant acceptance to occur. In old leaves of cv. Kardal (compatible interaction), M. persicae infestation elicited a higher number of differentially regulated genes than in young leaves. The plant response to aphid infestation included a larger number of genes induced than repressed, and the proportion of induced versus repressed genes was larger in young than in old leaves. Several genes changing expression seem to be involved in changing the metabolic state of the leaf from source to sink.

  13. The subunit structure of potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase. [Solanum tuberosum L

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, T.W.; Nakata, P.A.; Anderson, J.M. ); Sowokinos, J. ); Morell, M.; Preiss, J. )

    1990-06-01

    ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase has been extensively purified from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber tissue to study its structure. By employing a modified published procedure together with Mono Q chromatography, a near homogeneous enzyme preparation was obtained with substantial improvement in enzyme yield and specific activity. In single dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels, the enzyme migrated as a single polypeptide band with a mobility of about 50,000 daltons. Analysis by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, however, revealed the presence of two types of subunits which could be distinguished by their slight differences in net charge and molecular weight. The smaller potato tuber subunit was recognized by antiserum prepared against the smaller spinach leaf 51 kilodalton ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase subunit. In contrast, the anti-54 kilodalton raised against the spinach leaf subunit did not significantly react to the tuber enzyme subunits. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase is not composed of a simple homotetramer as previously suggested, but is a product of two separate and distinct subunits as observed for the spinach leaf and maize enzymes.

  14. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and. alpha. -tocopherol content of stored potato tubers. [Solanum tuberosum L

    SciTech Connect

    Spychalla, J.P.; Desborough, S.L. )

    1990-11-01

    Activated oxygen or oxygen free radical mediated damage to plants has been established or implicated in many plant stress situations. The extent of activated oxygen damage to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers during low temperature storage and long-term storage is not known. Quantitation of oxygen free radical mediated damage in plant tissues is difficult. However, it is comparatively easy to quantitate endogenous antioxidants, which detoxify potentially damaging forms of activated oxygen. Three tuber antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol were assayed from four potato cultivars stored at 3{degree}C and 9{degree}C for 40 weeks. Tubers stored at 3{degree}C demonstrated increased superoxide dismutase activities (up to 72%) compared to tubers stored at 9{degree}C. Time dependent increases in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol occurred during the course of the 40 week storage. The possible relationship between these increases in antioxidants and the rate of activated oxygen production in the tubers is discussed.

  15. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we have reported a fast and eco-benign procedure to synthesis silver nanoparticle at room temperature using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion along with the study of its photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye. After addition of potato infusion to silver nitrate solution, the color of the mixture changed indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. Time dependent UV-Vis spectra were obtained to study the rate of nanoparticle formation with time. Purity and crystallinity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to detect functional bio-molecules responsible that contribute to the reduction and capping of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were used to investigate their ability to degrade methyl orange dye under sunlight irradiation and the results showed effective photocatalytic property of these biogenic silver nanoparticles.

  16. Glycoalkaloid profile in potato haploids derived from solanum tuberosum-S. bulbocastanum somatic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Carputo, Domenico; Savarese, Salvatore; Andolfi, Anna; Aversano, Riccardo; Cimmino, Alessio; Frusciante, Luigi; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GA) that may affect either human health or biotic stress resistance. Therefore, GA composition must be a major criterion in the evaluation of breeding products when species genomes are merged and/or manipulated. This work reports the results of GA analysis performed on unique haploid (2n=2x=24) plants obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=48) Solanum bulbocastanum-S. tuberosum hybrids through in vitro anther culture. Glycoalkaloids were extracted from tubers and analyzed by HPLC. Haploids generally showed the occurrence of parental GA. However, in several cases loss of parental GA and gain of new GA lacking in the parents was observed. It may be hypothesized that new GA profiles of our haploids is the result of either genetic recombination or combinatorial biochemistry events. To highlight differences between haploids and parents, soluble proteins and antioxidant activities were also determined. Both were always higher in haploids compared to their parents. The nature of the newly formed GAs will be further investigated, because they may represent new metabolites that can be used against pest and diseases, or are useful for human health.

  17. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cuttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cuttings of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamps (LPS/CWF). For cultivars, stem lengths after 4 wks were longest under LPS, follow by RF, LPS/CWF, VF, and BF (in descending order). Microscopic studies revealed that cells were shortest when cultured in BF or VF environments, and were longest in RF or LPS lamp environments. The highest number axillary branches occurred on plantlets grown with LPS or LPS/CWF, whereas the lowest number occurred with BF. No leaf or stem edema (callus or gall-like growths) occurred iwth LPS or LPS/cwf lighting, and no edema occurred on cv. Norland plantlets, regardless of lighting. Results suggest that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  18. Isolation and characterization of StERF transcription factor genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zemin; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Xiangyan; Fan, Qiang; Si, Huaijun; Wang, Di

    2015-04-01

    Ethylene response factor (ERF) is a major subfamily of the AP2/ERF family and plays significant roles in the regulation of abiotic- and biotic-stress responses. ERF proteins can interact with the GCC-box cis-element and then initiate a transcriptional cascade activating downstream ethylene response and enhancing plant stress tolerance. In this research, we cloned five StERF genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The expressional analysis of StERF genes revealed that they showed tissue- or organ-specific expression patterns and the expression levels in leaf, stem, root, flower, and tuber were different. The assays of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of five StERF genes was regulated by ethephon, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salt and drought stress. The result from the yeast one-hybrid experiment showed that five StERFs had trans-activation activity and could specifically bind to the GCC-box cis-elements. The StERFs responded to abiotic factors and hormones suggested that they possibly had diverse roles in stress and hormone regulation of potato.

  19. Metabolic Biosynthesis of Potato (Solanum tuberosum l.) Antioxidants and Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Lovat, Christie; Nassar, Atef M K; Kubow, Stan; Li, Xiu-Qing; Donnelly, Danielle J

    2016-10-25

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is common, affordable, readily stored, easily prepared for consumption, and nutritious. For these reasons, potato has become one of the top five crops consumed worldwide. Consequently, it is important to understand its contribution to both our daily and long-term health. Potato is one of the most important sources of antioxidants in the human diet. As such, it supports the antioxidant defense network in our bodies that reduces cellular and tissue toxicities that result from free radical-induced protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and DNA damage. In this way, potato antioxidants may reduce the risk for cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and even radiation damage. A better understanding of these components of potato is needed by the food industry, health professionals, and consumers. This review provides referenced summaries of all of the antioxidant groups present in potato tubers and updated schematics including genetic regulation for the major antioxidant biosynthesis pathways. This review complements current knowledge on the role of potato in human health. We hope it will provide impetus toward breeding efforts to develop cultivars with increased antioxidant capacity as 'functional foods' and encourage potato consumers and processors to work toward preservation of antioxidant capacity in cooked potato and potato products.

  20. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the Solanum tuberosum aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Jelli; Yu, Jae-Woong; Park, Se Won

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporins belongs to the major intrinsic proteins involved in the transcellular membrane transport of water and other small solutes. A comprehensive genome-wide search for the homologues of Solanum tuberosum major intrinsic protein (MIP) revealed 41 full-length potato aquaporin genes. All potato aquaporins are grouped into five subfamilies; plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) and x-intrinsic proteins (XIPs). Functional predictions based on the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filters and Froger's positions showed a remarkable difference in substrate transport specificity among subfamilies. The expression pattern of potato aquaporins, examined by qPCR analysis, showed distinct expression profiles in various organs and tuber developmental stages. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of potato plantlets, subjected to various abiotic stresses revealed the marked effect of stresses on expression levels of aquaporins. Taken together, the expression profiles of aquaporins imply that aquaporins play important roles in plant growth and development, in addition to maintaining water homeostasis in response to environmental stresses.

  1. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development.

    PubMed

    Pasare, Stefania A; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Campbell, Raymond; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kohlen, Wouter; van der Krol, Sander; Bramley, Peter M; Roberts, Alison G; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    · Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it was considered timely to investigate the effects of SL production on potato development and tuber life cycle. · Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (CCD8) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). · The resulting CCD8-RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. New tubers were formed from sessile buds of the mother tubers. The apical buds of newly formed transgenic tubers grew out as shoots when exposed to light. In addition, we found that CCD8 transcript levels were rapidly downregulated in tuber buds by the application of sprout-inducing treatments. · These results suggest that SLs could have an effect, solely or in combination with other phytohormones, in the morphology of potato plants and also in controlling stolon development and maintaining tuber dormancy.

  2. Metabolic regulation of pathways of carbohydrate oxidation in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Danilo C; Oliver, Sandra N; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Geigenberger, Peter; Machado, Daniel N; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Silva, Marco A P; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2008-08-01

    In the present article we evaluate the consequence of tuber-specific expression of yeast invertase, on the pathways of carbohydrate oxidation, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree). We analysed the relative rates of glycolysis and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway that these lines exhibited as well as the relative contributions of the cytochrome and alternative pathways of mitochondrial respiration. Enzymatic and protein abundance analysis revealed concerted upregulation of the glycolytic pathway and of specific enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the alternative oxidase but invariant levels of enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and proteins of the cytochrome pathway. When taken together these experiments suggest that the overexpression of a cytosolic invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) results in a general upregulation of carbohydrate oxidation with increased flux through both the glycolytic and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways as well as the cytochrome and alternative pathways of oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover these data suggest that the upregulation of respiration is a consequence of enhanced efficient mitochondrial metabolism.

  3. Conserved miRNAs and their response to salt stress in wild eggplant Solanum linnaeanum roots.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yong; Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-09

    The Solanaceae family includes some important vegetable crops, and they often suffer from salinity stress. Some miRNAs have been identified to regulate gene expression in plant response to salt stress; however, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in Solanaceae species. To identify salt-responsive miRNAs, high-throughput sequencing was used to sequence libraries constructed from roots of the salt tolerant species, Solanum linnaeanum, treated with and without NaCl. The sequencing identified 98 conserved miRNAs corresponding to 37 families, and some of these miRNAs and their expression were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Under the salt stress, 11 of the miRNAs were down-regulated, and 3 of the miRNAs were up-regulated. Potential targets of the salt-responsive miRNAs were predicted to be involved in diverse cellular processes in plants. This investigation provides valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs in S. linnaeanum, and would be useful for developing strategies for the genetic improvement of the Solanaceae crops.

  4. On the nature and origin of the oxalate package in Solanum sisymbriifolium anthers.

    PubMed

    Burrieza, Hernán Pablo; López-Fernández, María Paula; Láinez, Verónica; Montenegro, Teresita; Maldonado, Sara

    2010-11-01

    This is a detailed study carried out in Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. on the development of the circular cell cluster (CCC) during crystal deposition, as well as the composition of the crystals. Light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize tissue throughout anther development. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) allowed the determination of the elemental composition of crystals that form in the CCC region, and infrared and x-ray diffraction analysis were used to specify the crystal salt composition. TEM analysis revealed that the crystals originated simultaneously within the vacuoles in association with a paracrystalline protein. Prior to the appearance of protein within vacuoles, protein paracrystals were visible in both rough endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles with ribosomes on their membranes. In vacuoles, paracrystals constitute nucleation sites for druse crystals formation. EDAX revealed that C, O, and Ca were the main elements, and K, Cl, Mg, P, S, and Si, the minor elements. X-ray powder diffraction of crystals detected the predominant presence of calcium oxalate, but also vestiges of calcite, quartz, and sylvite. The calcium oxalate coexisted in the three chemical forms, that is, whewellite, weddellite, and caoxite. Infrared spectrophotometry identified bands that characterize O-C-O, H-O, C-H bonds, all of calcium oxalate, and Si-O-Si, of quartz. These results were compared with studies of anthers carried out in other Solanaceae genera.

  5. Spermidine Derivatives in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Fruit: Sensory (Taste) versus Biofunctional (ACE-Inhibition) Properties.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Masatani, Chieko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Peterson, Devin G; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-07-01

    The bitterness in lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit is increased during processing (juicing or drying). To identify the bitter-active compounds, the ethanolic fruit pulp extract was subjected to RP-18 solid-phase extraction, and then sensory-guided fractionated by HPLC. Two spermidine derivatives, N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine and N(1),N(8)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine, were isolated and their structures confirmed by analysis of their HPLC-ESI/MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR data. The N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine was synthesized and used as an authentic sample to unequivocally confirm the structure of this compound and to quantitate it in both fresh and dried fruit. In silico analyses demonstrated that spermidine derivatives identified in lulo pulp exhibited a strong ACE-I (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) inhibitory activity. Subsequently, these results were confirmed by in vitro analyses and showed the potential use of lulo fruit pulp as an ingredient of functional foods related to the prevention of blood hypertension.

  6. Short-Term Water Deficit Changes Cuticular Sterol Profile in the Eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Haliński, Łukasz P; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Crop irrigation uses a majority of a total world water supply, at the same time displaying low efficiency. As the expected, future water requirements are higher than the current ones; there is a risk of a growing deficit of water for the agricultural use. Hence, there is an arising need for better understanding the effects of water deprivation on the crop plants. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a vegetable crop cultivated in arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Because of its high water demands, the eggplant is a convenient model organism for studies concerning the effects of water deficit on the plant growth. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of short-term water deficit on eggplant leaf cuticular waxes and total sterols. Water deprivation did not affect the amount and composition of aliphatic components of cuticular waxes. Significant decrease in the total cuticular sterols and the increase in cuticular cholesterol were observed as an effect of water deficit. In contrast, some of the free internal sterols were more abundant in water-deprived plants. The possible importance of these observations, including increased biosynthesis of defensive compounds and the need to maintain the cell membrane stability, was discussed. PMID:27127890

  7. Brassinosteroids induce plant tolerance against phenanthrene by enhancing degradation and detoxification in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Gao, Chun-Juan; Ogweno, Joshua Otieno; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Mao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic to both plants and animals. The enhancement of plant tolerance and detoxification capacity is important for the plant-based remediation of PAHs. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the metabolism of a three-ringed PAH (phenanthrene-PHE) and subsequent stress tolerance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants. Exposure to PHE (300 μM) for 21 d significantly decreased biomass and net CO(2) assimilation (P(n)) but induced photoinhibition, malondialdehyde (MDA), H(2)O(2) and antioxidant enzymes. Obvious ultrastructural alterations were observed in the PHE-treated root tip cells. Importantly, the foliar application of EBR (0.1 μM) significantly increased biomass, P(n) and antioxidant enzyme activities but decreased MDA and H(2)O(2) compared with PHE alone and saved the root cells from severe damage. The expression of detoxification genes (CYP90b3, GSH1, GST1), reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase activity in the EBR+PHE-treated plants were higher than those of PHE alone. Additionally, lower levels of PHE residues in the roots were observed as a result of EBR+PHE treatment. Taken together, our results strongly suggest an enhanced and coordinated detoxification and degradation of PHE by EBR.

  8. Expression in Escherichia coli, purification, refolding and antifungal activity of an osmotin from Solanum nigrum

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Magnólia de A; Silva, Marilia S; Magalhães, Cláudio P; Ribeiro, Simone G; Sarto, Rafael PD; Vieira, Eduardo A; Grossi de Sá, Maria F

    2008-01-01

    Background Heterologous protein expression in microorganisms may contribute to identify and demonstrate antifungal activity of novel proteins. The Solanum nigrum osmotin-like protein (SnOLP) gene encodes a member of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, from the PR-5 sub-group, the last comprising several proteins with different functions, including antifungal activity. Based on deduced amino acid sequence of SnOLP, computer modeling produced a tertiary structure which is indicative of antifungal activity. Results To validate the potential antifungal activity of SnOLP, a hexahistidine-tagged mature SnOLP form was overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 strain carried out by a pQE30 vector construction. The urea solubilized His6-tagged mature SnOLP protein was affinity-purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. As SnOLP requires the correct formation of eight disulfide bonds, not correctly formed in bacterial cells, we adapted an in vitro method to refold the E. coli expressed SnOLP by using reduced:oxidized gluthatione redox buffer. This method generated biologically active conformations of the recombinant mature SnOLP, which exerted antifungal action towards plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium solani f. sp.glycines, Colletotrichum spp., Macrophomina phaseolina) and oomycete (Phytophthora nicotiana var. parasitica) under in vitro conditions. Conclusion Since SnOLP displays activity against economically important plant pathogenic fungi and oomycete, it represents a novel PR-5 protein with promising utility for biotechnological applications. PMID:18334031

  9. Elicitor-Induced Defense Responses in Solanum lycopersicum against Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Itishree; Mukherjee, Arup K.; Acharya, Priyambada

    2013-01-01

    We investigated on important parameters of induced resistance in hydroponic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) against Ralstonia solanacearum using the elicitors chitosan (CHT), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA). The increase in total phenolic content of roots by the elicitors was significantly higher than control. Most pronounced increase in lignin synthesis was triggered by SA followed by CHT. At 24 h post-elicitation (hpe), the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was 4.5 times higher than control elicited by CHT. The peroxidase activity was about 86 nkat/mg protein at 24 hpe in case of SA and 78 nkat/mg protein in case of CHT. The activity of polyphenol oxidase increased several folds by the elicitors. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity increased to the maximum at 48 hpe under the influence of CHT. The results indicate that the elicitors SA and CHT induced effective defense responses in tomato plants against R. solanacearum. This was evident from reduced vascular browning and wilting symptoms of tomato plants treated with SA and CHT and challenged subsequently with R. solanacearum. This reduced disease incidence in tomato by SA and CHT may be a result of cell wall strengthening through deposition of lignin and the coincident induction of defense enzymes. PMID:24187521

  10. Glycoalkaloid development during greening of fresh market potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Grunenfelder, Laura A; Knowles, Lisa O; Hiller, Larry K; Knowles, N Richard

    2006-08-01

    Chlorophyll and glycoalkaloid synthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers occur in direct response to light. The two processes are concurrent, but independent. Color photographic indices to subjectively grade fresh market potatoes for the extent of greening were developed under lighting conditions consistent with those of retail markets. Total glycoalkaloid (TGA) and chlorophyll accumulation for four cultivars were determined over the respective greening scales, thus calibrating the scales for TGA content. On average, TGA concentrations in complete longitudinal sections of tubers (flesh samples) were highest in Dark Red Norland followed by Russet Norkotah, Yukon Gold, and White Rose. TGA concentrations of flesh samples of White Rose and Yukon Gold tubers were somewhat variable and did not increase in direct proportion to greening level and chlorophyll content, particularly at higher levels of greening. TGA concentrations in Dark Red Norland and Russet Norkotah tubers were highly correlated (P < or = 0.001) with greening level and chlorophyll concentrations. When averaged over greening levels, skin samples contained 3.4- to 6.8-fold higher concentrations of TGAs than flesh samples, depending on the cultivar. The TGA concentration in periderm samples ranged from 37 to 160 mg/100 g of dry wt. Regardless of greening level, concentrations of TGAs in the flesh samples (including attached periderm) remained within limits presumed safe for human consumption. Discrimination of greened tubers on the basis of perceived glycoalkaloid toxicity is likely unfounded for the cultivars and greening levels studied. PMID:16881686

  11. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Stultiens, Catharina L M; de Groot, Peter F M; Powers, Stephen J; Tikunov, Yury M; Bovy, Arnoud G; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-06-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development.

  12. Irrigation of Solanum lycopersicum L. with magnetically treated water increases antioxidant properties of its tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Dubois, A E Ferrer; Leite, G O; Rocha, J B T

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant effects of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) have been studied and an association between dietary intake of tomatoes and lowered risk of cancer, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases has been suggested. Here we used magnetically treated water (MTW; 0.03-0.15 T), which promotes better germination and productivity in tomatoes, and we investigated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic (10-400 μg/ml) extracts of S. lycopersicum as potential antioxidant against 10 μM Fe(II)-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) in liver and brain homogenates from rats. The ethanolic extracts from magnetically treated plants were more effective than aqueous extracts in preventing TBARS formation in brain and liver. The protective effects of ethanolic extract can be associated with antioxidants (polyphenols and flavonoids), lycopene and other lipophilic components found in the extract. In effect, magnetically treated plants had higher content of polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds than nontreated plants and they can be a better source of antioxidants than nontreated plants. Consequently, MTW can be used to produce functional foods with high contents of antioxidant components and may have better beneficial health effects than traditionally produced foods. PMID:23324035

  13. HPLC-DAD Analysis and In-Vitro Property of Polyphenols Extracts from (Solanum Aethiopium) Fruits on α -Amylase, α -Glucosidase and Angiotensin - 1- Converting Enzyme Activities

    PubMed Central

    Nwanna, E. E; Ibukun, E. O; Oboh, G.; Ademosun, A. O.; Boligon, A. A.; Athayde, M.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Garden egg (Solanum aethiopium) is an edible fruits vegetable with  different species.This study investigated characterisation and the effect of the phenolics extracts from S. aethiopium species with enzymes linked with type -2-diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE)]. METHODS: Fresh samples of the 5 species of the garden egg namely, [Solanum gilo (PW), Solanum torvum (TWS), Solanum kumba (PGR), Solanum incanum (GSB), and Solanum indicum (WSB)] were oven-dried at 50°C and milled into flour. The aqueous extracts were prepared (1:50 w/v). The phenolic contents (total phenol and total flavonoid), vitamin C and 1,1-diphenyl–2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated. The ability of the extracts to inhibit diabetes enzymes in rat pancreas as well as the inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting (ACE) enzyme in lungs homogenates in vitro were investigated. Furthermore, the fruits polyphenols were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD. RESULTS: The phenolic contents ranged from 2.70-3.76 mgGAE/g, while there were no significant (P>0.05) differences in their flavonoid content and ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+. The vitamin C contents of the species ranged from 4.01-6.52 mg/ml. The extracts scavenged DPPH in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 values ranging from 3.23-4.20 mg/ml. Furthermore, the extracts showed strong inhibition of α-glucosidase, mild inhibition of α-amylase and strong inhibition of ACE activities. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the inhibition of the key enzymes relevant to type-2 diabetes and hypertension could be part of the mechanisms by which garden egg manage/prevent the degenerative conditions. PMID:25598760

  14. Determination of residues responsible for substrate and product specificity of Solanum habrochaites short-chain cis-prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Matsuba, Yuki; Pichersky, Eran; Barry, Cornelius S

    2014-01-01

    Isoprenoids are diverse compounds that have their biosynthetic origin in the initial condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate to form C10 prenyl diphosphates that can be elongated by the addition of subsequent isopentenyl diphosphate units. These reactions are catalyzed by either cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs) or trans-prenyltransferases. The synthesis of volatile terpenes in plants typically proceeds through either geranyl diphosphate (C10) or trans-farnesyl diphosphate (C15), to yield monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively. However, terpene biosynthesis in glandular trichomes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and related wild relatives also occurs via the cis-substrates neryl diphosphate (NPP) and 2Z,6Z-farnesyl diphosphate (Z,Z-FPP). NPP and Z,Z-FPP are synthesized by neryl diphosphate synthase1 (NDPS1) and Z,Z-farnesyl diphosphate synthase (zFPS), which are encoded by the orthologous CPT1 locus in tomato and Solanum habrochaites, respectively. In this study, comparative sequence analysis of NDPS1 and zFPS enzymes from S. habrochaites accessions that synthesize either monoterpenes or sesquiterpenes was performed to identify amino acid residues that correlate with the ability to synthesize NPP or Z,Z-FPP. Subsequent structural modeling, coupled with site-directed mutagenesis, highlighted the importance of four amino acids located within conserved domain II of CPT enzymes that form part of the second α-helix, for determining substrate and product specificity of these enzymes. In particular, the relative positioning of aromatic amino acid residues at positions 100 and 107 determines the ability of these enzymes to synthesize NPP or Z,Z-FPP. This study provides insight into the biochemical evolution of terpene biosynthesis in the glandular trichomes of Solanum species.

  15. A resistance gene against potato late blight originating from Solanum × michoacanum maps to potato chromosome VII.

    PubMed

    Sliwka, Jadwiga; Jakuczun, Henryka; Chmielarz, Marcin; Hara-Skrzypiec, Agnieszka; Tomczyńska, Iga; Kilian, Andrzej; Zimnoch-Guzowska, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    Solanum ×  michoacanum (Bitter.) Rydb. is a diploid, 1 EBN (Endosperm Balance Number) nothospecies, a relative of potato originating from the area of Morelia in Michoacán State of Mexico that is believed to be a natural hybrid of S. bulbocastanum × S. pinnatisectum. Both parental species and S. michoacanum have been described as sources of resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. The gene for resistance to potato late blight, Rpi-mch1, originating from S. michoacanum was mapped to the chromosome VII of the potato genome. It confers high level of resistance since the plants possessing it showed only small necrotic lesions or no symptoms of the P. infestans infection and we could ascribe over 80% of variance observed in the late blight resistance test of the mapping population to the effect of the closest marker. Its localization on chromosome VII may correspond to the localization of the Rpi1 gene from S. pinnatisectum. When mapping Rpi-mch1, one of the first genetic maps made of 798 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers of a plant species from the Solanum genus and the first map of S. michoacanum, a 1EBN potato species was constructed. Particular chromosomes were identified using 48 sequence-specific PCR markers, originating mostly from the Tomato-EXPEN 2000 linkage map (SGN), but also from other sources. Recently, the first DArT linkage map of 2 EBN species Solanum phureja has been published and it shares 197 DArT markers with map obtained in this study, 88% of which are in the concordant positions.

  16. Short-term hybridisation activates Tnt1 and Tto1 Copia retrotransposons in wild tuber-bearing Solanum species.

    PubMed

    Paz, R C; Rendina González, A P; Ferrer, M S; Masuelli, R W

    2015-07-01

    Interspecific hybridisation in tuber-bearing species of Solanum is a common phenomenon and represents an important source of variability, crucial for adaptation and speciation of potato species. In this regard, the effects of interspecific hybridisation on retrotransposon families present in the genomes, and their consequent effects on generation of genetic variability in wild tuber-bearing Solanum species, are poorly characterised. The aim of this study was to analyse the activity of retrotransposons in inter- and intraspecific hybrids between S. kurtzianum and S. microdontum, obtained by controlled crosses, and the effects on morphological, genetic and epigenetic variability. For genetic and epigenetic analysis, S-SAP (sequence-specific amplification polymorphism) and TMD (transposon methylation display) techniques were used, respectively, with specific primers for Tnt1 and Tto1 retrotransposon families (Order LTR, Superfamily Copia). The results indicate that at morphological level, interspecific hybrid genotypes differ from their parental species, whereas derived intraspecific hybrids do not. In both cases, we observed significant reductions in pollen grain viability, and a negative correlation with Tnt1 mobility. Both retrotransposons, Tto1 and Tnt1, were mobilised in the genotypes analysed, with mobility ranging from 0 to 7.8%. Furthermore, at the epigenetic level, demethylation was detected in the vicinity of Tnt1 and Tto1 in the hybrids compared with the parental genotypes. These patterns were positively correlated with the activity of the retrotransposons. The results suggest a possible mechanism through which hybridisation events generate genetic variability in tuber-bearing species of Solanum through retrotranposon activation.

  17. Leaf surface sesquiterpene alcohols of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) and their influence on colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) feeding.

    PubMed

    Szafranek, Beata; Chrapkowska, Karolina; Waligóra, Danuta; Palavinskas, Richard; Banach, Arkadiusz; Szafranek, Janusz

    2006-10-01

    The structures of two previously unknown sesquiterpene alcohols of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) were assigned. The potato alcohols were obtained by steam-distillation, preparative column chromatography, and separation into fractions by HPLC on a silica gel column. The fractions were studied by GC-FID, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. The potato sesquiterpene alcohols were identified as kunzeaol (6-alpha-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4-diene) and ledol. These two compounds were used in feeding tests with larvae and beetles of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). In a bioassay, kunzeaol was found to act as a feeding attractant for the beetles.

  18. Effects of Potassium Mineral Fertilization on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield on a Chernozem Soil in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Brazíl. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 41:153-158. Márton, L. (2000).: Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium effects on potato quality. In: Agro markets and conditions. Agricultural University of Veszprém. 241-247. Keszthely. Hungary. Motta Macedo, M.C. (1976).: Absorcao de nutrientes por cultivares nacionais de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L.). Diss., Escola Superior. Luiz de Queiroz da Universidade de Sáo Paulo. Perrenoud, S.: (1993).: Potato. Fertilizing for high yield. IPI Bulletin. N.8. Basel. Switz. Siebold, M. (1971).: Kartoffelanbau auf kalifixierenden Böden. Kartoffelbau. 22:12-13. Yadav, S.C.-Tripathi, B.R. (1973).: Studies on soil moisture regimes and nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilization on yield of potato (S. tuberosum L.). Plant Sci. 5:97-104.

  19. Structural and functional characterization of a plant S-nitrosoglutathione reductase from Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Kubienová, Lucie; Kopečný, David; Tylichová, Martina; Briozzo, Pierre; Skopalová, Jana; Šebela, Marek; Navrátil, Milan; Tâche, Roselyne; Luhová, Lenka; Barroso, Juan B; Petřivalský, Marek

    2013-04-01

    S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), also known as S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione (HMGSH) dehydrogenase, belongs to the large alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily, namely to the class III ADHs. GSNOR catalyses the oxidation of HMGSH to S-formylglutathione using a catalytic zinc and NAD(+) as a coenzyme. The enzyme also catalyses the NADH-dependent reduction of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). In plants, GSNO has been suggested to serve as a nitric oxide (NO) reservoir locally or possibly as NO donor in distant cells and tissues. NO and NO-related molecules such as S-nitrosothiols (S-NOs) play a central role in the regulation of normal plant physiological processes and host defence. The enzyme thus participates in the cellular homeostasis of S-NOs and in the metabolism of reactive nitrogen species. Although GSNOR has recently been characterized from several organisms, this study represents the first detailed biochemical and structural characterization of a plant GSNOR, that from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SlGSNOR gene expression is higher in roots and stems compared to leaves of young plants. It is highly expressed in the pistil and stamens and in fruits during ripening. The enzyme is a dimer and preferentially catalyses reduction of GSNO while glutathione and S-methylglutathione behave as non-competitive inhibitors. Using NAD(+), the enzyme oxidizes HMGSH and other alcohols such as cinnamylalcohol, geraniol and ω-hydroxyfatty acids. The crystal structures of the apoenzyme, of the enzyme in complex with NAD(+) and in complex with NADH, solved up to 1.9 Å resolution, represent the first structures of a plant GSNOR. They confirm that the binding of the coenzyme is associated with the active site zinc movement and changes in its coordination. In comparison to the well characterized human GSNOR, plant GSNORs exhibit a difference in the composition of the anion-binding pocket, which negatively influences the affinity for the carboxyl group of ω-hydroxyfatty acids. PMID

  20. Molecular characterization of fruit-specific class III peroxidase genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chii-Jeng; Chan, Yuan-Li; Shien, Chin Hui; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, expression of four peroxidase genes, LePrx09, LePrx17, LePrx35 and LePrxA, was identified in immature tomato fruits, and the function in the regulation of fruit growth was characterized. Analysis of amino acid sequences revealed that these genes code for class III peroxidases, containing B, D and F conserved domains, which bind heme groups, and a buried salt bridge motif. LePrx35 and LePrxA were identified as novel peroxidase genes in Solanum lycopersicum (L.). The temporal expression patterns at various fruit growth stages revealed that LePrx35 and LePrxA were expressed only in immature green (IMG) fruits, whereas LePrx17 and LePrx09 were expressed in both immature and mature green fruits. Tissue-specific expression profiles indicated that only LePrx09 was expressed in the mesocarp but not the inner tissue of immature fruits. The effects of hormone treatments and stresses on the four genes were examined; only the expression levels of LePrx17 and LePrx09 were altered. Transcription of LePrx17 was up-regulated by jasmonic acid (JA) and pathogen infection and expression of LePrx09 was induced by ethephon, salicylic acid (SA) and JA, in particular, as well as wounding, pathogen infection and H2O2 stress. Tomato plants over-expressing LePrx09 displayed enhanced resistance to H2O2 stress, suggesting that LePrx09 may participate in the H2O2 signaling pathway to regulate fruit growth and disease resistance in tomato fruits.

  1. Dactylosporangium solaniradicis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from a root of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianlong; Liu, Chongxi; Ma, Zhaoxu; Zhou, Shuyu; Li, Wenchao; Li, Jiansong; Chu, Liyang; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-07-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-FJL2(T), was isolated from a tomato root (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and characterised using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-FJL2(T) are consistent with the description of the genus Dactylosporangium. Finger-shaped sporangia were observed to form on short sporangiophores branching from the substrate hyphae. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso- and 3-hydroxy-diaminopimelic acids; arabinose, mannose, rhamnose and xylose were found as whole-cell sugars. The phospholipid profile was found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16:0, C16:1 ω7c and iso-C15:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that strain NEAU-FJL2(T) belongs to the genus Dactylosporangium, with Dactylosporangium sucinum JCM 19831(T) (99.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Dactylosporangium darangshiense JCM 17441(T) (99.2 %), Dactylosporangium fulvum JCM 5631(T) (98.9 %) and Dactylosporangium roseum JCM 3364(T) (98.8 %) as the nearest phylogenetic relatives. However, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain NEAU-FJL2(T) can be distinguished from them. Consequently, it is proposed that strain NEAU-FJL2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Dactylosporangium, for which the name Dactylosporangium solaniradicis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-FJL2(T) (=CGMCC 4.7302(T) = DSM 100814(T)). PMID:27091125

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the MYB Transcription Factor Superfamily in Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenjun; Peng, Rihe; Tian, Yongsheng; Han, Hongjuan; Xu, Jing; Yao, Quanhong

    2016-08-01

    MYB proteins constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in the plant kingdom, members of which perform a variety of functions in plant biological processes. However, there are only very limited reports on the characterization of MYB transcription factors in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). In our study, a total of 127 MYB genes have been identified in the tomato genome. A complete overview of these MYB genes is presented, including the phylogeny, gene structures, protein motifs, chromosome locations and expression patterns. The 127 SlMYB proteins could be classified into 18 subgroups based on domain similarity and phylogenetic topology. Phylogenetic analysis of SlMYBs along with MYBs from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) indicated 14 subfamilies. Conserved motifs outside the MYB domain may reflect their functional conservation. The identified tomato MYB genes were distributed on 12 chromosomes at various densities but mainly in chromosomes 6 and 10 (12.6% and 11.8%, respectively). Genome-wide segmental and tandem duplications were also found, which may contribute to the expansion of SlMYB genes. RNA-sequencing and microarray data revealed tissue-specific and stress-responsive expression patterns of SlMYB genes. The expression profiles of SlMYB genes in response to salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA) were also investigated by real-time PCR. Moreover, ethylene-responsive element-binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motifs were found in 24 SlMYB proteins. Collectively, our comprehensive analysis of SlMYB genes will facilitate future functional studies of the tomato MYB gene family and probably other Solanaceae plants. PMID:27279646

  3. A two-year field study of phytoremediation using Solanum nigrum L. in China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Puhui; Song, Yufang; Jiang, Yongji; Tang, Xiwang; Tong, Yan'an; Gao, Pengcheng; Han, Wenshe

    2016-09-01

    A two-year in-situ phytoremediation trial was launched in Shenyang Zhangshi (Sewage) Irrigation Area (SZIA). The phytoremediation efficiency of Solanum nigrum L. was determined, by both monitoring the change of soil Cadmium level in the upper 20 cm of soil, and calculating the plant uptake of soil Cd. After two years experimental, by monitoring the soil Cd concentrations, The Cd concentrations decreased on average from 2.75 mg kg(-1)to 2.45 mg kg(-1) in the first year and from 2.33 mg kg(-1) to 1.53 mg kg(-1) in the second year, amounting to a decrease by a factor of 10.6% in the first year and 12% in the second year. After two years phytoremediation by S. nigrum, Cd concentrations of the seven experimental plots with S. nigrum growth decreased from 2.75 mg kg(-1) to 1.53 mg kg(-1), a decrease by a factor of 24.9%. And the soil Cd concentration decreased only 2.1% and 1.7% in the bared experimental plot. And the calculating of Cd uptake by S. nigrum shown that, the plants uptake 4.46% and 5.18% of the total soil Cd in 2008 and 2009, while the soil Cd concentrations decreased by a factor of 10.6% in 2008 and 12.1% in 2009. PMID:27064185

  4. Effect of Inoculation with Glomus versiforme on Cadmium Accumulation, Antioxidant Activities and Phytochelatins of Solanum photeinocarpum

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shi-Yun; Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yu-Tao; Li, Shao-Shan; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The plant growth, phosphate acquisition, Cd translocation, phytochelatins (PCs) production and antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), ascorbate (ASA) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] were investigated in Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum photeinocarpum inoculated with Glomus versiforme BGC GD01C (Gv) in Cd-added soils (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg Cd kg-1 soil). Mycorrhizal colonization rates were generally high (from 77% to 94%), and hardly affected by Cd. Gv colonization significantly enhanced P acquisition, growth and total Cd uptakes in both shoots and roots of S. photeinocarpum at all Cd levels. Meanwhile, Gv symbiosis significantly increased Cd concentration in the roots, and decreased Cd concentration in the shoots at all Cd levels, which indicates that Gv could promote phytostabilization by enhancing Cd accumulation in the roots to inhibit its translocation to shoots and the “dilution effects” linked to an increase in plant dry matter yield and a reduced Cd partitioning to shoots. Moreover, the improvement of CAT, POD and APX activities in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants infers that Gv symbiosis helped S. photeinocarpum to relieve oxidative damage to biomolecules in Cd-contaminated soil. The evident decline of MDA content in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants indicates that Gv symbiosis evidently improved antioxidant activities, and the enhancement of PCs production in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants suggests that Gv-inoculated plant may be more efficient to relieve Cd phytotoxicity. Therefore, the possible mechanisms of Cd phytotoxicity alleviation by Gv can be concluded as the decline of Cd concentration in the shoots and the improvement of P acquisition, PCs production and activities of CAT, POD, APX in mycorrhizal plants. PMID:26176959

  5. In vitro anticancer activity of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, C; Emi, N; Arun, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Ahilan, B; Sangeetha, B; Duraipandiyan, V; Inaguma, Yoko; Okamoto, Akinao; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A; Perumal, P T

    2015-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the anticancer activity of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action in MCF-7 cells. Cytotoxic properties of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were carried out against MCF-7 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Ethyl acetate extract showed good cytototoxic activities compared to hexane and methanol extracts. Methyl caffeate was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. Cytotoxic properties of methyl caffeate was investigated against MCF-7, A549, COLO320, HepG-2 and Vero cells. The compound showed potent cytotoxic properties against MCF-7 cells compared to A549, COLO320 and HepG-2 cells. Methyl caffeate significantly reduced cell proliferation and increased formation of fragmented DNA and apoptotic body in MCF-7 cells. Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, p53, caspase-3, PARP and cytochrome c release were detected by western blot analysis. The activities of caspases-3 and PARP gradually increased after the addition of isolated compound. Bcl-2 protein was down regulated; Bid and Bax were up regulated after the treatment with methyl caffeate. Molecular docking studies showed that the compound bound stably to the active sites of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1), B cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (MDM2) and tubulin. The results strongly suggested that methyl caffeate induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via caspase activation through cytochrome c release from mitochondria. PMID:26415618

  6. Physiological and proteomic analysis in chloroplasts of Solanum lycopersicum L. under silicon efficiency and salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2014-01-01

    Tomato plants often grow in saline environments in Mediterranean countries where salt accumulation in the soil is a major abiotic stress that limits its productivity. However, silicon (Si) supplementation has been reported to improve tolerance against several forms of abiotic stress. The primary aim of our study was to investigate, using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches, salinity stress in chloroplasts of tomato under silicon supplementation. Tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were grown in nutrient media in the presence or absence of NaCl and supplemented with silicon for 5 days. Salinity stress caused oxidative damage, followed by a decrease in silicon concentrations in the leaves of the tomato plants. However, supplementation with silicon had an overall protective effect against this stress. The major physiological parameters measured in our studies including total chlorophyll and carotenoid content were largely decreased under salinity stress, but were recovered in the presence of silicon. Insufficient levels of net-photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were also largely improved by silicon supplementation. Proteomics analysis of chloroplasts analyzed by 2D-BN-PAGE (second-dimensional blue native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis) revealed a high sensitivity of multiprotein complex proteins (MCPs) such as photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII) to the presence of saline. A significant reduction in cytochrome b6/f and the ATP-synthase complex was also alleviated by silicon during salinity stress, while the complex forms of light harvesting complex trimers and monomers (LHCs) were rapidly up-regulated. Our results suggest that silicon plays an important role in moderating damage to chloroplasts and their metabolism in saline environments. We therefore hypothesize that tomato plants have a greater capacity for tolerating saline stress through the improvement of photosynthetic metabolism and chloroplast proteome expression

  7. Population Dynamics of Soil Pseudomonads in the Rhizosphere of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Loper, J E; Haack, C; Schroth, M N

    1985-02-01

    Rhizosphere population dynamics of seven Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida strains isolated from rhizospheres of various agricultural plants were studied on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in field soil under controlled environmental conditions. Rhizosphere populations of two strains (B10 and B4) were quantitatively related to initial seed piece inoculum levels when plants were grown at -0.3 bar matric potential. At a given inoculum level, rhizosphere populations of strain B4 were consistently greater than those of strain B10. In vivo growth curves on 4-cm root tip-proximal segments indicated that both strains grew at similar rates in the potato rhizosphere, but large populations of strain B10 were not maintained at 24 degrees C after 7 h, whereas those of strain B4 were maintained for at least 40 h. Although both strains grew more rapidly in the rhizosphere at 24 degrees C than at 12 degrees C, their rhizosphere populations after seed piece inoculation were generally greater at 12 or 18 degrees C, indicating that in vivo growth did not solely determine rhizosphere populations in these studies. In vitro osmotolerance of seven Pseudomonas strains (including strains B4 and B10) was correlated with their abilities to establish stable populations in the rhizosphere of potato. Stability of rhizosphere populations of the Pseudomonas strains studied here was maximized at low (i.e., 12 degrees C) soil temperatures. These results indicate that Pseudomonas strains differ in their capacity to maintain stable rhizosphere populations in association with potato. This capacity, distinct from the ability to grow in the rhizosphere, may limit the establishment of rhizosphere populations under some environmental conditions.

  8. Efficient transformation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) using a binary vector in Agrobacterium rhizogenes.

    PubMed

    Visser, R G; Jacobsen, E; Witholt, B; Feenstra, W J

    1989-10-01

    We transformed three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes by using A. rhizogenes or a mixture of A. rhizogenes and A. tumefaciens. Inoculations of potato stem segments were performed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes AM8703 containing two independent plasmids: the wild-type Ri-plasmid, pRI1855, and the binary vector plasmid, pBI121. In mixed inoculation experiments, Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA1334 (pRI1855) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens AM8706 containing the disarmed Ti-plasmid (pAL4404) and the binary vector plasmid (pBI121) were mixed in a 1∶1 ratio. The T-DNA of the binary vector plasmid pBI121 contained two marker genes encoding neomycin phosphotransferase, which confers resistance to kanamycin, and β-glucuronidase. Both transformation procedures gave rise to hairy roots on potato stem segments within 2 weeks. With both procedures it was possible to obtain transformed hairy roots, able to grow on kanamycin and possessing β-glucuronidase activity, without selection pressure. The efficiency of the A. rhizogenes AM8703 transformation, however, was much higher than that of the "mixed" transformation. Up to 60% of the hairy roots resulting from the former transformation method were kanamycin resistant and possessed β-glucuronidase activity. There was no correlation between the height of the kanamycin resistance and that of the β-glucuronidase activity in a root clone. Hairy roots obtained from a diploid potato genotype turned out to be diploid in 80% of the cases. Transformed potato plants were recovered from Agrobacterium rhizogenes AM8703-induced hairy roots.

  9. In Vivo Assessment of Genotoxic, Antigenotoxic and Anticarcinogenic Activities of Solanum lycocarpum Fruits Glycoalkaloidic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Munari, Carla Carolina; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Leandro, Luis Fernando; Pimenta, Leandra Mara; Ferreira, Natália Helen; de Carvalho da Costa, Juliana; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of Solanum lycocarpum, known as wolf-fruit, are used in folk medicine, and because of that we have evaluated both the genotoxic potential of its glycoalkaloidic extract (SL) and its influence on the genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate. Furthermore, the potential blocking effect of SL intake in the initial stage of colon carcinogenesis in Wistar rats was investigated in a short-term (4-week) bioassay using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as biomarker. The genotoxic potential was evaluated using the Swiss mice peripheral blood micronucleus test. The animals were treated with different doses of SL (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days, and the peripheral blood samples were collected at 48 h, 7 days and 14 days after starting the treatment. For antigenotoxicity assessment, MMS was administered on the 14th day, and after 24 h the harvesting of bone marrow and liver cells was performed, for the micronucleus and comet assays, respectively. In the ACF assay, male Wistar rats were given four subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg/kg b.w.), twice a week, during two weeks to induce ACF. The treatment with SL (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg b.w.) was given for four weeks during and after carcinogen treatment to investigate the potential beneficial effects of SL on DMH-induced ACF. The results demonstrated that SL was not genotoxic in the mouse micronucleus test. In animals treated with SL and MMS, the frequencies of micronucleus and extensions of DNA damage were significantly reduced in comparison with the animals receiving only MMS. Regarding the ACF assay, SL significantly reduced the frequency of ACF induced by DMH. PMID:25405606

  10. Nitric Oxide Is Associated with Long-Term Zinc Tolerance in Solanum nigrum1[W

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Yin, Hengxia; Li, Yulong; Liu, Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as a signal molecule that interplays with reactive oxygen species in response to heavy metal stresses. Roles of NO in regulating cadmium toxicity and iron deficiency have been proposed; however, the function of NO in zinc (Zn) tolerance in plants remains unclear. Here, we investigated NO accumulation and its role in plant Zn tolerance. Zn-induced NO production promoted an increase in reactive oxygen species accumulation in Solanum nigrum roots by modulating the expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes. Subsequently, programmed cell death (PCD) was observed in primary root tips. Inhibiting NO accumulation by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (a specific NO scavenger) or NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (a NO synthase inhibitor) prevented the increase of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide as well as the subsequent cell death in the root tips, supporting the role of NO in Zn-induced PCD in the root tips. Zn-induced NO production affected the length of primary roots, the number of lateral roots, and root hair growth and thereby modulated root system architecture and activity. Investigation of metal contents in Zn-treated roots suggests that NO is required for metal (especially iron) uptake and homeostasis in plants exposed to excess Zn. Taken together, our results indicate that NO production and the subsequent PCD in root tips exposed to excess Zn are favorable for the S. nigrum seedling response to long-term Zn toxicity by modulating root system architecture and subsequent adaptation to Zn stress. PMID:20855519

  11. Ethylene suppresses tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit set through modification of gibberellin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Hao, Shuhei; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Ozeki-Iida, Yuko; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Zhong, Silin; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Heta, Yumi; Ezura, Hiroshi; Ariizumi, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    Fruit set in angiosperms marks the transition from flowering to fruit production and a commitment to seed dispersal. Studies with Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit have shown that pollination and subsequent fertilization induce the biosynthesis of several hormones, including auxin and gibberellins (GAs), which stimulate fruit set. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the gaseous hormone ethylene may also influence fruit set, but this has yet to be substantiated with molecular or mechanistic data. Here, we examined fruit set at the biochemical and genetic levels, using hormone and inhibitor treatments, and mutants that affect auxin or ethylene signaling. The expression of system-1 ethylene biosynthetic genes and the production of ethylene decreased during pollination-dependent fruit set in wild-type tomato and during pollination-independent fruit set in the auxin hypersensitive mutant iaa9-3. Blocking ethylene perception in emasculated flowers, using either the ethylene-insensitive Sletr1-1 mutation or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), resulted in elongated parthenocarpic fruit and increased cell expansion, whereas simultaneous treatment with the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) inhibited parthenocarpy. Additionally, the application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to pollinated ovaries reduced fruit set. Furthermore, Sletr1-1 parthenocarpic fruits did not exhibit increased auxin accumulation, but rather had elevated levels of bioactive GAs, most likely reflecting an increase in transcripts encoding the GA-biosynthetic enzyme SlGA20ox3, as well as a reduction in the levels of transcripts encoding the GA-inactivating enzymes SlGA2ox4 and SlGA2ox5. Taken together, our results suggest that ethylene plays a role in tomato fruit set by suppressing GA metabolism. PMID:25996898

  12. Development of selective markers linked to a major QTL for parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Koji; Saito, Takeo; Negoro, Satomi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Ohyama, Akio; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    Parthenocarpy, the ability to set fruits without pollination, is a useful trait for setting fruit under unfavorable conditions. To identify the loci controlling parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), we constructed linkage maps by using co-dominant simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism markers in F(2) populations derived from intraspecific crosses between two non-parthenocarpic lines (LS1934 and Nakate-Shinkuro) and a parthenocarpic line (AE-P03). Total map distances were 1,414.6 cM (ALF2: LS1934 x AE-P03) and 1,153.8 cM (NAF2: Nakate-Shinkuro x AE-P03), respectively. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses revealed two QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 8, which we denoted as Controlling parthenocarpy3.1 (Cop3.1) and Cop8.1, respectively. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) of Cop3.1 was 6.3% in ALF2 (LOD = 4.2) and 10.6% in NAF2 (LOD = 3.0). The PVE of Cop8.1 was 45.7% in ALF2 (LOD = 23.8) and 29.7% in NAF2 (LOD = 7.9). Using a population of backcross inbred lines, we confirmed the effect of Cop8.1, but there was no evidence to support the contribution of Cop3.1. We need to verify the effect of Cop3.1 under various temperature conditions. In addition, we clarified the effectiveness of selective SSR markers, emf21H22 and emh11J10, mapped on each side of Cop8.1 in other F(2) populations derived from various parental combinations. This is the first report concerning QTL analysis of parthenocarpy in eggplant using molecular markers. It will be useful in marker-assisted selection and in revealing the genomic mechanism underlying parthenocarpy in eggplant. PMID:22301906

  13. Survey of Genes Involved in Biosynthesis, Transport, and Signaling of Phytohormones with Focus on Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Jegadeesan, Sridharan; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Firon, Nurit; Schleiff, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones control the development and growth of plants, as well as their response to biotic and abiotic stress. The seven most well-studied phytohormone classes defined today are as follows: auxins, ethylene, cytokinin, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids. The basic principle of hormone regulation is conserved in all plants, but recent results suggest adaptations of synthesis, transport, or signaling pathways to the architecture and growth environment of different plant species. Thus, we aimed to define the extent to which information from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is transferable to other plants such as Solanum lycopersicum. We extracted the co-orthologues of genes coding for major pathway enzymes in A. thaliana from the translated genomes of 12 species from the clade Viridiplantae. Based on predicted domain architecture and localization of the identified proteins from all 13 species, we inspected the conservation of phytohormone pathways. The comparison was complemented by expression analysis of (co-) orthologous genes in S. lycopersicum. Altogether, this information allowed the assignment of putative functional equivalents between A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum but also pointed to some variations between the pathways in eudicots, monocots, mosses, and green algae. These results provide first insights into the conservation of the various phytohormone pathways between the model system A. thaliana and crop plants such as tomato. We conclude that orthologue prediction in combination with analysis of functional domain architecture and intracellular localization and expression studies are sufficient tools to transfer information from model plants to other plant species. Our results support the notion that hormone synthesis, transport, and response for most part of the pathways are conserved, and species-specific variations can be found. PMID:27695302

  14. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (solanum L. Section petota).

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; de Haan, Stef; Juárez, Henry; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Bernau, Vivian; Salas, Alberto; Heider, Bettina; Simon, Reinhard; Maxted, Nigel; Spooner, David M

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives have a long history of use in potato breeding, particularly for pest and disease resistance, and are expected to be increasingly used in the search for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Their current and future use in crop improvement depends on their availability in ex situ germplasm collections. As these plants are impacted in the wild by habitat destruction and climate change, actions to ensure their conservation ex situ become ever more urgent. We analyzed the state of ex situ conservation of 73 of the closest wild relatives of potato (Solanum section Petota) with the aim of establishing priorities for further collecting to fill important gaps in germplasm collections. A total of 32 species (43.8%), were assigned high priority for further collecting due to severe gaps in their ex situ collections. Such gaps are most pronounced in the geographic center of diversity of the wild relatives in Peru. A total of 20 and 18 species were assessed as medium and low priority for further collecting, respectively, with only three species determined to be sufficiently represented currently. Priorities for further collecting include: (i) species completely lacking representation in germplasm collections; (ii) other high priority taxa, with geographic emphasis on the center of species diversity; (iii) medium priority species. Such collecting efforts combined with further emphasis on improving ex situ conservation technologies and methods, performing genotypic and phenotypic characterization of wild relative diversity, monitoring wild populations in situ, and making conserved wild relatives and their associated data accessible to the global research community, represent key steps in ensuring the long-term availability of the wild genetic resources of this important crop.

  15. Analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the extract of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Bhuyan, Shakhawat Hossan; Matin, Maima; Hossain, Faruq; Khatun, Farjana; Taiab, Abu; Jamaluddin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the ethanol extract of leaves of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Family: Solanaceae). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition test. The neuropharmacological activities were evaluated using hole cross, hole board, and elevated plus-maze test and the anti-diarrheal activity was assessed using castor oil-induced diarrhea inhibition method. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was carried out for assessing the cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of the leaves. Except cytotoxic activity, all the tests were conducted on mice. Results: The extract at oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight showed highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in number of writhing, 52.1±0.66 and 4.4±0.64 compared with the control (78.6±0.29) with the percentage of inhibitions of writhing response were found to be 33.72% and 94.40%, respectively. Compare with the control, the extract at both doses showed significant sedative effect in hole cross test. In hole board test, the extract exhibited highly significant (p<0.001) anxiolytic activity at dose of (200 mg/kg), while the same activity was observed at dose of 400 mg/kg in elevated plus-maze test. The extract showed highly significant (p<0.001) anti-diarrheal activity in a dose-dependent manner. With the extract, significant lethality to brine shrimp was found with LC50 value of 61.66±0.9 μg/ml, which was comparable with the positive control (LC50: 11.89±0.8 µg/ml). Conclusion: The results from the present studies support the traditional uses of this plant part and could form the basis of further investigation including compound isolation. PMID:25050287

  16. Effect of Inoculation with Glomus versiforme on Cadmium Accumulation, Antioxidant Activities and Phytochelatins of Solanum photeinocarpum.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi-Yun; Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yu-Tao; Li, Shao-Shan; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The plant growth, phosphate acquisition, Cd translocation, phytochelatins (PCs) production and antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), ascorbate (ASA) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] were investigated in Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum photeinocarpum inoculated with Glomus versiforme BGC GD01C (Gv) in Cd-added soils (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg Cd kg-1 soil). Mycorrhizal colonization rates were generally high (from 77% to 94%), and hardly affected by Cd. Gv colonization significantly enhanced P acquisition, growth and total Cd uptakes in both shoots and roots of S. photeinocarpum at all Cd levels. Meanwhile, Gv symbiosis significantly increased Cd concentration in the roots, and decreased Cd concentration in the shoots at all Cd levels, which indicates that Gv could promote phytostabilization by enhancing Cd accumulation in the roots to inhibit its translocation to shoots and the "dilution effects" linked to an increase in plant dry matter yield and a reduced Cd partitioning to shoots. Moreover, the improvement of CAT, POD and APX activities in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants infers that Gv symbiosis helped S. photeinocarpum to relieve oxidative damage to biomolecules in Cd-contaminated soil. The evident decline of MDA content in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants indicates that Gv symbiosis evidently improved antioxidant activities, and the enhancement of PCs production in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants suggests that Gv-inoculated plant may be more efficient to relieve Cd phytotoxicity. Therefore, the possible mechanisms of Cd phytotoxicity alleviation by Gv can be concluded as the decline of Cd concentration in the shoots and the improvement of P acquisition, PCs production and activities of CAT, POD, APX in mycorrhizal plants. PMID:26176959

  17. Silicon Enhances Water Stress Tolerance by Improving Root Hydraulic Conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Han, Weihua; Feng, Ru; Hu, Yanhong; Guo, Jia; Gong, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) can improve drought tolerance in plants, but the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous research has been concentrating on Si's role in leaf water maintenance in Si accumulators, while little information is available on its role in water uptake and in less Si-accumulating plants. Here, we investigated the effects of Si on root water uptake and its role in decreasing oxidative damage in relation to root hydraulic conductance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Zhongza No.9') under water stress. Tomato seedlings were subjected to water stress induced by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol-6000 in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM added silicate. The results showed that Si addition ameliorated the inhibition in tomato growth and photosynthesis, and improved water status under water stress. The root hydraulic conductance of tomato plants was decreased under water stress, and it was significantly increased by added Si. There was no significant contribution of osmotic adjustment in Si-enhanced root water uptake under water stress. The transcriptions of plasma membrane aquaporin genes were not obviously changed by Si under water stress. Water stress increased the production of reactive oxygen species and induced oxidative damage, while added Si reversed these. In addition, Si addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the levels of ascorbic acid and glutathione in the roots under stress. It is concluded that Si enhances the water stress tolerance via enhancing root hydraulic conductance and water uptake in tomato plants. Si-mediated decrease in membrane oxidative damage may have contributed to the enhanced root hydraulic conductance.

  18. Hormonal changes during salinity-induced leaf senescence in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Albacete, Alfonso; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Acosta, Manuel; Romero-Aranda, Remedios; Dodd, Ian C.; Lutts, Stanley; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Leaf senescence is one of the most limiting factors to plant productivity under salinity. Both the accumulation of specific toxic ions (e.g. Na+) and changes in leaf hormone relations are involved in the regulation of this process. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Moneymaker) were cultivated for 3 weeks under high salinity (100 mM NaCl) and leaf senescence-related parameters were studied during leaf development in relation to Na+ and K+ contents and changes in abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Na+ accumulated to a similar extent in both leaves 4 and 5 (numbering from the base of the plant) and more quickly during the third week, while concurrently K+ contents sharply decreased. However, photosystem II efficiency, measured as the Fv/Fm ratio, decreased from the second week of salinization in leaf 4 but only at the end of the third week in the younger leaf 5. In the prematurely senescent leaf 4, ABA content increased linearly while IAA strongly decreased with salinization time. Although zeatin (Z) levels were scarcely affected by salinity, zeatin-riboside (ZR) and the total cytokinin content (Z+ZR) progressively decreased by 50% from the imposition of the stress. ACC was the only hormonal compound that increased in leaf tissue coincident with the onset of oxidative damage and the decline in chlorophyll fluorescence, and prior to massive Na+ accumulation. Indeed, (Z+ZR) and ACC contents and their ratio (Z+ZR/ACC) were the hormonal parameters best correlated with the onset and progression of leaf senescence. The influence of different hormonal changes on salt-induced leaf senescence is discussed. PMID:18573798

  19. Chemical characterization, antioxidant properties, and volatile constituents of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) cultivated in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Pérez, Ana M; Vaillant, Fabrice

    2009-03-01

    Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a native fruit of the Andes, cultivated and consumed mainly in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America. Because of its pleasant aroma and attractive color, it has high potential as an ingredient of products such as juices, nectars, and jams. The main characteristics of mature naranjilla fruits cultivated in Costa Rica were assessed, including sugar content, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC), and total polyphenolic and ascorbic acid content. Carotenoid and volatile compound identification was also done. The samples showed sucrose, glucose, and fructose content of 1.6 +/- 0.3, 0.68 +/- 0.05, and 0.7 +/- 0.1 g/100 g, respectively. Total titratable acidity was 2.63 +/- 0.07 g citric acid equivalent / 100 g and total soluble solids amounted to 9.1 +/- 0.5 degrees Brix. H-ORAC value was 17 +/- 1 micromol Trolox equivalent /g, total polyphenolic content was 48 +/- 3 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g and ascorbic acid content was 12.5 +/- 0.0 mg/100 g. Carotenoid content of the whole fruit and pulp was 33.3 +/- 0.6 and 7.2 +/- 0.3 microg/g, respectively. The predominant carotenoid among the compounds identified in the whole fruit was beta-carotene. Ten volatile compounds were identified in naranjillapulp, the predominant being methyl butanoate. The chemical composition of naranjilla cultivated in Costa Rica does not seem to differ from that previously reported in studies at different locations.

  20. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase. PMID:15890680

  1. Profiles of the biosynthesis and metabolism of pyridine nucleotides in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Katahira, Riko; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    As part of a research program on nucleotide metabolism in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.), profiles of pyridine (nicotinamide) metabolism were examined based on the in situ metabolic fate of radio-labelled precursors and the in vitro activities of enzymes. In potato tubers, [(3)H]quinolinic acid, which is an intermediate of de novo pyridine nucleotide synthesis, and [(14)C]nicotinamide, a catabolite of NAD, were utilised for pyridine nucleotide synthesis. The in situ tracer experiments and in vitro enzyme assays suggest the operation of multiple pyridine nucleotide cycles. In addition to the previously proposed cycle consisting of seven metabolites, we found a new cycle that includes newly discovered nicotinamide riboside deaminase which is also functional in potato tubers. This cycle bypasses nicotinamide and nicotinic acid; it is NAD --> nicotinamide mononucleotide --> nicotinamide riboside --> nicotinic acid riboside --> nicotinic acid mononucleotide --> nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide --> NAD. Degradation of the pyridine ring was extremely low in potato tubers. Nicotinic acid glucoside is formed from nicotinic acid in potato tubers. Comparative studies of [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid metabolism indicate that nicotinic acid is converted to nicotinic acid glucoside in all organs of potato plants. Trigonelline synthesis from [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid was also found. Conversion was greater in green parts of plants, such as leaves and stem, than in underground parts of potato plants. Nicotinic acid utilised for the biosynthesis of these conjugates seems to be derived not only from the pyridine nucleotide cycle, but also from the de novo synthesis of nicotinic acid mononucleotide. PMID:19820966

  2. Silicon Enhances Water Stress Tolerance by Improving Root Hydraulic Conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Han, Weihua; Feng, Ru; Hu, Yanhong; Guo, Jia; Gong, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) can improve drought tolerance in plants, but the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous research has been concentrating on Si’s role in leaf water maintenance in Si accumulators, while little information is available on its role in water uptake and in less Si-accumulating plants. Here, we investigated the effects of Si on root water uptake and its role in decreasing oxidative damage in relation to root hydraulic conductance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Zhongza No.9’) under water stress. Tomato seedlings were subjected to water stress induced by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol-6000 in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM added silicate. The results showed that Si addition ameliorated the inhibition in tomato growth and photosynthesis, and improved water status under water stress. The root hydraulic conductance of tomato plants was decreased under water stress, and it was significantly increased by added Si. There was no significant contribution of osmotic adjustment in Si-enhanced root water uptake under water stress. The transcriptions of plasma membrane aquaporin genes were not obviously changed by Si under water stress. Water stress increased the production of reactive oxygen species and induced oxidative damage, while added Si reversed these. In addition, Si addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the levels of ascorbic acid and glutathione in the roots under stress. It is concluded that Si enhances the water stress tolerance via enhancing root hydraulic conductance and water uptake in tomato plants. Si-mediated decrease in membrane oxidative damage may have contributed to the enhanced root hydraulic conductance. PMID:26941762

  3. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Plants Subjected to Boron Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Cervilla, Luis M.; Blasco, Begoña; Ríos, Juan J.; Romero, Luis; Ruiz, Juan M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Boron (B) toxicity triggers the formation of reactive oxygen species in plant tissues. However, there is still a lack of knowledge as to how B toxicity affects the plant antioxidant defence system. It has been suggested that ascorbate could be important against B stress, although existing information is limited in this respect. The objective of this study was to analyse how ascorbate and some other components of the antioxidant network respond to B toxicity. Methods Two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivars (‘Kosaco’ and ‘Josefina’) were subjected to 0·05 (control), 0·5 and 2 mm B. The following were studied in leaves: dry weight; relative leaf growth rate; total and free B; H2O2; malondialdehyde; ascorbate; glutathione; sugars; total non-enzymatic antioxidant activity, and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, ascorbate oxidase and l-galactose dehydrogenase. Key Results The B-toxicity treatments diminished growth and boosted the amount of B, malondialdehyde and H2O2 in the leaves of the two cultivars, these trends being more pronounced in ‘Josefina’ than in ‘Kosaco’. B toxicity increased ascorbate concentration in both cultivars and increased glutathione only in ‘Kosaco’. Activities of antioxidant- and ascorbate-metabolizing enzymes were also induced. Conclusions High B concentration in the culture medium provokes oxidative damage in tomato leaves and induces a general increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. In particular, B toxicity increased ascorbate pool size. It also increased the activity of l-galactose dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in ascorbate biosynthesis, and the activity of enzymes of the Halliwell–Asada cycle. This work therefore provides a starting point towards a better understanding of the role of ascorbate in the plant response against B stress. PMID:17660516

  4. Phytostabilization of nickel by the zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. Are metallothioneins involved?

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Pedro; Fidalgo, Fernanda; Almeida, Agostinho; Teixeira, Jorge

    2012-08-01

    Some heavy metals (HM) are highly reactive and consequently can be toxic to living cells when present at high levels. Consequently, strategies for reducing HM toxicity in the environmental must be undertaken. This work focused on evaluating the Nickel (Ni) accumulation potential of the hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L., and the participation of metallothioneins (MT) in the plant Ni homeostasis. Metallothioneins (MT) are gene-encoded metal chelators that participate in the transport, sequestration and storage of metals. After different periods of exposure to different Ni concentrations, plant biometric and biochemical parameters were accessed to determine the effects caused by this pollutant. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR reactions were performed to investigate the specific accumulation of MT-related transcripts throughout the plant and in response to Ni exposure. The data obtained revealed that Ni induced toxicity symptoms and accumulated mostly in roots, where it caused membrane damage in the shock-treated plants, with a parallel increase of free proline content, suggesting that proline participates in protecting root cells from oxidative stress. The MT-specific mRNA accumulation analysis showed that MT2a- and MT2d-encoding genes are constitutively active, that Ni stimulated their transcript accumulation, and also that Ni induced the de novo accumulation of MT2c- and MT3-related transcripts in shoots, exerting no influence on MT1 mRNA accumulation. These results strongly suggest the involvement of MT2a, MT2c, MT2d and MT3 in S. nigrum Ni homeostasis and detoxification, this way contributing to the clarification of the roles the various types of MTs play in metal homeostasis and detoxification in plants. PMID:22763093

  5. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase.

  6. Survey of Genes Involved in Biosynthesis, Transport, and Signaling of Phytohormones with Focus on Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Jegadeesan, Sridharan; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Firon, Nurit; Schleiff, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones control the development and growth of plants, as well as their response to biotic and abiotic stress. The seven most well-studied phytohormone classes defined today are as follows: auxins, ethylene, cytokinin, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids. The basic principle of hormone regulation is conserved in all plants, but recent results suggest adaptations of synthesis, transport, or signaling pathways to the architecture and growth environment of different plant species. Thus, we aimed to define the extent to which information from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is transferable to other plants such as Solanum lycopersicum. We extracted the co-orthologues of genes coding for major pathway enzymes in A. thaliana from the translated genomes of 12 species from the clade Viridiplantae. Based on predicted domain architecture and localization of the identified proteins from all 13 species, we inspected the conservation of phytohormone pathways. The comparison was complemented by expression analysis of (co-) orthologous genes in S. lycopersicum. Altogether, this information allowed the assignment of putative functional equivalents between A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum but also pointed to some variations between the pathways in eudicots, monocots, mosses, and green algae. These results provide first insights into the conservation of the various phytohormone pathways between the model system A. thaliana and crop plants such as tomato. We conclude that orthologue prediction in combination with analysis of functional domain architecture and intracellular localization and expression studies are sufficient tools to transfer information from model plants to other plant species. Our results support the notion that hormone synthesis, transport, and response for most part of the pathways are conserved, and species-specific variations can be found.

  7. Association genetics in Solanum tuberosum provides new insights into potato tuber bruising and enzymatic tissue discoloration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most agronomic plant traits result from complex molecular networks involving multiple genes and from environmental factors. One such trait is the enzymatic discoloration of fruit and tuber tissues initiated by mechanical impact (bruising). Tuber susceptibility to bruising is a complex trait of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) that is crucial for crop quality. As phenotypic evaluation of bruising is cumbersome, the application of diagnostic molecular markers would empower the selection of low bruising potato varieties. The genetic factors and molecular networks underlying enzymatic tissue discoloration are sparsely known. Hitherto there is no association study dealing with tuber bruising and diagnostic markers for enzymatic discoloration are rare. Results The natural genetic diversity for bruising susceptibility was evaluated in elite middle European potato germplasm in order to elucidate its molecular basis. Association genetics using a candidate gene approach identified allelic variants in genes that function in tuber bruising and enzymatic browning. Two hundred and five tetraploid potato varieties and breeding clones related by descent were evaluated for two years in six environments for tuber bruising susceptibility, specific gravity, yield, shape and plant maturity. Correlations were found between different traits. In total 362 polymorphic DNA fragments, derived from 33 candidate genes and 29 SSR loci, were scored in the population and tested for association with the traits using a mixed model approach, which takes into account population structure and kinship. Twenty one highly significant (p < 0.001) and robust marker-trait associations were identified. Conclusions The observed trait correlations and associated marker fragments provide new insight in the molecular basis of bruising susceptibility and its natural variation. The markers diagnostic for increased or decreased bruising susceptibility will facilitate the combination of superior

  8. A Predictive Degree Day Model for the Development of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Infesting Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, O M; Michels, G J; Pierson, E A; Heinz, K M

    2015-08-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.' Zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of B. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. Lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant B. cockerelli populations in south Texas and Mexico. To initiate the development of an integrated approach of controlling B. cockerelli, we used constant temperature studies, nonlinear and linear modeling, and field sampling data to determine and validate the degree day parameters for development of B. cockerelli infesting potato. Degree day model predictions for three different B. cockerelli life stages were tested against data collected from pesticide-free plots. The model was most accurate at predicting egg-to-egg and nymph-to-nymph peaks, with less accuracy in predicting adult-to-adult peaks. It is impractical to predict first occurrence of B. cockerelli in potato plantings as adults are present as soon cotyledons break through the soil. Therefore, we suggest integrating the degree day model into current B. cockerelli management practices using a two-phase method. Phase 1 occurs from potato planting through to the first peak in a B. cockerelli field population, which is managed using current practices. Phase 2 begins with the first B. cockerelli population peak and the degree day model is initiated to predict the subsequent population peaks, thus providing growers a tool to proactively manage this pest. PMID:26314066

  9. A Predictive Degree Day Model for the Development of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Infesting Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, O M; Michels, G J; Pierson, E A; Heinz, K M

    2015-08-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.' Zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of B. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. Lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant B. cockerelli populations in south Texas and Mexico. To initiate the development of an integrated approach of controlling B. cockerelli, we used constant temperature studies, nonlinear and linear modeling, and field sampling data to determine and validate the degree day parameters for development of B. cockerelli infesting potato. Degree day model predictions for three different B. cockerelli life stages were tested against data collected from pesticide-free plots. The model was most accurate at predicting egg-to-egg and nymph-to-nymph peaks, with less accuracy in predicting adult-to-adult peaks. It is impractical to predict first occurrence of B. cockerelli in potato plantings as adults are present as soon cotyledons break through the soil. Therefore, we suggest integrating the degree day model into current B. cockerelli management practices using a two-phase method. Phase 1 occurs from potato planting through to the first peak in a B. cockerelli field population, which is managed using current practices. Phase 2 begins with the first B. cockerelli population peak and the degree day model is initiated to predict the subsequent population peaks, thus providing growers a tool to proactively manage this pest.

  10. Mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activity of protein of Solanum villosum leaves

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Nandita; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2008-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are associated with the transmission of malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, filariasis and other viral diseases throughout the globe, apart from being a nuisance pest. Biological control alone or as a part of integrated vector management stands to be a better alternative to the chemical controls aimed against pest mosquitoes. At the same time it is necessary to control bacteria by synthetic or natural means (plant products). Hence the present study was designed to screen the effect of mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activitiy of protein isolated from matured leaves of Solanum villosum against mosquito immatures and some pathogenic bacteria. Methods Aqueous solvent extract of fresh mature leaves of S. villosum was tested against 3rd instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Stegomyia aegypti mosquitoes and against four pathogenic bacteria. The protein fraction was isolated and tested for mosquitocidal and antibacterial activities. Amino acid analysis was performed on isolated protein using PICO.TAG amino acid system. SDS-PAGE was also done to detect the bands of amino acid on the basis of their molecular weights. Results Proteins isolated from mature leaves of S. villosum were found to have larvicidal and antimicrobial properties. Analysis of the isolated protein identified fifteen amino acids of which eight were essential amino acids. SDS-PAGE detected seven bands corresponding to different molecular weights in the range of 69–109 KDa. Conclusion Proteins of mature leaves of S. villosum exhibited moderate larvicidal and antimicrobial activities. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for isolation of antimicrobial and mosquito larvicidal proteins. PMID:19061512

  11. Identification and characterization of CBL and CIPK gene families in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Ming-Min; Ren, Li; Liu, Yang; Chen, Huo-Ying

    2016-08-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an edible vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide. But the production of eggplant is significantly limited by the soil salinization in greenhouse cultivation system. The main ions are Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) in the salty soils. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) are calcium sensors and control the affinities and activities of numerous ion transporters with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). In this study, a total of 5 CBL and 15 CIPK genes from eggplant were identified first. The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay demonstrated the interaction network between SmCBLs and SmCIPKs. Strikingly, some new CBL-CIPK complexes were found which have never been discovered in any other plant species. The expression level of each SmCBL or SmCIPK under 200 mM NaCl, low potassium (LK; 100 μM), high Mg with 20 mM MgCl2 and MgSO4 stresses were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay and these CBL and CIPK genes were found to respond to the four ion stresses differently. Interestingly, the differential expression level of SmCIPK3, -24 or -25 to Mg(2+) is higher than Na(+), and Cl(-) is higher than SO4 (2-). In addition, different magnesium salt can induce different response mechanisms in eggplant. In summary, this study provides insight into the characterization of CBLs and CIPKs in eggplant. It may be used in a novel biotechnological breeding program strategy to create new eggplant cultivars, leading to enhance different ion tolerance. PMID:27287616

  12. Identification and characterization of CBL and CIPK gene families in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Ming-Min; Ren, Li; Liu, Yang; Chen, Huo-Ying

    2016-08-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an edible vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide. But the production of eggplant is significantly limited by the soil salinization in greenhouse cultivation system. The main ions are Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) in the salty soils. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) are calcium sensors and control the affinities and activities of numerous ion transporters with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). In this study, a total of 5 CBL and 15 CIPK genes from eggplant were identified first. The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay demonstrated the interaction network between SmCBLs and SmCIPKs. Strikingly, some new CBL-CIPK complexes were found which have never been discovered in any other plant species. The expression level of each SmCBL or SmCIPK under 200 mM NaCl, low potassium (LK; 100 μM), high Mg with 20 mM MgCl2 and MgSO4 stresses were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay and these CBL and CIPK genes were found to respond to the four ion stresses differently. Interestingly, the differential expression level of SmCIPK3, -24 or -25 to Mg(2+) is higher than Na(+), and Cl(-) is higher than SO4 (2-). In addition, different magnesium salt can induce different response mechanisms in eggplant. In summary, this study provides insight into the characterization of CBLs and CIPKs in eggplant. It may be used in a novel biotechnological breeding program strategy to create new eggplant cultivars, leading to enhance different ion tolerance.

  13. Development of selective markers linked to a major QTL for parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Koji; Saito, Takeo; Negoro, Satomi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Ohyama, Akio; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    Parthenocarpy, the ability to set fruits without pollination, is a useful trait for setting fruit under unfavorable conditions. To identify the loci controlling parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), we constructed linkage maps by using co-dominant simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism markers in F(2) populations derived from intraspecific crosses between two non-parthenocarpic lines (LS1934 and Nakate-Shinkuro) and a parthenocarpic line (AE-P03). Total map distances were 1,414.6 cM (ALF2: LS1934 x AE-P03) and 1,153.8 cM (NAF2: Nakate-Shinkuro x AE-P03), respectively. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses revealed two QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 8, which we denoted as Controlling parthenocarpy3.1 (Cop3.1) and Cop8.1, respectively. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) of Cop3.1 was 6.3% in ALF2 (LOD = 4.2) and 10.6% in NAF2 (LOD = 3.0). The PVE of Cop8.1 was 45.7% in ALF2 (LOD = 23.8) and 29.7% in NAF2 (LOD = 7.9). Using a population of backcross inbred lines, we confirmed the effect of Cop8.1, but there was no evidence to support the contribution of Cop3.1. We need to verify the effect of Cop3.1 under various temperature conditions. In addition, we clarified the effectiveness of selective SSR markers, emf21H22 and emh11J10, mapped on each side of Cop8.1 in other F(2) populations derived from various parental combinations. This is the first report concerning QTL analysis of parthenocarpy in eggplant using molecular markers. It will be useful in marker-assisted selection and in revealing the genomic mechanism underlying parthenocarpy in eggplant.

  14. Selection of Reference Genes for Transcriptional Analysis of Edible Tubers of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Voorhuijzen, Marleen M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C. B.; Van Dijk, Jeroen P.; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples. PMID:25830330

  15. Recovery of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaves from continuous light induced injury.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mohammad Sabibul; Heinsvig Kjaer, Katrine; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-08-01

    Continuous light (CL) causes leaf injuries in tomato plants, but very little has been done to study the nature of recovery from these leaf injuries. To facilitate this, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. 'Aromata') were first exposed to CL for 11 days in order to study the development of the leaf injuries. Afterwards, the plants were exposed to a photoperiodic treatment with a dark period of eight hours to study the nature of recovery of the leaves. Plants were grown in two photoperiodic treatments in climate chambers; a control treatment with a 16/8h light/dark and a CL treatment with 24h light. The two treatments had different light intensities to maintain a similar daily light integral (15 mol m(-2)d(-1)). The temperature and humidity were adjusted to maintain a similar vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 1kPa in the two treatments. After 11 days of CL, 12% of the total leaflet area appeared light green in spots on the leaf surface aligned with lower total leaf chlorophyll content. The light green spots partially reversed while the leaf chlorophyll content increased to similar levels as seen in control leaves after 11 days of recovery. The CL significantly reduced the stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (PN) and altered the carbohydrate content in the leaves. These negative effects of CL were also rapidly restored to the control levels when the plants were returned to the 16h photoperiodic conditions. The results demonstrate that, though leaf discoloration is only partially recovered, tomato plants can be grown for 11 days in CL conditions with the development of chlorotic discoloration of the leaves covering 12% of the leaf surface and rapidly recover physiological processes affected by CL by shortening the photoperiod to 16h.

  16. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (solanum L. Section petota).

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; de Haan, Stef; Juárez, Henry; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Bernau, Vivian; Salas, Alberto; Heider, Bettina; Simon, Reinhard; Maxted, Nigel; Spooner, David M

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives have a long history of use in potato breeding, particularly for pest and disease resistance, and are expected to be increasingly used in the search for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Their current and future use in crop improvement depends on their availability in ex situ germplasm collections. As these plants are impacted in the wild by habitat destruction and climate change, actions to ensure their conservation ex situ become ever more urgent. We analyzed the state of ex situ conservation of 73 of the closest wild relatives of potato (Solanum section Petota) with the aim of establishing priorities for further collecting to fill important gaps in germplasm collections. A total of 32 species (43.8%), were assigned high priority for further collecting due to severe gaps in their ex situ collections. Such gaps are most pronounced in the geographic center of diversity of the wild relatives in Peru. A total of 20 and 18 species were assessed as medium and low priority for further collecting, respectively, with only three species determined to be sufficiently represented currently. Priorities for further collecting include: (i) species completely lacking representation in germplasm collections; (ii) other high priority taxa, with geographic emphasis on the center of species diversity; (iii) medium priority species. Such collecting efforts combined with further emphasis on improving ex situ conservation technologies and methods, performing genotypic and phenotypic characterization of wild relative diversity, monitoring wild populations in situ, and making conserved wild relatives and their associated data accessible to the global research community, represent key steps in ensuring the long-term availability of the wild genetic resources of this important crop. PMID:25923711

  17. Five new cyotoxic steroidal glycosides from the fruits of Solanum torvum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinsheng; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Yiming

    2014-03-01

    The fruits of Solanum torvum Swartz, commonly known as Turkey berry, are edible and commonly used as a vegetable in the South Indian population's diet and as an essential ingredient in Thai cuisine. Five new steroidal glycosides together with five known ones were isolated from the fruits of S. torvum Swartz. Based on chemical and spectral evidence, the five new compounds were identified to be 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3β,6α,26-triol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (1), 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3-one-6α,26-diol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (2), 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3β,6α,26-triol-6-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside (3), 5α-pregn-16-en-20-one-3β,6α-diol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (4), and 5α-pregn-16-en-3,20-dione-6α-ol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (5). These new compounds were assayed for cytotoxicities in vitro, and 1 to 4 showed cyotoxic activity against the human melanoma cell line A375, with IC50 values of 30 μM to 260 μM. PMID:24444891

  18. Defense mechanisms of Solanum tuberosum L. in response to attack by plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Poiatti, Vera A D; Dalmas, Fernando R; Astarita, Leandro V

    2009-01-01

    The natural resistance of plants to disease is based not only on preformed mechanisms, but also on induced mechanisms. The defense mechanisms present in resistant plants may also be found in susceptible ones. This study attempted to analyze the metabolic alterations in plants of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agata that were inoculated with the incompatible plant-pathogenic bacteria X. axonopodis and R. solanacearum, and the compatible bacterium E. carotovora. Levels of total phenolic compounds, including the flavonoid group, and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) were evaluated. Bacteria compatibility was evaluated by means of infiltration of tubers. The defense response was evaluated in the leaves of the potato plants. Leaves were inoculated depending on their number and location on the stem. Multiple-leaf inoculation was carried out on basal, intermediate, and apical leaves, and single inoculations on intermediate leaves. Leaves inoculated with X. axonopodis and with R. solanacearum showed hypersensitive responses within 24 hours post-inoculation, whereas leaves inoculated with E. carotovora showed disease symptoms. Therefore, the R. solanacearum isolate used in the experiments did not exhibit virulence to this potato cultivar. Regardless of the bacterial treatments, the basal leaves showed higher PPO and POX activities and lower levels of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, compared to the apical leaves. However, basal and intermediate leaves inoculated with R. solanacearum and X. axonopodis showed increases in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid levels. In general, multiple-leaf inoculation showed the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, whereas the single inoculations resulted in the highest increase in PPO activity. The POX activity showed no significant difference between single- and multiple-leaf inoculations. Plants inoculated with E. carotovora showed no significant increase in defense mechanisms

  19. Effect of Inoculation with Glomus versiforme on Cadmium Accumulation, Antioxidant Activities and Phytochelatins of Solanum photeinocarpum.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi-Yun; Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yu-Tao; Li, Shao-Shan; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The plant growth, phosphate acquisition, Cd translocation, phytochelatins (PCs) production and antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), ascorbate (ASA) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] were investigated in Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum photeinocarpum inoculated with Glomus versiforme BGC GD01C (Gv) in Cd-added soils (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg Cd kg-1 soil). Mycorrhizal colonization rates were generally high (from 77% to 94%), and hardly affected by Cd. Gv colonization significantly enhanced P acquisition, growth and total Cd uptakes in both shoots and roots of S. photeinocarpum at all Cd levels. Meanwhile, Gv symbiosis significantly increased Cd concentration in the roots, and decreased Cd concentration in the shoots at all Cd levels, which indicates that Gv could promote phytostabilization by enhancing Cd accumulation in the roots to inhibit its translocation to shoots and the "dilution effects" linked to an increase in plant dry matter yield and a reduced Cd partitioning to shoots. Moreover, the improvement of CAT, POD and APX activities in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants infers that Gv symbiosis helped S. photeinocarpum to relieve oxidative damage to biomolecules in Cd-contaminated soil. The evident decline of MDA content in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants indicates that Gv symbiosis evidently improved antioxidant activities, and the enhancement of PCs production in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants suggests that Gv-inoculated plant may be more efficient to relieve Cd phytotoxicity. Therefore, the possible mechanisms of Cd phytotoxicity alleviation by Gv can be concluded as the decline of Cd concentration in the shoots and the improvement of P acquisition, PCs production and activities of CAT, POD, APX in mycorrhizal plants.

  20. Experimental therapeutic studies of Solanum aculeastrum Dunal. on Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Laban, Linet T; Anjili, Christopher O; Mutiso, Joshua M; Ingonga, Johnstone; Kiige, Samuel G; Ngedzo, Mgala M; Gicheru, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Solanum acueastrum Dunal. has been shown to have some chemotherapeutic value. Leaf and berry water and methanol compounds of S. acueastrum were evaluated for possible antileishmanial activity In vivo on BALB/c mice and in vitro against Leishmania major promastigotes, amastigotes and vero cells. Materials and Methods: Dry S. aculeastrum berry and leaf material were extracted in methanol and water. L. major parasites were exposed to different concentrations of S. aculeastrum fruit and leaf compounds and the IC50 on the promastigotes, percentage of infection rate of macrophages by amastigotes and the toxicological effect on vero cells were determined. BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously with 1×106 promastigotes and kept for four weeks to allow for disease establishment. Infected mice were treated with fruit and leaf methanolic and water compounds, amphotericin B (AmB), and sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Results: Fruit methanol compound was most effective in inhibiting the growth of promastigotes with IC5078.62 μg/ml. Fruit water compound showed the best activity in inhibiting infection of macrophages by amastigotes. Fruit methanol compound was more toxic at Ld50=8.06 mg/ml to vero cells than amphotericin B. Analysis of variance computation indicated statistically significant difference in lesion sizes between experimental and control mice groups (P=0.0001). Splenic impression smears ANOVA indicated a highly significant difference in parasitic numbers between the experimental and the control groups (P=0.0001). Conclusion: The results demonstrate that compounds from S. aculeastrum have potential anti-leishmanial activities and the medicinal use of the plant poses considerable toxicity against dividing vero cells. PMID:25810878