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Sample records for da beta-talassemia major

  1. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (P<0.001 and P<0.01). The composite pain scores (CPS) in DA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (P<0.01). Electrophysiological results also showed the biphasic increase in discharge rates of C and Aδ fibers of L5 dorsal root in the two strains, and the net change of the discharge rate of DA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The mechanical thresholds decreased after formalin injection in both strains (P<0.01), and the net change in the mechanical threshold in DA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The expression of RT1-B, representation of MHC class II molecule, in laminae I-II of L4/5 spinal cord in DA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (P<0.05). These results suggested that both DA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity.

  2. Purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of 26kDa protein, a major allergen from Cicer arietinum.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Kriti; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2016-06-01

    Chickpea (CP), a legume of the family Fabaceae, is an important nutrient-rich food providing protein, essential amino acids, vitamins, dietary fibre, and minerals. Unfortunately, several IgE-binding proteins in CP have been detected that are responsible for allergic manifestations in sensitized population. Therefore, the prevalence of CP induced allergy prompted us towards purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of a major ∼26kDa protein from chickpea crude protein extract (CP-CPE). Purification of CP 26kDa protein was done using a combination of fractionation and anion exchange chromatography. This protein was further characterized as "Chain A, crystal structure of a plant albumin" from Cicer arietinum with Mol wt 25.8kDa by Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Further, allergenic potential of purified 25.8kDa protein was assessed using in vivo and in vitro model. Purified protein showed IgE-binding capacity with sensitized BALB/c mice and CP allergic patient's sera. Enhanced levels of specific and total IgE, MCP-1, MCPT-1, myeloperoxidase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, and cysteinyl leukotriene were found in sera of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. Further, expressions of Th2 cytokines (i.e. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), transcription factors (i.e. GATA-3, STAT-6, SOCS-3) and mast cell signaling proteins (Lyn, cFgr, Syk, PLC-γ2, PI-3K, PKC) were also found increased at mRNA and protein levels in the intestines of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. In addition, enhanced release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene and prostaglandin D2 were observed in RBL2H3 cell line when treated (125μg) with CP 26kDa protein. Conclusively, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed the allergenic potential of purified CP 26kDa protein. Being a potential allergen, plant albumin may play a pivotal role in CP induced allergenicity. Current study will be helpful for better development of therapeutic approaches to

  3. Characterization of the major 68 kDa heat shock protein in a rat transformed astroglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, R N; Dwyer, B E; de Vellis, J; Clegg, K B

    1992-01-01

    The heat shock response in a transformed astrocyte line was compared with nontransformed astrocytes. The synthesis of HSP 68, the major inducible heat shock protein (HSP 68) was induced by a non-lethal 45 degrees C, 10 min heat shock. Although the incorporation of [35S]methionine into HSP 68 suggested that similar amounts of protein were being synthesized after heat shock, Western immunoblotting demonstrated striking differences in the HSP immunostaining between the two cell types. By one- and 'two-dimensional gel electrophoresis the major 68 kDa heat shock protein (HSP 68) was similar in both cell types. However, HSP 68 from heat shocked, transformed astrocytes did not immunostain with the monoclonal antibody, C-92, which is specific for the major inducible heat shock protein of HeLa cells. In contrast HSP 68 from heat shocked, nontransformed astrocytes immunostained quite well. A polyclonal antibody raised against the inducible 72 kDa heat shock protein of HeLa cells immunostained the HSP 68 from both astrocytes and transformed astrocytes. Analysis of the mRNA from the two cell types after heat shock revealed two bands of approximately 2.5 and 2.8 kb in astrocytes but only a single 2.5 kb band in the heat shocked transformed astroglia. These results suggest that structural differences in the HSP 68 may be present in the transformed astrocytes compared to the normal astrocytes.

  4. Full Robotic Colorectal Resections for Cancer Combined With Other Major Surgical Procedures: Early Experience With the da Vinci Xi.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Luca; Di Franco, Gregorio; Guadagni, Simone; Palmeri, Matteo; Gianardi, Desirée; Bianchini, Matteo; Moglia, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Caprili, Giovanni; D'Isidoro, Cristiano; Melfi, Franca; Di Candio, Giulio; Mosca, Franco

    2017-08-01

    The da Vinci Xi has been developed to overcome some of the limitations of the previous platform, thereby increasing the acceptance of its use in robotic multiorgan surgery. Between January 2015 and October 2015, 10 patients with synchronous tumors of the colorectum and others abdominal organs underwent robotic combined resections with the da Vinci Xi. Trocar positions respected the Universal Port Placement Guidelines provided by Intuitive Surgical for "left lower quadrant," with trocars centered on the umbilical area, or shifted 2 to 3 cm to the right or to the left, depending on the type of combined surgical procedure. All procedures were completed with the full robotic technique. Simultaneous procedures in same quadrant or left quadrant and pelvis, or left/right and upper, were performed with a single docking/single targeting approach; in cases of left/right quadrant or right quadrant/pelvis, we performed a dual-targeting operation. No external collisions or problems related to trocar positions were noted. No patient experienced postoperative surgical complications and the mean hospital stay was 6 days. The high success rate of full robotic colorectal resection combined with other surgical interventions for synchronous tumors, suggest the efficacy of the da Vinci Xi in this setting.

  5. [Anogenital Warts in a Major Venereology Clinic: Centro de Saúde da Lapa - Lisbon, 2008 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Gameiro, Ana; Alves, João; Santo, Irene; Azevedo, Jacinta

    2016-02-01

    Introdução: O vírus do papiloma humano é responsável pela infeção sexualmente transmissível mais comum, podendo manifestar--se por um conjunto amplo de doenças, nomeadamente condilomas anogenitais, papilomatose laríngea recorrente, e neoplasias da região anogenital, colo do útero e orofaringe. Estima-se que os condilomas anogenitais afetem 1% da população sexualmente ativa, causados em cerca de 90% pelos genótipos 6 e 11. Material e Métodos: Identificámos os doentes com primeiro diagnóstico de condilomas anogenitais da consulta de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis do Centro de Saúde da Lapa, entre janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2014, e caracterizámos os doentes por sexo, orientação sexual, idade, localização das lesões, e número de parceiros nos últimos seis meses. Resultados: Foram identificados 902 indivíduos com primeiro diagnóstico de condilomas anogenitais. Observámos uma diminuição significativa de novos casos nas mulheres com < 19 anos (r = -0,848; p = 0,016), e uma diminuição sem significado estatístico nos homens com < 19 anos e nas mulheres entre os 20 - 24 anos. Discussão: Em outubro de 2008, a vacina quadrivalente (genótipos 6, 11, 16, 18) foi introduzida no plano nacional de vacinação de Portugal, abrangendo as adolescentes com 13 anos, com um catch-up para as de 17 anos. A diminuição de primeiros diagnósticos de condilomas anogenitais nas mulheres, deve-se provavelmente à sua vacinação antes de iniciarem a vida sexual. Conclusão: Este estudo reforça a import'ncia do programa nacional de vacinação para o vírus do papiloma humano.

  6. Intracellular and extracellular expression of the major inducible 70kDa heat shock protein in experimental ischemia-reperfusion injury of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Awad, Hamdy; Suntres, Zacharias; Heijmans, John; Smeak, Daniel; Bergdall-Costell, Valerie; Christofi, Fievos L; Magro, Cynthia; Oglesbee, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Inflammatory responses exacerbate ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of spinal cord, although understanding of mediators is incomplete. The major inducible 70kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) is induced by ischemia and extracellular hsp70 (e-hsp70) can modulate inflammatory responses, but there is no published information regarding e-hsp70 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum as part of any neurological disease state save trauma. The present work addresses this deficiency by examining e-hsp70 in serum and CSF of dogs in an experimental model of spinal cord IR injury. IR injury of spinal cord caused hind limb paraplegia within 2-3 h that was correlated to lumbosacral poliomalacia with T cell infiltrates at 3 d post-ischemia. In this context, we showed a 5.2-fold elevation of e-hsp70 in CSF that was induced by ischemia and was sustained for the following 3 d observation interval. Plasma e-hsp70 levels were unaffected by IR injury, indicating e-hsp70 release from within the central nervous system. A putative source of this e-hsp70 was ependymal cells in the ischemic penumbra, based upon elevated i-hsp70 levels detected within these cells. Results warrant further investigation of e-hsp70's potential to modulate spinal cord IR injury.

  7. IgE-mediated allergy to corn: a 50 kDa protein, belonging to the Reduced Soluble Proteins, is a major allergen.

    PubMed

    Pasini, G; Simonato, B; Curioni, A; Vincenzi, S; Cristaudo, A; Santucci, B; Peruffo, A Dal Belin; Giannattasio, M

    2002-02-01

    Although corn is often cited as an allergenic food, very few studies have been devoted to the identification of corn allergens and corn allergy has been rarely confirmed by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Recently, Pastorello et al. (1) identified some salt-soluble IgE-binding proteins of corn flour as potential allergens. One of these, corresponding to corn Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP), appeared to be the major one. The aim of this study was to verify the clinical significance of the skin prick test (SPT) and CAP-FEIA CAP-System IgE fluozoenzyme immunosorbent assay (Pharmacia Diagnostic, Uppsala, Sweden) positivities to corn and to identify the presence of IgE-binding proteins in the corn flour salt-insoluble protein fractions (comprising up to 96% of the total protein) using sera of patients with DBPCFC-documented food allergy to corn. In addition the effect of cooking and proteolytic digestion on the corn allergens was investigated. Sixteen subjects with SPT and CAP-FEIA positivities to corn flour were examined. Only six of them complained of suffering from urticaria and/or other symptoms after ingestion of corn-based foods. The patients were food challenged with cooked corn flour (polenta). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting. The digestibility of the IgE-binding proteins was examined during a pepsin attack followed by a pancreatin digestion performed on a cooked corn flour sample. Oral challenge was positive only for six patients with symptoms after ingestion of corn. A 50 kDa protein, belonging to the corn Reduced Soluble Protein (RSP) fraction was recognized by the serum IgE of all the DBPCFC-positive subjects and resulted to be resistant to both heating and peptic/pancreatic digestion. SPT with the purified RSP fraction gave positive results for all of the DBPCFC-positive patients examined. SPT and CAP-FEIA positivities to corn flour had no clinical significance for most of the patients and food allergy to corn has

  8. Listeria-vectored vaccine expressing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 30 kDa major secretory protein via the constitutively active prfA* regulon boosts BCG efficacy against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qingmei; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Masleša-Galić, Saša; Horwitz, Marcus A

    2017-06-19

    A potent vaccine against tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest diseases, is needed to enhance the immunity of people worldwide, most of whom have been vaccinated with the partially effective BCG vaccine. Here we investigate novel live attenuated recombinant Listeria monocytogenes (rLm) vaccines expressing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) 30 kDa major secretory protein (r30/Ag85B) (rLm30) as heterologous booster vaccines in animals primed with BCG. Using three attenuated Lm vectors, rLm ΔactA (LmI), rLm ΔactA ΔinlB (LmII), and rLm ΔactA ΔinlBprfA* (LmIII), we constructed five rLm30 vaccine candidates expressing the r30 linked in-frame to the Lm Listeriolycin O signal sequence and driven by the hly promoter (h30) or linked in-frame to the ActA N-terminus and driven by the actA promoter (a30). All five rLm30 vaccines secreted r30 in broth and macrophages; while rLm expressing r30 via a constitutively active prfA* regulon (rLmIII/a30) expressed the greatest amount of r30 in broth culture, all five rLm vaccines expressed equivalent amounts of r30 in infected macrophages. In comparative studies, boosting BCG-immunized mice with rLmIII/a30 induced the strongest antigen-specific T-cell responses, including splenic and lung polyfunctional CD4+ T-cells expressing the three cytokines of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) (P < 0.001) and splenic and lung CD8+ T-cells expressing IFN-γ (P < 0.0001). In mice and guinea pigs, rLmIII/a30 and rLmI/h30 vaccines were generally more potent booster vaccines than r30 in adjuvant and a recombinant adenovirus vaccine expressing r30. In a setting in which BCG alone was highly immunoprotective, boosting mice with rLmIII/a30, the most potent of the vaccines, significantly enhanced protection against aerosolized Mtb (P <0.01). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Major isoform of zebrafish P0 is a 23.5 kDa myelin glycoprotein expressed in selected white matter tracts of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bai, Qing; Sun, Ming; Stolz, Donna B; Burton, Edward A

    2011-06-01

    The zebrafish mpz gene, encoding the ortholog of mammalian myelin protein zero, is expressed in oligodendrocytes of the zebrafish central nervous system (CNS). The putative gene product, P0, has been implicated in promoting axonal regeneration in addition to its proposed structural functions in compact myelin. We raised novel zebrafish P0-specific antibodies and established that P0 is a 23.5 kDa glycoprotein containing a 3 kDa N-linked carbohydrate moiety. P0 was localized to myelin sheaths surrounding axons, but was not detected in the cell bodies or proximal processes of oligodendrocytes. Many white matter tracts in the adult zebrafish CNS were robustly immunoreactive for P0, including afferent visual and olfactory pathways, commissural and longitudinal tracts of the brain, and selected ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord. P0 was first detected during development in premyelinating oligodendrocytes of the ventral hindbrain at 48 hours postfertilization (hpf). By 72 hpf, short segments of longitudinally oriented P0-immunoreactive myelinating axons were seen in the hindbrain; expression in the spinal cord, optic pathways, hindbrain commissures, midbrain, and peripheral nervous system followed. The mpz transcript was found to be alternatively spliced, giving rise to P0 isoforms with alternative C-termini. The 23.5 kDa isoform was most abundant in the CNS, but other isoforms predominated in the myelin sheath surrounding the Mauthner axon. These data provide a detailed account of P0 expression and demonstrate novel P0 isoforms, which may have discrete functional properties. The restriction of P0 immunoreactivity to myelin sheaths indicates that the protein is subject to stringent intracellular compartmentalization, which likely occurs through posttranslational mechanisms.

  10. Inhibition of iridovirus protein synthesis and virus replication by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeted to the major capsid protein, the 18 kDa immediate-early protein, and a viral homolog of RNA polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, Robert; Bryan, Locke; Long, Scott; Majji, Sai; Hoskins, Glenn; Sinning, Allan; Olivier, Jake; Chinchar, V. Gregory . E-mail: vchinchar@microbio.umsmed.edu

    2007-02-20

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is a large DNA virus that encodes {approx} 100 proteins. Although the general features of FV3 replication are known, the specific roles that most viral proteins play in the virus life cycle have not yet been elucidated. To address the question of viral gene function, antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMOs) were used to transiently knock-down expression of specific viral genes and thus infer their role in virus replication. We designed asMOs directed against the major capsid protein (MCP), an 18 kDa immediate-early protein (18K) that was thought to be a viral regulatory protein, and the viral homologue of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (vPol-II{alpha}). All three asMOs successfully inhibited translation of the targeted protein, and two of the three asMOs resulted in marked phenotypic changes. Knock-down of the MCP resulted in a marked reduction in viral titer without a corresponding drop in the synthesis of other late viral proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that in cells treated with the anti-MCP MO assembly sites were devoid of viral particles and contained numerous aberrant structures. In contrast, inhibition of 18K synthesis did not block virion formation, suggesting that the 18K protein was not essential for replication of FV3 in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Finally, consistent with the view that late viral gene expression is catalyzed by a virus-encoded or virus-modified Pol-II-like protein, knock-down of vPol-II{alpha} triggered a global decline in late gene expression and virus yields without affecting the synthesis of early viral genes. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of using asMOs to elucidate the function of FV3 proteins.

  11. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  12. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  13. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  14. Syrtis Major

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-23

    This image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano and believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction.

  15. Major Andre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

  16. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  17. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  18. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  19. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 May 2004 This image of Syrtis Major was acquired August 20, 2002, during northern spring.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.8, Longitude 79.5 East (280.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  20. Bone acidic glycoprotein-75 is a major synthetic product of osteoblastic cells and localized as 75- and/or 50-kDa forms in mineralized phases of bone and growth plate and in serum.

    PubMed

    Gorski, J P; Griffin, D; Dudley, G; Stanford, C; Thomas, R; Huang, C; Lai, E; Karr, B; Solursh, M

    1990-09-05

    Anti-peptide and anti-protein antisera were produced which both recognize bone acidic glycoprotein-75 (Mr = 75,000) and an apparent fragment or biosynthetic intermediate (Mr = 50,000) in calcified tissues and/or serum. A fragment-precursor relationship is suggested from the fact that closely spaced doublet polypeptides of Mr = 50,000 could be produced by proteolysis of the purified protein upon long term storage. No reactivity was detected with osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, or small bone proteoglycans. Bone acidic glycoprotein-75 represents 0.5-1% of the total radiolabeled proteins synthesized by explant cultures of neonatal calvaria or growth plate, by calvarial outgrowth cultures, and by rat osteosarcoma cells. Amounts produced by explant cultures and calvarial outgrowth cultures were similar to that for osteopontin, a major product of osteoblasts. In osteosarcoma cultures, 80% of labeled antigens were associated with the cell layer fraction wherein specific immunoprecipitation pelleted Mr = 50,000 and 75,000 sized antigens. Bone acidic glycoprotein-75 (Mr = 75,000) is enriched in 4 M guanidine HCl/0.5 EDTA extracts of neonatal rat bone and growth plate tissues, whereas largely absent from heart, lung, spleen, liver, brain, and kidney. Explant cultures of these noncalcifying tissues also synthesized bone acidic glycoprotein-75 antigen, but the quantities produced were only 5% or less that obtained with calvaria. By immunohistochemistry, antigenicity is associated with the bony shaft and calcified cartilage of long bones, but is absent from associated soft tissues. These finding demonstrate that bone acidic glycoprotein-75 is antigenically distinct, predominantly localized to calcified tissues, represents a major product of normal osteoblastic cells and may undergo a characteristic fragmentation in vivo and in vitro.

  1. It's Major! College Major Selection & Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Jenny; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Springall, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the College Board National Forum, October 26, 2011. Choosing a college major is challenging enough, without stopping to consider the impact it has on a student's college experience and career choice. To provide support during this major decision, participants in this session will develop strategies to facilitate students in making an…

  2. Henrique da Rocha Lima.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión's disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene.

  3. Henrique da Rocha Lima*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión’s disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  4. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), in the NSDUH study a major depressive ... and self-image. Unlike the definition in the DSM-IV, no exclusions were made for a major ...

  5. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes.

  6. Major appliance management report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.; O`Donnell, K.F.

    1990-07-15

    Major appliances (also called `white goods`) have long been managed as part of the traditional municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, with the most common management method being landfill disposal. Over the past several years, it has become increasingly apparent that major appliances are not easily or best managed along with MSW. Indiscriminate disposal of major appliances can cause environmental problems and unnecessary use of scarce landfill space as well as wasting valuable recyclable materials. In recognition of these factors, the 1989 Minnesota Legislature took a number of steps to shift the management of major appliances towards separate handling and recycling.

  7. The Major Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Teacher Certification and Placement Section.

    The development of a competency-based teacher certification program of social studies teachers in the state of Minnesota included this conceptual framework for the major social studies disciplines. Each of the major disciplines - anthropology, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology and philosophy, and sociology - are defined…

  8. Major upper limb replantation.

    PubMed

    Chew, W Y; Tsai, T M

    2001-08-01

    Major amputations remain a challenge to the replantation surgeon. Proper patient selection, good surgical skills, and cooperation among the patient, surgeon, and rehabilitation team help achieve a better outcome.

  9. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  10. [Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad].

    PubMed

    Hvattum, Mari

    2016-07-01

    The psychiatrist Herman Wedel Major planned Gaustad asylum in collaboration with his brother-in-law, the architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer. The planning of Gaustad took place in parallel with the preparation of the first Norwegian Mental Health Act, adopted by the Storting on 30 July 1848, and Gaustad's architecture provides a good illustration of the ideals behind the mental health reform of the 19th century. In particular, Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad represents a break with Frederik Holst's ideal of the panoptic institution. Whereas Holst and his architect Christian Heinrich Grosch promoted a radial plan institution based on the type used for penitentiaries, Schirmer and Major designed a modern, pavilion-style hospital with wards placed independently in the landscape.

  11. Effective Physics Major Recruiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Only the high school students that are in the top 2% in math of those that are college bound do well as physics majors. These students you recruit face to face in April by telling them your program is academically the toughest that they will find at your school. You promise that while crippling their social life and assuring that their lowest grades will be in their physics major, they will get to find out just how good they are. We will discuss:How to get face to face with that top 2% high school student.Why high school teachers and counselors will not help you.Why wait until April to recruit.What parents want to know about your physics program.Which activities are a waste of time when recuiting.By investing 20 hours spread over 2 weeks expect to get about 8 good physics majors.

  12. Major international sport profiles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  13. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  14. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  15. Syrtis Major Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-03

    This mosaic of Syrtis Major is composed of about 100 red- and violet- filter NASA's Viking Orbiter images, digitally mosaiced in an orthographic projection at a scale of 1 km/pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00092

  16. Mobilizing the Moral Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebman, Robert C.

    The Moral Majority has been more successful in mobilizing conservative Christians than three other evangelical groups--Third Century Publishers, Christian Voice, and the Religious Roundtable. According to the literature on social movements, four possible explanations for the success of such groups are that they have access to financial resources,…

  17. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  18. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  19. Serotonin and beyond: therapeutics for major depression

    PubMed Central

    Blier, Pierre; El Mansari, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). The case for its contribution to the therapeutic efficacy of a wide variety of antidepressant treatments is, however, much stronger. All antidepressant strategies have been shown to enhance 5-HT transmission in the brain of laboratory animals. Catecholamines, norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) can also play a pivotal role in the mechanism of action of certain antidepressant strategies. The enhancement of 5-HT transmission by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which leads to a dampening of the activity of NE and DA neurons, may account in part for the low remission rate achieved with these medications and/or the residuals symptoms after remission is achieved. The functional connectivity between the 5-HT, NE and DA systems can be used to understand the mechanism of action of a wide variety of augmentation strategies in treatment-resistant MDD. Proof-of-concept studies have shown that antidepressant medications with complementary mechanisms of action on monoaminergic systems can double the remission rate achieved in a trial of standard duration. Novel approaches are also being used to treat MDD, which also appear to involve the monoaminergic system(s) to a varying extent. PMID:23440470

  20. Rethinking the Astronomy Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, S.

    2001-12-01

    The Five College Astronomy Department has designed several curricular offerings that use the discipline of Astronomy to provide project-based classes that enhance critical thinking and quantitative reasoning and emphasize development of both oral and written communication skills. We incorporate these classes with more traditional lecture-format astrophysics courses to offer a science major that will provide a firm foundation in a quantitative discipline that could lead to many career paths.

  1. The Supernova Impostor SN 2010da

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Breanna A.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova impostors are optical transients that, despite being assigned a supernova designation, do not signal the death of a massive star or accreting white dwarf. Instead, many impostors are thought to be major eruptions from luminous blue variables. Although the physical cause of these eruptions is still debated, tidal interactions from a binary companion has recently gained traction as a possible explanation for observations of some supernova impostors. In this talk, I will discuss the particularly interesting impostor SN 2010da, which exhibits high-luminosity, variable X-ray emission. The X-ray emission is consistent with accretion onto a neutron star, making SN 2010da a likely high mass X-ray binary in addition to a supernova impostor. SN 2010da is a unique laboratory for understanding both binary interactions as drivers of massive star eruptions and the evolutionary processes that create high mass X-ray binaries.

  2. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  3. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  4. Discovery Orbiter Major Modifications

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-27

    During power-up of the orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility, a technician moves a circuit reset on the cockpit console. Discovery has been undergoing Orbiter Major Modifications in the past year, ranging from wiring, control panels and black boxes to gaseous and fluid systems tubing and components. These systems were deserviced, disassembled, inspected, modified, reassembled, checked out and reserviced, as were most other systems onboard. The work includes the installation of the Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS) - a state-of-the-art “glass cockpit.”

  5. [Osteodystrophy in thalassemia major].

    PubMed

    Bisbocci, D; Livorno, P; Modina, P; Gambino, M; Damiano, P; Cantoni, R; Villata, E; Chiandussi, L

    1993-01-01

    Subjects with thalassemia major frequently have bone disorders of debatable pathogenesis. We attempt here to analyze the relationships between siderosis and thalassemic osteodystrophy by assessing calcium-phosphorus balance, hormone-vitamin homeostasis, osteoblastic-osteoclastic activity parameters, and bone mineral density (BMD) in 30 patients with thalassemia major (16 males, 14 females, age range 17-30 years). We found a significant increase in ferritin (p < 0.001) and significant decreases in serum i-PTH, 25OHD3, 1.25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin, estradiol, testosterone and FT4 (p < 0.001) in both sexes. In all patients a net decrease of bone mineral density was documented (p < 0.001). These results were then submitted to linear regression analysis: positive correlations between BMD and FT3, testosterone, estradiol (p < 0.01), were documented, and an inverse correlation between osteocalcin and ferritin was confirmed. Our findings suggest that thalassemic osteodystrophy is the result of several inhibitory influences on osteoblastic activity and bone apposition (related to hormone deficits and siderosis) which are aggravated further by anemia, chronic hypoxia and red marrow expansion.

  6. Major obstetric hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frederic J; Van de Velde, Marc

    2008-03-01

    Major obstetric hemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and is associated with a high rate of substandard care. A well-defined and multidisciplinary approach that aims to act quickly and avoid omissions or conflicting strategies is key. The most common etiologies of hemorrhage are abruptio placenta, placenta previa/accreta, uterine rupture in the antepartum period and retained placenta, uterine atony, and genital-tract trauma in the postpartum period. Basic treatment of postpartum hemorrhage relies on manual removal of the placenta or manual exploration of the uterus plus bladder emptying and oxytocin administration. If this does not arrest bleeding, or if there is any suspicion of genital-tract trauma, examination of the vagina and cervix with appropriate valves and analgesia/anesthesia must follow quickly. Postpartum uterine atony resistant to oxytocin must be treated with prostaglandin within 15 to 30 minutes; uterine balloon tamponade can be also useful at this stage. Aggressive transfusion therapy and resuscitation are mandatory in major obstetric hemorrhage. Specific invasive treatment must be considered within no more than 30 to 60 minutes, if previous measures have failed -- and even earlier in some particular etiologies. The two main options are radiologic embolization and surgical artery ligations. Recombinant factor VIIa may also be considered, but should not delay the performance of a life-saving procedure such as embolization or surgery. Hysterectomy must be implemented when all other interventions have failed.

  7. Syrtis Major Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 December 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows barchan sand dunes west of the Meroe Patera volcanic caldera in central Syrtis Major. The winds that shape these dunes blow from the right/upper right (northeast). The surface across which the dunes have traveled is probably composed of volcanic rocks; the dunes, too, may have volcanic materials, such as sand-sized grains of tephra-volcanic ash-in them. This October 2003 view is located near 7.4oN, 292.3oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  8. EFRC CMSNF Major Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hurley; Todd R. Allen

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) has been to develop a first-principles-based understanding of thermal transport in the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2, in the presence of defect microstructure associated with radiation environments. The overarching goal within this mission was to develop an experimentally validated multiscale modeling capability directed toward a predictive understanding of the impact of radiation and fission-product induced defects and microstructure on thermal transport in nuclear fuel. Implementation of the mission was accomplished by integrating the physics of thermal transport in crystalline solids with microstructure science under irradiation through multi institutional experimental and computational materials theory teams from Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Purdue University, the University of Florida, the University of Wisconsin, and the Colorado School of Mines. The Center’s research focused on five major areas: (i) The fundamental aspects of anharmonicity in UO2 crystals and its impact on thermal transport; (ii) The effects of radiation microstructure on thermal transport in UO2; (iii) The mechanisms of defect clustering in UO2 under irradiation; (iv) The effect of temperature and oxygen environment on the stoichiometry of UO2; and (v) The mechanisms of growth of dislocation loops and voids under irradiation. The Center has made important progress in each of these areas, as summarized below.

  9. Predicting Major Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are two examples of major explosions from the surface of the Sun but theyre not the same thing, and they dont have to happen at the same time. A recent study examines whether we can predict which solar flares will be closely followed by larger-scale CMEs.Image of a solar flare from May 2013, as captured by NASAs Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]Flares as a Precursor?A solar flare is a localized burst of energy and X-rays, whereas a CME is an enormous cloud of magnetic flux and plasma released from the Sun. We know that some magnetic activity on the surface of the Sun triggers both a flare and a CME, whereas other activity only triggers a confined flare with no CME.But what makes the difference? Understanding this can help us learn about the underlying physical drivers of flares and CMEs. It also might help us to better predict when a CME which can pose a risk to astronauts, disrupt radio transmissions, and cause damage to satellites might occur.In a recent study, Monica Bobra and Stathis Ilonidis (Stanford University) attempt to improve our ability to make these predictions by using a machine-learning algorithm.Classification by ComputerUsing a combination of 6 or more features results in a much better predictive success (measured by the True Skill Statistic; higher positive value = better prediction) for whether a flare will be accompanied by a CME. [Bobra Ilonidis 2016]Bobra and Ilonidis used magnetic-field data from an instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory to build a catalog of solar flares, 56 of which were accompanied by a CME and 364 of which were not. The catalog includes information about 18 different features associated with the photospheric magnetic field of each flaring active region (for example, the mean gradient of the horizontal magnetic field).The authors apply a machine-learning algorithm known as a binary classifier to this catalog. This algorithm tries to predict, given a set of features

  10. Identification of major rye secalins as coeliac immunoreactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Rocher, A; Calero, M; Soriano, F; Méndez, E

    1996-06-07

    Six distinct gamma- and omega-type secalins, together with two new low molecular mass glycoproteins, have been identified as the major coeliac immunoreactive proteins from a chloroform/methanol soluble extract from rye endosperm. These components were characterized by a combination of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, immunoblotting using a coeliac serum and microsequencing analysis. This allowed the identification of a group of secalins with different molecular masses according to their N-terminal amino-acid sequence: one omega-type secalin of 40 kDa (omega 1-40); three gamma-type secalins, one of 70 kDa (gamma-70) and two of 35 kDa (gamma-35); as well as two low molecular mass glycoproteins of 15 and 18 kDa, all exhibiting coeliac serum antigenicity. Moreover, four additional rye components, including two low molecular mass proteins, which did not react with coeliac sera, have also been identified. Analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of the three main purified coeliac immunogenic secalins, gamma-70, gamma-35 and omega 1-40, indicated molecular masses of 71457, 32240 and 39117 Da, respectively. The omega 1-40 secalin displays a significant absorption in the visible region which could be related to its peculiar low capacity to bind both coeliac sera antibodies and Coomassie brilliant blue dye.

  11. Weaving History through the Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  12. Weaving History through the Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  13. Characterization of a major 31-kilodalton peptidoglycan-bound protein of Legionella pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.A.; Hoffman, P.S. )

    1990-05-01

    A 31-kilodalton (kDa) protein was solubilized from the peptidoglycan (PG) fraction of Legionella pneumophila after treatment with either N-acetylmuramidase from the fungus Chalaropsis sp. or with mutanolysin from Streptomyces globisporus. The protein exhibited a ladderlike banding pattern by autoradiography when radiolabeled ((35S)cysteine or (35S)methionine) PG material was extensively treated with hen lysozyme. The banding patterns ranging between 31 and 45 kDa and between 55 and 60 kDa resolved as a single 31-kDa protein when the material was subsequently treated with N-acetylmuramidase. Analysis of the purified 31-kDa protein for diaminopimelic acid by gas chromatography revealed 1 mol of diaminopimelic acid per mol of protein. When outer membrane PG material containing the major outer membrane porin protein was treated with N-acetylmuramidase or mutanolysin, both the 28.5-kDa major outer membrane protein and the 31-kDa protein were solubilized from the PG material under reducing conditions. In the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol, a high-molecular-mass complex (100 kDa) was resolved. The results of this study indicate that a 31-kDa PG-bound protein is a major component of the cell wall of L. pneumophila whose function may be to anchor the major outer membrane protein to PG. Finally, a survey of other Legionella species and other serogroups of L. pneumophila suggested that PG-bound proteins may be a common feature of this genus.

  14. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    PubMed Central

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  15. 76 FR 12627 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... on Diamond aeroplanes, the majority of which were DA 40. In additional, at least 18 doors have been replaced because of damage found on the hinge. Diamond Aircraft Industries conducted analyses...

  16. Majorization in quantum adiabatic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Zhaohui; Ji Zhengfeng; Ying Mingsheng

    2006-10-15

    The majorization theory has been applied to analyze the mathematical structure of quantum algorithms. An empirical conclusion by numerical simulations obtained in the previous literature indicates that step-by-step majorization seems to appear universally in quantum adiabatic algorithms. In this paper, a rigorous analysis of the majorization arrow in a special class of quantum adiabatic algorithms is carried out. In particular, we prove that for any adiabatic algorithm of this class, step-by-step majorization of the ground state holds exactly. For the actual state, we show that step-by-step majorization holds approximately, and furthermore that the longer the running time of the algorithm, the better the approximation.

  17. The da Vinci robot.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2006-12-01

    One might assume from the title of this paper that the nuances of a complex mechanical robot will be discussed, and this would be correct. On the other hand, the date of the design and possible construction of this robot was 1495, a little more than five centuries ago. The key point in the title is the lack of a trademarked name, as Leonardo was the designer of this sophisticated system. His notes from the Codex Altanticus represent the foundation of this report. English translations of da Vinci's notebooks are currently available. Beginning in the 1950s, investigators at the University of California began to ponder the significance of some of da Vinci's markings on what appeared to be technical drawings. Such markings also occur in his Codex Atlanticus (the largest single collection of da Vinci's sheets, consisting of 1119 separate pages and 481 folios) along with a large number of other mechanical devices. Continuing research at the Instituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza in Florence has yielded a great deal of information about Leonardo's intentions with regard to his mechanical knight. It is now known that da Vinci's robot would have had the outer appearance of a Germanic knight. It had a complex core of mechanical devices that probably was human powered. The robot had two independent operating systems. The first had three degree-of-freedom legs, ankles, knees, and hips. The second had four degrees of freedom in the arms with articulated shoulders, elbows, wrists, and hands. A mechanical analog-programmable controller within the chest provided the power and control for the arms. The legs were powered by an external crank arrangement driving the cable, which connected to key locations near each lower extremity's joints. Da Vinci also is known to have devised a programmable front-wheel-drive automobile with rack-and-pinion suspension mechanisms at age 26. He would recall this device again, when, at age 40, he is thought to have built a programmable automated

  18. Interdisciplinary Project Experiences: Collaboration between Majors and Non-Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…

  19. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    PubMed

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Structural relationships of the major glycoproteins from human alveolar proteinosis surfactant.

    PubMed

    Ross, G F; Ohning, B L; Tannenbaum, D; Whitsett, J A

    1987-02-25

    Alveolar proteinosis is a disease characterized by accumulation of proteinaceous material in the alveolar space of the lung. Two major collagenase-sensitive polypeptides, alveolar proteinosis peptides of 34 kDa kilodaltons (APP-34) and of 62 kDa (APP-62), were isolated from bronchioalveolar lavage of patients with alveolar proteinosis. These proteins co-purified during fast-performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) chromatofocusing and were separated from each other by electroelution following SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoblot analysis of these proteins demonstrated that both shared antigenic sites with the normal human surfactant-associated protein of Mr 34,000 (SAP-34) using both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies generated against SAP-34. Removal of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides from the 34 kDa and 62 kDa alveolar proteinosis proteins with endoglycosidase F resulted in polypeptides of 28 kDa from APP-34 and 56 kDa from APP-62. Amino acid analysis and tryptic peptide maps of the electroeluted APP-34 and APP-62 proteins were essentially identical and similar to that previously reported for human SAP-34, supporting the likely relationship of APP-34 and APP-62 as monomer and dimer of the normal SAP-34. APP-34 and APP-62 were both sensitive to bacterial collagenase, yielding collagenase-resistant fragments of 21 kDa, similar in migration and amino acid composition to the fragment generated by collagenase digestion of normal human SAP-34. High molecular weight aggregates of APP-34 and APP-62 were the result of sulfhydryl-dependent and non-sulfhydryl-dependent cross-linking. A domain in the C-terminal non-collagenous portion of the molecules which forms sulfhydryl-dependent oligomers was identified. The two major polypeptides accumulating in the airway of patients with alveolar proteinosis are monomeric (34 kDa) and dimeric (62 kDa) forms of the major surfactant-associated glycoprotein, SAP-34.

  1. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  2. Coding Major Fields of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, L. G.; Carroll, C. D.

    The National Center for Education Statistics conducts surveys which require the coding of the respondent's major field of study. This paper presents a new system for the coding of major field of study. It operates on-line i a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) environment and allows conversational checks to verify coding directly from…

  3. Unconventional Internships for English Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Don H.

    After five years of research, the English department at St. Cloud (Minnesota) State University created an internship program for English majors. The philosophy behind the program is that the typical experience of the English major in college is excellent preparation for what the college graduate will be doing in most careers in business,…

  4. The Neglected Majority--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Dale Parnell's "The Neglected Majority" is one of the most influential works by a community college leader in the history of the community college movement. This essay explores the impact of "The Neglected Majority" since publication in 1985 and includes an interview with Parnell that assesses his perspective of the nearly 20 years following his…

  5. Identification of major proteins associated with Dictyostelium discoideum endocytic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Adessi, C; Chapel, A; Vinçon, M; Rabilloud, T; Klein, G; Satre, M; Garin, J

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic isolation of endocytic vesicles from Dictyostelium discoideum was accomplished after feeding the amoebae with iron oxide particles. Proteins associated with the endocytic vesicles were resolved by SDS-PAGE and digested 'in-gel' with endoproteinase Lys-C or Asp-N to generate peptides for amino acid sequencing. This strategy allowed the identification of the major protein constituents of the vesicles: namely, the A, B, D, E and 110 kDa subunits of a vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase, actin, a Rab 7-like GTPase, a p34 protein corresponding to a new cysteine proteinase and the 25 kDa product of a recently sequenced D. discoideum open reading frame.

  6. Causes of major tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Monticello, D.A.

    1980-07-01

    The nonlinear saturation theory of the tearing mode is used to examine the necessary conditions for the occurrence of a major tokamak disruption. The results are compared with full three-dimensional numerical simulations, and with experimental data.

  7. Braided TARs in Syrtis Major

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-03

    Transverse aeolian ridges TARs are commonly found throughout the Martian tropics, including rocky regions such as Syrtis Major that are largely devoid of dust as seen by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  8. Major Joint/Combined Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    engagements, strikes) conducted by various combat forces of a single or several services, coordinated in time and place to accomplish an...operational and sometimes strategic objective in an operational area. These actions are conducted simultaneously or sequentially in accordance with a common...In generic terms, a major operation can be described as consisting of a series of related major and minor tactical actions by two or more combat

  9. MC-13 Syrtis Major Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-13 quadrangle, Syrtis Major region of Mars. The central part is dominated by dark dust and lava flows of the Syrtis Major Planitia region. These lava flows are partly bounded to the east by a large depression, Isidis basin, which contains smooth plains, and to the west and north by heavily cratered and moderately faulted highlands. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -90 to -45 degrees.

  10. Berengario da Carpi.

    PubMed

    De Santo, N G; Bisaccia, C; De Santo, L S; De Santo, R M; Di Leo, V A; Papalia, T; Cirillo, M; Touwaide, A

    1999-01-01

    Berengario da Carpi was magister of anatomy and surgery at the University of Bologna from 1502 to 1527. Eustachio and Falloppia defined him as 'the restaurator of anatomy'. He was a great surgeon, anatomist and physician of illustrious patients including Lorenzo II dei Medici, Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, Galeazzo Pallavicini, Cardinal Colonna, and Alessandro Soderini. He had strong links to the intellectuals of his time (Forni, Bonamici, Manuzio, Pomponazzi) as well as with the Medici family. He was respected by the Popes Julius II, Leo X and Clement VII. His main contributions are the Isogogae Breves, De Fractura calvae sive cranei, and the illustrated Commentaria on the Anatomy of Mondino de Liucci, a textbook utilized for more than 200 years, which Berengario aimed to restore to its initial text. The Commentaria constitutes the material for the last part of this paper which concludes with a personal translation of some passages on 'The kidney', where the author gives poignant examples of experimental ingenuity.

  11. The DaCHS Multi-protocol VO Server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.

    2014-05-01

    GAVO's Data Center Helper Suite (DaCHS) is a suite of tools for publishing data to the Virtual Observatory. It implements all major VO protocols (SCS, SIAP, SSAP, TAP, OAI-PMH). The integrated management and ingestion component allow defining metadata, structure, and services once and re-use the definition throughout the publication cycle from initial metadata aquisition to registry record generation. It has been driving GAVO's data center since 2008 and is now deployed in multiple locations around the globe. This poster briefly describes the design of the system as well as a bird's-eye view of data publishing with DaCHS.

  12. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  13. Implementation of the Second Major Requirement for Teacher Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polen, Deborah A.; And Others

    An exploratory study was conducted in North Carolina to examine the impact on teacher education programs of improved academic preparation for undergraduate teacher education majors. This report describes one such approach--the requirement that in addition to general college and teacher preparation courses, undergraduate education students complete…

  14. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  15. Pectoralis major fascia in rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Fascia is frequently used in rhinoplasty, for several different purposes. The deep temporalis fascia is most often chosen, though harvesting this fascia requires a separate surgical field that adds surgical time to the procedure and morbidity to the patient. In augmentation rhinoplasty cases as well as in many revision rhinoplasty cases, costal cartilage may be required. In these cases, when costal cartilage is harvested from the 5(th) to 7(th) ribs, pectoralis major fascia is in the surgical field and must be incised to provide access to the costal cartilage. Pectoralis major fascia is similar to the deep temporalis fascia, sharing many physical and histological characteristics with it. Pectoralis major fascia can be harvested from the same surgical field as costal cartilage and used in the nose whenever autologous costal cartilage is harvested, thus precluding the need for a separate surgical field for fascia harvest. The surgical technique for harvesting pectoralis major fascia is demonstrated, and two clinical cases of patients in whom this fascia was harvested and used in the nose are presented. Pectoralis major fascia may be considered an alternative option for use in rhinoplasty cases whenever autologous costal cartilage is used. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  16. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  17. Early coagulopathy of major burns.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Biswadev; Wasiak, Jason; Cameron, Peter A; O'Reilly, Gerard; Dobson, Hannah; Cleland, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology and time-course of coagulopathy post major burns are inadequately understood. The aims of this study were to review the incidence of acute coagulopathy post major burns, potential contributing factors associated with this coagulopathy and outcome of patients who developed early coagulopathy. A retrospective review of all patients with major burns (≥20% total body surface area (TBSA)) presenting to a tertiary burns referral centre was conducted. Data on demographic, injury characteristics and fluid resuscitation practices were recorded and tested for association with coagulopathy (INR>1.5 or aPTT>60 s) at hospital presentation and within 24 h of burns injury. Mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation and blood and blood product usage were primary endpoints. There were 99 patients who met the inclusion criteria with 36 (16) %TBSA burns. Coagulopathy was present in only three patients on presentation, but 37 (37%) patients developed early onset (within 24 h of injury) coagulopathy. Early onset coagulopathy was independently associated with %TBSA burnt (p<0.001) and volume of fluid administered (p=0.005). Early onset coagulopathy was associated with higher volumes of blood and blood product administration, ICU admission and prolonged mechanical ventilation. Post major burns, a very low proportion of patients presented with coagulopathy, but a substantial proportion of patients developed coagulopathy within 24 h. This and the association of coagulopathy with the volume of fluid resuscitation suggest dilution as a major cause of the early coagulopathy of major burns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of Major Limb Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Management of major limb injuries is a daunting challenge, especially as many of these patients have severe associated injuries. In trying to save life, often the limb is sacrificed. The existing guidelines on managing such trauma are often confusing. There is scope to lay down such protocols along with the need for urgent transfer of such patients to a multispecialty center equipped to salvage life and limb for maximizing outcome. This review article comprehensively deals with the issue of managing such major injuries. PMID:24511296

  19. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  20. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  1. Major Work Program Parent Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland Public Schools, OH.

    This guide is designed to help parents and other interested persons understand the nature and needs of gifted children, to provide ideas and activities that will nurture gifted children, and to explain the components of the Major Work Program, which is the gifted education program of the Cleveland (Ohio) Public School District. The guide outlines…

  2. Discovering endophenotypes for major depression.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Gregor; Drevets, Wayne C; Manji, Husseini K; Charney, Dennis S

    2004-10-01

    The limited success of genetic studies of major depression has raised questions concerning the definition of genetically relevant phenotypes. This paper presents strategies to improve the phenotypic definition of major depression by proposing endophenotypes at two levels: First, dissecting the depressive phenotype into key components results in narrow definitions of putative psychopathological endophenotypes: mood bias toward negative emotions, impaired reward function, impaired learning and memory, neurovegetative signs, impaired diurnal variation, impaired executive cognitive function, psychomotor change, and increased stress sensitivity. A review of the recent literature on neurobiological and genetic findings associated with these components is given. Second, the most consistent heritable biological markers of major depression are proposed as biological endophenotypes for genetic studies: REM sleep abnormalities, functional and structural brain abnormalities, dysfunctions in serotonergic, catecholaminergic, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and CRH systems, and intracellular signal transduction endophenotypes. The associations among the psychopathological and biological endophenotypes are discussed with respect to specificity, temporal stability, heritability, familiality, and clinical and biological plausibility. Finally, the case is made for the development of a new classification system in order to reduce the heterogeneity of depression representing a major impediment to elucidating the genetic and neurobiological basis of this common, severe, and often life-threatening illness.

  3. Coffee, Tea, or Major Gifts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann

    1990-01-01

    The University of Notre Dame (Indiana) fund-raising program uses first-class transportation and hospitality in major donor weekends. Features include careful research, personalized correspondence, transportation provided by trustee-owned private planes, scheduled ground transportation, accommodations, information packets, and a weekend of…

  4. Linguistics for Non-Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shopen, Tim

    Linguistics ought to do something besides train new linguists; there is a good deal about language that has philosophical and social import and should be a part of general education. In developing curricula for linguistics courses, four major distinctions have special relevance: (1) a philosophical vs a professional introduction to linguistics;…

  5. Managemant of NASA's major projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches used to manage major projects are studied and the existing documents on NASA management are reviewed. The work consists of: (1) the project manager's role, (2) request for proposal, (3) project plan, (4) management information system, (5) project organizational thinking, (6) management disciplines, (7) important decisions, and (8) low cost approach.

  6. Major purchasers view customer service.

    PubMed

    Darling, H; Kerr, V; Lynn, D

    1998-01-01

    While managed care organizations may select a variety of strategies toward customer service, the most successful will be adapting their approach to the expectation and requirements of major purchasers. In order to better understand the perspective of the individuals who are responsible for policy decisions at that level, Managed Care Quarterly (MCQ) conducted interviews with three highly respected representatives.

  7. Survey of Foreign Language Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allawala, Aslam U.; And Others

    This marketing research project was undertaken to provide the International Institute of the University of Dallas with information regarding the career perception of foreign language majors for its use in recruitment for the International Management Program. Students from Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas were included in the study. Primary…

  8. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  9. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  10. Chemistry for the Nonscience Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolke, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the problems and objectives of a course for the non-science major. Includes an outline of the course with the methods used to make the material meaningful. Examples are used to show how controversy, current events, readings, and general discussions can be used effectively. (DS)

  11. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as ‘major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These ‘synthetic’ transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431528

  12. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  13. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  14. Redefining the major peanut allergens

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are “major” allergens and allergens of less importance. “Major allergens” have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract

  15. Pore-forming ability of major outer membrane proteins from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238.

    PubMed Central

    Kennell, W L; Egli, C; Hancock, R E; Holt, S C

    1992-01-01

    Three major outer membrane proteins with apparent molecular masses of 43, 45, and 51 kDa were purified from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238, and their pore-forming abilities were determined by the black lipid bilayer method. The non-heat-modifiable 45-kDa protein (Omp 45) showed no pore-forming activity even at high KCl concentrations. The single-channel conductances in 1 M KCl of the heat-modifiable proteins with apparent molecular masses of 43 kDa (Omp 43) and 51 kDa (Omp 51) were 0.49 and 0.60 nS, respectively. The proteins formed nonselective channels and, as determined by experiments of ion selectivity and zero-current potential, were weakly anion selective. Images PMID:1370429

  16. Localization of polysialoglycoprotein as a major glycoprotein component in cortical alveoli of the unfertilized eggs of Salmo gairdneri.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Kitajima, K; Inoue, Y; Kudo, S

    1987-10-01

    Polysialoglycoprotein (PSGP, 200 kDa), first isolated by S. Inoue and M. Iwasaki in 1978 (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 83, 1018-1023) from unfertilized eggs of rainbow trout, has been shown to comprise a unique class of glycoproteins associated with the exocytosis of cortical alveoli. In 1986, 200-kDa PSGP was shown to undergo proteolytic depolymerization to 9-kDa PSGP on egg fertilization (activation) and there was an indication that 200-kDa PSGP may possibly be a component of cortical alveoli (J. Biol. Chem. 261, 5256-5261). In this paper we present evidence demonstrating that PSGP is actually a component of cortical alveolus. First, a cortical alveolus-rich fraction (CA fraction) was obtained by low-speed centrifugation of the homogenate of unfertilized eggs of rainbow trout. The 200-kDa PSGP was found to be a major component extractable with buffered saline from the CA fraction by chemical analysis of isolated materials. Treatment of the eggs to induce parthenogenetic activation resulted in all cases in the loss of both cortical alveoli and PSGP in the CA fraction. Second, perivitelline space fluid was isolated from the activated eggs of rainbow trout and analyzed, and 9-kDa PSGP was confirmed to be present as a major proteinaceous component. Third, following incubation of the eggs in water for activation, the time course of the appearance of 9-kDa PSGP and the breakdown of 200-kDa PSGP was observed. The formation of 9-kDa PSGP was detected in the eggs after 1 min of incubation and its level rose rapidly, attaining a maximum at 7 min after incubation. During this period, there was a concomitant fall in the level of 200-kDa PSGP. This formation and rapid increase in 9-kDa PSGP correspond directly to the time course of cortical alveolus exocytosis in activated chum salmon eggs recently studied by scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Neurobiology of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We survey studies which relate abnormal neurogenesis to major depressive disorder. Clinically, descriptive gene and protein expression analysis and genetic and functional studies revised here show that individual alterations of a complex signaling network, which includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; the production of neurotrophins and growth factors; the expression of miRNAs; the production of proinflammatory cytokines; and, even, the abnormal delivery of gastrointestinal signaling peptides, are able to induce major mood alterations. Furthermore, all of these factors modulate neurogenesis in brain regions involved in MDD, and are functionally interconnected in such a fashion that initial alteration in one of them results in abnormalities in the others. We highlight data of potential diagnostic significance and the relevance of this information to develop new therapeutic approaches. Controversial issues, such as whether neurogenesis is the basis of the disease or whether it is a response induced by antidepressant treatments, are also discussed. PMID:24222865

  18. Cardiovascular MRI in thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Wood, John C; Noetzli, Leila

    2010-08-01

    MRI assessment of myocardial iron and function has revolutionized the treatment of thalassemia major patients. While knowledge of somatic iron stores is vital for iron chelation management, it does not adequately monitor cardiac risk. MRI monitoring of cardiac T2* allows preclinical recognition of myocardial iron, stratifies prospective cardiac risk, and tracks response to modifications in iron chelation therapy. MRI assessment of cardiac function complements T2* measurements by offering highly accurate and reproducible assessments of ventricular function. This manuscript describes the historical context of cardiac toxicity in thalassemia major, the introduction of cardiac T2* methods in the early 2000s, and the impact of these techniques on patient care as well as our fundamental understanding of iron cardiomyopathy. Technical details regarding T2* image acquisition and postprocessing are also discussed. As barriers to widespread implementation are being overcome, cardiac T2* is rapidly transitioning from a clinical research tool to the standard of care.

  19. Distance majorization and its applications.

    PubMed

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton's method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications.

  20. Neurobiology of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    We survey studies which relate abnormal neurogenesis to major depressive disorder. Clinically, descriptive gene and protein expression analysis and genetic and functional studies revised here show that individual alterations of a complex signaling network, which includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; the production of neurotrophins and growth factors; the expression of miRNAs; the production of proinflammatory cytokines; and, even, the abnormal delivery of gastrointestinal signaling peptides, are able to induce major mood alterations. Furthermore, all of these factors modulate neurogenesis in brain regions involved in MDD, and are functionally interconnected in such a fashion that initial alteration in one of them results in abnormalities in the others. We highlight data of potential diagnostic significance and the relevance of this information to develop new therapeutic approaches. Controversial issues, such as whether neurogenesis is the basis of the disease or whether it is a response induced by antidepressant treatments, are also discussed.

  1. WRS2 UPA DA Removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-23

    ISS021-E-032275 (23 Nov. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Leland Melvin, STS-129 mission specialist, holds the failed Urine Processor Assembly / Distillation Assembly (UPA DA) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis remains docked with the station. Melvin and European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne (out of frame), Expedition 21 commander, removed and packed the UPA DA, then transferred it from the Water Recovery System 2 (WRS-2) rack to Atlantis for stowage on the middeck.

  2. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    PubMed

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The non-major histocompatibility complex quantitative trait locus Cia10 contains a major arthritis gene and regulates disease severity, pannus formation, and joint damage.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Max; Meng, Hsiang-Chi; Yarlett, Nuriza C; Griffiths, Marie M; Remmers, Elaine F; Wilder, Ronald L; Gulko, Pércio S

    2005-01-01

    the DA and ACI strains. This study determined that Cia10 harbors a major autoimmune arthritis-regulatory gene. This gene regulates clinical disease severity, histologic damage, and the levels of at least two central proinflammatory cytokines. We are in the process of narrowing down the critical region for positional cloning of the Cia10 gene. The identification of this gene will provide novel targets or pathways for focused candidate-gene studies in RA.

  4. Major transitions in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert A.; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of ‘origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’ throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation—genes, phenotypes and behaviour—integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298461

  5. Major transitions in human evolution.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-05

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of 'origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution' throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation-genes, phenotypes and behaviour-integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Alpha amylase is a major allergenic component in occupational asthma patients caused by porcine pancreatic extract.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Sim; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Suh, You-Jin; Lee, Soo-Jin; Lee, Soo-Keol; Kim, Sun-Sin; Nahm, Dong-Ho

    2002-09-01

    Porcine pancreatic extracts (PPE) are composed of alpha-amylase and lipase, which are common components of digestive enzymes. They have been known to cause occupational asthma in exposed workers in pharmaceutical and baking industries, as well as in a laboratory technician, but there has been no report of PPE-induced occupational asthma in medical personnel and their IgE binding components to each component. Four asthmatic subjects showing positive results on PPE-bronchoprovocation testing were enrolled. All of them were nurses working in a university hospital. Their job included grinding and mixing PPE powder for admitted patients. Serum-specific IgE antibodies to PPE, alpha-amylase, and lipase were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To confirm specificity of IgE binding and cross-allergenicity among the three extracts, ELISA inhibition tests were performed. In order to characterize allergenic components within these three extracts, SDS-PAGE and IgE immunoblot analysis were done. Specific IgE antibodies to PPE, alpha-amylase, and lipase were detectable by ELISA in all study subjects. An alpha-amylase ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by amylase and PPE, and minimal inhibition by lipase. However, a lipase ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by alpha-amylase and PPE with a lesser degree of inhibition by lipase. Furthermore, IgE immunoblot analysis showed one IgE binding component (55 kDa) within PPE, six components (55 kDa, 43 kDa, 41 kDa, 32 kDa, 31 kDa, 29 kDa) within alpha-amylase and two components (31 kDa, 29 kDa) within lipase extracts. Thesefindings suggest that inhalation of PPE powder can induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed nurses. Alpha-amylase is a major allergenic component within PPE.

  7. Extraction, purification, and characterization of major outer membrane proteins from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238.

    PubMed Central

    Kennell, W L; Holt, S C

    1991-01-01

    The outer membrane of Wolinella recta ATCC 33238 was isolated by French pressure cell disruption and differential centrifugation. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were solubilized by Zwittergent 3.14 extraction and separated by DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography. The major OMPs that were found in W. recta ATCC 33238 and in several other Wolinella spp. consisted of proteins with apparent molecular masses of 51, 45, and 43 kDa. These three conserved proteins were purified to essential homogeneity by one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and characterized chemically. Heating at between 75 and 100 degrees C revealed both the 43- and 51-kDa proteins to be heat modified from apparent molecular masses of 32 and 38 kDa, respectively. The 45-kDa protein was unmodified at all temperatures tested. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-SDS-PAGE revealed the 51-kDa protein to be composed of multiple pIs between a pH of 5.0 and greater than 8.0 while the 43- and 45-kDa proteins had a pI of approximately 6.0. N'-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the first 30 to 40 amino acids and search of the Protein Identification Resource data base for similar proteins only revealed the 43-kDa protein to be similar to the P.69 OMP of Bordetella pertussis; however, the homology was weak (33%). Amino acid analysis revealed the 43-kDa protein to be noncharged and the 45- and 51-kDa proteins to be hydrophilic, containing between 38 to 42% polar residues but no cysteine. This study reports the purification and partial characterization of three conserved proteins in W. recta ATCC 33238. Images PMID:1894372

  8. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  9. Major Transitions in Language Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Joshua B.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2001-11-01

    Language is the most important evolutionary invention of the last few million years. How human language evolved from animal communication is a challenging question for evolutionary biology. In this paper we use mathematical models to analyze the major transitions in language evolution. We begin by discussing the evolution of coordinated associations between signals and objects in a population. We then analyze word-formation and its relationship to Shannon's noisy coding theorem. Finally, we model the population dynamics of words and the adaptive emergence of syntax.

  10. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R.N.; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H.; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  11. Plasmenylethanolamine synthesis in Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Pawlowic, Mattie C; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Moitra, Samrat; Biyani, Neha; Zhang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Ethanolamine glycerophospholipids are ubiquitous cell membrane components. Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania synthesize the majority of their ethanolamine glycerophospholipids as 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or plasmenylethanolamine (PME) through the Kennedy pathway. PME is a subtype of ether phospholipids also known as ethanolamine plasmalogen whose functions are not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of PME synthesis in Leishmania major through the characterization of an ethanolamine phosphotransferase (EPT) mutant. EPT-null parasites are largely devoid of PME and fully viable in regular medium but fail to proliferate in the absence of fetal bovine serum. They exhibit significant abnormalities in the synthesis and localization of GPI-anchored surface molecules. EPT-null mutants also show attenuated virulence in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, in addition to PME synthesis, ethanolamine also contributes to the production of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant class of lipids in Leishmania. Together, these findings suggest that ethanolamine production is likely required for Leishmania promastigotes to generate bulk phospholipids, to handle stress, and to control the expression of membrane bound virulence factors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Neuromonitoring after major neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Messerer, M; Daniel, R T; Oddo, M

    2012-07-01

    Postoperative care of major neurosurgical procedures is aimed at the prevention, detection and treatment of secondary brain injury. This consists of a series of pathological events (i.e. brain edema and intracranial hypertension, cerebral hypoxia/ischemia, brain energy dysfunction, non-convulsive seizures) that occur early after the initial insult and surgical intervention and may add further burden to primary brain injury and thus impact functional recovery. Management of secondary brain injury requires specialized neuroscience intensive care units (ICU) and continuous advanced monitoring of brain physiology. Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) is a mainstay of care and is recommended by international guidelines. However, ICP monitoring alone may be insufficient to detect all episodes of secondary brain insults. Additional invasive (i.e. brain tissue PO2, cerebral microdialysis, regional cerebral blood flow) and non-invasive (i.e. transcranial doppler, near-infrared spectroscopy, EEG) brain monitoring devices might complement ICP monitoring and help clinicians to target therapeutic interventions (e.g. management of cerebral perfusion pressure, blood transfusion, glucose control) to patient-specific pathophysiology. Several independent studies demonstrate such multimodal approach may optimize patient care after major neurosurgical procedures. The aim of this review is to evaluate some of the available monitoring systems and summarize recent important data showing the clinical utility of multimodal neuromonitoring for the management of main acute neurosurgical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke.

  13. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Cottontail, Veronika M; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Oppong, Samuel; Adu Sarkodie, Yaw; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R N; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

    2012-04-24

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data.

  14. Cognitive impairment in major depression.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Consoli, Giorgio; Picchetti, Michela; Carlini, Marina; Faravelli, Luca

    2010-01-10

    In the past decade, a growing bulk of evidence has accumulated to suggest that patients suffering from major depression (MD) present some cognitive disturbances, such as impairment in attention, working memory, and executive function, including cognitive inhibition, problem- and task-planning. If the results of short-term memory assessment in depressed patients are equivocal, a general consensus exists that memory problems are secondary to attentional dysfunctions, and reflect the inability to concentrate. Moreover, both unipolar and bipolar patients show evidence of impaired verbal learning that has been commonly interpreted as reflecting an inability to transfer information from short-term to long-term storage. According to some authors, there would be a gender-related as well age-related specificity of some disturbances. Depressed patients also show impairments of executive functions and their recent exploration through brain imaging techniques has recently permitted to formulate some general hypotheses on the possible involvement of different brain areas in MD.

  15. Major thermal springs of Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, J.C.

    1970-01-01

    As part of a study of the springs of Utah, reconnaissance data were obtained on the thermal, chemical, and geologic characteristics of the major thermal springs or Utah. Only three of the springs have temperatures near the boiling point of water; the maximum recorded temperatures of these springs range from 185° to 189° F. All three springs are in or near areas of late Tertiary or Quaternary volcanism.Temperatures of the thermal springs studied ranged from 68° to 189° F. Nearly all thermal springs in Utah are in or near fault zones. Very few of these springs issue from volcanic rocks, but several springs are close to areas of late Tertiary or Quaternary volcanic rocks.

  16. Antenatal diagnosis of thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Fairweather, D V; Modell, B; Berdoukas, V; Alter, B P; Nathan, D G; Loukopoulos, D; Wood, W; Clegg, J B; Weatherall, D J

    1978-02-11

    Haemoglobin synthesis was studied in fetal blood samples obtained at 17 to 20 weeks' gestation in 22 women at risk of carrying a fetus with homozygous beta-thalassaemia. A presumptive diagnosis of homozygous beta-thalassaemia was made in four cases, and the pregnancy was terminated. An inconclusive answer was obtained in one case, and the patient also chose to have her pregnancy terminated. Two fetuses were lost as a result of the procedure. Of the remaining 15 pregnancies, 13 proceeded to term and two to 36 weeks; in each case a normal infant or one heterozygous for beta-thalassaemia was delivered. Current efforts should be directed towards improving the blood sampling technology so that fetal blood sampling can be used widely in those countries where thalassaemia is a major problem.

  17. The role of transparency in da Vinci stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Zannoli, Marina; Mamassian, Pascal

    2011-10-15

    The majority of natural scenes contains zones that are visible to one eye only. Past studies have shown that these monocular regions can be seen at a precise depth even though there are no binocular disparities that uniquely constrain their locations in depth. In the so-called da Vinci stereopsis configuration, the monocular region is a vertical line placed next to a binocular rectangular occluder. The opacity of the occluder has been mentioned to be a necessary condition to obtain da Vinci stereopsis. However, this opacity constraint has never been empirically tested. In the present study, we tested whether da Vinci stereopsis and perceptual transparency can interact using a classical da Vinci configuration in which the opacity of the occluder varied. We used two different monocular objects: a line and a disk. We found no effect of the opacity of the occluder on the perceived depth of the monocular object. A careful analysis of the distribution of perceived depth revealed that the monocular object was perceived at a depth that increased with the distance between the object and the occluder. The analysis of the skewness of the distributions was not consistent with a double fusion explanation, favoring an implication of occlusion geometry in da Vinci stereopsis. A simple model that includes the geometry of the scene could account for the results. In summary, the mechanism responsible to locate monocular regions in depth is not sensitive to the material properties of objects, suggesting that da Vinci stereopsis is solved at relatively early stages of disparity processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. WRS2 UPA DA Removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-23

    ISS021-E-032273 (23 Nov. 2009) --- European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 21 commander, holds the failed Urine Processor Assembly / Distillation Assembly (UPA DA) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis remains docked with the station. De Winne and NASA astronaut Leland Melvin (out of frame), STS-129 mission specialist, removed and packed the UPA DA, then transferred it from the Water Recovery System 2 (WRS-2) rack to Atlantis for stowage on the middeck.

  19. Chemopreventive Effects of Korean Angelica versus Its Major Pyranocoumarins on Two Lineages of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Su-Ni; Zhang, Jinhui; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Peixin; Puppala, Manohar; Zhang, Yong; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-09-01

    We showed previously that daily gavage of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root ethanolic extract starting 8 weeks of age inhibited growth of prostate epithelium and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NE-Ca) in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Because decursin (D) and its isomer decursinol angelate (DA) are major pyranocoumarins in AGN extract, we tested the hypothesis that D/DA represented active/prodrug compounds against TRAMP carcinogenesis. Three groups of male C57BL/6 TRAMP mice were gavage treated daily with excipient vehicle, AGN (5 mg per mouse), or equimolar D/DA (3 mg per mouse) from 8 weeks to 16 or 28 weeks of age. Measurement of plasma and NE-Ca D, DA, and their common metabolite decursinol indicated similar retention from AGN versus D/DA dosing. The growth of TRAMP dorsolateral prostate (DLP) in AGN- and D/DA-treated mice was inhibited by 66% and 61% at 16 weeks and by 67% and 72% at 28 weeks, respectively. Survival of mice bearing NE-Ca to 28 weeks was improved by AGN, but not by D/DA. Nevertheless, AGN- and D/DA-treated mice had lower NE-Ca burden. Immunohistochemical and mRNA analyses of DLP showed that AGN and D/DA exerted similar inhibition of TRAMP epithelial lesion progression and key cell-cycle genes. Profiling of NE-Ca mRNA showed a greater scope of modulating angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion-metastasis, and inflammation genes by AGN than D/DA. The data therefore support D/DA as probable active/prodrug compounds against TRAMP epithelial lesions, and they cooperate with non-pyranocoumarin compounds to fully express AGN efficacy against NE-Ca.

  20. Chemopreventive effects of Korean Angelica vs. its major pyranocoumarins on two lineages of transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Su-Ni; Zhang, Jinhui; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Peixin; Puppala, Manohar; Zhang, Yong; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-01-01

    We showed previously that daily gavage of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root ethanolic extract starting 8 weeks of age inhibited growth of prostate epithelium and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NE-Ca) in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Since decursin (D) and its isomer decursinol angelate (DA) are major pyranocoumarins in AGN extract, we tested the hypothesis that D/DA represented active/prodrug compounds against TRAMP carcinogenesis. Three groups of male C57BL/6 TRAMP mice were gavage-treated daily with excipient vehicle, AGN (5 mg per mouse) or equimolar D/DA (3 mg per mouse) from 8 weeks to 16 or 28 weeks of age. Measurement of plasma and NE-Ca D, DA and their common metabolite decursinol indicated similar retention from AGN vs. D/DA dosing. The growth of TRAMP dorsolateral prostate (DLP) in AGN-and D/DA-treated mice was inhibited by 66% and 61% at 16 weeks and by 67% and 72% at 28 weeks, respectively. Survival of mice bearing NE-Ca to 28 weeks was improved by AGN, but not by D/DA. Nevertheless, AGN-and D/DA-treated mice had lower NE-Ca burden. Immunohistochemical and mRNA analyses of DLP showed AGN and D/DA exerted similar inhibition of TRAMP epithelial lesion progression and key cell cycle genes. Profiling of NE-Ca mRNA showed a greater scope of modulating angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal-transition, invasion-metastasis and inflammation genes by AGN than D/DA. The data therefore support D/DA as probable active/prodrug compounds against TRAMP epithelial lesions, and they cooperate with non-pyranocoumarin compounds to fully express AGN efficacy against NE-Ca. PMID:26116406

  1. da Vinci decoded: does da Vinci stereopsis rely on disparity?

    PubMed

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2012-11-01

    In conventional stereopsis, the depth between two objects is computed based on the retinal disparity in the position of matching points in the two eyes. When an object is occluded by another object in the scene, so that it is visible only in one eye, its retinal disparity cannot be computed. Nakayama and Shimojo (1990) found that a precept of quantitative depth between the two objects could still be established for such stimuli and proposed that this precept is based on the constraints imposed by occlusion geometry. They named this and other occlusion-based depth phenomena "da Vinci stereopsis." Subsequent research found quantitative depth based on occlusion geometry in several other classes of stimuli grouped under the term da Vinci stereopsis. However, Nakayama and Shimojo's findings were later brought into question by Gillam, Cook, and Blackburn (2003), who suggested that quantitative depth in their stimuli was perceived based on conventional disparity. In order to understand whether da Vinci stereopsis relies on one type of mechanism or whether its function is stimulus dependent we examine the nature and source of depth in the class of stimuli used by Nakayama and Shimojo (1990). We use three different psychophysical and computational methods to show that the most likely source for depth in these stimuli is occlusion geometry. Based on these experiments and previous data we discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for processing depth from monocular features in da Vinci stereopsis.

  2. Unusual association of beta 2-microglobulin with certain class I heavy chains of the murine major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed Central

    Bushkin, Y; Tung, J S; Pinter, A; Michaelson, J; Boyse, E A

    1986-01-01

    Class I products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprise a heavy chain of about 45 kDa noncovalently linked to a 12-kDa beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) light chain encoded on a different chromosome. We find that class I products of some mouse strains include an additional 62-kDa molecule which on the following evidence consists of a heavy chain linked covalently with beta 2m. Production of the 62-kDa protein invariably accorded with the occurrence of cysteine at position 121 of the heavy chain (Kb,Kbm1,Kbm3,Dd, and Ld). Substitution of arginine at position 121 invariably accorded with absence of the 62-kDa protein (Kbm6,Kbm7,Kbm9,Kd, and Db). On the basis of observed production versus nonproduction of the 62-kDa molecule, predictions are made regarding residue 121 in class I products for which this is not yet known; namely, Kk, Ks, and Dk, which produce the 62-kDa molecule, as compared with Kj, Qa-2, and TL, which do not. Reported differences in immunologic reactivity between Kb mutant strains with Arg-121 in place of Cys-121 imply that the occurrence of 62-kDa class I products in mice of Cys-121 genotype has functional consequences. Images PMID:3510435

  3. [Extrapair paternity in Parus major].

    PubMed

    Yin, Li-Xian; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Peng; Li, Jing; Wan, Dong-Mei

    2013-02-01

    Mating systems, as an evolutionary stable strategy, play an important role in animal reproductive process and result from an animal's adaption to their environment, including their inter-specific environment. In the 1980s, extrapair paternity (EPP) was first noted in the eurychoric species, the Great Tit, Parus major. As earlier studies indicated, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecological characteristics and mating systems of eurychoric species differ greatly between areas or populations. Accordingly, we analyzed the mating system of the Great Tit (P.m.minor) in Fairy Cave National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China. We collected total parent-offspring blood samples from 22 broods. We used 8 hypervariable loci, which were selected from 11 reported microsatellite loci for paternity test. In conjunction with the known genetic pattern of the female parent, the accuracy of the paternity testing reached 99.98% with this genetic data. Results of paternity testing showed that 7 of 22 broods (31.8%) had extra-pair nestling, with 16 of 197 nestlings (8.12%) a result of extra-pair fertilizations. The EPP rate of the Great Tit we noted in Liaoning is obviously lower than those in other passerine forest birds (less than 10%). Though between 55.6% and 9.1% extrapair offspring were found among the different nests, we were, however, unable to find any explanatory rule.

  4. Major sources of benzene exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L A

    1989-01-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis. PMID:2477239

  5. Population policy: major party positions.

    PubMed

    Betts, K

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies the major political party positions on population policy (PP) in Australia. Australia has the Governing Coalition, comprised of the Liberal and National Parties, and the Australian Labor Party (ALP), the main opposition party. The ALP adopted a PP at its national conference in 1998. The Government Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA) does not view a PP as a need. The ALP policy identifies the need to decide on a long term sustainable population size as determined within a PP framework. The visa classification system needs to reflect national priorities. Labor will support a fair refugee and humanitarian program. Skilled labor migration must be linked with labor market needs. Business migration is a means of transferring resources and technology to Australia. The DIMA Minister announced the target intake of 80,000 visa immigrants in 1998- 99, which would produce a peak population of about 23 million in 2050. Settler arrivals from New Zealand would increase population size. A group of scientists and scholars published their recommendations about development of a PP. The Minister of DIMA's defense of the lack of a PP is included in this publication. Labor in several publications indicates support for a larger immigration intake, or an adjustment of the intake within the existing numbers. The Prime Minister, who supports the concept of multiculturalism, argues that people must accept immigration policy. Politics today are more divided over the origin and future of the nation than population size issues.

  6. CAPS and INMS Major Accomplishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Cassini INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) have provided "discovery" science at Titan, Enceladus, Rhea/Dione, and throughout the magnetosphere of Saturn during the course of the mission. In this talk we will review some of the major scientific achievements: 1) the discovery of an extremely complex ion neutral organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere that forms the building blocks for aerosol processes below, 2) the discovery of gases and grains emanating from Enceladus' cryo-geysers that tell us about chemical processes in an interior sea, 3) the first direct compositional measurements of sputtered icy moon surfaces, 4) the clearest example to date of the complex plasma interchange processes that occur in rapidly rotating magnetospheres of gas giants, initiating global dynamic processes that enable Saturn to shed the plasma from Enceladus' plume, and complete with a myriad of longitudinal and solar local-time variations, and 5) the dominance of Enceladus water outgassing as a source of magnetospheric plasma that stretches out to Titan and provides oxygen that can convert Titan's rich nitrile populations into amino acids.

  7. Molecular signatures of major depression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Na; Chang, Simon; Li, Yihan; Li, Qibin; Hu, Jingchu; Liang, Jieqin; Song, Li; Kretzschmar, Warren; Gan, Xiangchao; Nicod, Jerome; Rivera, Margarita; Deng, Hong; Du, Bo; Li, Keqing; Sang, Wenhu; Gao, Jingfang; Gao, Shugui; Ha, Baowei; Ho, Hung-Yao; Hu, Chunmei; Hu, Jian; Hu, Zhenfei; Huang, Guoping; Jiang, Guoqing; Jiang, Tao; Jin, Wei; Li, Gongying; Li, Kan; Li, Yi; Li, Yingrui; Li, Youhui; Lin, Yu-Ting; Liu, Lanfen; Liu, Tiebang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Lu, Yao; Lv, Luxian; Meng, Huaqing; Qian, Puyi; Sang, Hong; Shen, Jianhua; Shi, Jianguo; Sun, Jing; Tao, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jian; Wang, Linmao; Wang, Xueyi; Wang, Xumei; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Lijun; Yin, Ye; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Kerang; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Zhen; Zhong, Hui; Breen, Gerome; Wang, Jun; Marchini, Jonathan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Qi; Xu, Xun; Mott, Richard; Huang, Guo-Jen; Kendler, Kenneth; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-05-04

    Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual's somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10(-42), odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-1.37]) and telomere length (p = 2.84 × 10(-14), odds ratio 0.85 [95% CI = 0.81-0.89]). While both telomere length and mtDNA amount were associated with adverse life events, conditional regression analyses showed the molecular changes were contingent on the depressed state. We tested this hypothesis with experiments in mice, demonstrating that stress causes both molecular changes, which are partly reversible and can be elicited by the administration of corticosterone. Together, these results demonstrate that changes in the amount of mtDNA and telomere length are consequences of stress and entering a depressed state. These findings identify increased amounts of mtDNA as a molecular marker of MD and have important implications for understanding how stress causes the disease.

  8. Molecular Signatures of Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Na; Chang, Simon; Li, Yihan; Li, Qibin; Hu, Jingchu; Liang, Jieqin; Song, Li; Kretzschmar, Warren; Gan, Xiangchao; Nicod, Jerome; Rivera, Margarita; Deng, Hong; Du, Bo; Li, Keqing; Sang, Wenhu; Gao, Jingfang; Gao, Shugui; Ha, Baowei; Ho, Hung-Yao; Hu, Chunmei; Hu, Jian; Hu, Zhenfei; Huang, Guoping; Jiang, Guoqing; Jiang, Tao; Jin, Wei; Li, Gongying; Li, Kan; Li, Yi; Li, Yingrui; Li, Youhui; Lin, Yu-Ting; Liu, Lanfen; Liu, Tiebang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Lu, Yao; Lv, Luxian; Meng, Huaqing; Qian, Puyi; Sang, Hong; Shen, Jianhua; Shi, Jianguo; Sun, Jing; Tao, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jian; Wang, Linmao; Wang, Xueyi; Wang, Xumei; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Lijun; Yin, Ye; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Kerang; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Zhen; Zhong, Hui; Breen, Gerome; Wang, Jun; Marchini, Jonathan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Qi; Xu, Xun; Mott, Richard; Huang, Guo-Jen; Kendler, Kenneth; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual’s somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10−42, odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29–1.37]) and telomere length (p = 2.84 × 10−14, odds ratio 0.85 [95% CI = 0.81–0.89]). While both telomere length and mtDNA amount were associated with adverse life events, conditional regression analyses showed the molecular changes were contingent on the depressed state. We tested this hypothesis with experiments in mice, demonstrating that stress causes both molecular changes, which are partly reversible and can be elicited by the administration of corticosterone. Together, these results demonstrate that changes in the amount of mtDNA and telomere length are consequences of stress and entering a depressed state. These findings identify increased amounts of mtDNA as a molecular marker of MD and have important implications for understanding how stress causes the disease. PMID:25913401

  9. Major sources of benzene exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis.

  10. Major General Robert A. Rushworth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Air Force test pilot Robert A. Rushworth is shown in an X-15. He was selected for the X-15 program in 1958, and made his first flight on November 4, 1960. Over the next six years, he made 34 flights in the X-15, the most of any pilot. This included a flight to an altitude of 285,000 feet, made on June 27, 1963. This flight above 50 miles qualified Rushworth for astronaut wings. On a later X-15 flight, he was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross for successfully landing an X-15 after its nose wheel extended while flying at nearly Mach 5. He made his final X-15 flight on July 1, 1966, then returned to regular Air Force duties. These included a tour in Vietnam as an F-4 pilot, flying 189 combat missions. He also served as the Commander of the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards AFB, and as the Commander of the Air Force Test and Evaluation Center at Kirtland AFB. At the time of his retirement as a major general, he was Vice Commander, Aeronautical Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command, at Wright-Patterson AFB. Rushworth flew C-47s and C-46s as a transport pilot in World War II, as well as F-80Cs, F-101s, TF-102s, F-104s, F-105s, F-106s, and F-4s. He died on March 17, 1993.

  11. Major transitions in information technology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Sergi

    2016-08-19

    When looking at the history of technology, we can see that all inventions are not of equal importance. Only a few technologies have the potential to start a new branching series (specifically, by increasing diversity), have a lasting impact in human life and ultimately became turning points. Technological transitions correspond to times and places in the past when a large number of novel artefact forms or behaviours appeared together or in rapid succession. Why does that happen? Is technological change continuous and gradual or does it occur in sudden leaps and bounds? The evolution of information technology (IT) allows for a quantitative and theoretical approach to technological transitions. The value of information systems experiences sudden changes (i) when we learn how to use this technology, (ii) when we accumulate a large amount of information, and (iii) when communities of practice create and exchange free information. The coexistence between gradual improvements and discontinuous technological change is a consequence of the asymmetric relationship between complexity and hardware and software. Using a cultural evolution approach, we suggest that sudden changes in the organization of ITs depend on the high costs of maintaining and transmitting reliable information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'.

  12. Major transitions in information technology

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    When looking at the history of technology, we can see that all inventions are not of equal importance. Only a few technologies have the potential to start a new branching series (specifically, by increasing diversity), have a lasting impact in human life and ultimately became turning points. Technological transitions correspond to times and places in the past when a large number of novel artefact forms or behaviours appeared together or in rapid succession. Why does that happen? Is technological change continuous and gradual or does it occur in sudden leaps and bounds? The evolution of information technology (IT) allows for a quantitative and theoretical approach to technological transitions. The value of information systems experiences sudden changes (i) when we learn how to use this technology, (ii) when we accumulate a large amount of information, and (iii) when communities of practice create and exchange free information. The coexistence between gradual improvements and discontinuous technological change is a consequence of the asymmetric relationship between complexity and hardware and software. Using a cultural evolution approach, we suggest that sudden changes in the organization of ITs depend on the high costs of maintaining and transmitting reliable information. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431527

  13. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  14. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. Crystal structure of Bombyx mori lipoprotein 6: comparative structural analysis of the 30-kDa lipoprotein family.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J; Bujacz, Anna; Łochynska, Malgorzata; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Bujacz, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The 30-kDa lipoprotein (LP) family of mulberry silkworm comprises major hemolymph proteins specific to the fifth instar larvae. The family consists of 46 members, 24 of which are referred to as typical 30-kDa LPs. To date, two crystal structures of 30-kDa LPs from Bombyx mori have been described (Bmlp3 and Bmlp7). Here, we present the crystal structure of Bmlp6, another 30-kDa LP member. Bmlp6 is comprised of two domains characteristic of this family, the VHS-type N-terminal domain and β-trefoil C-terminal domain. The structures of the three 30-kDa LPs have been compared and a number of differences are noted, including loop conformation, the surface electrostatic potential, and the potential binding cavities. We discuss the observed structural differences in the light of the potential different roles of the particular 30-kDa LP members in silkworm physiology.

  16. Identification of tropomyosin and arginine kinase as major allergens of Portunus pelagicus (blue swimming crab).

    PubMed

    Rosmilah, M; Shahnaz, M; Zailatul, H M Y; Noormalin, A; Normilah, I

    2012-09-01

    Crab is an important source of food allergen. Tropomyosin represents the main crab allergen and is responsible for IgE cross-reactivity between various species of crustaceans. Recently, other new crab allergens including arginine kinase have been identified. However, information on allergens of the local Portunidcrab is not available. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the major allergens of Portunus pelagicus (blue swimming crab) using the allergenomics approach. Raw and cooked extracts of the crab were prepared from the crab meat. Protein profile and IgE binding pattern were demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from 30 patients with crab allergy. The major allergens of the crab were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry analysis of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of raw extract revealed approximately 20 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while cooked extract demonstrated fewer protein bands. The raw extract also demonstrated a higher number of IgE reactive bands than the cooked extract. A heat-resistant protein of 36 kDa has been identified as the major allergen in both raw and cooked extracts. In addition, a heat-sensitive protein of 41 kDa was also recognized as a major allergen in raw crab. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated about >100 distinct proteins spots and immunoblotting of the 2-DE profile demonstrated at least 12 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses between 13 to 250 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. The 36 and 41 kDa proteins were identified as the crab tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively by mass spectrometry. Therefore, this study confirmed that tropomyosin and arginine kinase are the major allergens of the local Portunid crab, P. pelagicus.

  17. Wind Streaks in Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    These windstreaks are located on the lava flows of Meroe Patera in Syrtis Major.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5.7, Longitude 73.2 East (286.8 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  19. Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Lau, Quintin; Jobbins, Sarah E; Belov, Katherine; Higgins, Damien P

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind and present antigenic peptides to T helper lymphocytes. In this study of koalas, species-specific primers were designed to amplify exon 2 of the MHC class II DA and DB genes, which contain much of the peptide-binding regions of the α and β chains. A total of two DA α1 domain variants and eight DA β1 (DAB), three DB α1 and five DB β1 variants were amplified from 20 koalas from two free-living populations from South East Queensland and the Port Macquarie region in northern New South Wales. We detected greater variation in the β1 than in the α1 domains as well as evidence of positive selection in DAB. The present study provides a springboard to future investigation of the role of MHC in disease susceptibility in koalas.

  20. Double Your Major, Double Your Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rossi, Alison F.; Hersch, Joni

    2008-01-01

    We use the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates to provide the first estimates of the effect on earnings of having a double major. Overall, double majoring increases earnings by 2.3% relative to having a single major among college graduates without graduate degrees. Most of the gains from having a double major come from choosing fields across…

  1. Purification and characterization of human 72-kDa gelatinase (type IV collagenase). Use of immunolocalisation to demonstrate the non-coordinate regulation of the 72-kDa and 95-kDa gelatinases by human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hipps, D S; Hembry, R M; Docherty, A J; Reynolds, J J; Murphy, G

    1991-04-01

    Human gingival fibroblast gelatinase (type IV collagenase) has been purified to homogeneity using a combination of ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration and affinity chromatography. The purified proenzyme electrophoresed under reducing conditions as a single band of 72 kDa which could be activated to a species of 65 kDa. Gelatinase was activated by organomercurials by a process apparently initiated by a conformational change and involving self-cleavage. It was not activated by trypsin or plasmin unlike the other family members, collagenase and stromelysin. Gelatinase otherwise exhibited properties typical of the metalloproteinases: it was inhibited by metal chelating agents and by the specific inhibitor TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases). Its major substrate was shown to be denatured collagen although it was also able to degrade native type IV and V collagens. A polyclonal antibody was raised in a sheep using the purified enzyme as antigen. The antiserum recognised and specifically inhibited the 72-kDa gelatinase but not a 95-kDa gelatinase from pig leukocytes. It was used in immunolocalisation studies on human fibroblasts to investigate the regulation of the production of the two Mr forms of gelatinase. These studies clearly demonstrate that human fibroblasts constitutively synthesize and secrete 72-kDa gelatinase but that 95-kDa gelatinase was inducible by agents such as cytokines. The significance of these results in relation to the likely in vivo rôle of gelatinases is discussed.

  2. Beyond the Classic VTA: Extended Amygdala Projections to DA-Striatal Paths in the Primate.

    PubMed

    Fudge, Julie L; Kelly, Emily A; Pal, Ria; Bedont, Joseph L; Park, Lydia; Ho, Brian

    2017-03-22

    The central extended amygdala (CEA) has been conceptualized as a 'macrosystem' that regulates various stress-induced behaviors. Consistent with this, the CEA highly expresses corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), an important modulator of stress responses. Stress alters goal-directed responses associated with striatal paths, including maladaptive responses such as drug seeking, social withdrawal, and compulsive behavior. CEA inputs to the midbrain dopamine (DA) system are positioned to influence striatal functions through mesolimbic DA-striatal pathways. However, the structure of this amygdala-CEA-DA neuron path to the striatum has been poorly characterized in primates. In primates, we combined neuronal tracer injections into various arms of the circuit through specific DA subpopulations to assess: (1) whether the circuit connecting amygdala, CEA, and DA cells follows CEA intrinsic organization, or a more direct topography involving bed nucleus vs central nucleus divisions; (2) CRF content of the CEA-DA path; and (3) striatal subregions specifically involved in CEA-DA-striatal loops. We found that the amygdala-CEA-DA path follows macrostructural subdivisions, with the majority of input/outputs converging in the medial central nucleus, the sublenticular extended amygdala, and the posterior lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The proportion of CRF+ outputs is >50%, and mainly targets the A10 parabrachial pigmented nucleus (PBP) and A8 (retrorubal field, RRF) neuronal subpopulations, with additional inputs to the dorsal A9 neurons. CRF-enriched CEA-DA projections are positioned to influence outputs to the 'limbic-associative' striatum, which is distinct from striatal regions targeted by DA cells lacking CEA input. We conclude that the concept of the CEA is supported on connectional grounds, and that CEA termination over the PBP and RRF neuronal populations can influence striatal circuits involved in associative learning.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online

  3. Reduced striatal dopamine DA D2 receptor function in dominant-negative GSK-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sintes, Raquel; Bortolozzi, Analia; Artigas, Francesc; Lucas, José J

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase with constitutive activity involved in cellular architecture, gene expression, cell proliferation, fate decision and apoptosis, among others. GSK-3 expression is particularly high in brain where it may be involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer׳s disease, bipolar disorder and major depression. A link with schizophrenia is suggested by the antipsychotic drug-induced GSK-3 regulation and by the involvement of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Taking advantage of the previous development of dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice (Tg) showing a selective reduction of GSK-3 activity in forebrain neurons but not in dopaminergic neurons, we explored the relationship between GSK-3 and dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. In microdialysis experiments, local quinpirole (DA D2-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced dopamine (DA) release significantly less in Tg mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, local SKF-81297 (selective DA D1-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced DA release equally in both control and Tg mice indicating a comparable function of DA D1-R in the direct striato-nigral pathway. Likewise, systemic quinpirole administration - acting preferentially on presynaptic DA D2- autoreceptors to modulate DA release-reduced striatal DA release similarly in both control and Tg mice. Quinpirole reduced locomotor activity and induced c-fos expression in globus pallidus (both striatal DA D2-R-mediated effects) significantly more in WT than in Tg mice. Taking together, the present results show that dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice show reduced DA D2-R-mediated function in striatum and further support a link between dopaminergic neurotransmission and GSK-3 activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Calibration of Synthetic Photometry Using DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Bergeron, P.

    2005-12-01

    We have calibrated four major ground-based photometric systems with respect to the Hubble Space Telescope absolute flux scale, which is defined by Vega and four fundamental DA white dwarfs. These photometric systems include the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI, the Stromgren uvby filters, the 2MASS JHKs and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filters. Synthetic magnitudes are calculated from model white dwarf spectra folded through the published filter response functions, these magnitudes in turn are absolutely calibrated with respect to the HST flux scale. Effective zero magnitude fluxes and zero point offsets of each system are determined. In order to verify the external observational consistency as well as to demonstrate the applicability of these definitions, the synthetic magnitudes are compared with the respective observed magnitudes of larger sets of DA white dwarfs that have well determined effective temperatures and surface gravities and which span a wide range in both of these parameters.

  5. Nucleus-localized 21.5-kDa myelin basic protein promotes oligodendrocyte proliferation and enhances neurite outgrowth in coculture, unlike the plasma membrane-associated 18.5-kDa isoform.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham S T; Samborska, Bożena; Hawley, Steven P; Klaiman, Jordan M; Gillis, Todd E; Jones, Nina; Boggs, Joan M; Harauz, George

    2013-03-01

    The classic myelin basic protein (MBP) family of central nervous system (CNS) myelin arises from transcription start site 3 of the Golli (gene of oligodendrocyte lineage) complex and comprises splice isoforms ranging in nominal molecular mass from 14 kDa to (full-length) 21.5 kDa. We have determined here a number of distinct functional differences between the major 18.5-kDa and minor 21.5-kDa isoforms of classic MBP with respect to oligodendrocyte (OLG) proliferation. We have found that, in contrast to 18.5-kDa MBP, 21.5-kDa MBP increases proliferation of early developmental immortalized N19-OLGs by elevating the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Akt1 kinases and of ribosomal protein S6. Coculture of N2a neuronal cells with N19-OLGs transfected with the 21.5-kDa isoform (or conditioned medium from), but not the 18.5-kDa isoform, caused the N2a cells to have increased neurite outgrowth and process branching complexity. These roles were dependent on subcellular localization of 21.5-kDa MBP to the nucleus and on the exon II-encoded segment, suggesting that the nuclear localization of early minor isoforms of MBP may play a crucial role in regulating and/or initiating myelin and neuronal development in the mammalian CNS.

  6. Biochemical characterization of amandin, the major storage protein in almond (Prunus dulcis L.).

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Wolf, Walter J; Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Sze-Tao, Kar Wai Clara

    2002-07-17

    The almond major storage protein, amandin, was prepared by column chromatography (amandin-1), cryoprecipitation (amandin-2), and isoelectric precipitation (amandin-3) methods. Amandin is a legumin type protein characterized by a sedimentation value of 14S. Amandin is composed of two major types of polypeptides with estimated molecular weights of 42-46 and 20-22 kDa linked via disulfide bonds. Several additional minor polypeptides were also present in amandin. Amandin is a storage protein with an estimated molecular weight of 427,300 +/- 47,600 Da (n = 7) and a Stokes radius of 65.88 +/- 3.21 A (n = 7). Amandin is not a glycoprotein. Amandin-1, amandin-2, and amandin-3 are antigenically related and have similar biochemical properties. Amandin-3 is more negatively charged than either amandin-1 or amandin-2. Methionine is the first essential limiting amino acid in amandin followed by lysine and threonine.

  7. Identification of the major allergens of Charybdis feriatus (red crab) and its cross-reactivity with Portunus pelagicus (blue crab).

    PubMed

    Misnan, Rosmilah; Murad, Shahnaz; Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohd; Abdullah, Noormalin

    2012-12-01

    Tropomyosin and arginine kinase have been identified as the major allergens in multiple species of crab. Charybdis feriatus is an important commercial crab in this country. To characterize the major allergens of C. feriatus using a proteomics approach and subsequently to identify the allergens involved in cross-reactivity with Portunus pelagicus. Raw and boiled extracts of the crabs were prepared from crab meat. The protein profile of the extracts was determined by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Major allergens were identified by the immunoblotting test using sera from 50 patients with crab allergy. The major allergens were further identified by 2-DE immunoblotting. The major allergenic spots were then excised, digested by trypsin and identified by mass spectrometry analysis. The immunoblotting inhibition test was performed to study the crossreactivity between red crab and blue crab allergens using sera from 20 patients with allergy to both red and blue crabs. At least 20 protein bands between 13 to 250 kDa were detected in the SDS-PAGE gel of raw extract, while boiled extract procuced fewer protein bands. Proteins of 36 kDa and 41 kDa were recognized as the major allergens of the crab. The major allergenic spot sequences of the 36 and 41 kDa proteins were identified as crab tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively. All IgE-binding proteins, including both major allergens, were found to be cross-creative with P. pelagicus allergens. In addition to tropomyosin, arginine kinase was also identified as the major allergen of C. feriatus among our local crab-allergic patients. Cross-reactivity of this crab with P. pelagicus was demonstrated in this study.

  8. At Major Teaching Hospitals, Lower Death Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165869.html At Major Teaching Hospitals, Lower Death Rates Researchers assess 30-day ... TUESDAY, May 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Major U.S. teaching hospitals are often considered more expensive than the ...

  9. Fertility and pregnancy in thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Susan M

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, 22 women with thalassemia major have completed 29 pregnancies at the Royal Hospital in London. The major pre-pregnancy issues, medications, and pregnancy care are reviewed. Experience suggests that, with proper care and guidance, pregnancies among women with thalassemia major are practical and can have successful outcomes.

  10. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office...

  11. Why It Pays to Major in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Thomas; Assane, Djeto; Busker, Jared

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a large, recent, and accessible data set to examine the effect of economics major on individual earnings. They find a significant positive earnings gain for economics majors relative to other majors, and this advantage increases with the level of education. Their findings are consistent with Black, Sanders, and…

  12. Why It Pays to Major in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Thomas; Assane, Djeto; Busker, Jared

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a large, recent, and accessible data set to examine the effect of economics major on individual earnings. They find a significant positive earnings gain for economics majors relative to other majors, and this advantage increases with the level of education. Their findings are consistent with Black, Sanders, and…

  13. Allergenic components in three different species of Penicillium: crossreactivity among major allergens.

    PubMed

    Shen, H D; Lin, W L; Tsai, J J; Liaw, S F; Han, S H

    1996-04-01

    Penicillium species have been considered as important causative agents of extrinsic bronchial asthma. However, little is known about the allergens of these ubiquitous airborne fungal species. This study compares the allergenic profiles and allergenic crossreactivity among allergens of three prevalent airborne Penicillium species. IgE-binding Penicillium components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-immunoblotting using sera from 67 asthmatic patients. The presence of allergenic crossreactivity was analysed by immunoblot inhibition. Among the 67 serum samples tested, 15, 14 and 11 samples showed IgE reactivity to components of P. citrinum, P. notatum and P. brevicompactum, respectively. All 15 P. citrinum-positive serum samples showed IgE-binding to a 33 kDa extract component of this species. Thirteen (93%) of the 14 P. notatum-positive serum samples and 10 (91%) of the 11 P. brevicompactum-positive sera also showed IgE reactivity to components with a molecular weight of about 33 kDa in individual Penicillium species. All of the 10 P. brevicompactum 33 kDa component-positive serum samples showed IgE reactivity to the 33 kDa components of the other two Penicillium species tested. Dose-dependent inhibition of IgE-binding to these major allergens was observed when the positive serum sample was absorbed with different amounts of individual allergenic extract as well as with different amounts of extracts prepared from the other two Penicillium species. Although different allergenic profiles were observed in the three different Penicillium species tested, results showed that there was an IgE crossreactivity among the 33 kDa group major allergens of P. citrinum, P. notatum and P. brevicompactum.

  14. Identification of major rice allergen and their clinical significance in children

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, You Hoon; Oh, Se Jo; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Lee, Soo Young

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, an increase in the number of patients sensitized to rice allergen with or without clinical symptoms has been reported. This study was designed to determine the major allergens in rice and their clinical significance. Methods Twenty-four children (15 boys and 9 girls; mean age, 16.3 months) with allergic disease, who were sensitized to rice antigen (by UniCAP) in the Pediatric Allergy Respiratory Center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. The allergenicity of various types of rice (raw, cooked, and heat-treated, simulated gastric fluid [SGF], and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF]) was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) immunoblots. The patients' medical records, including laboratory data and allergy symptoms after ingestion of rice were reviewed. Results Patients were sensitized to an average of 13.5 food antigens and their mean total IgE was 6,888.7 kU/L. In SDS-PAGE, more than 16 protein bands were observed in the raw rice, whereas only 14-16 kDa and 31-35 kDa protein bands were observed in cooked rice. The common SDS-PAGE protein bands observed in SGF-, SIF-, and heat-treated rice were 9, 14, and 31 kDa. In a heated-rice IgE immunoblot, protein bands of 9, 14, and 31-33 kDa were found in 27.8%, 38.9%, and 38.9% of all sera, respectively, and in 50%, 50%, and 75%, of ser a from the 4 symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion The 9-, 14-, and 31-kDa protein bands appeared to be the major allergens responsible for rice allergy symptoms. PMID:22232624

  15. The ATLAS PanDA Pilot in Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Caballero, J.; De, K.; Maeno, T.; Stradling, A.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) [1-2] was designed to meet ATLAS [3] requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This paper provides an overview of the PanDA pilot [4] system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec [5-6] based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures. The PanDA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over 100 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing real LHC data on the OSG [7], EGI [8] and Nordugrid [9-10] infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its evolution.

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Chikako; Yoshimasu, Kouichi

    2009-03-01

    Major depressive disorder causes significant morbidity, affecting people's ability to work, function in relationships, and engage in social activities. Moreover, major depressive disorder increases the risk of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and death by completed suicide. There is evidence that chronic stress can cause major depressive disorder. As for genetic factors, only minor susceptibility genes have been reliably identified. The serotonin system provides a logical source of susceptibility genes for depression, because this system is the target of selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor drugs that are effective in treating depression. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) transporter (5-HTT) has received particular attention because it is involved in the reuptake of serotonin at brain synapses. One common polymorphic variant of the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), which affects the promoter of the 5-HTT gene, causes reduced uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin into the presynaptic cells in the brain. The authors discussed the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and major depressive disorder, with special emphasis on the 5-HTTTLPR polymorphism. As the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, the 5-HTT gene may be a candidate for a major depressive disorder susceptibility gene. As major depressive disorder is a multifactorial disease, an improved understanding of the interplay of environmental and genetic polymorphisms at multiple loci may help identify individuals who are at increased risk for major depressive disorder. Hopefully, in the future we will be able to screen for major depressive disorder susceptibility by using specific biomarkers.

  18. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  19. Ultrafiltration behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Hunt, B J; Santschi, P H

    2001-04-01

    Aquatic colloids, including macromolecules and microparticles, with sizes ranging between 1 nm to 1 micron, play important roles in the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals and other contaminants in natural waters. Cross-flow ultrafiltration has become one of the most commonly used techniques for isolating aquatic colloids. However, the ultrafiltration behavior of chemical species remains poorly understood. We report here the permeation behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters during ultrafiltration using an Amicon 1 kDa ultrafiltration membrane (S10N1). Water samples across a salinity gradient of 0-20@1000 were collected from the Trinity River and Galveston Bay. The permeation behavior of major ions was well predicted by a permeation model, resulting in a constant permeation coefficient for each ion. The value of the model-derived permeation coefficient (Pc) was 0.99 for Na, 0.97 for Cl, and 0.95 for F, respectively, in Trinity River waters. Values of Pc close to 1 indicate that retention of Na, Cl, and F by the 1 kDa membrane during ultrafiltration was indeed minimal (< 1-5%). In contrast, significant (14-36%) retention was observed for SO4, Ca, and Mg in Trinity River waters, with a Pc value of 0.64, 0.82, and 0.86 for SO4, Ca and Mg, respectively. However, these retained major ions can further permeate through the 1 kDa membrane during diafiltration with ultrapure water. The selective retention of major ions during ultrafiltration may have important implications for the measurement of chemical and physical speciation of trace elements when using cross-flow ultrafiltration membranes to separate colloidal species from natural waters. Our results also demonstrate that the percent retention of major ions during ultrafiltration decreases with increasing salinity or ionic strength. This retention is largely attributed to electrostatic repulsion by the negatively charged cartridge membrane.

  20. Autocorrelation descriptor improvements for QSAR: 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Meiler, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a branch of computer aided drug discovery that relates chemical structures to biological activity. Two well established and related QSAR descriptors are two- and three-dimensional autocorrelation (2DA and 3DA). These descriptors encode the relative position of atoms or atom properties by calculating the separation between atom pairs in terms of number of bonds (2DA) or Euclidean distance (3DA). The sums of all values computed for a given small molecule are collected in a histogram. Atom properties can be added with a coefficient that is the product of atom properties for each pair. This procedure can lead to information loss when signed atom properties are considered such as partial charge. For example, the product of two positive charges is indistinguishable from the product of two equivalent negative charges. In this paper, we present variations of 2DA and 3DA called 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign that avoid information loss by splitting unique sign pairs into individual histograms. We evaluate these variations with models trained on nine datasets spanning a range of drug target classes. Both 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign significantly increase model performance across all datasets when compared with traditional 2DA and 3DA. Lastly, we find that limiting 3DA_Sign to maximum atom pair distances of 6 Å instead of 12 Å further increases model performance, suggesting that conformational flexibility may hinder performance with longer 3DA descriptors. Consistent with this finding, limiting the number of bonds in 2DA_Sign from 11 to 5 fails to improve performance.

  1. Autocorrelation descriptor improvements for QSAR: 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign.

    PubMed

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Meiler, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a branch of computer aided drug discovery that relates chemical structures to biological activity. Two well established and related QSAR descriptors are two- and three-dimensional autocorrelation (2DA and 3DA). These descriptors encode the relative position of atoms or atom properties by calculating the separation between atom pairs in terms of number of bonds (2DA) or Euclidean distance (3DA). The sums of all values computed for a given small molecule are collected in a histogram. Atom properties can be added with a coefficient that is the product of atom properties for each pair. This procedure can lead to information loss when signed atom properties are considered such as partial charge. For example, the product of two positive charges is indistinguishable from the product of two equivalent negative charges. In this paper, we present variations of 2DA and 3DA called 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign that avoid information loss by splitting unique sign pairs into individual histograms. We evaluate these variations with models trained on nine datasets spanning a range of drug target classes. Both 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign significantly increase model performance across all datasets when compared with traditional 2DA and 3DA. Lastly, we find that limiting 3DA_Sign to maximum atom pair distances of 6 Å instead of 12 Å further increases model performance, suggesting that conformational flexibility may hinder performance with longer 3DA descriptors. Consistent with this finding, limiting the number of bonds in 2DA_Sign from 11 to 5 fails to improve performance.

  2. Synthesis of a major integral membrane polypeptide of rat liver peroxisomes on free polysomes.

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Y; Rachubinski, R A; Lazarow, P B

    1984-01-01

    The manner of synthesis and assembly of the peroxisomal membrane proteins is unknown. Understanding these processes is essential to an understanding of the formation of the organelle. We have investigated the biogenesis of the previously identified major 21.7-kDa integral peroxisomal membrane polypeptide [Fujiki, Y., Fowler, S., Shio, H., Hubbard, A. L. & Lazarow, P. B. (1982) J. Cell Biol. 93, 103-110]. This protein was purified to apparent homogeneity and used to elicit a rabbit antiserum. In immunoblotting analysis, antibody bound only to the 22-kDa membrane polypeptide present exclusively in peroxisomal membranes. Total rat liver RNA was translated in a nuclease-treated rabbit reticulocyte cell-free protein-synthesizing system. The in vitro translation product, isolated by means of the antibody and Staphylococcus aureus cells, comigrated with the mature 22-kDa polypeptide in NaDodSO4/PAGE. Analysis of the translation products of RNAs from free and membrane-bound polysomes indicated that the mRNA for the 22-kDa membrane polypeptide is found predominantly in free polysomes. The results imply post-translational insertion of the membrane polypeptide into the peroxisomal membrane without proteolytic processing and suggest that peroxisomes, like mitochondria and chloroplasts, form by fission from preexisting organelles. Images PMID:6594687

  3. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  4. MALDI-TOF High Mass Calibration up to 200 kDa Using Human Recombinant 16 kDa Protein Histidine Phosphatase Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Katrin; Habbach, Schähdi; Krieglstein, Josef; Klumpp, Susanne; König, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Background Protein histidine phosphatase (PHP) is an enzyme which removes phosphate groups from histidine residues. It was described for vertebrates in the year 2002. The recombinant human 16 kDa protein forms multimeric complexes in physiological buffer and in the gas phase. High-mass calibration in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has remained a problem due to the lack of suitable standards. Large proteins can hardly be freed of their substructural microheterogeneity by classical purification procedures so that their use as calibrants is limited. A small adduct-forming protein of validated quality is a valuable alternative for that purpose. Methodology/Principal Findings Three major PHP clusters of ∼113, 209 and >600 kDa were observed in gel filtration analysis. Re-chromatography of the monomer peak showed the same cluster distribution. The tendency to associate was detected also in MALDI-TOF MS measuring regular adducts up to 200 kDa. Conclusions/Significance PHP forms multimers consisting of up to more than 35 protein molecules. In MALDI-TOF MS it generates adduct ions every 16 kDa. The protein can be produced with high quality so that its use as calibration compound for high mass ranges above 100 kDa, where standards are difficult to obtain, is feasible. PMID:21876758

  5. Writing and Rhetoric Majors, Disciplinarity, and "Techne"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. Blake; Meloncon, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    How we argue for, create, and mobilize around writing and rhetoric majors will continue to shape our field's disciplinarity in crucial ways, including our recognition, resources, and relationships. The range of such majors and their institutional contexts, and the disparate field-level efforts to track and build consensus around them, generate…

  6. Work Values and College Major Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  7. Major Federal Regulations Governing Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Arturo

    This report provides administrators, project leaders, and researchers with information about major federal regulations governing research in the social sciences. The report is presented in five major chapters. Chapter I identifies the report's limitations. For example, it describes only statutory and regulatory provisions and covers only domestic…

  8. Major Topics of School Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James E., Ed.; Hertz, Karl V., Ed.

    Thirteen articles on major topics facing school business officials in the 1980s are presented in this book. The titles and their authors are (1) "The Pursuit of Equity in Financing Public Education," by R. Craig Wood, Helene B. Jones, and William L. Riley; (2) "Facilities: Major Issues Ahead," by C. William Day; (3)…

  9. 5 CFR 9901.311 - Major features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major features. 9901.311 Section 9901.311... (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9901.311 Major features. Through the issuance... covered employees' rates of premium pay. The NSPS pay system will include the following features: (a)...

  10. Profile of an Engaged Sociology Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kathleen; Reed, Laura

    2007-01-01

    In this research note, the authors report on an exploratory study of the profile of an engaged sociology major. The purpose of this note is to assess which factors relate to senior majors' self-perceived, overall engagement in the discipline. Possible factors include demographic variables, attitudes about learning, and academic or study behaviors.…

  11. Work Values and College Major Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  12. U.S. vulnerable to major hurricane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The nation is ‘in the most vulnerable position in history’ should a major hurricane strike this year, according to James P. Walsh, acting NOAA Administrator.He warned that mushrooming coastal populations, public inexperience and apathy, and limited evacuation routes could combine to create a major catastrophe.

  13. Major trauma in Australia: a regional analysis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Dziukas, L; Hadj, A; Clark, P; Hooper, S

    1995-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the frequency, distribution, cause, pattern, and outcome of patients suffering from major trauma in the State of Victoria over a 1-year period. No previous study in Australia has attempted a comprehensive regional analysis of major trauma. All major trauma admissions resulting from blunt, penetrating, and burns injury were identified, and data collected from emergency departments and intensive care log books at 25 major metropolitan and rural hospitals from the January 3, 1992 to February 28, 1993 by onsite data collectors. The total number of patients admitted into the study was 2,944. There were 1,076 major trauma cases with an Injury Severity Score greater than 15 in a population of 4.2 million people. The type of injury was predominantly blunt (87.5%), with only a small percentage of penetrating injuries (6.4%) and burns (6%). Major trauma in pediatric cases is less common (132 cases). The most common causes of injury were road transport (56%) and falls (22%). The overall outcome of the group was favorable when compared with the Major Trauma Outcome Study group (Z = 1.4, M = 0.93, W = 0.52). There was an unexpectedly low number of patients suffering from major trauma. Outcome using Trauma and Injury Severity Score methodology was favorable when compared with North America.

  14. Test for English Majors (TEM) in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yan; Fan, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Test for English Majors (TEM) is to measure the English proficiency of Chinese university undergraduates majoring in English Language and Literature and to examine whether these students meet the required levels of English language abilities as specified in the National College English Teaching Syllabus for English Majors…

  15. DEXAMETHASONE SUPPRESSION TEST FOR MAJOR DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Ghulam, R.; Anand, Mohini; Lal, Narottam; Trivedi, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY Overnight post dexamethasone plasma Cortisol levels were estimated in thirty patients of major depression and 30 controls. The cut-off point after which post dexamethasone plasma Cortisol level could be considered abnormal, in patients of major depression, has been worked out at 15 μg/dl in the present study. The results are discussed. PMID:21927130

  16. Major Federal Regulations Governing Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Arturo

    This report provides administrators, project leaders, and researchers with information about major federal regulations governing research in the social sciences. The report is presented in five major chapters. Chapter I identifies the report's limitations. For example, it describes only statutory and regulatory provisions and covers only domestic…

  17. Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

  18. Majorization preservation of Gaussian bosonic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels are majorization-preserving over the set of passive states of the harmonic oscillator. This means that comparable passive states under majorization are transformed into equally comparable passive states by any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. Our proof relies on a new preorder relation called Fock-majorization, which coincides with regular majorization for passive states but also induces another order relation in terms of mean boson number, thereby connecting the concepts of energy and disorder of a quantum state. The consequences of majorization preservation are discussed in the context of the broadcast communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels. Because most of our results are independent of the specific nature of the system under investigation, they could be generalized to other quantum systems and Hamiltonians, providing a new tool that may prove useful in quantum information theory and especially quantum thermodynamics.

  19. Load evaluation of the da Vinci surgical system for transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Niimi, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-12-01

    Transoral robotic surgery, performed with the da Vinci surgical system (da Vinci), is a surgical approach for benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. It provides several unique advantages, which include a 3-dimensional magnified view and ability to see and work around curves or angles. However, the current da Vinci surgical system does not provide haptic feedback. This is problematic because the potential risks specific to the transoral use of the da Vinci include tooth injury, mucosal laceration, ocular injury and mandibular fracture. To assess the potential for intraoperative injuries, we measured the load of the endoscope and the instrument of the da Vinci Si surgical system. We pressed the endoscope and instrument of the da Vinci Si against Load cell six times each and measured the dynamic load and the time-to-maximum load. We also struck the da Vinci Si endoscope and instrument against the Load cell six times each and measured the impact load. The maximum dynamic load was 7.27 ± 1.31 kg for the endoscope and 1.90 ± 0.72 for the instrument. The corresponding time-to-maximum loads were 1.72 ± 0.22 and 1.29 ± 0.34 s, but the impact loads were significantly lower than the dynamic load. It remains possible that a major load is exerted on adjacent structures by continuous contact with the endoscope and instrument of da Vinci Si. However, there is a minor delay in reaching the maximum load. Careful monitoring by an on-site assistant may, therefore, help prevent contiguous injury.

  20. Isolation and expression of the gene for a major surface protein of Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed Central

    Gillin, F D; Hagblom, P; Harwood, J; Aley, S B; Reiner, D S; McCaffery, M; So, M; Guiney, D G

    1990-01-01

    To study the interactions between the parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia and its environment, we have cloned the gene that encodes the two major surface-labeled trophozoite protein species. Sequence analysis of this gene reveals a single open reading frame specifying a hydrophilic, cysteine-rich (11.8%) protein of 72.5-kDa molecular mass with an amino-terminal signal peptide and a postulated hydrophobic membrane-spanning anchor region near the carboxyl terminus. Most of the cysteine residues (58 of 84) are in the motif Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys, which is dispersed 29 times throughout the sequence. Antibodies against the recombinant protein react with the entire surface of live trophozoites, including flagella and adhesive disc. These antibodies inhibit trophozoite attachment, prevent growth, and immunoprecipitate the major approximately 66- and 85-kDa proteins from surface-labeled live trophozoites. The recombinant Escherichia coli also expresses polypeptides of approximately 66- and 85-kDa molecular mass, which are not fusion proteins. This suggests that the processing and/or conformational changes that lead to production of these two peptide species in E. coli reflect those that occur in Giardia. The abundance of cysteine residues suggests that the native proteins on the parasite surface may contain numerous disulfide bonds, which would promote resistance to intestinal fluid proteases and to the detergent activity of bile salts and would help to explain the survival of Giardia in the human small intestine. Images PMID:2352929

  1. Chemical definition, cloning, and expression of the major protein of the leprosy bacillus.

    PubMed

    Rivoire, B; Pessolani, M C; Bozic, C M; Hunter, S W; Hefta, S A; Mehra, V; Brennan, P J

    1994-06-01

    The decline in prevalence of leprosy is not necessarily matched by a fall in incidence, emphasizing the need for new antigens to measure disease transmission and reservoirs of infection. Mycobacterium leprae obtained from armadillo tissues was disrupted and subjected to differential centrifugation to arrive at preparations of cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, and cytosol. By committing 0.3 g of M. leprae to the task, it was possible to isolate from the cytosol and fully define the major cytosolic protein. Amino-terminus sequencing and chemical and enzymatic cleavage, followed by more sequencing and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry of fragments, allowed description of the entire amino acid sequence of a protein of 10,675-Da molecular mass. The sequence derived by chemical means is identical to that deduced previously from DNA analysis of the gene of a 10-kDa protein, a GroES analog. The work represents the first complete chemical definition of an M. leprae protein. PCR amplification of the 10-kDa protein gene, when cloned into Escherichia coli with a pTRP expression vector, allowed production of the recombinant protein. Chemical analysis of the expressed protein demonstrated that it exactly reflected the native protein. The recombinant major cytosolic protein appears to be a promising reagent for skin testing, still probably the most appropriate and pragmatic means of measuring incidence of leprosy.

  2. Bacteriophage HK97 structure: wholesale covalent cross-linking between the major head shell subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Popa, M P; McKelvey, T A; Hempel, J; Hendrix, R W

    1991-01-01

    We describe initial genetic and structural characterizations of HK97, a temperate bacteriophage of Escherichia coli. We isolated 28 amber mutants, characterized them with respect to what phage-related structures they make, and mapped many of them to restriction fragments of genomic DNA. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of HK97 virions revealed nine different protein species plus a substantial amount of material that failed to enter the gel, apparently because it is too large. Five proteins are tail components and are assigned functions as tail fiber subunit, tail length template, and major shaft subunit (two and possibly three species). The four remaining proteins and the material that did not enter the gel are head components. One of these proteins is assigned as the portal subunit, and the remaining three head proteins in the gel and the material that did not enter the gel are components of the head shell. All of the head shell protein species have apparent molecular masses well in excess of 100 kDa; they share amino acid sequence with each other and also with a 42-kDa protein that is found in infected lysates and as the major component of prohead structures that accumulate in infections by one of the amber mutants. We propose that all of the head shell species found in mature heads are covalently cross-linked oligomers derived from the 42-kDa precursor during head shell maturation. Images PMID:1709700

  3. Generalized immunological recognition of the major merozoite surface antigen (gp195) of Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.P.; Hui, G.S.N.; Kato, A.; Siddiqui, W.A. )

    1989-08-01

    The antibody response to the Plasmodium falciparum major merozoite surface antigen (gp195) of congenic mouse strains differing in H-2 haplotype has been examined. All seven strains of mice were capable of producing gp195-specific antibodies. Generalized immune recognition of gp195 by mice of diverse H-2 haplotypes distinguished gp195 from the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein and the 230-kDa and 48/45-kDa gamete surface antigens. However, the H-2 genetic locus appeared to influence the specificity of gp105-specific antibodies. Immunoblot patterns of mouse sera with parasite antigens revealed a complex pattern of reactivity with terminal and intermediate processing fragments of gp195. The majority of immunoblot bands observed were similar for all of the mouse strains; however, there were several strains that additionally recognized a few unique fragments or displayed more intense reactivities with specific processing fragments. These results suggest that while individuals of diverse major histocompatibility complex makeup are capable of recognizing the gp195 antigen, the recognition of specific gp195 B-cell and T-cell epitopes may be under control of the major histocompatibility complex.

  4. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yu-Hsiu; Tseng, Chi-Yin; Chen, Wenlung

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. ~33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. ~31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in α-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel β- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B.

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  6. Dentition of addiction in Queensland: poor dental status and major contributing drugs.

    PubMed

    Reece, A S

    2007-06-01

    Although it is said that drug addiction is associated with poor dental health, there is little research in this area. In particular, there is little work comparing the effects of the different drugs of addiction. A cross-sectional patient survey of dental health was undertaken in a family practice comparing opiate and other drug addicts (DA) with non-addicts (NA). The age range was restricted to 19-45 years. Damaged teeth were counted and a semi-quantitative score applied to severity to allow the calculation of an overall dental index. A medical review only was undertaken; recognized dental diagnostic criteria were not applied. There were 233 and 47 respondents in the DA and NA groups, respectively. The mean ages and gender ratios were similar in both groups. DA used more addictive drugs than NA (all P < 0.001). DA had more absent, traumatized, major cavitated and extracted teeth (all P < 0.05). Addicts had a worse severity index (P < 0.02) and dental index (13.13 + 24.00 vs. 4.74 +/- 16.03; P < 0.005). Furthermore, dental pathology developed in DA at younger ages than in NA with 56.8% vs. 5.4% of patients younger than 38 years having dental indices more than 10 respectively (OR = 22.98, 95% CI = 5.57-200.65, P < 0.0000001). At multivariate analysis age, gender, and dose and/or duration of tobacco, methadone, morphine, and alcohol were significantly associated with these pathologies. These data are consistent with published dental reports and basic science information that drug addiction has a deleterious effect on dental health, that in addiction this effect is rapid and severe, and that tobacco, methadone, morphine and alcohol contribute importantly to these changes.

  7. Interaction between dopamine and neuropeptide Y in the telencephalon of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soham; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Uday; Singh, Omprakash; Singru, Praful S

    2015-09-01

    In teleosts, while neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as one of the potent regulators of GnRH-LH axis, entopeduncular nucleus (EN) in the ventral telencephalon serves as major site for NPY synthesis/storage. Neurons of the EN innervate preoptic area and pituitary, respond to gonadal steroids, undergo reproduction phase-related changes, and are believed to convey sex steroid-borne information to GnRH neurons. In spite of the importance of EN, the neural circuitry associated with the nucleus has not been defined. Aim of the present study is to examine the possibility of the dopaminergic regulation of EN. NPY-immunoreactive cells and fibers were extensively distributed in the forebrain and pituitary of Cirrhinus cirrhosus. NPY immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory receptor neurons, ganglion cells of terminal nerve, and in neurons of area ventralis telencephali/pars lateralis, EN, nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPP), and nucleus lateralis tuberis. NPY-fibers were observed in the dorsal telencephalon, tuberal area and pituitary. While the area ventralis telencephali/pars intermedialis (Vi) located just above the EN contained a distinct population of tyrosine hydroxylase neurons, their axons seem to innervate NPY neurons in EN. Superfused brain slices containing EN were treated with DA D1- and D2-like receptor agonists. NPY-immunoreactivity in the EN showed significant increase (P<0.001) following DA D1-like receptor agonist, SKF-38393 treatment, but DA D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole was ineffective. DA may regulate NPY neurons in EN via D1-like receptors. DA-NPY interaction in the EN might be important in the central regulation of reproduction in teleosts.

  8. A Course in Nanotechnology for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, R. David

    2006-01-01

    Chemistry is a good entry to many topics in nanotechnology. This paper describes a non-science majors' course in which chemical concepts provide the background to the study of this new field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  9. Majorization formulation of uncertainty in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Partovi, M. Hossein

    2011-11-15

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is formulated for a set of generalized measurements within the framework of majorization theory, resulting in a partial uncertainty order on probability vectors that is stronger than those based on quasientropic measures. The theorem that emerges from this formulation guarantees that the uncertainty of the results of a set of generalized measurements without a common eigenstate has an inviolable lower bound which depends on the measurement set but not the state. A corollary to this theorem yields a parallel formulation of the uncertainty principle for generalized measurements corresponding to the entire class of quasientropic measures. Optimal majorization bounds for two and three mutually unbiased bases in two dimensions are calculated. Similarly, the leading term of the majorization bound for position and momentum measurements is calculated which provides a strong statement of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in direct operational terms. Another theorem provides a majorization condition for the least-uncertain generalized measurement of a given state with interesting physical implications.

  10. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  11. A Course in Nanotechnology for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, R. David

    2006-01-01

    Chemistry is a good entry to many topics in nanotechnology. This paper describes a non-science majors' course in which chemical concepts provide the background to the study of this new field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  12. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  13. The gravitational fields of the major planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    The constraints placed on models of the interiors of the major planets by the nonspherical components of their gravitational fields are explained, and several methods of determining these nonspherical components are described and evaluated.

  14. Data Sets from Major NCI Initiaves

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Data Catalog includes links to data collections produced by major NCI initiatives and other widely used data sets, including animal models, human tumor cell lines, epidemiology data sets, genomics data sets from TCGA, TARGET, COSMIC, GSK, NCI60.

  15. Mathematics majors' beliefs about proof reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-ramos, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We argue that mathematics majors learn little from the proofs they read in their advanced mathematics courses because these students and their teachers have different perceptions about students' responsibilities when reading a mathematical proof. We used observations from a qualitative study where 28 undergraduates were observed evaluating mathematical arguments to hypothesize that mathematics majors hold four specific unproductive beliefs about proof reading. We then conducted a survey about these beliefs with 175 mathematics majors and 83 mathematicians. We found that mathematics majors were more likely to believe that when reading a good proof, they are not expected to construct justifications and diagrams, they can understand most proofs they read within 15 minutes, and understanding a proof is tantamount to being able to justify each step in the proof.

  16. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  17. Contributions of Estuarine Habitats to Major Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries provide unique habitat conditions that are essential to the production of major fisheries throughout the world, but quantitatively demonstrating the value of these habitats to fisheries presents some difficult problems. The questions are important, because critical hab...

  18. Predictors of Treatment Utilization in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Dana M.; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Stanley, Barbara; Burke, Ainsley; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide attempters with major depression are at risk for repeat attempts and often do not utilize treatment. Identifying predictors of treatment non-utilization could inform interventions to motivate treatment use and reduce suicide risk in major depression. Two hundred and seventy three participants with a major depressive episode as part of a major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder, were assessed for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline and again 1 year later to identify predictors of treatment utilization. Treatment utilization rate was high 1 year after initial evaluation (72.5%). Severity of baseline depression, baseline treatment status, and education were associated with treatment utilization at 1 year. Interventions focused on increasing knowledge about depression and treatment efficacy may improve treatment adherence when treating depression. PMID:21541862

  19. Characterizing the Epistemologicai Development of Physics Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gire, Elizabeth; Price, Edward; Jones, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Differences between novice and expert physics students have frequently been reported, yet students' development through intermediate stages has seldom been described. In this study, we characterize undergraduate physics majors' epistemological sophistication at various levels of degree progress. A cross-section of physics majors was surveyed with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey. Beginning physics majors are significantly more expert-like than non-physics majors in introductory physics courses; furthermore, this high level of sophistication is constant over the first three years of the physics degree program, with increases at the senior and graduate levels. Based on longitudinal data on a subset of students, we observe negligible average shift in students' responses over periods of up to two years. We discuss implications for how and why physics students' epistemological sophistication develops, including a possible connection between CLASS survey response and self-identification as a physicist.

  20. Characterizing the epistemological development of physics majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gire, Elizabeth; Jones, Barbara; Price, Edward

    2009-06-01

    Students in introductory physics courses are likely to have views about physics that differ from those of experts. However, students who continue to study physics eventually become experts themselves. Presumably these students either possess or develop more expertlike views. To investigate this process, the views of introductory physics students majoring in physics are compared with the views of introductory physics students majoring in engineering. In addition, the views of physics majors are assessed at various stages of degree progress. The Colorado learning attitudes about science survey is used to evaluate students’ views about physics, and students’ overall survey scores and responses to individual survey items are analyzed. Beginning physics majors are significantly more expertlike than nonmajors in introductory physics courses, and this high level of sophistication is consistent for most of undergraduate study.

  1. Contributions of Estuarine Habitats to Major Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries provide unique habitat conditions that are essential to the production of major fisheries throughout the world, but quantitatively demonstrating the value of these habitats to fisheries presents some difficult problems. The questions are important, because critical hab...

  2. Structuring Research Opportunities for All Biology Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Susan E.; Conley, Lisa K.; Horst, Cynthia J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a required research experience program for all biology majors instituted in the biology department of Carroll College. Discusses successes and challenges of coordinating a program that involves 20-40 research projects each year. (Author/NB)

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  4. Lunar highlands breccias generated by major impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.

    1977-01-01

    The processes that may have been involved in the formation of most of the major types of lunar breccias are discussed. Some of the types of highlands breccias that may have originated in large impacts are identified.

  5. Major depressive episodes and diet pills.

    PubMed

    Patten, Scott B

    2002-10-01

    A variety of medications used to assist with weight loss have been implicated in the precipitation or induction of depressive symptoms and disorders. This is true of a large number of phenylethylamine agents possessing psychostimulant properties, non-phenylethylamine psychostimulants (e.g., caffeine) and the serotonergic agent, fenfluramine. There is, as yet, no substantial evidence linking the more modern weight loss drugs, sibutramine and orlistat, to the aetiology of major depression. Nevertheless, when these drugs are used, major depression will continue to be an important clinical consideration because of the elevated frequency with which major depression occurs in obese patients, the contribution that major depression may make to poor outcomes in non-pharmacological weight loss treatment and because of the interplay between symptoms of depression and weight loss treatment.

  6. Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2012-10-01

    Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.

  7. Hemorrhage Control for Major Traumatic Vascular Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0112 TITLE: Hemorrhage Control for Major Traumatic Vascular Injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John B. Holcomb, M.D...shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hemorrhage Control for Major Traumatic Vascular Injuries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0112 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  8. Sequence analysis of the 47-kilodalton major integral membrane immunogen of Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, P L; Chamberlain, N R; Orth, K; Moomaw, C R; Zhang, L Q; Slaughter, C A; Radolf, J D; Sell, S; Norgard, M V

    1989-01-01

    The complete primary amino acid sequence for the 47-kilodalton (kDa) major integral membrane immunogen of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum was obtained by using a combined strategy of DNA sequencing (of the cloned gene in Escherichia coli) and N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the native (T. pallidum subsp. pallidum-derived) antigen. An open reading frame believed to encode the 47-kDa antigen comprised 367 amino acid codons, which gave rise to a calculated molecular weight for the corresponding antigen of 40,701. Of the 367 amino acids, 113 (31%) were sequenced by N-terminal amino acid sequencing of trypsin and hydroxylamine cleavage fragments of the native molecule isolated from T. pallidum subsp. pallidum; amino acid sequence data had a 100% correlation with that of the amino acid sequence predicted from DNA sequencing of the cloned gene in E. coli. Although no consensus sequences for the initiation of transcription or translation were readily identifiable immediately 5' to the putative methionine start codon, a 63-base-pair PstI fragment located 159 nucleotides upstream was required for expression of the 47-kDa antigen in E. coli. The 47-kDa antigen sequence did not reveal a typical leader sequence. The overall G+C content for the DNA corresponding to the structural gene was 53%. Hydrophilicity analysis identified at least one major hydrophilic domain of the protein near the N terminus of the molecule which potentially represents an immunodominant epitope. No repetitive primary sequence epitopes were found. The combined data provide the molecular basis for further structural and functional studies regarding the role of the antigen in the immunopathogenesis of treponemal disease. PMID:2642466

  9. The potentially dangerous asteroid 2012 DA14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, I.

    2012-12-01

    We present computing methods that allow us to study the behaviour of the dynamically interesting potentially dangerous asteroid 2012 DA14. Using the freely available ORBFIT software, we can follow the orbit of the asteroid backward and forward in the future, searching for close approaches to the Earth that might lead to possible impacts. The possible impact orbit for 2026 is computed. We show that it should be possible to recover asteroid 2012 DA14, mainly in 2013 February. It is highly unlikely that asteroid 2012 DA14 will hit any geosynchronous satellites during its close approach on 2013 February 15.

  10. Factors Associated With Major Bleeding Events

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Shaun G.; Wojdyla, Daniel M.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; White, Harvey D.; Paolini, John F.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Patel, Manesh R.; Sherwood, Matthew W.; Becker, Richard C.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hacke, Werner; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Breithardt, Gunter; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to report additional safety results from the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation). Background The ROCKET AF trial demonstrated similar risks of stroke/systemic embolism and major/nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding (principal safety endpoint) with rivaroxaban and warfarin. Methods The risk of the principal safety and component bleeding endpoints with rivaroxaban versus warfarin were compared, and factors associated with major bleeding were examined in a multivariable model. Results The principal safety endpoint was similar in the rivaroxaban and warfarin groups (14.9 vs. 14.5 events/100 patient-years; hazard ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 1.11). Major bleeding risk increased with age, but there were no differences between treatments in each age category (<65, 65 to 74, ≥75 years; pinteraction = 0.59). Compared with those without (n = 13,455), patients with a major bleed (n = 781) were more likely to be older, current/prior smokers, have prior gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, mild anemia, and a lower calculated creatinine clearance and less likely to be female or have a prior stroke/transient ischemic attack. Increasing age, baseline diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or GI bleeding, prior acetylsalicylic acid use, and anemia were independently associated with major bleeding risk; female sex and DBP <90 mm Hg were associated with a decreased risk. Conclusions Rivaroxaban and warfarin had similar risk for major/nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding. Age, sex, DBP, prior GI bleeding, prior acetylsalicylic acid use, and anemia were associated with the risk of major bleeding. (An Efficacy and Safety Study of Rivaroxaban With Warfarin for the Prevention of Stroke and Non-Central Nervous System Systemic Embolism in Patients With Non

  11. The Relationship between Objective and Perceived Fit with Academic Major, Adaptability, and Major-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Jennifer L.; Ryan, Ann Marie; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of fit with college major on major commitment, GPA, college satisfaction, and changing one's major. We further examined how individual adaptability may moderate the importance of fit on these outcomes. College students (N = 198; 160 women and 38 men; mean age = 19.14 years) completed an interest inventory used to…

  12. Why Do Undergraduate Marketing Majors Select Marketing as a Business Major? Evidence from Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappu, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    This research examines the reasons behind marketing majors' decision to select marketing as a major, where students have the option to select more than one major toward their undergraduate degree. Results of surveys conducted at two universities, one in Australia and one in New Zealand, provide some new findings as well as extending findings from…

  13. Why Do Undergraduate Marketing Majors Select Marketing as a Business Major? Evidence from Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappu, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    This research examines the reasons behind marketing majors' decision to select marketing as a major, where students have the option to select more than one major toward their undergraduate degree. Results of surveys conducted at two universities, one in Australia and one in New Zealand, provide some new findings as well as extending findings from…

  14. Psychology Degree Beliefs and Stereotypes: Differences in the Perceptions of Majors and Non-Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.

    2016-01-01

    Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…

  15. Psychology Degree Beliefs and Stereotypes: Differences in the Perceptions of Majors and Non-Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.

    2016-01-01

    Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…

  16. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  17. An Extension of PPLS-DA for Classification and Comparison to Ordinary PLS-DA

    PubMed Central

    Telaar, Anna; Liland, Kristian Hovde; Repsilber, Dirk; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Classification studies are widely applied, e.g. in biomedical research to classify objects/patients into predefined groups. The goal is to find a classification function/rule which assigns each object/patient to a unique group with the greatest possible accuracy (classification error). Especially in gene expression experiments often a lot of variables (genes) are measured for only few objects/patients. A suitable approach is the well-known method PLS-DA, which searches for a transformation to a lower dimensional space. Resulting new components are linear combinations of the original variables. An advancement of PLS-DA leads to PPLS-DA, introducing a so called ‘power parameter’, which is maximized towards the correlation between the components and the group-membership. We introduce an extension of PPLS-DA for optimizing this power parameter towards the final aim, namely towards a minimal classification error. We compare this new extension with the original PPLS-DA and also with the ordinary PLS-DA using simulated and experimental datasets. For the investigated data sets with weak linear dependency between features/variables, no improvement is shown for PPLS-DA and for the extensions compared to PLS-DA. A very weak linear dependency, a low proportion of differentially expressed genes for simulated data, does not lead to an improvement of PPLS-DA over PLS-DA, but our extension shows a lower prediction error. On the contrary, for the data set with strong between-feature collinearity and a low proportion of differentially expressed genes and a large total number of genes, the prediction error of PPLS-DA and the extensions is clearly lower than for PLS-DA. Moreover we compare these prediction results with results of support vector machines with linear kernel and linear discriminant analysis. PMID:23408965

  18. An extension of PPLS-DA for classification and comparison to ordinary PLS-DA.

    PubMed

    Telaar, Anna; Liland, Kristian Hovde; Repsilber, Dirk; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Classification studies are widely applied, e.g. in biomedical research to classify objects/patients into predefined groups. The goal is to find a classification function/rule which assigns each object/patient to a unique group with the greatest possible accuracy (classification error). Especially in gene expression experiments often a lot of variables (genes) are measured for only few objects/patients. A suitable approach is the well-known method PLS-DA, which searches for a transformation to a lower dimensional space. Resulting new components are linear combinations of the original variables. An advancement of PLS-DA leads to PPLS-DA, introducing a so called 'power parameter', which is maximized towards the correlation between the components and the group-membership. We introduce an extension of PPLS-DA for optimizing this power parameter towards the final aim, namely towards a minimal classification error. We compare this new extension with the original PPLS-DA and also with the ordinary PLS-DA using simulated and experimental datasets. For the investigated data sets with weak linear dependency between features/variables, no improvement is shown for PPLS-DA and for the extensions compared to PLS-DA. A very weak linear dependency, a low proportion of differentially expressed genes for simulated data, does not lead to an improvement of PPLS-DA over PLS-DA, but our extension shows a lower prediction error. On the contrary, for the data set with strong between-feature collinearity and a low proportion of differentially expressed genes and a large total number of genes, the prediction error of PPLS-DA and the extensions is clearly lower than for PLS-DA. Moreover we compare these prediction results with results of support vector machines with linear kernel and linear discriminant analysis.

  19. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable and unpredictable time-courses of the depressive episodes. The main supporting observations are: (1) mood transitions within minutes or days have been reported during deep brain stimulation, naps after sleep deprivation and bipolar mood disorders; (2) sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive treatment and experimental drugs (e.g., ketamine) may facilitate mood transitions in major depressive disorder within hours or a few days; (3) epidemiological and clinical studies show that the time-to-recovery from major depressive disorder can be described with decay models implying very short depressive episodes; (4) lack of relationship between the length of depression and recovery episodes in recurrent depression; (5) mood fluctuations predict later therapeutic success in major depressive disorder. We discuss some recent models aimed to describe random mood transitions. The observations together suggest that the mood transitions have a wide variety of apparently unrelated causes. We suggest that the mechanism of mood transition is compromised in major depressive disorder, which has to be recognized in diagnostic systems.

  20. Treatment of resistant insomnia and major depression.

    PubMed

    Vellante, F; Cornelio, M; Acciavatti, T; Cinosi, E; Marini, S; Dezi, S; De Risio, L; Di Iorio, G; Martinotti, G; Di Giannantonio, M

    2013-01-01

    Daily rhythms regulate everiday life and sleep/wake alternation is the best expression of this. Disruptions in biological rhythms is strongly associated with mood disorders, often being the major feature of this, major depressive disorder first of all. Although stabilization of rhythms produced by treatments have important outcome on therapeutic efficacy, insomnia often remains an unresolved symptom when major depression has otherwise been successfully treated with antidepressant. We review scientific literature in order to better clarify how to better approach insomnia as a clinical aspect to investigate and to early treat while treating other psychiatric conditions, major depression in particular. Insomnia is associated with impaired quality of life. It can be resolved with adequate diagnosis and treatment: it should be considered a comorbid condition and should be early identificated and treated in a multidisciplinary way, so that the ideal of treatment for patients with treatment resistant insomnia in major depression is an integration of non-pharmacologic measures, along with judicious use of medication, often used as an adjunctive therapy.

  1. Composition of Syrtis Major volcanic plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.; Erard, S.; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Head, James W.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Syrtis Major, a low-relief volcanic shield centered near 295 degrees 10 degrees N, is an old, well-preserved and exposed volcanic region on Mars which formed at the end of the heavy bombardment period. The composition of these volcanic materials has importance for understanding the thermal and chemical history of Mars. Imaging spectrometer data of the Syrtis Major volcanic plateau are used in this analysis to identify major compositional components. First and second order even channel reflectance spectra between 0.77 and 2.55 microns from four broad classes of materials on Syrtis Major are given. For the volcanic materials, there are three primary classes characterized by albedo, slope, and shape of the 10 micron band. To emphasize the latter, straight line continua were removed from each spectral segment and replotted in another figure. Each spectrum shows a band minima near 0.96 microns and 2.15 microns indicative of pyroxene mineral absorptions. Comparison of these band minima with studies of pyroxene reflectance spectra suggests that the pyroxenes in the volcanics of Syrtis Major are high calcium pyroxene with a Ca/(Mg+Fe+Ca) ratio of 0.2 to 0.3. The most likely pyroxene is an augite.

  2. Bipolar disorder: evidence for a major locus.

    PubMed

    Spence, M A; Flodman, P L; Sadovnick, A D; Bailey-Wilson, J E; Ameli, H; Remick, R A

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: i) dominant, ii) recessive, iii) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, iv) environmental, and v) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis "affected" for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. (Arch Gen Psychiatry 44: 441-447, 1987) and Blangero and Elston (Genet Epidemiol 6:221-227, 1989).

  3. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H.

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Multiquadrant robotic colorectal surgery: the da Vinci Xi vs Si comparison.

    PubMed

    Protyniak, Bogdan; Jorden, Jeffrey; Farmer, Russell

    2017-03-08

    The newly introduced da Vinci Xi Surgical System hopes to address the shortcomings of its predecessor, specifically robotic arm restrictions and difficulty working in multiple quadrants. We compare the two robot platforms in multiquadrant surgery at a major colorectal referral center. Forty-four patients in the da Vinci Si group and 26 patients in the Xi group underwent sigmoidectomy or low anterior resection between 2014 and 2016. Patient demographics, operative variables, and postoperative outcomes were compared using descriptive statistics. Both groups were similar in age, sex, BMI, pelvic surgeries, and ASA class. Splenic flexure was mobilized in more (p = 0.045) da Vinci Xi cases compared to da Vinci Si both for sigmoidectomy (50 vs 15.4%) and low anterior resection (60 vs 29%). There was no significant difference in operative time (219.9 vs 224.7 min; p = 0.640), blood loss (170.0 vs 188.1 mL; p = 0.289), length of stay (5.7 vs 6 days; p = 0.851), or overall complications (26.9 vs 22.7%; p = 0.692) between the da Vinci Xi and Si groups, respectively. Single-dock multiquadrant robotic surgery, measured by splenic flexure mobilization with concomitant pelvic dissection, was more frequently performed using the da Vinci Xi platform with no increase in operative time, bleeding, or postoperative complications. The new platform provides surgeons an easier alternative to the da Vinci Si dual docking or combined robotic/laparoscopic multiquadrant surgery.

  5. Maize 27 kDa gamma-zein is a potential allergen for early weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kerley, Monty S; Allee, Gary L; Jang, Sungchan; Kim, Won-Seok; Fu, Chunjiang J

    2010-06-23

    Soybean and maize are extensively used in animal feed, primarily in poultry, swine, and cattle diets. Soybean meal can affect pig performance in the first few weeks following weaning and elicit specific antibodies in weaned piglets. Though maize is a major component of pig feed, it is not known if any of the maize proteins can elicit immunological response in young pigs. In this study, we have identified a prominent 27 kDa protein from maize as an immunodominant protein in young pigs. This protein, like some known allergens, exhibited resistance to pepsin digestion in vitro. Several lines of evidence identify the immunodominant 27 kDa protein as a gamma-zein, a maize seed storage protein. First, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of different solubility classes of maize seed proteins revealed the presence of an abundant 27 kDa protein in the prolamin (zein) fraction. Antibodies raised against the purified maize 27 kDa gamma-zein also reacted against the same protein recognized by the young pig serum. Additionally, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides generated by trypsin digestion of the immunodominant 27 kDa protein showed significant homology to the maize 27 kDa gamma-zein. Since eliminating the allergenic protein will have a great impact on the nutritive value of the maize meal and expand its use in the livestock industry, it will be highly desirable to develop maize cultivars completely lacking the 27 kDa allergenic protein.

  6. The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

    2012-09-01

    Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.

  7. Hippocampal atrophy in recurrent major depression.

    PubMed Central

    Sheline, Y I; Wang, P W; Gado, M H; Csernansky, J G; Vannier, M W

    1996-01-01

    Hippocampal volumes of subjects with a history of major depressive episodes but currently in remission and with no known medical comorbidity were compared to matched normal controls by using volumetric magnetic resonance images. Subjects with a history of major depression had significantly smaller left and right hippocampal volumes with no differences in total cerebral volumes. The degree of hippocampal volume reduction correlated with total duration of major depression. In addition, large (diameter > or = 4.5 mm)-hippocampal low signal foci (LSF) were found within the hippocampus, and their number also correlated with the total number of days depressed. These results suggest that depression is associated with hippocampal atrophy, perhaps due to a progressive process mediated by glucocorticoid neurotoxicity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8632988

  8. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Residual symptoms in elderly major depression remitters.

    PubMed

    Gastó, C; Navarro, V; Catalán, R; Portella, M J; Marcos, T

    2003-07-01

    To assess residual symptoms in severe geriatric major depression in remission, and to determine baseline clinical and sociodemographic predictors of residual symptoms in remitters. A total of 108 elderly patients with unipolar major depression were evaluated and treated naturalistically for 9 months so as to record the predictors of residual symptoms in remitters. In order to reduce the likelihood of confusing residual symptoms with normal effects of age, 30 control subjects were also monitored. Seventy-nine patients (73.1%) were considered remitters and 82.3% of remitters showed residual symptoms. Medical burden, chronic stress and subjective social support were the only variables which predicted the severity of residual symptoms in remitters. Residual symptoms in elderly patients with major depression in remission should not only be attributed exclusively to intrinsic factors of the illness or the age of the individual patient, but also to external factors.

  10. PRIME: Phase Retrieval via Majorization-Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianyu; Babu, Prabhu; Palomar, Daniel P.

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers the phase retrieval problem in which measurements consist of only the magnitude of several linear measurements of the unknown, e.g., spectral components of a time sequence. We develop low-complexity algorithms with superior performance based on the majorization-minimization (MM) framework. The proposed algorithms are referred to as PRIME: Phase Retrieval vIa the Majorization-minimization techniquE. They are preferred to existing benchmark methods since at each iteration a simple surrogate problem is solved with a closed-form solution that monotonically decreases the original objective function. In total, four algorithms are proposed using different majorization-minimization techniques. Experimental results validate that our algorithms outperform existing methods in terms of successful recovery and mean square error under various settings.

  11. Paroxetine treatment of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Keller, Martin B

    2003-01-01

    Major depression is recognized as a common, often chronic and recurrent illness that is associated with significant disability and comorbidity. The treatment of patients with major depressive disorder has advanced tremendously in the past decade as a result of the availability of effective and well-tolerated antidepressants. Paroxetine is a widely studied selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with evidence for efficacy and safety that is supported by a large body of published literature. Evidence for the efficacy and tolerability of anew controlled-release formulation of paroxetine also has been published. Findings from paroxetine clinical studies have added considerably to our knowledge and understanding of the treatment of major depressive disorder, particularly with regard to duration of treatment, the need for treating to full remission and with full doses, and treatment of patients with concurrent symptoms of anxiety.

  12. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  13. Major incident in Kent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sophie Elizabeth Jap

    2015-09-22

    A major incident was declared after a road traffic accident involving 150 cars and 200 people in Kent, England. The emergency services oversaw coordination of the scene, recovery and triage of casualties and transfer of patients to hospital. The crash was one of the worst seen on British roads and it has been hailed as a miracle that there were no deaths and very few serious injuries.This case report is a retrospective analysis of the regional health system's response to the crash. The structure is based on the content of a report submitted using an online open access template for major incident reporting (Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 22: 5, 2014; http://www.majorincidentreporting.org ). A more comprehensive analysis of the incident has also been the theme of a Masters thesis (Hardy S. Reporting Major Incidents in England: Putting Theory into Practice. England: Queen Mary's University of London; 2014).

  14. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hung-Chang; Wei, Jia-Yi; Chu, Sao-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Chi; Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry.

  15. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry. PMID:27163287

  16. The origins of major platelet receptor nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Clemetson, Kenneth J

    2017-01-01

    The nomenclature of the major platelet receptors may appear complex, but in fact there are logical reasons why it developed in the way it did. In this short review, I describe the origins of this nomenclature, how it developed as more information became available and as relationships were established with receptors on other types of cells. Difficulties have also arisen with alternative nomenclature systems and the various equivalences with these are described and listed. There remain areas such as immunology and transfusion where the accepted nomenclature leaves something to be desired, but it is unlikely that major changes will occur.

  17. Further Evidence for the Canis Major Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    We analyze deep widefield V and R photometry from candidate open clusters in the direction of the recently discovered Monoceros ring and the proposed Canis Major dwarf galaxy remnant. For two fields we find significant evidence for a new stellar population which is not explained by known Galactic components such as the warp, flare and spiral arms. One field exhibits significant evidence for a discrete population of stars at a heliocentric distance of 8 kpc in support of the existence of the Canis Major remnant galaxy.

  18. Major system acquisitions process (A-109)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, C.

    1991-01-01

    The Major System examined is a combination of elements (hardware, software, facilities, and services) that function together to produce capabilities required to fulfill a mission need. The system acquisition process is a sequence of activities beginning with documentation of mission need and ending with introduction of major system into operational use or otherwise successful achievement of program objectives. It is concluded that the A-109 process makes sense and provides a systematic, integrated management approach along with appropriate management level involvement and innovative and 'best ideas' from private sector in satisfying mission needs.

  19. Major element composition of Luna 20 glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Ten per cent of the 50 to 150-micron size fraction of Luna 20 soil is glass. A random suite of 270 of these glasses has been analyzed by electron microprobe techniques. The major glass type forms a strong cluster around a mean value corresponding to Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro) with 70% normative feldspar. Minor glass groups have the compositions of mare basalts and of low-K Fra Mauro type basalts. The glass data indicate that Highland basalt is the major rock type in the highlands north of Mare Fecunditatis.

  20. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 binds to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, P; Diez, A; Mourad, W; Parsonnet, J; Geha, R S; Chatila, T

    1989-01-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) is a 22-kDa exotoxin produced by strains of Staphylococcus aureus and implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. In common with other staphylococcal exotoxins, TSST-1 has diverse immunological effects. These include the induction of interleukin 2 receptor expression, interleukin 2 synthesis, proliferation of human T lymphocytes, and stimulation of interleukin 1 synthesis by human monocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that TSST-1 binds with saturation kinetics and with a dissociation constant of 17-43 nM to a single class of binding sites on human mononuclear cells. There was a strong correlation between the number of TSST-1 binding sites and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, and interferon-gamma induced the expression of class II molecules as well as TSST-1 binding sites on human skin-derived fibroblasts. Monoclonal antibodies to HLA-DR, but not to HLA-DP or HLA-DQ, strongly inhibited TSST-1 binding. Affinity chromatography of 125I-labeled cell membranes over TSST-1-agarose resulted in the recovery of two bands of 35 kDa and 31 kDa that comigrated, respectively, with the alpha and beta chains of HLA-DR and that could be immunoprecipitated with anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Binding of TSST-1 was demonstrated to HLA-DR and HLA-DQ L-cell transfectants. These results indicate that major histocompatibility complex class II molecules represent the major binding site for TSST-1 on human cells. Images PMID:2542966

  1. Expression of the major bean proteins from Theobroma cacao (cocoa) in the yeasts Hansenula polymorpha and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, M O; Ashton, S M; Deakin, E D; Spencer, M E; Sudbery, P E

    1996-04-18

    The production in two yeast expression systems of recombinant forms of the major proteins from the cocoa bean is described. Three major protein species are found in the cocoa bean: an albumin of molecular mass 21 kDa (p21) and two insoluble vicilin-like proteins of molecular mass 31 kDa and 47 kDa (p31 and p47, respectively). The p31 and p47 species are known to be derived from a common 67-kDa precursor (p67) by post-translational processing that includes the deletion of a hydrophilic domain located immediately after an N-terminal signal sequence. All three proteins appear to be targeted to membrane-bound storage organelles by N-terminal signal sequences. The p21 and p67 coding sequences were expressed in Hansenula polymorpha using the powerful methanol oxidase (MOX) promoter and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the promoter of the pyruvate kinase (PYK) gene. The expression constructs contained the native plant signal sequence, or various yeast signals. The p21 protein was successfully expressed and secreted from both yeasts. The insoluble p67 protein proved more difficult. Species of the correct molecular mass were recovered internally and small amounts of a p47 species were secreted using a yeast leader sequence. However, proteolytic cleavage, probably due to Kex2p-like processing, led to the appearance of other protein species.

  2. Evidence that the major metabolites accumulating in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency disturb mitochondrial energy homeostasis in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Ferreira, Gustavo da Costa; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Zanatta, Angela; Klamt, Fábio; Wajner, Moacir

    2009-11-03

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is an inherited metabolic disorder of fatty acid oxidation in which the affected patients predominantly present high levels of octanoic (OA) and decanoic (DA) acids and their glycine and carnitine by-products in tissues and body fluids. It is clinically characterized by episodic encephalopathic crises with coma and seizures, as well as by progressive neurological involvement, whose pathophysiology is poorly known. In the present work, we investigated the in vitro effects of OA and DA on various parameters of energy homeostasis in mitochondrial preparations from brain of young rats. We found that OA and DA markedly increased state 4 respiration and diminished state 3 respiration as well as the respiratory control ratio, the mitochondrial membrane potential and the matrix NAD(P)H levels. In addition, DA-elicited increase in oxygen consumption in state 4 respiration was partially prevented by atractyloside, indicating the involvement of the adenine nucleotide translocator. OA and DA also reduced ADP/O ratio, CCCP-stimulated respiration and the activities of respiratory chain complexes. The data indicate that the major accumulating fatty acids in MCADD act as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and as metabolic inhibitors. Furthermore, DA, but not OA, provoked a marked mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, reflecting a permeabilization of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Taken together, these data suggest that OA and DA impair brain mitochondrial energy homeostasis that could underlie at least in part the neuropathology of MCADD.

  3. The cellular proteins which can associate specifically with polyomavirus middle T antigen in human 293 cells include the major human 70-kilodalton heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Pallas, D C; Morgan, W; Roberts, T M

    1989-11-01

    We compared the proteins which associate with middle T antigen (MT) of polyomavirus in human cells infected with Ad5(pymT), a recombinant adenovirus which directs the overexpression of MT, with the MT-associated proteins (MTAPs) previously identified in murine fibroblasts expressing MT. MTAPs of 27, 29, 36, and 63 kilodaltons (kDa) appeared to be fairly well conserved between the two species, as judged by comigration on two-dimensional gels. Several 61-kDa MTAP species detected in MT immunoprecipitates from both cell sources also comigrated on these gels. However, no protein comigrating precisely with the murine 85-kDa MTAP could be detected in the human cells. Furthermore, two proteins of 72 and 74 kDa associated with wild-type MT in the infected human cells but not in murine fibroblasts expressing MT. It had been previously reported for murine cells that the 70-kDa heat shock protein associates with a particular mutant MT but not with wild-type MT (G. Walter, A. Carbone, and W.J. Welch, J. Virol. 61:405-410, 1987). By the criteria of comigration on two-dimensional gels, tryptic peptide mapping, and immunoblotting, we showed that the 72- and 74-kDa proteins that associate with wild-type MT in human cells are the major human 70-kDa heat shock proteins.

  4. Minerals in thalassaemia major patients: An overview.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Zeynep; Genc, Gizem Esra; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2017-05-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) is a hereditary blood disease characterised by reduced or absent production of beta globin chains. Erythrocyte transfusions are given to raise the haemoglobin level in patients with thalassaemia major. However, transfusions have been related to increased risk of iron overload and tissue damage related to excess iron. Both elevated oxidative stress due to iron overload and increased hemolysis lead to over utilisation of minerals required for antioxidant enzymes activities. Iron chelators have been used to prevent iron overload in thalassaemia major patients, but these chelators have the possibility of removing minerals from the body. Thalassaemia patients are more at risk for mineral deficiency because of increased oxidative stress and iron chelation therapies. Growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis are the complications of thalassaemia. Minerals may play a particular role to prevent these complications. In the current review, we provide an overview of minerals including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in thalassaemia major patients. We, also, underline that some complications of thalassaemia can be caused by an increased need for minerals or lack of the minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of Major Vascular Injury: Open.

    PubMed

    Tisherman, Samuel A

    2016-06-01

    Major blood vessels are in proximity to other vital structures in the neck and base of skull. Infections and tumors of the head and neck can invade vascular structures. Vascular injuries can lead to massive hemorrhage, cerebral ischemia, or stroke. Emergency and definitive management can be challenging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  7. Major and Minor Constituents of Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    sample alloys obtained by both techniques. Keywords: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy(ICP-AES).... absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy are used for the determination of major magnesium, lithium, copper, zinc...An accurate analysis of aluminum alloys is required for quality control and characterization purposes. The two analytical techniques atomic

  8. The History Major and Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberal Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    All disciplines and fields have something important to contribute to liberal learning. History, however, provides something distinctive. This contribution can be enhanced by a more explicit understanding of the relationship between the history major and the broader goals and processes of liberal learning, and through consideration of that…

  9. THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

    IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

  10. The Neglected Majority--20th Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    It is the 20th anniversary of the release of Dale Parnell's landmark book "The Neglected Majority". In this book, Parnell pointed out that for too long America's educational system has focused on the highest and lowest achievers. He made the case that most of those students in the middle two high school quartiles neither prepare for nor aspire to…

  11. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  12. The Economics of the Major Private Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William G.

    Major public and private universities need substantial amounts of additional income to meet rapidly rising operating costs. After World War II, total educational and general expenditures in all universities went up from less than $1 billion in 1945-46 to more than $7 billion in 1963-64. Some private university operating deficits indicate that…

  13. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  14. Double Majors Produce Dynamic Thinkers, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrett, Dan

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate education is traditionally supposed to provide students with both breadth and depth of knowledge, which derive from their general-education requirements and major, respectively. Increasingly, education experts also want students to develop a third skill, integrative thinking. It entails learning the deeper, underlying meaning of a…

  15. Acoustics for Music Majors-- A Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Perry F.

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions of several of the laboratory experiments which have been incorporated into an acoustics course for music majors. Includes vibratory motion and sound generation, nature, speed, and pitch of sound, spectrum analysis and electronic synthesis of musical sound and some conventional sound experiments. (Author/TS)

  16. Evidence for ultramafic lavas on Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, D. P.; Christensen, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    Pyroxene compositions from ISM data compared with pyroxene compositions of Apollo 12 pigeonite basalt, Shergotite meteorite, and pyroxenitic komatiite show that the Syrtis Major volcanic materials are consistent with pyroxenitic komatiite. Pyroxenitic komatiite is significant for the earth because it contains a large amount of MgO, implying generation under unique circumstances compared to typical basaltic compositions.

  17. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  18. Frequent Major Changing: Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; MacKillop, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty undergraduates participated in individual, semi-structured interviews concerning their decisions to change majors. We found three common extrinsic and three intrinsic factors related to their decisions. Extrinsic factors included parents who were supportive but not meaningfully directive, lack of familial external guidance, and lack of…

  19. The Economics of the Major Private Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William G.

    Major public and private universities need substantial amounts of additional income to meet rapidly rising operating costs. After World War II, total educational and general expenditures in all universities went up from less than $1 billion in 1945-46 to more than $7 billion in 1963-64. Some private university operating deficits indicate that…

  20. Physics for the Medical Science Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one professor makes his physics course relevant to pharmacy majors. The course emphasizes the relation of basic physics concepts (like forces and thermodynamics) to the human body and uses problems drawn from the medical profession. Student course evaluations show a favorable view of content learned and its relevance. (DB)

  1. Support for Teaching at Major Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Stanford C., Ed.; Cook, John A., Ed.

    Major themes that dominate institutional support for teaching are addressed by representatives of large research-oriented institutions of higher education that form the "Panel on Research and Development of Instructional Resources." The Panel is composed of the Big Ten universities and the University of Chicago. Contents are as follows: "The Panel…

  2. Physics for the Medical Science Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one professor makes his physics course relevant to pharmacy majors. The course emphasizes the relation of basic physics concepts (like forces and thermodynamics) to the human body and uses problems drawn from the medical profession. Student course evaluations show a favorable view of content learned and its relevance. (DB)

  3. Support for Teaching at Major Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Stanford C., Ed.; Cook, John A., Ed.

    Major themes that dominate institutional support for teaching are addressed by representatives of large research-oriented institutions of higher education that form the "Panel on Research and Development of Instructional Resources." The Panel is composed of the Big Ten universities and the University of Chicago. Contents are as follows: "The Panel…

  4. Electronic Demonstration Portfolios for Visual Anthropology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The paper suggests a model for linking the realisation and the articulation of both knowledge and accumulation of skills by fourth year students who have majored in visual anthropology. One central component is the integration of student-generated intellectual autobiographies into electronic demonstration portfolios, a formula and strategy that…

  5. Consensus versus Majority Vote: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, A. Paul

    1980-01-01

    Small groups of university students each made two decisions, one using consensus, the other using majority vote. Results confirm consensus method characteristics found in community groups studies and indicate that consensus is favored as a group process. Presented at Association for Sociology in Southern Africa, Maseru, Losotho, June 1979.…

  6. Major Greenwood (1880-1949): the biography.

    PubMed

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2016-12-30

    Background is provided on the discovery of an unpublished biography of Major Greenwood written by one of his sons. The motivation and preparation for online publication of the biography in Statistics in Medicine are outlined. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Major Greenwood (1880–1949): the biography

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background is provided on the discovery of an unpublished biography of Major Greenwood written by one of his sons. The motivation and preparation for online publication of the biography in Statistics in Medicine are outlined. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27654632

  8. Radiation chemistry of major food components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter summarizes radiolysis of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. The major focuses of the chapter are on recent developments in radiation chemistry and the use of irradiation to reduce undesirable chemicals in foods. Specifically, formation of volatile sulfur compounds from...

  9. Peru: Affirmative Action for the Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Susan C.

    This paper discusses affirmative action in Peru and considers what the government must do to solve the inferior status of the Indian majority. Ethnically and geographically diverse, Peru's population is said to be marked by inequities in wealth, education, and employment. The policies developed by Peruvian governments over the past 20 years to…

  10. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  11. Mars at Ls 53°: Syrtis Major

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-16

    This picture is a composite of Mars MOC daily global images acquired at Ls 53° during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53° occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars

  12. Ramifications of the Age of Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. Parker

    The lowering of the age of majority to 18 years has had a variety of ramifications for higher education. A discussion of the more obvious of these from a legal as well as practical standpoint is presented. The areas outlined include the demise of "in loco parentis"; residency and out-of-state tuition; dormitory residence requirements;…

  13. Successful pregnancy in beta-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Martin, K

    1983-09-01

    Successful pregnancy is described in a patient with beta-thalassaemia major, transfusion-dependent from four months of age and treated with desferrioxamine from 13 years of age. The pregnancy was concealed. No antenatal care was given nor any planned alteration in management of her thalassaemic state.

  14. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  15. The Liberal Education of STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Adele J.; Cuba, Lee; Day, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Liberal arts colleges produce a disproportionate number of PhDs in the sciences (National Science Foundation 2008), and knowledgeable observers praise the "cross-training" of these colleges' science majors (Cech 1999; Connell 2004; Ekman 2007; Pascarella et al. 2004; Steitz 2001; Tilghman 2010). While many of the positive outcomes of…

  16. Major Disorders of Mind and Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, Elliot S.; Rieder, Ronald O.

    1992-01-01

    Presents research findings relating to the major disorders of the mind and brain. Discusses the anatomic, biochemical and hereditary bases of schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness. Vignettes provide additional information and diagrams of the brain stress system, medicines for mental disorders, and a graph of generational trends. (MCO)

  17. Major Changes Afoot for Leaders Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents major alterations afoot for Leaders Council. The Education Leaders Council (ELC), which has been grappling with financial and leadership problems for months, is merging with another Washington-based nonprofit organization. The new organization, which will likely keep the ELC name, now will manage the Following the Leaders…

  18. Electronic Demonstration Portfolios for Visual Anthropology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The paper suggests a model for linking the realisation and the articulation of both knowledge and accumulation of skills by fourth year students who have majored in visual anthropology. One central component is the integration of student-generated intellectual autobiographies into electronic demonstration portfolios, a formula and strategy that…

  19. Core Requirements for the Economics Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Marie; Perry, John J.; Johnson, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors are the first to describe the core economics curriculum requirements for economics majors at all American colleges and universities, as opposed to a sample of institutions. Not surprisingly, principles of economics is nearly universally required and implemented as a two-semester course in 85 percent of economics major…

  20. Conditions Favoring Major Advances in Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Karl W.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Most of the 62 major advances in social sciences since 1900 have come from a few centers in the United States and England, had rapid effects, been produced by workers 35-45 years old, tended to be quantitative, interdisciplinary ideas stimulated by, and applied to, practical demands. (AL)

  1. Recurrence in Major Depression: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and research on major depression have increasingly assumed a recurrent and chronic disease model. Yet not all people who become depressed suffer recurrences, suggesting that depression is also an acute, time-limited condition. However, few if any risk indicators are available to forecast which of the initially depressed will or will not…

  2. Examining Minor and Major Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramirez, Rafael; Chavez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  3. Core Requirements for the Economics Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Marie; Perry, John J.; Johnson, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors are the first to describe the core economics curriculum requirements for economics majors at all American colleges and universities, as opposed to a sample of institutions. Not surprisingly, principles of economics is nearly universally required and implemented as a two-semester course in 85 percent of economics major…

  4. The Liberal Education of STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Adele J.; Cuba, Lee; Day, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Liberal arts colleges produce a disproportionate number of PhDs in the sciences (National Science Foundation 2008), and knowledgeable observers praise the "cross-training" of these colleges' science majors (Cech 1999; Connell 2004; Ekman 2007; Pascarella et al. 2004; Steitz 2001; Tilghman 2010). While many of the positive outcomes of…

  5. Major Bibliographic Tools of Political Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Thomas H., Comp.

    Designed to introduce the student to some of the major bibliographic tools of political science found in the Raymond H. Fogler Library of the University of Maine at Orono, this guide provides a systematic approach to information sources in the manner of a pathfinder. Beginning with a list of articles that are useful for defining scope, the guide…

  6. Major Disorders of Mind and Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, Elliot S.; Rieder, Ronald O.

    1992-01-01

    Presents research findings relating to the major disorders of the mind and brain. Discusses the anatomic, biochemical and hereditary bases of schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness. Vignettes provide additional information and diagrams of the brain stress system, medicines for mental disorders, and a graph of generational trends. (MCO)

  7. Creating an Undergraduate InfoTech Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollmeier, Harold H.

    Franklin Pierce College (New Hampshire) has established an information technology (IT) major which combines courses from the computer science, graphic communications, and mass communication disciplines to conform more closely to the reality of technology in the late 1990s. Information technology brings together tools from these disciplines for the…

  8. Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

  9. Student's Guide to Undergraduate Physics Major Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llano, Margaret T.

    Provided are data on the physics programs of 622 institutions which offer the baccalaureate degree in physics. The guide is intended for students who aim to become physics majors in college, students interested in science, transfer students, school and community college counselors, and physics faculty. For each institution, information is supplied…

  10. Minor and major health: a Nietzschean reading.

    PubMed

    Biato, Emília Carvalho Leitão; Costa, Luciano Bedin da; Monteiro, Silas Borges

    2017-03-01

    This paper aims to discuss the concept of health, understood as multiple and plural. We use Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical thought as an analytical tool, allowing us to reach a typology involving minor and major health. While the first is normative and sustained by an ideal of healing, the second is an expanding strength, a condition constantly achieved. If minor health follows a preset life moralization script, major health relates to the expanded living being, which affirms its creative nature and transcends established rules. The notion of major health embraces the overcoming of imperative models rooted in biomedicine-based practices and approaches to health collective actions. Nevertheless, on the one hand, if this movement extends the co-participatory nature between staff and users of the health system, on the other hand, it lacks more radical actions to break with the moral nature of health-disease processes. Not refusing life's own vicissitudes, major health understands the need to incorporate pain and suffering involved in individuation movements.

  11. Logic realization of simple majority voting connectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.; Golomb, S. W.; Lushbaugh, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Redundant circuitry is added to computer network to eliminate incorrect output obtained due to a component failure, noise, or some other disturbance. This circuitry provides majority operation. Only NAND gates are employed, and the modules used are among the most popular microelectronic or integrated circuits presently in use.

  12. Vocational and Adult Education: Major Regulation Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Robert M.

    Federal regulations for the Adult Education Act and the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act were revised in 1985. The following are the major changes to the Adult Education Act regulations: (1) the definition of "adult" was changed to permit services to persons under the age of 16 in some cases; (2) the definition of…

  13. The Social Impact of Majorities and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latane, Bibb; Wolf, Sharon

    1981-01-01

    A new theory of social impact is proposed and related to prior work. Social influences result from forces operating in a social force field. Influence by either a majority or a minority is a multiplicative function of the strength, immediacy, and number of its members. Conformity and innovation are compared. (Author/RD)

  14. Majority influence in children and other animals.

    PubMed

    Haun, Daniel B M; van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Edelson, Micah G

    2013-01-01

    We here review existing evidence for majority influences in children under the age of ten years and comparable studies with animals ranging from fish to apes. Throughout the review, we structure the discussion surrounding majority influences by differentiating the behaviour of individuals in the presence of a majority and the underlying mechanisms and motivations. Most of the relevant research to date in both developmental psychology and comparative psychology has focused on the behavioural outcomes, where a multitude of mechanisms could be at play. We further propose that interpreting cross-species differences in behavioural patterns is difficult without considering the psychology of the individual. Some attempts at this have been made both in developmental psychology and comparative psychology. We propose that physiological measures should be used to subsidize behavioural studies in an attempt to understand the composition of mechanisms and motivations underlying majority influence. We synthesize the relevant evidence on human brain function in order to provide a framework for future investigation in this area. In addition to streamlining future research efforts, we aim to create a conceptual platform for productive exchanges across the related disciplines of developmental and comparative psychology.

  15. International Program for Undergraduate Business Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Tom

    This report describes a project to create an interdisciplinary specialization in international business for undergraduate business majors and to internationalize the existing business program at Mercy College (New York). Objectives were to help students acquire a working knowledge of the international dimension of business, appreciate…

  16. Sex segregation in undergraduate engineering majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litzler, Elizabeth

    Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher education, I explore gender stratification within one field: engineering. This dissertation investigates why some engineering disciplines have a greater representation of women than other engineering disciplines. I assess the individual and institutional factors and conditions associated with women's representation in certain engineering departments and compare the mechanisms affecting women's and men's choice of majors. I use national data from the Engineering Workforce Commission, survey data from 21 schools in the Project to Assess Climate in Engineering study, and Carnegie Foundation classification information to study sex segregation in engineering majors from multiple perspectives: the individual, major, institution, and country. I utilize correlations, t-tests, cross-tabulations, log-linear modeling, multilevel logistic regression and weighted least squares regression to test the relative utility of alternative explanations for women's disproportionate representation across engineering majors. As a whole, the analyses illustrate the importance of context and environment for women's representation in engineering majors. Hypotheses regarding hostile climate and discrimination find wide support across different analyses, suggesting that women's under-representation in certain engineering majors is not a question of choice or ability. However, individual level factors such as having engineering coursework prior to college show an especially strong association with student choice of major. Overall, the analyses indicate that institutions matter, albeit less for women, and women's under-representation in engineering is not

  17. Floor Fractured Craters around Syrtis Major, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, M.; Jaumann, R.; Asche, H.

    2012-04-01

    Craters around Syrtis Major are eroded and/or refilled. Syrtis Major is one of the large Hesperian-aged volcanic regions on Mars. Basaltic deposits originating from nearby Syrtis Major cover the floor of impact craters. In particular some craters exhibit a fractured floor. Floor Fractured Craters can be divided in types. The grade of erosion and the geologic process, which formed the crater, can be different. Type 1: Crater floor affected by pit chains or narrow crevices which are sometimes discontinuous. Type 2: More developed and dense networks of crevices as type 1. Crevices are wide and deep enough to be detected. A circular moat starts to develop as crevices concentrate along the rim. Type 3: Mainly distinguished from type 2 by the presence of a fully developed circular moat. The flat central part is divided into several blocks by crevices. Type 4: They show also a continuous moat along the rim but the central part consists of many flat-top blocks and small conical mounds. Type 5: Crater floor has many mounds of irregular sizes, but the flattop blocks are absent. It should be noted that the knobby surface shows typical characteristics of chaotic terrains and could be alternatively classified as such. Type 6: Crater without a circular moat, crevices are not fully developed, flat-top blocks are present. Fractured floor could have been reshaped through geologic processes. Floor fractured craters can be found in three different areas. The first area is located in the south-eastern part of Syrtis Major, bordering to the highlands. Volcanic features like lava flow fronts, lava flows and wrinkle ridges dominate this region. The crater floor is separated in sharp-edged plates and the interior seems to be flooded by basaltic material. The second area is in the north of Syrtis Major and transcend to the chaotic terrain further north. Near the martian dichotomy boundary fluvial activity was the decisive process. The crater rims are highly eroded, channels are cutting

  18. Combined Application of UHPLC-QTOF/MS, HPLC-ELSD and (1) H-NMR Spectroscopy for Quality Assessment of DA-9801, A Standardised Dioscorea Extract.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyo Bin; Ryu, Jayoung; Cho, Youngwoong; Choi, Sang-Zin; Son, Miwon; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-05-01

    DA-9801, a standardised 50% aqueous ethanolic extract of a mixture of Dioscorea japonica and D. nipponica, is a botanical drug candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, which finished its US phase II clinical trials recently. An advanced quality control method is needed for further development of DA-9801, considering its high contents of both primary and secondary metabolites. Development of a quality assessment strategy for DA-9801, based on the combination of UHPLC-QTOF/MS, HPLC-ELSD, and (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. The method was developed and tested with 15 batch products of DA-9801. The steroidal saponins of DA-9801 were tentatively identified by UHPLC-QTOF/MS and were quantified with the validated HPLC-ELSD method. Primary metabolites of DA-9801 were identified and profiled using (1) H-NMR spectrometry. The batch-to-batch equivalence of DA-9801 was tested with the (1) H-NMR spectra using spectral binning, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis. Six major saponins of DA-9801 were tentatively identified by UHPLC-QTOF/MS. Among them, protodioscin and dioscin were quantified by the validated HPLC-ELSD method. Twenty-six metabolites were identified in (1) H-NMR spectra. The similarity between DA-9801 batches could be evaluated with the NMR spectra of DA-9801. The (1) H-NMR method also revealed that two Dioscorea species contributed distinct amino acids to the contents of DA-9801. This study validates the effectiveness of UHPLC-QTOF/MS, HPLC-ELSD, and (1) H NMR-combined method for quality control of DA-9801 and its crude materials. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Proposed multigenic Composite Inheritance in major depression.

    PubMed

    Raymer, Katherine A; Waters, Robert F; Price, Catherine R

    2005-01-01

    Various rationale have been considered in the familial inheritance pattern of major depression ranging from simple one-gene Mendelian inheritance to pseudo-additive gene action. We instead predict broad genetic expressivity patterns in the progeny of parents where at least one parent has recurrent major depression. In keeping with this idea, we feel that recurrent major depression could involve an expression imbalance of "normal" genes either exclusively or along with allelic variation(s). The patterns of pathology are theoretically conceptualized as qualitative and quantitative, meaning that expressivity of the genetic pattern in these children may range from minimal to complete even among siblings. Thus, prediction of the particular genetic pattern expressed by a particular child might prove difficult. The complex inheritance pattern that we propose is referred to as Composite Inheritance. Composite Inheritance considers that both the up- and down-regulation of luxury genes and housekeeping genes are involved in this dichotomous qualitative inheritance pattern and also the wide quantitative expressivity. The luxury genes include such genes as those coding for the neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. The housekeeping genes found to date include those that code for proteins involved in gene transcription, secondary signaling systems, fatty acid metabolism and transport, and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Other luxury and housekeeping genes no doubt remain to be discovered. Our current research utilizes an empirical approach involving advanced genomics and specialized pattern recognition mathematics in families having at least one parent with recurrent major depression. The goal of our research is to develop a pattern recognition system of genetic expressivity in major depression to which prevention and early intervention may be tailored.

  20. Perceptual integrality of major chord components.

    PubMed

    Acker, B E; Pastore, R E

    1996-07-01

    In the present study, an accuracy, rather than a reaction time, version of the Garner paradigm was used to evaluate the integrality or separability of major chord components. Tuned (prototype, or P) and mistuned (nonprototype, or NP) sets of root position C-major triads were constructed by holding the C constant in all stimuli and varying the E and G frequencies in 2- and 4-Hz steps. The P stimuli represent small systematic mistunings in the E and G notes relative to an equal-tempered C-major chord. The NP stimuli represent an equivalent range of frequency variation, but relative to a significantly out-of-tune C-major triad. In different experimental sessions, a same-different (AX) task was used to separately evaluate discrimination performance for the E and G frequencies as a function of whether the nontarget frequency (G or E) was fixed or varied in either a correlated or an orthogonal fashion (with the C frequency always held constant). Compared with a fixed baseline condition where only the target frequency changed, both chord components exhibited a significant redundancy gain in the correlated conditions and, to varying degrees, significant interference effects in the orthogonal condition, indicating that the chord components function largely in an integral fashion. Relative to the discrimination of G, discrimination of the E frequency was less influenced by variation in the nontarget (G) frequency, showing that attention, to some degree, could be selectively allocated to the E chord component. In addition, the results were consistent with previous findings that the functional prototype for the major chord category seems to act as a perceptual anchor, rather than as a magnet, and appears to be located in the physiologically defined area of just temperament, as opposed to the more experientially defined area of equal temperament.

  1. The complex impact structure Serra da Cangalha, Tocantins State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Vasconcelos, Marcos A. R.; Crósta, Alvaro P.; Reimold, Wolf U.

    2011-06-01

    Serra da Cangalha is a complex impact structure with a crater diameter of 13,700 m and a central uplift diameter of 5800 m. New findings of shatter cones, planar fractures, feather features, and possible planar deformation features are presented. Several ring-like features that are visible on remote sensing imagery are caused by selective erosion of tilted strata. The target at Serra da Cangalha is composed of Devonian to Permian sedimentary rocks, mainly sandstones that are interlayered with siltstone and claystones. NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE-striking joint sets were present prior to the impact and also overprinted the structure after its formation. As preferred zones of weakness, these joint sets partly controlled the shape of the outer perimeter of the structure and, in particular, affected the deformation within the central uplift. Joints in radial orientation to the impact center did not undergo a change in orientation during tilting of strata when the central uplift was formed. These planes were used as major displacement zones. The asymmetry of the central uplift, with preferred overturning of strata in the northern to western sector, may suggest a moderately oblique impact from a southerly direction. Buckle folding of tilted strata, as well as strata overturning, indicates that the central uplift became gravitationally unstable at the end of crater formation.

  2. Calibration of Synthetic Photometry Using DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Bergeron, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    We have calibrated four major ground-based photometric systems with respect to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) absolute flux scale, which is defined by Vega and four fundamental DA white dwarfs. These photometric systems include the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI, the Strömgren uvby filters, the Two Micron All Sky Survey JHKs, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filters. Synthetic magnitudes are calculated from model white dwarf spectra folded through the published filter response functions; these magnitudes in turn are absolutely calibrated with respect to the HST flux scale. Effective zero-magnitude fluxes and zero-point offsets of each system are determined. In order to verify the external observational consistency, as well as to demonstrate the applicability of these definitions, the synthetic magnitudes are compared with the respective observed magnitudes of larger sets of DA white dwarfs that have well-determined effective temperatures and surface gravities and span a wide range in both of these parameters.

  3. Glycosylation site of the major allergen from olive tree pollen. Allergenic implications of the carbohydrate moiety.

    PubMed

    Batanero, E; Villalba, M; Rodríguez, R

    1994-01-01

    The electrophoretic analysis of purified Ole e I, the major allergen from Olea europaea pollen, reveals the presence of two main variants, glycosylated (20.0 kDa) and non-glycosylated (18.5 kDa) components. The glycosylated variant has been identified as a concanavalin A-binding glycoprotein. Its carbohydrate moiety has a molecular mass of about 1.3 kDa (5% weight of the glycosylated allergen), based on mass spectrometry analysis. Enzymatic treatment of native Ole e I with the specific glycosidase PNGase F accounts for an oligosaccharide N-linked to the polypeptide chain. This treatment does not sensibly modify the secondary structure of the protein but diminishes the affinity of the allergen for specific IgE antibodies. Tryptic digestion of Ole e I reveals the presence of a single carbohydrate-containing peptide. This peptide was recognized by the sera of hypersensitive individuals. The amino acid sequence of this peptide is Phe-Lys-Leu-Asn-Thr-Val-Asn-Gly-Thr-Thr-Arg, asparagine at the seventh being the carbohydrate attaching site. The obtained data are discussed in terms of the potential role of the sugar moiety in the allergenic activity of Ole e I.

  4. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors.

    PubMed

    Henning, Rebecca L Warner; Bobholz, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28) than nonmusic majors (0/35) exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage.

  5. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Rebecca L. Warner; Bobholz, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28) than nonmusic majors (0/35) exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage. PMID:26780957

  6. Prevalence of bands other than 160 and 130 kDa in pemphigus sera (a multicenter immunoblotting study). Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia (GISED).

    PubMed

    Cozzani, E; Parodi, A; Rebora, A

    1998-05-01

    Patients with pemphigus may produce antibodies against molecules other than the classical transmembranal ones. Recently, for example antibodies to 230 kDa antigens have been found in association with antibodies to intercellular substance. To better understand their prevalence, clinical correlates and prognostic significance of bands other than 130 and 160 kDa, we studied 67 pemphigus sera. About one-fourth of patients revealed multiple heterogeneous bands and 13% the 230 kDa band. When challenged with the recombinant protein rBP55, the carbossiterminal portion of bullous pemphigoid major antigen, all 230 kDa-positive-sera proved negative. Caution is to be recommended in interpreting pemphigus sera with a band migrating at the 230 kDa level.

  7. The 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor acts as a receptor for Aβ42 internalization

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Jovanovic, Katarina; Gonsalves, Danielle; Moodley, Kiashanee; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weinberg, Marc S.; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F. T.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal loss is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The associations between soluble Aβ oligomers and cellular components cause this neurotoxicity. The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has recently been implicated in Aβ pathogenesis. In this study the mechanism underlying the pathological role of LRP/LR was elucidated. Försters Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) revealed that LRP/LR and Aβ form a biologically relevant interaction. The ability of LRP/LR to form stable associations with endogenously shed Aβ was confirmed by pull down assays and Aβ-ELISAs. Antibody blockade of this association significantly lowered Aβ42 induced apoptosis. Furthermore, antibody blockade and shRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR significantly hampered Aβ42 internalization. These results suggest that LRP/LR is a receptor for Aβ42 internalization, mediating its endocytosis and contributing to the cytotoxicity of the neuropeptide by facilitating intra-cellular Aβ42 accumulation. These findings recommend anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies and shRNAs as potential therapeutic tools for AD treatment. PMID:24990253

  8. Major depressive disorder: reification and (maybe) rheostasis.

    PubMed

    Patten, S B

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneity of clinical syndromes subsumed by diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) is regarded by some as a reason to abandon or modify the criteria. However, heterogeneity may be unavoidable because of the biopsychosocial complexity of depression. MDD may be characterised by complexities that cannot be distilled down to any brief set of diagnostic criteria. Psychiatrists and psychiatric epidemiologists may need to revise their expectations of this diagnosis in order to avoid over-estimating its ability to guide the selection of treatments and prediction of prognosis. An opposing perspective is that of reification, in which the diagnosis is viewed as being more real than it really is. The concept of rheostasis may help to explain some features of this condition, such as why major depressive episodes sometimes seem understandable or even adaptive (e.g. in the context of bereavement) whereas at other times such episodes are inexplicable and maladaptive.

  9. Major depression, dysthymia and depressive personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, R M

    1994-12-01

    The separation of persistent depression into meaningful and useful subcategories, including major depression, dysthymia, recurrent brief depression, and depressive personality disorder, is the subject of much debate. Depressions can be grouped on the basis of their type and severity of symptoms, aetiology, clinical course, or their association with other psychiatric illnesses. Several investigators have conducted epidemiologic and family studies to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders, their diagnostic stability over time, and the amount of overlap among the disorders. Although progress has been made toward a better understanding of the different disorders, insufficient evidence exists to support the hypothesis that these disorders are separate and distinct from one another. However, preliminary data suggest that depressive personality disorder is separate from the other disorders. Additionally, several questions have been raised, particularly the extent to which differentiation between the depressive disorders, specifically major depression and dysthymia, has an impact on treatment decisions.

  10. Physics for Occupational Therapy Majors Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Aurora, Tarlok

    1998-03-01

    In Spring 1996, a one semester course - "Survey of Physics" - was taught for students majoring in Occupational Therapy (O. T.), in contrast to the two semester physics sequence for all other health science majors. The course was designed to expose the students to the concept of physics, develop problem solving skills and to emphasize the importance of physics to O.T. In developing the course content, students' preparedness in mathematics and the perceived future applications of physics in O. T. was taken in to consideration, and steps were taken to remedy the deficiencies in students' background. The course was comprised of lecture, laboratory, and considerable self study due to the time constraints, and these will be described.

  11. Performance profiles of major energy producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    Data for 26 major energy producing companies (coal, oil, gas, nuclear) for 1977 and 1978 are presented. Data were collected using the Financial Reporting System (FRS) reporting Form EIA-28 which collects disaggregated financial data on revenues and expenses, assets and liabilities, and sources and uses of funds. The overall corporate financial performance of 26 FRS companies are compared with the other major industrial companies. Differences in relative commitment and profitability associated with alternative lines of corporate activity are examined. The size composition and international character of FRS companies are examined. Oil and gas resource development efforts in 1978 are traced. Data on resource development expenditures are complemented by information on reserve holdings, changes in reserves, and characteristics of exploration and development efforts. Foreign activity is compared with domestic.

  12. Pectoralis major transfer for serratus anterior paralysis.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Scott P; Wood, Michael B

    2003-01-01

    Serratus anterior paralysis can result in winging of the scapula and weakness of arm elevation. The etiology of the condition is injury to the long thoracic nerve. There are many proposed causes of long thoracic nerve injury including acute trauma, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or viral illness. The long length of the long thoracic nerve makes it prone to compression injury along the chest wall. Most patients recover nerve function with conservative treatment. In those in whom nerve function fails to recover, surgical treatment involving pectoralis major transfer may be beneficial. In this study 9 patients underwent pectoralis major transfer with a fascia lata extension graft. The symptoms of most were improved, with correction of the winging and improved movement in the affected shoulder.

  13. Imaging of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bloch, Klaus Poulsen

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  15. The major allergen of Dendropanax trifidus Makino.

    PubMed

    Oka, K; Saito, F; Yasuhara, T; Sugimoto, A

    1997-05-01

    Dendropanax trifidus Makino (family Araliaceae, syn. Gilibertia trifida Makino) has been reported as causing allergic contact dermatitis in Japan. To identify the major allergen, fractionated extracts of fresh leaves of Dendropanax trifidus were patch tested on 2 patients with hypersensitivity to the plant. Cis-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1, 16-diol (I), an analog of falcarinol, was identified as an active component. 18 normal control subjects were patch tested with the leaf of Dendropanax trifidus and I diluted to 0.05% in pet. 4 of them showed active sensitization to the leaf of Dendropanax trifidus and I. Our results suggest that I is the major allergen of Dendropanax trifidus and is a strong sensitizer. The results of patch testing on patients and control subjects with the leaves of Fatsia japonica Decne. et Planch. and Hedera helix L., which also belong to the Araliaceae family, and urushiol are also shown.

  16. Biostratigraphic case studies of six major extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloan, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Biostratigraphic case studies of six major extinctions show all are gradual save one, which is a catastrophic extinction of terrestrial origin. These extinctions show a continuum of environmental insults from major to minor. The major causes of these extinctions are positive and negative eustatic sea level changes, temperature, or ecological competition. Extraterrestrial causes should not be posited without positive association with a stratigraphically sharp extinction. The Cretaceous-Tertiary terrestrial extinction is considerably smaller in percentage of extinction than the marine extinction and is spread over 10 my of the Cretaceous and 1 my of the Tertiary. Sixty percent of the 30 dinosaurs in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. and Canada had become extinct in the 9 my before the late Maastrichtian sea level drop. The best data on the Permo-Triassic terrestrial extinction are from the Karoo basin of South Africa. This is a series of 6 extinctions in some 8 my, recorded in some 2800 meters of sediment. Precision of dating is enhanced by the high rate of accumulation of these sediments. Few data are readily available on the timing of the marine Permo-Triassic extinction, due to the very restricted number of sequences of Tatarian marine rocks. The terminal Ordovician extinction at 438 my is relatively rapid, taking place over about 0.5 my. The most significant aspect of this extinction is a eustatic sea level lowering associated with a major episode of glaciation. New data on this extinction is the reduction from 61 genera of trilobites in North America to 14, for a 77 percent extinction. Another Ordovician extinction present over 10 percent of the North American craton occurs at 454 my in the form of a catastrophic extinction due to a volcanic eruption which blanketed the U.S. east of the Transcontinental Arch. This is the only other sizeable extinction in the Ordovician.

  17. Major surge of the Bering Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, Bruce

    Definitive evidence has been obtained in the last few weeks documenting that a new and potentially major surge of Bering Glacier is beginning. According to Bruce F. Molnia, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va., and spokesperson for a USGS research group that includes Austin Post, Dennis Trabant, and Robert Krimmel, as of June 28, several hundred kilometers of the glacier were involved in the surge, displaying intensive crevassing, displaced moraines, ice overriding previously exposed bedrock, and pressure ridge development (Figure 1).

  18. A Major Gene for Bovine Ovulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Brian W.; Morris, Chris A.

    2015-01-01

    Half-sib daughters sired by a bull believed to be a carrier of a major gene for high ovulation rate were evaluated for ovulation rate and genotyped in an effort to both test the hypothesis of segregation of a major gene and to map the gene’s location. A total of 131 daughters were produced over four consecutive years at a University of Wisconsin-Madison research farm. All were evaluated for ovulation rate over an average of four estrous cycles using transrectal ultrasonography. The sire and all daughters were genotyped using a 3K SNP chip and the genotype and phenotype data were used in a linkage analysis. Subsequently, daughters recombinant within the QTL region and the sire were genotyped successively with 50K and 777K SNP chips to refine the location of the causative polymorphism. Positional candidate genes within the fine-mapped region were examined for polymorphism by Sanger sequencing of PCR amplicons encompassing coding and 5’ and 3’ flanking regions of the genes. Sire DNA was used as template in the PCR reactions. Strong evidence of a major gene for ovulation rate was observed (p<1x10-28) with the gene localized to bovine chromosome 10. Fine-mapping subsequently reduced the location to a 1.2 Mb region between 13.6 and 14.8 Mb on chromosome 10. The location identified does not correspond to that for any previously identified major gene for ovulation rate. This region contains three candidate genes, SMAD3, SMAD6 and IQCH. While candidate gene screening failed to identify the causative polymorphism, three polymorphisms were identified that can be used as a haplotype to track inheritance of the high ovulation rate allele in descendants of the carrier sire. PMID:26046917

  19. Studies of the major planet satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.; Lowman, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary is presented of the available data on the satellites of the major planets, including the currently most plausible models for several observed phenomena, for the planning of spacecraft missions to these objects. Some of the important questions likely to be solved by flyby and/or orbital missions to the giant planets are detailed, the importance of these studies to our understanding of the solar system as a whole is indicated.

  20. Major brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorman, C.H.; Dewitt, E.; Maron, M.A.; Ladeira, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased 'rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (> 20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Caraja??s Mineral Province.

  1. The roles of major international standards organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Steven

    2004-05-01

    This review paper describes and analyzes the roles of the major international standards organizations, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC). In particular, it analyzes the relationships of ISO and IEC with ANSI, CEN (including the ISO/CEN Vienna Agreement), and CENELEC. This paper also addresses recent developments to ensure the global relevance of ISO and IEC standards. Lastly, this paper addresses the myths, perceptions, and realities of European participation and potential dominance in ISO.

  2. Neurofilament gene expression: a major determinant of axonal caliber

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, P.N.; Cleveland, D.W.; Griffin, J.W.; Landes, P.W.; Cowan, N.J.; Price, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Within the wide spectrum of axonal diameters occurring in mammalian nerve fibers, each class of neurons has a relatively restricted range of axonal calibers. The control of caliber has functional significance because diameter is the principal determinant of conduction velocity in myelinated nerve fibers. Previous observations support the hypothesis that neurofilaments (NF) are major intrinsic determinants of axonal caliber in large myelinated nerve fibers. Following interruption of axons (axotomy) by crushing or cutting a peripheral nerve, caliber is reduced in the proximal axonal stumps, which extend from the cell bodies to the site of axotomy. This reduction in axonal caliber in the proximal stumps is associated with a selective diminution in the amount of NF protein undergoing slow axonal transport in these axons, with a decrease in axonal NF content, and with reduced conduction velocity. The present report demonstrates that changes in axonal caliber after axotomy correlate with a selective alteration in NF gene expression. Hybridization with specific cDNAs was used to measure levels of mRNA encoding the 68-kDa neurofilament protein (NF68), ..beta..-tubulin, and actin in lumbar sensory neurons of rat at various times after crushing the sciatic nerve. Between 4 and 42 days after axotomy by nerve crush, the levels of NF68 mRNA were reduced 2- to 3-fold. At the same times, the levels of tubulin and actin mRNAs were increased several-fold. These findings support the hypothesis that the expression of a single set of neuron-specific genes (encoding NF) directly determines axonal caliber, a feature neuronal morphology with important consequences for physiology and behavior.

  3. Tear lipocalin is the major endonuclease in tears.

    PubMed

    Yusifov, Taleh N; Abduragimov, Adil R; Narsinh, Kiran; Gasymov, Oktay K; Glasgow, Ben J

    2008-01-29

    Human endonucleases are integral to apoptosis in which unwanted or potentially harmful cells are eliminated. The rapid turnover of ocular surface epithelium and microbial colonization of the eyelids are continual sources of DNA in tears. Here, we determine the principal sources of endonuclease activity in tears. Endonucleases in human tears were identified after Sephadex G100 gel filtration. DNA hydrolyzing activity was measured by the conversion pUC19 plasmid DNA to its circular form in agarose gels. Fractions with endonuclease activity were further isolated using a combination ConA-Sepharose DNA, oligo (dT) cellulose, and anion exchange chromatographies. The molecular weights of the DNA hydrolyzing proteins were estimated in zymograms and by calibration of size exclusion chromatography. DNase activities were characterized for activity at a variety of pH and ion concentrations as well as in the presence of inhibitors including NiCl(2), ZnCl(2), G-actin, and aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA). To determine the mode of hydrolysis, the cleaved ends of the DNA digested by tear DNases were analyzed by 3' and 5' end labeling using either terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase or polynucleotide kinase with or without pretreatment with alkaline phosphatase. Tear lipocalin (TL) accounts for over 75% of the DNA catalytic activity in tears while a second endonuclease, approximately 34 kDa, is responsible for less than 24% of the activity. Both are Mg(2+) dependent enzyme endonucleases that are enhanced by Ca(2+), active at physiologic pH, inhibited by aurintricarboxylic acid, and catalyze hydrolysis of DNA to produce 3'-OH/5'P ends. However, the two enzymes can be distinguished by the inhibitory effect of NiCl(2) and the sizes of the cleaved DNA fragments. Two magnesium dependent extracellular endonucleases were identified in tears that are different from other major human extracellular nucleases. TL is the principal endonuclease in human tear fluid. Tear endonucleases have unique

  4. Major traumatic and septic genital injuries.

    PubMed

    McAninch, J W; Kahn, R I; Jeffrey, R B; Laing, F C; Krieger, M J

    1984-04-01

    Major injuries to the testicles, penis, and genital skin from trauma and infection were seen in 62 patients over a 6-year period (1977 to 1983). Urethral injuries were excluded. In the past blunt testicle injuries were infrequently diagnosed and surgically ignored because of large surrounding hematomas. With the use of real-time ultrasound, 17 of 18 cases of testicle rupture were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Surgical repair resulted in testicle salvage in 16 patients. Penetrating testicle injuries resulted in a high orchiectomy rate secondary to the infrequently described but recognized entity of self-emasculation in transsexuals. Penile rupture from blunt injuries (8) was successfully repaired and complete function was recovered. Penetrating penile injuries (4) were extensive and involved the urethra in two cases; full function returned after reconstruction. Major skin loss of the penis and/or scrotum (19) occurred from necrotizing fasciitis, burns, avulsion and penetrating injuries. Early debridement, bowel and urinary diversion followed by penile skin grafting, thigh pouches to protect testicles, and scrotal reconstruction resulted in acceptable cosmetic and functional results in all cases of major skin loss.

  5. [The radiologist physician in major trauma evaluation].

    PubMed

    Motta-Ramírez, Gaspar Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in young adults. A multidisciplinary trauma team consists of at least a surgical team, an anesthesiology team, radiologic team, and an emergency department team. Recognize the integration of multidisciplinary medical team in managing the trauma patient and which must include the radiologist physician responsible for the institutional approach to the systematization of the trauma patient regarding any radiological and imaging study with emphasis on the FAST (del inglés, Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma)/USTA, Whole body computed tomography. Ultrasound is a cross-sectional method available for use in patients with major trauma. Whole-body multidetector computed tomography became the imaging modality of choice in the late 1990s. In patients with major trauma, examination FAST often is the initial imaging examination, extended to extraabdominal regions. Patients who have multitrauma from blunt mechanisms often require multiple diagnostic examinations, including Computed Tomography imaging of the torso as well as abdominopelvic Computed Tomography angiography. Multiphasic Whole-body trauma imaging is feasible, helps detect clinically relevant vascular injuries, and results in diagnostic image quality in the majority of patients. Computed Tomography has gained importance in the early diagnostic phase of trauma care in the emergency room. With a single continuous acquisition, whole-body computed tomography angiography is able to demonstrate all potentially injured organs, as well as vascular and bone structures, from the circle of Willis to the symphysis pubis.

  6. Radiation-Insensitive Inverse Majority Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    To help satisfy a need for high-density logic circuits insensitive to radiation, it has been proposed to realize inverse majority gates as microscopic vacuum electronic devices. In comparison with solid-state electronic devices ordinarily used in logic circuits, vacuum electronic devices are inherently much less adversely affected by radiation and extreme temperatures. The proposed development would involve state-of-the-art micromachining and recent advances in the fabrication of carbon-nanotube-based field emitters. A representative three-input inverse majority gate would be a monolithic, integrated structure that would include three gate electrodes, six bundles of carbon nanotubes (serving as electron emitters) at suitable positions between the gate electrodes, and an overhanging anode. The bundles of carbon nanotubes would be grown on degenerately doped silicon substrates that would be parts of the monolithic structure. The gate electrodes would be fabricated as parts of the monolithic structure by means of a double-silicon-on-insulator process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The tops of the bundles of carbon nanotubes would lie below the plane of the tops of the gate electrodes. The particular choice of shapes, dimensions, and relative positions of the electrodes and bundles of carbon nanotubes would provide for both field emission of electrons from the bundles of carbon nanotubes and control of the electron current to obtain the inverse majority function, which is described in the paper.

  7. Fluoxetine and sertraline dosages in major depression.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, R; Gillespie, W; Altshuler, L

    1999-01-01

    In a retrospective study, we sought to determine medication dosages usually prescribed to obtain euthymia in 59 outpatients with a diagnosis of major depression treated with fluoxetine or sertraline. Charts of veterans admitted to the outpatient mental health clinic at the West Los Angeles Veterans Hospital with a diagnosis of major depression and treated with either fluoxetine or sertraline were reviewed. Progress notes were analyzed for a 6-month time period after the initiation of the medication treatment, and improvement was rated by a physician blind to the drug used for treatment. No significant differences were found in overall response rates between the fluoxetine (81% responders) and sertraline (76% responders) groups. Eighty-one percent of the fluoxetine responders compared to 32% of sertraline responders were at the manufacturer's recommended starting dose (MRSD) at the time of clinical response. One-third of patients receiving sertraline were started on or rapidly titrated to more than 50 mg/day. When only those patients receiving an adequate trial of sertraline at 50 mg were considered, 47% required a dose increase to achieve a remission. These data suggest that 50 mg of sertraline may be inadequate for some patients to achieve a resolution of symptoms of major depression and that many clinicians currently prescribe in a manner suggesting that they believe the MRSD is a suboptimal dosage.

  8. Major abdominal surgery in Jehovah's Witnesses.

    PubMed

    Rollins, K E; Contractor, U; Inumerable, R; Lobo, D N

    2016-11-01

    Introduction Patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses pose difficult ethical and moral dilemmas for surgeons because of their refusal to receive blood and blood products. This article outlines the personal experiences of six Jehovah's Witnesses who underwent major abdominal surgery at a single institution and also summarises the literature on the perioperative care of these patients. Methods The patients recorded their thoughts and the dilemmas they faced during their surgical journey. We also reviewed the recent literature on the ethical principles involved in treating such patients and strategies recommended to make surgery safer. Results All patients were supported in their decision making by the clinical team and the Hospital Liaison Committee for Jehovah's Witnesses. The patients recognised the ethical and moral difficulties experienced by clinicians in this setting. However, they described taking strength from their belief in Jehovah. A multitude of techniques are available to minimise the risk associated with major surgery in Jehovah's Witness patients, many of which have been adopted to minimise unnecessary use of blood products in general. Nevertheless, the risks of catastrophic haemorrhage and consequent mortality remain an unresolved issue for the treating team. Conclusions Respect for a patient's autonomy in this setting is the overriding ethical principle, with detailed discussion forming an important part of the preparation of a Jehovah's Witness for major abdominal surgery. Clinicians must be diligent in the documentation of the patient's wishes to ensure all members of the team can abide by these.

  9. Genetic transformation of major cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qing; Xu, Xing; Wang, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Of the more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, at least 10,000 species are cereal grains. Three major cereal crops, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum sp.), provide two-thirds of the world's food energy intake. Although crop yields have improved tremendously thanks to technological advances in the past 50 years, population increases and climate changes continue to threaten the sustainability of current crop productions. Whereas conventional and marker-assisted breeding programs continue to play a major role in crop improvement, genetic engineering has drawn an intense worldwide interest from the scientific community. In the past decade, genetic transformation technologies have revolutionized agricultural practices and millions of hectares of biotech crops have been cultured. Because of its unique ability to insert well-characterized gene sequences into the plant genome, genetic engineering can also provide effective tools to address fundamental biological questions. This technology is expected to continue to be an indispensable approach for both basic and applied research. Here, we overview briefly the development of the genetic transformation in the top seven cereals, namely maize, rice, wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare), sorghum (Sorghum sp.), oat (Avena sativa), and millets. The advantages and disadvantages of the two major transformation methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated and biolistic methods, are also discussed.

  10. Chronology of major oil and gas regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-27

    The purpose of this paper is to show the evolution of major oil and gas regulations. The chronology summarizes each regulation and provides the effective date of the regulation, its title, and the sectors to which it applies. The chronology spans almost 100 years, starting in the 1889 and continuing through April 1981. The regulatory summaries, intended to capture the major points of the regulations, do not detail all of their intricacies and should not be interpreted as the law. In most cases the page number of the Federal Register, where the regulation is described in its full legal detail, is noted. An index is provided at the end of the chronology to assist those persons interested in specific areas of regulation. The index has been divided into two major sections: oil industry regulations and gas industry regulations. These sections are further divided into sectors within each industry. A section for regulations pertaining to natural gas liquids and one for miscellaneous are found at the end of the index.

  11. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  12. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns.

  13. Reassessing domain architecture evolution of metazoan proteins: major impact of gene prediction errors.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Alinda; Szláma, György; Szarka, Eszter; Trexler, Mária; Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2011-07-13

    In view of the fact that appearance of novel protein domain architectures (DA) is closely associated with biological innovations, there is a growing interest in the genome-scale reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the domain architectures of multidomain proteins. In such analyses, however, it is usually ignored that a significant proportion of Metazoan sequences analyzed is mispredicted and that this may seriously affect the validity of the conclusions. To estimate the contribution of errors in gene prediction to differences in DA of predicted proteins, we have used the high quality manually curated UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database as a reference. For genome-scale analysis of domain architectures of predicted proteins we focused on RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted sequences of Metazoan species with completely sequenced genomes. Comparison of the DA of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot sequences of worm, fly, zebrafish, frog, chick, mouse, rat and orangutan with those of human Swiss-Prot entries have identified relatively few cases where orthologs had different DA, although the percentage with different DA increased with evolutionary distance. In contrast with this, comparison of the DA of human, orangutan, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, worm and fly RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with those of the corresponding/orthologous human Swiss-Prot entries identified a significantly higher proportion of domain architecture differences than in the case of the comparison of Swiss-Prot entries. Analysis of RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with DAs different from those of their Swiss-Prot orthologs confirmed that the higher rate of domain architecture differences is due to errors in gene prediction, the majority of which could be corrected with our FixPred protocol. We have also demonstrated that contamination of databases with incomplete, abnormal or mispredicted sequences introduces a bias in DA

  14. Reassessing Domain Architecture Evolution of Metazoan Proteins: Major Impact of Gene Prediction Errors

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Alinda; Szláma, György; Szarka, Eszter; Trexler, Mária; Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that appearance of novel protein domain architectures (DA) is closely associated with biological innovations, there is a growing interest in the genome-scale reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the domain architectures of multidomain proteins. In such analyses, however, it is usually ignored that a significant proportion of Metazoan sequences analyzed is mispredicted and that this may seriously affect the validity of the conclusions. To estimate the contribution of errors in gene prediction to differences in DA of predicted proteins, we have used the high quality manually curated UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database as a reference. For genome-scale analysis of domain architectures of predicted proteins we focused on RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted sequences of Metazoan species with completely sequenced genomes. Comparison of the DA of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot sequences of worm, fly, zebrafish, frog, chick, mouse, rat and orangutan with those of human Swiss-Prot entries have identified relatively few cases where orthologs had different DA, although the percentage with different DA increased with evolutionary distance. In contrast with this, comparison of the DA of human, orangutan, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, worm and fly RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with those of the corresponding/orthologous human Swiss-Prot entries identified a significantly higher proportion of domain architecture differences than in the case of the comparison of Swiss-Prot entries. Analysis of RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with DAs different from those of their Swiss-Prot orthologs confirmed that the higher rate of domain architecture differences is due to errors in gene prediction, the majority of which could be corrected with our FixPred protocol. We have also demonstrated that contamination of databases with incomplete, abnormal or mispredicted sequences introduces a bias in DA

  15. DNA topoisomerase II alpha is the major chromosome protein recognized by the mitotic phosphoprotein antibody MPM-2.

    PubMed Central

    Taagepera, S; Rao, P N; Drake, F H; Gorbsky, G J

    1993-01-01

    We have determined that the major mitotic phosphoprotein in chromosomes recognized by the antiphosphoprotein antibody MPM-2 is the 170-kDa isoform of topoisomerase II (topo II), the isoform predominant in proliferating cells. As a prerequisite to making this discovery, it was necessary to develop protocols to protect chromosomal proteins from dephosphorylation during cell extraction and chromosome isolation procedures. Immunofluorescence analysis of the large chromosomes prepared from Indian Muntjac cells revealed colocalization of MPM-2 and anti-topo II antibodies to the chromosomal centromeres and to the axial regions of the chromosomal arms. For biochemical fractionation studies, large quantities of chromosomes from the P388D1 mouse lymphocyte cell line were isolated and treated to remove DNA and histone proteins. Immunoblot and immunoprecipitation experiments with this chromosome scaffold fraction identified the major MPM-2-reactive phosphoprotein to be DNA topo II. Using a panel of anti-peptide antibodies specific to the isoforms of topo II, we determined that the major phosphoprotein recognized by MPM-2 is the 170-kDa isoform of topo II, topo II alpha. The 180-kDa isoform, topo II beta, present in the isolated chromosomes in much smaller quantities, is also recognized by MPM-2. The mitotic phosphorylation of the topo II proteins may be critical for proper chromosome condensation and segregation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7690961

  16. The N-glycans of yellow jacket venom hyaluronidases and the protein sequence of its major isoform in Vespula vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kolarich, Daniel; Léonard, Renaud; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Altmann, Friedrich

    2005-10-01

    Hyaluronidase (E.C. 3.2.1.35), one of the three major allergens of yellow jacket venom, is a glycoprotein of 45 kDa that is largely responsible for the cross-reactivity of wasp and bee venoms with sera of allergic patients. The asparagine-linked carbohydrate often appears to constitute the common IgE-binding determinant. Using a combination of MALDI MS and HPLC of 2-aminopyridine-labelled glycans, we found core-difucosylated paucimannosidic glycans to be the major species in the 43-45 kDa band of Vespula vulgaris and also in the corresponding bands of venoms from five other wasp species (V. germanica, V. maculifrons, V. pensylvanica, V. flavopilosa and V. squamosa). Concomitant peptide mapping of the V. vulgaris 43 kDa band identified the known hyaluronidase, Ves v 2 (SwissProt P49370), but only as a minor component. De novo sequencing by tandem MS revealed the predominating peptides to resemble a different, yet homologous, sequence. cDNA cloning retrieved a sequence with 58 and 59% homology to the previously known isoform and to the Dolichovespula maculata and Polistes annularis hyaluronidases. Close homologues of this new, putative hyaluronidase b (Ves v 2b) were also the major isoform in the other wasp venoms.

  17. Identification of tropomyosin as major allergen of white squid (Loligo edulis) by two-dimensional immunoblotting and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohamad; Misnan, Rosmilah; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reaction to squid is one of the most frequent molluscan shellfish allergies. Previously, we have detected a 36 kDa protein as the major allergen of Loligo edulis (white squid) by immunoblotting using sera from patients with squid allergy. The aim of this present study was to further identify this major allergen using a proteomics approach. The major allergen was identified by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. The 2-DE gel fractionated the cooked white squid proteins to more than 50 different protein spots between 10 to 38 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 3.0 to 10.0. A highly reactive protein spot of a molecular mass of 36 kDa and pI of 4.55 was observed in all of the patients' serum samples tested. Mass spectrometry analysis led to identification of this allergen as tropomyosin. This finding can contribute to advancement in component-based diagnosis, management of squid allergic patients, to the development of immunotherapy and to the standardization of allergenic test products as tools in molecular allergology.

  18. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  19. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alterations B Appendix B to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. B Appendix B to Part 43—Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations (a) Except as provided in paragraphs...

  20. Student Perceptions of the First Course in Accounting: Majors versus Non-Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickell, Geoffrey; Lim, Tiong Kiong; Balachandran, Balasinghan

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the continuing debate regarding the curriculum for the first undergraduate course in accounting by examining student perceptions from studying such a course. Participants are divided into two cohorts--Accounting & Finance Majors (AFM) and Other Business Majors (OBM). Results reported in this paper indicate that…

  1. Age at Menarche and Choice of College Major: Implications for STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner-Shuman, Anna; Waren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Even though boys and girls in childhood perform similarly in math and spatial thinking, after puberty fewer young women pursue majors that emphasize abilities such as science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in college. If postpubertal feminization contributes to a lower likelihood of choosing STEM majors, then young women who enter…

  2. Variant and Invariant Predictors of Perceived Popularity across Majority-Black and Majority-White Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, E. B.; Blake, J. J.; Lease, A. M.; Palardy, G. J.; Olejnik, S. F.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral descriptors were identified as variant or invariant predictors of perceived popularity in a sample of 516 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children located in 26 majority-Black or majority-White classrooms. Athletic ability, prosocial behavior, being "cool", social withdrawal, and "personal privilege" (i.e., having a lot of expensive…

  3. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  4. Music Piracy--Differences in the Ethical Perceptions of Business Majors and Music Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Susan Lee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the ethical perceptions of business majors and music business majors from a private university and observed whether the taking of a business ethics course affected students' perceptions regarding the ethical aspects of downloading, sharing, copying, and selling copyrighted music from Internet and non-Internet…

  5. Age at Menarche and Choice of College Major: Implications for STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner-Shuman, Anna; Waren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Even though boys and girls in childhood perform similarly in math and spatial thinking, after puberty fewer young women pursue majors that emphasize abilities such as science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in college. If postpubertal feminization contributes to a lower likelihood of choosing STEM majors, then young women who enter…

  6. An Internet-based Expert System for Selecting an Academic Major: www.MyMajors.com.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupe, Fritz H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an Internet-based expert system found at http://www.MyMajors.com which provides advice to high school students or college freshmen who are seeking assistance in selecting a potential major by emulating a professional academic advisor. Highlights include computer-assisted advisement programs; knowledge acquisition; evaluating expert…

  7. Variant and Invariant Predictors of Perceived Popularity across Majority-Black and Majority-White Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, E. B.; Blake, J. J.; Lease, A. M.; Palardy, G. J.; Olejnik, S. F.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral descriptors were identified as variant or invariant predictors of perceived popularity in a sample of 516 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children located in 26 majority-Black or majority-White classrooms. Athletic ability, prosocial behavior, being "cool", social withdrawal, and "personal privilege" (i.e., having a lot of expensive…

  8. Does the Majority Always Know Best? Young Children's Flexible Trust in Majority Opinion

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Copying the majority is generally an adaptive social learning strategy but the majority does not always know best. Previous work has demonstrated young children's selective uptake of information from a consensus over a lone dissenter. The current study examined children's flexibility in following the majority: do they overextend their reliance on this heuristic to situations where the dissenting individual has privileged knowledge and should be trusted instead? Four- to six- year-olds (N = 103) heard conflicting claims about the identity of hidden drawings from a majority and a dissenter in two between-subject conditions: in one, the dissenter had privileged knowledge over the majority (he drew the pictures); in the other he did not (they were drawn by an absent third party). Overall, children were less likely to trust the majority in the Privileged Dissenter condition. Moreover, 5- and 6- year-olds made majority-based inferences when the dissenter had no privileged knowledge but systematically endorsed the dissenter when he drew the pictures. The current findings suggest that by 5 years, children are able to make an epistemic-based judgment to decide whether or not to follow the majority rather than automatically following the most common view. PMID:25116936

  9. A long-term perspective on biomass burning in the Serra da Estrela, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Simon E.; Araújo, João; van der Knaap, Willem O.; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.

    2012-11-01

    Fire is currently perceived as a major threat to ecosystems and biodiversity in the mountains of the Mediterranean region. Portugal's highest mountain range, the Serra da Estrela, is one of the country's most important protected areas and also the most fire-prone. We present a ˜14,000-year fire history based on microscopic charred particles in an infilled glacial lake to better understand the antiquity of biomass burning and its effects on Mediterranean vegetation at the Atlantic margin. Results indicate the continuous occurrence of fire in the Serra da Estrela over the period of the record. Two periods of increased fire activity - around 12,000-11,000 calendar years before the present (cal. a BP) and 3500-2500 cal. a BP - were accompanied by major vegetation changes and followed by long periods of vegetation stabilisation. Cross-correlation analyses reveal that post-fire succession consistently began with herbaceous vegetation, followed by forest and shrubland stages. Past successional trends were often markedly different to those observed at present. Holocene climatic changes, including shifts in the North Atlantic Oscillation, played a pivotal role in the vegetation development and fire history of the Serra da Estrela. In the late Holocene, human use of fire became a major agent of vegetation change, accelerating the Holocene decline of forests.

  10. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile) and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Yadzir, Zailatul Hani; Misnan, Rosmilah; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Abdullah, Noormalin; Murad, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile) and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa). In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin. PMID:26413512

  11. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile) and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Yadzir, Zailatul Hani; Misnan, Rosmilah; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Abdullah, Noormalin; Murad, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile) and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18-150 kDa). In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.

  12. Pregnancy associated glycoprotein-1, -6, -7, and -17 are major products of bovine binucleate trophoblast giant cells at midpregnancy.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Karl; De Sousa, Noelita Melo; Beckers, Jean-François; Leiser, Rudolf; Pich, Andreas

    2005-08-01

    Pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are extensively glycosylated secretory proteins of ruminant trophoblast cells. In cattle placenta several PAG cDNAs are expressed, but the variety of correspondent proteins and their degree of glycosylation are not well characterized. Thus, we purified PAGs by using a protocol which included a lectin (Vicia villosa agglutinin) affinity chromatography. Due to their specific glycosylation pattern, PAGs derived from binucleate trophoblast giant cells were highly enriched by this protocol. PAGs were purified from cotyledons of 2 day 100 placentas and from a single placenta at day 155 and 180. In all samples three major bands (75; 66; 56 kDa) were detected by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. Mass-spectrometric analysis identified the 75 kDa band as a mixture of PAG-7 and PAG-6, the 66 kDa band as PAG-1 and the 56 kDa band as PAG-17. N-terminal sequencing of the day 100 sample confirmed the mass spectrometric identifications. Enzymatic release of N-glycans with peptide-N-glycanase-F from PAGs reduced the molecular weight to approximately 37 kDa which corresponds to the theoretical molecular mass of PAGs. Limited peptide-N-glycanase-F treatment revealed that all four N-glycosylation sites are quantitatively occupied in PAG-1. Compared to PAG-1 the number of potential N-glycosylation sites is lower in PAG-17 (three sites) and higher in PAG-6 and -7 (five and six sites, respectively). This suggests that the number of attached N-glycans is the main determinant of molecular mass of bovine PAGs. The degree of glycosylation may be a major factor regulating the plasma half life of PAGs.

  13. Identification of the major proteins of the virions of bacteriophage ZF40 Pectobacterium carotovorum.

    PubMed

    Korol, N A; Tovkach, F I

    2012-01-01

    The vast variety of bacteriophages and the uniqueness of their individual representatives dictate to perform the detailed study of the actual phage-cell interactions, the virion morphogenesis and morphopoiesis in particular. An analysis of the complete genome sequence of the temperate phage ZF40 Pectobacterium carotovorum has shown that it is a representative of a unique group of phages of the Myoviridae family [Comeau A. M, Tremblay D., Moineau S., Rattei T., Kushkina A. I, Tovkach F I., H.M. Krisch, H.W. Ackermann Phage Morphology Recapitulates Phylogeny: The Comparative Genomics of a New Group of Myoviruses // PLoS ONE.--July 2012. - 7. - N 7. - e40102]. Characteristic features of these viruses are a small length of the tail compared with the diameter of the capsid and a complicated pattern of the tail sheath, leading to its criss-cross striation. In the presented article the major proteins were identified by means of the SDS-PAGE method: the head proteins (mp2: 33.9 kDa), the sheath (mp1: 39.2 kDa) and the tail tube ones (mp3: 19.9 kDa). It was proved that the mp2 molecular weight is the same with the gp46, the putative major capsid protein derived from the results of the genome sequencing. Therefore, it is still not determined whether the gp46 (mp2) of the virulent mutant 421 of the phage ZF40 is exposed to post-translational modification in the course of the phage particle maturation during its development in the cells of the strain M2-4/50RI P. carotovorum. To study the morphogenetic development pathways it was proposed to use the phage variants that form an excess of individual components of the virion: capsids, procapsids and separate tails propagated on different hosts.

  14. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced a total of 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2000 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the first quarter of the first project year (July 1 through September 30, 2002). This work included producing general descriptions of Utah's major petroleum provinces, gathering field data, and analyzing best practices in the Utah Wyoming thrust belt. Major Utah oil reservoirs and/or source rocks are found in Devonian through Permian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary rocks. Stratigraphic traps include carbonate buildups and fluvial-deltaic pinchouts, and structural traps include basement-involved and detached faulted anticlines. Best practices used in Utah's oil fields consist of waterflood, carbon-dioxide flood, gas-injection, and horizontal drilling programs. Nitrogen injection and horizontal drilling

  15. Goldstone Radar Images of Near-Earth Asteroid 2012 DA14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Lance A.; Brozovic, M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Jao, J. S.; Lee, C. G.; Busch, M. W.; Slade, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    2012 DA14 made an extremely close approach within 0.00023 AU (0.09 lunar distances) on February 15, 2013. This was the closest encounter known in advance by a near-Earth asteroid with an absolute magnitude brighter than 25. We took advantage of this opportunity to image 2012 DA14 at Goldstone on February 16, 18, and 19 as the asteroid was receding from Earth. The imaging started at 00:46 UTC, slightly more than five hours after the closest approach, when the asteroid was at a distance of 0.00088 AU (0.34 lunar distances). The echoes were extraordinarily strong and we obtained some of the highest signal-to-noise ratios for any near-Earth asteroid ever observed at Goldstone. The images achieved resolutions as fine as 3.75 m x 0.00625 Hz that spatially resolve 2012 DA14 into a few dozen pixels; however, due to the diminutive dimensions of the asteroid, even this extremely high resolution is insufficient to show detailed surface features. The images indicate that 2012 DA14 is an asymmetric, angular, and elongated object with major axes of roughly 40 x 20 meters. The sequence of images obtained on February 16 spans 7.8 hours, during which the orientation of the asteroid appeared to complete close to one full rotation, suggesting that the rotation period is somewhat longer than ~8 hours. Radar speckle tracking with the Very Large Array and elements of the Very Long Baseline array show that 2012 DA14 has a relatively low obliquity and constrain the amplitude of any non-principal axis wobble after the flyby to be < 30 degrees. 2012 DA14 is among the smallest near-Earth asteroids ever spatially resolved by radar and it highlights the substantial scientific potential of the new chirp imaging system at Goldstone.

  16. Uppermost mantle and crustal structure at Tristan da Cunha derived from ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryberg, T.; Geissler, W. H.; Jokat, W.; Pandey, S.

    2017-08-01

    According to classical plume theory, the Tristan da Cunha hotspot, located ∼400 km east off the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is thought to have played a major role in the rifting while creating an aseismic Walvis Ridge during and after the breakup of the South Atlantic margins. Volcanic activity on the Tristan da Cunha Island shows that the hotspot might still be there influencing the upper mantle and crustal structure. In this study we present ambient noise data from 24 broadband OBS around Tristan da Cunha and a seismic station on Nightingale Island, which provide first constraints on the crustal and uppermost mantle structure around the island. By combining ambient noise techniques, dispersion curve analysis of Rayleigh waves, 2D tomographic inversion of travel times and 3D depth inversion of dispersion data we derived a 3D VS velocity model around the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha. The model shows an isolated, vertically sharp bounded thickened and modified crust beneath the islands surrounded by thin oceanic crust (<5 km). The velocity anomaly shows a typical volcanic structure with a shallow high velocity body and a low velocity root reaching into the upper mantle, which we interpret as shallow solidified magmatic material and volcanic feeding system/magmatic underplating, respectively. The observed simple and localized volcanic structure, embedded in a rather homogeneous crust and upper mantle indicates only minor and very localized magmatic overprinting of the existing lithosphere by the Tristan da Cunha hotspot. The uppermost mantle S wave velocity beneath nearby seamounts and to the SW of the islands is also slow and could indicate a thermal influence from a deeper source, whereas the Tristan da Cunha Fracture Zone shows no signs of modification.

  17. Major marine source rocks and stratigraphic cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.C.

    1995-11-01

    The identification of continental encroachment cycles and subcycles by using sequence stratigraphy can assist explorationists in locating source rocks. The continental encroachment cycles are associated with the breakup of the supercontinents and fit a smooth long-term eustatic curve. They are first order, with a duration greater than 50 m.y., and are composed of transgressive and regressive phases inducing major changes in shoreline. The limit between the transgressive and regressive phases corresponds to a major downlap surface, and major marine source rocks are often found in association with this surface, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Potential {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} source rock intervals can also be sought by sequence stratigraphy because each continental encroachment cycle is composed of several subcycles, and the same configuration of a regressive forestepping phase overlying a transgressive backstepping phase also creates a downlap surface that may correspond with organic-rich intervals. The stratigraphic distribution of source rocks and related reserves fits reasonably well with continental encroachment cycles and subcycles. For instance, source rocks of Silurian, Upper Jurassic, and Middle-Upper Cretaceous are associated with eustatic highs and bear witness to this relationship. The recognition and mapping of such downlap surfaces is therefore a useful step to help map source rocks. The interpretation of sequence stratigraphy from regional seismic lines, properly calibrated with geochernical data whenever possible, can be of considerable help in the process. Several examples from around the world illustrate the power of the method: off-shore of eastern Venezuela, coastal basin of Angola, western Africa, the North Sea, south Algeria, and the North Caucasian trough.

  18. The lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) erythrocyte; morphology, ultrastructure, major plasma membrane proteins and phospholipids, and cytoskeletal organization.

    PubMed

    Hägerstrand, H; Danieluk, M; Bobrowska-Hägerstrand, M; Holmström, T; Kralj-Iglic, V; Lindqvist, C; Nikinmaa, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the erythrocyte of the lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis), a primitive vertebrate. The lamprey erythrocyte predominantly has a non-axisymmetric stomatocytelike shape. It has a nucleus and a haemoglobin-filled cytosol with a few organelles and vesicular structures. Surprisingly, there is no marginal band of microtubules. Sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Coomassie blue staining of isolated plasma membranes revealed a single band at the level of the human spectrin doublet. Major bands also occurred at approximately 175 kDa and comigrating with human erythrocyte actin (approximately 45 kDa). The presence of spectrin, actin and vimentin was shown by immunoblotting. Band 3 protein, the anion exchanger in higher vertebrates, seemed to be highly deficient or lacking, as was also the case with ankyrin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with immunocytochemical methods showed spectrin, actin and vimentin mainly to be localized around the nucleus, from where actin- and vimentin-strands extended out into the cytoplasm. Actin also seemed to be present at the plasma membrane. Phospholipid analyses of plasma membrane preparations showed the presence of the same four major phospholipid groups as in the human erythrocyte, although with higher and lower amounts of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, respectively. The low fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated annexin V binding, as monitored by flow cytometry, indicated that phosphatidylserine is mainly confined to the inner membrane leaflet in the lamprey erythrocyte plasma membrane.

  19. A corm-specific gene encodes tarin, a major globulin of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott).

    PubMed

    Bezerra, I C; Castro, L A; Neshich, G; de Almeida, E R; de Sá, M F; Mello, L V; Monte-Neshich, D C

    1995-04-01

    A gene encoding a globulin from a major taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm protein family, tarin (G1, ca. 28 kDa) was isolated from a lambda Charon 35 library, using a cDNA derived from a highly abundant corm-specific mRNA, as probe. The gene, named tar1, and the corresponding cDNA were characterized and compared. No introns were found. The major transcription start site was determined by primer extension analysis. The gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 765 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated a precursor polypeptide of 255 residues that is post-translationally processed into two subunits of about 12.5 kDa each. The deduced protein is 45% homologous to curculin, a sweet-tasting protein found in the fruit pulp of Curculigo latifolia and 40% homologous to a mannose-binding lectin from Galanthus nivalis. Significant similarity was also found at the nucleic acid sequence level with genes encoding lectins from plant species of the Amaryllidaceae and Lilliaceae families.

  20. Major Peptides from Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) Protein Inhibit HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Mendonça, Simone; de Castro, Luíla Ívini Andrade; Menezes, Amanda Caroline Cardoso Corrêa Carlos; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:25690031

  1. Complex Forms of Soil Organic Phosphorus-A Major Component of Soil Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Timothy I; Smernik, Ronald J; McLaughlin, Mike J; McBeath, Therese M; Kirby, Jason K; Simpson, Richard J; Guppy, Christopher N; Doolette, Ashlea L; Richardson, Alan E

    2015-11-17

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for life, an innate constituent of soil organic matter, and a major anthropogenic input to terrestrial ecosystems. The supply of P to living organisms is strongly dependent on the dynamics of soil organic P. However, fluxes of P through soil organic matter remain unclear because only a minority (typically <30%) of soil organic P has been identified as recognizable biomolecules of low molecular weight (e.g., inositol hexakisphosphates). Here, we use (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the speciation of organic P in soil extracts fractionated into two molecular weight ranges. Speciation of organic P in the high molecular weight fraction (>10 kDa) was markedly different to that of the low molecular weight fraction (<10 kDa). The former was dominated by a broad peak, which is consistent with P bound by phosphomonoester linkages of supra-/macro-molecular structures, whereas the latter contained all of the sharp peaks that were present in unfractionated extracts, along with some broad signal. Overall, phosphomonoesters in supra-/macro-molecular structures were found to account for the majority (61% to 73%) of soil organic P across the five diverse soils. These soil phosphomonoesters will need to be integrated within current models of the inorganic-organic P cycle of soil-plant terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. Peroxidase as the major protein constituent in areca nut and identification of its natural substrates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lee, Miau-Rong; Li, Mi; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chung, Jing-Gung; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Numerous reports illustrate the diverse effects of chewing the areca nut, most of which are harmful and have been shown to be associated with oral cancer. Nearly all of the studies are focused on the extract and/or low molecular weight ingredients in the areca nut. The purpose of this report is to identify the major protein component in the areca nut. After ammonium sulfate fractionation, the concentrated areca nut extract is subjected to DEAE-cellulose chromatography. A colored protein is eluted at low NaCl concentration and the apparently homogeneous eluent represents the major protein component compared to the areca nut extract. The colored protein shares partial sequence identity with the royal palm tree peroxidase and its peroxidase activity is confirmed using an established assay. In the study, the natural substrates of areca nut peroxidase are identified as catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B1. The two former substrates are similarly oxidized to form a 576 Da product with concomitant removal of four hydrogen atoms. Interestingly, oxidation of procyanidin B1 occurs only in the presence of catechin or epicatechin and an additional product with an 864 Da molecular mass. In addition, procyanidin B1 is identified as a peroxidase substrate for the first time.

  3. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Women's decision to major in STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, Stephanie

    This paper explores the lived experiences of high school female students who choose to enter into STEM fields, and describes the influencing factors which steered these women towards majors in computer science, engineering and biology. Utilizing phenomenological methodology, this study seeks to understand the essence of women's decisions to enter into STEM fields and further describe how the decision-making process varies for women in high female enrollment fields, like biology, as compared with low enrollment fields like, computer science and engineering. Using Bloom's 3-Stage Theory, this study analyzes how relationships, experiences and barriers influenced women towards, and possibly away, from STEM fields. An analysis of women's experiences highlight that support of family, sustained experience in a STEM program during high school as well as the presence of an influential teacher were all salient factors in steering women towards STEM fields. Participants explained that influential teacher worked individually with them, modified and extended assignments and also steered participants towards coursework and experiences. This study also identifies factors, like guidance counselors as well as personal challenges, which inhibited participant's path to STEM fields. Further, through analyzing all six participants' experiences, it is clear that a linear model, like Bloom's 3-Stage Model, with limited ability to include potential barriers inhibited the ability to capture the essence of each participant's decision-making process. Therefore, a revised model with no linear progression which allows for emerging factors, like personal challenges, has been proposed; this model focuses on how interest in STEM fields begins to develop and is honed and then mastered. This study also sought to identify key differences in the paths of female students pursuing different majors. The findings of this study suggest that the path to computer science and engineering is limited. Computer

  5. Desvenlafaxine succinate for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sproule, Beth A; Hazra, Monica; Pollock, Bruce G

    2008-07-01

    Desvenlafaxine (O-desmethylvenlafaxine) is the major active metabolite of venlafaxine. Desvenlafaxine succinate is now undergoing active evaluation for its therapeutic efficacy in a variety of disorders, including major depressive disorder, vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, fibromyalgia and diabetic neuropathy. Desvenlafaxine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) with similar activity to its parent compound venlafaxine, and little affinity for other brain targets, including muscarinic, cholinergic, histamine H(1) and alpha-adrenergic receptors. Desvenlafaxine has linear pharmacokinetics, low protein binding, a half-life of approximately 10 hours and is metabolized primarily via glucuronidation, and to a minor extent through CYP3A4. The desvenlafaxine succinate formulation appears to have good oral bioavailability. Clearance rates are reduced in the elderly, those with severe renal dysfunction and those with moderate to severe hepatic dysfunction, which may require dosage adjustments. Three published clinical trials have shown supportive but mixed results for the efficacy of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depressive disorder with daily doses ranging from 100 mg to 400 mg. One published clinical trial has shown mixed results for the efficacy of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause with daily doses ranging from 50 mg to 200 mg. In these four clinical trials, desvenlafaxine was associated with several mild adverse effects, with the most common effect being nausea. Less common, but more serious, adverse effects reported in these trials included hypertension, QTc interval prolongation, exacerbation of ischemic cardiac disease, elevated lipids and elevated liver enzymes. The exact nature of these serious adverse effects, including the prevalence, clinical significance and potential risk factors, still needs to be fully elucidated. Desvenlafaxine has a low propensity for pharmacokinetic

  6. Pectoralis major tendon rupture. Surgical procedures review.

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The rupture of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic ruptures. PMID:23738281

  7. Atlas of major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Baranoski, M.T.; Flaherty, K.; Humphreys, M.; Smosna, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    This regional study of gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin has four main objectives: to organize all of the -as reservoirs in the Appalachian basin into unique plays based on common age, lithology, trap type and other geologic similarities; to write, illustrate and publish an atlas of major gas plays; to prepare and submit a digital data base of geologic, engineering and reservoir parameters for each gas field; and technology transfer to the oil and gas industry during the preparation of the atlas and data base.

  8. Introducing Stereochemistry to Non-science Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luján-Upton, Hannia

    2001-04-01

    Stereochemistry is often a difficult topic for both science and non-science majors to learn. The topics covered in most undergraduate textbooks, although fundamental, seem very abstract to most students. This manuscript describes two simple exercises that can be used to introduce concepts associated with stereochemistry such as "sameness", superimposability, chirality, enantiomers, optical activity, polarimetry, and racemic mixtures. One exercise compares chirality in hands with the achiral nature of two textbooks. The other exercise involves a murder mystery, the solution of which hinges upon understanding the concept of optical activity, specifically in natural products such as toxins from poisonous mushrooms.

  9. The Mistreatment of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of classification on treatment in major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: This is a narrative review. Results: MDD is a highly heterogeneous category, leading to problems in classification and in specificity of treatment. Current models classify all depressions within a single category. However, the construct of MDD obscures important differences between severe disorders that require pharmacotherapy, and mild-to-moderate disorders that can respond to psychotherapy or remit spontaneously. Patients with mild-to-moderate MDD are being treated with routine or overly aggressive pharmacotherapy. Conclusions: The current classification fails to address the heterogeneity of depression, leading to mistreatment. PMID:24881163

  10. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video

    PubMed Central

    Valencia Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    Pectoralis major (PM) ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture. PMID:27595030

  11. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Vikram; Srivastava, Alok; Chandy, Mammen

    2014-12-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplant remains the only curative option for β-thalassemia major. In patients with good risk features it is reasonable to anticipate a greater than 90% chance of a successful transplant outcome. The conventional risk stratification system has limitations and alternative systems are being explored to better identify subsets that require innovative approaches. Several novel regimens have been evaluated to reduce treatment-related morbidity and mortality. There remain challenges in improving the clinical outcome of high-risk patients. There are limited data on the role of splenectomy before transplantation or optimal posttransplant chelation and care of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Half Lives for ``Irradiated'' Nonscience Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geise, Kathleen; Hallam, Peter; Rattray, Rebecca; Stencel, Robert; Wolfe, Tristan

    2014-03-01

    We launched new hands-on radiation labs to supplement lecture material for undergraduate, non-science majors at the University of Denver to reinforce learning objectives during winter quarter 2014 and in order to help educate the public about nuclear energy decisions. Our learning objectives included: 1. differentiate between particle radiation and electro-magnetic radiation, 2. understand that particle radiation comes in alpha, beta and gamma types, 3. atomic and nuclear structure, 4. decay and half-life, 5. understand safe vs. unsafe doses and issues surrounding nuclear waste disposal. We used prelab surveys, prelab assessments, laboratory write-ups and quizzes to measure success with the learning objectives.

  13. Major Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The studies listed below represent the first major clinical trials to evaluate risk reduction for people at high risk of breast, prostate, lung, colorectal, ovarian, cervical, and lung cancer. Analysis of the data gathered from these large trials continues to contribute valuable understanding about related issues, including screening, patient-reported symptoms, quality of life, nutrient impact, population/ethnicity differences, study design and implementation, and many others.  | Information on landmark clinical trials that evaluated cancer prevention interventions and cancer screening tests.

  14. Emerging antidepressants to treat major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Block, Samantha G; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2014-12-01

    Depression is a common disorder with an annual risk of a depressive episode in the United States of 6.6%. Only 30-40% of patients remit with antidepressant monotherapy, leaving 60-70% of patients who do not optimally respond to therapy. Unremitted depressive patients are at increased risk for suicide. Considering the prevalence of treatment resistant depression and its consequences, treatment optimization is imperative. This review summarizes the latest treatment modalities for major depressive disorder including pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and psychotherapy. Through advancements in research to better understand the pathophysiology of depression, advances in treatment will be realized.

  15. Mitogenic properties of major extracellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, J P; Hatzfeld, A; Hatzfeld, J

    1991-08-01

    The major plasma and extracellular matrix proteins are multifunctional molecules. Some, such as fibrinogen or C3, have one domain that binds adhesion receptors and another that specifically binds and activates a separate, mitogenic receptor. In this review, Jean-Pierre Lévesque, Antoinette Hatzfeld and Jacques Hatzfeld describe adhesion and mitogenic receptors that bind to distinct domains of the same extracellular matrix protein and discuss the possibility of common ancestral genes for cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, integrins, immunoglobulins, growth factors and their receptors.

  16. Informed decision making before prostate-specific antigen screening: Initial results using the American Cancer Society (ACS) Decision Aid (DA) among medically underserved men.

    PubMed

    Gökce, Mehmet I; Wang, Xuemei; Frost, Jacqueline; Roberson, Pamela; Volk, Robert J; Brooks, Durado; Canfield, Steven E; Pettaway, Curtis A

    2017-02-15

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends men have the opportunity to make an informed decision about screening for prostate cancer (PCa). The ACS developed a unique decision aid (ACS-DA) for this purpose. However, to date, studies evaluating the efficacy of the ACS-DA are lacking. The authors evaluated the ACS-DA among a cohort of medically underserved men (MUM). A multiethnic cohort of MUM (n = 285) was prospectively included between June 2010 and December 2014. The ACS-DA was presented in a group format. Levels of knowledge on PCa were evaluated before and after the presentation. Participants' decisional conflict and thoughts about the presentation also were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with having an adequate level of knowledge. Before receiving the ACS-DA, 33.1% of participants had adequate knowledge on PCa, and this increased to 77% after the DA (P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, higher education level (odds ratio, 11.19; P = .001) and history of another cancer (odds ratio, 7.45; P = .03) were associated with having adequate knowledge after receiving the DA. Levels of decisional conflict were low and were correlated with levels of knowledge after receiving the DA. The majority of men also rated the presentation as favorable and would recommend the ACS-DA to others. Use of the ACS-DA was feasible among MUM and led to increased PCa knowledge. This also correlated with low levels of decisional conflict. The ACS-DA presented to groups of men may serve as a feasible tool for informed decision making in a MUM population. Cancer 2017;123:583-591. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Low molecular mass phosphoproteins from the frog rod outer segments form a complex with 48 kDa protein.

    PubMed

    Krapivinsky, G B; Malenyov, A L; Zaikina, I V; Fesenko, E E

    1992-09-01

    Upon separation of cAMP-dependent low molecular mass phosphoproteins [Components I and II; Polans et al. (1979) J. gen. Physiol. 74, 595-613] from the frog rod outer segments by gel-chromatography, isoelectric focusing, non-denaturating electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography, they behave like subunits of the oligomeric complex. Apparent molecular mass of the complex determined by gel-chromatography is 52-57 kDa and by non-denaturating gradient electrophoresis is 62-66 kDa. The isoelectric point of the complex is 5.5. The elution profile of Components I and II upon gel-chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography coincides with that of major rod outer segment 48 kDa protein. The isoelectric point for them also coincides with the isoelectric point of 48 kDa protein. The amount of low molecular mass phosphoproteins is sealed rods is equal to one molecule per 60 rhodopsin molecules and coincides with that of a 48 kDa protein. It is suggested that in solution Components I and II form an oligomeric complex with 48 kDa protein.

  18. [Clinical curative efficacy of inducing remission for the newly diagnosed aged AML patients by chemotherapy with IA and DA regimens].

    PubMed

    Tian, Dong-Hua; Gan, Si-Lin; Xing, Hai-Zhou; Liu, Yan-Fang; Xie, Xin-Sheng; Sun, Hui

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the clinical efficacy and toxicity of idarubicin (IA regimen) and daunoru-bicin combined with cytarabine (DA regimen) for treating aged patients with AML as induction chemotherapy. The clinical data of 60 newly diagnosed AML aged patients treated with IA or DA regimen were analyzed retrospectively. IA regimen group included 22 patients (8 male and 14 females with median age of 66 yrs), while the DA regimen group included 38 patients (20 males and 18 females with median age of 64 yrs). The complete remission rate, total effective rate and adverse effects after one chemotherapy course were compared. The results showed that the CR rate in IA regimen group was 63.63%, which was significantly higer than that in DA regimen group (31.58%) (P < 0.05). The total effective rate was 63.63% and 36.84% respectively in IA and DA regimen groups, there was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). Both the hematological and non-hematological adverse effects were observed and no difference was found in the two regimen groups, neither in myelosupression (P > 0.05), the major hematological adverse effects, nor in non-hematological adverse effects (P > 0.05). It is concluded that for aged AML patients, IA regimen can achieve a higher CR rate and higher total effective rate than that in DA regimen without increase of adverse effects after one induction chemotherapy course.

  19. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Garlic is used all over the world for treatment of different diseases. A wide range of biological activities of garlic has been verified in vitro and in vivo. One of major proteins of garlic which has been isolated and purified is the 14 kDa protein. This protein has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated on maturation and immunomodulatory activity of dendritic cells (DC). Proteins were purified from AGE by biochemical method; the semi-purified 14 kDa protein was run on gel filtration Sephadex G50 and its purity was checked by SDS-PAGE. DC were isolated from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to plastic dish. 14 kDa protein from AGE was added to overnight culture of DC medium and the expression percentage of CD40, CD86, and MHC-II was evaluated by flowcytometric analysis. Also, proliferation of T-cells was measured by allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. The purified 14 kDa protein isolated from AGE increased the expression of CD40 molecule on DC, but it did not influence CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed in the pulsed-DC with 14 kDa protein and non-pulsed DC on the MLR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Major Complications of Small Bowel Diverticula

    PubMed Central

    Donald, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Complications of diverticula of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, exclusive of Meckel's diverticula are extremely rare but can produce major diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Major reported complications include hemorrhage, perforation, biliary and pancreatic obstruction, and inflammation with intestinal obstruction. The mortality of complicated duodenal diverticula is reported from 33 to 48%. Our experience with some of these complications is reported. This experience and a review of other reported cases have led to the following recommendations for surgical treatment. 1) Massively bleeding duodenal diverticulum. Precise localization of the bleeding point by endoscopy and/or arteriography is highly desirable. Excision or partial excision of the diverticulum with suture ligation of the bleeding point is necessary. 2) Perforated duodenal diverticulum. Excision or partial excision, secure closure and drainage are necessary. If peri-Vaterian, a probe should be passed through the ampulla of Vater via the common duct. Unless an entirely satisfactory closure is achieved, complete diversion of the enteric stream from the duodenum by vagotomy, antrectomy with closure of duodenal stump, and Billroth II anastomosis is recommended. 3) Choledochal obstruction due to duodenal diverticulum. Choledocho-duodenostomy. 4) Perforation, bleeding, or obstruction due to jejunal or ileal diverticulum. In rare cases, local excision of the diverticulum is feasible. Usually, resection of the involved segment with primary anastomosis is indicated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:111637

  1. Biomarkers for Major Depressive Disorder: Economic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Lakic, Dragana

    2016-11-01

    Preclinical Research Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major psychiatric illness and it is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 with a lifetime prevalence of about 13%. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly used therapeutic class for MDD. However, response to SSRI treatment varies considerably between patients. Biomarkers of treatment response may enable clinicians to target the appropriate drug for each patient. Biomarkers need to have accuracy in real life, sensitivity, specificity, and relevance to depression. Introduction of MDD biomarkers into the health care system can increase the overall cost of clinical diagnosis of patients. Because of that, decisions to allocate health research funding must be based on drug effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The assessment of MDD biomarkers should include reliable evidence of associated drug effectiveness, adverse events and consequences (reduced productivity and quality of life, disability) and effectiveness of alternative approaches, other drug classes or behavioral or alternative therapies. In addition, all the variables included in an economic model (probabilities, outcomes, and costs) should be based on reliable evidence gained from the literature-ideally meta-analyses-and the evidence should also be determined by informed and specific expert opinion. Early assessment can guide decisions about whether or not to continue test development, and ideally to optimize the process. Drug Dev Res 77 : 374-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Metric dental variation of major human populations.

    PubMed

    Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Ishida, Hajime

    2005-10-01

    Mesiodistal and buccolingual crown diameters of all teeth recorded in 72 major human population groups and seven geographic groups were analyzed. The results obtained are fivefold. First, the largest teeth are found among Australians, followed by Melanesians, Micronesians, sub-Saharan Africans, and Native Americans. Philippine Negritos, Jomon/Ainu, and Western Eurasians have small teeth, while East/Southeast Asians and Polynesians are intermediate in overall tooth size. Second, in terms of odontometric shape factors, world extremes are Europeans, aboriginal New World populations, and to a lesser extent, Australians. Third, East/Southeast Asians share similar dental features with sub-Saharan Africans, and fall in the center of the phenetic space occupied by a wide array of samples. Fourth, the patterning of dental variation among major geographic populations is more or less consistent with those obtained from genetic and craniometric data. Fifth, once differences in population size between sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, South/West Asia, Australia, and Far East, and genetic drift are taken into consideration, the pattern of sub-Saharan African distinctiveness becomes more or less comparable to that based on genetic and craniometric data. As such, worldwide patterning of odontometric variation provides an additional avenue in the ongoing investigation of the origin(s) of anatomically modern humans.

  3. Major Oncologic Surgery at a Community Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Hollyann; Benyamini, Pouya

    2017-01-01

    There is a national trend to refer patients requiring complex oncologic surgery to tertiary high-volume cancer centers. However, this presents major access challenges to Hawai‘i patients seeking care. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that complex oncologic surgery can be safely performed at community hospitals like those in Hawai‘i. From July 2007 to December 2014, 136 patients underwent complex oncologic procedures at a community hospital in Hawai'i by a single general surgeon. Cases included esophagogastric, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, rectal, and retroperitoneal resections. A database of patients was created from information extracted from the EPIC database. Complications were evaluated using the Clavien-Dindo grading system. There was 0.7% mortality rate (grade V complication). The major morbidity rate was 12.5%, including 10.3% grade III complications and 2.2% grade IV complications. The median length of stay for all operations was 8 days. The mean estimated blood loss for all operations was 708 cc. There was a 2.9% hospital readmission rate within 30 days of initial discharge, and a 5.1% reoperation rate. Complex oncologic procedures can be safely performed at a low-volume community hospital, with outcomes similar to those from high-volume cancer centers. PMID:28210527

  4. Chronic thrombosis of major pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Presti, B; Berthrong, M; Sherwin, R M

    1990-06-01

    Chronic massive thrombosis of major pulmonary arteries, usually described in 0.1% of autopsies, was found in 68 of 7,753 autopsies (0.9%) in our hospital. For comparison, 201 of the 7,753 autopsies (2.6%) revealed acute-massive pulmonary emboli. The 68 cases of chronic thromboses by definition had the right, left, or main pulmonary artery occluded or severely stenosed by organized thrombi. The average age was 67; males predominated 3 to 2. Dyspnea and right heart failure were the most common clinical features, though a correct antemortem diagnosis was rare. Severe lung disease was present in 34 cases (50%); one patient (1%) had mitral stenosis. In the remaining patients, clinical thrombophlebitis had been present in 20 cases (29%), and 13 cases (19%) had no recognized related disease. When the lung disease had prominent laterality, thrombi were invariably located on the side of the most serious disease, implying propagation of smaller thrombi in diseased lung retrograde to major arteries. In bilateral lung disease or in patients without lung disease, thromboses were randomly distributed between right or left sides, suggesting an embolic origin. Assessment of the severity of pulmonary arteriosclerosis and distal arterial patency indicated that most patients could have potentially benefited from surgical thromboendarterectomy. The reason for the high incidence of chronic pulmonary artery thrombosis in our autopsy service has not been elucidated. The effects of high altitude may be important in the pathogenesis, although polycythemia was not excessive in our cases.

  5. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  6. Clinical efficacy of reboxetine in major depression.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, A F

    2000-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed the advent of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as first-line treatments for major depression. Still, there is considerable debate as to whether these agents are as effective or as potent as the first-generation tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) or the mixed reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, all of which exert considerable effect on norepinephrine (NE) reuptake. Recently, reboxetine, a selective NE reuptake inhibitor (selective NRI), has been introduced in Europe. This drug has only a minimal affinity for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and therefore causes less dry mouth, constipation, or other such effects than do the TCAs. Reboxetine does not block serotonin reuptake or alpha1 receptors and, thus, does not appear to produce significant nausea, diarrhea, or hypotension. Unlike other antidepressants, reboxetine appears to be nonsedating. Data on acute and long-term clinical efficacy and safety from double-blind, placebo-controlled, and active comparator studies with reboxetine are reviewed. These studies indicate that reboxetine is significantly more effective than placebo and as effective as fluoxetine in reducing depressive symptoms. Improvements in social adjustments were reported to be more favorable with reboxetine than with fluoxetine. Further, data from controlled clinical trials have shown that the side effect profile for reboxetine is relatively benign. The clinical implications of studies on reboxetine are discussed with an eye toward understanding the potential role NE reuptake blockers may play in the treatment of patients with major depression.

  7. Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep.

    PubMed

    Davis, George Henry

    2005-01-01

    Research conducted since 1980 in relation to inheritance patterns and DNA testing of major genes for prolificacy has shown that major genes have the potential to significantly increase the reproductive performance of sheep flocks throughout the world. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. A commercial DNA testing service enables some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection.

  8. Thalassemia major 1995: older patients, new therapies.

    PubMed

    Rund, D; Rachmilewitz, E

    1995-03-01

    There have been many advances in supportive treatment used for beta-thalassemia major. Survival has increased substantially, and an increasing number of patients reach adolescence and adulthood. These older patients present new clinical challenges. Complications of transfusion, most commonly hepatitis C, are still a cause of mortality and morbidity. The achievement of optimal growth and development, including fertility, is an important goal of conservative management. Long-term survival has also been achieved with bone marrow transplantation. Assessment of growth, development and iron balance in the years after transplantation reveals residual problems requiring treatment despite cure of thalassemia. New therapies of beta-thalassemia are still being developed, both supportive and curative in nature. Supportive care improvements include oral chelation and methods to increase HbF production. Advances in curative modalities include use of new sources of stem cells, such as cord blood and fetal liver. In the future, gene therapy may allow for cure of the older patient without the mortality and morbidity of allogenic transplantation. Treatment of thalassemia major requires consideration of the available therapeutic options for each patient, and the risk/benefit ratio of a supportive versus curative approach.

  9. Major Depression as a Complex Dynamic System

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Angélique O. J.; van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Giltay, Erik J.; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Scheffer, Marten; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize major depression (MD) as a complex dynamic system in which symptoms (e.g., insomnia and fatigue) are directly connected to one another in a network structure. We hypothesize that individuals can be characterized by their own network with unique architecture and resulting dynamics. With respect to architecture, we show that individuals vulnerable to developing MD are those with strong connections between symptoms: e.g., only one night of poor sleep suffices to make a particular person feel tired. Such vulnerable networks, when pushed by forces external to the system such as stress, are more likely to end up in a depressed state; whereas networks with weaker connections tend to remain in or return to a non-depressed state. We show this with a simulation in which we model the probability of a symptom becoming ‘active’ as a logistic function of the activity of its neighboring symptoms. Additionally, we show that this model potentially explains some well-known empirical phenomena such as spontaneous recovery as well as accommodates existing theories about the various subtypes of MD. To our knowledge, we offer the first intra-individual, symptom-based, process model with the potential to explain the pathogenesis and maintenance of major depression. PMID:27930698

  10. Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Research conducted since 1980 in relation to inheritance patterns and DNA testing of major genes for prolificacy has shown that major genes have the potential to significantly increase the reproductive performance of sheep flocks throughout the world. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. A commercial DNA testing service enables some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection. PMID:15601592

  11. [Vortioxetine in the treatment of major depression].

    PubMed

    de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Fagiolini, Andrea; Maina, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding the high prevalence, functional burden, negative consequences and risk of chronicity of major depressive disorder, few innovative medications have been developed in recent years for the treatment of this heterogeneous disease. Vortioxetine is a multi-modal antidepressant that functions both as serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitor and as 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptors antagonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist. A recent meta-analysis of 11 randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, acute (6-8 weeks) treatment studies has demonstrated the efficacy of vortioxetine 5-20 mg/day in the treatment of depression, with an increasing effect associated with increasing dose. Additionally, vortioxetine 5-20 mg/day has shown efficacy on the whole range of depression symptoms (as demonstrated by the improvement of all single-item MADRS scores). Vortioxetine has also been shown effective in the treatment of severe depression and depression with inadequate response to a previous SSRI or SNRI treatment, as well as in the prevention of relapse. In studies designed to assess cognition in depression, vortioxetine showed evidence of improving cognitive performance in patients with acute major depressive disorder. Vortioxetine appears well-tolerated, with very limited effects on weight gain and sexual functioning. The most commonly occurring adverse event (nausea) was generally transitory.

  12. Vortioxetine for the treatment of major depression.

    PubMed

    Dhir, A

    2013-12-01

    Vortioxetine (Lu-AA-21004; 1-[2-(2,4-dimethylphenylsulfanyl)phenyl]piperazine hydrobromide) is a novel orally active molecule that is being investigated by Lundbeck and Takeda for the treatment of major depression and generalized anxiety disorders. Vortioxetine has a unique "multi-modal" mechanism of action. It inhibits the activity of serotonin transporters and is an agonist of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, partial agonist of 5-HT1B and antagonist of 5-HT3A, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptors. Vortioxetine has been effective in various animal models of depression and anxiety and clinical studies have shown the antidepressant and antianxiety properties of vortioxetine in a dose range of 5-20 mg/day. Vortioxetine reverses cognitive decline in patients with depression making it a unique molecule. The molecule lacks any serious side effects and drug-drug interactions. However, dose adjustments are required if vortioxetine is co-administered with rifampicin or bupropion. The molecule is under review by various regulatory agencies around the world for the treatment of major depression. Copyright 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional analysis of Leishmania major cyclophilin

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Xue, Zhu; Sherry, Barbara; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A potent immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA) is known to inhibit human cell infection by the pathogenic protozoan parasite Leishmania major both in vitro and in vivo. The proposed mechanism of action involves CsA binding to Leishmania major-expressed cyclophilin and subsequent down-regulation of signaling events necessary for establishing productive infection. Recently, we identified a ubiquitously expressed membrane protein, CD147, as a signaling receptor for extracellular cyclophilins in mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate that, while being enzymatically active, the Leishmania cyclophilin, unlike its human homologue, does not interact with CD147 on the cell surface of target cells. CD147 facilitates neither Leishmania binding nor infection. Primary structure and biochemical analyses revealed that the parasite’s cyclophilin is defective in heparan binding, an event required for signaling interaction between CD147 and human cyclophilin. When the heparan-binding motif was reconstituted in Leishmania cyclophilin, it regained the CD147-dependent signaling activity. These results underscore a critical role of cyclophilin-heparan interactions in CD147-mediated signaling events and argue against the role of Leishmania cyclophilin in parasite binding to target cells. PMID:17991468

  14. Restless legs syndrome associated with major diseases

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Richard; Högl, Birgit; Paulus, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Recent publications on both the genetics and environmental factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) defined as a clinical disorder suggest that overlapping genetic risk factors may play a role in primary (idiopathic) and secondary (symptomatic) RLS. Following a systematic literature search of RLS associated with comorbidities, we identified an increased prevalence of RLS only in iron deficiency and kidney disease. In cardiovascular disease, arterial hypertension, diabetes, migraine, and Parkinson disease, the methodology of studies was poor, but an association might be possible. There is insufficient evidence for conditions such as anemia (without iron deficiency), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, headache, stroke, narcolepsy, and ataxias. Based on possible gene–microenvironmental interaction, the classifications primary and secondary RLS may suggest an inappropriate causal relation. We recognize that in some conditions, treatment of the underlying disease should be achieved as far as possible to reduce or eliminate RLS symptoms. RLS might be seen as a continuous spectrum with a major genetic contribution at one end and a major environmental or comorbid disease contribution at the other. PMID:26944272

  15. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  16. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  17. [Cognition - the core of major depressive disorder].

    PubMed

    Polosan, M; Lemogne, C; Jardri, R; Fossati, P

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive deficits have been only recently recognized as a major phenotype determinant of major depressive disorder, although they are an integral part of the definition of the depressive state. Congruent evidence suggest that these cognitive deficits persist beyond the acute phase and may be identified at all ages. The aim of the current study was to review the main meta-analyses on cognition and depression, which encompasses a large range of cognitive domains. Therefore, we discuss the "cold" (attention, memory, executive functions) and "hot" (emotional bias) cognitive impairments in MDD, as well as those of social cognition domains (empathy, theory of mind). Several factors interfere with cognition in MDD such as clinical (melancholic, psychotic...) features, age, age of onset, illness severity, medication and comorbid condition. As still debated in the literature, the type of relationship between the severity of cognitive symptoms and functioning in depression is detailed, thus highlighting their predictive value of functional outcome, independently of the affective symptoms. A better identification of the cognitive deficits in MDD and a monitoring of the effects of different treatments require appropriate instruments, which may be developed by taking advantage of the increasing success of computing tools. Overall, current data suggest a core role for different cognitive deficits in MDD, therefore opening new perspectives for optimizing the treatment of depression.

  18. Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Ted R; Brady, Seán G

    2008-04-08

    Agriculture is a specialized form of symbiosis that is known to have evolved in only four animal groups: humans, bark beetles, termites, and ants. Here, we reconstruct the major evolutionary transitions that produced the five distinct agricultural systems of the fungus-growing ants, the most well studied of the nonhuman agriculturalists. We do so with reference to the first fossil-calibrated, multiple-gene, molecular phylogeny that incorporates the full range of taxonomic diversity within the fungus-growing ant tribe Attini. Our analyses indicate that the original form of ant agriculture, the cultivation of a diverse subset of fungal species in the tribe Leucocoprineae, evolved approximately 50 million years ago in the Neotropics, coincident with the early Eocene climatic optimum. During the past 30 million years, three known ant agricultural systems, each involving a phylogenetically distinct set of derived fungal cultivars, have separately arisen from the original agricultural system. One of these derived systems subsequently gave rise to the fifth known system of agriculture, in which a single fungal species is cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Leaf-cutter ants evolved remarkably recently ( approximately 8-12 million years ago) to become the dominant herbivores of the New World tropics. Our analyses identify relict, extant attine ant species that occupy phylogenetic positions that are transitional between the agricultural systems. Intensive study of those species holds particular promise for clarifying the sequential accretion of ecological and behavioral characters that produced each of the major ant agricultural systems.

  19. Global Occurrence of Major Elements in Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meybeck, M.

    2003-12-01

    Major dissolved ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, and CO32-) and dissolved silica (SiO2) in rivers have been studied for more than a hundred years for multiple reasons: (i) geochemists focus on the origins of elements and control processes, and on the partitioning between dissolved and particulate forms; (ii) physical geographers use river chemistry to determine chemical denudation rates and their spatial distribution; (iii) biogeochemists are concerned with the use of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silica species, and other nutrients by terrestrial and aquatic biota; (iv) oceanographers need to know the dissolved inputs to the coastal zones, for which rivers play the dominant role; (v) hydrobiologists and ecologists are interested in the temporal and spatial distribution of ions, nutrients, organic carbon, and pH in various water bodies; (vi) water users need to know if waters comply with their standards for potable water, irrigation, and industrial uses.The concentrations of the major ions are commonly expressed in mg L-1; they are also reported in meq L-1 or μeq L-1, which permits a check of the ionic balance of an analysis: the sum of cations (Σ+ in eq L-1) should equal the sum of anions (Σ- in eq L-1). Dissolved silica is generally not ionized at pH values commonly found in rivers; its concentration is usually expressed in mg L-1 or in μmol L-1. Ionic contents can also be expressed as percent of Σ+ or Σ- (%Ci), which simplifies the determination of ionic types. Ionic ratios (Ci/Cj) in eq eq-1 are also often tabulated (Na+/Cl-, Ca2+/Mg2+, Cl-/SO42-, etc.). As a significant fraction of sodium can be derived from atmospheric sea salt and from sedimentary halite, a chloride-corrected sodium concentration is commonly reported (Na#=Na+-Cl- (in meq L-1)). The export rate of ions and silica, or the yield (YCa2+, YSiO2) at a given station is the average mass transported per year divided by the drainage area: it is expressed in units of t km-2 yr-1

  20. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and a major source of heroin. The United States Government recognized the Government of Afghanistan's... chemicals illegally smuggled to Afghanistan where they are used to process heroin. Pakistan is...

  1. 76 FR 59495 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... producer of opium poppy and a major source of heroin. Primary trafficking routes from Afghanistan, where... precursor chemicals illegally smuggled to Afghanistan, where they are used to process heroin....

  2. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... producer of opium poppy and a major source of heroin. Primary trafficking routes from Afghanistan, where... precursor chemicals illegally smuggled to Afghanistan, where they are used to process heroin....

  3. 75 FR 67019 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... and a major source of heroin. The United States Government recognized the Government of Afghanistan's... chemicals illegally smuggled to Afghanistan where they are used to process heroin. ] Pakistan is...

  4. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica... estimated to pass through the majors list countries of The Bahamas, Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica...

  5. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2003-04-01

    Utah oil fields have produced a total of 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2000 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the second quarter of the first project year (October 1 through December 31, 2002). This work included (1) gathering field and pipeline data to produce a digital oil and gas field and pipeline map, and (2) Uinta Basin well database compilation. The oil and gas field map will help to delineate the various oil plays to be described later in the project. The map will also identify CO{sub 2} resources, and will be useful in the planning and economic evaluation of best practices using CO{sub 2} to flood mature oil reservoirs. The play descriptions will be enhanced with the updated oil and gas pipeline map. It can be used to plan economic evaluation of exploration activities and field development, particularly if H

  6. Implementing Major Trauma Audit in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Deasy, Conor; Cronin, Marina; Cahill, Fiona; Geary, Una; Houlihan, Patricia; Woodford, Maralyn; Lecky, Fiona; Mealy, Ken; Crowley, Philip

    2016-01-01

    There are 27 receiving trauma hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. There has not been an audit system in place to monitor and measure processes and outcomes of care. The National Office of Clinical Audit (NOCA) is now working to implement Major Trauma Audit (MTA) in Ireland using the well-established National Health Service (NHS) UK Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN). The aim of this report is to highlight the implementation process of MTA in Ireland to raise awareness of MTA nationally and share lessons that may be of value to other health systems undertaking the development of MTA. The National Trauma Audit Committee of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, consisting of champions and stakeholders in trauma care, in 2010 advised on the adaptation of TARN for Ireland. In 2012, the Emergency Medicine Program endorsed TARN and in setting up the National Emergency Medicine Audit chose MTA as the first audit project. A major trauma governance group was established representing stakeholders in trauma care, a national project co-ordinator was recruited and a clinical lead nominated. Using Survey Monkey, the chief executives of all trauma receiving hospitals were asked to identify their hospital's trauma governance committee, trauma clinical lead and their local trauma data co-ordinator. Hospital Inpatient Enquiry systems were used to identify to hospitals an estimate of their anticipated trauma audit workload. There are 25 of 27 hospitals now collecting data using the TARN trauma audit platform. These hospitals have provided MTA Clinical Leads, allocated data co-ordinators and incorporated MTA reports formally into their clinical governance, quality and safety committee meetings. There has been broad acceptance of the NOCA escalation policy by hospitals in appreciation of the necessity for unexpected audit findings to stimulate action. Major trauma audit measures trauma patient care processes and outcomes of care to drive quality improvement at hospital and

  7. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; Craig D. Morgan; Roger L. Bon

    2003-07-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall

  8. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  9. DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, T. F.; Howell, S. B.; Petit, V.; Lépine, S.

    2017-01-01

    We present 16 new, and confirm 7 previously identified, DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field through ground-based spectroscopy with the Hale 200″, Kitt Peak 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. Using atmospheric models, we determine their effective temperatures and surface gravities to constrain their position with respect to the ZZ Ceti (DA pulsator) instability strip, and look for the presence or absence of pulsation with Kepler's unprecedented photometry. Our results are as follows. (i) From our measurements of temperature and surface gravity, 12 of the 23 DA white dwarfs from this work fall well outside of the instability strip. The Kepler photometry available for 11 of these WDs allows us to confirm that none are pulsating. One of these 11 happens to be a presumed binary, KIC 11604781, with a period of ˜5 d. (ii) The remaining 11 DA white dwarfs are instability strip candidates, potentially falling within the current, empirical instability strip, after accounting for uncertainties. These WDs will help constrain the strip's location further, as eight are near the blue edge and three are near the red edge of the instability strip. Four of these WDs do not have Kepler photometry, so ground-based photometry is needed to determine the pulsation nature of these white dwarfs. The remaining seven have Kepler photometry available, but do not show any periodicity on typical WD pulsation time-scales.

  10. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  11. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  12. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database

    PubMed Central

    Cortazar, Ana R.; Oguiza, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. Database URL: VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php PMID:28365718

  13. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database.

    PubMed

    Cortazar, Ana R; Oguiza, José A; Aransay, Ana M; Lavín, José L

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php.

  14. The "Majority Illusion" in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Kristina; Yan, Xiaoran; Wu, Xin-Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Individual’s decisions, from what product to buy to whether to engage in risky behavior, often depend on the choices, behaviors, or states of other people. People, however, rarely have global knowledge of the states of others, but must estimate them from the local observations of their social contacts. Network structure can significantly distort individual’s local observations. Under some conditions, a state that is globally rare in a network may be dramatically over-represented in the local neighborhoods of many individuals. This effect, which we call the “majority illusion,” leads individuals to systematically overestimate the prevalence of that state, which may accelerate the spread of social contagions. We develop a statistical model that quantifies this effect and validate it with measurements in synthetic and real-world networks. We show that the illusion is exacerbated in networks with a heterogeneous degree distribution and disassortative structure. PMID:26886112

  15. Major element composition of stratospheric micrometeorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, L. S.; Brownlee, D. E.; Wheelock, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on an element-composition study conducted on 200 interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected with NASA's U2 and RB 47 aircraft at altitudes near 20 km. These IDPs could be classified into two major morphological types, i.e., the 'porous' and the 'smooth' particle types, which showed significant compositional differences. Namely, elemental abundances found in porous particles are closely matching those of the CI chondrites, while the smooth particle group displayed systematic Ca and Mg depletions and contained stoichiometric 'excess' oxygen, consistent with the presence of hydrous phases. This fact, together with the occurrence of carbonates, magnetite framboids, and layer silicates, provides evidence that at least a significant number of the smooth-type IDPs were processed by aqueous activity. It is hypothesized that extensive aqueous activity only occurs in asteroids (as opposed to comets) and that the smooth class of IDPs is of an asteroidal origin.

  16. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered.

  17. Advances in biomarkers of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tiao-Lai; Lin, Chin-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by mood, vegetative, cognitive, and even psychotic symptoms and signs that can cause substantial impairments in quality of life and functioning. Biomarkers are measurable indicators that could help diagnosing MDD or predicting treatment response. In this chapter, lipid profiles, immune/inflammation, and neurotrophic factor pathways that have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD are discussed. Then, pharmacogenetics and epigenetics of serotonin transport and its metabolism pathway, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and abnormality of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis also revealed new biomarkers. Lastly, new techniques, such as proteomics and metabolomics, which allow researchers to approach the studying of MDD with new directions and make new discoveries are addressed. In the future, more data are needed regarding pathophysiology of MDD, including protein levels, single nucleotide polymorphism, epigenetic regulation, and clinical data in order to better identify reliable and consistent biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment choice, and outcome prediction.

  18. 78 FR 1991 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...This final rule sets a new regulatory framework for FTA's evaluation and rating of major transit capital investments seeking funding under the discretionary ``New Starts'' and ``Small Starts'' programs. This final rule is being published concurrently with a Notice of Availability of revised proposed policy guidance that provides additional detail on the new measures and proposed methods for calculating the project justification and local financial commitment criteria specified in statute and this final rule. FTA seeks public comment on the revised proposed policy guidance referenced in the Notice of Availability published today. Because of the recent enactment of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), subsequent interim guidance and rulemaking will be forthcoming to address provisions not covered in this final rule.

  19. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Grant C. Willis

    2003-09-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to Arizona. Outcrop

  20. Malignant Lymphoma in the Psoas Major Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hatori, Takashi; Takase, Aya; Aoki, Jun; Sakurai, Shinji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    An 84-year-old Japanese man taking warfarin to prevent cerebral infarction secondary to atrial fibrillation was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of a painless right back mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an oval-shaped mass in the right psoas major muscle. The mass showed high intensity on T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted imaging and mimicked an acute-phase hematoma. However, it showed no chronological changes typical of a hematoma, and MRI revealed enlargement of the mass 1 week after admission. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Although skeletal muscle lymphoma is rare, physicians should be familiar with its MRI characteristics. In addition, determination of the lymphoma subtype has important implications for the treatment of skeletal muscle lymphoma because DLCBL may have an especially poor prognosis. PMID:28316847

  1. Major element composition of stratospheric micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, L. S.; Brownlee, D. E.; Wheelock, M. M.

    1989-06-01

    Results are presented on an element-composition study conducted on 200 interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected with NASA's U2 and RB 47 aircraft at altitudes near 20 km. These IDPs could be classified into two major morphological types, i.e., the 'porous' and the 'smooth' particle types, which showed significant compositional differences. Namely, elemental abundances found in porous particles are closely matching those of the CI chondrites, while the smooth particle group displayed systematic Ca and Mg depletions and contained stoichiometric 'excess' oxygen, consistent with the presence of hydrous phases. This fact, together with the occurrence of carbonates, magnetite framboids, and layer silicates, provides evidence that at least a significant number of the smooth-type IDPs were processed by aqueous activity. It is hypothesized that extensive aqueous activity only occurs in asteroids (as opposed to comets) and that the smooth class of IDPs is of an asteroidal origin.

  2. [Prehospital care in extremity major vascular injuries].

    PubMed

    Samokhvallov, I M; Reva, V A; Pronchenko, A A; Seleznev, A B

    2011-09-01

    The problem of temporary hemorrhage control is one of the most important issues of modern war surgery and surgery of trauma. It is a review of literature devoted to prehospital care in extremity major vascular injuries, embraced up-to-date domestic materials as well as the modern foreign papers in this area. The most important historical landmarks of temporary hemorrhage control system are considered. We paid special attention to the most usable methods and means of hemorrhage control which are utilized at the modern time: pressure bandages, tourniquets, local haemostatic agents. The comprehensive analysis of the contamporary haemostatic means concerning U.S. Army has done. The experience of foreign colleagues in development of prehospital care for the injured, creation and progress of new haemostatic methods, application of temporary hemorrhage control system is analyzed.

  3. Major Sperm Protein Genes from Globodera rostochiensis

    PubMed Central

    Novitski, Charles E.; Brown, Shiela; Chen, Ru; Corner, Adam S.; Atkinson, Howard J.; McPherson, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Three genes in the major sperm protein (MSP) gene family from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis were cloned and sequenced. In contrast to the absence of introns in Caenorhabditis elegans MSP genes, these genes in G. rostochiensis contained a 57 nucleotide intron, with normal exon-intron boundaries, in the same relative location as the intron in Onchocerca volvulus. The MSP genes of G. rostochiensis had putative CAAT, TATA, and polyadenylation signals. The predicted G. rostochiensis MSP gene product is 126 amino acids long, one residue shorter than the products in the other species. The comparison of MSP amino acid sequences from four diverse nematode species suggests that O. volvulus, Ascaris suum, and C. elegans may be more closely related to each other than they are to G. rostochiensis. PMID:19279808

  4. Forensic odontology, part 2. Major disasters.

    PubMed

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-03-26

    We have only to look back over the last 12 months to realise that time and time again, an incident occurs where there are mass fatalities. These incidents have instant and long-lasting impact on families, communities and sometimes whole countries. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the need for an efficient and sensitive response to assist in the identification of victims of such incidents and the necessity for trained team responses. Many countries now have Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams that are multi-disciplinary, and plans and protocols in place in readiness. The paper can only hope to give a brief overview of the disaster situation for the reader: whole books have been written on this topic. The forensic odontologist has a major role in disaster incidents when there are accurate and available antemortem dental records.

  5. A capstone research experience for physics majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David

    2013-03-01

    Dickinson College is a small liberal arts college with a thriving physics program. For years, one of the key features of our program has been a year-long senior research project that was required for each student. Unfortunately, as our number of majors increased, it became more and more difficult to supervise such a large number of senior research projects. To deal with this growing challenge, we developed a capstone research experience that involves a larger number of students working together on an independent group project. In this talk I will give a broad overview of our new senior research model and provide a few examples of projects that have been carried out over the past few years. I will also briefly describe the positive and negative aspects of this model from the perspective of faculty and students.

  6. Tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    A new tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts in the past millennium that may have contributed to the decline of some pre-Hispanic civilizations. Although there is other evidence of droughts during the past millennium, the paleoclimate record had gaps. Stahle et al. used core samples from Montezuma bald cypress trees found in Barranca de Amealco, Querétaro, Mexico, to develop a 1238-year tree ring chronology. They reconstructed the soil moisture record from the tree ring growth patterns. The new record provides the first dated, annually resolved climate record for Mexico and Central America spanning this time period.(Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046472, 2011)

  7. Response to major earthquakes affecting Gemini twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hoeven, Michiel; Rogers, Rolando; Rippa, Mathew; Perez, Gabriel; Montes, Vanessa; Moreno, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Both Gemini telescopes, in Hawaii and Chile, are located in highly seismic active areas. That means that the seismic protection is included in the structural design of the telescope, instruments and auxiliary structure. We will describe the specific design features to reduce permanent damage in case of major earthquakes. At this moment both telescopes have been affected by big earthquakes in 2006 and 2015 respectively. There is an opportunity to compare the original design to the effects that are caused by these earthquakes and analyze their effectiveness. The paper describes the way the telescopes responded to these events, the damage that was caused, how we recovered from it, the modifications we have done to avoid some of this damage in future occasions, and lessons learned to face this type of events. Finally we will cover on how we pretend to upgrade the limited monitoring tools we currently have in place to measure the impact of earthquakes.

  8. Mars at Ls 249o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    19 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year.

    This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  9. Cognitive hypnotherapy for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2012-04-01

    Since the publication of the special issue on cognitive hypnotherapy in the Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly (1994), there have been major developments in the application of hypnosis to the treatment of depression. However, there is no "one-size-fits-all" treatment for depressive disorders as the conditions represent a complex set of heterogeneous symptoms, involving multiple etiologies. It is thus important for therapists to promote a multimodal approach to treating depressive disorders. This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), an evidence-based multimodal psychological treatment that can be applied to a wide range of depressed patients. CH combines hypnosis with cognitive behavior therapy as the latter provides the best integrative lodestone for assimilating empirically supported treatment techniques derived from various psychotherapies.

  10. Erythema Multiforme Major Following Treatment with Infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Dean; Boritz, Eli; Cowen, Edward W.; Brown, Ronald S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The growth in the use of anti-TNF-α agents for treatment of inflammatory conditions has led to increased recognition of the side effects associated with this class of drugs. Case Description We report a case of a patient who developed erythema multiforme (EM) major with characteristic oral and cutaneous lesions following treatment with the anti-TNF-α medication infliximab therapy for Crohn’s Disease (CD). Clinical Implications To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of infliximab-induced EM secondary to the treatment of CD. It is important for dental clinicians evaluating patients using anti-TNF-α agents to be aware of this possible complication. PMID:23036796

  11. Conclusion: Major Findings and Future Activities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Hillel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) incorporates a number of major advances in the way that climate impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are being simulated. At its core is a protocol approach that results in impact assessments being more scientifically credible and thus ultimately having greater value to the wide range of agricultural stakeholders. Moreover, the use of the protocol approach enables closer scrutiny and intercomparison of models and methods so that they can be improved over time. By creating a truly trans-disciplinary, systems-based approach, AgMIP impact assessments and evaluation of adaptations become useful to agricultural decision-makers at multiple scales. The chapters in this two-part set demonstrate the use of this approach and represent early steps towards the full realization of these new methods and their application.

  12. p-Democracy a Pervasive Majority Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniades, Kyriacos A.

    Today, group decision making in our democratic society uses the non-ranked method. What we need is an improved method that allows decision makers to indicate not only their chosen alternative, but also their order of preference by which all alternatives will be placed. We classify this as a particular Social Choice Function, where choice is a group decision-making methodology in an ideal democratic society that gives the expression of the will of the majority. We use the Eigenvector Function to obtain individual priorities of preferences and Borda's Function to obtain the Ranking or otherwise, the Group Choice. Our conclusions give rise to new directions for pervasive democracy with an innovative degenerative quantum scale to allow even for strong to very strong preferences.

  13. Mars at Ls 79o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    18 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  14. Mars at Ls 107o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    19 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurs in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  15. Mars at Ls 93o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  16. Mars at Ls 53o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    16 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  17. Mars at Ls 357o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    17 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  18. Mars at Ls 25o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring

  19. Mars at Ls 66o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    20 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  20. Mars at Ls 12o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  1. Mars at Ls 39o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    18 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  2. Mars at Ls 324o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  3. Mars at Ls 288o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, are a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  4. Mars at Ls 193o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    19 April 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 193o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 193o occurred in mid-April 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  5. Mars at Ls 211o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurs in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  6. Mars at Ls 341o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    20 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurs in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Southern Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  7. Mars at Ls 306o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    18 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  8. Mars at Ls 249o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    19 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year.

    This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  9. Mars at Ls 230o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurs in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  10. Mars at Ls 269o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  11. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Bhoiwala, Devang L.; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: thalassemia major, β-TI: thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelium degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-TM are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy (ICT) in order to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by ICT. Some who were never treated with ICT exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving ICT had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-TM viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  12. Mars at Ls 93o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  13. Mars at Ls 53o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    16 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  14. Mars at Ls 107o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    19 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurs in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  15. Mars at Ls 288o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, are a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  16. Mars at Ls 357o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    17 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  17. Mars at Ls 12o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  18. Mars at Ls 25o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring

  19. Mars at Ls 341o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    20 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurs in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Southern Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  20. Mars at Ls 39o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    18 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  1. Mars at Ls 269o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  2. Mars at Ls 66o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    20 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  3. Mars at Ls 324o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  4. Mars at Ls 306o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    18 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  5. Mars at Ls 79o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    18 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  6. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Kathleen; Molina-Márquez, Ana María; Saavedra, Nicolás; Zambrano, Tomás; Salazar, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders. PMID:27527165

  7. [Sequence learning in major depressive disorder].

    PubMed

    Borbély-Ipkovich, Emöke; Németh, Dezsö; Janacsek, Karolina; Gonda, Xénia

    2014-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses, accompanied by several psychological, behavioural and emotional symptoms, and in addition to the symptoms affecting the quality of life, it can lead to severe consequences, including suicide. Sequence learning plays a key role in adapting to the environment, neural plasticity, first language acquisition, social learning and skills, at the same time it defines the behaviour of the patient and also therapeutic possibilities. The aim of this paper is to review sequence learning and its consolidation in MDD. We know little about the effects of mood disorders on sequence learning; the results are contradictory, therefore, further studies are needed to test the effects of MDD on sequence learning and on the consolidation of implicitly acquired sequence knowledge.

  8. Conclusion: Major Findings and Future Activities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Hillel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) incorporates a number of major advances in the way that climate impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are being simulated. At its core is a protocol approach that results in impact assessments being more scientifically credible and thus ultimately having greater value to the wide range of agricultural stakeholders. Moreover, the use of the protocol approach enables closer scrutiny and intercomparison of models and methods so that they can be improved over time. By creating a truly trans-disciplinary, systems-based approach, AgMIP impact assessments and evaluation of adaptations become useful to agricultural decision-makers at multiple scales. The chapters in this two-part set demonstrate the use of this approach and represent early steps towards the full realization of these new methods and their application.

  9. Lunar highlands breccias generated by major impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.

    1974-01-01

    Lunar missions are reported which have returned a variety of different types of breccias. These rocks differ greatly in their mechanisms of formation, source materials, and histories after formation; but all are related in that all were generated by impact processes. The impact processes involved in the formation of several major types of breccias are discussed. Some types that may have originated in large impacts are identified. Such breccias are extremely important. The impacts that formed them penetrated deeply into, and perhaps through the lunar crust and brought up materials that had previously experienced little or no impact modification. Detailed studies of such breccias can permit partial reconstruction of their preimpact source terranes and yield information on the nature of the early lunar crust (and possibly the upper mantle as well).

  10. Botanical Compounds: Effects on Major Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tuan-Phat; Mann, Shivani N.; Mandal, Nawajes A.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical compounds have been widely used throughout history as cures for various diseases and ailments. Many of these compounds exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. These are also common damaging mechanisms apparent in several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, and retinitis pigmentosa. In recent years, there have been many epidemiological and clinical studies that have demonstrated the beneficial effects of plant-derived compounds, such as curcumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, danshen, ginseng, and many more, on these ocular pathologies. Studies in cell cultures and animal models showed promising results for their uses in eye diseases. While there are many apparent significant correlations, further investigation is needed to uncover the mechanistic pathways of these botanical compounds in order to reach widespread pharmaceutical use and provide noninvasive alternatives for prevention and treatments of the major eye diseases. PMID:23843879

  11. Mars at Ls 288°: Syrtis Major

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-09-21

    This picture, released 21 September 2005, is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288° during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288° occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, are a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360° around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0°, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

  12. Clinical management of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Mignon, Laurence; Stahl, Stephen M

    2009-11-01

    Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have high rates of disability, morbidity, and mortality, and are responsible for as many as one-fourth of all healthcare visits. Within primary care settings, 5% to 10% of adults have MDD, but only one-third of those are diagnosed. Thus, despite the devastating decrease in the quality-of-life and productivity of patients, depression is often under-diagnosed and therefore inadequately treated. Most patients with depression who are adherent with their treatment plan still experience residual symptoms, and require lon-term treatment. Adequately managing residual symptoms will hopefully lead to increased remission in these patients. This supplement focuses on the different types of residual symptoms that patients experience and suggests various treatment options.

  13. Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities.

  14. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Kathleen; Molina-Márquez, Ana María; Saavedra, Nicolás; Zambrano, Tomás; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-08-05

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  15. Five major NASA health and safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2000-01-01

    The goal has been set to establish NASA as number one in safety in the nation. This includes Systems and Mission Safety as well as Occupational Safety for all NASA employees and contractors on and off the job. There are five major health and safety issues important in the pursuit of being number one and they are: (1) Radiation (2) Hearing (3) Habitability/Toxicology (4) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) (5) Stress. The issues have features of accumulated injury since NASA's future missions involve long time human presence in space i.e., International Space Station operations and Mars missions. The objective of this paper is to discuss these five issues in terms of controlling risks and enhancing health and safety. Safety metrics are discussed in terms of the overall goal of NASA to be number one in safety. .

  16. [Major depression: features indicative of bipolarity?].

    PubMed

    Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Several recent studies have shown that bipolar disorder is underdiagnosed in patients with major depression. Missing the diagnosis of a bipolar disorder may have serious and even occasionally fatal consequences for a patient with the disease. Moreover misdiagnosis may lead to inappropriate treatment and therefore contribute to worsening medical and functional prognosis. Although there are no pathognomonic characteristics of bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression, evidence-based findings suggest that some features may be indicative of bipolarity, in patients with depression. These features are related to clinical picture of depressive state, course of episode and illness, response to treatment, family history, comorbid conditions, as well as demographic and temperamental characteristics. Based on such features, some authors have proposed operationalized criteria or a diagnostic specific for bipolarity, to identify bipolar depression. Screening instruments may also be used, to facilitate early recognition. Validation studies of these diagnostic features and instruments are underway.

  17. Sheehan's Syndrome Presenting as Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Mehmood I; Mushtaq, Mohsin Bin; Qazi, Iram; Yousuf, Sameena; Rashid, Aaliya

    2015-01-01

    Sheehan's syndrome or Simmond's disease is a rare endocrine disorder seen in clinical practice. The clinical spectrum is diverse and a high index of suspicion together with a good clinical acumen and proper diagnostic approach helps in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this endocrinopathy. Sheehan's syndrome presenting as a major depressive disorder finds less mention in the literature. The patient discussed here is a 45-year-old female who had been on antidepressants and psychiatry follow up for a long time until she presented to our Out Patient Department (OPD), where she was evaluated in detail and diagnosed as a case of Sheehan's syndrome. The patient is doing well and is on a regular follow-up with us. Further studies are required to demystify the strength of this association in more detail and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanism.

  18. Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well.

  19. Major vascular lesions associated with orthopaedic injuries.

    PubMed

    Karavias, D; Korovessis, P; Filos, K S; Siamplis, D; Petrocheilos, J; Androulakis, J

    1992-01-01

    Seventeen patients, aged 11-67 years (mean, 32.6), with major vascular injuries associated with traumatic orthopaedic injuries, were treated operatively in the authors' institution over a 4-year period. The most common mechanism of trauma was a high-energy injury (70.8%), and the rate of open injuries was 88.2%; 64.9% of the injuries were located in the lower extremities. The treatment protocol consisted of aggressive resuscitation; Doppler imaging and, when necessary, angiography; stable bone fixation with subsequent vascular repair; and extended wound debridement. The vascular repair for arterial lacerations consisted of (a) end-to-end anastomosis (47.2%); (b) interpositional homologous vein graft (23.6%); (c) vascular decompression through fracture distraction in one patient (5.9%); (d) xenograft interposition (in one patient; 5.9%); (e) venous repair (in three patients; 17.7%); and (f) embolectomy (in all patients). Three vascular reoperations (17.7%) were necessary because of rupture of the anastomosis. The authors' preferred bone stabilization method was external fixation, which was used in 47.2% of cases. Amputation was performed in three cases (17.7%) as a salvage operation. Although six patients (35.4%) were admitted with delayed shock (mean duration, 73.6 +/- 27.8 min), this led to a lethal outcome due to shock lung in only one patient. Another patient developed massive lung embolism 3 months postoperatively and died. The authors believe that this well-organized approach, based on a specific treatment protocol, for patients with severe orthopaedic trauma and concomitant vascular injury, not only improves outcome but gives good to excellent functional results in the majority of patients.

  20. Major flood related strains and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hilmert, Clayton J; Kvasnicka-Gates, Lexi; Teoh, Ai Ni; Bresin, Konrad; Fiebiger, Siri

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of experiencing a major flood during pregnancy on fetal growth and length of gestation, and to consider how flood-related strains might contribute to these effects. The Red River Pregnancy Project was a prospective study carried out for 3 months immediately after the historic 2009 crest of the Red River in Fargo, North Dakota. Pregnant community residents who were at least 18 years old with a singleton, intrauterine pregnancy participated in the study (N = 169). Analyses examined if birth weight and length of gestation were associated with residential distance from flooding and gestational age at time of the flood crest. For pregnancies earlier in gestation during the crest (-1 SD = 12 weeks), birth weight decreased as distance from flooding decreased (-42.29 g/mi, p < .01). For pregnancies later in gestation at crest (+1 SD = 26 weeks), distance was not associated with birth weight (p > .10). Biparietal growth trajectories showed a decrease in growth after the crest of the flood but only for women early in pregnancy. However, various measures of flood related and general stress or strain did not explain these effects. Length of gestation was not associated with distance from or the timing of the flood. Pregnant women in the first trimester who experience a major flood near their homes are at risk of having lower birth weight neonates due to a reduction in fetal growth. The mechanisms of this effect deserve further attention in rapidly mounted investigations after disaster. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Examining minor and major depression in adolescents.

    PubMed

    González-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramírez, Rafael; Chávez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, José

    2005-08-01

    Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR), Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Minor Depression (mDEP), an example of one of these categories, allows the inclusion of sub-threshold cases that fall below the diagnostic criteria of the five symptoms required for MDD. Minor depression in adolescence is important because it is significantly related to MDD in adulthood. The present study examines a number of risk factors, functional impairment, comorbidity and service utilization patterns associated with depression in community adolescents who met the DSM-IV criteria for mDEP and compares their profile to adolescents who met the criteria for MDD. Puerto Rican adolescents 11 to 17 years old were selected from an island-wide probability household sample of children ranging in age from 4 to 17. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule in Spanish (DISC IV), together with a structured protocol of risks and protective factors, and service utilization questionnaires were administered to primary caretakers and their children. Our findings indicate that youngsters with mDEP had significant impairment and used more mental health services than those with major depression. In addition, adolescents with mDEP had similar outcomes when compared to those meeting full criteria for MDD in terms of psychosocial correlates and comorbidity. The results, although not definitive, suggest a need for further research in order to determine the validity of the present DSM IV diagnostic criteria for mDEP in adolescents.

  2. Next Generation PanDA Pilot for ATLAS and Other Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Barreiro Megino, F.; Caballero Bejar, J.; De, K.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Maeno, T.; Medrano Llamas, R.; Walker, R.; Wenaus, T.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) has been in use in the ATLAS Experiment since 2005. It uses a sophisticated pilot system to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. While originally designed for ATLAS, the PanDA Pilot has recently been refactored to facilitate use outside of ATLAS. Experiments are now handled as plug-ins such that a new PanDA Pilot user only has to implement a set of prototyped methods in the plug-in classes, and provide a script that configures and runs the experiment-specific payload. We will give an overview of the Next Generation PanDA Pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including live user payload debugging, data access via the Federated XRootD system, stage-out to alternative storage elements, support for the new ATLAS DDM system (Rucio), and an improved integration with glExec, as well as a description of the experiment-specific plug-in classes. The performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, LCG and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS will also be presented. We will describe plans for future development on the time scale of the next few years.

  3. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively fractured and sealed

  4. Biosynthesis, targeting and processing of oleosin-like proteins, which are major pollen coat components in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D J; Ross, J H

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterise the biosynthesis, targeting and processing of some of the major protein components of the pollen coat, or tryphine, of Brassica napus. The authors have N-terminally sequenced 11 of the most abundant pollen coat polypeptides, and nine of these sequences correspond to proteolytically cleaved products of seven oleosin-like genes, i.e. Oln B;1 to Oln B;6 and Oln B;11. The Oln B;11 gene product is co- or post-translationally targeted in vitro to canine microsomal membranes. This implies that the oleosin-like protein is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum in tapetal cells in vivo. Affinity-purified antibodies raised against a 20-residue domain of Oln B;3 and B;4 gene products cross-reacted with full-length proteins of 45-48 kDa in early developing (< 2 mm to 5 mm) buds and anthers, but recognised truncated proteins of 32-38 kDa at later (4 mm to 7 mm) stages of development. The 45-48 kDa immunoreactive proteins were associated with a floating lipid body fraction obtained from a tapetal/locular fluid extract from maturing anthers and a major 48 kDa polypeptide from this fraction was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing to be a full length product of the Oln B;3 gene. Quantitative immunocytochemical studies showed that the full length 45-48 kDa oleosin-like proteins were specifically localised in the interior of tapetal cytoplasmic lipid bodies where they were associated with a regular hexagonal-like fibrous reticulum. No significant labelling of elaioplasts was observed. The same antibodies specifically labelled 32-38 kDa oleosin-like proteins on the extracellular pollen coat of maturing pollen grains. These results demonstrate for the first time that many of the major pollen coat proteins are derived from an endoproteolytic cleavage of precursor oleosin-like proteins that originally accumulate within the large cytoplasmic lipid bodies of tapetal cells.

  5. Reassessing Domain Architecture Evolution of Metazoan Proteins: Major Impact of Errors Caused by Confusing Paralogs and Epaktologs

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Alinda; Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2011-01-01

    In the accompanying paper (Nagy, Szláma, Szarka, Trexler, Bányai, Patthy, Reassessing Domain Architecture Evolution of Metazoan Proteins: Major Impact of Gene Prediction Errors) we showed that in the case of UniProtKB/TrEMBL, RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences of Metazoan species the contribution of erroneous (incomplete, abnormal, mispredicted) sequences to domain architecture (DA) differences of orthologous proteins might be greater than those of true gene rearrangements. Based on these findings, we suggest that earlier genome-scale studies based on comparison of predicted (frequently mispredicted) protein sequences may have led to some erroneous conclusions about the evolution of novel domain architectures of multidomain proteins. In this manuscript we examine the impact of confusing paralogous and epaktologous multidomain proteins (i.e., those that are related only through the independent acquisition of the same domain types) on conclusions drawn about DA evolution of multidomain proteins in Metazoa. To estimate the contribution of this type of error we have used as reference UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot sequences from protein families with well-characterized evolutionary histories. We have used two types of paralogy-group construction procedures and monitored the impact of various parameters on the separation of true paralogs from epaktologs on correctly annotated Swiss-Prot entries of multidomain proteins. Our studies have shown that, although public protein family databases are contaminated with epaktologs, analysis of the structure of sequence similarity networks of multidomain proteins provides an efficient means for the separation of epaktologs and paralogs. We have also demonstrated that contamination of protein families with epaktologs increases the apparent rate of DA change and introduces a bias in DA differences in as much as it increases the proportion of terminal over internal DA differences. We have shown that confusing

  6. A Day in the Life at DaVita Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company name means "giving life," the bar for learning and development programs is held high. In this article, the author describes what it takes to graduate from DaVita Academy, the soft skills training program dialysis services company DaVita offers all its employees. DaVita's chief executive officer, Kent Thiry, states that the Academy…

  7. A Day in the Life at DaVita Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company name means "giving life," the bar for learning and development programs is held high. In this article, the author describes what it takes to graduate from DaVita Academy, the soft skills training program dialysis services company DaVita offers all its employees. DaVita's chief executive officer, Kent Thiry, states that the Academy…

  8. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  9. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in the

  10. MAJOR PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Craig D. Morgan; Thomas C. Chidsey

    2003-11-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land-use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the first quarter of the second project year (July 1 through September 30, 2003). This work included (1) describing the Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play, subplays, and outcrop reservoir analogs of the Uinta Green River Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (Eocene Green River Formation), and (2) technology transfer activities. The Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit can be divided into plays having a dominantly southern sediment source (Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play) and plays having a dominantly northern sediment source (Conventional Northern Uinta Basin Play). The Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play is divided into six subplays: (1) conventional Uteland Butte interval, (2) conventional

  11. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Johner, Andrea; Kunz, Stefan; Linder, Markus; Shakur, Yasmin; Seebeck, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs) from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range. Several PDE inhibitors were

  12. Magnetism of Terrestrial Planets and Major Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, T.; Breuer, D.

    of the terrestrial planets and major satellites Earth, Mercury, and Ganymede are known to have self-generated magnetic fields. Mars and Moon have remnantly mag- netized crust units that may have been magnetized early in their evolution, although alternative explanations exist. The magnetic properties of Venus are not very well known but any magnetic field must have a dipole moment smaller then 4 ×1018 Am2. The most recent data from the Galileo mission suggest that Io does not have a mag- netic field just as Europa and Callisto. Ganymede, however, has a field. Necessary conditions for dynamo actions in the cores of these bodies (assuming that all of them, except for Callisto, have iron-rich cores) are fluid motion driven either by thermal or chemical buoyancy. Freeze out of an inner core may release chemical buoyancy and drive a dynamo very effectively. Convection in the core, in turn, requires cooling of the core by the mantle at a sufficiently large rate. Recent models of mantle convection with temperature dependent viscosity have deepened our understanding of the cooling of the cores and allow a consistent model of the magnetic properties of the solid plan- ets and major satellites. The Earth's core is cooled efficiently by plate tectonics. The other planets and satellites lack plate tectonics and its efficient cooling mechanism. Rather, a one-plate stagnant lid, a thermal lithosphere, develops. The cooling of the mantle under these circumstances will occur mostly through the thickening of the lid while the deep mantle will cool comparatively little. The core will show some efficient cooling initially if it was superheated during core formation. But after about a billion year of core convection and magnetic field generation, the core will become stably stratified and the dynamo will cease to operate. With sufficient sulfur reducing the melting point temperature, the core will remain entirely liquid and chemical convec- tion will not be available as a driver of

  13. Microscopic Observations on the Origin of Defects During Machining of Direct Aged (DA) Inconel 718 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosbaeva, G. K.; Veldhuis, S. C.; Elfizy, A.; Fox-Rabinovich, G.; Wagg, T.

    2010-11-01

    Surface quality of advanced superalloys after machining is one of the major issues in the aerospace industry because it directly affects service characteristics of the machined part. Tool life of cemented carbide inserts with the TiAlN coating during machining of direct aged DA 718 alloys under roughing and finishing conditions has been under study. The defect origin on the surface of the machined part was investigated. Metallographic observations of the DA 718 were made using optical metallography and SEM/EDS. To find out the origins of surface defect formation, the morphology of machined parts and cross sections of the machined surfaces have been investigated. Two major categories of defects were detected on the surface of the machined part: cracks and tears. The origin of the cracks on the machined surface is related to shearing of the primary complex TiC/NbC carbide revealed in a structure of DA 718 alloy. At the same time, Nb-rich regions of the primary complex carbide interact with the environment (oxygen from air) during machining with further formation of low strength oxide layer on the surface, forming tears.

  14. [Antidepressant and tolerance: Determinants and management of major side effects].

    PubMed

    David, D J; Gourion, D

    2016-12-01

    Antidepressant therapy aims to reach remission of depressive symptoms while reducing the complications and risks of relapse. Even though they have proven their efficacy, it takes several weeks for antidepressants to demonstrate full effectiveness, and adverse effects occur more quickly or (quicker) which can be a source of poor compliance. This latest aspect often leads to dose reduction and/or change of molecule that have the effect of delaying remission. This review attempts to present, from the pharmacological properties of the major classes of antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitor [MAOI], tricyclic antidepressants [TCA], selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor [SNRI]), to the pharmacological mechanisms involved in adverse effects by focusing on sexual dysfunction, nausea/vomiting, and weight changes and sleep disruption. If the activation of dopamine D1/2 or norepinephrine receptors through the autonomic nervous system controls and facilitates sexual desire, increasing serotoninergic transmission through 5-HT1B/2A/2C receptors activation inhibits this process. The pharmacological properties of drugs inducing nausea/vomiting activate opiate receptors μ, increase dopaminergic and serotoninergic transmission activating the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT3 receptors, respectively. Among the causes responsible for weight gain under antidepressant therapy, monoamine neurotransmission still plays an important role. The blockade of serotonin 5-HT2C or histamine H1 receptors is directly responsible for weight gain. Finally, the activation of 5-HT1A/1B/3/7 serotoninergique receptors modulates wakefulness, raid eyes movement or sleep duration. In conclusion, if antidepressant activity of SERT or MAO inhibitors is an indirect consequence of postsynaptic 5-HT, DA, NA receptor activation, it is also responsible for side effects, causes of poor compliance and hence therapeutic failures. Finally, we need to

  15. Premenstrual depression predicts future major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Graze, K K; Nee, J; Endicott, J

    1990-02-01

    To assess the power of premenstrual changes as a risk factor for future major depressive disorder (MDD), we conducted a follow-up study of 36 women who had volunteered for menstrual cycle studies. Scores on the depressive subscale of the Premenstrual Assessment Form (PAF) at initial evaluation were found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.35) with the occurrence of MDD during the follow-up period. Moreover, multiple regression analysis indicated that the PAF scores had predictive value above and beyond 2 known risk factors for MDD, family history of depression and prior personal history of depression. The Premenstrual Change Index, a score derived from prospective daily self-ratings of severity of dysphoric symptoms, was also correlated with interval MDD, but did not enhance the predictive power of the PAF score. We conclude that the assessment of premenstrual depression has validity in identifying women at risk for future MDD, even when a retrospective instrument, PAF, is utilized for such assessment.

  16. UVES observations of the Canis Major overdensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbordone, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Marconi, G.; Zaggia, S.; Buonanno, R.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first detailed chemical abundances for three giant stars which are candidate members of the Canis Major overdensity, obtained by using FLAMES-UVES at VLT. The stars, in the background of the open cluster NGC 2477, have radial velocities compatible with a membership to this structure. However, due to Galactic disc contamination, radial velocity by itself is unable to firmly establish membership. The metallicities span the range -0.5⪉ [Fe/H] ⪉ +0.1. Assuming that at least one of the three stars is indeed a member of CMa implies that this structure has undergone a high level of chemical processing, comparable to that of the Galactic disc. The most metal-rich star of the sample, EIS 6631, displays several abundance ratios which are remarkably different from those of Galactic stars: [α/Fe] ˜ -0.2, [Cu/Fe] ˜ +0.25, [La/Fe] ˜ +0.6, [Ce/Fe] ˜ +0.8 and [Nd/Fe]˜ +0.6. These ratios make it likely that this star was formed in an external galaxy. Based on observations obtained in the ESO Director's Discretionary Time program 272-B.5017.

  17. Temporal variation in major trauma admissions

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, WKM; Michalik, DV; Gallagher, K; McFadyen, I; Bernard, J; Rogers, BA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Trauma is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. Since the inception of the trauma networks, little is known of the temporal pattern of trauma admissions. Methods Trauma Audit and Research Network data for 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2013 were collated from two large major trauma centres (MTCs) in the South East of England: Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust (BSUH) and St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (SGU). The number of admissions and the injury severity score by time of admission, by weekdays versus weekend and by month/season were analysed. Results There were 1,223 admissions at BSUH and 1,241 at SGU. There was significant variation by time of admission; there were more admissions in the afternoons (BSUH p<0.001) and evenings (SGU p<0.001). There were proportionally more admissions at the weekends than on weekdays (BSUH p<0.001, SGU p=0.028). There was significant seasonal variation in admissions at BSUH (p<0.001) with more admissions in summer and autumn. No significant seasonal variation was observed at SGU (p=0.543). Conclusions The temporal patterns observed were different for each MTC with important implications for resource planning of trauma care. This study identified differing needs for different MTCs and resource planning should be individualised to the network. PMID:26741676

  18. Major disaster management in chemical warfare.

    PubMed

    Betts-Symonds, G

    1994-07-01

    A disaster is internationally defined as: 'a catastrophic event which, relative to the manpower and resources available, overwhelms a healthcare facility and usually occurs in a short period of time'. War produces such events following every major engagement, resulting in continuous streams of casualties with injuries reflecting the type of campaign being fought and weapons used. Chemical weapons are designed more to injure than to kill, as has been demonstrated in conflicts that have involved the use of such weapons where mortality has been 3-5%. However, the use of such weapons when overlaid on conventional injury cause added medical problems along with a massive tactical contamination problem. It is therefore essential that disaster planning and training takes account of these hazards in areas where such a threat exists, in order to save the maximum number of lives and prevent secondary casualties among hospital and rescue staff. The principles outlined in this paper apply equally well to civilian disasters involving the many hazardous materials of industry being transported daily on roads, railways and in the air. This paper will give an overview of the nature of chemical weapons and of some of the medical/tactical problems when disaster involves chemical warfare agents.

  19. Two Components in Major Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Cane, H. V.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    A study has been made of 29 intense, solar particle events observed in the energy range 25-100 MeV/nuc near Earth in the years 1997 through 2001. It is found that the majority of the events (19/29) had Fe to O ratios which were reasonably constant with time and energy, and with values above coronal. These all originated on the Sun s western hemisphere and most had intensities that rose rapidly at the time of an associated flare, and coronal mass ejection (CME), and then decayed more gradually. Few interplanetary shocks were observed during these increases. The spectra were mainly power laws. The remaining 10 events had different intensity-time profiles and Fe to O ratios that varied with time and energy with values at or below coronal. Most of these originated near central meridian and 6 had strong interplanetary shocks that were observed near Earth. In general the spectra were not power laws but steepened at high energies, particularly for Fe. There were four events with two peaks in the intensity-time profiles, the first near the time of the associated flare and the other at shock passage. The results, considered in the light of other recent work, suggest that the high energy particles that occur shortly after flares are indeed flare particles. At the highest rigidities considered here shock-accelerated particles are uncommon and are observed only in association with unusually fast shocks.

  20. Contraction of Online Response to Major Events

    PubMed Central

    Szell, Michael; Grauwin, Sébastian; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation—the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users. PMID:24586499