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  1. Situação da Mulher na Astronomia Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Adriana V. R.

    2007-07-01

    O conteúdo desse texto surgiu de uma apresentação de mesmo título que fiz na XXXI Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB) em 2005. Esse tema foi inspirado originalmente pela minha participação no "2nd UIPAP International Conference on Women in Physics" realizado entre 23 e 25 de maio de 2005 no Rio de Janeiro. Essa é uma conferência internacional que acontece de três em três anos, sendo que a primeira ocorreu em 2002 na cidade de Paris, França. Participei dessa conferência como membro da delegação da Sociedade Brasileira de Física e um dos trabalhos que apresentei versava sobre a situação das mulheres na Astronomia brasileira, cujos resultados principais discorro a seguir. A situação das astrônomas, baseada nos dados dos sócios da SAB coletados no final de 2004, é comparada com a das físicas brasileiras e também com as nossas colegas americanas. Os dados identificam ainda uma maior evasão da carreira por parte das mulheres do que os homens. Alguns dos possíveis motivos da evasão são discutidos, como o desejo de constituir família e/ou isolamento. Resultados um tanto preocupantes com relação à distribuição de bolsas de produtividade do CNPq também são apresentados. As principais discussões e estratégias recomendadas nesse congresso são mencionadas de forma resumida ao final.

  2. A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

  3. The effects of temperature and NaCl concentration on tetragonal lysozyme face growth rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc Lee

    1994-01-01

    Measurements were made of the (110) and (101) face growth rates of the tetragonal form of hen egg white lysozyme at 0.1M sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.0, from 4 to 22 C and with 3.0%, 5.0%, and 7.0% NaCl used as the precipitating salt. The data were collected at supersaturation ratios ranging from approximately 4 to approximately 63. Both decreasing temperature and increasing salt concentrations shifted plots of the growth rate versus C/C(sat) to the right, i.e. higher supersaturations were required for comparable growth rates. The observed trends in the growth data are counter to those expected from the solubility data. If tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth is by addition of ordered aggregates from the solution, then the observed growth data could be explained as a result of the effects of lowered temperature and increased salt concentration on the kinetics and equilibrium processes governing protein-protein interactions in solution. The data indicate that temperature would be a more tractable means of controlling the growth rate for tetragonal lysozyme crystals contrary to the usual practice in, e.g., vapor diffusion protein crystal growth, where both the precipitant and protein concentrations are simultaneously increased. However, the available range for control is dependent upon the protein concentration, with the greatest growth rate control being at the lower concentration.

  4. Selectivity of externally facing ion-binding sites in the Na/K pump to alkali metals and organic cations.

    PubMed

    Ratheal, Ian M; Virgin, Gail K; Yu, Haibo; Roux, Benoît; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2010-10-26

    The Na/K pump is a P-type ATPase that exchanges three intracellular Na(+) ions for two extracellular K(+) ions through the plasmalemma of nearly all animal cells. The mechanisms involved in cation selection by the pump's ion-binding sites (site I and site II bind either Na(+) or K(+); site III binds only Na(+)) are poorly understood. We studied cation selectivity by outward-facing sites (high K(+) affinity) of Na/K pumps expressed in Xenopus oocytes, under voltage clamp. Guanidinium(+), methylguanidinium(+), and aminoguanidinium(+) produced two phenomena possibly reflecting actions at site III: (i) voltage-dependent inhibition (VDI) of outwardly directed pump current at saturating K(+), and (ii) induction of pump-mediated, guanidinium-derivative-carried inward current at negative potentials without Na(+) and K(+). In contrast, formamidinium(+) and acetamidinium(+) induced K(+)-like outward currents. Measurement of ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity and radiolabeled cation uptake confirmed that these cations are external K(+) congeners. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that bound organic cations induce minor distortion of the binding sites. Among tested metals, only Li(+) induced Na(+)-like VDI, whereas all metals tested except Na(+) induced K(+)-like outward currents. Pump-mediated K(+)-like organic cation transport challenges the concept of rigid structural models in which ion specificity at site I and site II arises from a precise and unique arrangement of coordinating ligands. Furthermore, actions by guanidinium(+) derivatives suggest that Na(+) binds to site III in a hydrated form and that the inward current observed without external Na(+) and K(+) represents cation transport when normal occlusion at sites I and II is impaired. These results provide insights on external ion selectivity at the three binding sites.

  5. Compression studies of face-to-face π-stacking interaction in sodium squarate salts: Na2C4O4 and Na2C4O4•3H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Li, Shourui; Wang, Kai; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Jing; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Guangtian; Zou, Bo

    2012-11-01

    High-pressure Raman scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements of sodium squarate (Na2C4O4, SS) are performed in a diamond anvil cell. SS possesses a rare, but typical structure, which can show the effect of face-to-face π-stacking without interference of other interactions. At ˜11 GPa, it undergoes a phase transition, identified as a symmetry transformation from P21/c to P21. From high-pressure Raman patterns and the calculated model of SS, it can be proved that the phase transition results from the distorted squarate rings. We infer it is the enhancement of π-stacking that dominates the distortion. For comparison, high-pressure Raman spectra of sodium squarate trihydrate (Na2C4O4•3H2O, SST) are also investigated. The structure of SST is determined by both face-to-face π-stacking and hydrogen bonding. SST can be regarded as a deformation of SS. A phase transition, with the similar mechanism as SS, is observed at ˜10.3 GPa. Our results can be well supported by the previous high-pressure studies of ammonium squarate ((NH4)2C4O4, AS), and vice versa. High-pressure behaviors of the noncovalent interactions in SS, SST, and AS are compared to show the impacts of hydrogen bonding and the role of electrostatic interaction in releasing process.

  6. Janus Model of The Na,K-ATPase β-subunit Transmembrane Domain: Distinct Faces Mediate α /β Assembly and β-β Homo-Oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Barwe, Sonali P.; Kim, Sanguk; Rajasekaran, Sigrid A.; Bowie, James U.; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Na,K-ATPase is a hetero-oligomer of α- and β-subunits. The Na,K-ATPase β-subunit (Na,K-β ) is involved in both the regulation of ion transport activity, and in cell-cell adhesion. By structure prediction and evolutionary analysis, we identified two distinct faces on the Na,K-β transmembrane domain (TMD) that could mediate protein-protein interactions: a glycine zipper motif and a conserved heptad repeat. Here, we show that the heptad repeat face is involved in the hetero-oligomeric interaction of Na,K-β with Na,K-α , and the glycine zipper face is involved in the homo-oligomerization of Na,K-β . Point mutations in the heptad repeat motif reduced Na,K-β binding to Na,K-α , and Na,K-ATPase activity. Na,K-β TMD homo-oligomerized in biological membranes, and mutation of the glycine zipper motif affected oligomerization and cell-cell adhesion. These results provide a structural basis for understanding how Na,K-β links ion transport and cell-cell adhesion. PMID:17078968

  7. Multicentre Evaluation of the Naída CI Q70 Sound Processor: Feedback from Cochlear Implant Users and Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jeanette; Poncet-Wallet, Christine; Illg, Angelika; Perrin-Webb, Sarah; Henderson, Lise; Noël-Petroff, Nathalie; Auletta, Gennaro; Barezzani, Maria Grazia; Houri, Karim; Group, Indian Research; Bagus, Heike; Hoppe, Ulrich; Humphries, Jane; van Treeck, Wiebke; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Brendel, Martina; Mathias, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to gather data from both implant recipients and professionals on the ease of use of the Naída CI Q70 (Naída CI) sound processor from Advanced Bionics and on the usefulness of the new functions and features available. A secondary objective was to investigate fitting practices with the new processor. A comprehensive user satisfaction survey was conducted in a total of 186 subjects from 24 centres. In parallel, 23 professional questionnaires were collected from 11 centres. Overall, there was high satisfaction with the Naída CI processor from adults, children, experienced and new CI users as well as from professionals. The Naída CI processor was shown as being easy to use by all ages of recipients and by professionals. The majority of experienced CI users rated the Naída CI processor as being similar or better than their previous processor in all areas surveyed. The Naída CI was recommended by the professionals for fitting in all populations. Features like UltraZoom, ZoomControl and DuoPhone would not be fitted to very young children in contrast to adults. Positive ratings were obtained for ease of use, comfort and usefulness of the new functions and features of the Naída CI sound processor. Seventy-seven percent of the experienced CI users rated the new processor as being better than their previous sound processor from a general point of view. The survey also showed that fitting practices were influenced by the age of the user. PMID:28217275

  8. Multicentre Evaluation of the Naída CI Q70 Sound Processor: Feedback from Cochlear Implant Users and Professionals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeanette; Poncet-Wallet, Christine; Illg, Angelika; Perrin-Webb, Sarah; Henderson, Lise; Noël-Petroff, Nathalie; Auletta, Gennaro; Barezzani, Maria Grazia; Houri, Karim; Group, Indian Research; Bagus, Heike; Hoppe, Ulrich; Humphries, Jane; van Treeck, Wiebke; Briaire, Jeroen J; Brendel, Martina; Mathias, Nathalie

    2016-08-23

    The aim of this survey was to gather data from both implant recipients and professionals on the ease of use of the Naída CI Q70 (Naída CI) sound processor from Advanced Bionics and on the usefulness of the new functions and features available. A secondary objective was to investigate fitting practices with the new processor. A comprehensive user satisfaction survey was conducted in a total of 186 subjects from 24 centres. In parallel, 23 professional questionnaires were collected from 11 centres. Overall, there was high satisfaction with the Naída CI processor from adults, children, experienced and new CI users as well as from professionals. The Naída CI processor was shown as being easy to use by all ages of recipients and by professionals. The majority of experienced CI users rated the Naída CI processor as being similar or better than their previous processor in all areas surveyed. The Naída CI was recommended by the professionals for fitting in all populations. Features like UltraZoom, ZoomControl and DuoPhone would not be fitted to very young children in contrast to adults. Positive ratings were obtained for ease of use, comfort and usefulness of the new functions and features of the Naída CI sound processor. Seventy-seven percent of the experienced CI users rated the new processor as being better than their previous sound processor from a general point of view. The survey also showed that fitting practices were influenced by the age of the user.

  9. Metadynamics simulations reveal a Na+ independent exiting path of galactose for the inward-facing conformation of vSGLT.

    PubMed

    Bisha, Ina; Rodriguez, Alex; Laio, Alessandro; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2014-12-01

    Sodium-Galactose Transporter (SGLT) is a secondary active symporter which accumulates sugars into cells by using the electrochemical gradient of Na+ across the membrane. Previous computational studies provided insights into the release process of the two ligands (galactose and sodium ion) into the cytoplasm from the inward-facing conformation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT). Several aspects of the transport mechanism of this symporter remain to be clarified: (i) a detailed kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the exit path of the two ligands is still lacking; (ii) contradictory conclusions have been drawn concerning the gating role of Y263; (iii) the role of Na+ in modulating the release path of galactose is not clear. In this work, we use bias-exchange metadynamics simulations to characterize the free energy profile of the galactose and Na+ release processes toward the intracellular side. Surprisingly, we find that the exit of Na+ and galactose is non-concerted as the cooperativity between the two ligands is associated to a transition that is not rate limiting. The dissociation barriers are of the order of 11-12 kcal/mol for both the ion and the substrate, in line with kinetic information concerning this type of transporters. On the basis of these results we propose a branched six-state alternating access mechanism, which may be shared also by other members of the LeuT-fold transporters.

  10. Introduction to Garudapurăna with reference to Ayurvĕda.

    PubMed

    Subhose, Varanasi; Narayana, Ala; Prasad, P V V; Rao, M Mruthyumjaya

    2006-01-01

    The Purănas are the encyclopedic works of the ancient and medieval Hindu religion, philosophy, history, politics, ethics, sciences etc. There are 18 (Astădaśa) purănas, which are, considered as mahăpurănas, among which Garudapurăna is popular one. The Garudapurăna is divided into two parts viz., Pŭrvakhanda and Uttarakhanda. The first part, which is also called Acărakhanda consists of 240 chapters. The greater part of the Pŭrvakhanda occupies the descriptions of Vratas (religious observances), sacred places dedicated to the Sŭrya (sun), Lord Siva and Lord Visnu. It also contains treatises on various aspects like astrology, palmistry, politics, Sănkhya, Yŏga, anatomy, precious stones and extensive information on vedic medicine i.e., Ayurveda. The Uttarakhanda consists of two khandas viz. Dharmakhanda and Brahmakhanda, which are divided into 42 and 29 chapters, respectively. The Dharmakhanda is also known as the Prĕtakalpa which contains directions for the performance of obsequies rites. The Prĕtakalpa portion of the Garudapurăna is generally recited during the period of mourning and so its importance is self-evident. It is almost impossible to narrate within such a small framework, the wide range of splendid truths scattered in the pages of this noble purănam. Little information is available from internal evidence to establish its exact period. However, it is supposed to be quite ancient in its origin.

  11. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam

  12. Modeling and dynamics of the inward-facing state of a Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporter homologue.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Saher Afshan; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2010-08-26

    The leucine transporter (LeuT) has recently commanded exceptional attention due mainly to two distinctions; it provides the only crystal structures available for a protein homologous to the pharmacologically relevant neurotransmitter: sodium symporters (NSS), and, it exhibits a hallmark 5-TM inverted repeat ("LeuT-fold"), a fold recently discovered to also exist in several secondary transporter families, underscoring its general role in transporter function. Constructing the transport cycle of "LeuT-fold" transporters requires detailed structural and dynamic descriptions of the outward-facing (OF) and inward-facing (IF) states, as well as the intermediate states. To this end, we have modeled the structurally unknown IF state of LeuT, based on the known crystal structures of the OF state of LeuT and the IF state of vSGLT, a "LeuT-fold" transporter. The detailed methodology developed for the study combines structure-based alignment, threading, targeted MD and equilibrium MD, and can be applied to other proteins. The resulting IF-state models maintain the secondary structural features of LeuT. Water penetration and solvent accessibility calculations show that TM1, TM3, TM6 and TM8 line the substrate binding/unbinding pathway with TM10 and its pseudosymmetric partner, TM5, participating in the extracellular and intracellular halves of the lumen, respectively. We report conformational hotspots where notable changes in interactions occur between the IF and OF states. We observe Na2 exiting the LeuT-substrate- complex in the IF state, mainly due to TM1 bending. Inducing a transition in only one of the two pseudosymmetric domains, while allowing the second to respond dynamically, is found to be sufficient to induce the formation of the IF state. We also propose that TM2 and TM7 may be facilitators of TM1 and TM6 motion. Thus, this study not only presents a novel modeling methodology applied to obtain the IF state of LeuT, but also describes structural elements involved in

  13. Face, content, and construct validity of four, inanimate training exercises using the da Vinci ® Si surgical system configured with Single-Site ™ instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Jarc, Anthony M; Curet, Myriam

    2015-08-01

    Validated training exercises are essential tools for surgeons as they develop technical skills to use robot-assisted minimally invasive surgical systems. The purpose of this study was to show face, content, and construct validity of four, inanimate training exercises using the da Vinci (®) Si surgical system configured with Single-Site (™) instrumentation. New (N = 21) and experienced (N = 6) surgeons participated in the study. New surgeons (11 Gynecology [GYN] and 10 General Surgery [GEN]) had not completed any da Vinci Single-Site cases but may have completed multiport cases using the da Vinci system. They participated in this study prior to attending a certification course focused on da Vinci Single-Site instrumentation. Experienced surgeons (5 GYN and 1 GEN) had completed at least 25 da Vinci Single-Site cases. The surgeons completed four inanimate training exercises and then rated them with a questionnaire. Raw metrics and overall normalized scores were computed using both video recordings and kinematic data collected from the surgical system. The experienced surgeons significantly outperformed new surgeons for many raw metrics and the overall normalized scores derived from video review (p < 0.05). Only one exercise did not achieve a significant difference between new and experienced surgeons (p = 0.08) when calculating an overall normalized score using both video and advanced metrics derived from kinematic data. Both new and experienced surgeons rated the training exercises as appearing, to train and measure technical skills used during da Vinci Single-Site surgery and actually testing the technical skills used during da Vinci Single-Site surgery. In summary, the four training exercises showed face, content, and construct validity. Improved overall scores could be developed using additional metrics not included in this study. The results suggest that the training exercises could be used in an overall training curriculum aimed at developing proficiency in

  14. Photolabeling of a 150-kDa (Na + K + Cl) cotransport protein from dog kidney with a bumetanide analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, M.; Forbush, B. III

    1987-08-01

    (Na + K + Cl) cotransport is the major mechanism of salt transport across the apical membrane of the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of mammalian kidney and the site of action of loop diuretics such as furosemide and bumetanide. We have identified a 150-kDa protein in membranes from dog kidney cortex that is photolabeled by a radiolabeled, benzophenone analogue of bumetanide, (/sup 3/H)4-benzoyl-5-sulfamoyl-3-(3-thenyloxy)benzoic acid ((/sup 3/H)BSTBA). Several pieces of evidence strongly suggest that this 150-kDa protein is at least part of the (Na + K + Cl) cotransport system. 1) Photoincorporation of (/sup 3/H)BSTBA into this protein is completely blocked by inclusion of 10 microM unlabeled bumetanide in the photolysis medium. 2) Photoincorporation of (/sup 3/H)BSTBA into this protein shows a saturable dependence on (/sup 3/H)BSTBA concentration, with a K 1/2 (approximately 0.1 microM) very similar to that for reversible (/sup 3/H)BSTBA binding to kidney membranes. 3) Photolabeling of this protein by (/sup 3/H)BSTBA requires the simultaneous presence of Na, K, and Cl in the photolysis medium. 4) When crude membranes from dog kidney cortex are centrifuged on sucrose density gradients, saturable (/sup 3/H)bumetanide binding and photoincorporation of (/sup 3/H)BSTBA in the 150-kDa region show a very similar distribution among the 15 gradient fractions collected. (/sup 3/H)BSTBA is also photoincorporated into at least two lower molecular mass proteins, the largest of which is approximately 50 kDa.

  15. A geometria do campo magnético na região da nuvem Lupus 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, F. P.; Franco, G. A. P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentaremos os resultados de uma investigação polarimétrica na região de formação estelar junto à nuvem escura Lupus 1. Esse estudo baseia-se em polarimétria CCD obtida na banda R, e cobre Lupus 1, bem como a área vizinha a essa nuvem contendo a cavidade em 100 mm IRAS. Os dados observacionais foram coletados com o telescópio IAG de 60 cm do Observatório do Pico dos Dias (LNA/MCT - Brasópolis - MG). Nossa primeira análise mostra que uma variação da orientação do campo magnético através da região pode produzir padrões complexos de polarização cuja geometria do campo não pode ser facilmente determinada. Os padrões de polarização são inconsistentes com um campo magnético estritamente uniforme e unidimensional em larga escala. Comparação com a emissão em 100 mm mostra que localmente os vetores de polarização exibem um forte alinhamento com a orientação dos padrões observados em infravermelho.

  16. A photoactivatable probe for the Na+/H+ exchanger cross-links a 66-kDa renal brush border membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.; Bertrand, W.; Morrison, A. )

    1990-04-05

    Earlier studies on LLC-PK1 cells have demonstrated two pharmacologically distinct Na+/H+ exchangers in renal epithelia. In addition, the cDNA clone for the human Na+/H+ antiporter which is growth factor activatable has been isolated and expressed. We report here the synthesis of an amiloride analogue that can be photoactivated and labeled with 125I. This analogue covalently cross-links a 66-kDa protein of bovine renal brush border membranes. A rabbit polyclonal antibody that was directed against a 20-amino acid peptide of the cytoplasmic domain of its human Na+/H+ antiporter also gives a positive Western against 66-kDa protein of bovine brush border membranes. Thus, the photoactive probe may be helpful in the isolation and purification of the brush border Na+/H+ exchanger.

  17. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor

  18. Knocking on Heaven's Door: Are Novel Invaders Necessarily Facing Naïve Native Species on Islands?

    PubMed

    Gérard, Agathe; Jourdan, Hervé; Millon, Alexandre; Vidal, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The impact of alien predator species on insular native biota has often been attributed to island prey naïveté (i.e. lack of, or inefficient, anti-predator behavior). Only rarely, however, has the concept of island prey naïveté been tested, and then only a posteriori (i.e. hundreds or thousands of years after alien species introduction). The presence of native or anciently introduced predators or competitors may be crucial for the recognition and development of adaptive behavior toward unknown predators or competitors of the same archetype (i.e. a set of species that occupy a similar ecological niche and show similar morphological and behavioral traits when interacting with other species). Here, we tested whether two squamates endemic to New Caledonia, a skink, Caledoniscincus austrocaledonicus, and a gecko, Bavayia septuiclavis, recognized and responded to the odor of two major invaders introduced into the Pacific islands, but not yet into New Caledonia. We chose one predator, the small Indian mongoose Herpestes javanicus and one competitor, the cane toad Rhinella marina, which belong respectively to the same archetype as the following two species already introduced into New Caledonia in the nineteenth century: the feral cat Felis catus and the golden bell frog Litoria aurea. Our experiment reveals that geckos are naïve with respect to the odors of both an unknown predator and an unknown competitor, as well as to the odors of a predator and a competitor they have lived with for centuries. In contrast, skinks seem to have lost some naïveté regarding the odor of a predator they have lived with for centuries and seem "predisposed" to avoid the odor of an unknown potential competitor. These results indicate that insular species living in contact with invasive alien species for centuries may be, although not systematically, predisposed toward developing adaptive behavior with respect to species belonging to the same archetype and introduced into their native

  19. Knocking on Heaven's Door: Are Novel Invaders Necessarily Facing Naïve Native Species on Islands?

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Agathe; Jourdan, Hervé; Millon, Alexandre; Vidal, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The impact of alien predator species on insular native biota has often been attributed to island prey naïveté (i.e. lack of, or inefficient, anti-predator behavior). Only rarely, however, has the concept of island prey naïveté been tested, and then only a posteriori (i.e. hundreds or thousands of years after alien species introduction). The presence of native or anciently introduced predators or competitors may be crucial for the recognition and development of adaptive behavior toward unknown predators or competitors of the same archetype (i.e. a set of species that occupy a similar ecological niche and show similar morphological and behavioral traits when interacting with other species). Here, we tested whether two squamates endemic to New Caledonia, a skink, Caledoniscincus austrocaledonicus, and a gecko, Bavayia septuiclavis, recognized and responded to the odor of two major invaders introduced into the Pacific islands, but not yet into New Caledonia. We chose one predator, the small Indian mongoose Herpestes javanicus and one competitor, the cane toad Rhinella marina, which belong respectively to the same archetype as the following two species already introduced into New Caledonia in the nineteenth century: the feral cat Felis catus and the golden bell frog Litoria aurea. Our experiment reveals that geckos are naïve with respect to the odors of both an unknown predator and an unknown competitor, as well as to the odors of a predator and a competitor they have lived with for centuries. In contrast, skinks seem to have lost some naïveté regarding the odor of a predator they have lived with for centuries and seem “predisposed” to avoid the odor of an unknown potential competitor. These results indicate that insular species living in contact with invasive alien species for centuries may be, although not systematically, predisposed toward developing adaptive behavior with respect to species belonging to the same archetype and introduced into their native

  20. Latest research results on the effects of nanomaterials on humans and the environment: DaNa - Knowledge Base Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, C.; Kühnel, D.; Richter, V.; Krug, H. F.; Mathes, B.; Steinbach, C.; Nau, K.

    2013-04-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The success of this fascinating technology is based on its versatility. It will bring about fundamental changes of basic research as well as of many sectors of industry and also of daily life from electronics to the health care system. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and all aspects of this versatile technology. A huge body of data on the potential hazards of nanoobjects towards human and environmental health already exists, but is either not easily accessible for a broad audience or presented unprocessable for nonexperts. But risk communication is an essential and thus integral component of risk management. For that purpose, the DaNa-Project aims at filling this gap by collecting and evaluating scientific results in an interdisciplinary approach with scientists from different research areas, such as human and environmental toxicology, biology, physics, chemistry, and sociology. Research findings from the field of human and environmental nanotoxicology are being prepared and presented together with material properties and possible applications for interested laymen and stakeholders. For the evaluation of literature a "Literature Criteria Checklist" has been developed as well as a Standard Operation Procedure template (SOP) based on careful scientific practice.

  1. A importância da poeira e ondas de Alfvén na estabilidade de nuvens moleculares anãs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; de Juli, M. C.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Nuvens moleculares anãs se apresentam dinamicamente estáveis, embora possuam massas muito maiores que a massa de Jeans. Por este motivo, a estabilidade destes objetos não pode ser explicada considerando-se apenas a pressão térmica. Campos magnéticos, aproximadamente uniformes e de ~mG, exercem um termo extra de pressão que sustenta a nuvem, mas somente na direção perpendicular às linhas de campo. Para a direção paralela, ondas de Alfvén geradas por turbulências no meio, por exemplo, têm sido utilizadas. Estas, sendo supostamente fracamente amortecidas, poderiam sustentar a nuvem nesta direção. Entretanto, estes meios contêm grandes quantidades de poeira carregada eletricamente. Estes grãos de poeira possuem frequências cíclotron, que podem entrar em ressonância com as ondas. Neste trabalho calculamos os efeitos que o amortecimento cíclotron da poeira teriam na propagação da onda, e consequentemente na estabilidade da nuvem. Considerando um fluxo de ondas, com um dado espectro de frequências, e uma população de grãos de poeira, com distribuição de tamanho observada, foi possível mostrar que o amortecimento é eficiente em uma larga banda de frequências. Neste caso as ondas seriam rapidamente amortecidas gerando pequenas condensações de alta densidade, e não poderiam ser utilizadas para explicar a estabilidade de uma nuvem inteira. Desta forma, rotação e turbulência seriam candidatos alternativos para garantir a estabilidade destes objetos.

  2. Efeitos do binarismo não resolvido na determinação da função de massa de aglomerados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L. O.; Santiago, B. X.

    2003-08-01

    Através de simulações numéricas buscamos quantificar os efeitos que o binarismo não resolvido causa na determinação da função de massa (MF) de aglomerados estelares. Geramos diagramas cor-magnitude (CMDs) artificiais simulando uma população única, caracterizada por estrelas de mesma idade e composição quí mica, com uma fração de binárias não resolvidas e distribuição em massa das estrelas dada por uma MF do tipo lei de potência. A presença de pares de estrelas não resolvidos faz com que a MF obtida da função de luminosidade (LF) tenha a têndencia de ser mais plana do que a MF que gerou o CMD artificial. Propomos um tratamento de correção para tal efeito. Outro efeito relacionado diz respeito ao alargamento do CMD, que apresenta-se como um indicador do número total de estrelas no domí nio de baixas massas (m < 0.6M¤). Todos os resultados acima possuem uma forte dependência com os erros fotométricos e estão baseados na hipótese de que ambas estrelas do par não resolvido são sorteadas de uma mesma MF de forma independente. O objetivo final é aplicarmos o tratamento aqui desenvolvido para implementarmos a análise da nossa amostra de aglomerados ricos da Grande Nuvem de Magalhães.

  3. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... face may be caused by a nerve problem, injury, or infection. Face pain may also begin in other places in ... zoster (shingles) or herpes simplex (cold sores) infection Injury to the face Migraine Myofascial pain syndrome Sinusitis or sinus infection ( ...

  4. Face Lift.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dinah; Small, Kevin H; Barton, Fritz E

    2015-11-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify the essential anatomy of the aging face and its relationship to face-lift surgery. 2. Understand the common operative approaches to the aging face and a historical perspective. 3. Understand and describe the common complications following face lifting and treatment options. Surgical rejuvenation of the aging face remains one of the most commonly performed plastic surgery procedures. This article reviews the anatomy of the face and its impact on surgical correction. In addition, this review discusses the evolution of various face-lift techniques and the current surgical approach to the aging face. Finally, this article discusses potential postoperative complications after rhytidectomy and management solutions.

  5. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  6. Teaching and Popularization of Astronomy in Latin America by the Liada Perspective. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza y Divulgación de la Astronomía en la América Latina en la Perspectiva de la Liada.) Ensino e Divulgação da Astronomia na América Latina na Perspectiva da Liada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio

    2008-12-01

    disponibilizados en la página de la Sección, faz-se una análisis y discusión sobre la importancia de tales relatos para finalidades educacionales. Es presentada una Hoja de reporte elaborado como sugestión para presentación de relatos por parte de individuos y instituciones ben como discutida la importancia de la sistematización de experiencias visando mayor visibilidad y cambio de informaciones en el área. Concluí con una evaluación de los proyectos, su potencial y limitaciones, ben como sugestiones de proyectos futuros visando mayor interacción entre los países de la América Latina y tornando disponible la Sección para esta finalidad.

    Esse trabalho visa divulgar e analisar as atividades da Seção de Ensino e Divulgação de Astronomia (SEDA) da Liga Iberoamericana de Astronomia (LIADA). Após um histórico da LIADA, são apresentados os diversos projetos da Seção que conta com a colaboração de coordenadores locais na maioria dos países da América Latina. São apresentados os projetos que visam chamar a atenção do público em geral, estudantes e professores para a observação do céu e posterior envio de relatos para colocação na página da Seção na Internet. Mais especificamente são analisados os projetos e relatos relacionados aos eclipses ocorridos desde o ano 2000. Utilizando-se os arquivos disponibilizados na página da Seção, faz-se uma análise e discussão sobre a importância de tais relatos para finalidades educacionais. É apresentado um formulário elaborado como sugestão para apresentação de relatos por parte de indivíduos e instituições bem como discutida a importância da sistematização de experiências visando maior visibilidade e troca de informações na área. Conclui com uma avaliação dos projetos, seu potencial e limitações, bem como sugestões de projetos futuros visando maior interação entre os países da América Latina e tornando disponível a Seção para esta finalidade.

  7. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  8. Environmental benefits and concerns on safety: communicating latest results on nanotechnology safety research-the project DaNa(2.0).

    PubMed

    Kühnel, D; Marquardt, C; Nau, K; Krug, H F; Paul, F; Steinbach, C

    2017-04-01

    The use of nanotechnology and advanced materials promises to revolutionise many areas of technology and improve our daily life. In that respect, many positive effects on the environment are expected, either directly, by developing new technologies for remediation, filtering techniques or energy generation, or indirectly, by e.g. saving resources due to lower consumption of raw materials, or lower energy and fuel consumption due to reduced weight of vehicles. However, such beneficial effects of new technologies are often confronted by concerns regarding the safety of novel substances or materials. During the past 10 years, great effort has been put into research on potential hazards of nanomaterials towards environmental organisms. As the methodology for reliable assessment of nanomaterials was immature, many studies reporting contradictory results have been published, hindering both risk assessment for nanomaterials, as well as the knowledge communication to all involved stakeholders. Thus, DaNa(2.0) serves as a platform to implement trusted knowledge on nanomaterials for an objective discussion.

  9. Face lift.

    PubMed

    Warren, Richard J; Aston, Sherrell J; Mendelson, Bryan C

    2011-12-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify and describe the anatomy of and changes to the aging face, including changes in bone mass and structure and changes to the skin, tissue, and muscles. 2. Assess each individual's unique anatomy before embarking on face-lift surgery and incorporate various surgical techniques, including fat grafting and other corrective procedures in addition to shifting existing fat to a higher position on the face, into discussions with patients. 3. Identify risk factors and potential complications in prospective patients. 4. Describe the benefits and risks of various techniques. The ability to surgically rejuvenate the aging face has progressed in parallel with plastic surgeons' understanding of facial anatomy. In turn, a more clear explanation now exists for the visible changes seen in the aging face. This article and its associated video content review the current understanding of facial anatomy as it relates to facial aging. The standard face-lift techniques are explained and their various features, both good and bad, are reviewed. The objective is for surgeons to make a better aesthetic diagnosis before embarking on face-lift surgery, and to have the ability to use the appropriate technique depending on the clinical situation.

  10. Impact of coal output concentration on methane emission to longwall faces / Wpływ koncentracji wydobycia na wydzielanie metanu do wyrobisk ścianowych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Kubaczka, Czesław

    2012-10-01

    An increase in concentration of coal output in Polish hard coal mines contributes to a significant increase in absolute methane-bearing capacity in mining areas. Measurements of methane concentration were taken in selected longwall faces in order to estimate the influence of coal output on methane hazard. The measurements were taken from 2006 to 2008 in 8 longwalls in mines with high methane hazard. The parameters for longwalls where measurements were taken are presented in table 1. Average daily output ranged from 1380 to 2320 Mg: however the maximum daily output amounted to 5335 Mg. Absolute methane-bearing capacity ranged from 4.44 to 56.41 m3/min. Longwalls were ventilated with a U and Y system and their ventilation schemes are presented in figure 1. The period of measurements ranged from 29 to 384 days. The results obtained were used to determine the influence of changes in output on methane hazard. For each longwall under research statistical estimation of parameters, such as: ventilation air methane (VAM) emission, amount of methane captured by a drainage system, absolute methane-bearing capacity and an advance of longwall face was conducted. In order to determine the influence of a longwall face advance on methane-bearing capacity the probabilistic model of the distribution of those parameters on the basis of the measurement results was used. In order to determine the dependence between ventilation air methane emission, methane drainage, absolute methane-bearing capacity and longwall advance, the distribution of analysed variables was checked by means of Kolmogorow-Smirnov normality test. The results of this test are presented in table 2. Table 3 presents values for correlation co-efficient r(x,y). When analyzing the results presented in table 3 it must be observed that in case of most longwalls there is a high correlation between ventilation air methane emission, absolute methane-bearing capacity and longwall advance. However, in longwalls N-10 i W-5 the

  11. Recognizing Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Hadyn D.

    1975-01-01

    The proposition that the mechanisms underlying facial recognition are different from those involved in recognizing other classes of pictorial material was assessed following a general review of the literature concerned with recognizing faces. (Author/RK)

  12. About Face

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and clinicians share their experiences with PTSD and PTSD treatment. Choose a topic below to hear what they have to say. What is PTSD? → How ...

  13. Face Prints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadash, Dre Ann

    1984-01-01

    Eighth graders made prints of their own faces, using photographic papers and chemicals. Describes the supplies needed and the printing process involved. Because junior high school students are so concerned with self, this was a very meaningful activity for them. (CS)

  14. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  15. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  16. Perceiving speech from inverted faces.

    PubMed

    Massaro, D W; Cohen, M M

    1996-10-01

    We examined whether the orientation of the face influences speech perception in face-to-face communication. Participants identified auditory syllables, visible syllables, and bimodal syllables presented in an expanded factorial design. The syllables were /ba/, /va/, /oa/, or /da/. The auditory syllables were taken from natural speech whereas the visible syllables were produced by computer animation of a realistic talking face. The animated face was presented either as viewed in normal upright orientation or inverted orientation (180 degrees frontal rotation). The central intent of the study was to determine if an inverted view of the face would change the nature of processing bimodal speech or simply influence the information available in visible speech. The results with both the upright and inverted face views were adequately described by the fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP). The observed differences in the FLMP's parameter values corresponding to the visual information indicate that inverting the view of the face influences the amount of visible information but does not change the nature of the information processing in bimodal speech perception.

  17. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  18. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing

    PubMed Central

    Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T.; Alpers, Georg W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer—conveyed by facial expression and face direction—amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. PMID:28158672

  19. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing.

    PubMed

    Bublatzky, Florian; Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T; Alpers, Georg W

    2017-05-01

    The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer-conveyed by facial expression and face direction-amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Determinação da composição química em nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.; Maciel, W. J.

    2003-08-01

    Existe um gradiente radial de abundâncias no disco galáctico, cujo comportamento é razoavelmente bem conhecido para distâncias galactocêntricas entre 3 e 10 kpc. Foi obtido a partir de resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias, regiões HII e estrelas, como as estrelas quentes de tipo O, B e aglomerados abertos. Com o objetivo de investigar o comportamento deste gradiente radial na região externa do disco, conhecida como anticentro galáctico, reportamos aqui os resultados finais da análise de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro, observadas no LNA e no ESO entre 1995 e 2000. O uso de nebulosas planetárias permite o cálculo das abundâncias de elementos traçadores da evolução química do disco como oxigênio, argônio e neônio com o uso de técnicas de espectroscopia nebular. Os resultados indicam uma distribuição de abundâncias distinta daquela encontrada na vizinhança solar, mostrando que o gradiente radial diminui sensivelmente para distâncias galactocêntricas maiores que 10 kpc. Este resultado está de acordo com os mais recentes modelos de evolução química do disco, que prevêem uma diminuição ou mesmo um desaparecimento do gradiente radial no bordo externo do disco galáctico. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  1. Virtual & Real Face to Face Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta

    2016-01-01

    In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…

  2. Face adaptation depends on seeing the face.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Farshad; Koch, Christof; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2005-01-06

    Retinal input that is suppressed from visual awareness can nevertheless produce measurable aftereffects, revealing neural processes that do not directly result in a conscious percept. We here report that the face identity-specific aftereffect requires a visible face; it is effectively cancelled by binocular suppression or by inattentional blindness of the inducing face. Conversely, the same suppression does not interfere with the orientation-specific aftereffect. Thus, the competition between incompatible or interfering visual inputs to reach awareness is resolved before those aspects of information that are exploited in face identification are processed. We also found that the face aftereffect remained intact when the visual distracters in the inattention experiment were replaced with auditory distracters. Thus, cross-modal or cognitive interference that does not affect the visibility of the face does not interfere with the face aftereffect. We conclude that adaptation to face identity depends on seeing the face.

  3. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  4. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  5. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  6. Learning Faces from Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Christopher A.; Liu, Chang Hong; Young, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies examining face learning have mostly used only a single exposure to 1 image of each of the faces to be learned. However, in daily life, faces are usually learned from multiple encounters. These 6 experiments examined the effects on face learning of repeated exposures to single or multiple images of a face. All experiments…

  7. Learning Faces from Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Christopher A.; Liu, Chang Hong; Young, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies examining face learning have mostly used only a single exposure to 1 image of each of the faces to be learned. However, in daily life, faces are usually learned from multiple encounters. These 6 experiments examined the effects on face learning of repeated exposures to single or multiple images of a face. All experiments…

  8. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  9. Facing facts: neuronal mechanisms of face perception.

    PubMed

    Dekowska, Monika; Kuniecki, Michał; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The face is one of the most important stimuli carrying social meaning. Thanks to the fast analysis of faces, we are able to judge physical attractiveness and features of their owners' personality, intentions, and mood. From one's facial expression we can gain information about danger present in the environment. It is obvious that the ability to process efficiently one's face is crucial for survival. Therefore, it seems natural that in the human brain there exist structures specialized for face processing. In this article, we present recent findings from studies on the neuronal mechanisms of face perception and recognition in the light of current theoretical models. Results from brain imaging (fMRI, PET) and electrophysiology (ERP, MEG) show that in face perception particular regions (i.e. FFA, STS, IOA, AMTG, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex) are involved. These results are confirmed by behavioral data and clinical observations as well as by animal studies. The developmental findings reviewed in this article lead us to suppose that the ability to analyze face-like stimuli is hard-wired and improves during development. Still, experience with faces is not sufficient for an individual to become an expert in face perception. This thesis is supported by the investigation of individuals with developmental disabilities, especially with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).

  10. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  11. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  12. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275

  13. Programmed versus Face-to-Face Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William M.; Ewing, Thomas N.

    1971-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effectiveness of a programmed Self-Counseling Manual and a normal precollege counseling interview by experienced counselors. Findings supported the use of programmed counseling as an adjunct to or substitute for face-to-face counseling. (Author)

  14. Programmed versus Face-to-Face Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William M.; Ewing, Thomas N.

    1971-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effectiveness of a programmed Self-Counseling Manual and a normal precollege counseling interview by experienced counselors. Findings supported the use of programmed counseling as an adjunct to or substitute for face-to-face counseling. (Author)

  15. Insulated face brick

    SciTech Connect

    Cromrich, J.; Cromrich, L.B.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a method for forming insulated brick intended solely for use in building walls and having superior insulation qualities and lighter weight consonant with the load bearing capabilities of building bricks and the appearance of facing brick. It comprises dry mixing two parts of vermiculite and one part of brick clay, thereby forming a dry mixture having a vermiculite to clay ratio of approximately two-to-one by volume; adding water to the dry mixture and mixing, so that a substantially dry admixture having expanded vermiculite and brick clay is formed; forming a facing layer solely from brick clay; molding and compressing the substantially dry admixture, so as to form a generally rectangular main body layer having parallel top and bottom faces, a pair of parallel side faces and a pair of parallel end faces, respectively, the top and bottom faces being substantially larger in area than the respective side faces, and the side faces being substantially larger in area than the respective end faces, the body layer further having at least one bore formed therein, the bore running from the top face to the bottom face perpendicularly thereto and substantially parallel to the side surfaces thereof, the bore being substantially centrally disposed and wherein the facing layer is disposed on one of the side surfaces of the body portion; curing the molded admixture having the facing layer disposed thereon; whereby a cured brick is formed; and firing the cured brick and the facing layer disposed thereon, whereby an integral brick is formed having top and bottom faces of the brick which are entirely devoid of facing layers, wherein the brick has the desired load bearing capability substantially between its top and bottom faces, whereby the outer facing layer only provides the desired appearance and weather resistance, and further whereby the weight of the brick is substantially reduced.

  16. Agents that elevate the concentration of cAMP in platelets inhibits the formation of a NaDodSO/sub 4/-resistant complex between thrombin and a 40-kDa protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lerea, K.M.; Glomset, J.A.

    1987-08-01

    The authors studied the influence of prostaglandin E/sub 1/ and theophylline on the ability of rabbit or human platelets to form NaDodSO/sub 4/-resistant complexes between /sup 125/I-labeled thrombin and a platelet protein of approx. =40 kDa. Control platelets formed two types of these complexes, one that sedimented with the platelets and one that was found in the suspension medium. There were 30-40 sedimentable complexes per platelet and about three times this number of soluble complexes. Pretreatment of rabbit or human platelets with prostaglandin E/sub 1/ and theophylline decreased the formation of both types of complex by as much as 60-80%. The pretreatment was particularly effective when low doses of thrombin were used. When added to control platelets, such doses of thrombin caused the formation of sedimentable complexes and the concomitant formation of inositol trisphosphate. However, when added to platelets that had been pretreated with prostaglandin E/sub 1/ and theophylline, low doses of thrombin had little or no effect on either reaction.

  17. What makes faces special?

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiaomin; Tjan, Bosco S; Biederman, Irving

    2006-10-01

    What may be special about faces, compared to non-face objects, is that their neural representation may be fundamentally spatial, e.g., Gabor-like. Subjects matched a sequence of two filtered images, each containing every other combination of spatial frequency and orientation, of faces or non-face 3D blobs, judging whether the person or blob was the same or different. On a match trial, the images were either identical or complementary (containing the remaining spatial frequency and orientation content). Relative to an identical pair of images, a complementary pair of faces, but not blobs, reduced matching accuracy and released fMRI adaptation in the fusiform face area.

  18. Face to Face Communications in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Davon, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that human face-to-face communications in space are compromised by facial edema, variations in the orientations of speakers and listeners, and background noises that are encountered in the shuttle and in space stations. To date, nearly all reports have been anecdotal or subjective, in the form of post-flight interviews or questionnaires; objective and quantitative data are generally lacking. Although it is acknowledged that efficient face-to-face communications are essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, specific ways in which the space environment interferes with non-linguistic communication cues are poorly documented. Because we have only a partial understanding of how non-linguistic communication cues may change with mission duration, it is critically important to obtain objective data, and to evaluate these cues under well-controlled experimental conditions.

  19. Face to Face Communications in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Davon, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that human face-to-face communications in space are compromised by facial edema, variations in the orientations of speakers and listeners, and background noises that are encountered in the shuttle and in space stations. To date, nearly all reports have been anecdotal or subjective, in the form of post-flight interviews or questionnaires; objective and quantitative data are generally lacking. Although it is acknowledged that efficient face-to-face communications are essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, specific ways in which the space environment interferes with non-linguistic communication cues are poorly documented. Because we have only a partial understanding of how non-linguistic communication cues may change with mission duration, it is critically important to obtain objective data, and to evaluate these cues under well-controlled experimental conditions.

  20. Energy efficient face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehnal, J.; Sedy, J.; Etsion, I.; Zobens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Torque, face temperature, leakage, and wear of a flat face seal were compared with three coned face seals at pressures up to 2758 kPa and speeds up to 8000 rpm. Axial movement of the mating seal parts was recorded by a digital data acquisition system. The coning of the tungsten carbide primary ring ranged from .51 micro-m to 5.6 micro-m. The torque of the coned face seal balanced to 76.3% was an average 42% lower, the leakage eleven times higher, than that of the standard flat face seal. The reduction of the balance of the coned face seal to 51.3% resulted by decreasing the torque by an additional 44% and increasing leakage 12 to 230 times, depending on the seal shaft speed. No measurable wear was observed on the face of the coned seals.

  1. Face Time: Educating Face Transplant Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Lamparello, Brooke M.; Bueno, Ericka M.; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C.; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. Methods: We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify topics applicable to face transplant patients. The team identified unique features of face transplantation that warrant comprehensive patient education. Results: We created a 181-page handbook to provide subjects interested in pursuing transplantation with a written source of information on the process and team members and to address concerns they may have. While the handbook covers a wide range of topics, it is easy to understand and visually appealing. Conclusions: Face transplantation has many unique aspects that must be relayed to the patients pursuing this novel therapy. Since candidates lack third-party support groups and programs, the transplant team must provide an extensive educational component to enhance this complex process. Practice Implications: As face transplantation continues to develop, programs must create sound education programs that address patients’ needs and concerns to facilitate optimal care. PMID:23861990

  2. What makes faces special?

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xiaomin; Tjan, Bosco S.; Biederman, Irving

    2009-01-01

    What may be special about faces, compared to non-face objects, is that their neural representation may be fundamentally spatial, e.g., Gabor-like. Subjects matched a sequence of two filtered images, each containing every other combination of spatial frequency and orientation, of faces or non-face 3D blobs, judging whether the person or blob was the same or different. On a match trial, the images were either identical or complementary (containing the remaining spatial frequency and orientation content). Relative to an identical pair of images, a complementary pair of faces, but not blobs, reduced matching accuracy and released fMRI adaptation in the fusiform face area. PMID:16938328

  3. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.

  4. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    PubMed

    Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-Dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.

  5. Face transplantation: Anesthetic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Face transplantation is a complex vascular composite allotransplantation (VCA) surgery. It involves multiple types of tissue, such as bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves to be transferred from the donor to the recipient as one unit. VCAs were added to the definition of organs covered by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Final Rule and National Organ Transplant Act. Prior to harvest of the face from the donor, a tracheostomy is usually performed. The osteotomies and dissection of the midface bony skeleton may involve severe hemorrhagic blood loss often requiring transfusion of blood products. A silicon face mask created from the facial impression is used to reconstruct the face and preserve the donor’s dignity. The recipient airway management most commonly used is primary intubation of an existing tracheostoma with a flexometallic endotracheal tube. The recipient surgery usually averages to 19-20 h. Since the face is a very vascular organ, there is usually massive bleeding, both in the dissection phase as well as in the reperfusion phase. Prior to reperfusion, often, after one sided anastomosis of the graft, the contralateral side is allowed to bleed to get rid of the preservation solution and other additives. Intraoperative product replacement should be guided by laboratory values and point of care testing for coagulation and hemostasis. In face transplantation, bolus doses of pressors or pressor infusions have been used intraoperatively in several patients to manage hypotension. This article reviews the anesthetic considerations for management for face transplantation, and some of the perioperative challenges faced. PMID:28058213

  6. Social judgments from faces.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Face Search at Scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dayong; Otto, Charles; Jain, Anil K

    2017-06-01

    Given the prevalence of social media websites, one challenge facing computer vision researchers is to devise methods to search for persons of interest among the billions of shared photos on these websites. Despite significant progress in face recognition, searching a large collection of unconstrained face images remains a difficult problem. To address this challenge, we propose a face search system which combines a fast search procedure, coupled with a state-of-the-art commercial off the shelf (COTS) matcher, in a cascaded framework. Given a probe face, we first filter the large gallery of photos to find the top- k most similar faces using features learned by a convolutional neural network. The k retrieved candidates are re-ranked by combining similarities based on deep features and those output by the COTS matcher. We evaluate the proposed face search system on a gallery containing 80 million web-downloaded face images. Experimental results demonstrate that while the deep features perform worse than the COTS matcher on a mugshot dataset (93.7 percent versus 98.6 percent TAR@FAR of 0.01 percent), fusing the deep features with the COTS matcher improves the overall performance ( 99.5 percent TAR@FAR of 0.01 percent). This shows that the learned deep features provide complementary information over representations used in state-of-the-art face matchers. On the unconstrained face image benchmarks, the performance of the learned deep features is competitive with reported accuracies. LFW database: 98.20 percent accuracy under the standard protocol and 88.03 percent TAR@FAR of 0.1 percent under the BLUFR protocol; IJB-A benchmark: 51.0 percent TAR@FAR of 0.1 percent (verification), rank 1 retrieval of 82.2 percent (closed-set search), 61.5 percent FNIR@FAR of 1 percent (open-set search). The proposed face search system offers an excellent trade-off between accuracy and scalability on galleries with millions of images. Additionally, in a face search experiment involving

  8. Dynamic Face Seal Arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A radial face seal arrangement is disclosed comprising a stationary seal ring that is spring loaded against a seal seat affixed to a rotating shaft. The radial face seal arrangement further comprises an arrangement that not only allows for preloading of the stationary seal ring relative to the seal seat, but also provides for dampening yielding a dynamic seating response for the radial face seal arrangement. The overall seal system, especially regarding the selection of the material for the stationary seal ring, is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from below ambient up to 900 C.

  9. Gaze cueing by pareidolia faces

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process. PMID:25165505

  10. Head and face reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... and facial skin. That is why sometimes a plastic surgeon (for skin and face) and a neurosurgeon ( ... Mosby; 2015:chap 24. McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, ...

  11. Future Faces of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauncy, Toni

    2008-10-01

    In keeping with its commitment to help students transform themselves into contributing members of the professional physics community, the Society of Physics Students National Council began efforts aimed at addressing issued of diversity in physics several years ago. One of the projects stemming from these discussions is the adoption of a 2008 theme ``The Future Faces of Physics.'' With this theme, the council aims to raise visibility and focus on issues of student diversity in physics. The initiative included the distribution of ``Future Faces of Physics Kits'' to any chapter hosting zone meetings. A highlight of the kit is the Future Faces of Physics Jeopardy set, which consists of buzzers, a score board, instructions, and a game board. The Future Faces of Physics game is a vehicle for generating discussion and raising awareness. The diversity session is hosted by the SPS Zone 13 and Zone 16 leadership.

  12. Accustomed to Her Face

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-26

    After nearly three years at Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft continues to observe the planet retinue of icy moons. Rhea cratered face attests to its great age, while its bright wisps hint at tectonic activity in the past

  13. Toward hyperspectral face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robila, Stefan A.

    2008-02-01

    Face recognition continues to meet significant challenges in reaching accurate results and still remains one of the activities where humans outperform technology. An attractive approach in improving face identification is provided by the fusion of multiple imaging sources such as visible and infrared images. Hyperspectral data, i.e. images collected over hundreds of narrow contiguous light spectrum intervals constitute a natural choice for expanding face recognition image fusion, especially since it may provide information beyond the normal visible range, thus exceeding the normal human sensing. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of hyperspectral face recognition through an in house experiment that collected data in over 120 bands within the visible and near infrared range. The imagery was produced using an off the shelf sensor in both indoors and outdoors with the subjects being photographed from various angles. Further processing included spectra collection and feature extraction. Human matching performance based on spectral properties is discussed.

  14. Protective Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mask to protect the physically impaired from injuries to the face and head has been developed by Langley Research Center. It is made of composite materials, usually graphite or boron fibers woven into a matrix. Weighs less than three ounces.

  15. Recognizing one's own face.

    PubMed

    Kircher, T T; Senior, C; Phillips, M L; Rabe-Hesketh, S; Benson, P J; Bullmore, E T; Brammer, M; Simmons, A; Bartels, M; David, A S

    2001-01-01

    We report two studies of facial self-perception using individually tailored, standardized facial photographs of a group of volunteers and their partners. A computerized morphing procedure was used to merge each target face with an unknown control face. In the first set of experiments, a discrimination task revealed a delayed response time for the more extensively morphed self-face stimuli. In a second set of experiments, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation while subjects viewed morphed versions of either their own or their partner's face, alternating in blocks with presentation of an unknown face. When subjects viewed themselves (minus activation for viewing an unknown face), increased blood oxygenation was detected in right limbic (hippocampal formation, insula, anterior cingulate), left prefrontal cortex and superior temporal cortex. In the partner (versus unknown) experiment, only the right insula was activated. We suggest that a neural network involving the right hemisphere in conjunction with left-sided associative and executive regions underlies the process of visual self-recognition. Together, this combination produces the unique experience of self-awareness.

  16. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  17. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  18. Successful Decoding of Famous Faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Vadim; Yovel, Galit

    2015-01-01

    What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition. PMID:25714434

  19. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    PubMed Central

    Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G.; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)–the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces. PMID:26535910

  20. First Impressions From Faces.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A

    2017-06-01

    Although cultural wisdom warns 'don't judge a book by its cover,' we seem unable to inhibit this tendency even though it can produce inaccurate impressions of people's psychological traits and has significant social consequences. One explanation for this paradox is that first impressions of faces overgeneralize our adaptive impressions of categories of people that those faces resemble (including babies, familiar or unfamiliar people, unfit people, emotional people). Research testing these 'overgeneralization' hypotheses elucidates why we form first impressions from faces, what impressions we form, and what cues influence these impressions. This article focuses on commonalities in impressions across diverse perceivers. However, brief attention is given to individual differences in impressions and impression accuracy.

  1. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    PubMed Central

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  2. An equine pain face

    PubMed Central

    Gleerup, Karina B; Forkman, Björn; Lindegaard, Casper; Andersen, Pia H

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. Study design Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Animals Six adult horses. Methods Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses participated in two control trials and received both noxious stimuli twice, once with and once without an observer present. During all sessions their pain state was scored. The horses were filmed and the close-up video recordings of the faces were analysed for alterations in behaviour and facial expressions. Still images from the trials were evaluated for the presence of each of the specific pain face features identified from the video analysis. Results Both noxious challenges were effective in producing a pain response resulting in significantly increased pain scores. Alterations in facial expressions were observed in all horses during all noxious stimulations. The number of pain face features present on the still images from the noxious challenges were significantly higher than for the control trial (p = 0.0001). Facial expressions representative for control and pain trials were condensed into explanatory illustrations. During pain sessions with an observer present, the horses increased their contact-seeking behavior. Conclusions and clinical relevance An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain. PMID:25082060

  3. [Modern face lift surgery].

    PubMed

    von Gregory, H F; Gubisch, W

    2011-09-01

    Face lift surgery is generally considered the classical surgical procedure of plastic surgery. This is an extensive operation which has undergone a huge development since its first implementation more than 100 years ago. What began as a simple skin tightening procedure is today a sophisticated and complex technique which ideally combines different treatment methods planned with surgical precision. This article provides an overview of the history of the procedure to the present state of the art concept of pairing biplanar and bivectorial face-neck lifts with autologous fat transfer and dermabrasion.

  4. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  5. Voicing on Virtual and Face to Face Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamat, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…

  6. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  7. Conjunction Faces Alter Confidence-Accuracy Relations for Old Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    The authors used a state-trace methodology to investigate the informational dimensions used to recognize old and conjunction faces (made by combining parts of separately studied faces). Participants in 3 experiments saw faces presented for 1 s each. They then received a recognition test; faces were presented for varying brief durations and…

  8. Faceness-Net: Face Detection through Deep Facial Part Responses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Luo, Ping; Loy, Chen Change; Tang, Xiaoou

    2017-08-11

    We propose a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for face detection leveraging on facial attributes based supervision. We observe a phenomenon that part detectors emerge within CNN trained to classify attributes from uncropped face images, without any explicit part supervision. The observation motivates a new method for finding faces through scoring facial parts responses by their spatial structure and arrangement. The scoring mechanism is data-driven, and carefully formulated considering challenging cases where faces are only partially visible. This consideration allows our network to detect faces under severe occlusion and unconstrained pose variations. Our method achieves promising performance on popular benchmarks including FDDB, PASCAL Faces, AFW, and WIDER FACE.

  9. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    DOEpatents

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  10. Facing Up to Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  11. Lightweight Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cason, W. E. I.; Baucom, R. M.; Evans, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Lightweight face mask originally developed to protect epileptic patients during seizures could have many other medical and nonmedical applications such as muscular distrophy patients, football linesmen and riot-control police. Masks are extremely lightweight, the lightest of the configurations weighing only 136 grams.

  12. Facing the Not Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to face the not knowing and offers a strategy to fill the gap of not knowing. In coping with constant change, he describes a strategy for library staff that might help in the absence of certainty. This includes: (a) guarding the data with one's life; (b) build not for longevity, but obsolescence; (c)…

  13. Two Faces of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  14. Facing Up to Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  15. Anatomy of ageing face.

    PubMed

    Ilankovan, V

    2014-03-01

    Ageing is a biological process that results from changes at a cellular level, particularly modification of mRNA. The face is affected by the same physiological process and results in skeletal, muscular, and cutaneous ageing; ligamentous attenuation, descent of fat, and ageing of the appendages. I describe these changes on a structural and clinical basis and summarise possible solutions for a rejuvenation surgeon.

  16. Facing the Not Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to face the not knowing and offers a strategy to fill the gap of not knowing. In coping with constant change, he describes a strategy for library staff that might help in the absence of certainty. This includes: (a) guarding the data with one's life; (b) build not for longevity, but obsolescence; (c)…

  17. Lightweight Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cason, W. E. I.; Baucom, R. M.; Evans, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Lightweight face mask originally developed to protect epileptic patients during seizures could have many other medical and nonmedical applications such as muscular distrophy patients, football linesmen and riot-control police. Masks are extremely lightweight, the lightest of the configurations weighing only 136 grams.

  18. Challenges Facing Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 selected papers from recent issues of the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," concerning current and emerging challenges facing the field of special education. The book is organized in two parts. Part 1, "Contemporary Challenges," includes the following articles: "Transitions in Early Childhood Special Education: Issues…

  19. A Wall of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

  20. Automated Face Recognition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    done at the University of California San Diego will be given(3, 1). Finally, the review will end with a short overview of the Karhunen Lorve and...define a face space. This basis set which is optimally tuned to the training data is derived using the Karhunen Lorve principal component analysis (7

  1. Two Faces of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  2. A Wall of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

  3. Bayesian Face Sketch Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nannan; Gao, Xinbo; Sun, Leiyu; Li, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Exemplar-based face sketch synthesis has been widely applied to both digital entertainment and law enforcement. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian framework for face sketch synthesis, which provides a systematic interpretation for understanding the common properties and intrinsic difference in different methods from the perspective of probabilistic graphical models. The proposed Bayesian framework consists of two parts: the neighbor selection model and the weight computation model. Within the proposed framework, we further propose a Bayesian face sketch synthesis method. The essential rationale behind the proposed Bayesian method is that we take the spatial neighboring constraint between adjacent image patches into consideration for both aforementioned models, while the state-of-the-art methods neglect the constraint either in the neighbor selection model or in the weight computation model. Extensive experiments on the Chinese University of Hong Kong face sketch database demonstrate that the proposed Bayesian method could achieve superior performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both subjective perceptions and objective evaluations.

  4. Challenges Facing Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 selected papers from recent issues of the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," concerning current and emerging challenges facing the field of special education. The book is organized in two parts. Part 1, "Contemporary Challenges," includes the following articles: "Transitions in Early Childhood Special Education: Issues…

  5. Workforce Issues Facing HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These four papers are from a symposium facilitated by Eugene Andette on work force issues facing human resources development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Meaning Construction and Personal Transformation: Alternative Dimensions of Job Loss" (Terri A. Deems) reports a study conducted to explore the ways…

  6. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  7. The Caledonian face test: A new test of face discrimination.

    PubMed

    Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests.

  8. Finding Faces Among Faces: Human Faces are Located More Quickly and Accurately than Other Primate and Mammal Faces

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Buchin, Zachary; Werner, Katie; Worrell, Rey; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the specificity of human face search efficiency by examining whether there is a broad window of detection for various face-like stimuli—human and animal faces—or whether own-species faces receive greater attentional allocation. We assessed the strength of the own-species face detection bias by testing whether human faces are located more efficiently than other animal faces, when presented among various other species’ faces, in heterogeneous 16-, 36-, and 64-item arrays. Across all array sizes, we found that, controlling for distractor type, human faces were located faster and more accurately than primate and mammal faces, and that, controlling for target type, searches were faster when distractors were human faces compared to animal faces, revealing more efficient processing of human faces regardless of their role as targets or distractors (Experiment 1). Critically, these effects remained when searches were for specific species’ faces (human, chimpanzee, otter), ruling out a category-level explanation (Experiment 2). Together, these results suggest that human faces may be processed more efficiently than animal faces, both when task-relevant (targets), and when task-irrelevant (distractors), even when in direct competition with other faces. These results suggest that there is not a broad window of detection for all face-like patterns, but that human adults process own-species’ faces more efficiently than other species’ faces. Such own-species search efficiencies may arise through experience with own-species faces throughout development, or may be privileged early in development, due to the evolutionary importance of conspecifics’ faces. PMID:25113852

  9. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Anne M; Parr, Lisa A; Durham, Emily L; Matthews, Lea C; Smith, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    While humans (like other primates) communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles). The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips) and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds). Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech? Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers. These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial musculature to slow down while the function of this muscle group diverged

  10. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Marina A; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing.

  11. 'Happy Face' Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-361, 15 May 2003

    Every day, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle instruments obtain a global view of the planet to help monitor weather and seasonal patterns of frost deposition and removal. The two pictures shown here are taken from the same daily global image mosaic (the only difference is that each was processed slightly differently). The pictures show Galle Crater, informally known as 'Happy Face,' as it appeared in early southern winter. The white-ish gray surfaces are coated with wintertime carbon dioxide frost. The pattern of frost distribution gives the appearance that 'Happy Face' has opened its mouth. Galle Crater is located on the east rim of Argyre at 51oS, 31oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. Galle Crater is 230 km (143 mi) across.

  12. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  13. CRYSTAL/FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Anderson, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), under funding from NASA, participated in the CRYSTAL/FACE field campaign in July, 2002 with measurements of cirrus cloud hydrometeors in the size range from 0.5 to 1600 microns. The measurements were made with the DMT Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) that was flown on NASA's WB57F. With the exception of the first research flight when the data system failed two hours into the mission, the measurement system performed almost flawlessly during the thirteen flights. The measurements from the CAPS have been essential for interpretation of cirrus cloud properties and their impact on climate. The CAPS data set has been used extensively by the CRYSTAL/FACE investigators and as of the date of this report, have been included in five published research articles, 10 conference presentations and six other journal articles currently in preparation.

  14. CRYSTAL/FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Anderson, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), under funding from NASA, participated in the CRYSTAL/FACE field campaign in July, 2002 with measurements of cirrus cloud hydrometeors in the size range from 0.5 to 1600 microns. The measurements were made with the DMT Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) that was flown on NASA's WB57F. With the exception of the first research flight when the data system failed two hours into the mission, the measurement system performed almost flawlessly during the thirteen flights. The measurements from the CAPS have been essential for interpretation of cirrus cloud properties and their impact on climate. The CAPS data set has been used extensively by the CRYSTAL/FACE investigators and as of the date of this report, have been included in five published research articles, 10 conference presentations and six other journal articles currently in preparation.

  15. Astronomy at School: Measurements of the Earth-Moon Distance. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela: Medición de la Distancia Tierra-Luna.) Astronomia na Escola: Medida da Distância Terra-Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, Santiago; Pintado, Olga I.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this project is to approach High School students to Science. We propose to measure the Earth-Moon distance using the parallax. The observation and measurements techniques and all the calculations needed are described in this paper. The results obtained in a test experience realized during 2003 are presented. This test shows that this is a feasible project and also shows which things needed to be improved. Se plantea la propuesta de un proyecto educativo dirigido al Nivel Medio de enseñanza, consistente en la determinación de la distancia Tierra - Luna por paralaje. Se describen las técnicas de observación, mediciones y cálculos. Se proporcionan a continuación los resultados obtenidos en la experiencia piloto realizada en el 2003, la que permitió comprobar la factibilidad de llevar a cabo la propuesta, así como perfeccionar los diferentes aspectos involucrados en la misma. Propomos neste trabalho um projeto educativo dirigido ao Ensino Médio que consiste na determinação da distância Terra-Lua pelo efeito da paralaxe. As técnicas de observação, medidas e cálculos auxiliares são descritos, e os resultados obtidos numa experiência-teste realizada no ano de 2003 apresentados. Este último teste permitiu comprovar a viabilidade de execução da proposta e aperfeiçoar diversos aspectos da mesma.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of "face-to-face" porphyrins.

    PubMed Central

    Collman, J P; Elliott, C M; Halbert, T R; Tovrog, B S

    1977-01-01

    The syntheses of four binary porphyrins, two of which are constrained to a "face-to-face" conformation, and their Co2+ and Cu2+ derivatives are described. Electron spin resonance indicates that the intermetallic separation in the binuclear "face-to-face" porphyrins is about 6.5-6.8 A. Electronic spectra and proton magnetic resonance spectra support the postulated "face-to-face" conformations. A hypothesis that related compounds may serve as multielectron redox catalysts for O2 and N2 is presented. PMID:189304

  17. Foil Face Seal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  18. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device is disclosed for mounting between two surfaces to provide an air-tight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  19. Simulating newborn face perception.

    PubMed

    von Hofsten, Olov; von Hofsten, Claes; Sulutvedt, Unni; Laeng, Bruno; Brennen, Tim; Magnussen, Svein

    2014-11-18

    A frequently asked question concerns what a newborn infant can actually see. The contrast sensitivity function of newborn infants is well known, but its implications for the ability of newborns to perceive faces of adults remain unclear. We filtered gray scale animations of facial expressions in terms of both spatial frequency and contrast to correspond to the properties of newborn infants' acuity and showed them to adult participants. We reasoned that if adults were unable to identify the depicted facial expressions, then it would also seem unlikely that newborn infants could identify the same expressions. We found that for the simulated acuity the different expressions could be rather well identified at a distance of 30 cm, but when the distance was increased to 120 cm their discriminability was much degraded. This shows that although the perception of faces and facial expressions can function at the low visual resolution of the newborn infant, it is insufficient for distinguishing faces and facial expressions at moderate distances. © 2014 ARVO.

  20. Beyond Faces and Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  1. Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Tim; Lewis, Michael B; Hills, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    The concept of a multidimensional psychological space, in which faces can be represented according to their perceived properties, is fundamental to the modern theorist in face processing. Yet the idea was not clearly expressed until 1991. The background that led to the development of face-space is explained, and its continuing influence on theories of face processing is discussed. Research that has explored the properties of the face-space and sought to understand caricature, including facial adaptation paradigms, is reviewed. Face-space as a theoretical framework for understanding the effect of ethnicity and the development of face recognition is evaluated. Finally, two applications of face-space in the forensic setting are discussed. From initially being presented as a model to explain distinctiveness, inversion, and the effect of ethnicity, face-space has become a central pillar in many aspects of face processing. It is currently being developed to help us understand adaptation effects with faces. While being in principle a simple concept, face-space has shaped, and continues to shape, our understanding of face perception.

  2. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature. PMID:24116236

  3. 9. WEST FACE OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; WEST FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST FACE OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; WEST FACE OF EAST PHOTO TOWER IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. A new "fat face" illusion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Hao; Ge, Liezhong; Quinn, Paul C; Wang, Zhe; Xiao, Naiqi G; Pascalis, Olivier; Tanaka, James; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel fat face illusion that when two identical images of the same face are aligned vertically, the face at the bottom appears 'fatter'. This illusion emerged when the faces were shown upright, but not inverted, with the size of the illusion being 4%. When the faces were presented upside down, the illusion did not emerge. Also, when upright clocks were shown in the same vertically aligned fashion, we did not observe the illusion, indicating that the fat illusion does not generalize to every category of canonically upright objects with similar geometric shape as a face.

  5. Bayesian face recognition and perceptual narrowing in face-space.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-07-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to 'perceptual narrowing', the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in developing humans and primates. Though the phenomenon is highly robust and replicable, there have been few efforts to model the emergence of perceptual narrowing as a function of the accumulation of experience with faces during infancy. The goal of the current study is to examine how perceptual narrowing might manifest as statistical estimation in 'face-space', a geometric framework for describing face recognition that has been successfully applied to adult face perception. Here, I use a computer vision algorithm for Bayesian face recognition to study how the acquisition of experience in face-space and the presence of race categories affect performance for own and other-race faces. Perceptual narrowing follows from the establishment of distinct race categories, suggesting that the acquisition of category boundaries for race is a key computational mechanism in developing face expertise. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  7. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants’ face recognition abilities are subject to “perceptual narrowing,” the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in developing humans and primates. Though the phenomenon is highly robust and replicable, there have been few efforts to model the emergence of perceptual narrowing as a function of the accumulation of experience with faces during infancy. The goal of the current study is to examine how perceptual narrowing might manifest as statistical estimation in “face space,” a geometric framework for describing face recognition that has been successfully applied to adult face perception. Here, I use a computer vision algorithm for Bayesian face recognition to study how the acquisition of experience in face space and the presence of race categories affect performance for own and other-race faces. Perceptual narrowing follows from the establishment of distinct race categories, suggesting that the acquisition of category boundaries for race is a key computational mechanism in developing face expertise. PMID:22709406

  8. The 'Face' of Jupiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-29

    JunoCam images aren't just for art and science -- sometimes they are processed to bring a chuckle. This image, processed by citizen scientist Jason Major, is titled "Jovey McJupiterface." By rotating the image 180 degrees and orienting it from south up, two white oval storms turn into eyeballs, and the "face" of Jupiter is revealed. The original image was acquired by JunoCam on NASA's Juno spacecraft on May 19, 2017 at 11:20 a.m. PT (2: 20 p.m. ET) from an altitude of 12,075 miles (19,433 kilometers). https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21394

  9. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  10. Mucormycosis of the face.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Rocco C; Thomas, Wendy L; Stawski, Willard S; Ford, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    As burn wound sepsis continues to be one of the most common causes of death in burn patients, it is important to note the trend of increased involvement of fungal pathogens. Very little exists in the literature regarding management of such fungal infections. We report invasive cutaneous mucormycosis involving the face of an extensively burned patient with no prior medical history that would otherwise predispose her to such infection. Diagnosis and management are discussed leading to eventual eradication of the Mucor and survival of our patient.

  11. Coronal Hole Faces Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-14

    A substantial coronal hole rotated into a position where it is facing Earth (Aug. 9-11, 2017). Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field that spew out charged particles as solar wind that spreads into space. If that solar wind interacts with our own magnetosphere it can generate aurora. In this view of the sun in extreme ultraviolet light, the coronal hole appears as the dark stretch near the center of the sun. It was the most distinctive feature on the sun over the past week. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21874

  12. K+ Congeners That Do Not Compromise Na+ Activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A.; Kopec, Wojciech; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase is essential for ionic homeostasis in animal cells. The dephosphoenzyme contains Na+ selective inward facing sites, whereas the phosphoenzyme contains K+ selective outward facing sites. Under normal physiological conditions, K+ inhibits cytoplasmic Na+ activation of the enzyme. Acetamidinium (Acet+) and formamidinium (Form+) have been shown to permeate the pump through the outward facing sites. Here, we show that these cations, unlike K+, are unable to enter the inward facing sites in the dephosphorylated enzyme. Consistently, the organic cations exhibited little to no antagonism to cytoplasmic Na+ activation. Na+,K+-ATPase structures revealed a previously undescribed rotamer transition of the hydroxymethyl side chain of the absolutely conserved Thr772 of the α-subunit. The side chain contributes its hydroxyl to Na+ in site I in the E1 form and rotates to contribute its methyl group toward K+ in the E2 form. Molecular dynamics simulations to the E1·AlF4−·ADP·3Na+ structure indicated that 1) bound organic cations differentially distorted the ion binding sites, 2) the hydroxymethyl of Thr772 rotates to stabilize bound Form+ through water molecules, and 3) the rotamer transition is mediated by water traffic into the ion binding cavity. Accordingly, dehydration induced by osmotic stress enhanced the interaction of the congeners with the outward facing sites and profoundly modified the organization of membrane domains of the α-subunit. These results assign a catalytic role for water in pump function, and shed light on a backbone-independent but a conformation-dependent switch between H-bond and dispersion contact as part of the catalytic mechanism of the Na+,K+-ATPase. PMID:25533461

  13. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you ... to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

  14. Aging changes in the face

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  15. Vitiligo on the face (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a picture of vitiligo on the face. Complete loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, ... the same areas on both sides of the face -- symmetrically -- or it may be patchy -- asymmetrical. The ...

  16. IntraFace

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/. PMID:27346987

  17. Detecting Faces in Impoverished Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    International Conference on Face and Gesture Recognition , Nara, Japan. Heisle, B., T. Serre, S. Mukherjee and T. Poggio. (2001) Feature Reduction and...Third International Conference on Face and Gesture Recognition , Nara, Japan. Leung, T. K., Burl, M. C., & Perona, P. (1995). Finding faces in...of invariant moments. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Face and Gesture Recognition , Nara, Japan. Thornhill, R. and Gangestad

  18. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  19. FaceID: A face detection and recognition system

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.B.; Rao, N.S.V.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Mann, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    A face detection system that automatically locates faces in gray-level images is described. Also described is a system which matches a given face image with faces in a database. Face detection in an Image is performed by template matching using templates derived from a selected set of normalized faces. Instead of using original gray level images, vertical gradient images were calculated and used to make the system more robust against variations in lighting conditions and skin color. Faces of different sizes are detected by processing the image at several scales. Further, a coarse-to-fine strategy is used to speed up the processing, and a combination of whole face and face component templates are used to ensure low false detection rates. The input to the face recognition system is a normalized vertical gradient image of a face, which is compared against a database using a set of pretrained feedforward neural networks with a winner-take-all fuser. The training is performed by using an adaptation of the backpropagation algorithm. This system has been developed and tested using images from the FERET database and a set of images obtained from Rowley, et al and Sung and Poggio.

  20. Face gender modulates women's brain activity during face encoding.

    PubMed

    Lovén, Johanna; Svärd, Joakim; Ebner, Natalie C; Herlitz, Agneta; Fischer, Håkan

    2014-07-01

    Women typically remember more female than male faces, whereas men do not show a reliable own-gender bias. However, little is known about the neural correlates of this own-gender bias in face recognition memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether face gender modulated brain activity in fusiform and inferior occipital gyri during incidental encoding of faces. Fifteen women and 14 men underwent fMRI while passively viewing female and male faces, followed by a surprise face recognition task. Women recognized more female than male faces and showed higher activity to female than male faces in individually defined regions of fusiform and inferior occipital gyri. In contrast, men's recognition memory and blood-oxygen-level-dependent response were not modulated by face gender. Importantly, higher activity in the left fusiform gyrus (FFG) to one gender was related to better memory performance for that gender. These findings suggest that the FFG is involved in the gender bias in memory for faces, which may be linked to differential experience with female and male faces. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Adaptive face coding and discrimination around the average face.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Maloney, Laurence T; Turner, Jenny; Ewing, Louise

    2007-03-01

    Adaptation paradigms highlight the dynamic nature of face coding and suggest that identity is coded relative to an average face that is tuned by experience. In low-level vision, adaptive coding can enhance sensitivity to differences around the adapted level. We investigated whether sensitivity to differences around the average face is similarly enhanced. Converging evidence from three paradigms showed no enhancement. Discrimination of small interocular spacing differences was not better for faces close to the average (Study 1). Nor was perceived similarity reduced for face pairs close to (spanning) the average (Study 2). On the contrary, these pairs were judged most similar. Maximum likelihood perceptual difference scaling (Studies 3 and 4) confirmed that sensitivity to differences was reduced, not enhanced, around the average. We conclude that adaptive face coding does not enhance discrimination around the average face.

  2. Two Faces of Pluto

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-01

    This pair of approximately true color images of Pluto and its big moon Charon, taken by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, highlight the dramatically different appearance of different sides of the dwarf planet, and reveal never-before-seen details on Pluto's varied surface. The views were made by combining high-resolution black-and-white images from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) with color information from the lower-resolution color camera that is part of the Ralph instrument. The left-hand image shows the side of Pluto that always faces away from Charon -- this is the side that will be seen at highest resolution by New Horizons when it makes its close approach to Pluto on July 14th. This hemisphere is dominated by a very dark region that extends along the equator and is redder than its surroundings, alongside a strikingly bright, paler-colored region which straddles the equator on the right-hand side of the disk. The opposite hemisphere, the side that faces Charon, is seen in the right-hand image. The most dramatic feature on this side of Pluto is a row of dark dots arranged along the equator. The origin of all these features is still mysterious, but may be revealed in the much more detailed images that will be obtained as the spacecraft continues its approach to Pluto. In both images, Charon shows a darker and grayer color than Pluto, and a conspicuous dark polar region. The left-hand image was obtained at 5:37 UT on June 25th 2015, at a distance from Pluto of 22.9 million kilometers (14.3 million miles) and has a central longitude of 152 degrees. The right-hand image was obtained at 23:15 UT on June 27th 2015, at a distance from Pluto of 19.7 million kilometers (12.2 million miles) with a central longitude of 358 degrees. Insets show the orientation of Pluto in each image -- the solid lines mark the equator and the prime meridian, which is defined to be the longitude that always faces Charon. The smallest visible features are about 200 km (120 miles

  3. Face Processing: Models For Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, Matthew A.; Pentland, Alexander P.

    1990-03-01

    The human ability to process faces is remarkable. We can identify perhaps thousands of faces learned throughout our lifetime and read facial expression to understand such subtle qualities as emotion. These skills are quite robust, despite sometimes large changes in the visual stimulus due to expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses or changes in hairstyle or facial hair. Computers which model and recognize faces will be useful in a variety of applications, including criminal identification, human-computer interface, and animation. We discuss models for representing faces and their applicability to the task of recognition, and present techniques for identifying faces and detecting eye blinks.

  4. Reanimating the paralyzed face

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Facial animation is an essential part of human communication and one of the main means of expressing emotions, indexing our physiologic state and providing nonverbal cues. The loss of this important human quality due to facial paralysis can be devastating and is often associated with depression, social isolation and poor quality of life. Interruption of the neuromuscular pathway from the facial motor cortex to the facial muscles is the common causative factor in facial paralysis resulting from various etiologies. Restoring tone, symmetry and movement to the paralyzed face requires timely nerve grafting intervention in cases of reversible paralysis and the transfer of functional muscle units in irreversible paralysis. We review recent advances in these techniques. PMID:24273650

  5. Face detection and eyeglasses detection for thermal face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2012-01-01

    Thermal face recognition becomes an active research direction in human identification because it does not rely on illumination condition. Face detection and eyeglasses detection are necessary steps prior to face recognition using thermal images. Infrared light cannot go through glasses and thus glasses will appear as dark areas in a thermal image. One possible solution is to detect eyeglasses and to exclude the eyeglasses areas before face matching. In thermal face detection, a projection profile analysis algorithm is proposed, where region growing and morphology operations are used to segment the body of a subject; then the derivatives of two projections (horizontal and vertical) are calculated and analyzed to locate a minimal rectangle of containing the face area. Of course, the searching region of a pair of eyeglasses is within the detected face area. The eyeglasses detection algorithm should produce either a binary mask if eyeglasses present, or an empty set if no eyeglasses at all. In the proposed eyeglasses detection algorithm, block processing, region growing, and priori knowledge (i.e., low mean and variance within glasses areas, the shapes and locations of eyeglasses) are employed. The results of face detection and eyeglasses detection are quantitatively measured and analyzed using the manually defined ground truths (for both face and eyeglasses). Our experimental results shown that the proposed face detection and eyeglasses detection algorithms performed very well in contrast with the predefined ground truths.

  6. The many faces of research on face perception

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Face perception is fundamental to human social interaction. Many different types of important information are visible in faces and the processes and mechanisms involved in extracting this information are complex and can be highly specialized. The importance of faces has long been recognized by a wide range of scientists. Importantly, the range of perspectives and techniques that this breadth has brought to face perception research has, in recent years, led to many important advances in our understanding of face processing. The articles in this issue on face perception each review a particular arena of interest in face perception, variously focusing on (i) the social aspects of face perception (attraction, recognition and emotion), (ii) the neural mechanisms underlying face perception (using brain scanning, patient data, direct stimulation of the brain, visual adaptation and single-cell recording), and (iii) comparative aspects of face perception (comparing adult human abilities with those of chimpanzees and children). Here, we introduce the central themes of the issue and present an overview of the articles. PMID:21536550

  7. The many faces of research on face perception.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face perception is fundamental to human social interaction. Many different types of important information are visible in faces and the processes and mechanisms involved in extracting this information are complex and can be highly specialized. The importance of faces has long been recognized by a wide range of scientists. Importantly, the range of perspectives and techniques that this breadth has brought to face perception research has, in recent years, led to many important advances in our understanding of face processing. The articles in this issue on face perception each review a particular arena of interest in face perception, variously focusing on (i) the social aspects of face perception (attraction, recognition and emotion), (ii) the neural mechanisms underlying face perception (using brain scanning, patient data, direct stimulation of the brain, visual adaptation and single-cell recording), and (iii) comparative aspects of face perception (comparing adult human abilities with those of chimpanzees and children). Here, we introduce the central themes of the issue and present an overview of the articles.

  8. Learning Compact Binary Face Descriptor for Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiwen; Liong, Venice Erin; Zhou, Xiuzhuang; Zhou, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Binary feature descriptors such as local binary patterns (LBP) and its variations have been widely used in many face recognition systems due to their excellent robustness and strong discriminative power. However, most existing binary face descriptors are hand-crafted, which require strong prior knowledge to engineer them by hand. In this paper, we propose a compact binary face descriptor (CBFD) feature learning method for face representation and recognition. Given each face image, we first extract pixel difference vectors (PDVs) in local patches by computing the difference between each pixel and its neighboring pixels. Then, we learn a feature mapping to project these pixel difference vectors into low-dimensional binary vectors in an unsupervised manner, where 1) the variance of all binary codes in the training set is maximized, 2) the loss between the original real-valued codes and the learned binary codes is minimized, and 3) binary codes evenly distribute at each learned bin, so that the redundancy information in PDVs is removed and compact binary codes are obtained. Lastly, we cluster and pool these binary codes into a histogram feature as the final representation for each face image. Moreover, we propose a coupled CBFD (C-CBFD) method by reducing the modality gap of heterogeneous faces at the feature level to make our method applicable to heterogeneous face recognition. Extensive experimental results on five widely used face datasets show that our methods outperform state-of-the-art face descriptors.

  9. GAYE: a face recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepenekci, Burcu; Tek, F. Boray; Cilingir, Onur; Sakarya, Ufuk; Akar, Gozde B.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, a new face recognition system, GAYE, is presented. GAYE is a fully automatic system that detects and recognizes faces in cluttered scenes. The input of the system is any digitized image/image sequence that includes face/faces. The basic building blocks of the system are face detection, feature extraction and feature comparison. Face detection is based on skin color segmentation. For feature extraction, a novel approach is proposed that depends on the Gabor wavelet transform of the face image. By comparing facial feature vectors system finally makes a decision if the incoming person is recognized or not. Real time system tests show that GAYE achieves a recognition ratio over %90.

  10. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  11. Developmental processes in face perception

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Christoph D.; Rasch, Malte J.; Tomonaga, Masaki; Adachi, Ikuma

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the developmental origins of face recognition has been the goal of many studies of various approaches. Contributions of experience-expectant mechanisms (early component), like perceptual narrowing, and lifetime experience (late component) to face processing remain elusive. By investigating captive chimpanzees of varying age, a rare case of a species with lifelong exposure to non-conspecific faces at distinctive levels of experience, we can disentangle developmental components in face recognition. We found an advantage in discriminating chimpanzee above human faces in young chimpanzees, reflecting a predominant contribution of an early component that drives the perceptual system towards the conspecific morphology, and an advantage for human above chimpanzee faces in old chimpanzees, reflecting a predominant late component that shapes the perceptual system along the critical dimensions of the face exposed to. We simulate the contribution of early and late components using computational modeling and mathematically describe the underlying functions. PMID:23304435

  12. The construction FACE database - Codifying the NIOSH FACE reports.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Largay, Julie A; Wang, Xuanwen; Cain, Chris Trahan; Romano, Nancy

    2017-09-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has published reports detailing the results of investigations on selected work-related fatalities through the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program since 1982. Information from construction-related FACE reports was coded into the Construction FACE Database (CFD). Use of the CFD was illustrated by analyzing major CFD variables. A total of 768 construction fatalities were included in the CFD. Information on decedents, safety training, use of PPE, and FACE recommendations were coded. Analysis shows that one in five decedents in the CFD died within the first two months on the job; 75% and 43% of reports recommended having safety training or installing protection equipment, respectively. Comprehensive research using FACE reports may improve understanding of work-related fatalities and provide much-needed information on injury prevention. The CFD allows researchers to analyze the FACE reports quantitatively and efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  13. Contributions of individual face features to face discrimination.

    PubMed

    Logan, Andrew J; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2017-08-01

    Faces are highly complex stimuli that contain a host of information. Such complexity poses the following questions: (a) do observers exhibit preferences for specific information? (b) how does sensitivity to individual face parts compare? These questions were addressed by quantifying sensitivity to different face features. Discrimination thresholds were determined for synthetic faces under the following conditions: (i) 'full face': all face features visible; (ii) 'isolated feature': single feature presented in isolation; (iii) 'embedded feature': all features visible, but only one feature modified. Mean threshold elevations for isolated features, relative to full-faces, were 0.84x, 1.08, 2.12, 3.34, 4.07 and 4.47 for head-shape, hairline, nose, mouth, eyes and eyebrows respectively. Hence, when two full faces can be discriminated at threshold, the difference between the eyes is about four times less than what is required when discriminating between isolated eyes. In all cases, sensitivity was higher when features were presented in isolation than when they were embedded within a face context (threshold elevations of 0.94x, 1.74, 2.67, 2.90, 5.94 and 9.94). This reveals a specific pattern of sensitivity to face information. Observers are between two and four times more sensitive to external than internal features. The pattern for internal features (higher sensitivity for the nose, compared to mouth, eyes and eyebrows) is consistent with lower sensitivity for those parts affected by facial dynamics (e.g. facial expressions). That isolated features are easier to discriminate than embedded features supports a holistic face processing mechanism which impedes extraction of information about individual features from full faces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [A review of face illusions].

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Akiyoshi

    2012-07-01

    A variety of "face illusions," including the gaze illusion, face inversion effects, geometrical illusions, reversible figures, and other interesting phenomena related to face perception, are reviewed in the present report, with many sample images. The "gaze illusion" or the illusion of eye direction includes the Wollaston illusion, the luminance-induced gaze shift, the Bogart illusion, the eye-shadow-dependent gaze illusion, the Mona Lisa effect, etc. "Face inversion effects" refer to the Thatcher illusion, the fat face-thin illusion, underestimation of the upright face, the nose-shortening illusion of the inverted face, etc. "Geometrical illusions" include the Lee-Freire illusion, Yang's iris illusion, overestimation of the farther eye, the eye-shadow-dependent eye-size illusion, etc. "Reversible figures" contain the whole-part reversible figure, Rubin's vase-face illusion, or hybrid images. "Other interesting phenomena" include the flashed face distortion effect, the presidential illusion, predominance of the mouth or eyebrows over eye expression, the eye direction aftereffect, etc. It is suggested that some of these phenomena are highly specific to face perception.

  15. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination.

    PubMed

    Keefe, B D; Dzhelyova, M; Perrett, D I; Barraclough, N E

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  16. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, B. D.; Dzhelyova, M.; Perrett, D. I.; Barraclough, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals. PMID:23801979

  17. 'Lysi-T-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndl, Markus; Pötsch, Erich; Kandolf, Matthias; Bohner, Andreas; Schaumberger, Andreas; Resch, Reinhard; Graiss, Wilhelm; Krautzer, Bernhard; Buchgraber, Karl

    2010-05-01

    During the past century the average global surface air temperature has already increased by 1°C. A doubling of atmospheric concentration of CO2 near the end of the 21st century is predicted to result in a 3°C temperature increase. The Alpine region has experienced above average warming over the last century and is considered particularly vulnerable to global change. In Austria in some regions, grassland production suffered severe droughts during the last decade leading to serious damages and even temporal shortage in feed supply. Changes in temperature and precipitation have evident consequences for grassland vegetation. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is a major driver of climate change. Photosynthesis and productivity of most grassland species might be stimulated by increasing CO2 when soil nutrients and water are not limiting. On dry grassland sites increasing CO2 also reduces plant water loss, thereby increasing plant water use efficiency. When plant production is limited by seasonal cold temperatures as e.g. in the inner Alpine parts of Austria and in high altitude or high latitude grasslands, combined warming and higher CO2 might continue to enhance plant production. However, it is still unknown to what extend a further increase of temperature and CO2 will result in higher biomass yield in different grassland communities. To study the effects of global warming on future grassland communities and management, the application of a heating treatment combined with free-air controlled enhancement of CO2 (T-FACE) to open-field plant canopies at lysimeters is an innovative approach which allows studying responses of the plant-soil-systems as well as carbon- water and nutrient fluxes under expected future climate. The experiment is scheduled to run in the first phase 6 years (2011-2017) and is located at the AREC Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Upper Enns Valley, Austria (47,49; 14,10). Heater arrays and miniFACE rings are installed in 1.6 m diameter plots and expose

  18. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177

  19. About-face on face recognition ability and holistic processing

    PubMed Central

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Floyd, R. Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically. PMID:26223027

  20. Faces of Pluto

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-11

    These images, taken by NASA's New Horizons' Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), show four different "faces" of Pluto as it rotates about its axis with a period of 6.4 days. All the images have been rotated to align Pluto's rotational axis with the vertical direction (up-down) on the figure, as depicted schematically in the upper left. From left to right, the images were taken when Pluto's central longitude was 17, 63, 130, and 243 degrees, respectively. The date of each image, the distance of the New Horizons spacecraft from Pluto, and the number of days until Pluto closest approach are all indicated in the figure.These images show dramatic variations in Pluto's surface features as it rotates. When a very large, dark region near Pluto's equator appears near the limb, it gives Pluto a distinctly, but false, non-spherical appearance. Pluto is known to be almost perfectly spherical from previous data. These images are displayed at four times the native LORRI image size, and have been processed using a method called deconvolution, which sharpens the original images to enhance features on Pluto. Deconvolution can occasionally introduce "false" details, so the finest details in these pictures will need to be confirmed by images taken from closer range in the next few weeks. All of the images are displayed using the same brightness scale. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19686

  1. Facing the Spectator

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Pinna, Baingio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the familiar phenomenon of the uncanny feeling that represented people in frontal pose invariably appear to “face you” from wherever you stand. We deploy two different methods. The stimuli include the conventional one—a flat portrait rocking back and forth about a vertical axis—augmented with two novel variations. In one alternative, the portrait frame rotates whereas the actual portrait stays motionless and fronto-parallel; in the other, we replace the (flat!) portrait with a volumetric object. These variations yield exactly the same optical stimulation in frontal view, but become grossly different in very oblique views. We also let participants sample their momentary awareness through “gauge object” settings in static displays. From our results, we conclude that the psychogenesis of visual awareness maintains a number—at least two, but most likely more—of distinct spatial frameworks simultaneously involving “cue–scission.” Cues may be effective in one of these spatial frameworks but ineffective or functionally different in other ones. PMID:27895885

  2. Facing the Spectator.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Pinna, Baingio; Pepperell, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the familiar phenomenon of the uncanny feeling that represented people in frontal pose invariably appear to "face you" from wherever you stand. We deploy two different methods. The stimuli include the conventional one-a flat portrait rocking back and forth about a vertical axis-augmented with two novel variations. In one alternative, the portrait frame rotates whereas the actual portrait stays motionless and fronto-parallel; in the other, we replace the (flat!) portrait with a volumetric object. These variations yield exactly the same optical stimulation in frontal view, but become grossly different in very oblique views. We also let participants sample their momentary awareness through "gauge object" settings in static displays. From our results, we conclude that the psychogenesis of visual awareness maintains a number-at least two, but most likely more-of distinct spatial frameworks simultaneously involving "cue-scission." Cues may be effective in one of these spatial frameworks but ineffective or functionally different in other ones.

  3. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  4. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training (‘better’ trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics’ everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits. PMID:24691394

  5. Toward automated face detection in thermal and polarimetric thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Christopher; Acosta, Mark; Short, Nathan; Hu, Shuowen; Chan, Alex L.

    2016-05-01

    Visible spectrum face detection algorithms perform pretty reliably under controlled lighting conditions. However, variations in illumination and application of cosmetics can distort the features used by common face detectors, thereby degrade their detection performance. Thermal and polarimetric thermal facial imaging are relatively invariant to illumination and robust to the application of makeup, due to their measurement of emitted radiation instead of reflected light signals. The objective of this work is to evaluate a government off-the-shelf wavelet based naïve-Bayes face detection algorithm and a commercial off-the-shelf Viola-Jones cascade face detection algorithm on face imagery acquired in different spectral bands. New classifiers were trained using the Viola-Jones cascade object detection framework with preprocessed facial imagery. Preprocessing using Difference of Gaussians (DoG) filtering reduces the modality gap between facial signatures across the different spectral bands, thus enabling more correlated histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features to be extracted from the preprocessed thermal and visible face images. Since the availability of training data is much more limited in the thermal spectrum than in the visible spectrum, it is not feasible to train a robust multi-modal face detector using thermal imagery alone. A large training dataset was constituted with DoG filtered visible and thermal imagery, which was subsequently used to generate a custom trained Viola-Jones detector. A 40% increase in face detection rate was achieved on a testing dataset, as compared to the performance of a pre-trained/baseline face detector. Insights gained in this research are valuable in the development of more robust multi-modal face detectors.

  6. The Industrial Base: Facing Extinction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-10

    INDUSTRIAL BASE.. FACING EXTINCTION ., TIc LECTE BY UN02 1992 - MR. DAVID L. THOMAS Department of the Army Civilian , 4...Industrial Base: Facing Extinction 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) David L. Thomas, DAC, GM-15 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month...service or government agency. The Industrial Base: Accesioti For Facing Extinction NTIS CRA&IDTIC TAB D] Uanc,ounced 0 Justification AN INDIVIDUAL

  7. Fast and robust Face Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisetti, Marco

    This chapter presents a fully automatic face detection system robust to moderate change in expression, posture and illumination. The final goal of this detection is to initialize a 3D face tracking, therefore is specialized for working on videos of good quality instead of still images. More in details we present two different face detection strategy based on slightly modified largely used Viola-Jones [1] object detector.

  8. The Kent Face Matching Test.

    PubMed

    Fysh, Matthew C; Bindemann, Markus

    2017-09-05

    This study presents the Kent Face Matching Test (KFMT), which comprises 200 same-identity and 20 different-identity pairs of unfamiliar faces. Each face pair consists of a photograph from a student ID card and a high-quality portrait that was taken at least three months later. The test is designed to complement existing resources for face-matching research, by providing a more ecologically valid stimulus set that captures the natural variability that can arise in a person's appearance over time. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate that the KFMT provides a challenging measure of face matching but correlates with established tests. Experiment 1 compares a short version of this test with the optimized Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT). In Experiment 2, a longer version of the KFMT, with infrequent identity mismatches, is correlated with performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and the Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT). The KFMT is freely available for use in face-matching research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  10. Matching faces with emotional expressions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenfeng; Lander, Karen; Liu, Chang Hong

    2011-01-01

    There is some evidence that faces with a happy expression are recognized better than faces with other expressions. However, little is known about whether this happy-face advantage also applies to perceptual face matching, and whether similar differences exist among other expressions. Using a sequential matching paradigm, we systematically compared the effects of seven basic facial expressions on identity recognition. Identity matching was quickest when a pair of faces had an identical happy/sad/neutral expression, poorer when they had a fearful/surprise/angry expression, and poorest when they had a disgust expression. Faces with a happy/sad/fear/surprise expression were matched faster than those with an anger/disgust expression when the second face in a pair had a neutral expression. These results demonstrate that effects of facial expression on identity recognition are not limited to happy-faces when a learned face is immediately tested. The results suggest different influences of expression in perceptual matching and long-term recognition memory.

  11. Cyber- and Face-to-Face Bullying: Who Crosses Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…

  12. Developing Leadership Skills: Online versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbergh, David; Lennon, Kate

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present final results from an exploratory research project that aimed to compare and contrast the effectiveness of different delivery modes (especially online as opposed to face-to-face) when developing leadership skills in established managers. Design/methodology/approach: This study sought to identify whether…

  13. Teaching On-Line versus Face-to-Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Ferguson, David; Caris, Mieke

    2002-01-01

    Investigates and describes the current instructor experience of teaching college courses over the Web versus in face-to-face formats in terms of teaching strategies, social issues, and media effects. Discusses communication styles, relationship between students and instructors, instructor workload, and discussion patterns, and proposes a model…

  14. Effects of aging on face identification and holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Konar, Yaroslav; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2013-08-09

    Several studies have shown that face identification accuracy is lower in older than younger adults. This effect of aging might be due to age differences in holistic processing, which is thought to be an important component of human face processing. Currently, however, there is conflicting evidence as to whether holistic face processing is impaired in older adults. The current study therefore re-examined this issue by measuring response accuracy in a 1-of-4 face identification task and the composite face effect (CFE), a common index of holistic processing, in older adults. Consistent with previous reports, we found that face identification accuracy was lower in older adults than in younger adults tested in the same task. We also found a significant CFE in older adults that was similar in magnitude to the CFE measured in younger subjects with the same task. Finally, we found that there was a significant positive correlation between the CFE and face identification accuracy. This last result differs from the results obtained in a previous study that used the same tasks and which found no evidence of an association between the CFE and face identification accuracy in younger adults. Furthermore, the age difference was found with subtraction-, regression-, and ratio-based estimates of the CFE. The current findings are consistent with previous claims that older adults rely more heavily on holistic processing to identify objects in conditions of limited processing resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Teaching On-Line versus Face-to-Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Ferguson, David; Caris, Mieke

    2002-01-01

    Investigates and describes the current instructor experience of teaching college courses over the Web versus in face-to-face formats in terms of teaching strategies, social issues, and media effects. Discusses communication styles, relationship between students and instructors, instructor workload, and discussion patterns, and proposes a model…

  16. Top management meets line employees face to face.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, C C; Taylor, J H; Ellis, R L

    1980-01-01

    The communication gap between a hospital's top management and the line employees need not be an ever-widening chasm. St. Luke's Hospital of Kansas City, MO, has established a system that allows administrators and employees to meet face to face every month without destroying the hospital's essential chain of command.

  17. Cyber- and Face-to-Face Bullying: Who Crosses Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…

  18. Blended Outreach: Face-to-Face and Remote Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poeppelmeyer, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The Texas School for the Deaf (TSD) has two missions. One is to provide educational services to deaf and hard of hearing students and their families on the Austin campus--this is the traditional, face-to-face, center-based service model. The other is to serve as a resource center for the state, providing information, referral, programs, and…

  19. Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) center, Power Plant (Building 5761), to right - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  20. View of Face A and Face B Arrays, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Face A and Face B Arrays, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  1. Technical and anatomical considerations of face harvest in face transplantation.

    PubMed

    Baccarani, Alessio; Follmar, Keith E; Baumeister, Steffen P; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Erdmann, Detlev; Levin, L Scott

    2006-11-01

    Total face transplantation may become a reconstructive option in the treatment of patients with acquired facial deformity. Here, 2 face-harvesting techniques are presented in a fresh human cadaver model. In technique 1, the skin and soft tissue of the face is harvested by dissecting in a subgaleal, sub-SMAS, subplatysmal plane. In technique 2, the entire soft tissue and the bony structures of the midface are harvested by dissecting in a subperiosteal plane and performing a Le Fort III osteotomy. Each face was harvested successfully as a bipedicled flap based on the external carotid arteries, the external jugular veins, and the facial veins. Each of these 2 techniques is a theoretically viable approach to face harvest for composite allograft transplantation. These techniques represent the 2 extremes of which tissues can be harvested while maintaining vascular integrity. Each will address different reconstructive needs.

  2. Finding Hope in the Face-to-Face.

    PubMed

    Edgoose, Jennifer Y C; Edgoose, Julian M

    2017-05-01

    What does it mean to look into the face of a patient who looks back? Face-to-face encounters are at the heart of the patient-clinician relationship but their singular significance is often lost amid the demands of today's high-tech, metric-driven health care systems. Using the framework provided by the philosopher and Holocaust survivor Emmanuel Levinas, the authors explore the unique responsibility and potential for hope found only in face-to-face encounters. Revisiting this most fundamental attribute of medicine is likely our greatest chance to reclaim who we are as clinicians and why we do what we do. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  3. Emerging Challenges Facing School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This article provides insights into the challenges facing US public school principals. A survey was sent to a random sample of over 10,000 principals throughout the US. Written responses from a representative sample were analyzed for content and themes. Results indicate that principals are facing emerging challenges never before seen in education,…

  4. Configural Processing and Face Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor

    2008-01-01

    Configural/holistic processing, a key property of face recognition, has previously been examined only for front views of faces. Here, 6 experiments tested front (0 degree), three-quarter (45 degree), and profile views (90 degree), using composite and peripheral inversion tasks. Results showed an overall disadvantage in identifying profiles. This…

  5. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  6. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  7. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  8. Facing Oneself: An Embodied Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Rita L.

    2000-01-01

    States that teachers must "face" themselves in order to encourage experimentation with practices that evoke embodied experiences. Discusses "facing yourself," the process of knowing who you are, who you are not, and allowing for the self-transformation that should follow. (CMK)

  9. Emerging Challenges Facing School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This article provides insights into the challenges facing US public school principals. A survey was sent to a random sample of over 10,000 principals throughout the US. Written responses from a representative sample were analyzed for content and themes. Results indicate that principals are facing emerging challenges never before seen in education,…

  10. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  11. The So-Called Face

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-21

    The so-called Face on Mars can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this NASA Mars Odyssey image. This 3-km long knob was first imaged by NASA Viking spacecraft in the 1970 and to some resembled a face carved into the rocks of Mars.

  12. Interfering with memory for faces: The cost of doing two things at once.

    PubMed

    Wammes, Jeffrey D; Fernandes, Myra A

    2016-01-01

    We inferred the processes critical for episodic retrieval of faces by measuring susceptibility to memory interference from different distracting tasks. Experiment 1 examined recognition of studied faces under full attention (FA) or each of two divided attention (DA) conditions requiring concurrent decisions to auditorily presented letters. Memory was disrupted in both DA relative to FA conditions, a result contrary to a material-specific account of interference effects. Experiment 2 investigated whether the magnitude of interference depended on competition between concurrent tasks for common processing resources. Studied faces were presented either upright (configurally processed) or inverted (featurally processed). Recognition was completed under FA, or DA with one of two face-based distracting tasks requiring either featural or configural processing. We found an interaction: memory for upright faces was lower under DA when the distracting task required configural than featural processing, while the reverse was true for memory of inverted faces. Across experiments, the magnitude of memory interference was similar (a 19% or 20% decline from FA) regardless of whether the materials in the distracting task overlapped with the to-be-remembered information. Importantly, interference was significantly larger (42%) when the processing demands of the distracting and target retrieval task overlapped, suggesting a processing-specific account of memory interference.

  13. Effective indexing for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochenkov, I.; Sochenkova, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Melnikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Face recognition is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. Face recognition is useful for security systems to provide safety. In some situations it is necessary to identify the person among many others. In this case this work presents new approach in data indexing, which provides fast retrieval in big image collections. Data indexing in this research consists of five steps. First, we detect the area containing face, second we align face, and then we detect areas containing eyes and eyebrows, nose, mouth. After that we find key points of each area using different descriptors and finally index these descriptors with help of quantization procedure. The experimental analysis of this method is performed. This paper shows that performing method has results at the level of state-of-the-art face recognition methods, but it is also gives results fast that is important for the systems that provide safety.

  14. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  15. Genetic specificity of face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities. PMID:26417086

  16. Conjunction faces alter confidence-accuracy relations for old faces.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Loftus, Geoffrey R

    2017-06-01

    The authors used a state-trace methodology to investigate the informational dimensions used to recognize old and conjunction faces (made by combining parts of separately studied faces). Participants in 3 experiments saw faces presented for 1 s each. They then received a recognition test; faces were presented for varying brief durations and participants made 3 responses: old/new judgments, confidence judgments, and an indication of whether each response was based on memory for a feature or in general familiarity. Experiments 1 and 3 showed that, given equal confidence, familiarity-based responses were more accurate than feature-based responses; these results provide strong support for a multidimensional model in which 2 separate types of information contribute to confidence and accuracy responses. Experiment 2 showed that this feature/familiarity difference disappeared when conjunction faces were included in the test, supporting a unidimensional model in which confidence and accuracy are based on a single type of information. Inclusion of conjunction faces fundamentally alters the way that previously encountered faces are processed; participants apparently rely entirely on feature-based information to recognize them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Learning Faces: Similar Comparator Faces Do Not Improve Performance

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Scott P.; Dwyer, Dominic M.; Lewis, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that comparison of two similar faces can aid subsequent discrimination between them. However, the fact that discrimination between two faces is facilitated by comparing them directly does not demonstrate that comparison produces a general improvement in the processing of faces. It remains an open question whether the opportunity to compare a “target” face to similar faces can facilitate the discrimination of the exposed target face from other nonexposed faces. In Experiment 1, selection of a target face from an array of novel foils was not facilitated by intermixed exposure to the target and comparators of the same sex. Experiment 2 also found no advantage for similar comparators (morphed towards the target) over unmorphed same sex comparators, or over repeated target exposure alone. But all repeated exposure conditions produced better performance than a single brief presentation of the target. Experiment 3 again demonstrated that repeated exposure produced equivalent learning in same sex and different sex comparator conditions, and also showed that increasing the number of same sex or different sex comparators failed to improve identification. In all three experiments, exposure to a target alongside similar comparators failed to support selection of the target from novel test stimuli to a greater degree than exposure alongside dissimilar comparators or repeated target exposure alone. The current results suggest that the facilitatory effects of comparison during exposure may be limited to improving discrimination between exposed stimuli, and thus our results do not support the idea that providing the opportunity for comparison is a practical means for improving face identification. PMID:25590574

  18. Face-Lift Satisfaction Using the FACE-Q.

    PubMed

    Sinno, Sammy; Schwitzer, Jonathan; Anzai, Lavinia; Thorne, Charles H

    2015-08-01

    Face lifting is one of the most common operative procedures for facial aging and perhaps the procedure most synonymous with plastic surgery in the minds of the lay public, but no verifiable documentation of patient satisfaction exists in the literature. This study is the first to examine face-lift outcomes and patient satisfaction using a validated questionnaire. One hundred five patients undergoing a face lift performed by the senior author (C.H.T.) using a high, extended-superficial musculoaponeurotic system with submental platysma approximation technique were asked to complete anonymously the FACE-Q by e-mail. FACE-Q scores were assessed for each domain (range, 0 to 100), with higher scores indicating greater satisfaction with appearance or superior quality of life. Fifty-three patients completed the FACE-Q (50.5 percent response rate). Patients demonstrated high satisfaction with facial appearance (mean ± SD, 80.7 ± 22.3), and quality of life, including social confidence (90.4 ± 16.6), psychological well-being (92.8 ± 14.3), and early life impact (92.2 ± 16.4). Patients also reported extremely high satisfaction with their decision to undergo face lifting (90.5 ± 15.9). On average, patients felt they appeared 6.9 years younger than their actual age. Patients were most satisfied with the appearance of their nasolabial folds (86.2 ± 18.5), cheeks (86.1 ± 25.4), and lower face/jawline (86.0 ± 20.6), compared with their necks (78.1 ± 25.6) and area under the chin (67.9 ± 32.3). Patients who responded in this study were extremely satisfied with their decision to undergo face lifting and the outcomes and quality of life following the procedure.

  19. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazière, D.

    2002-04-01

    Faisant suite aux deux précédents colloques "Matériaux pour les machines thermiques" et "Matériaux pour le nucléaire" , le colloque 2001 de l'INSTN intitulé "Matériaux pour les énergies propres" s'est focalisé sur les problèmes de matériaux encore à résoudre dans ce secteur industriel. Le colloque de métallurgie est traditionnellement organisé par des ense ignants du DEA Métallurgie et Matériaux et un comité scientifique choisi chaq ue année en liaison avec le thème traité. Les étudiants de ce DEA, qui est hab ilité entre Paris XI, Paris VI, l'Ecole des Mines de Paris, l'Ecole Centrale de Pari s et l'INSTN, sont invités à participer à ce colloque et aux débats scientifiques qui s'y déroulent. Des conférences invitées à caractère péda gogique permettent d'introduire les différents thèmes abordés qui sont ensuite développés dans des présentations plus novatrices. Cette manifestation a pour ambition de favoriser la rencontre de scientifiques d'horizons divers venant de milieux académiques ou industriels entre eux et avec les étudiants et thésards. Cette 44e édition, dont les comptes rendus sont publiés ici, a fait le point sur les problèmes de matériaux rencontrés lors de la production, du stockage et de la conversion des énergies dites propres en englobant lesprogrès constants des industriels de l'automobile. Ce colloque a réuni, du 26 au 28 juin 2001, 63 participants provenant d'universités ou grandes écoles (18), du CEA (17), du CNRS (10) et de l'industrie ou de centres de recherche associés. L'ensemble des problèmes de matériaux de ce secteur ont été examinés au cours des six sessions ci-dessous : dépollution des gaz d'échappement ; combustion catalytique en production thermique ; nouvelles batteries ; piles à combustibles ; production et stockage d'hydrogène ; production et stockage d'énergie solaire. Vingt huit communications dont vingt deux orales ont illustré les dével oppements en cours. Dix

  20. Interaction between Na+ and H+ ions on Na-H exchange in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers.

    PubMed

    Wu, M L; Vaughan-Jones, R D

    1997-04-01

    The interaction between Na+ and H+ ions upon Na-H exchange (NHE) was examined in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers. Acid equivalent fluxes through NHE were examined using recordings of intracellular pH and Na+ in isolated preparations measured with ion selective microelectrodes. The extent of acid-extrusion by NHE was estimated from pH(i) recovery-rate, multiplied by beta(i) (intracellular buffering power) in response to an internal acid load induced by 20 mm NH4Cl removal (nominally HCO3- free media). A mixed inhibitory effect was found of extracellular H+ on external Na+-activation of NHE (i.e. an increase, at low pH(o), in the apparent Michaelis constant for external Na+ ions [K(Nao)(0.5)] and a decrease in the maximum transport rate [V(Nao)(max)]). In addition, we confirmed that the stoichiometry of Na(o) binding is unaffected by the pH(o) (between 7.5 and 6.5), showing a Hill coefficient close to one. The interaction between Na+ and H+ ions at the internal face of the cardiac NHE was also studied. Our evidence suggests that an increase in the intracellular Na+ ion concentration ([Na+]i) inhibits acid efflux and that this inhibition can be approximated by the decrease in thermodynamic driving force caused by reducing the transmembrane Na+ gradient. It appears, however, that small variations in [Na+]i from the normal resting level (intracellular sodium activity, a(i)Na = 7 to 13 mm) have little or no effect on acid efflux, suggesting that variation of a(i)Na is not a physiologically important controller of NHE activity in heart.

  1. Modeling Human Dynamics of Face-to-Face Interaction Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starnini, Michele; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-04-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of interconversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents that perform a random walk in a two-dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  2. The face, beauty, and symmetry: perceiving asymmetry in beautiful faces.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, D W; Cohen, J A

    2005-08-01

    The relationship between bilateral facial symmetry and beauty remains to be clarified. Here, straight head-on photographs of "beautiful" faces from the collections of professional modeling agencies were selected. First, beauty ratings were obtained for these faces. Then, the authors created symmetrical left-left and right-right composites of the beautiful faces and asked a new group of subjects to choose the most attractive pair member. "Same" responses were allowed. No difference between the left-left and right-right composites was revealed but significant differences were obtained between "same" and the left-left or right-right. These results show that subjects detected asymmetry in beauty and suggest that very beautiful faces can be functionally asymmetrical.

  3. Ethical considerations in face transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles S; Gander, Brian; Cunningham, Michael; Furr, Allen; Vasilic, Dalibor; Wiggins, Osborne; Banis, Joseph C; Vossen, Marieke; Maldonado, Claudio; Perez-Abadia, Gustavo; Barker, John H

    2007-10-01

    Human face transplantation is now a clinical reality. The surgical techniques necessary to perform these procedures have been used routinely in reconstructive microsurgery for many years. From an immunological standpoint since face and hand contain mostly the same tissues it is reasonable to assume that the same immunosuppressive regimen found to be effective in human hand transplants should also work in face transplantation. It is the ethical issues associated with the risks and benefits of performing facial transplantation that have posed the greatest challenges leading up to performing this new procedure. In this editorial, we will review some of the main events that have led to the recently performed human face transplants, specifically focusing on the key ethical issues at the center of this debate. We will discuss how the research and clinical experience in human hand transplantation laid the foundation for performing face transplantation and describe the research and the ethical guidelines upon which a team at the University of Louisville based their position "to move ahead" in spite of much criticism. Finally we will outline some of the key arguments against face transplantation, and conclude with a discussion on what comes next now that the first human face transplants have been performed.

  4. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  5. Visual adaptation and face perception

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of faces can be strongly affected by the characteristics of faces viewed previously. These perceptual after-effects reflect processes of sensory adaptation that are found throughout the visual system, but which have been considered only relatively recently in the context of higher level perceptual judgements. In this review, we explore the consequences of adaptation for human face perception, and the implications of adaptation for understanding the neural-coding schemes underlying the visual representation of faces. The properties of face after-effects suggest that they, in part, reflect response changes at high and possibly face-specific levels of visual processing. Yet, the form of the after-effects and the norm-based codes that they point to show many parallels with the adaptations and functional organization that are thought to underlie the encoding of perceptual attributes like colour. The nature and basis for human colour vision have been studied extensively, and we draw on ideas and principles that have been developed to account for norms and normalization in colour vision to consider potential similarities and differences in the representation and adaptation of faces. PMID:21536555

  6. SPACE: Vision and Reality: Face to Face. Proceedings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 11th National Space Symposium entitled 'Vision and Reality: Face to Face' is presented. Technological areas discussed include the following sections: Vision for the future; Positioning for the future; Remote sensing, the emerging era; space opportunities, Competitive vision with acquisition reality; National security requirements in space; The world is into space; and The outlook for space. An appendice is also attached.

  7. Familiarity facilitates feature-based face processing

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Kelsey G.; Cipolli, Carlo; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of personally familiar faces is remarkably efficient, effortless and robust. We asked if feature-based face processing facilitates detection of familiar faces by testing the effect of face inversion on a visual search task for familiar and unfamiliar faces. Because face inversion disrupts configural and holistic face processing, we hypothesized that inversion would diminish the familiarity advantage to the extent that it is mediated by such processing. Subjects detected personally familiar and stranger target faces in arrays of two, four, or six face images. Subjects showed significant facilitation of personally familiar face detection for both upright and inverted faces. The effect of familiarity on target absent trials, which involved only rejection of unfamiliar face distractors, suggests that familiarity facilitates rejection of unfamiliar distractors as well as detection of familiar targets. The preserved familiarity effect for inverted faces suggests that facilitation of face detection afforded by familiarity reflects mostly feature-based processes. PMID:28582439

  8. Familiarity facilitates feature-based face processing.

    PubMed

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Wheeler, Kelsey G; Cipolli, Carlo; Gobbini, M Ida

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of personally familiar faces is remarkably efficient, effortless and robust. We asked if feature-based face processing facilitates detection of familiar faces by testing the effect of face inversion on a visual search task for familiar and unfamiliar faces. Because face inversion disrupts configural and holistic face processing, we hypothesized that inversion would diminish the familiarity advantage to the extent that it is mediated by such processing. Subjects detected personally familiar and stranger target faces in arrays of two, four, or six face images. Subjects showed significant facilitation of personally familiar face detection for both upright and inverted faces. The effect of familiarity on target absent trials, which involved only rejection of unfamiliar face distractors, suggests that familiarity facilitates rejection of unfamiliar distractors as well as detection of familiar targets. The preserved familiarity effect for inverted faces suggests that facilitation of face detection afforded by familiarity reflects mostly feature-based processes.

  9. Evidence for direct regulation of myocardial Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 phosphorylation and activity by 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK): effects of the novel and specific RSK inhibitor fmk on responses to alpha1-adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cuello, Friederike; Snabaitis, Andrew K; Cohen, Michael S; Taunton, Jack; Avkiran, Metin

    2007-03-01

    Multiple stimuli of physiological and pathophysiological significance, including alpha1-adrenoceptor agonists, stimulate the cardiac sarcolemmal Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) through activation of the mitogen-activated or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) ERK-90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) signaling cascade. However, the individual contributions of ERK and RSK, which can each phosphorylate the NHE1 regulatory domain, to such stimulation are unknown. In the present study, we have used the novel RSK inhibitor fmk to determine the role of RSK as a direct regulator of NHE1 phosphorylation and activity in response to alpha1-adrenergic stimulation, in ventricular myocytes isolated from the adult rat heart. Initial experiments confirmed that pretreatment of myocytes with fmk before exposure to the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine inhibited RSK C-terminal kinase activity and thereby RSK N-terminal kinase activation, without affecting MEK or ERK activation. Pretreatment of myocytes with fmk also inhibited phenylephrine-induced increases in NHE1 phosphorylation and the rate of NHE1-mediated H+ efflux under conditions of intracellular acidosis. These findings reveal, for the first time to our knowledge, that RSK is the principal regulator of NHE1 phosphorylation and activity after alpha1-adrenergic stimulation in adult myocardium.

  10. En face coherence microscopy [Invited

    PubMed Central

    Thouvenin, Olivier; Grieve, Kate; Xiao, Peng; Apelian, Clement; Boccara, A. Claude

    2017-01-01

    En face coherence microscopy or flying spot or full field optical coherence tomography or microscopy (FF-OCT/FF-OCM) belongs to the OCT family because the sectioning ability is mostly linked to the source coherence length. In this article we will focus our attention on the advantages and the drawbacks of the following approaches: en face versus B scan tomography in terms of resolution, coherent versus incoherent illumination and influence of aberrations, and scanning versus full field imaging. We then show some examples to illustrate the diverse applications of en face coherent microscopy and show that endogenous or exogenous contrasts can add valuable information to the standard morphological image. To conclude we discuss a few domains that appear promising for future development of en face coherence microscopy. PMID:28270972

  11. Matching Faces Against the Clock

    PubMed Central

    Fysh, Matthew; Cross, Katie; Watts, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of time pressure on face-matching accuracy. Across two experiments, observers decided whether pairs of faces depict one person or different people. Time pressure was exerted via two additional displays, which were constantly updated to inform observers on whether they were on track to meet or miss a time target. In this paradigm, faces were matched under increasing or decreasing (Experiment 1) and constant time pressure (Experiment 2), which varied from 10 to 2 seconds. In both experiments, time pressure reduced accuracy, but the point at which this declined varied from 8 to 2 seconds. A separate match response bias was found, which developed over the course of the experiments. These results indicate that both time pressure and the repetitive nature of face matching are detrimental to performance. PMID:27757219

  12. Face Recognition With Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    condition known as prosopagnosia . Both researchers agree that patients with prosopagnosia , when they have come to autopsy, always have bilateral lesions...parietal region) do not have prosopagnosia . This also supports, albeit in a limited manner, the notion that the process is localized. Accepting...global to local idea is also supported in the prosopagnosia studies. Individuals with prosopagnosia can still identify a face as a face, but they can

  13. Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.

    2012-10-01

    This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  14. Anthropometric Analysis of the Face.

    PubMed

    Zacharopoulos, Georgios V; Manios, Andreas; Kau, Chung H; Velagrakis, George; Tzanakakis, George N; de Bree, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Facial anthropometric analysis is essential for planning cosmetic and reconstructive facial surgery, but has not been available in detail for modern Greeks. In this study, multiple measurements of the face were performed on young Greek males and females to provide a complete facial anthropometric profile of this population and to compare its facial morphology with that of North American Caucasians. Thirty-one direct facial anthropometric measurements were obtained from 152 Greek students. Moreover, the prevalence of the various face types was determined. The resulting data were compared with those published regarding North American Caucasians. A complete set of average anthropometric data was obtained for each sex. Greek males, when compared to Greek females, were found to have statistically significantly longer foreheads as well as greater values in morphologic face height, mandible width, maxillary surface arc distance, and mandibular surface arc distance. In both sexes, the most common face types were mesoprosop, leptoprosop, and hyperleptoprosop. Greek males had significantly wider faces and mandibles than the North American Caucasian males, whereas Greek females had only significantly wider mandibles than their North American counterparts. Differences of statistical significance were noted in the head and face regions among sexes as well as among Greek and North American Caucasians. With the establishment of facial norms for Greek adults, this study contributes to the preoperative planning as well as postoperative evaluation of Greek patients that are, respectively, scheduled for or are to be subjected to facial reconstructive and aesthetic surgery.

  15. Robust Face Sketch Style Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shengchuan Zhang; Xinbo Gao; Nannan Wang; Jie Li

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous image conversion is a critical issue in many computer vision tasks, among which example-based face sketch style synthesis provides a convenient way to make artistic effects for photos. However, existing face sketch style synthesis methods generate stylistic sketches depending on many photo-sketch pairs. This requirement limits the generalization ability of these methods to produce arbitrarily stylistic sketches. To handle such a drawback, we propose a robust face sketch style synthesis method, which can convert photos to arbitrarily stylistic sketches based on only one corresponding template sketch. In the proposed method, a sparse representation-based greedy search strategy is first applied to estimate an initial sketch. Then, multi-scale features and Euclidean distance are employed to select candidate image patches from the initial estimated sketch and the template sketch. In order to further refine the obtained candidate image patches, a multi-feature-based optimization model is introduced. Finally, by assembling the refined candidate image patches, the completed face sketch is obtained. To further enhance the quality of synthesized sketches, a cascaded regression strategy is adopted. Compared with the state-of-the-art face sketch synthesis methods, experimental results on several commonly used face sketch databases and celebrity photos demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

  17. Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

  18. The Face Transplantation Update: 2016.

    PubMed

    Sosin, Michael; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2016-06-01

    Ten years after the first face transplantation, the available data in peer-reviewed literature, various media outlets, and recent specialty meetings and courses are conflicting and inconsistently reported. The purpose of this study was to consolidate the available data by means of multiple sources to reflect an accurate and current state of facial vascularized composite allotransplantation as of December of 2015. Using applied search terms pertaining to face transplantation, a systematic PubMed search, Google search, and review of Plastic Surgery Education Network News Connection e-mailed newsletters were performed, and data presented at three meetings (i.e., the most recent American Society of Reconstructive Transplantation biennial meeting, the American Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery annual meeting, and the biennial AO North America State of the Art: Face Reconstruction and Transplantation course) were consolidated to capture the most contemporary and accurate data in face transplantation. A total of 37 face transplants have been performed (20 partial and 17 full face) from 2005 to December of 2015. A discrepancy between actual transplantations performed and peer-reviewed reports exists at multiple time points, with a propensity for underreporting. Ten cases were described through media outlets but were not reported by the surgical teams in peer-reviewed literature. Two clinical cases were not described in peer-reviewed literature or media. There have been a total of five deaths, and posttransplant malignancy and revision surgery have been underreported. This serves as the most contemporary and all-inclusive face transplantation review. There is a critical need for timely reporting and outcome transparency in the reconstructive transplant community. Therapeutic, V.

  19. Clinical application of the FACES score for face transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Karan; Susarla, Srinivas M; Goodrich, Danielle; Bernard, Steven; Zins, James E; Papay, Frank; Lee, W P Andrew; Gordon, Chad R

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to systematically evaluate all reported outcomes of facial allotransplantation (FT) using the previously described FACES scoring instrument. This was a retrospective study of all consecutive face transplants to date (January 2012). Candidates were identified using medical and general internet database searches. Medical literature and media reports were reviewed for details regarding demographic, operative, anatomic, and psychosocial data, which were then used to formulate FACES scores. Pre-transplant and post-transplant scores for "functional status", "aesthetic deformity", "co-morbidities", "exposed tissue", and "surgical history" were calculated. Scores were statistically compared using paired-samples analyses. Twenty consecutive patients were identified, with 18 surviving recipients. The sample was composed of 3 females and 17 males, with a mean age of 35.0 ± 11.0 years (range: 19-57 years). Overall, data reporting for functional parameters was poor. Six subjects had complete pre-transplant and post-transplant data available for all 5 FACES domains. The mean pre-transplant FACES score was 33.5 ± 8.8 (range: 23-44); the mean post-transplant score was 21.5 ± 5.9 (range: 14-32) and was statistically significantly lower than the pre-transplant score (P = 0.02). Among the individual domains, FT conferred a statistically significant improvement in aesthetic defect scores and exposed tissue scores (P ≤ 0.01) while, at the same time, it displayed no significant increases in co-morbidity (P = 0.17). There is a significant deficiency in functional outcome reports thus far. Moreover, FT resulted in improved overall FACES score, with the most dramatic improvements noted in aesthetic defect and exposed tissue scores.

  20. Inversion of contrast polarity abolishes spontaneous preferences for face-like stimuli in newborn chicks.

    PubMed

    Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    A spontaneous preference for face-like stimuli has been demonstrated in domestic chicks, similar to that shown by human newborns, suggesting evolutionary continuity across species. Inversion of contrast polarity of face-like stimuli abolishes face preferences in human newborns. Here we investigated the effects of contrast polarity inversion and brain lateralization in chicks' preferences for faces. In Experiment 1 face-naïve chicks were tested with a negative face obtained from a stimulus that elicited preferential approach in previous research. As in human newborns, reversal of contrast polarity abolished face-preferences. Experiments 2, 3 and 5 investigated the effect of adding a pupil-like dot within the inner features of the negative and of positive stimuli (a manipulation that re-established face-preference in human newborns). Chicks reacted to this by avoiding the face stimulus. In Experiments 4 and 6 we found that the preference expressed by chicks having only their left eye (right hemisphere) in use changed according to contrast polarity, whereas it remained unaffected in chicks having their right eye in use. Thus, in domestic chicks, as in human beings, a stimulus is perceived as face-like only if it presents the correct luminance pattern expected for a face under natural top-lit illumination and the right hemisphere seems to play a crucial role in this kind of social orienting responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Face recognition for uncontrolled environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podilchuk, Christine; Hulbert, William; Flachsbart, Ralph; Barinov, Lev

    2010-04-01

    A new face recognition algorithm has been proposed which is robust to variations in pose, expression, illumination and occlusions such as sunglasses. The algorithm is motivated by the Edit Distance used to determine the similarity between strings of one dimensional data such as DNA and text. The key to this approach is how to extend the concept of an Edit Distance on one-dimensional data to two-dimensional image data. The algorithm is based on mapping one image into another and using the characteristics of the mapping to determine a two-dimensional Pictorial-Edit Distance or P-Edit Distance. We show how the properties of the mapping are similar to insertion, deletion and substitution errors defined in an Edit Distance. This algorithm is particularly well suited for face recognition in uncontrolled environments such as stand-off and other surveillance applications. We will describe an entire system designed for face recognition at a distance including face detection, pose estimation, multi-sample fusion of video frames and identification. Here we describe how the algorithm is used for face recognition at a distance, present some initial results and describe future research directions.(

  2. Venous drainage of the face.

    PubMed

    Onishi, S; Imanishi, N; Yoshimura, Y; Inoue, Y; Sakamoto, Y; Chang, H; Okumoto, T

    2017-04-01

    The venous anatomy of the face was examined in 12 fresh cadavers. Venograms and arteriovenograms were obtained after the injection of contrast medium. In 8 of the 12 cadavers, a large loop was formed by the facial vein, the supratrochlear vein, and the superficial temporal vein, which became the main trunk vein of the face. In 4 of the 12 cadavers, the superior lateral limb of the loop vein was less well developed. The loop vein generally did not accompany the arteries of the face. Cutaneous branches of the loop vein formed a polygonal venous network in the skin, while communicating branches ran toward deep veins. These findings suggest that blood from the dermis of the face is collected by the polygonal venous network and enters the loop vein through the cutaneous branches, after which blood flows away from the face through the superficial temporal vein, the facial vein, and the communicating branches and enters the deep veins. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnicity identification from face images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.

    2004-08-01

    Human facial images provide the demographic information, such as ethnicity and gender. Conversely, ethnicity and gender also play an important role in face-related applications. Image-based ethnicity identification problem is addressed in a machine learning framework. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based scheme is presented for the two-class (Asian vs. non-Asian) ethnicity classification task. Multiscale analysis is applied to the input facial images. An ensemble framework, which integrates the LDA analysis for the input face images at different scales, is proposed to further improve the classification performance. The product rule is used as the combination strategy in the ensemble. Experimental results based on a face database containing 263 subjects (2,630 face images, with equal balance between the two classes) are promising, indicating that LDA and the proposed ensemble framework have sufficient discriminative power for the ethnicity classification problem. The normalized ethnicity classification scores can be helpful in the facial identity recognition. Useful as a "soft" biometric, face matching scores can be updated based on the output of ethnicity classification module. In other words, ethnicity classifier does not have to be perfect to be useful in practice.

  4. Polling the face: prediction and consensus across cultures.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini; Adams, Reginald B; Ozono, Hiroki; Nakashima, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Watabe, Motoki

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that individuals agree across cultures on the traits that they infer from faces. Previous work has also shown that inferences from faces can be predictive of important outcomes within cultures. The current research merges these two lines of work. In a series of cross-cultural studies, the authors asked American and Japanese participants to provide naïve inferences of traits from the faces of U.S. political candidates (Studies 1 and 3) and Japanese political candidates (Studies 2 and 4). Perceivers showed high agreement in their ratings of the faces, regardless of culture, and both sets of judgments were predictive of an important ecological outcome (the percentage of votes that each candidate received in the actual election). The traits predicting electoral success differed, however, depending on the targets' culture. Thus, when American and Japanese participants were asked to provide explicit inferences of how likely each candidate would be to win an election (Studies 3-4), judgments were predictive only for same-culture candidates. Attempts to infer the electoral success for the foreign culture showed evidence of self-projection. Therefore, perceivers can reliably infer predictive information from faces but require knowledge about the target's culture to make these predictions accurately.

  5. Part-Based and Configural Processing of Owner's Face in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pitteri, Elisa; Mongillo, Paolo; Carnier, Paolo; Marinelli, Lieta; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Dogs exhibit characteristic looking patterns when looking at human faces but little is known about what the underlying cognitive mechanisms are and how much these are influenced by individual experience. In Experiment 1, seven dogs were trained in a simultaneous discrimination procedure to assess whether they could discriminate a) the owner's face parts (eyes, nose or mouth) presented in isolation and b) whole faces where the same parts were covered. Dogs discriminated all the three parts of the owner's face presented in isolation, but needed fewer sessions to reach the learning criterion for the eyes than for both nose and mouth. Moreover, covering the eyes region significantly disrupted face discriminability compared to the whole face condition while such difference was not found when the nose or mouth was hidden. In Experiment 2, dogs were presented with manipulated images of the owner's face (inverted, blurred, scrambled, grey-scale) to test the relative contribution of part-based and configural processing in the discrimination of human faces. Furthermore, by comparing the dogs enrolled in the previous experiment and seven ‘naïve’ dogs we examined if the relative contribution of part-based and configural processing was affected by dogs' experience with the face stimuli. Naïve dogs discriminated the owner only when configural information was provided, whereas expert dogs could discriminate the owner also when part-based processing was necessary. The present study provides the first evidence that dogs can discriminate isolated internal features of a human face and corroborate previous reports of salience of the eyes region for human face processing. Although the reliance on part-perception may be increased by specific experience, our findings suggest that human face discrimination by dogs relies mainly on configural rather than on part-based elaboration. PMID:25251285

  6. Viral infections of the face.

    PubMed

    Avci, Oktay; Ertam, Ilgen

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections affecting the face may cause significant morbidity, cosmetic disfigurement, and psychological distress. The success of therapy needs whole and correct evaluation of the clinical signs and symptoms. Some viruses such as Papillomaviridae, Herpesviridae, and Polyomaviridae primarily infect the facial skin, whereas others affect the face infrequently, as in parapox virus infections. Sometimes, involvement of the face can be a part of more generalized eruption and systemic symptoms in viral infections caused by Todaviridae, Flaviviridae, Arenaviridiae, and Flaviviridae. Clinical diagnosis can be challenging in various viral diseases when they occur in nonendemic geographic areas. The objective of this review was to concentrate on epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the viral illnesses with facial skin involvement.

  7. [Treatment goals in FACE philosophy].

    PubMed

    Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  8. [Endoscopy and face-lift].

    PubMed

    Dardour, J C; Abbou, R

    2017-08-02

    For many years, the face-lift has not been the only intervention for facial rejuvenation. It is necessary today to specify the type of face-lift, cervico-facial lifting, frontal lifting or facelift. We will consider in this article the frontal lift and centro-facial lift and its possible execution assisted by endoscopy with therefore minimal scars, hidden in the scalp. We will consider successively its technique, its indications and its results highlighting a very long hold over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Approaches to Teaching Introduction to American Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolsen, Toby; Evans, Michael; Fleming, Anna McCaghren

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a large study comparing four different approaches to teaching Introduction to American Government: (1) traditional, a paper textbook with 100% face-to-face lecture-style teaching; (2) breakout, a paper textbook with 50% face-to-face lecture-style teaching and 50% face-to-face small-group breakout discussion…

  10. Incorporating Online Discussion in Face to Face Classroom Learning: A New Blended Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative blended learning strategy which incorporates online discussion in both in-class face to face, and off-classroom settings. Online discussion in a face to face class is compared with its two counterparts, off-class online discussion as well as in-class, face to face oral discussion, to examine the advantages and…

  11. A Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Approaches to Teaching Introduction to American Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolsen, Toby; Evans, Michael; Fleming, Anna McCaghren

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a large study comparing four different approaches to teaching Introduction to American Government: (1) traditional, a paper textbook with 100% face-to-face lecture-style teaching; (2) breakout, a paper textbook with 50% face-to-face lecture-style teaching and 50% face-to-face small-group breakout discussion…

  12. Biological Sex Determines Whether Faces Look Real

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Judging whether a face is real or artificial can be done relatively rapidly and accurately, even when visual information is substantially impoverished. The perception of animacy in the face also has several interesting properties that may reflect both the underlying “tuning” of face space to preferentially represent real face appearance and the diagnosticity of individual features for categorizing faces as animate or inanimate. In the current study, we examined how sex categories interact with animacy perception by separately characterizing animacy judgments as a function of stimulus sex. We find that stimulus sex affects subjective ratings of animacy and sex categorization of real and artificial faces. Specifically, female faces look more artificial and artificial faces look more female. We discuss our results in terms of the ecology of real and artificial faces and the possible role of visual experience with artificial female faces, and the objectification of female faces. PMID:24244103

  13. Artificial faces are harder to remember.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to "out-groups" defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the "in-group." Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an "out-group" in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing.

  14. Artificial faces are harder to remember

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to “out-groups” defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the “in-group.” Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an “out-group” in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing. PMID:26195852

  15. Face masks and basketball: NCAA division I consumer trends and a review of over-the-counter face masks.

    PubMed

    Gandy, Jessica R; Fossett, Lela; Wong, Brian J F

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to: 1) determine the current consumer trends of over-the-counter (OTC) and custom-made face mask usage among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletic programs; and 2) provide a literature review of OTC face guards and a classified database. Literature review and survey. Consumer trends were obtained by contacting all 352 NCAA Division I programs. Athletic trainers present in the office when called answered the following questions: 1) "When an athlete breaks his or her nose, is a custom or generic face guard used?" and 2) "What brand is the generic face guard that is used?" Data was analyzed to determine trends among athletic programs. Also, a database of OTC devices available was generated using PubMed, Google, and manufacturer Web sites. Among the 352 NCAA Division I athletic programs, 254 programs participated in the survey (72% response rate). The majority preferred custom-made guards (46%). Disadvantages included high cost and slow manufacture turnaround time. Only 20% of the programs strictly used generic brands. For the face mask database, 10 OTC products were identified and classified into four categories based on design, with pricing ranging between $35.99 and $69.95. Only a handful of face masks exist for U.S. consumers, but none of them have been reviewed or classified by product design, sport application, price, and collegiate consumer use. This project details usage trends among NCAA Division I athletic programs and provides a list of available devices that can be purchased to protect the nose and face during sports. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1054-1060, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. The Ontogeny of Face Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Elliott M.; Camp, Carole Ann

    2004-01-01

    A paradigm was designed to study how infants identify live faces. Eight- to 21-week-old infants were seated comfortably and were presented an adult female, dressed in a white laboratory coat and a white turtle neck sweater, until habituation ensued. The adult then left the room. One minute later either she or an identically garbed confederate…

  17. The Challenges Facing American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondale, Walter F.

    1982-01-01

    Three challenges of adaptation face education: great demographic change, the technological revolution, and change in social and cultural attitudes. The first task is to improve elementary and secondary education, but then it is to renew support of higher and graduate education as an essential investment in people. (Author/MSE)

  18. Continuing Education: Facing the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Marianne

    1986-01-01

    Examines a number of issues facing the Australian library and information services community in the area of continuing education, including recommendations of the Library Association of Australia, the cost of continuing education activities, the role and responsibility of schools of library and information studies, and notions of coordination.…

  19. The Many Faces of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werdmann, Anne M.

    In a sixth-grade unit, students learned about people's facial expressions through careful observation, recording, reporting, and generalizing. The students studied the faces of people of various ages; explored "masks" that people wear in different situations; learned about the use of ritual masks; made case studies of individuals to show…

  20. Families Facing the Nuclear Taboo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Judith Bula

    1988-01-01

    Discusses attitudes of 12 families participating in group which was formed to focus on issues related to the possibility of a nuclear disaster. Why and how these families are facing the nuclear taboo plus various outcomes of doing so are discussed as well as the role of the professional in encouraging such openness about these difficult issues.…

  1. Sampling design for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2006-04-01

    A face recognition system consists of two integrated parts: One is the face recognition algorithm, the other is the selected classifier and derived features by the algorithm from a data set. The face recognition algorithm definitely plays a central role, but this paper does not aim at evaluating the algorithm, but deriving the best features for this algorithm from a specific database through sampling design of the training set, which directs how the sample should be collected and dictates the sample space. Sampling design can help exert the full potential of the face recognition algorithm without overhaul. Conventional statistical analysis usually assume some distribution to draw the inference, but the design-based inference does not assume any distribution of the data and it does not assume the independency between the sample observations. The simulations illustrates that the systematic sampling scheme performs better than the simple random sampling scheme, and the systematic sampling is comparable to using all available training images in recognition performance. Meanwhile the sampling schemes can save the system resources and alleviate the overfitting problem. However, the post stratification by sex is not shown to be significant in improving the recognition performance.

  2. Putting a Face to Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. schools are becoming increasingly religiously diverse, but students rarely learn about different religious beliefs and how those beliefs--or nonbelief--might shape people's responses to important issues. Face to Faith is a free program that uses videoconferencing to connect students with peers from around the world to discuss issues related…

  3. Face-Sealing Butterfly Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tervo, John N.

    1992-01-01

    Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Face Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Abraham

    2015-06-01

    The major objective of this article was to report quantitatively the degree of human face symmetry for reported images taken from the Internet. From the original image of a certain person that appears in the center of each triplet, 2 symmetric combinations were constructed that are based on the left part of the image and its mirror image (left-left) and on the right part of the image and its mirror image (right-right). By applying a computer software that enables to determine length, surface area, and perimeter of any geometric shape, the following measurements were obtained for each triplet: face perimeter and area; distance between the pupils; mouth length; its perimeter and area; nose length and face length, usually below the ears; as well as the area and perimeter of the pupils. Then, for each of the above measurements, the value C, which characterizes the degree of symmetry of the real image with respect to the combinations right-right and left-left, was calculated. C appears on the right-hand side below each image. A high value of C indicates a low symmetry, and as the value is decreasing, the symmetry is increasing. The magnitude on the left relates to the pupils and compares the difference between the area and perimeter of the 2 pupils. The major conclusion arrived at here is that the human face is asymmetric to some degree; the degree of asymmetry is reported quantitatively under each portrait.

  5. Face Liveness Detection Using Defocus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sooyeon; Ban, Yuseok; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR) technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures). To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH), are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER) at a given depth of field (DoF) and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones. PMID:25594594

  6. Continuing Education: Facing the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Marianne

    1986-01-01

    Examines a number of issues facing the Australian library and information services community in the area of continuing education, including recommendations of the Library Association of Australia, the cost of continuing education activities, the role and responsibility of schools of library and information studies, and notions of coordination.…

  7. The Ontogeny of Face Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Elliott M.; Camp, Carole Ann

    2004-01-01

    A paradigm was designed to study how infants identify live faces. Eight- to 21-week-old infants were seated comfortably and were presented an adult female, dressed in a white laboratory coat and a white turtle neck sweater, until habituation ensued. The adult then left the room. One minute later either she or an identically garbed confederate…

  8. Mechanical Coal-Face Fracturer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Radial points on proposed drill bit take advantage of natural fracture planes of coal. Radial fracture points retracted during drilling and impacted by piston to fracture coal once drilling halts. Group of bits attached to array of pneumatic drivers to fracture large areas of coal face.

  9. Robotic-Assisted Upper Face Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Rybakin, Arthur V.; Manturova, Natalia E.; Gladyshev, Dmitriy V.; Kamalov, David M.; Shcherbakov, Kirill G.; Staisupov, Valeriy J.; Kuzin, Danila A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Robotic-assisted technology has not been used in aesthetic surgery so far. The authors examined the feasibility and potential advantages of robotic-assisted technology in upper face rejuvenation surgery, as well as utility of the tools available in the market. Forehead lift was performed along with blepharoplasty in 4 patients. Robotic da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc.) was used at the stage of dissection. The stereo endoscope 30 degrees, 12 mm and later 8.5 mm in diameter, and the set of tools, 8 mm and later 5 mm in diameter, were used. Overall results appeared to be essentially the same as after usual endoscope-assisted brow lift. The advantages of the robotic-assisted surgery were as follows: the best possible display, scalability of the picture; lack of tremor, scalability of the movements’ amplitude; high degree of freedom of movements exceeding human capabilities; quick and easy switch between the endoscope and any of the 3 manipulating arms; and enhanced comfort for a surgeon. The drawbacks noted were as follows: cost, steep learning curve, lack of tactile feedback, and absence of instruments specially adjusted for aesthetic surgery. The authors conclude that robots will enter the field of aesthetic plastic surgery in the same way as endoscopy, the proviso being to adjust tools to the specific needs.

  10. The experience of rural families in the face of cancer.

    PubMed

    Girardon-Perlini, Nara Marilene Oliveira; Ângelo, Margareth

    2017-01-01

    To understand the meanings of cancer within the experience of rural families and how such meanings influence family dynamics. Qualitative study guided by Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical framework and Grounded Theory as a methodological framework. Six rural families (18 participants) undergoing the experience of having a relative with cancer participated in the interview. Constant comparative analysis of data allowed the elaboration of an explanatory substantive theory, defined by the main category Caregiving to support the family world, which represents the family's symbolic actions and strategies to reconcile care for the patient and care for family life. Throughout the experience, rural families seek to preserve the interconnected symbolic elements that provide support for the family world: family unit, land, work and care. Compreender os significados do câncer presentes na experiência de famílias rurais e como esses significados influenciam a dinâmica familiar. Estudo qualitativo orientado pelo Interacionismo Simbólico como referencial teórico e pela Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados como referencial metodológico. Participaram, por meio de entrevista, seis famílias rurais (18 participantes) que estavam vivendo a experiência de ter um familiar com câncer. A análise comparativa constante dos dados permitiu a elaboração de uma teoria substantiva explicativa da experiência, definida pela categoria central Cuidando para manter o mundo da família amparado, que representa as ações e estratégias simbólicas da família visando a conciliar o cuidado do familiar doente e o cuidado da vida familiar. Ao longo da experiência, a família rural procura preservar os elementos simbólicos que, conectados, constituem o amparo do mundo da família: a unidade familiar, a terra, o trabalho e o cuidado.

  11. Animal bite injuries to the face : A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Simao, Niverso Rodrigues; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; da Silva, Andre Luis Fernandes; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marcal; Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2013-08-01

    Traumatic lacerations to the skin are problems frequently seen and treated by emergency centers around the world. Among all wounds, dog and cat bites are commonly seen. As in many mammals, different species of microorganisms are found in dog and cat mouths with a potential pathological effect to humans, as represented by rabies. The injuries have disfiguration effect with possible psychological repercussion to the patient. This article aimed presenting up to date considerations regarding the management of animal bite injuries to the face, exemplified by a case report that should be the interest of all professions that deal with facial tissues, as dentists do. How to cite this article: Simao NR, Borba AM, da Silva ALF, Vieira EMM, Carvalhosa AA, Bandeca MC, Borges AH. Animal bite injuries to the face: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):68-72.

  12. Animal bite injuries to the face : A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Simao, Niverso Rodrigues; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; da Silva, Andre Luis Fernandes; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marcal; Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic lacerations to the skin are problems frequently seen and treated by emergency centers around the world. Among all wounds, dog and cat bites are commonly seen. As in many mammals, different species of microorganisms are found in dog and cat mouths with a potential pathological effect to humans, as represented by rabies. The injuries have disfiguration effect with possible psychological repercussion to the patient. This article aimed presenting up to date considerations regarding the management of animal bite injuries to the face, exemplified by a case report that should be the interest of all professions that deal with facial tissues, as dentists do. How to cite this article: Simao NR, Borba AM, da Silva ALF, Vieira EMM, Carvalhosa AA, Bandeca MC, Borges AH. Animal bite injuries to the face: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):68-72. PMID:24155623

  13. Holistic Processing of Static and Moving Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Humans' face ability develops and matures with extensive experience in perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with faces that move most of the time. However, how facial movements affect 1 core aspect of face ability--holistic face processing--remains unclear. Here we investigated the influence of rigid facial motion on holistic and part-based…

  14. Bodies adapt orientation-independent face representations

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ellyanna; Walls, Shawn A.; Ghuman, Avniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Faces and bodies share a great number of semantic attributes, such as gender, emotional expressiveness, and identity. Recent studies demonstrate that bodies can activate and modulate face perception. However, the nature of the face representation that is activated by bodies remains unknown. In particular, face and body representations have previously been shown to have a degree of orientation specificity. Here we use body-face adaptation aftereffects to test whether bodies activate face representations in an orientation-dependent manner. Specifically, we used a two-by-two design to examine the magnitude of the body-face aftereffect using upright and inverted body adaptors and upright and inverted face targets. All four conditions showed significant body-face adaptation. We found neither a main effect of body orientation nor an interaction between body and face orientation. There was a main effect of target face orientation, with inverted target faces showing larger aftereffects than upright target faces, consistent with traditional face-face adaptation. Taken together, these results suggest that bodies adapt and activate a relatively orientation-independent representation of faces. PMID:23874311

  15. Infant Categorization of Faces: Ladies First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, J.L.; Langlois, J.H.; Marti, N.C.

    2005-01-01

    We review and provide empirical evidence to show that infants categorize and process male and female faces differently, with an advantage in processing female faces. To understand this asymmetry in categorization and processing of male and female faces, we evaluate three mechanisms influencing infant categorization of male and female faces:…

  16. Configural processing in face recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Barbara L.; Marvel, Cherie L.; Drapalski, Amy; Rosse, Richard B.; Deutsch, Stephen I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. There is currently substantial literature to suggest that patients with schizophrenia are impaired on many face-processing tasks. This study investigated the specific effects of configural changes on face recognition in groups of schizophrenia patients. Methods. In Experiment 1, participants identified facial expressions in upright faces and in faces inverted from their upright orientation. Experiments 2 and 3 examined recognition memory for faces and other non-face objects presented in upright and inverted orientations. Experiment 4 explored recognition of facial identity in composite images where the top half of one face was fused to the bottom half of another face to form a new face configuration. Results. In each experiment, the configural change had the same effect on face recognition for the schizophenia patients as it did for control participants. Recognising inverted faces was more difficult than recognising upright faces, with a disproportionate effect of inversion on faces relative to other objects. Recognition of facial identity in face-halves was interfered with by the formation of a new face configuration. Conclusion. Collectively, these results suggest that people with schizophrenia rely on configural information to recognise photographs of faces. PMID:16528403

  17. Neandertal faces were not long; modern human faces are short

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Neandertal faces have been described as being derived with respect to their overall length or degree of anterior projection. A comparison of cranial and mandibular indicators of lower facial projection across archaic and modern Homo indicates that Neandertal facial lengths on average are similar to those of preceding archaic Homo and principally contrast with those of recent humans. Neandertal facial length is not derived. The shortness of recent human facial skeletons is the evolutionarily derived condition. PMID:12815095

  18. The Face-to-Face Light Detection Paradigm: A New Methodology for Investigating Visuospatial Attention Across Different Face Regions in Live Face-to-Face Communication Settings

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura A.; Malloy, Daniel M.; Cone, John M.; Hendrickson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel paradigm for studying the cognitive processes used by listeners within interactive settings. This paradigm places the talker and the listener in the same physical space, creating opportunities for investigations of attention and comprehension processes taking place during interactive discourse situations. An experiment was conducted to compare results from previous research using videotaped stimuli to those obtained within the live face-to-face task paradigm. A headworn apparatus is used to briefly display LEDs on the talker’s face in four locations as the talker communicates with the participant. In addition to the primary task of comprehending speeches, participants make a secondary task light detection response. In the present experiment, the talker gave non-emotionally-expressive speeches that were used in past research with videotaped stimuli. Signal detection analysis was employed to determine which areas of the face received the greatest focus of attention. Results replicate previous findings using videotaped methods. PMID:21113354

  19. The wide window of face detection

    PubMed Central

    Hershler, Orit; Golan, Tal; Bentin, Shlomo; Hochstein, Shaul

    2010-01-01

    Faces are detected more rapidly than other objects in visual scenes and search arrays, but the cause for this face advantage has been contested. In the present study, we found that under conditions of spatial uncertainty, faces were easier to detect than control targets (dog faces, clocks and cars) even in the absence of surrounding stimuli, making an explanation based only on low-level differences unlikely. This advantage improved with eccentricity in the visual field, enabling face detection in wider visual windows, and pointing to selective sparing of face detection at greater eccentricities. This face advantage might be due to perceptual factors favoring face detection. In addition, the relative face advantage is greater under flanked than non-flanked conditions, suggesting an additional, possibly attention-related benefit enabling face detection in groups of distracters. PMID:20884486

  20. Neural microgenesis of personally familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Meike; Vizioli, Luca; Liu-Shuang, Joan; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Despite a wealth of information provided by neuroimaging research, the neural basis of familiar face recognition in humans remains largely unknown. Here, we isolated the discriminative neural responses to unfamiliar and familiar faces by slowly increasing visual information (i.e., high-spatial frequencies) to progressively reveal faces of unfamiliar or personally familiar individuals. Activation in ventral occipitotemporal face-preferential regions increased with visual information, independently of long-term face familiarity. In contrast, medial temporal lobe structures (perirhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus) and anterior inferior temporal cortex responded abruptly when sufficient information for familiar face recognition was accumulated. These observations suggest that following detailed analysis of individual faces in core posterior areas of the face-processing network, familiar face recognition emerges categorically in medial temporal and anterior regions of the extended cortical face network.

  1. Neural microgenesis of personally familiar face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Meike; Vizioli, Luca; Liu-Shuang, Joan; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information provided by neuroimaging research, the neural basis of familiar face recognition in humans remains largely unknown. Here, we isolated the discriminative neural responses to unfamiliar and familiar faces by slowly increasing visual information (i.e., high-spatial frequencies) to progressively reveal faces of unfamiliar or personally familiar individuals. Activation in ventral occipitotemporal face-preferential regions increased with visual information, independently of long-term face familiarity. In contrast, medial temporal lobe structures (perirhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus) and anterior inferior temporal cortex responded abruptly when sufficient information for familiar face recognition was accumulated. These observations suggest that following detailed analysis of individual faces in core posterior areas of the face-processing network, familiar face recognition emerges categorically in medial temporal and anterior regions of the extended cortical face network. PMID:26283361

  2. Prioritized Detection of Personally Familiar Faces

    PubMed Central

    Gobbini, Maria Ida; Gors, Jason D.; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Rogers, Courtney; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Hughes, Howard; Cipolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether personally familiar faces are preferentially processed in conditions of reduced attentional resources and in the absence of conscious awareness. In the first experiment, we used Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) to test the susceptibility of familiar faces and faces of strangers to the attentional blink. In the second experiment, we used continuous flash interocular suppression to render stimuli invisible and measured face detection time for personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. In both experiments we found an advantage for detection of personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. Our data suggest that the identity of faces is processed with reduced attentional resources and even in the absence of awareness. Our results show that this facilitated processing of familiar faces cannot be attributed to detection of low-level visual features and that a learned unique configuration of facial features can influence preconscious perceptual processing. PMID:23805248

  3. Prioritized Detection of Personally Familiar Faces.

    PubMed

    Gobbini, Maria Ida; Gors, Jason D; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Rogers, Courtney; Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Hughes, Howard; Cipolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether personally familiar faces are preferentially processed in conditions of reduced attentional resources and in the absence of conscious awareness. In the first experiment, we used Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) to test the susceptibility of familiar faces and faces of strangers to the attentional blink. In the second experiment, we used continuous flash interocular suppression to render stimuli invisible and measured face detection time for personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. In both experiments we found an advantage for detection of personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. Our data suggest that the identity of faces is processed with reduced attentional resources and even in the absence of awareness. Our results show that this facilitated processing of familiar faces cannot be attributed to detection of low-level visual features and that a learned unique configuration of facial features can influence preconscious perceptual processing.

  4. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Marina A; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing.

  5. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing. PMID:27531986

  6. Processing faces and facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Posamentier, Mette T; Abdi, Hervé

    2003-09-01

    This paper reviews processing of facial identity and expressions. The issue of independence of these two systems for these tasks has been addressed from different approaches over the past 25 years. More recently, neuroimaging techniques have provided researchers with new tools to investigate how facial information is processed in the brain. First, findings from "traditional" approaches to identity and expression processing are summarized. The review then covers findings from neuroimaging studies on face perception, recognition, and encoding. Processing of the basic facial expressions is detailed in light of behavioral and neuroimaging data. Whereas data from experimental and neuropsychological studies support the existence of two systems, the neuroimaging literature yields a less clear picture because it shows considerable overlap in activation patterns in response to the different face-processing tasks. Further, activation patterns in response to facial expressions support the notion of involved neural substrates for processing different facial expressions.

  7. Thermal to Visible Face Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    recognition has been an active area of research for the past two decades due its wide range of applications in law enforcement and verification...an ideal modality for nighttime tasks, but the large disparateness between the thermal IR and visible spectrums results in a wide modality gap that...CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK In this study, we investigated the thermal-to-visible face recognition problem, which has a wide modality gap. We showed

  8. Face Recognition Using Infrared Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    the adjacent skin . The typical human face displays an apparent temperature range of about 8oC. The complexity of the resulting 3.1 miles (five...have shown that even identical twins have different thermogram features [16]. Furthermore, studies have shown that the skin temperature ex- 8 hibits...Ishigaki, K. Mabuchi, ”Thermal Rhytmography- Topograms of the Spectral Analysis of Fluctuations in Skin Temperature ,” Proceedings of the 23rd Annual

  9. Biometrics: Facing Up to Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    ment committee appointed by Secretary of Trans- portation Norman Y. Mineta to review airport security measures will recommend that facial recogni- tion...on the Role Facial Recognition Technology Can Play in Enhancing Airport Security .” Joseph Atick, the CEO of Visionics, testified before the government...system at a U.S. air- port. This deployment is believed to be the first-in-the-nation use of face-recognition technology for airport security . The sys

  10. Familiarity effects on categorization levels of faces and objects

    PubMed Central

    Anaki, David; Bentin, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that faces, in contrast to objects, are categorized as fast or faster at the individual level (e.g., Bill Clinton) than at the basic-level (e.g., human face). This subordinate-shift from basic-level categorization has been considered an outcome of visual expertise with processing faces. However, in the present study we found that, similar to familiar faces, categorization of individually-known familiar towers is also faster at the individual level than at the basic-level in naïve participants. In addition, category-verification of familiar stimuli, at basic and superordinate levels, was slower and less accurate compared to unfamiliar stimuli. Thus, the existence of detailed semantic information, regardless of expertise, can induce a shift in the default level of object categorization from basic to individual level. Moreover, the individually-specific knowledge is not only more easily-retrieved from memory but it might also interfere with accessing more general category information. PMID:19217085

  11. Wavelet networks for face processing.

    PubMed

    Krüger, V; Sommer, G

    2002-06-01

    Wavelet networks (WNs) were introduced in 1992 as a combination of artificial neural radial basis function (RBF) networks and wavelet decomposition. Since then, however, WNs have received only a little attention. We believe that the potential of WNs has been generally underestimated. WNs have the advantage that the wavelet coefficients are directly related to the image data through the wavelet transform. In addition, the parameters of the wavelets in the WNs are subject to optimization, which results in a direct relation between the represented function and the optimized wavelets, leading to considerable data reduction (thus making subsequent algorithms much more efficient) as well as to wavelets that can be used as an optimized filter bank. In our study we analyze some WN properties and highlight their advantages for object representation purposes. We then present a series of results of experiments in which we used WNs for face tracking. We exploit the efficiency that is due to data reduction for face recognition and face-pose estimation by applying the optimized-filter-bank principle of the WNs.

  12. Wavelet networks for face processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, V.; Sommer, G.

    2002-06-01

    Wavelet networks (WNs) were introduced in 1992 as a combination of artificial neural radial basis function (RBF) networks and wavelet decomposition. Since then, however, WNs have received only a little attention. We believe that the potential of WNs has been generally underestimated. WNs have the advantage that the wavelet coefficients are directly related to the image data through the wavelet transform. In addition, the parameters of the wavelets in the WNs are subject to optimization, which results in a direct relation between the represented function and the optimized wavelets, leading to considerable data reduction (thus making subsequent algorithms much more efficient) as well as to wavelets that can be used as an optimized filter bank. In our study we analyze some WN properties and highlight their advantages for object representation purposes. We then present a series of results of experiments in which we used WNs for face tracking. We exploit the efficiency that is due to data reduction for face recognition and face-pose estimation by applying the optimized-filter-bank principle of the WNs.

  13. Crossing the “Uncanny Valley”: adaptation to cartoon faces can influence perception of human faces

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiwen; Russell, Richard; Nakayama, Ken; Livingstone, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation can shift what individuals identify to be a prototypical or attractive face. Past work suggests that low-level shape adaptation can affect high-level face processing but is position dependent. Adaptation to distorted images of faces can also affect face processing but only within sub-categories of faces, such as gender, age, and race/ethnicity. This study assesses whether there is a representation of face that is specific to faces (as opposed to all shapes) but general to all kinds of faces (as opposed to subcategories) by testing whether adaptation to one type of face can affect perception of another. Participants were shown cartoon videos containing faces with abnormally large eyes. Using animated videos allowed us to simulate naturalistic exposure and avoid positional shape adaptation. Results suggest that adaptation to cartoon faces with large eyes shifts preferences for human faces toward larger eyes, supporting the existence of general face representations. PMID:20465173

  14. The influence of crystal faces on corrosion behavior of copper surface: First-principle and experiment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengwei; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xu; Gao, Lin

    2017-02-01

    When the MBT-:Cl- ratio is 50-10:1 in a solution containing of NaCl and Na-MBT (sodium salt of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole), the copper sample-1 (S1) was passivated; when the ration is 10-5:1, it was corroded. The copper sample-2 (S2) had no anti-corrosive ability in all solutions with MBT-:Cl- = 50-5:1. First-principle calculation revealed that the Cu atoms of (220) face, the main face of S1, have more unsaturated and energetic electrons than that of (200) and (111) faces, the main faces of S2. The highest chemical activation of the (220) face leads the S1 surface to show a better anti-corrosive ability.

  15. Local feature suppression effect in face and non-face stimuli.

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Kim, Hyojung; Danek, Adrian; Müller, Hermann J; Rangelov, Dragan

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence that the cognitive system processes human faces faster and more precisely than other stimuli. Also, faces summon visual attention in an automatic manner, as evidenced by efficient, 'pop-out' search for face targets amongst homogeneous non-face distractors. Pop-out for faces implies that faces are processed as a basic visual 'feature' by specialized face-tuned detectors, similar to the coding of other features (e.g., color, orientation, motion, etc.). However, it is unclear whether such face detectors encode only the global face configuration or both global and local face features. If the former were correct, the face detectors should be unable to support search for a local face feature, rendering search slower relative to non-face stimuli; that is, there would be local feature suppression (LFS) for faces. If the latter was the case, there should be no difference in the processing of local and, respectively, global face features. In two experiments, participants discerned the presence (vs. absence) of a local target defined as a part of either a normal or a scrambled (schematic or realistic) face or of a non-face (Kanizsa diamond or realistic house) configuration. The results consistently showed a robust LFS effect in both reaction times and error rates for face stimuli, and either no difference or even a local feature enhancement effect for the control stimuli. Taken together, these findings indicate that faces are encoded as a basic visual feature by means of globally tuned face detectors.

  16. Online or Face to Face? A Comparison of Two Methods of Training Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Kristin; Dworkin, Jodi; Gengler, Colleen; Olson, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Online courses offer benefits over face-to-face courses such as accessibility, affordability, and flexibility. Literature assessing the effectiveness of face-to-face and online courses is growing, but findings remain inconclusive. This study compared evaluations completed by professionals who had taken a research update short course either face to…

  17. Familiar Face Recognition in Children with Autism: The Differential Use of Inner and Outer Face Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rebecca; Pascalis, Olivier; Blades, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have a deficit in recognising familiar faces. Children with ASD were given a forced choice familiar face recognition task with three conditions: full faces, inner face parts and outer face parts. Control groups were children with developmental delay (DD) and typically…

  18. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  19. Familiar Face Detection in 180ms

    PubMed Central

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2015-01-01

    The visual system is tuned for rapid detection of faces, with the fastest choice saccade to a face at 100ms. Familiar faces have a more robust representation than do unfamiliar faces, and are detected faster in the absence of awareness and with reduced attentional resources. Faces of family and close friends become familiar over a protracted period involving learning the unique visual appearance, including a view-invariant representation, as well as person knowledge. We investigated the effect of personal familiarity on the earliest stages of face processing by using a saccadic-choice task to measure how fast familiar face detection can happen. Subjects made correct and reliable saccades to familiar faces when unfamiliar faces were distractors at 180ms—very rapid saccades that are 30 to 70ms earlier than the earliest evoked potential modulated by familiarity. By contrast, accuracy of saccades to unfamiliar faces with familiar faces as distractors did not exceed chance. Saccades to faces with object distractors were even faster (110 to 120 ms) and equivalent for familiar and unfamiliar faces, indicating that familiarity does not affect ultra-rapid saccades. We propose that detectors of diagnostic facial features for familiar faces develop in visual cortices through learning and allow rapid detection that precedes explicit recognition of identity. PMID:26305788

  20. An example-based face relighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyunjung; Chen, Tsuhan

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new face relighting algorithm powered by a large database of face images captured under various known lighting conditions (a Multi-PIE database). Key insight of our algorithm is that a face can be represented by an assemble of patches from many other faces. The algorithm finds the most similar face patches in the database in terms of the lighting and the appearance. By assembling the matched patches, we can visualize the input face under various lighting conditions. Unlike existing face relighting algorithms, we neither use any kinds of face model nor make a physical assumption. Instead, our algorithm is a data-driven approach, synthesizing the appearance of the image patch using the appearance of the example patch. Using a data-driven approach, we can account for various intrinsic facial features including the non-Lambertian skin properties as well as the hair. Also, our algorithm is insensitive to the face misalignment. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm by face relighting and face recognition experiments. Especially, the synthesized results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully handle various intrinsic features of an input face. Also, from the face recognition experiment, we show that our method is comparable to the most recent face relighting work.

  1. Familiar Face Detection in 180 ms.

    PubMed

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Gobbini, M Ida

    2015-01-01

    The visual system is tuned for rapid detection of faces, with the fastest choice saccade to a face at 100 ms. Familiar faces have a more robust representation than do unfamiliar faces, and are detected faster in the absence of awareness and with reduced attentional resources. Faces of family and close friends become familiar over a protracted period involving learning the unique visual appearance, including a view-invariant representation, as well as person knowledge. We investigated the effect of personal familiarity on the earliest stages of face processing by using a saccadic-choice task to measure how fast familiar face detection can happen. Subjects made correct and reliable saccades to familiar faces when unfamiliar faces were distractors at 180 ms--very rapid saccades that are 30 to 70 ms earlier than the earliest evoked potential modulated by familiarity. By contrast, accuracy of saccades to unfamiliar faces with familiar faces as distractors did not exceed chance. Saccades to faces with object distractors were even faster (110 to 120 ms) and equivalent for familiar and unfamiliar faces, indicating that familiarity does not affect ultra-rapid saccades. We propose that detectors of diagnostic facial features for familiar faces develop in visual cortices through learning and allow rapid detection that precedes explicit recognition of identity.

  2. Face-to-face or not-to-face: A technology preference for communication.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya

    2014-11-01

    This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication.

  3. Face-to-Face or Not-to-Face: A Technology Preference for Communication

    PubMed Central

    Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication. PMID:25405782

  4. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introducción al Estudio de la Astronomía en la Formación Inicial de Profesores de Física.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introdução ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formação Inicial de Professores de Física

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    modelos de universo que os participantes possuíam. Os resultados, que foram categorizados em universo miscelânea, geocêntrico, heliocêntrico e acêntrico, foram analisados qualitativamente. São apontadas as análises da atividade na ótica dos participantes, além de tecidas considerações sobre seu emprego como recurso ao ensino de Astronomia e na formação docente.

  5. Advanced Face Gear Surface Durability Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Heath, Gregory F.

    2016-01-01

    The surface durability life of helical face gears and isotropic super-finished (ISF) face gears was investigated. Experimental fatigue tests were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Endurance tests were performed on 10 sets of helical face gears in mesh with tapered involute helical pinions, and 10 sets of ISF-enhanced straight face gears in mesh with tapered involute spur pinions. The results were compared to previous tests on straight face gears. The life of the ISF configuration was slightly less than that of previous tests on straight face gears. The life of the ISF configuration was slightly greater than that of the helical configuration.

  6. Collective strategy for facing occupational risks of a nursing team.

    PubMed

    Loro, Marli Maria; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner

    2017-03-09

    To socialize an educational action through the process of group discussion and reflection, with the aim to increase the care of nursing workers in facing occupational risks. A qualitative descriptive study using the Convergent Care Research modality with nursing staff working in an emergency department of a hospital in the northwest region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data collection was carried out through educational workshops and information was processed using content analysis, resulting in two thematic categories: A look at the knowledge and practices about occupational risks in nursing; and adherence to protective measures by the nursing team against occupational risks. Twenty-four (24) workers participated in the study. When challenged to critically look at their actions, the subjects found that they relate the use of safety devices to situations in which they are aware of the patient's serological status. Subjects' interaction, involvement and co-responsibility in the health education process were determinant for their reflection on risky practices. They also had the potential to modify unsafe behaviors. Socializar uma ação educativa, por meio de um processo de discussão e reflexão em grupo, com vistas a ampliar o cuidado dos trabalhadores de enfermagem frente aos riscos ocupacionais. Estudo qualitativo, descritivo na modalidade Pesquisa Convergente Assistencial, com trabalhadores da equipe de enfermagem que atuavam no pronto atendimento de um hospital da região noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de oficinas educativas, e o tratamento das informações, por análise de conteúdo, resultando em duas categorias temáticas: Um olhar direcionado a saberes e práticas sobre riscos ocupacionais na enfermagem e Adesão às medidas de proteção pela equipe de enfermagem frente aos riscos ocupacionais. Integraram o estudo 24 trabalhadores. Ao serem desafiados a olhar criticamente sobre seu fazer, os

  7. Central role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) in sodium bioenergetics of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Steuber, Julia; Halang, Petra; Vorburger, Thomas; Steffen, Wojtek; Vohl, Georg; Fritz, Günter

    2014-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that lives in brackish or sea water environments. Strains of V. cholerae carrying the pathogenicity islands infect the human gut and cause the fatal disease cholera. Vibrio cholerae maintains a Na(+) gradient at its cytoplasmic membrane that drives substrate uptake, motility, and efflux of antibiotics. Here, we summarize the major Na(+)-dependent transport processes and describe the central role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR), a primary Na(+) pump, in maintaining a Na(+)-motive force. The Na(+)-NQR is a membrane protein complex with a mass of about 220 kDa that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH to the transport of Na(+) across the cytoplasmic membrane. We describe the molecular architecture of this respiratory complex and summarize the findings how electron transport might be coupled to Na(+)-translocation. Moreover, recent advances in the determination of the three-dimensional structure of this complex are reported.

  8. Two Na+ Sites Control Conformational Change in a Neurotransmitter Transporter Homolog*

    PubMed Central

    Tavoulari, Sotiria; Margheritis, Eleonora; Nagarajan, Anu; DeWitt, David C.; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Rosado, Edwin; Ravera, Silvia; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Forrest, Lucy R.; Rudnick, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In LeuT, a prokaryotic homolog of neurotransmitter transporters, Na+ stabilizes outward-open conformational states. We examined how each of the two LeuT Na+ binding sites contributes to Na+-dependent closure of the cytoplasmic pathway using biochemical and biophysical assays of conformation. Mutating either of two residues that contribute to the Na2 site completely prevented cytoplasmic closure in response to Na+, suggesting that Na2 is essential for this conformational change, whereas Na1 mutants retained Na+ responsiveness. However, mutation of Na1 residues also influenced the Na+-dependent conformational change in ways that varied depending on the position mutated. Computational analyses suggest those mutants influence the ability of Na1 binding to hydrate the substrate pathway and perturb an interaction network leading to the extracellular gate. Overall, the results demonstrate that occupation of Na2 stabilizes outward-facing conformations presumably through a direct interaction between Na+ and transmembrane helices 1 and 8, whereas Na+ binding at Na1 influences conformational change through a network of intermediary interactions. The results also provide evidence that N-terminal release and helix motions represent distinct steps in cytoplasmic pathway opening. PMID:26582198

  9. Two Na+ Sites Control Conformational Change in a Neurotransmitter Transporter Homolog.

    PubMed

    Tavoulari, Sotiria; Margheritis, Eleonora; Nagarajan, Anu; DeWitt, David C; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Rosado, Edwin; Ravera, Silvia; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Forrest, Lucy R; Rudnick, Gary

    2016-01-15

    In LeuT, a prokaryotic homolog of neurotransmitter transporters, Na(+) stabilizes outward-open conformational states. We examined how each of the two LeuT Na(+) binding sites contributes to Na(+)-dependent closure of the cytoplasmic pathway using biochemical and biophysical assays of conformation. Mutating either of two residues that contribute to the Na2 site completely prevented cytoplasmic closure in response to Na(+), suggesting that Na2 is essential for this conformational change, whereas Na1 mutants retained Na(+) responsiveness. However, mutation of Na1 residues also influenced the Na(+)-dependent conformational change in ways that varied depending on the position mutated. Computational analyses suggest those mutants influence the ability of Na1 binding to hydrate the substrate pathway and perturb an interaction network leading to the extracellular gate. Overall, the results demonstrate that occupation of Na2 stabilizes outward-facing conformations presumably through a direct interaction between Na(+) and transmembrane helices 1 and 8, whereas Na(+) binding at Na1 influences conformational change through a network of intermediary interactions. The results also provide evidence that N-terminal release and helix motions represent distinct steps in cytoplasmic pathway opening.

  10. 3D face detection and face recognition: state of the art and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xilai; Li, Aihua; Bai, Xiangfeng

    2010-08-01

    Face detection and recognition are old but rapidly growing research areas due to increasing demands for security in industrial and law enforcement applications. Face recognition based on two-dimensional (2D) images have reached a significant level of maturity with some practical success. However the performance of 2D face recognition may degrade under poor illumination conditions, pose changing or for subjects of various skin colors. 3D face recognition represents a viable alternative to 2D face recognition in the research for a robust and practical identification system. This paper provides a review of research achievement in face recognition from 2007 to present. This survey mainly include three parts: (1) advances in face detections, (2) state of the art of 3D face recognition and (3) face images database and face recognition algorithm evaluation. Recent research has also demonstrated that the fusion of 2D and 3D face recognition can improve the overall performance of face recognition algorithm.

  11. Seeing a haptically explored face: visual facial-expression aftereffect from haptic adaptation to a face.

    PubMed

    Matsumiya, Kazumichi

    2013-10-01

    Current views on face perception assume that the visual system receives only visual facial signals. However, I show that the visual perception of faces is systematically biased by adaptation to a haptically explored face. Recently, face aftereffects (FAEs; the altered perception of faces after adaptation to a face) have been demonstrated not only in visual perception but also in haptic perception; therefore, I combined the two FAEs to examine whether the visual system receives face-related signals from the haptic modality. I found that adaptation to a haptically explored facial expression on a face mask produced a visual FAE for facial expression. This cross-modal FAE was not due to explicitly imaging a face, response bias, or adaptation to local features. Furthermore, FAEs transferred from vision to haptics. These results indicate that visual face processing depends on substrates adapted by haptic faces, which suggests that face processing relies on shared representation underlying cross-modal interactions.

  12. The effect of face patch microstimulation on perception of faces and objects.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Sebastian; Crapse, Trinity; Chang, Le; Tsao, Doris Y

    2017-05-01

    What is the range of stimuli encoded by face-selective regions of the brain? We asked how electrical microstimulation of face patches in macaque inferotemporal cortex affects perception of faces and objects. We found that microstimulation strongly distorted face percepts and that this effect depended on precise targeting to the center of face patches. While microstimulation had no effect on the percept of many non-face objects, it did affect the percept of some, including non-face objects whose shape is consistent with a face (for example, apples) as well as somewhat facelike abstract images (for example, cartoon houses). Microstimulation even perturbed the percept of certain objects that did not activate the stimulated face patch at all. Overall, these results indicate that representation of facial identity is localized to face patches, but activity in these patches can also affect perception of face-compatible non-face objects, including objects normally represented in other parts of inferotemporal cortex.

  13. Ultrasonically assisted face-lift.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Jose Abel; Soto-Miranda, Miguel Angel; López-Salguero, José Fernando

    2012-08-01

    The face-lift procedure is one of the most skillful interventions performed by plastic surgeons. Ultrasonic energy is used to elevate the facial skin flap, which allows for preservation of vascular, lymphatic, and nervous structures, thereby decreasing the morbidity associated with this procedure. A retrospective study to compare the outcomes of ultrasound and non-ultrasound-assisted face-lifts is reported. All the procedures were performed at the Institute for Plastic Surgery. Each group consisted of 104 patients. Statistical analysis was performed to determine differences between the groups. The mean operating time was 4 h in the treatment group versus 4.2 h in the control group (p>0.05). The incidence of hematoma formation was 0.96% in the treatment group versus 2.4% in the control group (p<0.05). The incidence of flap necrosis was 0% in both groups. The duration of ecchymosis was 13 days in the experimental group versus 17.2 days in the control group (p<0.05). The duration of postoperative swelling was 17.4 days in the treatment group versus 20.4 days in the control group (p<0.05). As reported, 85% of patients in the treatment group were very satisfied, 14.42% were satisfied, 0% were mildly satisfied, and 0% were not satisfied. In the control group, 80.7% were very satisfied, 18.26% were satisfied, 0.96% were mildly satisfied, and 0% were not satisfied. According to Fisher's exact test, the p value for patient satisfaction exceeded 0.05%. The preservation of the blood and lymphatic vessels diminishes postoperative swelling and shortens the duration of ecchymosis considerably. The incidence of hematoma formation is lower than with a non-ultrasonic face-lift. This study failed to prove any statistically significant difference in operating time or patient satisfaction between the two groups.

  14. Robust Face Image Matching under Illumination Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chyuan-Huei Thomas; Lai, Shang-Hong; Chang, Long-Wen

    2004-12-01

    Face image matching is an essential step for face recognition and face verification. It is difficult to achieve robust face matching under various image acquisition conditions. In this paper, a novel face image matching algorithm robust against illumination variations is proposed. The proposed image matching algorithm is motivated by the characteristics of high image gradient along the face contours. We define a new consistency measure as the inner product between two normalized gradient vectors at the corresponding locations in two images. The normalized gradient is obtained by dividing the computed gradient vector by the corresponding locally maximal gradient magnitude. Then we compute the average consistency measures for all pairs of the corresponding face contour pixels to be the robust matching measure between two face images. To alleviate the problem due to shadow and intensity saturation, we introduce an intensity weighting function for each individual consistency measure to form a weighted average of the consistency measure. This robust consistency measure is further extended to integrate multiple face images of the same person captured under different illumination conditions, thus making our robust face matching algorithm. Experimental results of applying the proposed face image matching algorithm on some well-known face datasets are given in comparison with some existing face recognition methods. The results show that the proposed algorithm consistently outperforms other methods and achieves higher than 93% recognition rate with three reference images for different datasets under different lighting conditions.

  15. Face photo-sketch synthesis and recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Tang, Xiaoou

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel face photo-sketch synthesis and recognition method using a multiscale Markov Random Fields (MRF) model. Our system has three components: 1) given a face photo, synthesizing a sketch drawing; 2) given a face sketch drawing, synthesizing a photo; and 3) searching for face photos in the database based on a query sketch drawn by an artist. It has useful applications for both digital entertainment and law enforcement. We assume that faces to be studied are in a frontal pose, with normal lighting and neutral expression, and have no occlusions. To synthesize sketch/photo images, the face region is divided into overlapping patches for learning. The size of the patches decides the scale of local face structures to be learned. From a training set which contains photo-sketch pairs, the joint photo-sketch model is learned at multiple scales using a multiscale MRF model. By transforming a face photo to a sketch (or transforming a sketch to a photo), the difference between photos and sketches is significantly reduced, thus allowing effective matching between the two in face sketch recognition. After the photo-sketch transformation, in principle, most of the proposed face photo recognition approaches can be applied to face sketch recognition in a straightforward way. Extensive experiments are conducted on a face sketch database including 606 faces, which can be downloaded from our Web site (http://mmlab.ie.cuhk.edu.hk/facesketch.html).

  16. Developmental origins of the face inversion effect.

    PubMed

    Cashon, Cara H; Holt, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of adults' expertise for faces is that they are better at recognizing, discriminating, and processing upright faces compared to inverted faces. We investigate the developmental origins of "the face inversion effect" by reviewing research on infants' perception of upright and inverted faces during the first year of life. We review the effects of inversion on infants' face preference, recognition, processing (holistic and second-order configural), and scanning as well as face-related neural responses. Particular attention is paid to the developmental patterns that emerge within and across these areas of face perception. We conclude that the developmental origins of the inversion effect begin in the first few months of life and grow stronger over the first year, culminating in effects that are commonly thought to indicate adult-like expertise. We posit that by the end of the first year, infants' face-processing system has become specialized to upright faces and a foundation for adults' upright-face expertise has been established. Developmental mechanisms that may facilitate the emergence of this upright-face specialization are discussed, including the roles that physical and social development may play in upright faces' becoming more meaningful to infants during the first year. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous face and voice processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana P; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    While several studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in the unisensory processing of face and voice in schizophrenia (SZ), the extent of abnormalities in the simultaneous processing of both types of information remains unclear. To address this issue, we used event-related potentials (ERP) methodology to probe the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic sounds in schizophrenia. EEG was recorded from 18 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects in three conditions: neutral faces (visual condition-VIS); neutral non-semantic sounds (auditory condition-AUD); neutral faces presented simultaneously with neutral non-semantic sounds (audiovisual condition-AUDVIS). When compared with HC, the schizophrenia group showed less negative N170 to both face and face-voice stimuli; later P270 peak latency in the multimodal condition of face-voice relative to unimodal condition of face (the reverse was true in HC); reduced P400 amplitude and earlier P400 peak latency in the face but not in the voice-face condition. Thus, the analysis of ERP components suggests that deficits in the encoding of facial information extend to multimodal face-voice stimuli and that delays exist in feature extraction from multimodal face-voice stimuli in schizophrenia. In contrast, categorization processes seem to benefit from the presentation of simultaneous face-voice information. Timepoint by timepoint tests of multimodal integration did not suggest impairment in the initial stages of processing in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Emotional Expression and Heart Rate in High-Risk Infants during the Face-To-Face/Still-Face

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Whitney I.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Lambert, Brittany; Tronick, Ed; Lester, Barry M.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    In infants, eye constriction—the Duchenne marker—and mouth opening appear to index the intensity of both positive and negative facial expressions. We combined eye constriction and mouth opening that co-occurred with smiles and cry-faces (respectively, the prototypic expressions of infant joy and distress) to measure emotional expression intensity. Expression intensity and heart rate were measured throughout the Face-to-Face/Still Face (FFSF) in a sample of infants with prenatal cocaine exposure who were at risk for developmental difficulties. Smiles declined and cry-faces increased in the still-face episode, but the distribution of eye constriction and mouth opening in smiles and cry-faces did not differ across episodes of the FFSF. As time elapsed in the still face episode potential indices of intensity increased, cry-faces were more likely to be accompanied by eye constriction and mouth opening. During cry-faces there were also moderately stable individual differences in the quantity of eye constriction and mouth opening. Infant heart rate was higher during cry-faces and lower during smiles, but did not vary with intensity of expression or by episode. In sum, infants express more intense negative affect as the still-face progresses, but do not show clear differences in expressive intensity between episodes of the FFSF. PMID:24095807

  19. Emotional expression and heart rate in high-risk infants during the face-to-face/still-face.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Whitney I; Ekas, Naomi V; Lambert, Brittany; Tronick, Ed; Lester, Barry M; Messinger, Daniel S

    2013-12-01

    In infants, eye constriction-the Duchenne marker-and mouth opening appear to index the intensity of both positive and negative facial expressions. We combined eye constriction and mouth opening that co-occurred with smiles and cry-faces (respectively, the prototypic expressions of infant joy and distress) to measure emotional expression intensity. Expression intensity and heart rate were measured throughout the face-to-face/still-face (FFSF) in a sample of infants with prenatal cocaine exposure who were at risk for developmental difficulties. Smiles declined and cry-faces increased in the still-face episode, but the distribution of eye constriction and mouth opening in smiles and cry-faces did not differ across episodes of the FFSF. As time elapsed in the still face episode potential indices of intensity increased, cry-faces were more likely to be accompanied by eye constriction and mouth opening. During cry-faces there were also moderately stable individual differences in the quantity of eye constriction and mouth opening. Infant heart rate was higher during cry-faces and lower during smiles, but did not vary with intensity of expression or by episode. In sum, infants express more intense negative affect as the still-face progresses, but do not show clear differences in expressive intensity between episodes of the FFSF.

  20. Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know Past Issues / Fall ... your loved ones. Photos: AP The Faces of Diabetes Diabetes strikes millions of Americans, young and old, ...

  1. Newborns' face recognition over changes in viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Turati, Chiara; Bulf, Hermann; Simion, Francesca

    2008-03-01

    The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances between profile and full-face poses (Experiment 1), and profile and 3/4 poses (Experiment 3). Conversely, newborns recognized the identity of a face through full-face and 3/4 poses (Experiment 2). This result cannot be explained as a consequence of newborns' inability to discriminate between the full-face and 3/4 points of view (Experiment 4). Overall, evidence was provided that newborns are able to derive a representation of an unfamiliar face that is resilient to a certain degree of rotation in depth, from full-face to 3/4 and vice versa.

  2. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms, respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2) was impaired when a first target (T1) was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA); identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention. PMID:24994994

  3. Hospital design and face-to-face interaction among clinicians: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that face-to-face interaction among clinicians in hospitals affects patient outcomes. How can face-to-face interaction among clinicians be influenced positively to improve patient outcomes in hospitals? So far, most strategies for improving face-to-face interaction in hospitals have focused on changing organizational culture. In contrast, this paper proposes a theoretical model that shows how spatial program and structure can help face-to-face interaction fulfill its purposes in hospitals by controlling the interfaces among different communities of clinicians.

  4. Misaligned and Polarity-Reversed Faces Determine Face-specific Capacity Limits

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Volker; Ward, Neil; de Fockert, Jan W.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research using flanker paradigms suggests that peripheral distracter faces are automatically processed when participants have to classify a single central familiar target face. These distracter interference effects disappear when the central task contains additional anonymous (non-target) faces that load the search for the face target, but not when the central task contains additional non-face stimuli, suggesting there are face-specific capacity limits in visual processing. Here we tested whether manipulating the format of non-target faces in the search task affected face-specific capacity limits. Experiment 1 replicated earlier findings that a distracter face is processed even in high load conditions when participants looked for a target name of a famous person among additional names (non-targets) in a central search array. Two further experiments show that when targets and non-targets were faces (instead of names), however, distracter interference was eliminated under high load—adding non-target faces to the search array exhausted processing capacity for peripheral faces. The novel finding was that replacing non-target faces with images that consisted of two horizontally misaligned face-parts reduced distracter processing. Similar results were found when the polarity of a non-target face image was reversed. These results indicate that face-specific capacity limits are not determined by the configural properties of face processing, but by face parts. PMID:27729889

  5. [Face rejuvenation with tensor threads].

    PubMed

    Cornette de Saint Cyr, B; Benouaiche, L

    2017-08-25

    The last decades has seen new priorities in treatment of a flabby, ageing face towards minimally invasive aesthetic surgery, to be accompanied and followed by the requirements to perform such interventions with the maximally reduced health hazards, with inconsiderable injury, without cuts and, respectively, to be followed by no resulting scars, as well as a short postoperative period. We propose a new reviewing presentation of the tensor threads. After having explained the technology of the threads, we will discuss the good patient indication, the criteria which determine the choice of the threads and methods for each type of patient. There are many techniques, which we will present. Then, we will discuss the results, unsatisfactory outcomes obtained and complications encountered, as well as how to improve the cosmetic outcomes to be obtained. To conclude, we will propose a strategy for the long-term treatment of the neck and the face, preventing surgical management of the aging process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Early e-consultation face-to-face conversions.

    PubMed

    Pecina, Jennifer L; North, Frederick

    2016-07-01

    E-consultations are asynchronous, text-based consultations. The specialist e-consultant answers clinical questions in a similar way to a standard consultation but the questions and answers are sent electronically. The e-consultant has access to some or all of the medical record but does not have contact with the patient. Although e-consultations are meant to substitute for face-to-face (F2F) consultations, a significant proportion of e-consultations are converted to F2F consultations. We examined e-consultation content from a sample of e-consultations that had subsequent F2F visits in the same specialty as the e-consultation within 28 days of the e-consultation. Out of 5115 e-consultations, there were a total of 547 (10.7%) early F2F conversions. One hundred and fifty-one e-consultations with subsequent early F2F conversions were reviewed in eight specialties. In 64% of the F2F conversions, specialists recommended the F2F consultations. In 75% there were complex diagnostic or treatment considerations. In only 1% was there a sense of medical urgency or a stated need for physical examination. E-consultations convert to F2F consultations primarily at the request of the specialist. Diagnostic and treatment complexity appear to be the main reasons. We found little evidence that patients decided independently to get a F2F visit or that specialists needed a F2F visit to perform a physical examination. Although e-consultations might not be a complete substitute for F2F consultations, they may serve as an entry level consultation that could be supplemented by a video consultation as needed for cases with more diagnostic and treatment complexity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Telemedicine and face-to-face care for pediatric obesity.

    PubMed

    Lipana, Lawrence Santiago; Bindal, Deepika; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Shaikh, Ulfat

    2013-10-01

    The University of California Davis Medical Center (Sacramento, CA) has pioneered the use of telemedicine in its approach to childhood obesity to cover more than 20 rural clinics in California. In our study, we compared the outcomes of the Telemedicine Weight Management Clinic (TM) with those of its face-to-face (FTF) Weight Management Clinic counterpart over the last 5 years, predicting the results to be equivalent or in favor of TM. All children seen in the TM from June 2006 to June 2011 were included (n=121), and encounter notes in medical records were reviewed. For comparison, an equivalent sample of FTF patients was selected from that time frame (n=122). Data that were also abstracted from the medical record included age at first visit, gender, race, referral site, and comorbid diagnoses. Forty-two percent of TM patients compared with 52% of FTF patients received a change in diagnosis. Thirty-nine percent of TM patients received a change in diagnostic evaluation compared with 67% of patients in FTF. When comparing patients who received more than one visit with either form of consultation, the TM group demonstrated substantially more improvement than the FTF group in improving nutrition (88% versus 65%), increasing activity (76% versus 49%), and decreasing screen time (33% versus 8%). Substantially more TM patients were successful with a combined outcome of any one of the weight parameters that included weight loss, weight maintenance, or slowing of weight gain (69% TM versus 44% FTF). Our study suggests that telemedicine can serve as a feasible strategy to increase access to medical care for childhood obesity in rural communities and promote changes in lifestyle with the goal of maintaining a healthy weight.

  8. Orienting to Eye Gaze and Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipples, Jason

    2005-01-01

    The author conducted 7 experiments to examine possible interactions between orienting to eye gaze and specific forms of face processing. Participants classified a letter following either an upright or inverted face with averted, uninformative eye gaze. Eye gaze orienting effects were recorded for upright and inverted faces, irrespective of whether…

  9. Perceiving the Male versus the Female Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulman, Gary I.; Hoskins, Mary

    1986-01-01

    Studied perceptual processes in rating the good-lookingness of male compared to female faces, finding that more refined distinctions and discriminations, more extreme positive and negative ratings, and more concensus occur for female than for male faces. Facial expression (e.g., smiling) affected the rating of female more than of male faces.…

  10. Perception and recognition of faces in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrmann, D.; Knoll, L. J.; Sakhardande, A. L.; Speekenbrink, M.; Kadosh, K. C.; Blakemore, S. -J.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the development of face cognition abilities have focussed on childhood, with early maturation accounts contending that face cognition abilities are mature by 3–5 years. Late maturation accounts, in contrast, propose that some aspects of face cognition are not mature until at least 10 years. Here, we measured face memory and face perception, two core face cognition abilities, in 661 participants (397 females) in four age groups (younger adolescents (11.27–13.38 years); mid-adolescents (13.39–15.89 years); older adolescents (15.90–18.00 years); and adults (18.01–33.15 years)) while controlling for differences in general cognitive ability. We showed that both face cognition abilities mature relatively late, at around 16 years, with a female advantage in face memory, but not in face perception, both in adolescence and adulthood. Late maturation in the face perception task was driven mainly by protracted development in identity perception, while gaze perception abilities were already comparatively mature in early adolescence. These improvements in the ability to memorize, recognize and perceive faces during adolescence may be related to increasing exploratory behaviour and exposure to novel faces during this period of life. PMID:27647477

  11. 49 CFR 236.774 - Movement, facing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite...

  12. Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

    1982-01-01

    Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

  13. Recognition of Unfamiliar Talking Faces at Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulon, Marion; Guellai, Bahia; Streri, Arlette

    2011-01-01

    Sai (2005) investigated the role of speech in newborns' recognition of their mothers' faces. Her results revealed that, when presented with both their mother's face and that of a stranger, newborns preferred looking at their mother only if she had previously talked to them. The present study attempted to extend these findings to any other faces.…

  14. Stimulus Selectivity of Figural Aftereffects for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Jill A.; Hardy, Joseph L.; De Valois, Karen K.; Webster, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Viewing a distorted face induces large aftereffects in the appearance of an undistorted face. The authors examined the processes underlying this adaptation by comparing how selective the aftereffects are for different dimensions of the images including size, spatial frequency content, contrast, and color. Face aftereffects had weaker selectivity…

  15. Labels and Children's Perception of Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.; Seavey, Carol

    The relation between type of label and perception of faces was assessed. Sixty-four second and sixth grade Ss were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions in which various kinds of labeling training were associated with four purple and green smiling and frowning faces. Ss then judged the similarity of pairs of the faces. Results revealed…

  16. Reading Faces: From Features to Recognition.

    PubMed

    Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Gobbini, M Ida

    2017-09-19

    Chang and Tsao recently reported that the monkey face patch system encodes facial identity in a space of facial features as opposed to exemplars. Here, we discuss how such coding might contribute to face recognition, emphasizing the critical role of learning and interactions with other brain areas for optimizing the recognition of familiar faces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants…

  18. Visual Search for Faces with Emotional Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischen, Alexandra; Eastwood, John D.; Smilek, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this review is to critically examine contradictory findings in the study of visual search for emotionally expressive faces. Several key issues are addressed: Can emotional faces be processed preattentively and guide attention? What properties of these faces influence search efficiency? Is search moderated by the emotional state of the…

  19. Recognition Memory for Realistic Synthetic Faces

    PubMed Central

    Yotsumoto, Yuko; Kahana, Michael J.; Wilson, Hugh R.; Sekuler, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A series of experiments examined short-term recognition memory for trios of briefly-presented, synthetic human faces derived from three real human faces. The stimuli were graded series of faces, which differed by varying known amounts from the face of the average female. Faces based on each of the three real faces were transformed so as to lie along orthogonal axes in a 3-D face space. Experiment 1 showed that the synthetic faces' perceptual similarity stucture strongly influenced recognition memory. Results were fit by NEMo, a noisy exemplar model of perceptual recognition memory. The fits revealed that recognition memory was influenced both by the similarity of the probe to series items, and by the similarities among the series items themselves. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) showed that faces' perceptual representations largely preserved the 3-D space in which the face stimuli were arrayed. NEMo gave a better account of the results when similarity was defined as perceptual, MDS similarity rather than physical proximity of one face to another. Experiment 2 confirmed the importance of within-list homogeneity directly, without mediation of a model. We discuss the affinities and differences between visual memory for synthetic faces and memory for simpler stimuli. PMID:17948069

  20. Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants…

  1. Unconscious Evaluation of Faces on Social Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Lorna H.; Ajina, Sara; Getov, Spas; Bahrami, Bahador; Todorov, Alexander; Rees, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that two major axes, dominance and trustworthiness, characterize the social dimensions of face evaluation. Whether evaluation of faces on these social dimensions is restricted to conscious appraisal or happens at a preconscious level is unknown. Here we provide behavioral evidence that such preconscious evaluations exist and that they are likely to be interpretations arising from interactions between the face stimuli and observer-specific traits. Monocularly viewed faces that varied independently along two social dimensions of trust and dominance were rendered invisible by continuous flash suppression (CFS) when a flashing pattern was presented to the other eye. Participants pressed a button as soon as they saw the face emerge from suppression to indicate whether the previously hidden face was located slightly to the left or right of central fixation. Dominant and untrustworthy faces took significantly longer time to emerge (T2E) compared with neutral faces. A control experiment showed these findings could not reflect delayed motor responses to conscious faces. Finally, we showed that participants' self-reported propensity to trust was strongly predictive of untrust avoidance (i.e., difference in T2E for untrustworthy vs neutral faces) as well as dominance avoidance (i.e., difference in T2E for dominant vs neutral faces). Dominance avoidance was also correlated with submissive behavior. We suggest that such prolongation of suppression for threatening faces may result from a passive fear response, leading to slowed visual perception. PMID:22468670

  2. 49 CFR 236.774 - Movement, facing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite to...

  3. Implicit face prototype learning from geometric information.

    PubMed

    Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R

    2013-04-19

    There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning.

  4. In the face of fear: Anxiety sensitizes defensive responses to fearful faces

    PubMed Central

    Grillon, Christian; Charney, Danielle R.

    2011-01-01

    Fearful faces readily activate the amygdala. Yet, whether fearful faces evoke fear is unclear. Startle studies show no potentiation of startle by fearful faces, suggesting that such stimuli do not activate defense mechanisms. However, the response to biologically relevant stimuli may be sensitized by anxiety. The present study tested the hypothesis that startle would not be potentiated by fearful faces in a safe context, but that startle would be larger during fearful faces compared to neutral faces in a threat-of-shock context. Subjects viewed fearful and neutral faces in alternating periods of safety and threat of shock. Acoustic startle stimuli were presented in the presence and absence of the faces. Startle was transiently potentiated by fearful faces compared to neutral faces in the threat periods. This suggests that although fearful faces do not prompt behavioral mobilization in an innocuous context, they can do so in an anxiogenic one. PMID:21824155

  5. Visual Search Efficiency is Greater for Human Faces Compared to Animal Faces

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Mertins, Haley L.; Yee, Krysten; Fullerton, Alison; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2015-01-01

    The Animate Monitoring Hypothesis proposes that humans and animals were the most important categories of visual stimuli for ancestral humans to monitor, as they presented important challenges and opportunities for survival and reproduction; however, it remains unknown whether animal faces are located as efficiently as human faces. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether human, primate, and mammal faces elicit similarly efficient searches, or whether human faces are privileged. In the first three experiments, participants located a target (human, primate, or mammal face) among distractors (non-face objects). We found fixations on human faces were faster and more accurate than primate faces, even when controlling for search category specificity. A final experiment revealed that, even when task-irrelevant, human faces slowed searches for non-faces, suggesting some bottom-up processing may be responsible for the human face search efficiency advantage. PMID:24962122

  6. The special status of sad infant faces: age and valence differences in adults' cortical face processing.

    PubMed

    Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues.

  7. The time course of face processing: startle eyeblink response modulation by face gender and expression.

    PubMed

    Duval, Elizabeth R; Lovelace, Christopher T; Aarant, Justin; Filion, Diane L

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of both facial expression and face gender on startle eyeblink response patterns at varying lead intervals (300, 800, and 3500ms) indicative of attentional and emotional processes. We aimed to determine whether responses to affective faces map onto the Defense Cascade Model (Lang et al., 1997) to better understand the stages of processing during affective face viewing. At 300ms, there was an interaction between face expression and face gender with female happy and neutral faces and male angry faces producing inhibited startle. At 3500ms, there was a trend for facilitated startle during angry compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that affective expressions are perceived differently in male and female faces, especially at short lead intervals. Future studies investigating face processing should take both face gender and expression into account.

  8. The shape of the face template: geometric distortions of faces and their detection in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Pongakkasira, Kaewmart; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Human face detection might be driven by skin-coloured face-shaped templates. To explore this idea, this study compared the detection of faces for which the natural height-to-width ratios were preserved with distorted faces that were stretched vertically or horizontally. The impact of stretching on detection performance was not obvious when faces were equated to their unstretched counterparts in terms of their height or width dimension (Experiment 1). However, stretching impaired detection when the original and distorted faces were matched for their surface area (Experiment 2), and this was found with both vertically and horizontally stretched faces (Experiment 3). This effect was evident in accuracy, response times, and also observers' eye movements to faces. These findings demonstrate that height-to-width ratios are an important component of the cognitive template for face detection. The results also highlight important differences between face detection and face recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Crossing the 'uncanny valley': adaptation to cartoon faces can influence perception of human faces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiwen; Russell, Richard; Nakayama, Ken; Livingstone, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    In this study we assessed whether there is a single face space common to both human and cartoon faces by testing whether adaptation to cartoon faces can affect perception of human faces. Participants were shown Japanese animation cartoon videos containing faces with abnormally large eyes. The use of animated videos eliminated the possibility of position-dependent retinotopic adaptation (because the faces appear at many different locations) and more closely simulated naturalistic exposure. Adaptation to cartoon faces with large eyes significantly shifted preferences for human faces toward larger eyes, consistent with a common, non-retinotopic representation for both cartoon and human faces. This supports the possibility that there are representations that are specific to faces yet common to all kinds of faces.

  10. What’s in a Face? How Face Gender and Current Affect Influence Perceived Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Daniel A.; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Ciaramitaro, Vivian M.

    2016-01-01

    Faces drive our social interactions. A vast literature suggests an interaction between gender and emotional face perception, with studies using different methodologies demonstrating that the gender of a face can affect how emotions are processed. However, how different is our perception of affective male and female faces? Furthermore, how does our current affective state when viewing faces influence our perceptual biases? We presented participants with a series of faces morphed along an emotional continuum from happy to angry. Participants judged each face morph as either happy or angry. We determined each participant’s unique emotional ‘neutral’ point, defined as the face morph judged to be perceived equally happy and angry, separately for male and female faces. We also assessed how current state affect influenced these perceptual neutral points. Our results indicate that, for both male and female participants, the emotional neutral point for male faces is perceptually biased to be happier than for female faces. This bias suggests that more happiness is required to perceive a male face as emotionally neutral, i.e., we are biased to perceive a male face as more negative. Interestingly, we also find that perceptual biases in perceiving female faces are correlated with current mood, such that positive state affect correlates with perceiving female faces as happier, while we find no significant correlation between negative state affect and the perception of facial emotion. Furthermore, we find reaction time biases, with slower responses for angry male faces compared to angry female faces. PMID:27733839

  11. A survey of the dummy face and human face stimuli used in BCI paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2015-01-15

    It was proved that the human face stimulus were superior to the flash only stimulus in BCI system. However, human face stimulus may lead to copyright infringement problems and was hard to be edited according to the requirement of the BCI study. Recently, it was reported that facial expression changes could be done by changing a curve in a dummy face which could obtain good performance when it was applied to visual-based P300 BCI systems. In this paper, four different paradigms were presented, which were called dummy face pattern, human face pattern, inverted dummy face pattern and inverted human face pattern, to evaluate the performance of the dummy faces stimuli compared with the human faces stimuli. The key point that determined the value of dummy faces in BCI systems were whether dummy faces stimuli could obtain as good performance as human faces stimuli. Online and offline results of four different paradigms would have been obtained and comparatively analyzed. Online and offline results showed that there was no significant difference among dummy faces and human faces in ERPs, classification accuracy and information transfer rate when they were applied in BCI systems. Dummy faces stimuli could evoke large ERPs and obtain as high classification accuracy and information transfer rate as the human faces stimuli. Since dummy faces were easy to be edited and had no copyright infringement problems, it would be a good choice for optimizing the stimuli of BCI systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing Na+ in blood

    PubMed Central

    Lava, Sebastiano A.G.; Bianchetti, Mario G.; Milani, Gregorio P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Both direct potentiometry and indirect potentiometry are currently used for Na+ testing in blood. These measurement techniques show good agreement as long as protein and lipid concentrations in blood remain normal. In severely ill patients, indirect potentiometry commonly leads to relevant errors in Na+ estimation: 25% of specimens show a disagreement between direct and indirect potentiometry, which is ≥4 mmol/L (mostly spuriously elevated Na+ level due to low circulating albumin concentration). There is a need for increased awareness of the poor performance of indirect potentiometry in some clinical settings.

  13. Face recognition motivated by human approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; Lawson, Wallace Edgar; Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad

    2010-04-01

    We report the development of a face recognition system which operates in the same way as humans in that it is capable of recognizing a number of people, while rejecting everybody else as strangers. While humans do it routinely, a particularly challenging aspect of the problem of open-world face recognition has been the question of rejecting previously unseen faces as unfamiliar. Our approach can handle previously unseen faces; it is based on identifying and enclosing the region(s) in the human face space which belong to the target person(s).

  14. Anatomic considerations in the aging face.

    PubMed

    Zoumalan, Richard A; Larrabee, Wayne F

    2011-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the aging face is essential to a safe and effective operation. Over time, the face undergoes changes in skin and subcutaneous tissues evidenced by rhytides and thinning. There are also changes in the tone and character of facial muscles. Changes in fat structures in the face cause aesthetic changes that can be addressed surgically. Knowledge of the anatomy of the face and neck will aid in understanding the changes that occur with aging and will allow for a more complete strategy in rejuvenating the aging face.

  15. Traditional facial tattoos disrupt face recognition processes.

    PubMed

    Buttle, Heather; East, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Factors that are important to successful face recognition, such as features, configuration, and pigmentation/reflectance, are all subject to change when a face has been engraved with ink markings. Here we show that the application of facial tattoos, in the form of spiral patterns (typically associated with the Maori tradition of a Moko), disrupts face recognition to a similar extent as face inversion, with recognition accuracy little better than chance performance (2AFC). These results indicate that facial tattoos can severely disrupt our ability to recognise a face that previously did not have the pattern.

  16. Self-stabilizing radial face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A self-stabilizing radial face seal comprises an axial member and a primary seal ring juxtapositioned to a seal seat. At least one primary seal ring and seal seat unit is affixed to the axial member so as to rotate with it. The primary seal ring has a front face which opposes a face of the seal seat. The seal has both high-pressure and low-pressure regions of fluid, and seal seat is provided with a porous ring-like circumferential structure in the face of the seal seat opposite the front face of the primary seal ring.

  17. Geologic 'Face on Mars' Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA's Viking 1 Orbiter spacecraft photographed this region in the northern latitudes of Mars on July 25, 1976 while searching for a landing site for the Viking 2 Lander. The speckled appearance of the image is due to missing data, called bit errors, caused by problems in transmission of the photographic data from Mars to Earth. Bit errors comprise part of one of the 'eyes' and 'nostrils' on the eroded rock that resembles a human face near the center of the image. Shadows in the rock formation give the illusion of a nose and mouth. Planetary geologists attribute the origin of the formation to purely natural processes. The feature is 1.5 kilometers (one mile) across, with the sun angle at approximately 20 degrees. The picture was taken from a range of 1,873 kilometers (1,162 miles).

  18. Diverse faces of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tanya R; Aviles, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    Domestic violence is one of the most common causes of serious injury among women. Domestic violence victims endure physical and psychological sequelae that often go undetected by the health care professionals they encounter. There are many barriers women who are victims of domestic violence face. Women of color encounter additional barriers such as stereotypes that construct domestic violence as a "minority" issue. This article surveys the relevant literature to provide the reader with a review of the current state of knowledge for this special sub-population of domestic violence victims. Health care professionals need to be aware of the issues of this sub-population and be appropriately educated and trained to actively screen them. In addition, health care professionals need to be culturally sensitive to the needs of women of color who may experience domestic violence in order to appropriately screen and refer women for services that meet their needs.

  19. Geologic 'Face on Mars' Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA's Viking 1 Orbiter spacecraft photographed this region in the northern latitudes of Mars on July 25, 1976 while searching for a landing site for the Viking 2 Lander. The speckled appearance of the image is due to missing data, called bit errors, caused by problems in transmission of the photographic data from Mars to Earth. Bit errors comprise part of one of the 'eyes' and 'nostrils' on the eroded rock that resembles a human face near the center of the image. Shadows in the rock formation give the illusion of a nose and mouth. Planetary geologists attribute the origin of the formation to purely natural processes. The feature is 1.5 kilometers (one mile) across, with the sun angle at approximately 20 degrees. The picture was taken from a range of 1,873 kilometers (1,162 miles).

  20. The hierarchical brain network for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.

  1. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Alexander; Baron, Sean G; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N

    2008-06-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response-as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic--strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension.

  2. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Sean G.; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.

    2008-01-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response—as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic—strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension. PMID:19015102

  3. The Hierarchical Brain Network for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level. PMID:23527282

  4. Social Psychological Face Perception: Why Appearance Matters

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Montepare, Joann M.

    2009-01-01

    We form first impressions from faces despite warnings not to do so. Moreover, there is considerable agreement in our impressions, which carry significant social outcomes. Appearance matters because some facial qualities are so useful in guiding adaptive behavior that even a trace of those qualities can create an impression. Specifically, the qualities revealed by facial cues that characterize low fitness, babies, emotion, and identity are overgeneralized to people whose facial appearance resembles the unfit (anomalous face overgeneralization), babies (babyface overgeneralization), a particular emotion (emotion face overgeneralization), or a particular identity (familiar face overgeneralization). We review studies that support the overgeneralization hypotheses and recommend research that incorporates additional tenets of the ecological theory from which these hypotheses are derived: the contribution of dynamic and multi-modal stimulus information to face perception; bidirectional relationships between behavior and face perception; perceptual learning mechanisms and social goals that sensitize perceivers to particular information in faces. PMID:20107613

  5. Extraversion predicts individual differences in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguang; Tian, Moqian; Fang, Huizhen; Xu, Miao; Li, He; Liu, Jia

    2010-07-01

    In daily life, one of the most common social tasks we perform is to recognize faces. However, the relation between face recognition ability and social activities is largely unknown. Here we ask whether individuals with better social skills are also better at recognizing faces. We found that extraverts who have better social skills correctly recognized more faces than introverts. However, this advantage was absent when extraverts were asked to recognize non-social stimuli (e.g., flowers). In particular, the underlying facet that makes extraverts better face recognizers is the gregariousness facet that measures the degree of inter-personal interaction. In addition, the link between extraversion and face recognition ability was independent of general cognitive abilities. These findings provide the first evidence that links face recognition ability to our daily activity in social communication, supporting the hypothesis that extraverts are better at decoding social information than introverts.

  6. Emotion in the Neutral Face: A Mechanism for Impression Formation?

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Reginald B.; Nelson, Anthony J.; Soto, José A.; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The current work examined contributions of emotion-resembling facial cues to impression formation. There exist common facial cues that make people look male or female, emotional, and from which we derive personality inferences. We first conducted a Pilot study to assess these effects. We found that neutral female versus neutral male faces were rated as more submissive, affiliative, naïve, honest, cooperative, babyish, fearful, happy, and less angry than neutral male faces. In our Primary Study, we then “warped” these same neutral faces over their corresponding anger and fear displays so the resultant facial appearance cues now structurally resembled emotion while retaining a neutral visage (e.g., no wrinkles, furrows, creases etc.). The gender effects found in the Pilot Study were replicated in the Primary Study, suggesting clear stereotype driven impressions. Critically, ratings of the neutral-over-fear warps versus neutral-over-anger warps also revealed a profile similar to the gender-based ratings, revealing perceptually driven impressions directly attributable to emotion overgeneralization. PMID:22471850

  7. Emotion in the neutral face: a mechanism for impression formation?

    PubMed

    Adams, Reginald B; Nelson, Anthony J; Soto, José A; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    The current work examined contributions of emotion-resembling facial cues to impression formation. There exist common facial cues that make people look emotional, male or female, and from which we derive personality inferences. We first conducted a Pilot Study to assess these effects. We found that neutral female versus neutral male faces were rated as more submissive, affiliative, naïve, honest, cooperative, babyish, fearful, happy, and less angry than neutral male faces. In our Primary Study, we then "warped" these same neutral faces over their corresponding anger and fear displays so the resultant facial appearance cues now structurally resembled emotion while retaining a neutral visage (e.g., no wrinkles, furrows, creases, etc.). The gender effects found in the Pilot Study were replicated in the Primary Study, suggesting clear stereotype-driven impressions. Critically, ratings of the neutral-over-fear warps versus neutral-over-anger warps also revealed a profile similar to the gender-based ratings, revealing perceptually driven impressions directly attributable to emotion overgeneralisation.

  8. The activation of visual face memory and explicit face recognition are delayed in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms.

  9. Face-Likeness and Image Variability Drive Responses in Human Face-Selective Ventral Regions

    PubMed Central

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Remus, David A.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2012-01-01

    The human ventral visual stream contains regions that respond selectively to faces over objects. However, it is unknown whether responses in these regions correlate with how face-like stimuli appear. Here, we use parameterized face silhouettes to manipulate the perceived face-likeness of stimuli and measure responses in face- and object-selective ventral regions with high-resolution fMRI. We first use “concentric hyper-sphere” (CH) sampling to define face silhouettes at different distances from the prototype face. Observers rate the stimuli as progressively more face-like the closer they are to the prototype face. Paradoxically, responses in both face- and object-selective regions decrease as face-likeness ratings increase. Because CH sampling produces blocks of stimuli whose variability is negatively correlated with face-likeness, this effect may be driven by more adaptation during high face-likeness (low-variability) blocks than during low face-likeness (high-variability) blocks. We tested this hypothesis by measuring responses to matched-variability (MV) blocks of stimuli with similar face-likeness ratings as with CH sampling. Critically, under MV sampling, we find a face-specific effect: responses in face-selective regions gradually increase with perceived face-likeness, but responses in object-selective regions are unchanged. Our studies provide novel evidence that face-selective responses correlate with the perceived face-likeness of stimuli, but this effect is revealed only when image variability is controlled across conditions. Finally, our data show that variability is a powerful factor that drives responses across the ventral stream. This indicates that controlling variability across conditions should be a critical tool in future neuroimaging studies of face and object representation. PMID:21823208

  10. Why Use the Online Environment with Face-to-Face Students? Insights from Early Adopters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, Alison; Vardi, Iris

    This study illustrates the convergence of two teaching and learning media, face-to-face and online, as reflective lecturers seek to address the limitations of a single medium. Innovative university lecturers at a large Western Australia university were interviewed about their use of online environments with face-to-face students. The interview…

  11. On the facilitative effects of face motion on face recognition and its development

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Naiqi G.; Perrotta, Steve; Quinn, Paul C.; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Yu-Hao P.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    For the past century, researchers have extensively studied human face processing and its development. These studies have advanced our understanding of not only face processing, but also visual processing in general. However, most of what we know about face processing was investigated using static face images as stimuli. Therefore, an important question arises: to what extent does our understanding of static face processing generalize to face processing in real-life contexts in which faces are mostly moving? The present article addresses this question by examining recent studies on moving face processing to uncover the influence of facial movements on face processing and its development. First, we describe evidence on the facilitative effects of facial movements on face recognition and two related theoretical hypotheses: the supplementary information hypothesis and the representation enhancement hypothesis. We then highlight several recent studies suggesting that facial movements optimize face processing by activating specific face processing strategies that accommodate to task requirements. Lastly, we review the influence of facial movements on the development of face processing in the first year of life. We focus on infants' sensitivity to facial movements and explore the facilitative effects of facial movements on infants' face recognition performance. We conclude by outlining several future directions to investigate moving face processing and emphasize the importance of including dynamic aspects of facial information to further understand face processing in real-life contexts. PMID:25009517

  12. The Use of Computer-Mediated Communication To Enhance Subsequent Face-to-Face Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Bishop-Clark, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study of undergraduate students that assessed the effects of synchronous (Internet chat) and asynchronous (Internet discussion board) computer-mediated communication on subsequent face-to-face discussions. Results showed that face-to-face discussions preceded by computer-mediated communication were perceived to be more enjoyable.…

  13. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces over AD…

  14. Divided by a Common Degree Program? Profiling Online and Face-to-Face Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study examines profiles of online and face-to-face students in a single information science school: the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Information Studies. A questionnaire was administered to 76 students enrolled in online course sections and 72 students enrolled in face-to-face course sections. The questionnaire examined student…

  15. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces over AD…

  16. The complex duration perception of emotional faces: effects of face direction

    PubMed Central

    Kliegl, Katrin M.; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Dürr, Lea; Traue, Harald C.; Huckauf, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009) reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model’s gaze was oriented toward the observer. We aimed at replicating this effect for face direction. Moreover, we explored the effect of face direction on the duration perception sad faces. Controlling for the sex of the face model and the participant, female and male participants rated the duration of neutral, angry, and sad face stimuli of both sexes photographed from different perspectives in a bisection task. In line with current findings, we report a significant overestimation of angry compared to neutral face stimuli that was modulated by face direction. Moreover, the perceived duration of sad face stimuli did not differ from that of neutral faces and was not influenced by face direction. Furthermore, we found that faces of the opposite sex appeared to last longer than those of the same sex. This outcome is discussed with regards to stimulus parameters like the induced arousal, social relevance, and an evolutionary context. PMID:25852589

  17. Examining the Roles of the Facilitator in Online and Face-to-Face PD Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gina; Johnson, Heather; Vath, Richard; Kubitskey, Beth; Fishman, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Online teacher professional development has become an alternative to face-to-face professional development. Such a shift from face-to-face to online professional development, however, brings new challenges for professional development facilitators, whose roles are crucial in orchestrating teacher learning. This paper is motivated by the need to…

  18. The Development of Infant Social Expectations in Face-to-Face Interaction: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Michael E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Thirty first-born infants were filmed in face-to-face interaction with their mothers and unfamiliar adults each month between 1 and 7 months of age. Adults interacted both playfully and unresponsively. Developmental trends, differential responsiveness to mothers and strangers, and social expectations in face-to-face interaction were explored.…

  19. The Impact of Face-to-Face Orientation on Online Retention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Radwan; Leeds, Elke M.

    2009-01-01

    Student retention in online education is a concern for students, faculty and administration. Retention rates are 20% lower in online courses than in traditional face-to-face courses. As part of an integration and engagement strategy, a face-to-face orientation was added to an online undergraduate business information systems course to examine its…

  20. Can Face-to-Face Mobilization Boost Student Voter Turnout? Results of a Campus Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David; Lachelier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    American colleges and universities have an expanding role to play in nurturing political engagement as more youth attend college. Given low voter turnout among college students yet growing experimental evidence that face-to-face mobilization can boost turnout, the experiment reported in this article examined the impact of a face-to-face college…

  1. Choosing between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Community College Student Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith

    2014-01-01

    In this study, community college students discussed their experiences with online and face-to-face learning as well as their reasons for selecting online (rather than face-to-face) sections of specific courses. Students reported lower levels of instructor presence in online courses and that they needed to "teach themselves." Accordingly,…

  2. Face Aftereffects Indicate Dissociable, but Not Distinct, Coding of Male and Female Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquet, Emma; Rhodes, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed that exposure to distorted faces of one sex induces perceptual aftereffects for test faces that are of the same sex, but not for test faces of the other sex (A. C. Little, L. M. DeBruine, & B. C. Jones, 2005). This result suggests that male and female faces have separate neural coding. Given the high degree of visual similarity…

  3. Highlights from a Literature Review Prepared for the Face to Face Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Between March 2009 and March 2011, Talk To Your Baby has been engaged in a research project, under the title of Face to Face, to identify key messages for parents and carers in relation to communicating with babies and young children, and has examined the most effective ways to promote these messages to parents and carers. The Face to Face project…

  4. Researcher and Researched: The Phenomenology of Change from Face-to-Face to Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Frank E.; Fewell, Martha D.; Sugar, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Online instruction, courses, and degree programs are rising in popularity in higher education and corporations. Novice and experienced instructors face increased demands from administrators and students to teach online, in a higher education environment long noted for face-to-face, residence-based instruction. Viewing the shift from face-to-face…

  5. "No Significant Distance" between Face-to-Face and Online Instruction: Evidence from Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Dennis; Humphreys, Brad, R.; Kane, John; Vachris, Michelle, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment focused on measuring and explaining differences in students learning between online and face-to-face modes of instruction in college level principles of economics courses. Our results indicate that students in face-to-face sections scored better on the Test of Understanding College Economics (TUCE) than students…

  6. A Comparison of Face-to-Face and Electronic Peer-Mentoring: Interactions with Mentor Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.; Scielzo, Shannon A.; Yarbrough, Charyl S.; Rosopa, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared the relative impact of peer-mentoring that took place either face-to-face or through electronic chat. Proteges were 106 college freshmen randomly assigned to a senior college student mentor and to one of the two communication modes. Fifty-one mentors interacted with one of these proteges face-to-face and one solely…

  7. An Adult Face Bias in Infants That is Modulated by Face Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Damon, Fabrice; Quinn, Paul C.; Méary, David; Xiao, Naiqi G.; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The visual preferences of infants for adult versus infant faces were investigated. Caucasian 3.5- and 6-month-olds were presented with Caucasian adult vs. infant face pairs and Asian adult vs. infant face pairs, in both upright and inverted orientations. Both age groups showed a visual preference for upright adult over infant faces when the faces…

  8. Moodle: A Way for Blending VLE and Face-to-Face Instruction in the ELT Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilin, Gulden

    2013-01-01

    This classroom research explores the probable consequences of a blended Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYLs) course comprised of Moodle applications and face to face instruction in the English Language Teaching (ELT) context. Contrary to previous face to face only procedure, the course was divided into two segments: traditional classroom…

  9. Examining the Roles of the Facilitator in Online and Face-to-Face PD Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gina; Johnson, Heather; Vath, Richard; Kubitskey, Beth; Fishman, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Online teacher professional development has become an alternative to face-to-face professional development. Such a shift from face-to-face to online professional development, however, brings new challenges for professional development facilitators, whose roles are crucial in orchestrating teacher learning. This paper is motivated by the need to…

  10. Choosing between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Community College Student Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith

    2014-01-01

    In this study, community college students discussed their experiences with online and face-to-face learning as well as their reasons for selecting online (rather than face-to-face) sections of specific courses. Students reported lower levels of instructor presence in online courses and that they needed to "teach themselves." Accordingly,…

  11. Greater sensitivity of the cortical face processing system to perceptually-equated face detection

    PubMed Central

    Maher, S.; Ekstrom, T.; Tong, Y.; Nickerson, L.D.; Frederick, B.; Chen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Face detection, the perceptual capacity to identify a visual stimulus as a face before probing deeper into specific attributes (such as its identity or emotion), is essential for social functioning. Despite the importance of this functional capacity, face detection and its underlying brain mechanisms are not well understood. This study evaluated the roles that the cortical face processing system, which is identified largely through studying other aspects of face perception, play in face detection. Specifically, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the activations of the fusifom face area (FFA), occipital face area (OFA) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) when face detection was isolated from other aspects of face perception and when face detection was perceptually-equated across individual human participants (n=20). During face detection, FFA and OFA were significantly activated, even for stimuli presented at perceptual-threshold levels, whereas STS was not. During tree detection, however, FFA and OFA were responsive only for highly salient (i.e., high contrast) stimuli. Moreover, activation of FFA during face detection predicted a significant portion of the perceptual performance levels that were determined psychophysically for each participant. This pattern of result indicates that FFA and OFA have a greater sensitivity to face detection signals and selectively support the initial process of face vs. non-face object perception. PMID:26592952

  12. Face to Face or E-Learning in Turkish EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to understand e-learners and face to face learners' views towards learning English through e-learning in vocational higher school context and to determine the role of academic achievement and gender in e-learning and face to face learning. This study was conducted at a state-run university in 2012-2013 academic year…

  13. The Impact of Face-to-Face Orientation on Online Retention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Radwan; Leeds, Elke M.

    2009-01-01

    Student retention in online education is a concern for students, faculty and administration. Retention rates are 20% lower in online courses than in traditional face-to-face courses. As part of an integration and engagement strategy, a face-to-face orientation was added to an online undergraduate business information systems course to examine its…

  14. Subnitride chemistry: A first-principles study of the NaBa 3N, Na 5Ba 3N, and Na 16Ba 6N phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Josep M.

    2005-04-01

    An ab initio study on the electronic structure of the subnitrides NaBa 3N, Na 5Ba 3N, and Na 16Ba 6N is performed for the first time. The NaBa 3N and Na 5Ba 3N phases consist of infinite 1∞[NBa 6/2] strands composed of face-sharing NBa 6 octahedra surrounded by a "sea" of sodium atoms. The Na 16Ba 6N phase consist of discrete [NBa 6] octahedra arranged in a body-cubic fashion, surrounded by a "sea" of sodium atoms. Our calculations suggest that the title subnitrides are metals. Analysis of the electronic structure shows partial interaction of N(2s) with Ba(5 p) electrons in the lower energy region for NaBa 3N and Na 5Ba 3N. However, no dispersion is observed for the N(2s) and Ba(5 p) bands in the cubic phase Na 16Ba 6N. The metallic band below the Fermi level shows a strong mixing of N(2p), Ba(6 s), Ba(5 d), Ba(6 p), Na(3 s) and Na(3 p) orbitals. The metallic character in these nitrides stems from delocalized electrons corresponding to hybridized 5dl6sm6pn barium orbitals which interact with hybridized 3sn3pm sodium orbitals. Analysis of the electron density and electronic structure in these nitrides shows two different regions: a metallic matrix corresponding to the sodium atoms and the regions around them and heteropolar bonding between nitrogen and barium within the infinite 1∞[NBa 6/2] strands of the NaBa 3N and Na 5Ba 3N phases, and within the isolated [NBa 6] octahedra of the Na 16Ba 6N phase. The nitrogen atoms inside the strands and octahedra are negatively charged, the anionic character of nitrogens being larger in the isolated octahedra of the cubic phase Na 16Ba 6N, due to the lack of electron delocalization along one direction as opposed to the other phases. The sodium and barium atoms appear to be slightly negatively and positively charged, the latter to a larger extent. From the computed Ba-N overlap populations as well as the analysis of the contour maps of differences between total density and superposition of atomic densities, we suggest

  15. Lost in Translation: Adapting a Face-to-Face Course Into an Online Learning Experience.

    PubMed

    Kenzig, Melissa J

    2015-09-01

    Online education has grown dramatically over the past decade. Instructors who teach face-to-face courses are being called on to adapt their courses to the online environment. Many instructors do not have sufficient training to be able to effectively move courses to an online format. This commentary discusses the growth of online learning, common challenges faced by instructors adapting courses from face-to-face to online, and best practices for translating face-to-face courses into online learning opportunities. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Varying face occlusion detection and iterative recovery for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Hu, Zhengping; Sun, Zhe; Zhao, Shuhuan; Sun, Mei

    2017-05-01

    In most sparse representation methods for face recognition (FR), occlusion problems were usually solved via removing the occlusion part of both query samples and training samples to perform the recognition process. This practice ignores the global feature of facial image and may lead to unsatisfactory results due to the limitation of local features. Considering the aforementioned drawback, we propose a method called varying occlusion detection and iterative recovery for FR. The main contributions of our method are as follows: (1) to detect an accurate occlusion area of facial images, an image processing and intersection-based clustering combination method is used for occlusion FR; (2) according to an accurate occlusion map, the new integrated facial images are recovered iteratively and put into a recognition process; and (3) the effectiveness on recognition accuracy of our method is verified by comparing it with three typical occlusion map detection methods. Experiments show that the proposed method has a highly accurate detection and recovery performance and that it outperforms several similar state-of-the-art methods against partial contiguous occlusion.

  17. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  18. Seeing faces as objects: no face inversion effect with geometrical discrimination.

    PubMed

    Pallett, Pamela M; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2011-02-01

    Inversion dramatically impairs face perception, recognition, and discrimination. Yet it does not interfere with the ability to make precise estimates of facial feature distances. To investigate this discontinuity between facial feature distance estimation and general perception and recognition, we assessed the effect of inversion on the discrimination of differences in facial compression and elongation or expansion using geometrically distorted faces. The results clearly showed that geometrical face discrimination is not subject to the traditional face inversion effect and did not show a benefit for natural faces. Although discrimination thresholds were not affected by inversion, response times to the distance judgments were faster with inversion, especially when the inverted faces contained natural configurations. Based on these counterintuitive results, we suggest that participants used analytical processing to do the discrimination task. Moreover, we suggest that the depth with which a face is holistically encoded depends on the nature of the task, face orientation, and similarity between a face and the prototypical face template.

  19. Common feature discriminant analysis for matching infrared face images to optical face images.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifeng; Gong, Dihong; Qiao, Yu; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-06-01

    In biometrics research and industry, it is critical yet a challenge to match infrared face images to optical face images. The major difficulty lies in the fact that a great discrepancy exists between the infrared face image and corresponding optical face image because they are captured by different devices (optical imaging device and infrared imaging device). This paper presents a new approach called common feature discriminant analysis to reduce this great discrepancy and improve optical-infrared face recognition performance. In this approach, a new learning-based face descriptor is first proposed to extract the common features from heterogeneous face images (infrared face images and optical face images), and an effective matching method is then applied to the resulting features to obtain the final decision. Extensive experiments are conducted on two large and challenging optical-infrared face data sets to show the superiority of our approach over the state-of-the-art.

  20. Electrical stimulation of human fusiform face-selective regions distorts face perception

    PubMed Central

    Parvizi, Josef; Jacques, Corentin; Foster, Brett L.; Withoft, Nathan; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Weiner, Kevin S.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2012-01-01

    Face-selective neural responses in the human fusiform gyrus have been widely examined. However, their causal role in human face perception is largely unknown. Here, we used a multimodal approach of electrocorticography (ECoG), high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electrical brain stimulation (EBS) to directly investigate the causal role of face-selective neural responses of the fusiform gyrus (FG) in face perception in a patient implanted with subdural electrodes in the right inferior temporal lobe. High-resolution fMRI identified two distinct FG face-selective regions (mFus-faces and pFus-faces). ECoG revealed a striking anatomical and functional correspondence with fMRI data where a pair of face-selective electrodes, positioned one centimeter apart, overlapped mFus-faces and pFus-faces, respectively. Moreover, electrical charge delivered to this pair of electrodes induced a profound face-specific perceptual distortion during viewing of real faces. Specifically, the subject reported a “metamorphosed” appearance of faces of people in the room. Several controls illustrate the specificity of the effect to the perception of faces. EBS of mFus-faces and pFus-faces neither produced a significant deficit in naming pictures of famous faces on the computer, nor did it affect the appearance of nonface objects. Further, the appearance of faces remained unaffected during both sham stimulation and stimulation of a pair of nearby electrodes that were not face-selective. Overall, our findings reveal a striking convergence of fMRI, ECoG, and EBS, which together offer a rare causal link between functional subsets of the human FG network and face perception. PMID:23100414

  1. Anger Superiority in Single-Face Judgements

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Kuraguchi, Kana

    2011-01-01

    We investigated “anger superiority” in single-face judgements. Angry, or threatening, faces are easier to find than smiling ones (Hansen & Hansen, 1988) but it remains controversial whether this reflects emotional effects on the basis of the whole face or rather perceptual effects on the basis of parts. We sought this question differently from most previous studies that used the visual search paradigm. We presented a picture of angry, smiling, or neutral face (extracted from ATR DB99 database that has been confirmed for emotional strength) either to the left or to the right of the fixation mark, which was followed by a mask, and the participants were asked to make a forced-choice judgement of anger or smile. The results showed that neutral faces were significantly biased towards anger with upright presentation but not with inverted presentation. Angry and smiling faces were judged equally well with upright presentation, while there was notable reduction of correct responses only for angry face with inverted presentation. Difference between hemifields was not clear. The results suggest that angry faces are judged on the basis of configural processing of the whole face, while smiling faces may be judged more locally on the basis of parts.

  2. Infrared face recognition using texture descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhloufi, Moulay A.; Bendada, Abdelhakim

    2010-05-01

    Face recognition is an area of computer vision that has attracted a lot of interest from the research community. A growing demand for robust face recognition software in security applications has driven the development of interesting approaches in this field. A large quantity of research in face recognition deals with visible face images. In the visible spectrum the illumination and face expressions changes represent a significant challenge for the recognition system. To avoid these problems, researchers proposed recently the use of 3D and infrared imaging for face recognition. In this work, we introduce a new framework for infrared face recognition using texture descriptors. This framework exploits linear and non linear dimensionality reduction techniques for face learning and recognition in the texture space. Active and passive infrared imaging modalities are used and comparison with visible face recognition is performed. Two multispectral face recognition databases were used in our experiments: Equinox Database (Visible, SWIR, MWIR, LWIR) and Laval University Multispectral Database (Visible, NIR, MWIR, LWIR). The obtained results show high increase in recognition performance when texture descriptors like LBP (Local Binary Pattern) and LTP (Local Ternary Pattern) are used. The best result was obtained in the short wave infrared spectrum (SWIR) using non linear dimensionality reduction techniques.

  3. Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates' opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion.

  4. Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates' opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion. PMID:25429276

  5. Faciotopy—A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for “faciotopy”, a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. PMID:26235800

  6. Faciotopy-A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for "faciotopy", a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Dissociation between face perception and face memory in adults, but not children, with developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Garrido, Lúcia; Duchaine, Brad

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive models propose that face recognition is accomplished through a series of discrete stages, including perceptual representation of facial structure, and encoding and retrieval of facial information. This implies that impaired face recognition can result from failures of face perception, face memory, or both. Studies of acquired prosopagnosia, autism spectrum disorders, and the development of normal face recognition support the idea that face perception and face memory are distinct processes, yet this distinction has received little attention in developmental prosopagnosia (DP). To address this issue, we tested the face perception and face memory of children and adults with DP. By definition, face memory is impaired in DP, so memory deficits were present in all participants. However, we found that all children, but only half of the adults had impaired face perception. Thus, results from adults indicate that face perception and face memory are dissociable, while the results from children provide no evidence for this division. Importantly, our findings raise the possibility that DP is qualitatively different in childhood versus adulthood. We discuss theoretical explanations for this developmental pattern and conclude that longitudinal studies are necessary to better understand the developmental trajectory of face perception and face memory deficits in DP. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-face recognition in social context.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-06-01

    The concept of "social self" is often described as a representation of the self-reflected in the eyes or minds of others. Although the appearance of one's own face has substantial social significance for humans, neuroimaging studies have failed to link self-face recognition and the likely neural substrate of the social self, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). We assumed that the social self is recruited during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for comparison of social values. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the modulation of neural responses to the faces of the self and of a close friend in a social context. We identified an enhanced response in the ventral MPFC and right occipitoparietal sulcus in the social context specifically for the self-face. Neural response in the right lateral parietal and inferior temporal cortices, previously claimed as self-face-specific, was unaffected for the self-face but unexpectedly enhanced for the friend's face in the social context. Self-face-specific activation in the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and self-face-specific reduction of activation in the left middle temporal gyrus and the right supramarginal gyrus, replicating a previous finding, were not subject to such modulation. Our results thus demonstrated the recruitment of a social self during self-face recognition in the social context. At least three brain networks for self-face-specific activation may be dissociated by different patterns of response-modulation in the social context, suggesting multiple dynamic self-other representations in the human brain.

  9. Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  10. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-03-30

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overall growth ratemore » of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m-2∙h-1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl2, respectively.« less

  11. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-03-30

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overall growth rate of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m-2∙h-1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl2, respectively.

  12. Paśu Ayurvĕda (veterinary medicine) in Garudapurăņa.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The history of veterinary medicine is closely tied to the development of human medicine. Evidence of animal medicine has been found in ancient civilizations, such as those of the Hindu, Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. Ancient Indian literature in the form of the holy Vĕda, Purăna, Brăhmaņa, epics, etc. is flooded with information on animal care. The Purăņa are ancient scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God and his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurvĕda, Jyŏtişa (Astrology), cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. The treatment of animal diseases using Ayurvedic medicine has been mentioned in Garudapurăna, Agnipurăņa, Atri-samhită, Matsyapurăņa and many other texts. The Garudapurăņa is one of the important Săttvika purăna, the subject matter is divided into two parts, viz. Pŭrvakhaņda (first part) and an Uttarakhaņda (subsequent part). Gavăyurvĕda, Gajăyurvĕda narrated briefly and Aśvăyurvĕda described detailly in Pŭrvakhaņda.

  13. The new face of innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Erich

    2000-05-01

    The rapid changes in technology, the changes in the national and global economy and the emergence of many new nations that acquire an increasing competence to innovate is presenting us with new issues and opportunities. In particular, it affects the innovation system of the country, namely the scientific and technological infrastructure, the workforce and the policy environment in which government, industry, and academia operates. From a sequential or serial model we are moving or have moved to a dynamic, interactive one that encompasses more stakeholders in a realtime way. Of late, the work of the Council on Competitiveness has focused on the capacity for innovation as a pre-requisite for national competitiveness. This talk will discuss the results from its report "Going Global: The New Shape of American Innovation" and its "Findings from the Innovation Index" and assess the forces that affect the future. The main conclusion will be that the changes we have and will be facing are irreversible and require the active and positive participation of the technical professional and technical institutions. It also requires new relationships between the main participants of the innovation system.

  14. Konrad Repository Facing its Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, V.

    2008-07-01

    According to the German Atomic Energy Act the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. This duty was assigned to the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS). In 1982, the Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt - PTB) as the precursor of BfS applied for a license for the disposal of radioactive waste with negligible heat generation in the Konrad iron ore mine near Salzgitter at the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony. After 25 years of plan approval procedure and subsequent lawsuits the license is now valid and Konrad is waiting for construction. Facing this challenge BfS has established a project team to supervise the in-house and external activities to be done. It is intended to construct the Konrad repository within a preparation period of two years and a subsequent erection phase of four years. Thus, Konrad is planned to come into operation in 2013. In this paper the development of the plan approval procedure, the technical design of the planned repository, especially with regard to safety-related aspects, and the planning for the construction will be discussed. (authors)

  15. Three Faces of Fragile X.

    PubMed

    Lieb-Lundell, Cornelia C E

    2016-11-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first of 3 syndromes identified as a health condition related to fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene dysfunction. The other 2 syndromes are fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency syndrome (FXPOI) and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), which together are referred to as fragile X-associated disorders (FXDs). Collectively, this group comprises the 3 faces of fragile X. Even though the 3 conditions share a common genetic defect, each one is a separate health condition that results in a variety of body function impairments such as motor delay, musculoskeletal issues related to low muscle tone, coordination limitations, ataxia, tremor, undefined muscle aches and pains, and, for FXTAS, a late-onset neurodegeneration. Although each FXD condition may benefit from physical therapy intervention, available evidence as to the efficacy of intervention appropriate to FXDs is lacking. This perspective article will discuss the genetic basis of FMR1 gene dysfunction and describe health conditions related to this mutation, which have a range of expressions within a family. Physical therapy concerns and possible assessment and intervention strategies will be introduced. Understanding the intergenerational effect of the FMR1 mutation with potential life-span expression is a key component to identifying and treating the health conditions related to this specific genetic condition.

  16. Facing rim cavities fluctuation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, Damiano; Ribeiro, André F. P.; Fares, Ehab

    2014-06-01

    Cavity modes taking place in the rims of two opposite wheels are investigated through Lattice-Boltzmann CFD simulations. Based on previous observations carried out by the authors during the BANC-II/LAGOON landing gear aeroacoustic study, a resonance mode can take place in the volume between the wheels of a two-wheel landing gear, involving a coupling between shear-layer vortical fluctuations and acoustic modes resulting from the combination of round cavity modes and wheel-to-wheel transversal acoustic modes. As a result, side force fluctuations and tonal noise side radiation take place. A parametric study of the cavity mode properties is carried out in the present work by varying the distance between the wheels. Moreover, the effects due to the presence of the axle are investigated by removing the axle from the two-wheel assembly. The azimuthal properties of the modes are scrutinized by filtering the unsteady flow in narrow bands around the tonal frequencies and investigating the azimuthal structure of the filtered fluctuation modes. Estimation of the tone frequencies with an ad hoc proposed analytical formula confirms the observed modal properties of the filtered unsteady flow solutions. The present study constitutes a primary step in the description of facing rim cavity modes as a possible source of landing gear tonal noise.

  17. Face classification using electronic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Peng; Wu, Huaqiang; Gao, Bin; Eryilmaz, Sukru Burc; Huang, Xueyao; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Qingtian; Deng, Ning; Shi, Luping; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Qian, He

    2017-01-01

    Conventional hardware platforms consume huge amount of energy for cognitive learning due to the data movement between the processor and the off-chip memory. Brain-inspired device technologies using analogue weight storage allow to complete cognitive tasks more efficiently. Here we present an analogue non-volatile resistive memory (an electronic synapse) with foundry friendly materials. The device shows bidirectional continuous weight modulation behaviour. Grey-scale face classification is experimentally demonstrated using an integrated 1024-cell array with parallel online training. The energy consumption within the analogue synapses for each iteration is 1,000 × (20 ×) lower compared to an implementation using Intel Xeon Phi processor with off-chip memory (with hypothetical on-chip digital resistive random access memory). The accuracy on test sets is close to the result using a central processing unit. These experimental results consolidate the feasibility of analogue synaptic array and pave the way toward building an energy efficient and large-scale neuromorphic system. PMID:28497781

  18. Face classification using electronic synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Peng; Wu, Huaqiang; Gao, Bin; Eryilmaz, Sukru Burc; Huang, Xueyao; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Qingtian; Deng, Ning; Shi, Luping; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Qian, He

    2017-05-01

    Conventional hardware platforms consume huge amount of energy for cognitive learning due to the data movement between the processor and the off-chip memory. Brain-inspired device technologies using analogue weight storage allow to complete cognitive tasks more efficiently. Here we present an analogue non-volatile resistive memory (an electronic synapse) with foundry friendly materials. The device shows bidirectional continuous weight modulation behaviour. Grey-scale face classification is experimentally demonstrated using an integrated 1024-cell array with parallel online training. The energy consumption within the analogue synapses for each iteration is 1,000 × (20 ×) lower compared to an implementation using Intel Xeon Phi processor with off-chip memory (with hypothetical on-chip digital resistive random access memory). The accuracy on test sets is close to the result using a central processing unit. These experimental results consolidate the feasibility of analogue synaptic array and pave the way toward building an energy efficient and large-scale neuromorphic system.

  19. The CRYSTAL-FACE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.

    2005-01-01

    The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) was a measurement campaign designed to investigate tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes. Understanding the production of upper tropospheric cirrus clouds is essential for the successful modeling of the Earth's climate. The mission was staged in July 2002 with flights of 6 aircraft from Key West, Florida. Several aircraft were used for in situ and remote sensing of aerosols, ice crystals, meteorological fields, radiative fluxes, and gas concentrations. The NASA ER-2 and WB-57, the Proteus aircraft, owned by Northrop Grumman and operated by Scaled Composites, CIRPAS provided the DeHavilland UV-l8A, "Twin Otter" aircraft, the University of North Dakota provided a Cessna Citation II aircraft , and NSF supported the ELDORA radar onboard the Naval Research Laboratory P-3 aircraft. In this presentation, I will describe some of the flights, the conditions, and some of the results from the mission.

  20. The CRYSTAL-FACE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.

    2005-01-01

    The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) was a measurement campaign designed to investigate tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes. Understanding the production of upper tropospheric cirrus clouds is essential for the successful modeling of the Earth's climate. The mission was staged in July 2002 with flights of 6 aircraft from Key West, Florida. Several aircraft were used for in situ and remote sensing of aerosols, ice crystals, meteorological fields, radiative fluxes, and gas concentrations. The NASA ER-2 and WB-57, the Proteus aircraft, owned by Northrop Grumman and operated by Scaled Composites, CIRPAS provided the DeHavilland UV-l8A, "Twin Otter" aircraft, the University of North Dakota provided a Cessna Citation II aircraft , and NSF supported the ELDORA radar onboard the Naval Research Laboratory P-3 aircraft. In this presentation, I will describe some of the flights, the conditions, and some of the results from the mission.

  1. Face classification using electronic synapses.

    PubMed

    Yao, Peng; Wu, Huaqiang; Gao, Bin; Eryilmaz, Sukru Burc; Huang, Xueyao; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Qingtian; Deng, Ning; Shi, Luping; Wong, H-S Philip; Qian, He

    2017-05-12

    Conventional hardware platforms consume huge amount of energy for cognitive learning due to the data movement between the processor and the off-chip memory. Brain-inspired device technologies using analogue weight storage allow to complete cognitive tasks more efficiently. Here we present an analogue non-volatile resistive memory (an electronic synapse) with foundry friendly materials. The device shows bidirectional continuous weight modulation behaviour. Grey-scale face classification is experimentally demonstrated using an integrated 1024-cell array with parallel online training. The energy consumption within the analogue synapses for each iteration is 1,000 × (20 ×) lower compared to an implementation using Intel Xeon Phi processor with off-chip memory (with hypothetical on-chip digital resistive random access memory). The accuracy on test sets is close to the result using a central processing unit. These experimental results consolidate the feasibility of analogue synaptic array and pave the way toward building an energy efficient and large-scale neuromorphic system.

  2. Real-time, face recognition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  3. Perceptual learning and face processing in infancy.

    PubMed

    Galati, Ashley; Hock, Alyson; Bhatt, Ramesh S

    2016-11-01

    Configural information (spacing between features) contributes to face-processing expertise in adulthood. We examined whether infants can be "trained" to process this information. In Experiment 1, 3.5-month-olds failed to discriminate changes in the spacing between facial features. However, in Experiments 2 and 3, infants processed the same information after being primed with faces in which the spacing was repeatedly altered. Experiment 4 found that priming was not effective with inverted faces or with faces depicting changes in features but not relations among features, indicating that the priming exhibited in Experiments 2 and 3 was specific to upright faces depicting spacing changes. Thus, even young infants who do not readily process facial configural information can be induced to do so through priming. These findings suggest that learning to encode critical structural information contributes to the development of face processing expertise. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Attention to faces in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riby, Deborah M; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H; Robinson, Lucy J; Langton, Stephen R H; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M

    2011-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii) interference from facial stimuli, (iii) face bias, and (iv) attention disengagement. Individuals with WS were compared to typically developing participants of comparable nonverbal ability and chronological age. The first three experiments revealed no atypicality of attention to faces in WS. However, in experiment 4 there was a suggestion that individuals with WS (compared to those developing typically) found it much more time consuming to disengage from faces than objects. The results are discussed in terms of attention abnormalities and possible face disengagement difficulties in WS.

  5. [Regulation of the Na/Ca exchanger].

    PubMed

    DiPolo, R; Rojas, H; Beaugé, L

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of the squid giant axon preparation to studies on Ca homeostasis has proven very useful in laying the foundations in the study of Ca regulation. In particular the Na/Ca exchange mechanism has been characterized in terms of its regulatory processes using the well define technique of intracellular dialysis and membrane potential control. The Na/Ca exchange countertransport system plays a critical role in physiological processes including cardiac contractility and photoreception. It has also been implicate in the etiology of essential hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias and cell death. The ability of the Na/Ca exchanger to regulate the intracellular ionized Ca concentration ([Ca2+i]) under physiological conditions, is determined by the direction (net Ca efflux or Ca influx), and magnitude of transport. The direction of Ca transport is decided by the chemical gradient of sodium and calcium. The magnitude of the exchange is regulated by kinetic factors. This kinetic factors are critical since they decide whether the exchanger will mediate a net Ca movement under certain conditions. Recently, a large effort has been put together to characterize the secondary modulation of the Na/Ca exchanger. In particular modulation by MgATP and intracellular Ca2+. In nerve cells we have discover that MgATP regulates the exchanger through as phosphorylation-dephosphorylation processes most probably relate to the action of a kinase-phosphatase system. The other important ligand that regulates the exchange activity is the level of [Ca2+i]. We have found the presence of a regulatory site in the cytoplasmic face of the exchanger different from the transport site and probably responsible for turning the carrier "on" or "off". In this article we will depict some of the processes involved in the metabolic and ionic regulation of the Na/Ca exchanger.

  6. Faces in Motion: Selectivity of Macaque and Human Face Processing Areas for Dynamic Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Polosecki, Pablo; Moeller, Sebastian; Schweers, Nicole; Romanski, Lizabeth M.; Tsao, Doris Y.

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition mechanisms need to extract information from static and dynamic faces. It has been hypothesized that the analysis of dynamic face attributes is performed by different face areas than the analysis of static facial attributes. To date, there is no evidence for such a division of labor in macaque monkeys. We used fMRI to determine specializations of macaque face areas for motion. Face areas in the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus responded to general object motion; face areas outside of the superior temporal sulcus fundus responded more to facial motion than general object motion. Thus, the macaque face-processing system exhibits regional specialization for facial motion. Human face areas, processing the same stimuli, exhibited specializations for facial motion as well. Yet the spatial patterns of facial motion selectivity differed across species, suggesting that facial dynamics are analyzed differently in humans and macaques. PMID:23864665

  7. Faces in motion: selectivity of macaque and human face processing areas for dynamic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Polosecki, Pablo; Moeller, Sebastian; Schweers, Nicole; Romanski, Lizabeth M; Tsao, Doris Y; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2013-07-17

    Face recognition mechanisms need to extract information from static and dynamic faces. It has been hypothesized that the analysis of dynamic face attributes is performed by different face areas than the analysis of static facial attributes. To date, there is no evidence for such a division of labor in macaque monkeys. We used fMRI to determine specializations of macaque face areas for motion. Face areas in the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus responded to general object motion; face areas outside of the superior temporal sulcus fundus responded more to facial motion than general object motion. Thus, the macaque face-processing system exhibits regional specialization for facial motion. Human face areas, processing the same stimuli, exhibited specializations for facial motion as well. Yet the spatial patterns of facial motion selectivity differed across species, suggesting that facial dynamics are analyzed differently in humans and macaques.

  8. Withholding response to self-face is faster than to other-face.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Hu, Yinying; Tang, Xiaochen; Luo, Junlong; Gao, Xiangping

    2015-01-01

    Self-face advantage refers to adults' response to self-face is faster than that to other-face. A stop-signal task was used to explore how self-face advantage interacted with response inhibition. The results showed that reaction times of self-face were faster than that of other-face not in the go task but in the stop response trials. The novelty of the finding was that self-face has shorter stop-signal reaction time compared to other-face in the successful inhibition trials. These results indicated the processing mechanism of self-face may be characterized by a strong response tendency and a corresponding strong inhibition control.

  9. From face processing to face recognition: Comparing three different processing levels.

    PubMed

    Besson, G; Barragan-Jason, G; Thorpe, S J; Fabre-Thorpe, M; Puma, S; Ceccaldi, M; Barbeau, E J

    2017-01-01

    Verifying that a face is from a target person (e.g. finding someone in the crowd) is a critical ability of the human face processing system. Yet how fast this can be performed is unknown. The 'entry-level shift due to expertise' hypothesis suggests that - since humans are face experts - processing faces should be as fast - or even faster - at the individual than at superordinate levels. In contrast, the 'superordinate advantage' hypothesis suggests that faces are processed from coarse to fine, so that the opposite pattern should be observed. To clarify this debate, three different face processing levels were compared: (1) a superordinate face categorization level (i.e. detecting human faces among animal faces), (2) a face familiarity level (i.e. recognizing famous faces among unfamiliar ones) and (3) verifying that a face is from a target person, our condition of interest. The minimal speed at which faces can be categorized (∼260ms) or recognized as familiar (∼360ms) has largely been documented in previous studies, and thus provides boundaries to compare our condition of interest to. Twenty-seven participants were included. The recent Speed and Accuracy Boosting procedure paradigm (SAB) was used since it constrains participants to use their fastest strategy. Stimuli were presented either upright or inverted. Results revealed that verifying that a face is from a target person (minimal RT at ∼260ms) was remarkably fast but longer than the face categorization level (∼240ms) and was more sensitive to face inversion. In contrast, it was much faster than recognizing a face as familiar (∼380ms), a level severely affected by face inversion. Face recognition corresponding to finding a specific person in a crowd thus appears achievable in only a quarter of a second. In favor of the 'superordinate advantage' hypothesis or coarse-to-fine account of the face visual hierarchy, these results suggest a graded engagement of the face processing system across processing

  10. Robust Face Detection from Still Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    detection methodology, which consists of histogram analysis, Haar wavelet transformation and Adaboost learning techniques, is proposed. The extended...contact nature. However, due to the complexities of a human face , detecting a face in an image, the first step to perform facial recognition , is by no...performance of current face detection and expression recognition systems tends to be much lower when applied to individuals with dark skin”. This

  11. Contextual Modulation of Biases in Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Felisberti, Fatima Maria; Pavey, Louisa

    2010-01-01

    Background The ability to recognize the faces of potential cooperators and cheaters is fundamental to social exchanges, given that cooperation for mutual benefit is expected. Studies addressing biases in face recognition have so far proved inconclusive, with reports of biases towards faces of cheaters, biases towards faces of cooperators, or no biases at all. This study attempts to uncover possible causes underlying such discrepancies. Methodology and Findings Four experiments were designed to investigate biases in face recognition during social exchanges when behavioral descriptors (prosocial, antisocial or neutral) embedded in different scenarios were tagged to faces during memorization. Face recognition, measured as accuracy and response latency, was tested with modified yes-no, forced-choice and recall tasks (N = 174). An enhanced recognition of faces tagged with prosocial descriptors was observed when the encoding scenario involved financial transactions and the rules of the social contract were not explicit (experiments 1 and 2). Such bias was eliminated or attenuated by making participants explicitly aware of “cooperative”, “cheating” and “neutral/indifferent” behaviors via a pre-test questionnaire and then adding such tags to behavioral descriptors (experiment 3). Further, in a social judgment scenario with descriptors of salient moral behaviors, recognition of antisocial and prosocial faces was similar, but significantly better than neutral faces (experiment 4). Conclusion The results highlight the relevance of descriptors and scenarios of social exchange in face recognition, when the frequency of prosocial and antisocial individuals in a group is similar. Recognition biases towards prosocial faces emerged when descriptors did not state the rules of a social contract or the moral status of a behavior, and they point to the existence of broad and flexible cognitive abilities finely tuned to minor changes in social context. PMID:20886086

  12. A survey of real face modeling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Dai, Yugang; He, Xiangzhen; Wan, Fucheng

    2017-09-01

    The face model has always been a research challenge in computer graphics, which involves the coordination of multiple organs in faces. This article explained two kinds of face modeling method which is based on the data driven and based on parameter control, analyzed its content and background, summarized their advantages and disadvantages, and concluded muscle model which is based on the anatomy of the principle has higher veracity and easy to drive.

  13. Oscillations in a Forward-Facing Cavity Measured Using Laser-Differential Interferometry in a Hypersonic Quiet Tunnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-11

    22203 Attn: Dr. John Schmisseur, -NA AFOSR/NA Unclassified and Approved for Public Release M.S. thesis by Rodrigo Segura with development of LDI for...HYPERSONIC QUIET TUNNEL A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Purdue University by Rodrigo Segura In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree...Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel BFL Back Focal Length xvi CCA Constant Current Anemometer EFL Effective Focal Length FFC Forward Facing Cavity LDI Laser

  14. Nation, Face, and Identity: An Initial Investigation of National Face in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates a key concept in East Asia, face, and represents the first attempt to empirically examine the concept of face at the national level. Controlling for the level of national identification, Study 1 employed the scenario experiment method among samples of native Chinese and Taiwanese populations and revealed that national face exhibits patterns reverse of personal face. Using the experimental method, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and provided support for the different mechanisms underneath national face and personal face. Study 3 replicated the findings of Study 2 and additionally showed that national face exerts a significant inhibitory effect on face process. Findings are discussed in terms of possible implications for intergroup and international relations. Expanding on extant scholarship on face and across three studies with different experimental paradigms, this research turns our attention from face at the personal level to face at the national level by introducing the construct of national face and examining its manifestations in East Asia. The results advance our understanding of the psychological mechanism driving face concern in East Asia. They make a strong and unique case for the psychological existence of national face as an empirically distinct construct and an important psychological resource for East Asians. PMID:27774081

  15. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder scan own-race faces differently from other-race faces.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Quinn, Paul C; Fan, Yuebo; Huang, Dan; Feng, Cong; Joseph, Lisa; Li, Jiao; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that people recognize and scan other-race faces differently from faces of their own race. The current study examined whether this cross-racial difference in face processing found in the typical population also exists in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants included 5- to 10-year-old children with ASD (n=29), typically developing (TD) children matched on chronological age (n=29), and TD children matched on nonverbal IQ (n=29). Children completed a face recognition task in which they were asked to memorize and recognize both own- and other-race faces while their eye movements were tracked. We found no recognition advantage for own-race faces relative to other-race faces in any of the three groups. However, eye-tracking results indicated that, similar to TD children, children with ASD exhibited a cross-racial face-scanning pattern: they looked at the eyes of other-race faces longer than at those of own-race faces, whereas they looked at the mouth of own-race faces longer than at that of other-race faces. The findings suggest that although children with ASD have difficulty with processing some aspects of faces, their ability to process face race information is relatively spared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nation, Face, and Identity: An Initial Investigation of National Face in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates a key concept in East Asia, face, and represents the first attempt to empirically examine the concept of face at the national level. Controlling for the level of national identification, Study 1 employed the scenario experiment method among samples of native Chinese and Taiwanese populations and revealed that national face exhibits patterns reverse of personal face. Using the experimental method, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and provided support for the different mechanisms underneath national face and personal face. Study 3 replicated the findings of Study 2 and additionally showed that national face exerts a significant inhibitory effect on face process. Findings are discussed in terms of possible implications for intergroup and international relations. Expanding on extant scholarship on face and across three studies with different experimental paradigms, this research turns our attention from face at the personal level to face at the national level by introducing the construct of national face and examining its manifestations in East Asia. The results advance our understanding of the psychological mechanism driving face concern in East Asia. They make a strong and unique case for the psychological existence of national face as an empirically distinct construct and an important psychological resource for East Asians.

  17. Neural Correlate of the Thatcher Face Illusion in a Monkey Face-Selective Patch.

    PubMed

    Taubert, Jessica; Van Belle, Goedele; Vanduffel, Wim; Rossion, Bruno; Vogels, Rufin

    2015-07-08

    Compelling evidence that our sensitivity to facial structure is conserved across the primate order comes from studies of the "Thatcher face illusion": humans and monkeys notice changes in the orientation of facial features (e.g., the eyes) only when faces are upright, not when faces are upside down. Although it is presumed that face perception in primates depends on face-selective neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex, it is not known whether these neurons respond differentially to upright faces with inverted features. Using microelectrodes guided by functional MRI mapping, we recorded cell responses in three regions of monkey IT cortex. We report an interaction in the middle lateral face patch (ML) between the global orientation of a face and the local orientation of its eyes, a response profile consistent with the perception of the Thatcher illusion. This increased sensitivity to eye orientation in upright faces resisted changes in screen location and was not found among face-selective neurons in other areas of IT cortex, including neurons in another face-selective region, the anterior lateral face patch. We conclude that the Thatcher face illusion is correlated with a pattern of activity in the ML that encodes faces according to a flexible holistic template. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359872-07$15.00/0.

  18. Face engagement during infancy predicts later face recognition ability in younger siblings of children with autism.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, Carina C J M; Gliga, Teodora; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H

    2014-07-01

    Face recognition difficulties are frequently documented in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It has been hypothesized that these difficulties result from a reduced interest in faces early in life, leading to decreased cortical specialization and atypical development of the neural circuitry for face processing. However, a recent study by our lab demonstrated that infants at increased familial risk for ASD, irrespective of their diagnostic status at 3 years, exhibit a clear orienting response to faces. The present study was conducted as a follow-up on the same cohort to investigate how measures of early engagement with faces relate to face-processing abilities later in life. We also investigated whether face recognition difficulties are specifically related to an ASD diagnosis, or whether they are present at a higher rate in all those at familial risk. At 3 years we found a reduced ability to recognize unfamiliar faces in the high-risk group that was not specific to those children who received an ASD diagnosis, consistent with face recognition difficulties being an endophenotype of the disorder. Furthermore, we found that longer looking at faces at 7 months was associated with poorer performance on the face recognition task at 3 years in the high-risk group. These findings suggest that longer looking at faces in infants at risk for ASD might reflect early face-processing difficulties and predicts difficulties with recognizing faces later in life. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Technology survey on video face tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Gomes, Herman Martins

    2014-03-01

    With the pervasiveness of monitoring cameras installed in public areas, schools, hospitals, work places and homes, video analytics technologies for interpreting these video contents are becoming increasingly relevant to people's lives. Among such technologies, human face detection and tracking (and face identification in many cases) are particularly useful in various application scenarios. While plenty of research has been conducted on face tracking and many promising approaches have been proposed, there are still significant challenges in recognizing and tracking people in videos with uncontrolled capturing conditions, largely due to pose and illumination variations, as well as occlusions and cluttered background. It is especially complex to track and identify multiple people simultaneously in real time due to the large amount of computation involved. In this paper, we present a survey on literature and software that are published or developed during recent years on the face tracking topic. The survey covers the following topics: 1) mainstream and state-of-the-art face tracking methods, including features used to model the targets and metrics used for tracking; 2) face identification and face clustering from face sequences; and 3) software packages or demonstrations that are available for algorithm development or trial. A number of publically available databases for face tracking are also introduced.

  20. Dislocation etching of rough crystal faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Enckevort, W. J. P.; Smet, F.

    1988-07-01

    A model for the preferential dissolution near the outcrops of dislocations at rough (K, S or F faces above the roughening temperature) crystal faces has been developed. In contrast to F faces below the roughening transition, no lateral flow of steps from the etched dislocation centre occurs and therefore only small etch pits, either not or only barely visible by optical microscopy are expected to be formed. This was confirmed by etching of K, S and F faces of Bi 4(GeO 4) 3, KH 2PO 4 and potash alum crystals.

  1. Females excel at basic face perception.

    PubMed

    McBain, Ryan; Norton, Dan; Chen, Yue

    2009-02-01

    Females are generally better than males at recognizing facial emotions. However, it is not entirely clear whether and in what way females may also excel at non-affective face recognition. Here, we tested males and females on two perceptual face recognition tasks that involved only neutral expressions: detection and identity discrimination. On face detection (Experiment 1), females were significantly more accurate than males in detecting upright faces. This gender difference was reduced during inverted face detection, and not present during tree detection, suggesting that the magnitude of the gender difference for performance co-varies with the extent to which face processing mechanisms are involved. On facial identity discrimination (Experiment 2), females again outperformed males, particularly when face images were masked by visual noise, or the delay between comparison face images was extended from 0.5 to 3s. These results reveal a female advantage in processing face-specific information and underscore the role of perceptual factors in socially relevant gender differences.

  2. Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man

    2016-05-01

    A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.

  3. The functional basis of face evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.; Todorov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    People automatically evaluate faces on multiple trait dimensions, and these evaluations predict important social outcomes, ranging from electoral success to sentencing decisions. Based on behavioral studies and computer modeling, we develop a 2D model of face evaluation. First, using a principal components analysis of trait judgments of emotionally neutral faces, we identify two orthogonal dimensions, valence and dominance, that are sufficient to describe face evaluation and show that these dimensions can be approximated by judgments of trustworthiness and dominance. Second, using a data-driven statistical model for face representation, we build and validate models for representing face trustworthiness and face dominance. Third, using these models, we show that, whereas valence evaluation is more sensitive to features resembling expressions signaling whether the person should be avoided or approached, dominance evaluation is more sensitive to features signaling physical strength/weakness. Fourth, we show that important social judgments, such as threat, can be reproduced as a function of the two orthogonal dimensions of valence and dominance. The findings suggest that face evaluation involves an overgeneralization of adaptive mechanisms for inferring harmful intentions and the ability to cause harm and can account for rapid, yet not necessarily accurate, judgments from faces. PMID:18685089

  4. Repetition effects in human ERPs to faces.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we review research conducted over the past 25 years addressing the effects of repeating various kinds of information in faces (e.g., pictorial, spatial configural, identity, semantic) on different components in human event-related brain potentials (ERPs). This body of evidence suggests that several ERP components are systematically linked to different functional components of face identity processing. Specifically, we argue (1) that repetition of the category of faces (categorical adaptation) strongly affects the occipitotemporal N170 amplitude, which is systematically suppressed when a face is preceded by another face, irrespective of its identity, whereas (2) the prototypicality of a face's second order spatial configuration has a prominent effect on the subsequent occipitotemporal P200. Longer-latency repetition effects are related to the processing of individual facial identities. These include (3) an ERP correlate of the transient activation of individual representations of repeated faces in the form of an enhanced occipitotemporal N250r as seen in repetition priming experiments, and (4) a correlate of the acquisition of individual face identity representations during learning as seen in a topographically similar long-lasting N250 effect. Finally, (5) the repetition of semantic information in familiar person recognition elicits a central-parietal N400 ERP effect. We hope that this overview will encourage researchers to further exploit the potential of ERPs to provide a continuous time window to neuronal correlates of multiple processes in face perception under comparatively natural viewing conditions.

  5. A Comparative View of Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, David A.; Rhodes, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Face perception serves as the basis for much of human social exchange. Diverse information can be extracted about an individual from a single glance at their face, including their identity, emotional state, and direction of attention. Neuropsychological and fMRI experiments reveal a complex network of specialized areas in the human brain supporting these face-reading skills. Here we consider the evolutionary roots of human face perception by exploring the manner in which different animal species view and respond to faces. We focus on behavioral experiments collected from both primates and non-primates, assessing the types of information that animals are able to extract from the faces of their conspecifics, human experimenters, and natural predators. These experiments reveal that faces are an important category of visual stimuli for animals in all major vertebrate taxa, possibly reflecting the early emergence of neural specialization for faces in vertebrate evolution. At the same time, some aspects of facial perception are only evident in primates and a few other social mammals, and may therefore have evolved to suit the needs of complex social communication. Since the human brain likely utilizes both primitive and recently evolved neural specializations for the processing of faces, comparative studies may hold the key to understanding how these parallel circuits emerged during human evolution. PMID:20695655

  6. Face imagery is based on featural representations.

    PubMed

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Mast, Fred W

    2008-01-01

    The effect of imagery on featural and configural face processing was investigated using blurred and scrambled faces. By means of blurring, featural information is reduced; by scrambling a face into its constituent parts configural information is lost. Twenty-four participants learned ten faces together with the sound of a name. In following matching-to-sample tasks participants had to decide whether an auditory presented name belonged to a visually presented scrambled or blurred face in two experimental conditions. In the imagery condition, the name was presented prior to the visual stimulus and participants were required to imagine the corresponding face as clearly and vividly as possible. In the perception condition name and test face were presented simultaneously, thus no facilitation via mental imagery was possible. Analyses of the hit values showed that in the imagery condition scrambled faces were recognized significantly better than blurred faces whereas there was no such effect for the perception condition. The results suggest that mental imagery activates featural representations more than configural representations.

  7. What's so special about the average face?

    PubMed

    Tsao, Doris Y; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2006-09-01

    The past few years have seen a marked increase in our understanding of how faces are represented in the brain, with the discovery of new anatomical structures and new algorithms for representing faces. Still, the basic computational mechanism used by the primate visual system to identify faces remains a topic of intense debate. Are faces represented by matching to a set of stored exemplars, or by measuring the distance from a standard prototype along a set of different axes? A recent article by Rhodes and Jeffery provides compelling psychophysical evidence in favor of the latter 'axis' model.

  8. Face matching impairment in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    White, David; Rivolta, Davide; Burton, A Mike; Al-Janabi, Shahd; Palermo, Romina

    2017-02-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is commonly referred to as 'face blindness', a term that implies a perceptual basis to the condition. However, DP presents as a deficit in face recognition and is diagnosed using memory-based tasks. Here, we test face identification ability in six people with DP, who are severely impaired on face memory tasks, using tasks that do not rely on memory. First, we compared DP to control participants on a standardized test of unfamiliar face matching using facial images taken on the same day and under standardized studio conditions (Glasgow Face Matching Test; GFMT). Scores for DP participants did not differ from normative accuracy scores on the GFMT. Second, we tested face matching performance on a test created using images that were sourced from the Internet and so varied substantially due to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance (Local Heroes Test; LHT). DP participants showed significantly poorer matching accuracy on the LHT than control participants, for both unfamiliar and familiar face matching. Interestingly, this deficit is specific to 'match' trials, suggesting that people with DP may have particular difficulty in matching images of the same person that contain natural day-to-day variations in appearance. We discuss these results in the broader context of individual differences in face matching ability.

  9. Efficient human face detection in infancy.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Krisztina V; Umstead, Lindsey; Simpson, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Adults detect conspecific faces more efficiently than heterospecific faces; however, the development of this own-species bias (OSB) remains unexplored. We tested whether 6- and 11-month-olds exhibit OSB in their attention to human and animal faces in complex visual displays with high perceptual load (25 images competing for attention). Infants (n = 48) and adults (n = 43) passively viewed arrays containing a face among 24 non-face distractors while we measured their gaze with remote eye tracking. While OSB is typically not observed until about 9 months, we found that, already by 6 months, human faces were more likely to be detected, were detected more quickly (attention capture), and received longer looks (attention holding) than animal faces. These data suggest that 6-month-olds already exhibit OSB in face detection efficiency, consistent with perceptual attunement. This specialization may reflect the biological importance of detecting conspecific faces, a foundational ability for early social interactions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Interpersonal Similarity between Body Movements in Face-To-Face Communication in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Higo, Naoki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Minemura, Juichi; Xu, Bujie; Nozawa, Takayuki; Ogata, Taiki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results confirm an

  11. Interpersonal similarity between body movements in face-to-face communication in daily life.

    PubMed

    Higo, Naoki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Minemura, Juichi; Xu, Bujie; Nozawa, Takayuki; Ogata, Taiki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results confirm an

  12. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  13. Original and Mirror Face Images and Minimum Squared Error Classification for Visible Light Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    In real-world applications, the image of faces varies with illumination, facial expression, and poses. It seems that more training samples are able to reveal possible images of the faces. Though minimum squared error classification (MSEC) is a widely used method, its applications on face recognition usually suffer from the problem of a limited number of training samples. In this paper, we improve MSEC by using the mirror faces as virtual training samples. We obtained the mirror faces generated from original training samples and put these two kinds of samples into a new set. The face recognition experiments show that our method does obtain high accuracy performance in classification. PMID:26576452

  14. Original and Mirror Face Images and Minimum Squared Error Classification for Visible Light Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    In real-world applications, the image of faces varies with illumination, facial expression, and poses. It seems that more training samples are able to reveal possible images of the faces. Though minimum squared error classification (MSEC) is a widely used method, its applications on face recognition usually suffer from the problem of a limited number of training samples. In this paper, we improve MSEC by using the mirror faces as virtual training samples. We obtained the mirror faces generated from original training samples and put these two kinds of samples into a new set. The face recognition experiments show that our method does obtain high accuracy performance in classification.

  15. Minimal functional unit for transport and enzyme activities of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase as determined by radiation inactivation.

    PubMed

    Karlish, S J; Kempner, E S

    1984-10-03

    Frozen aqueous suspensions of partially purified membrane-bound renal (Na+ + K+)-ATPase have been irradiated at -135 degrees C with high-energy electrons. (Na+ + K+)-ATPase and K+-phosphatase activities are inactivated exponentially with apparent target sizes of 184 +/- 4 kDa and 125 +/- 3 kDa, respectively. These values are significantly lower then found previously from irradiation of lyophilized membranes. After reconstitution of irradiated (Na+ + K+)-ATPase into phospholipid vesicles the following transport functions have been measured and target sizes calculated from the exponential inactivation curves: ATP-dependent Na+-K+ exchange, 201 +/- 4 kDa; (ATP + Pi)-activated Rb+-Rb+ exchange, 206 +/- 7 kDa and ATP-independent Rb+-Rb+ exchange, 117 +/- 4 kDa. The apparent size of the alpha-chain, judged by disappearance of Coomassie stain on SDS-gels, lies between 115 and 141 kDa. That for the beta-glycoprotein, though clearly smaller, could not be estimated. We draw the following conclusions: (1) The simplest interpretation of the results is that the minimal functional unit for (Na+ + K+)-ATPase is alpha beta. (2) The inactivation target size for (Na+ + K+)-dependent ATP hydrolysis is the same as for ATP-dependent pumping of Na+ and K+. (3) The target sizes, for K+-phosphatase (125 kDa) and ATP-independent Rb+-Rb+ exchange (117 kDa) are indistinguishable from that of the alpha-chain itself, suggesting that cation binding sites and transport pathways, and the p-nitrophenyl phosphate binding site are located exclusively on the alpha-chain. (4) ATP-dependent activities appear to depend on the integrity of an alpha beta complex.

  16. Sol formation ability of Ca/Na-montmorillonite at low ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birgersson, Martin; Hedström, Magnus; Karnland, Ola

    Various colloidal phases of Wyoming type Ca/Na-montmorillonite have been investigated experimentally by sedimentation and swelling tests of originally pure Ca- or Na-montmorillonite in different CaCl 2/NaCl solutions of low ionic strength. Forces contributing to colloid (de)stability are discussed, and the experimental findings are compared with a theoretical sol formation zone in the [Ca 2+]-[Na +] diagram derived from simple assumptions regarding the forces. It is found that the sol formation ability drastically lowers when calcium ions are present in the system. This effect could be due to an explicit influence of these ions on edge face interactions.

  17. Astrocytic face of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zorec, Robert; Parpura, Vladimir; Vardjan, Nina; Verkhratsky, Alexej

    2017-03-30

    Ageing of the central nervous system (CNS) is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a type of neurodegeneration that is associated with deficits in cognition and memory and clinically manifested as severe senile dementia. Numerous mental processes underline cognition, including attention, producing and understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, decision making and memory formation. In the past, neurones or their parts have been considered to be the exclusive cellular sites of memory and cognitive processes. However, it has become evident that astrocytes, the major homeostatic glial cell of the CNS, provide an essential contribution to memory formation, and astroglial failure may promote cognitive decline in AD. In response to the network reset mechanisms mediated by the noradrenergic projections of neurones located in the locus coeruleus, astrocytes get excited and participate in the morphological remodelling associated with synaptic plasticity, otherwise thought to represent a cellular mechanism of learning and memory. Astroglial morphological plasticity is an energy-demanding process requiring mobilisation of glycogen, which, in the CNS, is almost exclusively stored in astrocytes. Astroglia exhibit cytoplasmic excitability that engages ions (such as Ca(2+) and Na(+)) and second messengers (such as cAMP). These ions/molecules contribute to the reception of extracellular signals and coordinate the secretion of glio-signalling molecules, including peptides such as apolipoporotein E, which participates in lipid transport between glia and neurones. In this setting, astrocytes are positioned as spatio-temporal integrators of neural network coordination, which disintegrates during progression of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Faces in places: humans and machines make similar face detection errors.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Bernard Marius; Abresch, Tilman Gerrit Jakob; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications ("Viola-Jones" algorithm) achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections ("real faces"), false positives ("illusory faces") and correctly rejected locations ("non faces"). Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system.

  19. Reverse engineering the face space: Discovering the critical features for face identification.

    PubMed

    Abudarham, Naphtali; Yovel, Galit

    2016-01-01

    How do we identify people? What are the critical facial features that define an identity and determine whether two faces belong to the same person or different people? To answer these questions, we applied the face space framework, according to which faces are represented as points in a multidimensional feature space, such that face space distances are correlated with perceptual similarities between faces. In particular, we developed a novel method that allowed us to reveal the critical dimensions (i.e., critical features) of the face space. To that end, we constructed a concrete face space, which included 20 facial features of natural face images, and asked human observers to evaluate feature values (e.g., how thick are the lips). Next, we systematically and quantitatively changed facial features, and measured the perceptual effects of these manipulations. We found that critical features were those for which participants have high perceptual sensitivity (PS) for detecting differences across identities (e.g., which of two faces has thicker lips). Furthermore, these high PS features vary minimally across different views of the same identity, suggesting high PS features support face recognition across different images of the same face. The methods described here set an infrastructure for discovering the critical features of other face categories not studied here (e.g., Asians, familiar) as well as other aspects of face processing, such as attractiveness or trait inferences.

  20. Integration of faces and voices, but not faces and names, in person recognition.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Christiane; Newell, Fiona N

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies on cross-modal recognition suggest that face and voice information are linked for the purpose of person identification. We tested whether congruent associations between familiarized faces and voices facilitated subsequent person recognition relative to incongruent associations. Furthermore, we investigated whether congruent face and name associations would similarly benefit person identification relative to incongruent face and name associations. Participants were familiarized with a set of talking video-images of actors, their names, and their voices. They were then tested on their recognition of either the face, voice, or name of each actor from bimodal stimuli which were either congruent or novel (incongruent) associations between the familiarized face and voice or face and name. We found that response times to familiarity decisions based on congruent face and voice stimuli were facilitated relative to incongruent associations. In contrast, we failed to find a benefit for congruent face and name pairs. Our findings suggest that faces and voices, but not faces and names, are integrated in memory for the purpose of person recognition. These findings have important implications for current models of face perception and support growing evidence for multisensory effects in face perception areas of the brain for the purpose of person recognition. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Perceptual face processing in developmental prosopagnosia is not sensitive to the canonical location of face parts.

    PubMed

    Towler, John; Parketny, Joanna; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but it is controversial whether this deficit is linked to atypical visual-perceptual face processing mechanisms. Previous behavioural studies have suggested that face perception in DP might be less sensitive to the canonical spatial configuration of face parts in upright faces. To test this prediction, we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to intact upright faces and to faces with spatially scrambled parts (eyes, nose, and mouth) in a group of ten participants with DP and a group of ten age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. The face-sensitive N170 component and the vertex positive potential (VPP) were both enhanced and delayed for scrambled as compared to intact faces in the control group. In contrast, N170 and VPP amplitude enhancements to scrambled faces were absent in the DP group. For control participants, the N170 to scrambled faces was also sensitive to feature locations, with larger and delayed N170 components contralateral to the side where all features appeared in a non-canonical position. No such differences were present in the DP group. These findings suggest that spatial templates of the prototypical feature locations within an upright face are selectively impaired in DP.

  2. N170 face specificity and face memory depend on hometown size.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Saville, Alyson

    2015-03-01

    Face recognition depends on visual experience in a number of different ways. Infrequent exposure to faces belonging to categories defined by species, age, or race can lead to diminished memory for and discrimination between members of those categories relative to faces belonging to categories that dominate an observer's environment. Early visual impairment can also have long-lasting and broad effects on face discrimination - just a few months of visual impairment due to congenital cataracts can lead to diminished discrimination between faces that differ in their configuration, for example (Le Grand et al., 2001). Presently, we consider a novel aspect of visual experience that may impact face recognition: The approximate amount of different faces observers encountered during their childhood. We recruited undergraduate observers from small (500-1000 individuals) and large communities (30,000-100,000 individuals) and asked them to complete a standard face memory test and a basic ERP paradigm designed to elicit a robust N170 response, including the classic face inversion effect. We predicted that growing up in a small community might lead to diminished face memory and an N170 response that was less specific to faces. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that the sheer number of faces one can interact with during their upbringing shapes their behavioral abilities and the functional architecture of face processing in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. N170 face specificity and face memory depend on hometown size

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Saville, Alyson

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition depends on visual experience in a number of different ways. Infrequent exposure to faces belonging to categories defined by species, age, or race can lead to diminished memory for and discrimination between members of those categories relative to faces belonging to categories that dominate an observer's environment. Early visual impairment can also have long-lasting and broad effects on face discrimination – just a few months of visual impairment due to congenital cataracts can lead to diminished discrimination between faces that differ in their configuration, for example (Le Grand et al. 2001). Presently, we consider a novel aspect of visual experience that may impact face recognition: The approximate amount of different faces observers encountered during their childhood. We recruited undergraduate observers from small (500-1000 individuals) and large communities (30,000-100,000 individuals) and asked them to complete a standard face memory test and a basic ERP paradigm designed to elicit a robust N170 response, including the classic face inversion effect. We predicted that growing up in a small community might lead to diminished face memory and an N170 response that was less specific to faces. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that the sheer number of faces one can interact with during their upbringing shapes their behavioral abilities and the functional architecture of face processing in the brain. PMID:25659502

  4. Autonomous Face Recognition Machine Using a Fourier Feature Set

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    valuable areas to explore. These include: - use of color images - use of binocular images - use of a parallel processor - development of a better set of... leye ,sy+256+face Im) . rceye, face (m). reye- face (m). leye , face(ruj.cmourth-face(mJ .teye); /* left internal features */ cnrea(sx+face(n) . leye ,sy...face~mJ .eeye,EacelmnJ.center-fsce(mJ . leye , face(n) .ciouch-face(mJ .ye 270+face(n) .loye,sy+256+facelmJ .ceye,facelmj .cencer-face(m) . leye , facefmJ

  5. The two Faces of Equipartition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Perton, M.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Weaver, R. L.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, G.; Luzon, F.; McGarr, A.

    2008-12-01

    relationship of average autocorrelations with the imaginary part of Green function at the source. Preliminary results are displayed in data sets from Chilpancingo, Mexico, and the Tautona Gold Mine, South Africa, that strongly suggest that equipartition, that guarantees the diffuse nature of seismic fields, has more than one face. Acknowledgements. Partial supports from DGAPA-UNAM, Project IN114706, Mexico; from Proyect MCyT CGL2005-05500-C02/BTE, Spain; from project DyETI of INSU-CNRS, France, and from the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo are greatly appreciated.

  6. Infant Face Preferences after Binocular Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Levin, Alex V.; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Early visual deprivation impairs some, but not all, aspects of face perception. We investigated the possible developmental roots of later abnormalities by using a face detection task to test infants treated for bilateral congenital cataract within 1 hour of their first focused visual input. The seven patients were between 5 and 12 weeks old…

  7. Evaluation of Carburized and Ground Face Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Heath, Gregory F.; Sheth, Vijay

    1999-01-01

    Experimental durability tests were performed on carburized and ground AIS19310 steel face gears. The tests were in support of a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Technology Reinvestment Program (TRP) to enhance face-gear technology. The tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn spiral-bevel-gear/face-gear test facility. Tests were run at 2300 rpm face gear speed and at loads of 64, 76, 88, 100, and 112-percent of the design torque of 377 N-m (3340 in-lb). The carburized and ground face gears demonstrated the required durability when run for ten-million cycles at each of the applied loads. Proper installation was critical for the successful operation of the spur pinions and face gears. A large amount of backlash produced tooth contact patterns that approached the inner-diameter edge of the face-gear tooth. Low backlash produced tooth contact patterns that approached the outer-diameter edge of the face-gear tooth. Measured backlashes in the range of 0.178 to 0.254 mm (0.007 to 0.010 in) produced acceptable tooth contact patterns.

  8. Changing the Face of American Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    If the mission of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) is clear--"to change the face of medicine to reflect the face of America" said Dr. Charles Terrell, the group's vice president for diversity policy and programs, at the opening of AAMC's recent conference on career development for minority faculty--then another fact is…

  9. Autism and the development of face processing.

    PubMed

    Golarai, Golijeh; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Reiss, Allan L

    2006-10-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental condition, characterized by impairments in non-verbal communication, social relationships and stereotypical patterns of behavior. A large body of evidence suggests that several aspects of face processing are impaired in autism, including anomalies in gaze processing, memory for facial identity and recognition of facial expressions of emotion. In search of neural markers of anomalous face processing in autism, much interest has focused on a network of brain regions that are implicated in social cognition and face processing. In this review, we will focus on three such regions, namely the STS for its role in processing gaze and facial movements, the FFA in face detection and identification and the amygdala in processing facial expressions of emotion. Much evidence suggests that a better understanding of the normal development of these specialized regions is essential for discovering the neural bases of face processing anomalies in autism. Thus, we will also examine the available literature on the normal development of face processing. Key unknowns in this research area are the neuro-developmental processes, the role of experience and the interactions among components of the face processing system in shaping each of the specialized regions for processing faces during normal development and in autism.

  10. A novel orientation code for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2011-06-01

    A novel orientation code is proposed for face recognition applications in this paper. Gabor wavelet transform is a common tool for orientation analysis in a 2D image; whereas Hamming distance is an efficient distance measurement for multiple classifications such as face identification. Specifically, at each frequency band, an index number representing the strongest orientational response is selected, and then encoded in binary format to favor the Hamming distance calculation. Multiple-band orientation codes are then organized into a face pattern byte (FPB) by using order statistics. With the FPB, Hamming distances are calculated and compared to achieve face identification. The FPB has the dimensionality of 8 bits per pixel and its performance will be compared to that of FPW (face pattern word, 32 bits per pixel). The dimensionality of FPB can be further reduced down to 4 bits per pixel, called face pattern nibble (FPN). Experimental results with visible and thermal face databases show that the proposed orientation code for face recognition is very promising in contrast with classical methods such as PCA.

  11. Connect the Book. I Face the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This month's feature is Vicki Cobb's "I Face the Wind" (Illus. by Julia Gorton. HarperCollins, 2003) which introduces the wind's characteristics and actions through experiments and observations complemented with Gorton's creative illustrations. "I Face the Wind" was a 2004 Sibert Honor Book. The Sibert Award and Honor books are awarded annually to…

  12. Connect the Book. I Face the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This month's feature is Vicki Cobb's "I Face the Wind" (Illus. by Julia Gorton. HarperCollins, 2003) which introduces the wind's characteristics and actions through experiments and observations complemented with Gorton's creative illustrations. "I Face the Wind" was a 2004 Sibert Honor Book. The Sibert Award and Honor books are awarded annually to…

  13. Unconscious Evaluation of Faces on Social Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lorna H.; Ajina, Sara; Getov, Spas; Bahrami, Bahador; Todorov, Alexander; Rees, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that two major axes, dominance and trustworthiness, characterize the social dimensions of face evaluation. Whether evaluation of faces on these social dimensions is restricted to conscious appraisal or happens at a preconscious level is unknown. Here we provide behavioral evidence that such preconscious evaluations exist and…

  14. Hybrid Deep Learning for Face Verification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wang, Xiaogang; Tang, Xiaoou

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid convolutional network (ConvNet)-Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) model for face verification. A key contribution of this work is to learn high-level relational visual features with rich identity similarity information. The deep ConvNets in our model start by extracting local relational visual features from two face images in comparison, which are further processed through multiple layers to extract high-level and global relational features. To keep enough discriminative information, we use the last hidden layer neuron activations of the ConvNet as features for face verification instead of those of the output layer. To characterize face similarities from different aspects, we concatenate the features extracted from different face region pairs by different deep ConvNets. The resulting high-dimensional relational features are classified by an RBM for face verification. After pre-training each ConvNet and the RBM separately, the entire hybrid network is jointly optimized to further improve the accuracy. Various aspects of the ConvNet structures, relational features, and face verification classifiers are investigated. Our model achieves the state-of-the-art face verification performance on the challenging LFW dataset under both the unrestricted protocol and the setting when outside data is allowed to be used for training.

  15. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

  16. Electrophysiological correlates of masked face priming

    PubMed Central

    Henson, R.N.; Mouchlianitis, E.; Matthews, W.J.; Kouider, S.

    2008-01-01

    Using a sandwich-masked priming paradigm with faces, we report two ERP effects that appear to reflect different levels of subliminal face processing. These two ERP repetition effects dissociate in their onset, scalp topography, and sensitivity to face familiarity. The “early” effect occurred between 100 and 150 ms, was maximally negative-going over lateral temporoparietal channels, and was found for both familiar and unfamiliar faces. The “late” effect occurred between 300 and 500 ms, was maximally positive-going over centroparietal channels, and was found only for familiar faces. The early effect resembled our previous fMRI data from the same paradigm; the late effect resembled the behavioural priming found, in the form of faster reaction times to make fame judgments about primed relative to unprimed familiar faces. None of the ERP or behavioural effects appeared explicable by a measure of participants’ ability to see the primes. The ERP and behavioural effects showed some sensitivity to whether the same or a different photograph of a face was repeated, but could remain reliable across different photographs, and did not appear attributable to a low-level measure of pixelwise overlap between prime and probe photograph. The functional significance of these ERP effects is discussed in relation to unconscious perception and face processing. PMID:18234522

  17. Decision-dependent aftereffects for faces.

    PubMed

    Walther, Christian; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kovács, Gyula

    2014-07-01

    Adaptation-related aftereffects (AEs) have been found in the perception of face identity, in that perception of an ambiguous face is typically biased away from the identity of a preceding unambiguous adaptor face. In previous studies, we could show that both perceptual ambiguity and physical similarity play a role in determining perceived face identity AEs, Cortex 49 (2013) 1963-1977, Plos One 8 (2013) e70525. Here, we tested further the role of ambiguity by manipulating participants' task such that the very same target stimuli were either ambiguous or unambiguous regarding stimulus classification. We created two partially overlapping continua spanning three unfamiliar face identities each, by morphing identity A via B to C, and B via C to D. In a first session, participants were familiarised with faces A and C and asked to classify faces of the A-B-C continuum as either identity A or C in an AE paradigm. Following adaptation to A or C, we observed contrastive AEs for the ambiguous identity B, but not for the unambiguous identities A or C. In a second session, the same participants were familiarised with faces B and D, followed by tests of AEs for the B-C-D continuum now involving a B-D classification task. We again observed contrastive AEs but only for target identity C (ambiguous for the decision) and not for B or D (unambiguous). Our results suggest that perceptual ambiguity, as given by the task-context, determines whether or not AEs are induced.

  18. Attention to Faces in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H.; Robinson, Lucy J.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii)…

  19. Video face recognition against a watch list

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Jehanzeb; Dagli, Charlie K.; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-10-01

    Due to a large increase in the video surveillance data recently in an effort to maintain high security at public places, we need more robust systems to analyze this data and make tasks like face recognition a realistic possibility in challenging environments. In this paper we explore a watch-list scenario where we use an appearance based model to classify query faces from low resolution videos into either a watch-list or a non-watch-list face. We then use our simple yet a powerful face recognition system to recognize the faces classified as watch-list faces. Where the watch-list includes those people that we are interested in recognizing. Our system uses simple feature machine algorithms from our previous work to match video faces against still images. To test our approach, we match video faces against a large database of still images obtained from a previous work in the field from Yahoo News over a period of time. We do this matching in an efficient manner to come up with a faster and nearly real-time system. This system can be incorporated into a larger surveillance system equipped with advanced algorithms involving anomalous event detection and activity recognition. This is a step towards more secure and robust surveillance systems and efficient video data analysis.

  20. Validated assessment scales for the lower face.

    PubMed

    Narins, Rhoda S; Carruthers, Jean; Flynn, Timothy C; Geister, Thorin L; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Hardas, Bhushan; Himmrich, Silvia; Jones, Derek; Kerscher, Martina; de Maio, Maurício; Mohrmann, Cornelia; Pooth, Rainer; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Buchner, Larry; Benter, Ursula; Breitscheidel, Lusine; Carruthers, Alastair

    2012-02-01

    Aging in the lower face leads to lines, wrinkles, depression of the corners of the mouth, and changes in lip volume and lip shape, with increased sagging of the skin of the jawline. Refined, easy-to-use, validated, objective standards assessing the severity of these changes are required in clinical research and practice. To establish the reliability of eight lower face scales assessing nasolabial folds, marionette lines, upper and lower lip fullness, lip wrinkles (at rest and dynamic), the oral commissure and jawline, aesthetic areas, and the lower face unit. Four 5-point rating scales were developed to objectively assess upper and lower lip wrinkles, oral commissures, and the jawline. Twelve experts rated identical lower face photographs of 50 subjects in two separate rating cycles using eight 5-point scales. Inter- and intrarater reliability of responses was assessed. Interrater reliability was substantial or almost perfect for all lower face scales, aesthetic areas, and the lower face unit. Intrarater reliability was high for all scales, areas and the lower face unit. Our rating scales are reliable tools for valid and reproducible assessment of the aging process in lower face areas. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Environmental Inversion Effects in Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Flusberg, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Visual processing is highly sensitive to stimulus orientation; for example, face perception is drastically worse when faces are oriented inverted vs. upright. However, stimulus orientation must be established in relation to a particular reference frame, and in most studies, several reference frames are conflated. Which reference frame(s) matter in…

  2. Newborns' Face Recognition over Changes in Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Bulf, Hermann; Simion, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances…

  3. Infant Face Preferences after Binocular Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Levin, Alex V.; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Early visual deprivation impairs some, but not all, aspects of face perception. We investigated the possible developmental roots of later abnormalities by using a face detection task to test infants treated for bilateral congenital cataract within 1 hour of their first focused visual input. The seven patients were between 5 and 12 weeks old…

  4. Changing the Face of American Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    If the mission of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) is clear--"to change the face of medicine to reflect the face of America" said Dr. Charles Terrell, the group's vice president for diversity policy and programs, at the opening of AAMC's recent conference on career development for minority faculty--then another fact is…

  5. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

  6. Clustering Millions of Faces by Identity.

    PubMed

    Otto, Charles; Wang, Dayong; Jain, Anil

    2017-03-07

    Given a large collection of unlabeled face images, we address the problem of clustering faces into an unknown number of identities. This problem is of interest in social media, law enforcement, and other applications, where the number of faces can be of the order of hundreds of million, while the number of identities (clusters) can range from a few thousand to millions. To address the challenges of run-time complexity and cluster quality, we present an approximate Rank-Order clustering algorithm that performs better than popular clustering algorithms (k-Means and Spectral). Our experiments include clustering up to 123 million face images into over 10 million clusters. Clustering results are analyzed in terms of external (known face labels) and internal (unknown face labels) quality measures, and run-time. Our algorithm achieves an F-measure of 0:87 on the LFW benchmark (13K faces of 5; 749 individuals), which drops to 0:27 on the largest dataset considered (13K faces in LFW + 123M distractor images). Additionally, we show that frames in the YouTube benchmark can be clustered with an F-measure of 0:71. An internal per-cluster quality measure is developed to rank individual clusters for manual exploration of high quality clusters that are compact and isolated.

  7. Multiple faces elicit augmented neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Puce, Aina; McNeely, Marie E.; Berrebi, Michael E.; Thompson, James C.; Hardee, Jillian; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people?Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250) ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400) latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces. PMID:23785327

  8. How Fast is Famous Face Recognition?

    PubMed Central

    Barragan-Jason, Gladys; Lachat, Fanny; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid recognition of familiar faces is crucial for social interactions. However the actual speed with which recognition can be achieved remains largely unknown as most studies have been carried out without any speed constraints. Different paradigms have been used, leading to conflicting results, and although many authors suggest that face recognition is fast, the speed of face recognition has not been directly compared to “fast” visual tasks. In this study, we sought to overcome these limitations. Subjects performed three tasks, a familiarity categorization task (famous faces among unknown faces), a superordinate categorization task (human faces among animal ones), and a gender categorization task. All tasks were performed under speed constraints. The results show that, despite the use of speed constraints, subjects were slow when they had to categorize famous faces: minimum reaction time was 467 ms, which is 180 ms more than during superordinate categorization and 160 ms more than in the gender condition. Our results are compatible with a hierarchy of face processing from the superordinate level to the familiarity level. The processes taking place between detection and recognition need to be investigated in detail. PMID:23162503

  9. Unconscious Evaluation of Faces on Social Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lorna H.; Ajina, Sara; Getov, Spas; Bahrami, Bahador; Todorov, Alexander; Rees, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that two major axes, dominance and trustworthiness, characterize the social dimensions of face evaluation. Whether evaluation of faces on these social dimensions is restricted to conscious appraisal or happens at a preconscious level is unknown. Here we provide behavioral evidence that such preconscious evaluations exist and…

  10. Environmental Inversion Effects in Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Flusberg, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Visual processing is highly sensitive to stimulus orientation; for example, face perception is drastically worse when faces are oriented inverted vs. upright. However, stimulus orientation must be established in relation to a particular reference frame, and in most studies, several reference frames are conflated. Which reference frame(s) matter in…

  11. Newborns' Face Recognition over Changes in Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Bulf, Hermann; Simion, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances…

  12. Are face representations depth cue invariant?

    PubMed

    Dehmoobadsharifabadi, Armita; Farivar, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The visual system can process three-dimensional depth cues defining surfaces of objects, but it is unclear whether such information contributes to complex object recognition, including face recognition. The processing of different depth cues involves both dorsal and ventral visual pathways. We investigated whether facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues resulted in meaningful face representations-representations that maintain the relationship between the population of faces as defined in a multidimensional face space. We measured face identity aftereffects for facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues (Experiments 1 and 2) and tested whether the aftereffect transfers across depth cues (Experiments 3 and 4). Facial surfaces and their morphs to the average face were defined purely by one of shading, texture, motion, or binocular disparity. We obtained identification thresholds for matched (matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), non-matched (non-matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), and no-adaptation (showing only the test stimuli) conditions for each cue and across different depth cues. We found robust face identity aftereffect in both experiments. Our results suggest that depth cues do contribute to forming meaningful face representations that are depth cue invariant. Depth cue invariance would require integration of information across different areas and different pathways for object recognition, and this in turn has important implications for cortical models of visual object recognition.

  13. Face Recognition by Independent Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Movellan, Javier R.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    A number of current face recognition algorithms use face representations found by unsupervised statistical methods. Typically these methods find a set of basis images and represent faces as a linear combination of those images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular example of such methods. The basis images found by PCA depend only on pairwise relationships between pixels in the image database. In a task such as face recognition, in which important information may be contained in the high-order relationships among pixels, it seems reasonable to expect that better basis images may be found by methods sensitive to these high-order statistics. Independent component analysis (ICA), a generalization of PCA, is one such method. We used a version of ICA derived from the principle of optimal information transfer through sigmoidal neurons. ICA was performed on face images in the FERET database under two different architectures, one which treated the images as random variables and the pixels as outcomes, and a second which treated the pixels as random variables and the images as outcomes. The first architecture found spatially local basis images for the faces. The second architecture produced a factorial face code. Both ICA representations were superior to representations based on PCA for recognizing faces across days and changes in expression. A classifier that combined the two ICA representations gave the best performance. PMID:18244540

  14. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  15. Levinas, Ethics, Pedagogy, and the Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriere, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Emmanuel Levinas is one of those thinkers whose ideas about ethics and morality have something to say about teaching. Concerned with ethics in a world that seemed devoid of morality, Levinas posited the ultimate responsibility of the I for the Face. The Face, or the Other, the not-me according to Levinas, requires and demands this responsibility…

  16. Faces in Context: Does Face Perception Depend on the Orientation of the Visual Scene?

    PubMed

    Taubert, Jessica; van Golde, Celine; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms held responsible for familiar face recognition are thought to be orientation dependent; inverted faces are more difficult to recognize than their upright counterparts. Although this effect of inversion has been investigated extensively, researchers have typically sliced faces from photographs and presented them in isolation. As such, it is not known whether the perceived orientation of a face is inherited from the visual scene in which it appears. Here, we address this question by measuring performance in a simultaneous same-different task while manipulating both the orientation of the faces and the scene. We found that the face inversion effect survived scene inversion. Nonetheless, an improvement in performance when the scene was upside down suggests that sensitivity to identity increased when the faces were more easily segmented from the scene. Thus, while these data identify congruency with the visual environment as a contributing factor in recognition performance, they imply different mechanisms operate on upright and inverted faces.

  17. Efficient promotion of phosphate diester cleavage by a face-to-face cyclodextrin dimer without metal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Liu, Gao-Feng; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2012-06-04

    An organic face-to-face cyclodextrin dimer promotes the cleavage of bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate efficiently in neutral pH without the addition of metal. Both of the phosphate diester bonds can be cleaved.

  18. Famous faces as icons. The illusion of being an expert in the recognition of famous faces.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2008-01-01

    It is a common belief that we are experts in the processing of famous faces. Although our ability to quickly and accurately recognise pictures of famous faces is quite impressive, we might not really process famous faces as faces per se, but as 'icons' or famous still pictures of famous faces. This assumption was tested in two parallel experiments employing a recognition task on famous, but personally unfamiliar, and on personally familiar faces. Both tests included (a) original, 'iconic' pictures, (b) slightly modified versions of familiar pictures, and (c) rather unfamiliar pictures of familiar persons. Participants (n = 70 + 70) indeed recognised original pictures of famous and personally familiar people very accurately, while performing poorly in recognising slightly modified, as well as unfamiliar versions of famous, but not personally familiar persons. These results indicate that the successful processing of famous faces may depend on icons imbued in society but not on the face as such.

  19. The Shaping of the Face Space in Early Infancy: Becoming a Native Face Processor

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Alan; Quinn, Paul C.; Kelly, David J.; Lee, Kang; Longmore, Christopher A.; McDonald, Paula R.; Pascalis, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Face perception remains one of the most intensively researched areas in psychology and allied disciplines, and there has been much debate regarding the early origins and experiential determinants of face processing. This article reviews studies, the majority of which have appeared in the past decade, that discuss possible mechanisms underlying face perception at birth and document the prominent role of experience in shaping infants’ face-processing abilities. In the first months of life, infants develop a preference for female and own-race faces and become better able to recognize and categorize own-race and own-species faces. This perceptual narrowing and shaping of the “face space” forms a foundation for later face expertise in childhood and adulthood and testifies to the remarkable plasticity of the developing visual system. PMID:21562620

  20. A Comparison of Two Native American Navigator Formats: Face-to-Face and Telephone

    PubMed Central

    Dignan, Mark B.; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Hariton, Judy; Harjo, Lisa; Rattler, Jerri; Lee, Rose; Mason, Mondi

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of a Navigator intervention delivered face-to-face or by telephone to urban Native American women. The effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated using a design that included a pretest, random assignment to face-to-face or telephone group, and posttest. The Social Cognitive Theory-based intervention was a tailored education program developed to address individual risk factors for breast cancer. At posttest, self-reported mammograms in the past year increased from 29% to 41.3% in the telephone group and from 34.4%: to 45.2% in the face-to-face group. There was no difference in change from pretest to posttest between the telephone and face-to-face groups. Navigators can be effective in increasing adherence to recommendations for screening mammography among urban American Indian women. PMID:16327748

  1. The Role of Face Familiarity in Eye Tracking of Faces by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara; Murias, Michael; Munson, Jeffrey; Panagiotides, Heracles; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate normal activation in the fusiform gyrus when viewing familiar, but not unfamiliar faces. The current study utilized eye tracking to investigate patterns of attention underlying familiar versus unfamiliar face processing in ASD. Eye movements of 18 typically developing participants and 17 individuals with ASD were recorded while passively viewing three face categories: unfamiliar non-repeating faces, a repeating highly familiar face, and a repeating previously unfamiliar face. Results suggest that individuals with ASD do not exhibit more normative gaze patterns when viewing familiar faces. A second task assessed facial recognition accuracy and response time for familiar and novel faces. The groups did not differ on accuracy or reaction times. PMID:18306030

  2. Inferring character from faces: a developmental study.

    PubMed

    Cogsdill, Emily J; Todorov, Alexander T; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2014-05-01

    Human adults attribute character traits to faces readily and with high consensus. In two experiments investigating the development of face-to-trait inference, adults and children ages 3 through 10 attributed trustworthiness, dominance, and competence to pairs of faces. In Experiment 1, the attributions of 3- to 4-year-olds converged with those of adults, and 5- to 6-year-olds' attributions were at adult levels of consistency. Children ages 3 and above consistently attributed the basic mean/nice evaluation not only to faces varying in trustworthiness (Experiment 1) but also to faces varying in dominance and competence (Experiment 2). This research suggests that the predisposition to judge others using scant facial information appears in adultlike forms early in childhood and does not require prolonged social experience.

  3. In your face: transcendence in embodied interaction.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    In cognitive psychology, studies concerning the face tend to focus on questions about face recognition, theory of mind (ToM) and empathy. Questions about the face, however, also fit into a very different set of issues that are central to ethics. Based especially on the work of Levinas, philosophers have come to see that reference to the face of another person can anchor conceptions of moral responsibility and ethical demand. Levinas points to a certain irreducibility and transcendence implicit in the face of the other. In this paper I argue that the notion of transcendence involved in this kind of analysis can be given a naturalistic interpretation by drawing on recent interactive approaches to social cognition found in developmental psychology, phenomenology, and the study of autism.

  4. Social presence and the composite face effect.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Fernandes, Alexandre; Fonseca, Ricardo; Prada, Marilia

    2015-06-01

    A robust finding in social psychology research is that performance is modulated by the social nature of a given context, promoting social inhibition or facilitation effects. In the present experiment, we examined if and how social presence impacts holistic face perception processes by asking participants, in the presence of others and alone, to perform the composite face task. Results suggest that completing the task in the presence of others (i.e., mere co-action) is associated with better performance in face recognition (less bias and higher discrimination between presented and non-presented targets) and with a reduction in the composite face effect. These results make clear that social presence impact on the composite face effect does not occur because presence increases reliance on holistic processing as a "dominant" well-learned response, but instead, because it increases monitoring of the interference produced by automatic response. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Faces from sketches: a subspace synthesis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yung-hui; Savvides, Marios

    2006-04-01

    In real life scenario, we may be interested in face recognition for identification purpose when we only got sketch of the face images, for example, when police tries to identify criminals based on sketches of suspect, which is drawn by artists according to description of witnesses, what they have in hand is a sketch of suspects, and many real face image acquired from video surveillance. So far the state-of-the-art approach toward this problem tries to transform all real face images into sketches and perform recognition on sketch domain. In our approach we propose the opposite which is a better approach; we propose to generate a realistic face image from the composite sketch using a Hybrid subspace method and then build an illumination tolerant correlation filter which can recognize the person under different illumination variations. We show experimental results on our approach on the CMU PIE (Pose Illumination and Expression) database on the effectiveness of our novel approach.

  6. Face recognition with L1-norm subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritato, Federica; Liu, Ying; Colonnese, Stefania; Pados, Dimitris A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of representing individual faces by maximum L1-norm projection subspaces calculated from available face-image ensembles. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to image variations, disturbances, and rank selection. Face recognition becomes then the problem of associating a new unknown face image to the "closest," in some sense, L1 subspace in the database. In this work, we also introduce the concept of adaptively allocating the available number of principal components to different face image classes, subject to a given total number/budget of principal components. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  7. Face recognition with intensified NIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socolinsky, Diego A.; Wolff, Lawrence B.; Lundberg, Andrew J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of face recognition performance as a function of light level using intensified near infrared imagery. This technology is the most prevalent in both civilian and military night vision equipment, and provides enough intensification for human operators to perform standard tasks under extremely low-light conditions. We describe a comprehensive data collection effort undertaken by the authors to image subjects under carefully controlled illumination and quantify the performance of standard face recognition algorithms on visible and intensified imagery as a function of light level. Performance comparisons for automatic face recognition are reported using the standardized implementations from the CSU Face Identification Evaluation System. The results contained in this paper should constitute the initial step for analysis and deployment of face recognition systems designed to work in low-light level conditions.

  8. Combination of Face Regions in Forensic Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tome, Pedro; Fierrez, Julian; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2015-07-01

    This article presents an experimental analysis of the combination of different regions of the human face on various forensic scenarios to generate scientific knowledge useful for the forensic experts. Three scenarios of interest at different distances are considered comparing mugshot and CCTV face images using MORPH and SC face databases. One of the main findings is that inner facial regions combine better in mugshot and close CCTV scenarios and outer facial regions combine better in far CCTV scenarios. This means, that depending of the acquisition distance, the discriminative power of the facial regions change, having in some cases better performance than the full face. This effect can be exploited by considering the fusion of facial regions which results in a very significant improvement of the discriminative performance compared to just using the full face. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. In your face: transcendence in embodied interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    In cognitive psychology, studies concerning the face tend to focus on questions about face recognition, theory of mind (ToM) and empathy. Questions about the face, however, also fit into a very different set of issues that are central to ethics. Based especially on the work of Levinas, philosophers have come to see that reference to the face of another person can anchor conceptions of moral responsibility and ethical demand. Levinas points to a certain irreducibility and transcendence implicit in the face of the other. In this paper I argue that the notion of transcendence involved in this kind of analysis can be given a naturalistic interpretation by drawing on recent interactive approaches to social cognition found in developmental psychology, phenomenology, and the study of autism. PMID:25071523

  10. Not All Faces Are Processed Equally: Evidence for Featural Rather than Holistic Processing of One's Own Face in a Face-Imaging Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Seth N.; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2009-01-01

    The present work considers the mental imaging of faces, with a focus in own-face imaging. Experiments 1 and 3 demonstrated an own-face disadvantage, with slower generation of mental images of one's own face than of other familiar faces. In contrast, Experiment 2 demonstrated that mental images of facial parts are generated more quickly for one's…

  11. The Effects of Face Inversion and Face Race on the P100 ERP.

    PubMed

    Colombatto, Clara; McCarthy, Gregory

    2016-11-29

    Research about the neural basis of face recognition has investigated the timing and anatomical substrates of different stages of face processing. Scalp-recorded ERP studies of face processing have focused on the N170, an ERP with a peak latency of ∼170 msec that has long been associated with the initial structural encoding of faces. However, several studies have reported earlier ERP differences related to faces, suggesting that face-specific processes might occur before N170. Here, we examined the influence of face inversion and face race on the timing of face-sensitive scalp-recorded ERPs by examining neural responses to upright and inverted line-drawn and luminance-matched White and Black faces in a sample of White participants. We found that the P100 ERP evoked by inverted faces was significantly larger than that evoked by upright faces. Although this inversion effect was statistically significant at 100 msec, the inverted-upright ERP difference peaked at 138 msec, suggesting that it might represent an activity in neural sources that overlap with P100. Inverse modeling of the inversion effect difference waveform suggested possible neural sources in pericalcarine extrastriate visual cortex and lateral occipito-temporal cortex. We also found that the inversion effect difference wave was larger for White faces. These results are consistent with behavioral evidence that individuals process the faces of their own races more configurally than faces of other races. Taken together, the inversion and race effects observed in the current study suggest that configuration influences face processing by at least 100 msec.

  12. [Brain activity during face processing in infants].

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2012-07-01

    It has been shown that infants prefer looking at faces to looking at equally complex, non-facial visual stimuli. Many behavioral studies have illustrated that infants process faces differently from other objects. In agreement with these findings, recent neuropsychological studies provide evidence indicating face-specific brain activity in infants. The present paper reviews the psychological studies investigating the infant's brain activity for faces, using brain-imaging techniques, such as near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a new and increasingly used brain imaging technique, which is particularly suitable for use with young infants. Studies using NIRS have reported face-specific brain activation in the temporal area. When 5- to 8-month-old infants view upright faces, a significant increase in oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) was observed in the right temporal area. Such face-specific brain activity in infants becomes view-invariant at the age of 8 months, but not at 5 months. More recently, an NIRS study employing the adaptation paradigm revealed that the identity of faces was processed in the bilateral temporal area. Additionally, face-specific brain activity was observed for not only static face images, but also for dynamic facial point-light displays. We found that concentrations of oxy-Hb increased in the right temporal area during the presentation of an upright facial point-light display compared to that during the baseline period. Finally, we discuss the possibility of developmental changes in brain activity from infancy to childhood and adolescence as well as in atypical development.

  13. Attention to individual identities modulates face processing.

    PubMed

    Ruz, María; Aranda, Clara; Sarmiento, Beatriz R; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The ability of attention to apply in a flexible manner to several types of information at various stages of processing has been studied extensively. However, the susceptibility of these effects to the nature of the idiosyncratic items being attended is less understood. In the current study, we used symbolic cues to orient the attention of participants to the subsequent appearance of the face of a famous person (the former king of Spain) or an unfamiliar face. These were matched in perceptual characteristics. Behavioral effects showed that face-specific attention optimized response speed in an orthogonal task when the target matched the cue (valid trials) compared to when it did not (invalid trials). According to topographical analyses of the electrophysiological data, the famous and unfamiliar faces engaged dissociable brain circuits in two different temporal windows, from 144 to 300 ms after target processing, and at a later 456-492 ms epoch. In addition, orienting attention to specific faces modulated the perceptual stages reflected in the P1 and N170 potentials but with a different laterality pattern that depended on the familiarity of the faces. Whereas only attention to the famous face enhanced the P1 potential at left posterior electrodes, with no corresponding effect for the unfamiliar face at this stage, the N170 was modulated at left posterior sites for the famous item and at right homologous electrodes for the unfamiliar face. Intermediate processing stages, previously linked to facial identity processing indexed by the P2 and N2 potentials, reflected item familiarity but were not affected by the cueing manipulation. At the P3 level, attention influenced again item processing but did so in an equivalent manner for the famous and unfamiliar face. Our results, showing that identity-specific attention modulates perceptual stages of facial processing at different locations depending on idiosyncratic stimulus familiarity, may inform comparison of studies

  14. Compositional Dictionaries for Domain Adaptive Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Qiang Qiu; Chellappa, Rama

    2015-12-01

    We present a dictionary learning approach to compensate for the transformation of faces due to the changes in view point, illumination, resolution, and so on. The key idea of our approach is to force domain-invariant sparse coding, i.e., designing a consistent sparse representation of the same face in different domains. In this way, the classifiers trained on the sparse codes in the source domain consisting of frontal faces can be applied to the target domain (consisting of faces in different poses, illumination conditions, and so on) without much loss in recognition accuracy. The approach is to first learn a domain base dictionary, and then describe each domain shift (identity, pose, and illumination) using a sparse representation over the base dictionary. The dictionary adapted to each domain is expressed as the sparse linear combinations of the base dictionary. In the context of face recognition, with the proposed compositional dictionary approach, a face image can be decomposed into sparse representations for a given subject, pose, and illumination. This approach has three advantages. First, the extracted sparse representation for a subject is consistent across domains, and enables pose and illumination insensitive face recognition. Second, sparse representations for pose and illumination can be subsequently used to estimate the pose and illumination condition of a face image. Last, by composing sparse representations for the subject and the different domains, we can also perform pose alignment and illumination normalization. Extensive experiments using two public face data sets are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for face recognition.

  15. Infant Discrimination of Faces in Naturalistic Events: Actions Are More Salient than Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Newell, Lisa C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that faces are typically seen in the context of dynamic events, there is little research on infants' perception of moving faces. L. E. Bahrick, L. J. Gogate, and I. Ruiz (2002) demonstrated that 5-month-old infants discriminate and remember repetitive actions but not the faces of the women performing the actions. The present…

  16. A causal relationship between face-patch activity and face-detection behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sadagopan, Srivatsun; Zarco, Wilbert; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2017-01-01

    The primate brain contains distinct areas densely populated by face-selective neurons. One of these, face-patch ML, contains neurons selective for contrast relationships between face parts. Such contrast-relationships can serve as powerful heuristics for face detection. However, it is unknown whether neurons with such selectivity actually support face-detection behavior. Here, we devised a naturalistic face-detection task and combined it with fMRI-guided pharmacological inactivation of ML to test whether ML is of critical importance for real-world face detection. We found that inactivation of ML impairs face detection. The effect was anatomically specific, as inactivation of areas outside ML did not affect face detection, and it was categorically specific, as inactivation of ML impaired face detection while sparing body and object detection. These results establish that ML function is crucial for detection of faces in natural scenes, performing a critical first step on which other face processing operations can build. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18558.001 PMID:28375078

  17. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  18. Isolating the Special Component of Face Recognition: Peripheral Identification and a Mooney Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor

    2004-01-01

    A previous finding argues that, for faces, configural (holistic) processing can operate even in the complete absence of part-based contributions to recognition. Here, this result is confirmed using 2 methods. In both, recognition of inverted faces (parts only) was removed altogether (chance identification of faces in the periphery; no perception…

  19. Face Engagement during Infancy Predicts Later Face Recognition Ability in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Carina C. J. M.; Gliga, Teodora; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Face recognition difficulties are frequently documented in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It has been hypothesized that these difficulties result from a reduced interest in faces early in life, leading to decreased cortical specialization and atypical development of the neural circuitry for face processing. However, a recent study…

  20. Development of Face Scanning for Own- and Other-Race Faces in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Wen S.; Xiao, Naiqi G.; Quinn, Paul C.; Anzures, Gizelle; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether infants visually scan own- and other-race faces differently as well as how these differences in face scanning develop with age. A multi-method approach was used to analyze the eye-tracking data of 6- and 9-month-old Caucasian infants scanning dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that…