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Sample records for daily azelastine nasal

  1. Azelastine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... and replace with the pump unit. Prime the delivery system (pump unit) with four sprays or until a fine mist appears. If 3 days or more have elapsed since your last use of the nasal spray, reprime the pump with two sprays or until a fine mist appears.

  2. Azelastine and fluticasone nasal spray: any advantage?

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis affects over 20% of the UK population. It can have a significant impact on quality of life and interferes with both attendance and performance at school and at work.1 Intranasal corticosteroids are widely recognised as the most effective symptomatic treatment available, but oral or intranasal new generation antihistamines are usually offered as first-line treatment for intermittent symptoms.1,2 Patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis may require a combination of drugs, and many patients only achieve limited control of their symptoms.3 Dymista is described as a novel intranasal formulation combining the antihistamine azelastine hydrochloride with the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate.3 It is licensed for the relief of symptoms of moderate to severe seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and adolescents if monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or glucocorticoid is not considered sufficient.4 The manufacturer claims that compared with fluticasone or azelastine alone, Dymista is twice as effective (when placebo effect is excluded) in providing relief from both nasal and ocular symptoms, and leads to greater overall relief from nasal symptoms. It also claims that Dymista controls nasal symptoms up to 6 days faster than fluticasone.5 Here we consider the evidence for Dymista and whether it represents a significant advantage in the management of patients with allergic rhinitis.

  3. Azelastine and fluticasone nasal spray: any advantage?

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis affects over 20% of the UK population. It can have a significant impact on quality of life and interferes with both attendance and performance at school and at work.1 Intranasal corticosteroids are widely recognised as the most effective symptomatic treatment available, but oral or intranasal new generation antihistamines are usually offered as first-line treatment for intermittent symptoms.1,2 Patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis may require a combination of drugs, and many patients only achieve limited control of their symptoms.3 Dymista is described as a novel intranasal formulation combining the antihistamine azelastine hydrochloride with the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate.3 It is licensed for the relief of symptoms of moderate to severe seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and adolescents if monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or glucocorticoid is not considered sufficient.4 The manufacturer claims that compared with fluticasone or azelastine alone, Dymista is twice as effective (when placebo effect is excluded) in providing relief from both nasal and ocular symptoms, and leads to greater overall relief from nasal symptoms. It also claims that Dymista controls nasal symptoms up to 6 days faster than fluticasone.5 Here we consider the evidence for Dymista and whether it represents a significant advantage in the management of patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:24504481

  4. Effectiveness of azelastine nasal solution in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Storms, W W; Pearlman, D S; Chervinsky, P; Grossman, J; Halverson, P C; Freitag, J J; Widlitz, M D

    1994-06-01

    Azelastine is a novel antiallergy medication currently under investigation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Pharmacologic studies in laboratory animals and in vitro model systems indicate that azelastine exerts multiple actions including modulation of airways smooth muscle response, interference with inflammatory processes, and inhibition of allergic reactions. In a previous controlled clinical trial, azelastine nasal solution (ASTELIN N.S.) demonstrated effectiveness in controlling symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The objective of this 2-week double-blind, parallel-group study was to further assess the effectiveness of azelastine nasal solution in improving allergic rhinitis symptoms. Two hundred forty-seven patients (> or = 12 years) with symptomatic SAR who satisfied a minimum symptoms score during a 1-week, single-blind, baseline evaluation period were randomized to receive azelastine 2 sprays per nostril bid, azelastine 2 sprays per nostril qd, chlorpheniramine 12 mg bid, or placebo using a double-dummy technique to insure blinding. The primary efficacy variables were changes in Major Symptom Complex (nose blows, sneezes, runny nose/sniffles, itch nose, and watery eyes) and Total Symptom Complex (Major plus itchy eyes/ears/throat/palate, cough, and postnasal drip) severity scores. Patients treated with azelastine nasal solution qd and bid had mean percent improvements in the Total and Major Symptom Complex severity scores that were clinically significant (> or = 50% improvement over placebo) after both weeks, at endpoint, and overall. The improvements for the azelastine bid group were statistically significant (P < or = .05) at all evaluation points. Adverse experiences occurred infrequently, and none was considered serious or potentially limiting to the clinical utility of the nasal solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effectiveness of azelastine nasal spray in the treatment of adenoidal hyper-trophy in children

    PubMed Central

    Berkiten, G; Kumral, TL; Çakır, O; Yıldırım, G; Salturk, Z; Uyar, Y; Atar, Y

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of topical azelastine treatment on symptoms related to adenoid hypertrophy and the size of adenoid tissue in children. Material and Methods: In total, 60 children who were found to have adenoid hypertrophy were included. A questionnaire on nasal symptoms, nasal endoscopy and skin prick tests was administered to all patients. All patients had complaints of chronic nasal obstruction symptoms and nasal endoscopy showed > 75% choanal obstruction, attributable to adenoid pads. The adenoid/nasopharyngeal areas were calculated. All of the patients underwent azelastine nasal spray therapy (1 spray per nostril, twice daily; 0.28 mg/dose) for 30 days. After 1 month, all children were reassessed. The efficacy of therapy, symptoms, adenoid / nasopharynx ratio, and obstruction ratio, obtained by endoscopy, were compared. Results: Azelastine treatment was well tolerated by all patients. After the first treatment period, the severity of symptoms, endoscopic grade, and adenoid size decreased in all of the 60 patients. There were significant improvements in total subjective symptoms (nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, cough, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea) post-treatment. Conclusions: Azelastine nasal spray may be useful in decreasing adenoid pad size and the severity of symptoms related to adenoidal hypertrophy. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (4): 340-345. PMID:26052201

  6. A clinical pharmacokinetic study comparing two azelastine hydrochloride nasal formulations in a single-dose design.

    PubMed

    Du, Daniel; Targett, Darren; Stolberg, Erhard; Canali, Alessandra

    2014-03-01

    Azelastine hydrochloride is a potent second-generation antihistamine, available in Europe and the USA as a nasal spray formulation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis symptoms. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Consumer Healthcare has developed a new nasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride. The present study was aimed at comparing the clinical pharmacokinetic profiles and assessing the bioequivalence of the new formulation of azelastine hydrochloride with a marketed reference nasal spray product. This was a randomized, two-way crossover, two-stage, single-dose pharmacokinetic study with 2 weeks washout between the two treatment periods. A dosage of 0.28 mg of the test and reference products was administered as a single dose to healthy volunteers according to the crossover design. Twenty-three subjects (15 subjects from stage 1 and 8 subjects from stage 2) were enrolled in the study. Adjusted mean values for AUC0-t were 1,526.8 h pg/mL for the test drug and 1,441.5 h pg/mL for the reference drug; for C max the values were 61.59 pg/mL for the test drug and 58.21 pg/mL for the reference drug. The 94.12 % CI of geometric mean ratios (test/reference) were 0.99-1.13 and 0.95-1.18 for AUC0-t and C max. This met the predefined criteria for bioequivalence between test and reference drugs. Secondary pharmacokinetic parameters for azelastine and for the metabolite desmethyl azelastine, AUC(0-∞) and t max, were numerically similar between the two study treatments. Both test and reference azelastine hydrochloride formulations were well tolerated at single dose. This study demonstrated the bioequivalence between the new azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray formulation and the marketed reference Allergodil(®) after single-dose administration. PMID:23681835

  7. Azelastine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthlamic azelastine is used to relieve the itching of allergic pink eye. Azelastine is in a class of medications called antihistamines. ... Ophthalmic azelastine comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eye. It is usually instilled in the affected ...

  8. Azelastine and budesonide (nasal sprays): Effect of combination therapy monitored by acoustic rhinometry and clinical symptom score in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Natalia Zanellato; Abib-Jr, Eduardo; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the effects of intranasal therapy with azelastine (AZE), budesonide (BUD), and combined AZE plus BUD (AZE/BUD) using a nasal provocation test (NPT) and acoustic rhinometry in patients with allergic rhinitis. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study with three treatment sequences was used. Thirty patients with persistent AR received the three treatments using a nasal spray twice daily for 30 days and were evaluated by an NPT with histamine before and after each period of treatment. The treatment comparison, assessed by the nasal responsiveness to histamine, was monitored based on subjective (symptom score) and objective parameters (acoustic rhinometry). The minimal cross-area 2 (MCA2) was measured by acoustic rhinometry at 1, 4, 8, and 12 minutes after NPT for each histamine concentration administered (0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 mg/mL) up to at least a 20% reduction in the MCA2 from baseline (NPT20). The subjects were scored regarding nasal response encompassing histamine dose and time after histamine administration that caused nasal obstruction (NPT20 score) to assess the treatments' effects. Combination therapy produced a significant increase in baseline MCA2, viz., the improvement of nasal patency (p = 0.005). The symptoms score was significantly decreased after treatment with AZE (p = 0.03), BUD (p < 0.0001), and AZE/BUD (p < 0.0001), compared with pretreatment. The NPT20 score was significantly higher (p = 0.0009) after AZE/BUD, compared with AZE and BUD on their own. Thus, AZE therapy combined with BUD might provide more therapeutic benefits than the isolated drugs for improving nasal patency. PMID:24988550

  9. Azelastine and budesonide (nasal sprays): Effect of combination therapy monitored by acoustic rhinometry and clinical symptom score in the treatment of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Natalia Zanellato; Abib-Jr, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the effects of intranasal therapy with azelastine (AZE), budesonide (BUD), and combined AZE plus BUD (AZE/BUD) using a nasal provocation test (NPT) and acoustic rhinometry in patients with allergic rhinitis. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study with three treatment sequences was used. Thirty patients with persistent AR received the three treatments using a nasal spray twice daily for 30 days and were evaluated by an NPT with histamine before and after each period of treatment. The treatment comparison, assessed by the nasal responsiveness to histamine, was monitored based on subjective (symptom score) and objective parameters (acoustic rhinometry). The minimal cross-area 2 (MCA2) was measured by acoustic rhinometry at 1, 4, 8, and 12 minutes after NPT for each histamine concentration administered (0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 mg/mL) up to at least a 20% reduction in the MCA2 from baseline (NPT20). The subjects were scored regarding nasal response encompassing histamine dose and time after histamine administration that caused nasal obstruction (NPT20 score) to assess the treatments' effects. Combination therapy produced a significant increase in baseline MCA2, viz., the improvement of nasal patency (p = 0.005). The symptoms score was significantly decreased after treatment with AZE (p = 0.03), BUD (p < 0.0001), and AZE/BUD (p < 0.0001), compared with pretreatment. The NPT20 score was significantly higher (p = 0.0009) after AZE/BUD, compared with AZE and BUD on their own. Thus, AZE therapy combined with BUD might provide more therapeutic benefits than the isolated drugs for improving nasal patency. PMID:24988550

  10. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops in comparison with azelastine containing nasal spray and eye drops or with cromoglycic Acid containing nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Werkhäuser, Nina; Bilstein, Andreas; Sonnemann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with increasing prevalence and high impact on economic burden and comorbidities. As treatment with pharmacological drugs is not always satisfactory due to side effects and incomplete efficacy, alternative treatment strategies are needed. Ectoine is an osmolyte with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. Nasal spray and eye drops containing ectoine are promising new treatment regimens for allergic rhinitis sufferers. Design and Methods. The current two noninterventional trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops for treating allergic rhinitis in comparison with either azelastine or cromoglycic acid containing products. Nasal and ocular symptom developments as well as judgment of tolerability and efficacy were assessed both by investigators and patients over a time period of one to two weeks. Results. Both trials confirmed that ectoine containing products reduced nasal and ocular symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients. Results clearly demonstrated good safety profiles of the ectoine products comparable to those of azelastine and even better to those of cromoglycate products. Conclusion. Ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops are interesting new treatment strategies for sufferers of allergic rhinitis, combining both good efficacy and absence of side effects. PMID:24982680

  11. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray and Eye Drops in Comparison with Azelastine Containing Nasal Spray and Eye Drops or with Cromoglycic Acid Containing Nasal Spray

    PubMed Central

    Werkhäuser, Nina; Sonnemann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with increasing prevalence and high impact on economic burden and comorbidities. As treatment with pharmacological drugs is not always satisfactory due to side effects and incomplete efficacy, alternative treatment strategies are needed. Ectoine is an osmolyte with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. Nasal spray and eye drops containing ectoine are promising new treatment regimens for allergic rhinitis sufferers. Design and Methods. The current two noninterventional trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops for treating allergic rhinitis in comparison with either azelastine or cromoglycic acid containing products. Nasal and ocular symptom developments as well as judgment of tolerability and efficacy were assessed both by investigators and patients over a time period of one to two weeks. Results. Both trials confirmed that ectoine containing products reduced nasal and ocular symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients. Results clearly demonstrated good safety profiles of the ectoine products comparable to those of azelastine and even better to those of cromoglycate products. Conclusion. Ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops are interesting new treatment strategies for sufferers of allergic rhinitis, combining both good efficacy and absence of side effects. PMID:24982680

  12. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops in comparison with azelastine containing nasal spray and eye drops or with cromoglycic Acid containing nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Werkhäuser, Nina; Bilstein, Andreas; Sonnemann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with increasing prevalence and high impact on economic burden and comorbidities. As treatment with pharmacological drugs is not always satisfactory due to side effects and incomplete efficacy, alternative treatment strategies are needed. Ectoine is an osmolyte with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. Nasal spray and eye drops containing ectoine are promising new treatment regimens for allergic rhinitis sufferers. Design and Methods. The current two noninterventional trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops for treating allergic rhinitis in comparison with either azelastine or cromoglycic acid containing products. Nasal and ocular symptom developments as well as judgment of tolerability and efficacy were assessed both by investigators and patients over a time period of one to two weeks. Results. Both trials confirmed that ectoine containing products reduced nasal and ocular symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients. Results clearly demonstrated good safety profiles of the ectoine products comparable to those of azelastine and even better to those of cromoglycate products. Conclusion. Ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops are interesting new treatment strategies for sufferers of allergic rhinitis, combining both good efficacy and absence of side effects.

  13. Azelastine enhances the clinical efficacy of glucocorticoid by modulating MKP-1 expression in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Ma, Renqiang; Wu, Xingmei; Xian, Desheng; Li, Jian; Mou, Zhonglin; Li, Huabin

    2015-05-01

    Azelastine was suggested as a supplementary choice of glucocorticoid for the control of moderate to severe allergic rhinitis (AR). However, the underlying mechanism has not been completely understood. In this study, primary cultured nasal epithelial cells and bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-17A) and anti-inflammatory agents (azelastine and budesonide) in vitro. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) was examined using qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Moreover, the additive effects of azelastine and budesonide nasal spray on nasal ICAM-1 level and total nasal symptom scores were evaluated in six uncontrolled severe AR patients by budesonide nasal spray alone. We found azelastine significantly inhibited cytokine-induced ICAM-1 upregulation, which is reversed by MKP-1 silencing. Azelastine and budesonide additively increased MKP-1 expression and inhibited ICAM-1 expression in vitro. After treatment for two consecutive weeks, combined azelastine and budesonide nasal spray significantly decreased nasal ICAM-1 level and TNSS in six uncontrolled AR patients. Our findings suggested that azelastine is able to additively enhance the anti-inflammatory effect of budesonide by modulating MKP-1 expression, which may implicate in the treatment of uncontrolled severe AR. PMID:25060977

  14. Four-week use of oxymetazoline nasal spray (Nezeril) once daily at night induces rebound swelling and nasal hyperreactivity.

    PubMed

    Graf, P; Hallén, H; Juto, J E

    1995-01-01

    A randomized double-blind parallel study with 20 healthy volunteers was performed to examine the effect of oxymetazoline nasal spray on the development of rhinitis medicamentosa. For 30 days, 10 subjects were given oxymetazoline nasal spray once daily at night and placebo in the morning and at noon, while the others used oxymetazoline nasal spray three times daily. Before and after the course of treatment, the mucosal surface positions were determined with rhinostereometry, followed by histamine challenge tests. In the morning and the evening just before use of the nasal spray, symptoms of nasal stuffiness were evaluated on visual analogue scales (0-100). After 30 days, rebound swelling and nasal stuffiness were found in both groups. In the group receiving oxymetazoline nasal spray once daily at night, the mean rebound swelling was 0.8 mm (p < 0.01) and the estimated mean symptom score for nasal stuffiness in the evening was 43 (p < 0.05). In the group receiving the same nasal spray three times daily, the mean rebound swelling was 1.1 mm (p < 0.01) and the mean evening symptom score was 43 (p < 0.05). The finding of an increase in histamine sensitivity in both groups was taken to indicate nasal hyperreactivity. There was no significant difference in the investigated variables between the two groups. It is concluded that the risk of developing rebound swelling and nasal hyperreactivity remains, whether oxymetazoline nasal spray is used once or three times a day for 30 days.

  15. Safety and efficacy of once-daily treatment with beclomethasone dipropionate nasal aerosol in subjects with perennial allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eli O; Jacobs, Robert L; LaForce, Craig F; Kelley, C Leith; Dunbar, Stephanie A; Tantry, Sudeesh K

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal corticosteroids are recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of the symptoms of persistent allergic rhinitis (AR). Since the phase-out of chlorofluorocarbon nasal aerosols, intranasal corticosteroids have been available only as aqueous nasal sprays. This study was designed to assess the efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life benefits of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) hydrofluoroalkane nasal aerosol in subjects with perennial AR (PAR). After a 7- to 21-day placebo run-in period, eligible subjects aged ≥12 years with PAR were randomized to 6 weeks of once-daily treatment with BDP nasal aerosol at 320 μg or placebo. Reflective and instantaneous total nasal symptom scores (rTNSS and iTNSS, respectively), Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) score, and physician-assessed total nasal symptom score were evaluated. The primary end point was change from baseline in average morning (A.M.) and evening (P.M.) subject-reported rTNSS over the 6-week treatment period. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Treatment with BDP nasal aerosol showed significantly greater improvement in average A.M. and P.M. rTNSS compared with placebo (mean treatment difference, -0.84; 95% confidence interval, -1.2, -0.5; p < 0.001). Greater improvements in rTNSS were reported as early as day 1 and were maintained throughout the 6-week treatment period with the exception of day 2. Greater improvements were seen for all four individual nasal symptoms (nasal congestion, nasal itching, rhinorrhea, and sneezing) with BDP nasal aerosol compared with placebo. Similarly, significant improvements were seen in average A.M. and P.M. iTNSS (p < 0.001) and RQLQ score (p = 0.001) with BDP nasal aerosol compared with placebo. In addition, BDP nasal aerosol treatment was well tolerated, and its safety profile was comparable to that of placebo. This clinical study indicated that treatment with BDP nasal aerosol provides statistically significant and clinically

  16. Lack of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression with once-daily or twice-daily beclomethasone dipropionate aqueous nasal spray administered to patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Brannan, M D; Herron, J M; Reidenberg, P; Affrime, M B

    1995-01-01

    The potential for a newly developed, double-strength (0.084%) beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) aqueous (AQ) nasal suspension to produce effects associated with exposure to systemic corticosteroids was assessed by the plasma cortisol response to cosyntropin stimulation induced by a 6-hour intravenous infusion of 250 micrograms of cosyntropin in 500 mL of normal saline. Sixty-four patients with allergic rhinitis were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: (1) BDP AQ Forte (0.084%) nasal spray 336 micrograms once daily; (2) BDP AQ (0.042%) nasal spray 168 micrograms twice daily; (3) placebo nasal spray twice daily; or (4) oral prednisone 10 mg once daily in the morning. After 36 consecutive days of treatment, there was a significant (P < 0.01) difference in the plasma cortisol response to cosyntropin stimulation between the prednisone and placebo groups; however, there were no significant differences between the BDP AQ Forte or the BDP AQ groups compared with the placebo group. Secondary analyses comparing BDP AQ Forte administered as 336 micrograms once daily with BDP AQ administered as 168 micrograms twice daily showed no significant differences in plasma cortisol responses to cosyntropin stimulation. No serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events consisted of headache, pharyngitis, or nasal irritation, with headache being reported most frequently. These adverse events were similarly distributed among active treatment groups and were similar to placebo. No clinically relevant changes were observed in any treatment group in findings on clinical laboratory tests, physical examination, or electrocardiography. Vital signs, obtained daily, were consistent with values observed in healthy individuals. No patient exhibited signs of oral candidiasis. All patients met the plasma cortisol concentration criteria for discharge relative to expected hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. In conclusion

  17. Oxymetazoline nasal spray three times daily for four weeks in normal subjects is not associated with rebound congestion or tachyphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Foo, T H; Djazaeri, B; Duncombe, P; Mackay, I S; Durham, S R

    2003-09-01

    Topical decongestants are available over the counter and provide rapid relief of nasal obstruction for conditions of short duration, for example the common cold. Manufacturers' recommendations are that topical decongestants should not be used regularly for more than 1 week in view of the risk of rebound mucosal hyperaemia with persistent nasal obstruction and refractoriness to further effects of decongestants. For this reason we performed a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 30 normal adult subjects with 0.05% oxymetazoline nasal spray 2 sprays (0.1 ml/spray) to each nostril 3 times daily over an extended period of 4 weeks. Degree of nasal blockage was assessed before and after 4 weeks treatment and for 2 weeks following discontinuation of treatment. Outcome measures included diary symptom scores and measurements of nasal peak inspiratory flow, airway resistance (using posterior active rhinomanometry) and volume (using acoustic rhinometry). Nasal patency was assessed at baseline and 15 minutes after oxymetazoline challenge at each clinic visit. Results demonstrated no significant increases in subjective nasal blockage throughout the 6 weeks study period in either oxymetazoline- or placebo-treated subjects. No significant differences were observed between groups for baseline measurements of nasal peak inspiratory flow, airway resistance or volume at each clinic visit. A highly significant decongestant effect of oxymetazoline was observed at each clinic visit with changes in all 3 measurements for both treatment groups, again with no significant differences between groups. In summary, in normal subjects, we identified no significant nasal blockage or impaired decongestant response to oxymetazoline following 4 weeks treatment with oxymetazoline compared to matched placebo nasal spray.

  18. A role for the intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride/fluticasone propionate in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Melli, Valerie; Bonzano, Laura; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2015-01-01

    Rhinitis is a very common disease and represents a health problem for both children and adults globally. Rhinitis can be allergic or occur without any IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens. Common symptoms include nasal congestion, postnasal drainage, nasal itching, rhinorrhea and sneezing. The most effective drugs for the treatment of rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. MP29-02 (Dymista(®)) is a novel intranasal formulation combining the second-generation antihistamine, azelastine hydrochloride, with fluticasone propionate in a single device that has recently been developed. Here, we review the efficacy and safety profile of this intranasal formulation in the treatment of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. PMID:25913181

  19. MP29-02 (a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate) in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eli O; LaForce, Craig; Ratner, Paul; Price, David; Ginsberg, David; Carr, Warner

    2012-01-01

    Many patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) have uncontrolled symptoms despite available treatment options. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MP29-02 (a novel intranasal formulation of fluticasone propionate [FP] and azelastine [AZ] hydrochloride), compared with monotherapy with FP, AZ, and placebo sprays for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). This 2-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 779 patients with moderate-to-severe SAR. Treatments were administered 1 spray/nostril twice daily in the same vehicle and delivery device. Daily doses of AZ and FP were 548 and 200 micrograms, respectively. The primary efficacy variable was the 12-hour reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS), consisting of nasal congestion, sneezing, itchy nose, and runny nose. Secondary efficacy variables were (1) 12-hour reflective individual nasal symptom scores; (2) onset of action; (3) 12-hour reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS), including itchy eyes, watery eyes, and red eyes; and (4) the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) overall score. MP29-02 significantly reduced the mean rTNSS from baseline by -5.54 points compared with FP (-4.55; p = 0.038), AZ (-4.54; p = 0.032), and placebo (-3.03; p < 0.001), improving the rTNSS by 39% beyond the contribution of FP. All individual nasal symptoms contributed to the efficacy of MP29-02. Onset of action was within 30 minutes. MP29-02 significantly improved rTOSS compared with placebo, provided a clinically important improvement in the overall RQLQ score, and was well tolerated. In this study, MP29-02 provided more complete symptom relief than two widely used first-line AR treatments and was well tolerated. PMID:22856633

  20. Seasonal variations of nasal resistance in allergic rhinitis and environmental pollen counts. II: Efficacy of preseasonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Naito, K; Ishihara, M; Senoh, Y; Takeda, N; Yokoyama, N; Iwata, S

    1993-01-01

    We gave Mao-bushi-saishin-to, a Chinese blended medicine, and azelastine to an adult patient with hay fever due to Japanese cedar pollen and measured nasal resistance and ambient floating pollen counts throughout the time of Japanese cedar pollination in separated years. In the patient Mao-bushi-saishin-to was effective against preseasonal increases in nasal airway resistance but could not control severe episodes of allergic rhinitis caused by high dose exposure to Japanese cedar pollen and also perhaps caused by a priming effect. Azelastine inhibited both pre- and post-seasonal increases in nasal airway resistance but not only on high pollen counts days.

  1. Efficacy and safety of once-daily fluticasone furoate nasal spray in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis treated for 2 wk.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eli O; Lee, Jane; Tripathy, Ita; Lim, Junghee; Ellsworth, Anna; Philpot, Edward

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate (FF) nasal spray 55 and 110 microg once daily in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). Patients (n = 554) received placebo nasal spray or FF, administered using a unique side-actuated device, in a 2-wk, randomized, double-blind study. Symptoms were evaluated by patients using a 4-point categorical scale. Efficacy assessments included reflective and instantaneous total nasal symptom scores (r/iTNSS). Primary analyses were conducted in patients aged 6-11 yr in the intent-to-treat population (ITT); the 2-11 yr group provided supportive analyses. In patients aged 6-11 yr, FF 110 microg once daily significantly improved the daily rTNSS compared with placebo. FF 55 microg once daily was only numerically better for rTNSS and iTNSS. Secondary pre-dose iTNSS and overall response to therapy were significant with FF 110 microg. The significant findings for FF 110 microg were supported by analyses in the entire ITT population of 2-11 yr olds. Both doses of FF were well tolerated. These study results suggest that FF nasal spray administered once daily for 2 wk is well tolerated and effective for the treatment of SAR symptoms in children aged 2-11 yr.

  2. Unique immunomodulatory effects of azelastine on dendritic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, S; Kietzmann, M; Stark, H; Bäumer, W

    2014-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis are among the most common inflammatory skin diseases in western countries, and antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells (DC) are key players in their pathophysiology. Histamine, an important mediator of allergic reactions, influences DC maturation and cytokine secretion, which led us to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of the well-known histamine H1 receptor antagonists: azelastine, olopatadine, cetirizine, and pyrilamine. Unlike other H1 antihistamines, azelastine decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-12 secretion from murine bone marrow-derived DC. This effect was independent of histamine receptors H1, H2, or H4 and may be linked to inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Moreover, only azelastine reduced proliferation of allogenic T cells in a mixed leukocyte reaction. We then tested topical application of the H1 antihistamines on mice sensitized against toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, a model of Th2-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. In contrast to the in vitro results, all investigated substances were efficacious in reducing allergic ear swelling. Azelastine has unique effects on dendritic cells and T cell interaction in vitro. However, this did not translate into superior in vivo efficacy for Th2-mediated allergic dermatitis, possibly due to the effects of the antihistamines on other cell types involved in skin inflammation. Future research will have to clarify whether these properties are relevant to in vivo models of allergic inflammation with a different T cell polarization. PMID:25119779

  3. Stability study of the antihistamine drug azelastine HCl along with a kinetic investigation and the identification of new degradation products.

    PubMed

    El-Shaheny, Rania N; Yamada, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The first stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for azelastine HCl (AZL). The separation of AZL from its degradation products was achieved on a C18 column using acetonitrile-0.04 M phosphate buffer of pH 3.5 (32:68, v/v) as a mobile phase with UV-detection at 210 nm and naftazone as an internal standard. The method was rectilinear over the range of 0.2-20.0 μg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 7.05 ng mL(-1). The degradation behavior of AZL was studied under different ICH-recommended stress conditions along with a kinetic investigation; also, degradation products were identified by mass spectrometry. The method was applied for the quality control and stability assessment of AZL in eye drops and nasal spray. The obtained results were favorably compared with those obtained by a comparison method. PMID:24919676

  4. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly ...

  5. Clinical development of an advanced intranasal delivery system of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate.

    PubMed

    Derendorf, H; Meltzer, E O; Hermann, R; Canonica, G W

    2014-01-01

    There is no shortage of pharmacologic treatments available for the management of allergic rhinitis (AR), but none regularly provide full relief from all symptoms. MP29-02 (Dymista®) is a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) and fluticasone propionate (FP), benefiting from an enhanced formulation and improved device characteristics compared to marketed intranasal corticosteroid (INS) formulations. Results from large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, head-to-head trials versus first-line therapies, confirmed MP29-02 as the evidence-based drug-of-choice for AR treatment. MP29-02 was twice as effective as AZE or FP for nasal and ocular symptom relief in moderate to severe seasonal AR patients, with superiority documented regardless of season, and in more severe patients. More MP29-02-treated patients experienced clinically relevant responses (i.e., halving of nasal symptom burden and complete/near-to-complete relief) days faster than those on INS or intranasal antihistamine monotherapy. MP29-02's efficacy was sustained long-term versus FP (up to 52 weeks) in chronic rhinitis patients (perennial AR or nonallergic rhinitis), with 7 out of 10 patients first becoming symptom-free following 1 month's treatment with MP29-02, and days faster than with the INS. These results confirm MP29-02's superiority over the historical gold-standard therapy for AR (i.e., INS), and position it now as first-line treatment for moderate to severe AR patients, the majority of whom are uncontrolled on existing medications. PMID:24524103

  6. New patents of fixed combinations of nasal antihistamines and corticosteroids in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wolthers, Ole D

    2013-09-01

    During the last few years, fixed combinations of intranasal antihistamines and corticosteroids have been introduced for treatment of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this systematic review was to assess recent patents and clinical evidence for fixed combinations of intranasal antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids in allergic rhinitis. Data base searches revealed that intranasal combinations of the antihistamine azelastine with the corticosteroids mometasone furoate, ciclesonide and fluticasone propionate, respectively, have been patented. Four randomized, double-blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicenter trials sponsored by the manufacturer evaluated the fixed combination of intranasal azelastine 125 µg and fluticasone propionate 50 µg administered as one dose per nostril b.i.d. in patients with moderate-to-severe symptomatic allergic rhinitis ≥ 12 years of age. Three of the studies were published as a meta-analysis which found the fixed combination of azelastine and fluticasone propionate statistically significantly more efficacious in reducing baseline total nasal symptom score by 5.7 as compared to azelastine (4.4; P < 0.001), fluticasone propionate (5.1; P < 0.001) and placebo (3.0; P < 0.001). The findings were supported by secondary assessments of scores of specific nasal and ocular symptoms. Pharmacokinetic studies have revealed no drug-drug interactions but a discrete increase in bioavailability of fluticasone propionate which was considered clinically unimportant. Further efficacy and quality-of-life studies of combination products of nasal antihistamines and corticosteroids are needed, especially, in primary care settings and in children before fixed combination treatment can be considered first line therapy in allergic rhinitis. Fixed combination treatment of azelastine and fluticasone propionate may offer additional benefit to selected populations of adolescents and adults with moderate-to-severe symptoms. PMID:23862774

  7. Reversal of antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacteria by the antihistaminic azelastine.

    PubMed

    El-Nakeeb, Moustafa A; Abou-Shleib, Hamida M; Khalil, Amal M; Omar, Hoda G; El-Halfawy, Omar M

    2012-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance represents a serious problem that complicates microbial infection. The use of 'helper compounds' capable of enhancing the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics is being investigated. Azelastine, a new generation antihistaminic, possesses certain antibacterial activity and is capable of inducing alteration in the bacterial membrane permeability. Hence, we hypothesized that it could reverse resistance to antibiotics. Azelastine significantly increased the antibacterial activity of eight antibiotics belonging to five different classes (β-lactams, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and tetracyclines) against nine Gram-positive clinical isolates: five Staphylococcus aureus, two Staphylococcus epidermidis and two Enterococcus faecium, seven of which were multi-drug resistant, reversing their resistance to the tested antibiotics. The synergistic effects of azelastine with the studied antibiotics increased with raising the pH from 5 to 8. Antibiotics did not affect the ability of azelastine to alter the permeability of a liposomal artificial membrane model, an effect thought to be critical for the interaction with antibiotics. The findings of this study present azelastine as a potential 'helper compound' that could reverse the resistance of multi-drug resistant Gram-positive clinical isolates to antibiotics. PMID:22339679

  8. In vitro characterisation of the duration of action of the histamine-1 receptor antagonist azelastine.

    PubMed

    Slack, Robert J; Hart, Adam D; Luttmann, Mark A; Clark, Kenneth L; Begg, Malcolm

    2011-11-30

    Azelastine is a selective antagonist at the human histamine-1 receptor and is used clinically in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. In this study we have investigated its duration of action in vitro in an effort to characterise the receptor and tissue components involved. Chinese hamster ovary cell membrane fragments were used to determine the kinetics of azelastine at the H₁ receptor in a radioligand binding assay. Further duration of action studies were completed in tissue preparations using guinea-pig trachea and human bronchus. In radioligand binding studies, azelastine reached steady state at the H₁ receptor after approximately 41 min and exhibited a significantly slower dissociation rate constant from the receptor than the first generation antihistamine, diphenhydramine. In washout studies completed in guinea-pig and human airway in vitro tissue preparations, azelastine continued to antagonise the effects of histamine at the H₁ receptor for at least 18 h post-washout of the antagonist. This outcome was reversed following removal of the epithelium from guinea-pig isolated tracheal strips. These studies indicate there is a tissue component contributing to azelastine's duration of action, in addition to its direct H₁ receptor binding, with evidence suggesting a role for the epithelial layer. PMID:21946109

  9. Effect of azelastine on sulphur dioxide induced impairment of ciliary motility in airway epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, J; Chiyotani, A; Sakai, N; Takeyama, K; Konno, K

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The effect of azelastine on airway mucociliary transport function was studied by measuring ciliary motility of human bronchial epithelium in vitro with a photoelectric method. METHOD--Bronchial epithelial cells were obtained by fibreoptic bronchoscopy, mounted in a Rose chamber, and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution. The preparations were placed on a microscope stage equipped with an illuminator, and the variations of light intensity caused by ciliary beating were detected by a photometer. RESULTS--The addition of azelastine to the perfusate increased ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in a dose dependent manner without ciliary discoordination. The mean (SE) maximal increase from the baseline value and the concentration required to produce a half maximal effect were 27.0 (4.2)% and 9.2 x 10(-6) mol/l, respectively. Exposure of the cells to the perfusate containing 3 ppm sulphur dioxide rapidly decreased CBF by 59.2 (5.0)%, and was accompanied by a reduction in intracellular cyclic AMP levels from 38.1 (4.3) to 10.1 (2.4) pmol/mg protein. This effect was prevented by pretreatment of cells with azelastine in a dose dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS--Azelastine not only stimulates ciliary motility of airway epithelium and hence mucociliary transport function, but may also protect against sulphur dioxide induced ciliary dysfunction, probably by inhibiting intracellular cyclic AMP loss. PMID:8322244

  10. Identification and determination of ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, azelastine hydrochloride, dimetindene maleate and promethazine hydrochloride by densitometric method.

    PubMed

    Wyszomirska, Elzbieta; Czerwińska, Krystyna; Kublin, Elzbieta; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2013-01-01

    Conditions for determination of: ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, azelastine hydrochloride, dimetindene maleate and promethazine hydrochloride by densitometric method in substances and pharmaceuticals were provided. Maximum wavelenghts were: 228 nm for ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, 295 nm for azelastine hydrochloride, 265 nm for dimetindene maleate and 255 nm for promethazine hydrochloride. The limits of quantification were in the ranges of 0.2-5 microg/spot. The statistical data showed adequate accuracy and precision of developed methods. PMID:24383318

  11. Comparison of intranasal azelastine to intranasal fluticasone propionate for symptom control in moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Warner W; Ratner, Paul; Munzel, Ullrich; Murray, Ruth; Price, David; Canonica, G Walter; Mullol, Joaquim; Virchow, J Christian; Lieberman, Phil; Meltzer, Eli; Bachert, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal corticosteroids are considered the most effective therapy for moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and recommended first line in guidelines. It is uncertain whether intranasal antihistamines have comparable efficacy. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of azelastine (AZE; 137 μg/spray) and fluticasone propionate (FP; 50 μg/spray), both given as 1 spray/nostril bid (i.e., approved dosing regimen in the United States), in SAR via a post hoc analysis of data from a previously published direct-comparison study. Six hundred ten moderate-to-severe SAR patients (≥12 years old) were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS (morning and evening), over 14 days. Reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS) was a key secondary variable. Reflective total of seven symptom scores (rT7SS [nasal plus ocular symptoms]) and time to ≥50% reduction from baseline in these key parameters were also analyzed. AZE and FP reduced rTNSS from baseline by a similar degree (-3.25 versus -3.84; p = 0.2014). Patients experienced comparable improvement in rTOSS (-2.62 versus -2.17; p = 0.2371) and rT7SS (-5.83 versus -6.05; p = 0.7820). FP was superior to AZE in alleviating rhinorrhea (-1.15 versus -0.87; p = 0.0433), but AZE showed comparable efficacy for all other nasal and ocular symptoms. There was no clinically or statistically significant difference between AZE (-1.17) and FP (-1.43) for reduction in the overall rhinitis quality of life questionnaire score (although FP, but not AZE, significantly differed from placebo). A similar proportion of patients in the AZE and FP groups achieved a 50% reduction in rTNSS. However, more AZE patients (53.0%) exhibited a 50% reduction in rTOSS by day 14 versus FP (39.6%), and ≤3 days faster (p = 0.028). Intranasal AZE (137 micrograms/spray) and intranasal FP (50 micrograms

  12. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  13. Nasal polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43. Becker SS. Surgical management of polyps in the treatment of nasal airway ...

  14. Nasal Physiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose is constantly exposed to inhaled debris and microbes (viruses, bacteria, and fungus). The respiratory system has ... Mucus is designed to trap inhaled particles (including microbes) that are subsequently cleared from the airways. Nasal ...

  15. Eudragit RL100 based microspheres for ocular administration of azelastine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Ujwala A; Shete, Jaykumar N; Nair, Hema A; Singh, Kavita H

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, potential of polymeric microspheres for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis was investigated. Azelastine hydrochloride loaded Eudragit RL100 microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique. The change in drug-polymer ratio on the particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release was investigated. As Eudragit concentration ranged from 40 to 80 mg/ml the size range obtained was 4.18-7.36 µm with positive zeta potential. With the increase in drug polymer ratio, the entrapment efficiency was increased with maximum 14.56%. In vitro release studies demonstrated prolonged release of the drug over the period of 6 hr. Scanning electron micrographs showed that microspheres were spherical with distinct solid dense structure. Fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry studies concluded slight change in peak intensities of drug in microspheres. In vivo studies in rat model indicated that reduction in eosinophil count number was more pronounced in azelastine hydrochloride microspheres than marketed formulation, Azelast®. PMID:22375685

  16. Design and characterization of chitosan-alginate microspheres for ocular delivery of azelastine.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Ujwala A; Shete, Jaykumar N; Nair, Hema A; Singh, Kavita H

    2014-11-01

    The use of mucoadhesive biopolymers is one of the best approaches to prolong the drug residence inside the cul-de-sac, consequently increasing the bioavailability. Thus, the focus of this work was to develop mucoadhesive microspheres to overcome the limitations of ocular drug delivery. The chitosan-sodium alginate microspheres of azelastine hydrochloride were fabricated using modified ionotropic gelation technique. The particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and drug release kinetics were evaluated and characterized by SEM, FT-IR, DSC, in vitro mucoadhesion and in vivo study. The microspheres had average particle size in the range of 3.55 to 6.70 µm and zeta potential +24.55 to +49.56 mV. The fabricated microspheres possess maximum drug entrapment of 73.05% with 65% mucin binding efficiency and revealed a controlled release over the 8-h period following a non-Fickian diffusion. SEM showed that microspheres were distinct solid with irregular shape. FT-IR and DSC results concluded the drug entrapment into microspheres. In vivo studies on ocular rat model revealed that azelastine microspheres had better efficacy. Chitosan sodium alginate microspheres prepared were in particle size range suitable for ocular purpose. In vitro release and in vivo efficacy studies revealed that the microspheres were effective in prolonging the drug's presence in cul de sac with improved therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24032373

  17. Simultaneous determination of azelastine and its major metabolite desmethylazelastine in human plasma using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zha, Wuyi; Shum, Linyee

    2012-10-01

    A selective and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the analysis of azelastine and its major metabolite, desmethylazelastine, in human plasma. Azelastine-(13)C, d(3) was used as internal standard. Azelastine, desmethylazelastine and the internal standard were extracted by a liquid-liquid extraction method and separation was performed under isocratic chromatographic condition. An abnormal signal loss issue for desmethylazelastine during method development was investigated and resolved. The developed method was precise and reproducible as shown by good intraday assay and interday assay precision (CV%≤ 12.8%). The calibration curve was linear over a range of 10.0/10.0-1000/200 pg/mL for azelastine/desmethylazelastine. The method was successfully applied to a pilot bioequivalence study subsequently. PMID:22954967

  18. A review of the clinical efficacy and safety of MP-AzeFlu, a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate, in clinical studies conducted during different allergy seasons in the US

    PubMed Central

    Prenner, Bruce M

    2016-01-01

    A novel intranasal formulation of azelastine HCl (AZE, an antihistamine) and fluticasone propionate (FP, a corticosteroid) in a single spray (MP-AzeFlu [Dymista®]) was studied in four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis conducted in the US. Study sites were distributed so that all major US geographic regions and the prevalent pollens within these regions were represented. Spring and summer studies included patients aged 12 years and older with allergy to grass and tree pollens. Fall studies enrolled patients with allergy to weeds, in particular ragweed. In addition, a study was conducted during the winter months in patients with allergy to mountain cedar pollen in TX, USA. Regardless of allergy season or prevalent pollen, MP-AzeFlu improved nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) to a significantly greater degree than AZE or FP, two treatments that currently are recommended as the first-line AR therapy. MP-AzeFlu improved all individual AR symptoms and was significantly better than FP and AZE for nasal congestion relief, which is generally accepted as the most bothersome symptom for AR patients. The onset of action was within 30 minutes. MP-AzeFlu also provided clinically important improvement in the overall Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score and significantly improved ocular symptoms of rhinitis compared to placebo. Favorable characteristics of the MP-AzeFlu formulation as well as superior clinical efficacy make it an ideal intranasal therapy for AR. PMID:27468241

  19. A review of the clinical efficacy and safety of MP-AzeFlu, a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate, in clinical studies conducted during different allergy seasons in the US.

    PubMed

    Prenner, Bruce M

    2016-01-01

    A novel intranasal formulation of azelastine HCl (AZE, an antihistamine) and fluticasone propionate (FP, a corticosteroid) in a single spray (MP-AzeFlu [Dymista®]) was studied in four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis conducted in the US. Study sites were distributed so that all major US geographic regions and the prevalent pollens within these regions were represented. Spring and summer studies included patients aged 12 years and older with allergy to grass and tree pollens. Fall studies enrolled patients with allergy to weeds, in particular ragweed. In addition, a study was conducted during the winter months in patients with allergy to mountain cedar pollen in TX, USA. Regardless of allergy season or prevalent pollen, MP-AzeFlu improved nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) to a significantly greater degree than AZE or FP, two treatments that currently are recommended as the first-line AR therapy. MP-AzeFlu improved all individual AR symptoms and was significantly better than FP and AZE for nasal congestion relief, which is generally accepted as the most bothersome symptom for AR patients. The onset of action was within 30 minutes. MP-AzeFlu also provided clinically important improvement in the overall Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score and significantly improved ocular symptoms of rhinitis compared to placebo. Favorable characteristics of the MP-AzeFlu formulation as well as superior clinical efficacy make it an ideal intranasal therapy for AR. PMID:27468241

  20. Does oral prednisolone increase the efficacy of subsequent nasal steroids in treating nasal polyposis?

    PubMed Central

    Wongsritrang, Krongthong; Ruttanaphol, Suwalee

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although combined oral and nasal steroid therapy is widely used in nasal polyposis, a subset of patients show an unfavorable therapeutic outcome. This study aimed to evaluate whether oral prednisolone produces any additive effects on subsequent nasal steroid therapy and to evaluate if any clinical variables can predict therapeutic outcome. Methods: Using a 3:2 randomization ratio, 67 patients with nasal polyposis received 50 mg of prednisolone and 47 patients received placebo daily for 2 weeks, followed by mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) at 200 micrograms twice daily for 10 weeks. Clinical response was evaluated by nasal symptom score (NSS), peak expiratory flow index (PEFI), and total nasal polyps score (TNPS). Potential predictor variables were assessed by clinical history, nasal endoscopy, allergy skin test, and sinus radiography. Results: At the end of the 2-week oral steroid phase, the prednisolone group showed significantly greater improvements in all nasal symptoms, nasal airflow, and polyp size than the placebo group. In the nasal steroid phase, while the MFNS maintained the outcome improvements in the prednisolone group, all outcome variables in the placebo group showed continuing improvements. At the end of the nasal steroid phase, there were no significant differences of most outcome improvements between the two groups, except in hyposmia, PEFI, and TNPS (p = 0.049, p = 0.029, and p = 0.005, respectively). In the prednisolone group, patients with polyps grade 3 and endoscopic signs of meatal discharge showed significantly less improvement in total NSS, PEFI, and TNPS than patients with grade 1–2 size and negative metal discharge. Conclusion: In the 12-week treatment evaluation of nasal polyposis, pretreatment with oral steroids had no significant advantage for most nasal symptoms other than earlier relief; however, combined oral and nasal steroid therapy more effectively improved hyposmia, polyps size, and nasal airflow. Polyps size

  1. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies. It is also used to treat nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose). Mometasone ... are using mometasone nasal spray to treat nasal polyps, it is usually sprayed in each nostril once ...

  2. Simultaneous determination of Fluticasone propionate and Azelastine hydrochloride in the presence of pharmaceutical dosage form additives.

    PubMed

    Merey, Hanan A; El-Mosallamy, Sally S; Hassan, Nagiba Y; El-Zeany, Badr A

    2016-05-01

    Fluticasone propionate (FLU) and Azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) are co-formulated with phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and Benzalkonium chloride (BENZ) (as preservatives) in pharmaceutical dosage form for treatment of seasonal allergies. Different spectrophotometric methods were used for the simultaneous determination of cited drugs in the dosage form. Direct spectrophotometric method was used for determining of AZE, while Derivative of double divisor of ratio spectra (DD-RS), Ratio subtraction coupled with ratio difference method (RS-RD) and Mean centering of the ratio spectra (MCR) are used for the determination of FLU. The linearity of the proposed methods was investigated in the range of 5.00-40.00 and 5.00-80.00μg/mL for FLU and AZE, respectively. The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures containing different ratios of cited drugs in addition to PEA and their pharmaceutical dosage form. The validity of the proposed methods was assessed using the standard addition technique. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by official or the reported method for FLU or AZE, respectively showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision at p=0.05. PMID:26921606

  3. Simultaneous determination of Fluticasone propionate and Azelastine hydrochloride in the presence of pharmaceutical dosage form additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merey, Hanan A.; El-Mosallamy, Sally S.; Hassan, Nagiba Y.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2016-05-01

    Fluticasone propionate (FLU) and Azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) are co-formulated with phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and Benzalkonium chloride (BENZ) (as preservatives) in pharmaceutical dosage form for treatment of seasonal allergies. Different spectrophotometric methods were used for the simultaneous determination of cited drugs in the dosage form. Direct spectrophotometric method was used for determining of AZE, while Derivative of double divisor of ratio spectra (DD-RS), Ratio subtraction coupled with ratio difference method (RS-RD) and Mean centering of the ratio spectra (MCR) are used for the determination of FLU. The linearity of the proposed methods was investigated in the range of 5.00-40.00 and 5.00-80.00 μg/mL for FLU and AZE, respectively. The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures containing different ratios of cited drugs in addition to PEA and their pharmaceutical dosage form. The validity of the proposed methods was assessed using the standard addition technique. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by official or the reported method for FLU or AZE, respectively showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision at p = 0.05.

  4. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray should not be used ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).Unneeded medications should be ...

  5. Nasal Wash Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Make the nasal wash solution. Do not use tap water for the nasal wash (unless boiled or filtered ... water. You may use: Distilled water Sterilized water Tap water that has been boiled for 1 minute (at ...

  6. Post-Nasal Drip

    MedlinePlus

    ... guaifenesin (Humibid®, Robitussin®) may also thin secretions. Nasal irrigations may alleviate thickened secretions. These can be performed ... device or a Water Pik® with a nasal irrigation nozzle. Warm water with baking soda or salt ( ...

  7. Nasal corticosteroid sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergic rhinitis symptoms , such as congestion, runny nose, sneezing, itching, or swelling of the nasal passageway Nasal ... Repeat these steps for the other nostril. Avoid sneezing or blowing your nose right after spraying.

  8. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is usually done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be done ...

  9. Effect of azelastine on cardiac repolarization of guinea-pig cardiomyocytes, hERG K⁺ channel, and human L-type and T-type Ca²⁺ channel.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Hyeong; Lee, Seung Ho; Chu, Dae Hyun; Won, Kwang Hee; Choi, Bok Hee; Choe, Han; Jo, Su-Hyun

    2013-09-20

    Azelastine is a second generation histamine H₁-receptor antagonist used as an anti-asthmatic and anti-allergic drug that can induce QT prolongation and torsades de pointes. We investigated the acute effects of azelastine on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels, action potential duration (APD), and L-type (I(Ca,L)) and T-type Ca²⁺ current (I(Ca,T)) to determine the electrophysiological basis for its proarrhythmic potential. Azelastine increased the APD at 90% of repolarization concentration dependently, with an IC₅₀ of 1.08 nM in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. We examined the effects of azelastine on the hERG channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells using two-microelectrode voltage-clamp and patch-clamp techniques. Azelastine induced a concentration-dependent decrease of the hERG current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps and tail currents. The IC₅₀ for the azelastine-induced block of the hERG currents expressed in HEK293 cells was 11.43 nM, while the drug inhibited I(Ca,L) and I(Ca,T) with IC₅₀ values of 7.60 and 26.21 μM, respectively. The S6 domain mutations, Y652A partially attenuated and F656A abolished hERG current block. These results suggest that azelastine is a potent blocker of hERG channels rather than I(Ca,L) or I(Ca,T), providing molecular mechanisms for the arrhythmogenic side effects during the clinical administration of azelastine. PMID:24005046

  10. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant; Singla, Saurabh; Mane, Ranoji; Jagdeesh, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma. PMID:24228209

  11. Measuring Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Jarrod; Most, Sam P

    2016-08-01

    The nose and the nasal airway is highly complex with intricate 3-dimensional anatomy, with multiple functions in respiration and filtration of the respired air. Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a complex problem with no clearly defined "gold-standard" in measurement. There are 3 tools for the measurement of NAO: patient-derived measurements, physician-observed measurements, and objective measurements. We continue to work towards finding a link between subjective and objective nasal obstruction. The field of evaluation and surgical treatment for NAO has grown tremendously in the past 4-5 decades and will continue to grow as we learn more about the pathophysiology and treatment of nasal obstruction.

  12. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  13. Efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray for nasal symptoms, quality of life, rhinitis-disturbed sleep, and nasal nitric oxide in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takechiyo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Kubo, Seita; Sakashita, Masafumi; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Susuki, Dai; Narita, Norihiko; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kanno, Masafumi; Yamashita, Shinji; Terasawa, Yuko; Kayano, Yuichiro; Masada, Mikio; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal corticosteroid therapy has exhibited effectiveness for improving nasal symptoms and quality of life (QOL) scores associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis. We prospectively investigated the efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) for improving the total nasal symptom score, QOL score, and sleep quality in subjects with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Nasal airway conditions were also objectively assessed by measuring nasal nitric oxide (NO). Fifty-seven patients with PAR were randomized to MFNS or placebo for a 14-day, double-blind, crossover study. The subjects recorded their symptoms on nasal symptom forms and a visual analog scale. QOL and sleep quality were surveyed in accordance with the Japanese version of the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JRQLQ) and the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Nasal NO was measured during a single exhalation using a chemiluminescence analyzer. MFNS treatment achieved significant reductions versus placebo for total nasal symptoms (p < 0.001). There were significant decreases of the usual daily activity domain (p < 0.005), outdoor activities (p < 0.01), social function (p < 0.05), and the overall QOL score (p < 0.05) of JRQLQ with MFNS therapy versus placebo. A significant reduction of the sleepiness scale was also observed in the MFNS group with high sleep disturbance (p < 0.01). A significant decrease of nasal NO was found in the MFNS group (p < 0.01), especially among patients with severe nasal symptoms (p < 0.005). This prospective study indicated that MFNS therapy significantly improves nasal symptoms, QOL, sleep quality, and upper airway condition in Japanese subjects with PAR.

  14. Comparison of Nasal Acceleration and Nasalance across Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Elias B.; Virnik, Boris T.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of normalized nasal acceleration (NNA) relative to nasalance as estimates of nasalized versus nonnasalized vowel and sentence productions. Method: Participants were 18 healthy speakers of American English. NNA was measured using a custom sensor, and nasalance was measured using…

  15. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  16. Development of a novel model for comparative evaluation of intranasal pharmacokinetics and effects of anti-allergic nasal sprays.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Daniel; Bachert, Claus; Högger, Petra

    2012-01-01

    For locally acting drugs, an extended residence time in the nasal cavity is desirable and related to a prolonged effect. We sought to develop a model for comparative determination of intranasal pharmacokinetics. We embedded human respiratory tissue into a solid matrix and coated the surface with artificial nasal fluid. Nasal spray suspensions of fluticasone propionate (FP) and budesonide (Bud) as well as a solution of azelastine hydrochloride (AZ) were applied onto the surface and removed after 30 min to simulate mucociliary clearance. As exemplary anti-inflammatory measure, we evaluated the inhibition of IL-8 release from epithelial cells. FP and Bud were initially bound to the same extent to the tissue gel while AZ displayed a more 4-fold higher binding than FP or Bud. After equilibrium with plasma, approximately 5-fold higher tissue concentrations of AZ compared to FP and 77-fold higher levels in relation to Bud were determined. This tissue retention revealed an excellent correlation with the volume of distribution of the respective drugs (r=0.9999, p ≤ 0.05). The inhibitory effect of FP on IL-8 release was approximately 5-fold more pronounced compared to AZ. The present model realistically mirrors conditions in vivo where solubility and tissue absorption of intranasally applied drugs compete with mucociliary clearance mechanisms. PMID:21945271

  17. Daily Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing ... Tweet Email | Print Create a Daily Routine Daily Plan Activities Communication Food/Eating Get Tips on Personal Care Bathing ...

  18. Azelastine hydrochloride (Azeptin) inhibits peplomycin (PLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis by contradicting the up-regulation of signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, K; Yamamoto, T; Ueta, E; Osaki, T

    1997-10-01

    Inhibition of peplomycin (PLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis by azelastine hydrochloride (Azeptin) was examined using ICR mice, and the effects of both drugs on signal transduction were investigated. Microscopically, Azeptin (a total of 56 mg/kg for 28 days) suppressed pulmonary fibrosis in mice which received an i.p. injection of a total of 60 or 75 mg/kg PLM. In parallel with the microscopic findings, smaller amounts of collagen were synthesized in the lungs of Azeptin-injected mice. PLM enhanced the expression of interleukin-1 beta- and transforming growth factor-beta-mRNA in lungs. In contrast, Azeptin suppressed the expression. Compatible with these in vivo results, Azeptin and PLM contradictively regulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation and c-myc mRNA expression in human gingival and mouse pulmonary fibroblasts. In addition, NF-kappa B was activated by fibroblast treatment with 5 micrograms/ml PLM for 1 h, but intranuclear NF-kappa B was decreased by cell treatment with 10(-5) M Azeptin. From these results, it is concluded that Azeptin inhibits PLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis by antagonizing the up-regulation of signal transduction.

  19. Saline nasal washes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be sure you only use distilled, boiled, or filtered water. While rare, some tap water may contain small ... pot or nasal bulb with distilled, boiled, or filtered water after every use and let it dry. Use ...

  20. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in ... bottles at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Discard used ...

  1. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Nasacort® Allergy 24HR ... watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies. Triamcinolone nasal spray should not be used to ... the release of certain natural substances that cause allergy symptoms.

  2. Nasal disease and asthma.

    PubMed

    Marseglia, G L; Merli, P; Caimmi, D; Licari, A; Labó, E; Marseglia, A; Ciprandi, G; La Rosa, M

    2011-10-01

    The nose plays a primary role within the airways, working as a filter and air-conditioner, together with other important functions. Thus, it is not surprising that nasal diseases are associated with several other comorbidities, including both upper and lower airways, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. Several studies have investigated the relationship existing between the upper and the lower airways and new insights are rising. Nevertheless, some uncertainties still remain, mainly because nasal disorders are quite heterogeneous, overlapping (i.e. rhinitis-rhinosinusitis-sinusitis, acute or chronic, allergic or non-allergic) and difficult to diagnose, so that, frequently, many studies don’t differentiate between the various conditions. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to systematically analyze present epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on the relationship between nasal diseases and asthma, splitting up three main conditions: allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. PMID:22032779

  3. Naloxone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used along with emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or ... this date passes.Naloxone nasal spray may not reverse the effects of certain opiates such as buprenorphine ( ...

  4. Nasal fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  5. Nasal packing and stenting

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue. PMID:22073095

  6. Measuring Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Jarrod; Most, Sam P

    2016-08-01

    The nose and the nasal airway is highly complex with intricate 3-dimensional anatomy, with multiple functions in respiration and filtration of the respired air. Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a complex problem with no clearly defined "gold-standard" in measurement. There are 3 tools for the measurement of NAO: patient-derived measurements, physician-observed measurements, and objective measurements. We continue to work towards finding a link between subjective and objective nasal obstruction. The field of evaluation and surgical treatment for NAO has grown tremendously in the past 4-5 decades and will continue to grow as we learn more about the pathophysiology and treatment of nasal obstruction. PMID:27400845

  7. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... ingredients in fluticasone nasal spray. Check the package label for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking, or ...

  8. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... hour period. Follow the directions on the package label or on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to ... prescribed by your doctor or directed on the label.If you use oxymetazoline nasal spray for more ...

  9. Nasal tip angiolipoma: the "Pinocchio" nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    De Poortere, David A; De Poortere, Boris M; Cohen, Noam A

    2012-10-01

    Angiolipoma is a rare, benign variant of lipoma; its distinctive feature is its prominent vascularity. It presents as a subcutaneous nodule of white adipose tissue; pain, which may be exacerbated by pressure, is the chief symptom. The anatomic distribution predominantly involves the trunk and extremities. Because of the rarity of this condition in otorhinolaryngology, our understanding of its diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up is limited. Microscopically, two different histopathologic forms of angiolipomas exist: circumscribed and infiltrating. The diagnosis of angiolipoma can be aided by ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical excision remains the treatment of choice. Sites of previously reported otolaryngologic cases include the cheek, palate, mandible, nasal septum, and cervical area. We describe what we believe to be the second case of a nasal tip angiolipoma in a 78-year-old woman complaining of progressive aesthetic deformity.

  10. Neuropeptides and nasal secretion.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, J N; Kaliner, M

    1991-10-01

    The nasal mucosa is innervated by the sensory, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems. Nociceptive sensory nerves are stimulated by mucosal injury, inhalation of irritants, or mast cell degranulation and release of the calcitonin gene-related peptide, the tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A, and other peptides by the axon response mechanism. Sensory nerve stimulation initiates systemic reflexes, such as the sneeze, and central parasympathetic reflexes which release acetylcholine, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and other peptides and lead to glandular secretion. In concert, these proinflammatory neural responses lead to vasodilation, vascular permeability, and glandular secretion. Sympathetic nerves release neuropeptide Y and norepinephrine, potent vasoconstrictors which act to decompress the nasal mucosa and produce nasal patency. The balance between the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic neurotransmitters may regulate nasal homeostasis, whereas the nociceptive sensory system may be held in reserve as a defense mechanism. Dysfunction of these systems may lead to pathological nasal syndromes. In the future, specific neuropeptide agonists and antagonists may be useful for the treatment of human rhinitic diseases. PMID:1928355

  11. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ...

  12. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  13. Zolmitriptan Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... diarrhea and stomach pain caused by decreased blood flow to the intestines). Your doctor may tell you not to use zolmitriptan nasal spray.tell your doctor if you smoke or are overweight; if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, or liver or ...

  14. Sumatriptan Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... diarrhea and stomach pain caused by decreased blood flow to the intestines). Your doctor may tell you not to use sumatriptan nasal spray.tell your doctor if you smoke or are overweight; if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, seizures, or liver ...

  15. Rational design of nasal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Slütter, Bram; Hagenaars, Niels; Jiskoot, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Nasal vaccination is a promising alternative to classical parental vaccination, as it is non-invasive and, in principle, capable of eliciting strong systemic and local immune responses. However, the protective efficacy of nasally administered antigens is often impaired because of delivery problems: free antigens are readily cleared from the nasal cavity, poorly absorbed by nasal epithelial cells and generally have low intrinsic immunogenicity. In this review paper, we describe the main physiological hurdles to nasal vaccine delivery, survey the progress made in technological approaches to overcome these hurdles and discuss emerging opportunities for improving nasal vaccines. According to current insights, encapsulation of the antigen into bioadhesive (nano)particles is a promising approach towards successful nasal vaccine delivery. These antigen-loaded particles can be tailor made by supplying them with targeting ligands, adjuvants or endosomal escape mediators to form the desired vaccine that provides long-lasting protective immunity.

  16. Management of the Nasal Valve.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Dane M; Casanueva, Fernando J; Cook, Ted A

    2016-08-01

    The nasal valve is an important consideration in patients presenting with nasal obstruction. Controversy exists regarding the anatomy, terminology, evaluation, and management of the nasal valve. Innumerable techniques with variable effects have been described in the literature. The evidence qualifying these techniques has been plentiful, though often lacking in quality. This article reviews the controversial aspects of nasal valve management applying the best available evidence to help clarify potential areas of confusion. Future research using standardized definitions, consistent methodologies, and validated outcome measures are necessary to improve the quality of evidence and impact surgical decision-making. PMID:27400837

  17. Nasal septum injury in preterm infants using nasal prongs 1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Suely de Fátima Santos Freire; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena; de Sousa, Nayara Francisca Cabral; da Silva, Daiana Vieira Câmara; Leal, Luciana Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with nasal septum injury in premature infants using reused and new nasal prongs. METHOD: the study was a cohort from an open therapeutic intervention. The sample included 70 infants with a gestational age inferior to 37 weeks, who used nasal prongs and were hospitalized at the neonatal service of a hospital in Recife-PE, in the Northeast of Brazil. The data were collected in patient files through the assessment of the application of the device and of the nasal septum. Multinomial Logistic Regression and Survival analyses were applied. RESULTS: the incidence of nasal injury corresponded to 62.9%. In the multiple analysis, only the length of the infant's treatment was a determinant factor for the occurrence and severity of the injuries. CONCLUSION: the type of nasal prong does not serve as a risk factor for the nasal injury. The high incidence of nasal injury indicates the need to adapt the nursing care with emphasis on prevention. PMID:25493679

  18. Nasal Bridge Intramuscular Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Hamir Basah, Zulkifli; Ramza Ramli, Ramiza; Gayadh, Maha Khadum; Mutum, Samarendra Singh

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular haemangioma (IMH) is a benign mesenchymal tumour. It appears as a deep, nontender mass within the soft tissue, particularly in the extremities. This tumour may not be obvious on clinical examination. Head and neck IMHs represent only 13.5% of the total IMHs. The most common site for a head and neck IMH is the masseter muscle, followed by trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and very rarely temporalis muscle. We present a patient with left nasal bridge swelling which was excised and histologically confirmed as intramuscular hemangioma. PMID:25709848

  19. Visual exploration of nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Zachow, Stefan; Muigg, Philipp; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Doleisch, Helmut; Hege, Hans-Christian

    2009-01-01

    Rhinologists are often faced with the challenge of assessing nasal breathing from a functional point of view to derive effective therapeutic interventions. While the complex nasal anatomy can be revealed by visual inspection and medical imaging, only vague information is available regarding the nasal airflow itself: Rhinomanometry delivers rather unspecific integral information on the pressure gradient as well as on total flow and nasal flow resistance. In this article we demonstrate how the understanding of physiological nasal breathing can be improved by simulating and visually analyzing nasal airflow, based on an anatomically correct model of the upper human respiratory tract. In particular we demonstrate how various Information Visualization (InfoVis) techniques, such as a highly scalable implementation of parallel coordinates, time series visualizations, as well as unstructured grid multi-volume rendering, all integrated within a multiple linked views framework, can be utilized to gain a deeper understanding of nasal breathing. Evaluation is accomplished by visual exploration of spatio-temporal airflow characteristics that include not only information on flow features but also on accompanying quantities such as temperature and humidity. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth visual exploration of the physiological function of the nose over several simulated breathing cycles under consideration of a complete model of the nasal airways, realistic boundary conditions, and all physically relevant time-varying quantities. PMID:19834215

  20. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  1. Daily affect and daily beliefs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire; Daniels, Kevin

    2005-10-01

    Human resource directorate employees of a large United Kingdom public hospital (N=36) completed an initial questionnaire and then participated in a daily diary study. The questionnaire included measures of affect and beliefs about high work demands' influence on affect and work performance. The diary included measures of affect, extent of high work demands, and daily beliefs, corresponding to those measured in the questionnaire. Participants were required to complete the diary twice daily, before and after work over a 2-week period. Measures of affect after work were associated with beliefs concerning work demands' influence on work performance and on affect measured after work. Beliefs about work demands measured in the questionnaire were associated with subsequent daily assessments of beliefs.

  2. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  4. Keratoacanthoma: an unusual nasal mass.

    PubMed

    Sazafi, M S; Salina, H; Asma, A; Masir, N; Primuharsa Putra, S H A

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of keratoacanthoma in a non-sun-exposed nasal vestibule of an 84-year-old man. He presented with a progressively growing left nasal mass that had been present for 8 months. Examination showed a non-tender protruding mass arising from medial vestibular wall of the left nostril. Histopathology indicated it was a keratoacanthoma. In an elderly patient with a history of a progressively growing mass in the nose, a differential diagnosis of malignancy should be ruled out, and histological conformation is essential. To our knowledge, only a very small number of cases of nasal vestibular keratoacanthoma have been reported. PMID:24376301

  5. Mitek Suspension of the Lateral Nasal Wall.

    PubMed

    White, James R; Hamilton, Grant S

    2016-02-01

    The nasal valve has long been described as the anatomical boundary most likely to inhibit nasal airflow and lead to subsequent nasal obstruction. Although many procedures can address this area to improve the nasal airway, for over 20 years, suture lateralization of the external nasal valve has been described as a minimally invasive technique that can improve nasal breathing. We report our modification of the standard technique in which we lateralize the placement of the bone-anchored suture and incorporate Gore-Tex within the nasal vestibular incision to prevent tissue migration. PMID:26862966

  6. [The influence of nasal flow aerodynamics on the nasal physiology].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the human nose to warm and humidify the respiratory air is important to maintaining the internal environment of the lungs, since ambient air is conditioned to nearly alveolar conditions (body temperature and fully saturated with water vapour) upon reaching the nasopharynx. Because of very short time of the inspiratory phase duration, as well as expiratory phase, only the rich vascularization of the nasal mucosa and specific organization of the submucosal vessels are not able to assure such effective physiological activity. Therefore the type of airflow during the respiration is essential to understanding the functional possibilities of the nasal mucosa. Most studies have investigated the airflow only in steady-flow conditions, where the laminar flow was observed. Anatomically accurate physical models of real nasal cavities and particle image velocimetry allow evaluation of the entire flow field in the nasal cavity. In these investigations a partially turbulent flow was observed even at low air velocities in most part of the nasal cavity. From a physiological perspective, a turbulent flow would seem sensible, since it enhances contact between air and the mucosal layer. By doing so, the nasal physiological functions - humidification, cleaning and warming are optimized.

  7. Angioleiomyoma of the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Milena Moreira; Monteiro, Daniela Yasbek; Fernandes, Atilio Maximino; Menegatti, Vanessa; Thomazzi, Emerson; Hubner, Ricardo Arthur; Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vascular leiomyoma of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare tumor that represents less than 1% of all vascular leiomyomas. It is more prevalent in women between the fourth and sixth decades, reaching primarily the inferior nasal turbinates. Objectives Reporting and assisting the systematization of more accurate diagnostic methods in clinical and complementary investigation of vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity. Resumed Report We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity, which manifested mainly with nasal obstruction. During investigation, computer tomography was not diagnostic, the cytologic study was not conclusive, and according to the biopsy, it was a squamous papilloma. Conclusion We suggest that the technical difficulty in obtaining an adequate amount of material for preoperative biopsy, associated with the topography of the lesion in the vestibular nasal region, may have contributed to changing the postoperative diagnosis. Thus, pathologic study of the surgical fragment is the more accurate method for diagnosis. PMID:25992133

  8. An integrated analysis of the efficacy of fluticasone furoate nasal spray on individual nasal and ocular symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Maspero, Jorge F; Walters, Richard D; Wu, Wei; Philpot, Edward E; Naclerio, Robert M; Fokkens, Wytske J

    2010-01-01

    Intranasal steroids have been shown to affect ocular symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR). The results of the published literature, however, are not uniform across all products. This study was designed to evaluate whether the effects of fluticasone furoate nasal spray (FFNS) are consistent across different allergy seasons and different geographic regions for individual nasal and ocular symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). An integrated analysis was performed on data from four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter trials, designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FFNS, 110 micrograms, once daily for 14 days in 1141 adult and adolescent SAR patients exposed to mountain cedar, ragweed, or grass pollen allergen. All patients evaluated severity of seven individual nasal and ocular symptoms on a 4-point categorical scale. The main efficacy measures included change from baseline in daily reflective, morning (A.M.) predose instantaneous, and daily A.M. and evening (P.M.) reflective score for each nasal/ocular symptom. FFNS significantly improved daily mean reflective, A.M. predose instantaneous, and daily A.M. and P.M. reflective scores for nasal itching, sneezing, congestion, rhinorrhea, and ocular itching/burning, tearing/watering, and redness, compared with placebo (p < 0.001 for all versus placebo). The least square (LS) mean treatment differences ranged from -0.44 to -0.33 (p < 0.0001) for the individual nasal symptoms and from -0.22 to -0.19 (p < 0.0001) for the individual ocular symptoms. FFNS also significantly improved daily reflective total nasal symptom scores (TNSS)/reflective total ocular symptom scores (TOSS), and A.M. predose instantaneous TNSS and instantaneous TOSS, compared with placebo (LS mean treatment differences = -1.47, -0.65, -1.49, and -0.63, respectively; p < 0.001 for all). FFNS, 110 micrograms, once daily consistently relieved all nasal and ocular symptoms of SAR across different allergy seasons

  9. In vitro suppression of lymphocyte activation in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and pollen-related asthma by cetirizine or azelastine in combination with ginkgolide B or astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Fadia F; Haines, D; Al-Awadhi, R; Arifhodzic, N; Abal, A; Azeamouzi, C; Al-Sharah, S; Tosaki, A

    2012-06-01

    Novel strategies are evaluated for management of allergic rhinitis and asthma in patients co-afflicted with both disorders. It is hypothesized that the platelet activating factor receptor antagonist ginkgolide B (GB) and the carotenoid antioxidant astaxanthin (ASX) interact with antihistamines cetirizine dihydrochloride (CTZ) and azelastine (AZE) to potentiate their ability to downregulate potentially pathological immune activation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asthmatics and healthy subjects, cultured 24 hours with 50 μg/ml phytohemaglutinin (PHA) or PHA plus each drug are analyzed by flow cytometry for expression of CD25+ or HLA-DR+ by CD3+ (T cells). Results are reported as stimulation indices for CD3+CD25+ (SICD3+CD25+) and CD3+HLA-DR+ (SICD3+HLADR+) cells in cultures treated with PHA alone, versus cultures treated with both PHA and drugs. Optimal suppression of activated cells was observed in cultures stimulated with ASX 10-6 M + CTZ 10-6 M (SICD3+CD25+, p = 0.016; SICD3+HLADR, p = 0.012); ASX 10-6 M + AZE 10-6 M (SICD3+CD25+, p = 0.012; SICD3+HLADR, p = 0.015); GB 10-6 M + CTZ 10-6 M (SICD3+CD25+, p = 0.024, SICD3+HLADR+, p = 0.019). Results demonstrate improved activity of antihistamines by 2 phytochemicals, suggesting dosing strategies for animal trials of ASX- or GB-augmented formulations for seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma. PMID:22849842

  10. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Chen, D; Wang, P H; Chen, J; Deng, J

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  11. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T.; Chen, D.; Wang, P.H.; Chen, J.; Deng, J.

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  12. Management of the nasal dorsum.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jonathan M; Tapias, Vanesa; Kim, Ji-Eon

    2011-04-01

    Profile alignment, including nasal dorsal reduction, is one of the most common maneuvers in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Techniques often include cartilaginous excision and bony hump reduction with a chisel or a rasp. Cartilaginous nasal vault excision can result in separation of the junction between the upper lateral cartilages and the dorsal septum. This separation can cause an inferior-medial repositioning of the upper lateral cartilages and overall weakening of middle vault infrastructure. Furthermore, surgical interruption of this key region can also damage the internal nasal valve configuration and function and create static and dynamic airway obstruction. This article outlines the anatomy and function of the middle nasal vault and internal nasal valve. In addition, it provides an overview of aesthetic complications of dorsal hump removal including inverted-V deformity, saddle nose deformity, hourglass deformity, and their functional consequences. Preoperative individual risk factors for middle-third deformities are mentioned. Preventive and corrective surgical techniques including cartilage grafting and reconstructive sutures are also detailed.

  13. Nasal Reconstruction: Extending the Limits

    PubMed Central

    Corsten, Marcus; Haack, Sebastian; Gubisch, Wolfgang M.; Fischer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Reconstructing the 3-dimensional structure of the nose requires the maintenance of its aesthetic form and function. Restoration of the correct dimension, projection, skin quality, symmetrical contour, and function remains problematic. Consequently, modern approaches of nasal reconstruction aim at rebuilding the units rather than just covering the defect. However, revising or redoing a failed or insufficient reconstruction remains very challenging and requires experience and creativity. Here, we present a very particular case with a male patient, who underwent 37 operations elsewhere and presented with a failed nasal reconstruction. We describe and illustrate the complex steps of the nasal rereconstruction, including the reconstruction of the forehead donor site, surgical delay procedures for lining, and the coverage with a third paramedian forehead flap. PMID:27536483

  14. Surgery of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Gunter

    2006-11-01

    Long-term results after septoplasty are not satisfactory. Apart from a recurrence of deviation, there are various reasons for this: false preoperative analysis, complete straightening of the septum, and a disturbed nasal cycle. Preoperative functional diagnostics with a combination of rhinoresistometry, acoustic rhinometry, and long-term rhinoflowmetry are necessary for differentiating between "physiological" and "pathological" septal deviations and recognizing other causes for obstruction. The surgical procedure of septoplasty includes approach, mobilization, resection, reposition, and finally reconstruction of all three layers. The goal of the operation should not be complete straightening of the nasal septum. The space between the septum and turbinates is of utmost importance. It should not be enlarged as much as possible; rather, it must be shaped in such a way as to allow freely congestion and decongestion reciprocal on the two sides during the nasal cycle. PMID:17131264

  15. Nasal Reconstruction: Extending the Limits.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, Farid; Corsten, Marcus; Haack, Sebastian; Gubisch, Wolfgang M; Fischer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Reconstructing the 3-dimensional structure of the nose requires the maintenance of its aesthetic form and function. Restoration of the correct dimension, projection, skin quality, symmetrical contour, and function remains problematic. Consequently, modern approaches of nasal reconstruction aim at rebuilding the units rather than just covering the defect. However, revising or redoing a failed or insufficient reconstruction remains very challenging and requires experience and creativity. Here, we present a very particular case with a male patient, who underwent 37 operations elsewhere and presented with a failed nasal reconstruction. We describe and illustrate the complex steps of the nasal rereconstruction, including the reconstruction of the forehead donor site, surgical delay procedures for lining, and the coverage with a third paramedian forehead flap. PMID:27536483

  16. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  17. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  18. Nasal Retinoschisis Associated with Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Reddy, Shantan; Kaines, Andrew; Law, Simon

    2010-03-01

    The authors describe a case of nasal and macular retinoschisis in a patient with open angle glaucoma. A 75 year-old female with optic nerve head damage secondary to chronic open angle glaucoma developed macular schisis and a separate area of retinoschisis nasal to her optic disk. There were no other identifiable causes for her retinoschisis. Glaucoma related structural defects offer a plausible explanation for multiple cavities of retinoschisis in favor of multiple occult congenital pits of the optic nerve head. PMID:20337311

  19. The Effect of Propolis in Healing Injured Nasal Mucosa: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Abdelmonem, Said; Abdelsameea, Ahmed A.; AlShawadfy, Mohamed; El-Kashishy, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Mechanical trauma to the nasal mucosa increases the risk of synechia formation, especially after chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal surgeries. Objective  This study was carried to assess the effect of propolis administration in healing injured nasal mucosa in rats. Methods  We randomly divided eighteen rats into three equal experimental groups: (1) non-treated group; (2) gum tragacanth (suspending agent for propolis) treated group; and (3) propolis treated group. The non-treated group received no treatment for 15 days. The second group received gum tragacanth administration (5 ml/kg, orally) once daily for 15 days. The third group received propolis suspension orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily for 15 days. At the beginning of this study, we induced unilateral mechanical nasal trauma on the right nasal mucosa of all rats in the three groups using a brushing technique. A pathologist stained tissue samples using hematoxylin and examined eosin by using a light microscope. Results  The severity of inflammation was milder with the absence of ulcerations in the propolis treated group compared with the non-treated and gum tragacanth groups. Goblet cell and ciliated cell loss was substantially lower in patients treated with propolis compared with groups without treatment and those treated with gum tragacanth. Conclusion  Propolis decreased inflammation and enhanced healing of wounds of the nasal mucosa in rats. PMID:27413403

  20. Correlation between nasal membrane permeability and nasal absorption rate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hefei; Lin, Chih-Wei; Donovan, Maureen D

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between in vitro permeability (Papp) values obtained from isolated nasal tissues and the absorption rates (ka) of the same compounds following nasal administration in animals and humans. The Papp of a set of 11 drug compounds was measured using animal nasal explants and plasma time-concentration profiles for each of the same compounds following intravenous (IV) and intranasal (IN) administration were experimentally determined or obtained from literature reports. The plasma clearance was estimated from the IV plasma time-concentration profiles, and ka was determined from the IN plasma time-concentration profiles using a deconvolution approach. The level of correlation between Papp and ka was established using Pearson correlation analysis. A good correlation (r=0.77) representing a point-to-point relationship for each of the compounds was observed. This result indicates that the nasal absorption for many drug candidates can be estimated from a readily measured in vitro Papp value. PMID:23225081

  1. Tolerability and effects on quality of life of liposomal nasal spray treatment compared to nasal ointment containing dexpanthenol or isotonic NaCl spray in patients with rhinitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Hahn, C; Böhm, M; Allekotte, S; Mösges, R

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate symptom reduction via the liposomal nasal spray LipoNasal (LN) in patients with rhinitis sicca. Tolerability and the impact on quality of life were also examined. The same parameters were established in parallel for treatment approaches with Bepanthen (BP) nasal ointment containing dexpanthenol and the Rhinomer (RH) nasal spray containing NaCl. This prospective, controlled, open-label observation study was a multicenter trial. 92 patients with rhinitis sicca were allocated to three arms according to their symptoms: LN: n = 33; BP: n = 32 and RH: n = 27. The study comprised three visits at an interval of 14 days. Efficacy was examined by the Rhinitis Sicca Symptom Score (RSSS) documented daily and at the visits based on an endoscopic evaluation. The nasal spray sensory scale was used to investigate the tolerability. Quality of life (QoL) was measured by means of the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) and the "Short Form 12" of the "Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL)" questionnaire on general quality of life. Nasal symptoms improved significantly (p = 0.001) under all three treatment approaches, reflected by the reduction in the RSSS and the Endoscopy Sum Score. A comparison of the three groups showed that no therapy was significantly superior to any of the others (p = 0.410). The tolerability of all treatments was good. Concerning the nasal moisturization, LipoNasal was evaluated better than Bepanthen and Rhinomer. Quality of life improved in all groups, but not significantly. The results show good efficacy and tolerability of the liposomal nasal spray compared to generally recognized treatments of rhinitis sicca with dexpanthenol nasal ointment and NaCl nasal spray. LipoNasal therefore constitutes a good treatment for patients suffering from dry nose.

  2. Tolerability and effects on quality of life of liposomal nasal spray treatment compared to nasal ointment containing dexpanthenol or isotonic NaCl spray in patients with rhinitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Hahn, C; Böhm, M; Allekotte, S; Mösges, R

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate symptom reduction via the liposomal nasal spray LipoNasal (LN) in patients with rhinitis sicca. Tolerability and the impact on quality of life were also examined. The same parameters were established in parallel for treatment approaches with Bepanthen (BP) nasal ointment containing dexpanthenol and the Rhinomer (RH) nasal spray containing NaCl. This prospective, controlled, open-label observation study was a multicenter trial. 92 patients with rhinitis sicca were allocated to three arms according to their symptoms: LN: n = 33; BP: n = 32 and RH: n = 27. The study comprised three visits at an interval of 14 days. Efficacy was examined by the Rhinitis Sicca Symptom Score (RSSS) documented daily and at the visits based on an endoscopic evaluation. The nasal spray sensory scale was used to investigate the tolerability. Quality of life (QoL) was measured by means of the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) and the "Short Form 12" of the "Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL)" questionnaire on general quality of life. Nasal symptoms improved significantly (p = 0.001) under all three treatment approaches, reflected by the reduction in the RSSS and the Endoscopy Sum Score. A comparison of the three groups showed that no therapy was significantly superior to any of the others (p = 0.410). The tolerability of all treatments was good. Concerning the nasal moisturization, LipoNasal was evaluated better than Bepanthen and Rhinomer. Quality of life improved in all groups, but not significantly. The results show good efficacy and tolerability of the liposomal nasal spray compared to generally recognized treatments of rhinitis sicca with dexpanthenol nasal ointment and NaCl nasal spray. LipoNasal therefore constitutes a good treatment for patients suffering from dry nose. PMID:23371540

  3. Denervation of nasal mucosa induced by posterior nasal neurectomy suppresses nasal secretion, not hypersensitivity, in an allergic rhinitis rat model.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Hironobu; Kondo, Kenji; Toma-Hirano, Makiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kikuta, Shu; Fujimoto, Chisato; Ueha, Rumi; Kagoya, Ryoji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-09-01

    The posterior nasal nerve is the dominant source of the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory fibers that innervate the nasal respiratory mucosa. Therefore, a posterior nasal neurectomy (PNN) is thought to induce denervation of the nasal mucosa and relieve the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic action of PNN remain unknown. To investigate the impact of PNN-induced denervation of the nasal mucosa on allergic rhinitis, we developed a rat model of PNN and examined the effects of PNN on allergic rhinitis in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. This rat model of PNN was characterized by the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides (eg, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and neuropeptide Y) in the nasal respiratory mucosa. These animals exhibited nasal gland and goblet cell hypertrophy in the septal mucosa and atrophy of the submucosal gland in the lateral nasal wall, as well as reduced nasal secretion due to deficient acetylcholine synthesis. In an ovalbumin-sensitized model of allergic rhinitis, PNN also induced the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides in the nasal mucosa and suppressed nasal secretion. However, PNN did not affect mucosal thickening, eosinophil and mast cell infiltration, interleukin-4 and interferon-γ mRNA expression, and allergic symptoms (ie, sneezing and nasal scratching). These results suggest that the peripheral nerves and corresponding neuropeptides regulate nasal secretion, but not hypersensitivity, in allergic rhinitis, and that allergic rhinitis-related mucosal reactions occur in a highly denervated mucosa after PNN. Posterior nasal neurectomy may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of hyperrhinorrhea, but not allergic rhinitis hypersensitivity. PMID:27322954

  4. Pinocchio nasal deformity secondary to lymphangioma circumscriptum.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Afşin; Yildiz, Kaya; Kankaya, Yüksel; Oruç, Melike; Sungur, Nezih; Koçer, Uğur; Ozer, Elif

    2007-11-01

    Pinocchio or Cyrano nasal tip deformity is a rare situation that develops secondary to the soft tissue tumors underneath. In literature, there is only one case reported with Pinocchio nasal deformity secondary to cavernous lymphangioma. In this study, we present a Pinocchio or Cyrano nasal deformity with skin involvement secondary to lymphangioma circumscriptum.

  5. Does post septoplasty nasal packing reduce complications?

    PubMed

    Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Naghibzadeh, Ghazal

    2011-01-01

    The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not).Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding. PMID:21425063

  6. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It is an ... 49 who want to be protected from the flu virus. Unlike the regular vaccine, it is a live virus. Therefore, it is ...

  7. The efficacy of fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray for allergic rhinitis and its relationship to topical effects.

    PubMed

    Howland, W C; Hampel, F C; Martin, B G; Ratner, P H; van Bavel, J H; Field, E A

    1996-01-01

    Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray is an intranasal corticosteroid for the treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis. This double-masked, double-dummy, parallel-group study was conducted to confirm that the efficacy of fluticasone propionate nasal spray is attributable to topical rather than systemic effects. A total of 304 patients with documented seasonal allergic rhinitis were randomly assigned to receive fluticasone propionate nasal spray 200 micrograms once daily (n = 77), oral fluticasone propionate 5 mg once daily (n = 73), oral fluticasone propionate 10 mg once daily (n = 77), or placebo (n = 77) for 14 days. Plasma fluticasone propionate concentrations were determined at baseline and after 14 days of treatment (day 15). Nasal symptoms were recorded daily by patients and assessed weekly by clinicians. On day 15, more patients in the oral fluticasone propionate 5-mg or 10-mg groups, compared with patients in the fluticasone propionate nasal spray group or the placebo group, had detectable plasma fluticasone propionate concentrations, and mean concentrations were higher in the oral fluticasone propionate groups. Both clinician- and patient-rated total and individual nasal symptom scores for obstruction, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and itching were significantly lower in the fluticasone propionate nasal spray group compared with either of the oral fluticasone propionate groups or the placebo group. With few exceptions, oral fluticasone propionate (5 mg or 10 mg) was not significantly different from placebo on any measures of efficacy. These findings indicate that the efficacy of fluticasone propionate nasal spray (200 micrograms once daily) in the treatment of allergic rhinitis results from direct topical effects rather than from indirect effects after systemic absorption.

  8. The total nasal defect and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Steven B; Cook, Ted A; Wax, Mark K

    2009-05-01

    The structures of the nose are arguably the most complex within the face to reconstitute when absent. Total nasal reconstruction has evolved to encompass advanced surgical techniques in an effort to achieve increasingly satisfactory cosmetic results while restoring nasal function that mimics the function of a patient's natural nose. In this article, the history of total nasal defects and their reconstruction, relevant nasal anatomy, etiologies of the defect, and the surgical approaches to reconstructing each of the three-layered structure of the nose (ie, nasal skin, cartilage/bone, and lining mucosa) are explored.

  9. Pathogenesis of nasal polyps: an update.

    PubMed

    Pawliczak, Rafal; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Kowalski, Marek L

    2005-11-01

    The cause of nasal polyp formation is still unknown. Genetic predisposition has been suggested, but there are scanty data to support such theories. Activated epithelial cells may be the major source of mediators inducing influx of inflammatory cells (mostly eosinophils) and proliferation and activation of fibroblasts leading to nasal polyp formation. Infectious agents (including viruses, bacteria, or fungi) may be potential primary factors activating nasal epithelial cells. Proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors play important roles in the persistence of mucosal inflammation associated with nasal polyps. Arachidonic acid metabolites seem to be particularly important in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps in patients with aspirin hypersensitivity rhinosinusitis/asthma syndrome. PMID:16216171

  10. Comparative responses to nasal allergen challenge in allergic rhinitic subjects with or without asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) is useful to study the pathophysiology of rhinitis, and multiple challenges may more adequately approximate natural exposure. Objective To determine the effect of 4 consecutive daily NAC, on clinical and inflammatory parameters in rhinitics with or without asthma. Methods Rhinitic subjects were recruited: 19 with mild asthma and 13 without asthma. Subjects underwent a control challenge (normal saline) followed by 4 consecutive daily NAC. Allergen challenge consisted of spraying the chosen allergen extract into each nostril until a positive nasal response occurred. Symptoms were recorded on a Likert scale, and oral peak expiratory and nasal peak inspiratory flows allowed assessment of a nasal blockage index (NBI), for a period of 7 hours. Induced sputum and nasal lavage were performed on control day and after 1 and 4 days of NAC. Results Compared with the control day, there was a significant increase in symptom scores and NBI 10 minutes after each last daily NAC in both groups (p < 0.05). Symptom scores and NBI were similar for the 2 groups, except for nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea, which were more marked in subjects with asthma and rhinitis, respectively. Nasal lavage eosinophils were increased after 4 days of challenges in both groups, but there was no change in sputum eosinophils. No cumulative effect or any late response were observed in any of the groups over the challenge period. Conclusion Multiple NAC may be a useful tool to study the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis or its relationships with asthma. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01286129 PMID:21507261

  11. Lexical confusability and nasal coarticulation in French

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Rebecca

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has revealed a relationship between lexical confusability and degree of coarticulation [Brown (2001); Scarborough (2004)]. In particular, English speakers produce confusable, or ``hard'' words with more nasal and vowel-to-vowel coarticulation than less confusable, ``easy'' ones. Thus, it has been suggested that speakers produce additional coarticulation in order to increase the intelligibility of ``hard'' words. Here, the relation between nasal coarticulation and lexical confusability is investigated for French, a language in which vowel nasality is phonemically contrastive (at least for a subset of vowels) and might constrain such a lexical effect. Acoustic measures of nasality show that ``hard'' words (those with low usage frequencies and many frequent, phonologically similar neighbors) exhibit more nasal coarticulation than ``easy'' ones (those with high frequencies and few, low-frequency neighbors) in French as well. Interestingly, however, the effect emerges only for words containing vowels that can exhibit phonemic oral-nasal contrasts (oral vowels with nasal counterparts). Thus, where the use of nasality in phonological contrast is constrained, coarticulatory nasality is constrained, too. But the existence of phonological contrast does not itself constrain the lexical confusability effect: increased coarticulatory nasality contributes to lexically motivated phonetic enhancement in French, while even more nasality provides the basis for phonemic contrast.

  12. Primary Nasal Reconstruction in Self-Inflicted Nasal Injury.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Abizer; John, Jerry R; Gaba, Sunil; Sharma, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Self-inflicted injury of the nose is extremely rare. It may be associated with severe psychopathology and suicidal ideation. The authors report a case of a 24-year-old man, who presented with soft-tissue loss over both the alae of his nose. He had cut off the alar rims with an ordinary razor blade. He was overtly concerned about his nose being excessively broad and fat. A diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder with nonsuicidal self-injury was made. Patient was observed during 72 hours in hospital with psychiatric support and local dressings. The authors undertook primary nasal reconstruction with nasolabial flaps on both sides for coverage. In conclusion, self-inflicted nasal injury mandates a judicious balancing of psychiatric support and surgical reconstruction. This can prevent untoward sequelae including further self-harm and suicide.

  13. Unilateral and bilateral nasal resistances: a supplement.

    PubMed

    Naito, K; Cole, P; Humphrey, D

    1990-06-01

    Three hundred and thirty-four measurements of bilateral and unilateral nasal resistance (at delta P 1.0 cm H2O and by time averaging) in 233 adults were carried out by posterior rhinomanometry with a head-out body plethysmograph. Total nasal resistances, calculated by the equation of Ohm's Law for parallel resistors from measured unilateral resistances, were compared with measured total nasal resistances. The time averaged total nasal resistances calculated by use of Ohm's Law for parallel resistors were closer to direct measurements than resistances at delta P 1.0 cm H2O calculated from the same equation. We attempted to fit calculated total nasal resistance with direct measurements by modification of the equation of Ohm's Law for parallel resistors to T = 0.96[R x L/(R + L)]0.92 in the time averaged nasal resistance and T = 1.07[R x L/(R + L)]0.77 in resistance at delta P 1.0 cm H2O (T: total nasal resistance, R: nasal resistance on the right side, L: nasal resistance on the left side). Calculated total nasal resistances from the above equations agreed closely with direct measurements.

  14. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones. PMID:26664051

  15. Nasal diseases and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deping; Luo, Wenlong

    2016-01-01

    A high rate of ENT doctors were murdered by nasal disordered patients in China recently. It is obviously important and urgent to find out whether there is any potential relationship between nasal diseases (ND) and psychological distress that might contribute to violent behavior. For this purpose, we carried out this literature review. There is a complex relationship between ND and psychiatric distress, which is mainly considered as a bidirectional causal relationship with other controversy opinions. However, most of the previous studies were found to be focused on allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis, while reports about other ND were rare. Further study is still needed to uncover the secret aspects in this field, and more attentions need to be paid to other ND. PMID:26095351

  16. A clinical comparison of budesonide nasal aerosol, terfenadine and a combined therapy of budesonide and oxymetazoline in adult patients with perennial rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lau, S K; Wei, W I; Van Hasselt, C A; Sham, C L; Woo, J; Choa, D; Engzell, U C

    1990-12-01

    The efficacy of budesonide, terfenadine and a combination of budesonide and oxymetazoline in the treatment of perennial rhinitis was evaluated by a double blind, parallel group study. Adult patients with perennial rhinitis were randomized into three groups. Group 1 patients received budesonide nasal aerosol 400 micrograms/day for 21 days and oxymetazoline nasal drops for the first three days. Group 2 and 3 patients received budesonide 400 micrograms/day and terfenadne tablet 60 mg twice/day respectively. Nasal symptoms were assessed by the patients before and daily during the treatment period using a simple scoring system. One hundred and forty-two patients were recruited and 130 completed the study. Budesonide, but not terfenadine, significantly reduced all nasal symptoms from baseline (p less than 0.05). Terfenadine could significantly relieve the nasal blockage (p less than 0.05) more than other nasal symptoms. Budesonide with or without oxymetazoline nasal drops provided a better control of nasal symptoms than terfenadine (p less than 0.05). Budesonide with oxymetazoline for the first three days showed a faster relief of nasal blockage than budesonide alone (p less than 0.05). Mild and transient adverse effects were encountered in all three groups. It is concluded that nasal symptoms of perennial rhinitis are more adequately controlled by budesonide than by terfenadine.

  17. Nasal airway responses to nasal continuous positive airway pressure breathing: An in-vivo pilot study.

    PubMed

    White, David E; Bartley, Jim; Shakeel, Muhammad; Nates, Roy J; Hankin, Robin K S

    2016-06-14

    The nasal cycle, through variation in nasal airflow partitioning, allows the upper airway to accommodate the contrasting demands of air conditioning and removal of entrapped air contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) breathing has on both nasal airflow partitioning and nasal geometry. Using a custom-made nasal mask, twenty healthy participants had the airflow in each naris measured during normal nasal breathing followed by nCPAP breathing. Eight participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasal region during spontaneous nasal breathing, and then nCPAP breathing over a range of air pressures. During nCPAP breathing, a simultaneous reduction in airflow through the patent airway together with a corresponding increase in airway flow within the congested nasal airway were observed in sixteen of the twenty participants. Nasal airflow resistance is inversely proportional to airway cross-sectional area. MRI data analysis during nCPAP breathing confirmed airway cross-sectional area reduced along the patent airway while the congested airway experienced an increase in this parameter. During awake breathing, nCPAP disturbs the normal inter-nasal airflow partitioning. This could partially explain the adverse nasal drying symptoms frequently reported by many users of this therapy. PMID:27173595

  18. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis increases nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Claire L; Hardy, Katherine J; Verlander, Neville Q; Hawkey, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococci are a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for infection in surgical patients and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a major cause of prosthetic joint infections. The impact that antibiotic surgical prophylaxis has on the nasal carriage of staphylococci has not been studied. Daily nasal swabs were taken from 63 patients who received antibiotic surgical prophylaxis and 16 patients who received no antibiotics. Total aerobic bacterial count, S. aureus and CNS were enumerated by culture from nasal swabs. Representative isolates were typed by staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRU) typing and PFGE, and MICs to nine antibiotics were determined. After antibiotic administration, there was a reduction in S. aureus counts (median - 2.3 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1)) in 64.0 % of S. aureus carriers, compared with only a 0.89 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1) reduction in 75.0 % of S. aureus carriers who did not receive antibiotics. A greater increase in the nasal carriage rate of meticillin-resistant CNS was observed after antibiotic surgical prophylaxis compared with hospitalization alone, with increases of 16.4 and 4.6 %, respectively. Antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis carriage rate increased by 16.6 % after antibiotic administration compared with 7.5 % with hospitalization alone. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis impacts the nasal carriage of both S. aureus and CNS.

  19. [Unilateral nasal obstruction in children: Pai syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zanetta, Adrián; Cuestas, Giselle; Oviedo, Maricruz; Tiscorni, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Unilateral obstruction of the nasal cavity in children is mainly caused by the introduction of foreign bodies further stated with rhinorrhea and fetid odor. Less commonly, it can be traumatic, neoplastic, due to congenital malformation or iatrogenic. Symptoms of congenital intranasal mass may present at birth, or go unnoticed and be a finding in a routine pediatric examination. Patient evaluation should include imaging studies to guide the diagnosis and rule out intracranial extension. A syndrome associated with congenital nasal tumor should be suspected when other abnormalities are present. Pai syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. Its manifestations are craniofacial being congenital nasal polyp his main marker. We present a patient with unilateral nasal respiratory failure secondary to congenital nasal lipoma, with craniofacial anomalies belonging to Pai syndrome. Nasal obstruction was successfully surgically resolved. PMID:22042063

  20. Vasomotor rhinitis: neglected cause of nasal congestion.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T W

    1980-01-01

    Vasomotor rhinitis is a condition of chronic nasal congestion which is noninfectious and nonallergic. Its cause is thought to be an imbalance of autonomic control to the nasal mucosa. This disorder is a diagnosis of exclusion, and other causes of chronic nasal obstruction must be considered first. Treatment measures include avoidance of nonspecific stimuli which exacerbate symptoms and, for symptomatic relief, use of oral sympathomimetics. Antihistamine-decongestant combinations may be effective in some patients. Topical vasoconstrictors should not be used.

  1. Lessening the Misery of Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Martin, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Nasal polyps are characterized by progressive nasal obstruction, postnasal drip, rhinorrhea, and anosmia. Although their pathogenesis is unknown, key diagnostic signs include appearance, bilaterality, mobility, and insensitivity. Treating allergies and infections is important, while surgery is aimed at maintaining normal nasal structure and improving the airway so that intranasal steroids can be administered to keep the chronic disease under control. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21229039

  2. Noninterventional Open-Label Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray in Comparison with Beclomethasone Nasal Spray in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Möller, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray. PMID:24976831

  3. Noninterventional open-label trial investigating the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray in comparison with beclomethasone nasal spray in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Möller, Marcus; Bilstein, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray.

  4. Nasal Myiasis in Hinduism and Contemporary Otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2014-01-01

    Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis. PMID:24385004

  5. Endoscopic laser treatment for pediatric nasal allergy.

    PubMed

    Araki, S; Suzuki, N; Sato, H; Yamaguchi, T; Fujita, H; Umezawa, Y; Suzuki, M

    2000-01-01

    We have used the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser and the gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser with flexible fiber delivery instruments for vaporization of the inferior nasal turbinate in pediatric patients since 1993. Under endoscopic control, the whole inferior turbinate was vaporized by 5-10 W laser output delivered via an optical fiber. Generally, the nasal mucosa changes into normal mucosa, and symptoms improve. The greatest symptomatic improvement was in nasal obstruction. The results obtained by the two laser devices were similar although they have had different characteristics. Endoscopic laser surgery is effective in the treatment of pediatric nasal allergy.

  6. An evaluation of nasal response following different treatment regimes of oxymetazoline with reference to rebound congestion.

    PubMed

    Morris, S; Eccles, R; Martez, S J; Riker, D K; Witek, T J

    1997-01-01

    This was a randomized, double-blind vehicle controlled study aimed at investigating the effects on nasal function of 7 days treatment with the topical decongestant oxymetazoline (0.05% w/v). Fifty healthy volunteers took part in the study and these were randomly allocated to three treatment groups (i) daily oxymetazoline (b.i.d. 150 microliters per nostril) (ii) intermittent oxymetazoline, with oxymetazoline being substituted for vehicle at the morning doses on days 1, 3, and 7; and (iii) daily vehicle (b.i.d. 150 microliters per nostril). The nasal airway was assessed by measurement of nasal airway resistance (NAR) using posterior rhinomanometry, subjective scaling of nasal patency by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS), and clinical visual examination. On days 1, 2, 3, and 7, NAR and VAS measurements were obtained before the morning dose and up to 6 hours after dosing; clinical visual examinations were also performed before dosing on these days. NAR and VAS measurements were also made following withdrawal of treatment on Days 8 and 9. Nonparametric analysis of the results showed that therapeutic tolerance to oxymetazoline did not develop over the 7-day treatment period, and visual examination of the nasal mucosa failed to find significant evidence of rhinitis. Evidence of rebound nasal congestion was found following 3 days of oxymetazoline treatment, with baseline NAR within the daily and intermittent oxymetazoline groups being significantly greater on Day 3 compared to Day 1 (p < 0.05). However, there was a trend toward increasing baseline NAR in the vehicle group over the course of the study, suggesting that the vehicle may have contributed to the rebound congestion. Following the withdrawal of treatments, only the intermittent oxymetazoline group had significantly higher NAR on Days 8 and 9 compared to Day 1 (p < 0.05). Subjective VAS measurements generally followed trends in NAR.

  7. Nasal and Oral Consonant Similarity in Speech Errors: Exploring Parallels with Nasal Consonant Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that "similar" sounds interact in phonological nasal consonant harmony, wherein certain consonants become nasals when the word contains a nasal (e.g., Kikongo: /-kun-idi/ [right arrow] [-kun-ini] "planted"). Across languages, stops and approximants are chiefly affected, especially voiced consonants and ones that match…

  8. Immediate effect of benzalkonium chloride in decongestant nasal spray on the human nasal mucosal temperature.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Leiacker, R; Wiesmiller, K; Rettinger, G; Keck, T

    2004-08-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a preservative commonly used in nasal decongestant sprays. It has been suggested that benzalkonium chloride may be harmful to the nasal mucosa. Decongestion with the vasoconstrictor xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride has been shown to cause a significant reduction of the nasal mucosal temperature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the short-term influence of xylometazoline nasal spray with and without benzalkonium chloride on the nasal mucosal temperature. Healthy volunteers (30) were included in the study. Fifteen volunteers received xylometazoline nasal spray (1.0 mg/mL) containing benzalkonium chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and 15 age-matched subjects, received xylometazoline nasal spray without benzalkonium chloride. Using a miniaturized thermocouple the septal mucosal temperature was continuously measured at defined intranasal detection sites before and after application of the nasal spray. The mucosal temperature values did not significantly differ between the group receiving xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride and the group receiving xylometazoline spray without benzalkonium chloride before and after decongestion (P > 0.05). In both study groups septal mucosal temperatures significantly decreased after decongestion (P < 0.05) because of a reduction of the nasal mucosal blood flow following vasoconstriction. This study indicates that benzalkonium chloride itself does not seem to influence nasal blood flow and nasal mucosal temperature in topical nasal decongestants. PMID:15270822

  9. Nasal obstruction in neonates and infants.

    PubMed

    Chirico, G; Beccagutti, F

    2010-10-01

    The main functions of the nasal airway are respiration and olfaction. The nose and sinuses condition air before reaching the lower respiratory tract by providing almost 100% humidification, warming, filtering and trapping of foreign particles. The airway epithelium contributes to the host defense system. Any alteration of this clearance system may produce significant problems, particularly in neonates, who are obligate nasal breathers until they are at least two months old. Nasal obstruction, and the inability to remove nasal secretion by nose blowing, may have serious consequences, such as respiratory distress or discomfort, altered sleep cycle, increased risk of obstructive apnoea and feeding difficulties. Most cases of nasal obstruction in neonates and infants are due to generalized nasal airway obstruction associated with neonatal rhinitis, viral upper respiratory tract infections, and possibly milk/soy allergies. Saline nasal lavage is recommended as an adjunct therapy for rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis, and in most cases of nasal congestion or obstruction in newborns, infants and children. In two recent experiences, was deemed to be the Narhinel method safe and effective for treatment of nasal congestion in babies with viral infections of the upper respiratory tract, or for the prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) and acute rhinosinusitis (AR) in children. Due to the efficacy, ease of use, tolerability and the lack of alternative medications in children younger than 12 years of age, nasal irrigation with physiological saline solution, followed by gentle aspiration, represent an effective method for the prevention and control of nasal congestion or obstruction in term or preterm neonates, infants and children.

  10. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  11. Pythiosis in the Nasal Cavity of Horses.

    PubMed

    Souto, E P F; Maia, L A; Olinda, R G; Galiza, G J N; Kommers, G D; Miranda-Neto, E G; Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of nasal pythiosis are reported in horses from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. From January 1986 to December 2015, the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Campina Grande received 830 equine samples, 156 (18.79%) of which were diagnosed with pythiosis. Of these, two horses (1.28%), a male and a female adult cross-breed, had lesions in the nasal cavity. Both horses had access to water reservoirs. Clinically, they had swelling in the rhinofacial region and a serosanguineous nasal discharge. Macroscopically, in case 1, the lesion affected the nasal vestibule, extending to the alar cartilage and nasal septum. In case 2, the lesion extended through the turbinates and the meatuses of the nasal cavity, as well as the ethmoid region. In both cases, the lesions were characterized by having a yellow-grey granular surface with cavitations of different sizes containing coral-like masses of necrotic tissue (kunkers). Histologically, multifocal necrotizing eosinophilic rhinitis associated with hyphae (2-8 μm) similar to Pythium insidiosum were observed. In case 2, the lesions extended to the muscle, cartilage and bone adjacent to the nasal cavity and lungs. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. It is concluded that nasal pythiosis occurs sporadically in horses in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil where cutaneous pythiosis is prevalent. PMID:27406311

  12. Nasal Airway Resistance: Its Measurement and Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lyle H.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of regulation of nasal airway resistance (Rn). Describes methods of calculating Rn by measuring pressure-flow relationship. Data are presented on improved methods for measuring Rn and effects for expiratory and inspiratory Rn after topical application of phenylephrine nasal decongestant spray. (Author/SA)

  13. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and deposited these data in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (Bioproject: PRJNA248297). In our initial analysis, we compared the bacterial communities of the nasal cavity and the oral cavity from ten of these subjects. The nasal cavity bacterial communities were dominated by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria and were statistically distinct from those on the tongue and buccal mucosa. For example, the same Staphylococcaceae operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was present in all of the nasal cavity samples, comprising up to 55% of the community, but Staphylococcaceae was comparatively uncommon in the oral cavity. Conclusions There are clear differences between nasal cavity microbiota and oral cavity microbiota in healthy adults. This study expands our knowledge of the nasal cavity microbiota and the relationship between the microbiota of the nasal and oral cavities. PMID:25143824

  14. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  17. Chronic Rhinosinusitis without Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong Ho; Kim, Dae Woo; Gevaert, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is more prevalent than chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Certain diseases predispose to whereas others are associated with CRSsNP. Predisposing diseases include allergic and nonallergic upper and lower airway diseases, epithelial cell disorders, immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and some infectious diseases. In addition, environmental and host factors, examples of which include smoking, a higher incidence of abnormal biofilms, and innate immune defects, play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. CRSsNP is characterized by histologic abnormalities, including basement membrane thickening (fibrosis) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Neutrophils and several chemokines, TGF-β and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)-8, play a role in CRSsNP remodeling. However, there are conflicting data about CRSsNP endotypes, for example, whether it is characterized by neutrophilia or eosinophilia or both. In spite of advancements and the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, additional study is necessary to better comprehend its underlying mechanisms, endotypes, and evidence-based treatment strategies. PMID:27393771

  18. Evaluation of nasal tip surgery.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W H; Biller, H F

    1975-09-01

    Nasal tip surgery has been evaluated with respect to correction of the lower lateral cartilages. Indications, techniques, results, and complications related to three generic approaches to the lower lateral cartilages are described. In 673 consecutive rhinoplasties the commonest type of nasal tip surgery was excisional, utilizing either a marginal or cartilage splitting technique. These techniques were utilized: 1. to accomplish debulking, and 2. to accomplish the installation of facets. The excisional technique found its greatest utility in primary rhinoplasties. The version technique, utilizing a change of direction of the thrust of the lower lateral cartilages was utilized in a variety of situations, particularly for the correction of moderately congenitally hypoplastic tip cartilages. It also found great utility in surgery of the Negro or cleft palate nose, increasing tip projection, correcting unacceptable bifidity, and in revision rhinoplasty. Augmentation rhinoplasty, utilizing conchal cartilage as an elastic strut was particularly useful for severe hypoplastic cartilage deficits, the Negro nose, columellar retraction, and alar rim deficits. The overall complication rate of lower lateral rhinoplasty was 17.4 percent. The rate of unacceptable complications related to lower lateral rhinoplasty was 2.7 percent.

  19. Numerical model of a nasal septal perforation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Orla; Bailie, Neil; Watterson, John; Cole, Jonathan; Gallagher, Geraldine; Hanna, Brendan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes numerical simulation of airflow in a nose with a nasal septal perforation. Diseased airflow is compared to airflow in a healthy nasal model. The healthy model has been generated from CT scans from the Antrim Area Hospital ENT clinic and is close to being anatomically accurate. The nasal septal perforation has been superimposed on the healthy geometry using image manipulation software. The flow is modeled as laminar, steady state, with the flow rates corresponding to quiet breathing at rest approximately 165 ml/sec. Healthy flow patterns show that the majority of the flow travels close to nasal septum, in the region close to the middle turbinate. In the diseased case, high shear stresses concentrated at the posterior region of the perforation explain bleeding associated with nasal perforations.

  20. Subjective Nasal Fullness and Objective Congestion

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.

    2011-01-01

    How well do subjective descriptions of the sensation of nasal closure or absence of nasal patency agree with objective measures of nasal geometry and airflow? Problems with this concept begin with terminology. “Congestion” has been applied to both the subjective and objective measures. Therefore, the term “fullness” will be used to describe perceptions of nasal mucosal heaviness or blockage that subjects with allergic rhinitis articulate. “Congestion” will refer to the objective measures used to assess patency. Sensations attributed to the nasal mucosa are highly integrated interpretations summed from multiple subsets of nociceptive and other neurons. Activation of sensor systems is required to depolarize afferent neurons. These sensors and other receptor proteins can be modulated by inflammation as part of the neural plasticity that leads to increased sensitivity to nasal stimuli. This plasticity and hyperalgesia may extend from the afferent neuron to spinal cord dorsal horn synapses, and regulatory and analytical regions of the brainstem and cerebrum. Although glandular hypersecretion can deliver obstructing material into the nasal cavities, the dilation of deep venous sinusoids is the strongest factor regulating nasal airspace volumes. There is a long history of attempts to correlate subjective sensations to objective measurements such as airflow resistance (rhinomanometry), nasal wall geometry (acoustic rhinometry), and peak nasal inspiratory flow. The medical evidence supporting each method has been analyzed on the basis of the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) system. These results provide a starting point for linking the outcomes of pathophysiological processes with a patient's psychometrically calibrated sensation of airflow. PMID:21364223

  1. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  2. Nasal cytology in southwest metropolitan Mexico City inhabitants: a pilot intervention study.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Garcidueñas, L; Roy-Ocotla, G

    1993-06-01

    Southwest metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) inhabitants have been exposed several hours per day for the last 6 years to photochemical smog, ozone being the most important oxidant pollutant. Subjects exposed to the SWMMC atmosphere develop several histopathological changes in their nasal mucosa: dysplasia is the most significant, affecting 78.72% of adult individuals within 60 or more days of residence in SWMMC. This study was originally designed to explore whether chemical intervention could modify nasal dysplasia, as determined by nasal cytology, in a defined adult population. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial, 177 healthy male subjects were divided into 5 groups to whom 5000 IU of vitamin A, 100 IU of vitamin E, a combination of vitamins A and E (5000 IU + 100 IU), 16 mg of beta-carotene, or placebo were administered daily for 4 months. Sixteen clinical and cytological variables were monitored. No effect on dysplasia was seen at the end of the 4-month trial; however, an apparent reversibility as well as progression of the dysplastic nasal lesions and high correlation coefficients between dysplasia and nasal cytology of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs; 0.85), squamous metaplasia (SM; 0.50), and nasal mucosa atrophy (NMA; 0.41) were found. A mathematical theoretical nasal dysplasia (tD) predictor equation for SWMMC adult male inhabitants is proposed (tD = 0.85 delta PMNs + 0.50 delta SM + 0.41 delta NMA + 0.98), in which PMNs are the best single dysplasia predictor, and all variables are independent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Nasal cytology in southwest metropolitan Mexico City inhabitants: A pilot intervention study

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon-Garciduenas, L.; Roy-Ocotla, G. )

    1993-06-01

    Southwest metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) inhabitants have been exposed several hours per day for the last 6 years to photochemical smog, ozone being the most important oxidant pollutant. Subjects exposed to the SWMMC atmosphere develop several histopathological changes in their nasal mucosa: dysplasia is the most significant, affecting 78.72% of adult individuals within 60 or more days of residence in SWMMC. This study was originally designed to explore whether chemical intervention could modify nasal dysplasia, as determined by nasal cytology, in a defined adult population. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial, 177 healthy male subjects were divided into 5 groups to whom 5000 IU of vitamin A, 100 IU of vitamin E, a combination of vitamins A and E (5000 IU + 100 IU), 16 mg of beta-carotene, or placebo were administered daily for 4 months. Sixteen clinical and cytological variables were monitored. No effect on dysplasia was seen at the end of the 4-month trial; however, an apparent reversibility as well as progression of the dysplastic nasal lesions and high correlation coefficients between dysplasia and nasal cytology of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs; 0.85), squamous metaplasia (SM; 0.50), and nasal mucosa atrophy (NMA; 0.41) were found. A mathematical theoretical nasal dysplasia (tD) predictor equation for SWMMC adult male inhabitants is proposed (tD = 0.85 delta PMNs + 0.50 delta SM + 0.41 delta NMA + 0.98), in which PMNs are the best single dysplasia predictor, and all variables are independent.

  4. [Nasal endoscope surgery of acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland on nasal septum: a case report].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Xiuzhen; Wang, Jizhe

    2016-02-01

    A 67-year-old male patient was admitted because of "the right side nasal obstruction repeatedly for 4 years". He got nasal obstruction 4 years ago, especially for the right side nasal cavity, sometimes got blood in his nasal discharge, then the symptom relieved after accepting treatment in local hospital. During the 4 years, the symptom repeatedly occurrence. Three days before hospitalization, the CT examination indicated abnormal things in his nasal cavity and the bone of his nasal sinus had been destroyed. Some abnormal organism were sent to pathological examination, and the report indicated it is acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland. During the nasal endoscope surgery, a red goiter was found in his nose with its surface crude and brittle. Then we cut the goiter by nasal endoscope, during the operation we find the bottom of the goiter is on the nasal septum. Two weeks after the operation, the patient received the radiation therapy. One year after the operation he doesn't get the abnormal symptom and the nasal MRI not found recidivation. PMID:27373103

  5. Disorders of the nasal valve area

    PubMed Central

    Bloching, Marc Boris

    2008-01-01

    The nasal valve area is not a singular structure, but a complex three-dimensional construct consisting of several morphological structures. From the physiologic point of view, it is the place of maximum nasal flow resistance (“flow limiting segment”). Therefore, according to Poiseuille’s law, even minor constrictions of this area result in a clinically relevant impairment of nasal breathing for the patient. This narrow passage, also called “ostium internum nasi”, is formed by the mobile lateral nasal wall, the anterior septum with the swell body, the head of the inferior turbinate and the osseous piriform aperture. Within the framework of aetiology, static and dynamic disorders of the nasal valve area have to be distinguished since they result in different therapeutic measures. In the context of diagnosis, the exploration of the case history for assessing the patient’s extent of suffering and the clinical examination are very important. In addition to the presentation of the basics of disorders of the nasal valves, this paper focuses on the treatment of dynamic disorders that mainly constitute the more important therapeutic issue. In this context, we distinguish between stabilisation techniques through grafts or implants and stabilising suture techniques. Following a thorough analysis, the correction of static nasal valve disorders requires various plastic-reconstructive measures using transposition grafting and skin or composite grafts. PMID:22073083

  6. Does nasal decongestion improve obstructive sleep apnea?

    PubMed

    Clarenbach, Christian F; Kohler, Malcolm; Senn, Oliver; Thurnheer, Robert; Bloch, Konrad E

    2008-12-01

    Whether nasal congestion promotes obstructive sleep apnea is controversial. Therefore, we performed a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial on the effects of topical nasal decongestion in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and nasal congestion. Twelve OSA patients with chronic nasal congestion (mean +/- SD age 49.1 +/- 11.1 years, apnea/hypopnea index 32.6 +/- 24.5/h) were treated with nasal xylometazoline or placebo for 1 week each. At the end of treatment periods, polysomnography including monitoring of nasal conductance by an unobtrusive technique, vigilance by the OSLER test, and symptom scores were assessed. Data from xylometazoline and placebo treatments were compared. Mean nocturnal nasal conductance on xylometazoline was significantly higher than on placebo (8.6 +/- 5.3 versus 6.3 +/- 5.8 mL s(-1)Pa(-1), P < 0.05) but the apnea/hypopnea index was similar (29.3 +/- 32.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 32.8/h, P = NS). However, 30-210 min after application of xylometazoline, at the time of the maximal pharmacologic effect, the apnea/hypopnea index was slightly reduced (27.3 +/- 30.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 33.9/h, P < 0.05). Xylometazoline did not alter sleep quality, sleep resistance time (33.6 +/- 8.8 versus 33.4 +/- 10.1 min, P = NS) and subjective sleepiness (Epworth score 10.5 +/- 3.8 versus 11.8 +/- 4.4, P = NS). The reduced apnea/hypopnea index during maximal nasal decongestion by xylometazoline suggests a pathophysiologic link but the efficacy of nasal decongestion was not sufficient to provide a clinically substantial improvement of OSA. PMID:18710420

  7. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  8. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  9. Case report: unilateral mydriasis following nasal cautery.

    PubMed

    Koo Ng, Nigel K F; Calder, Nick

    2010-12-01

    We report a case of unilateral mydriasis following nasal electrocautery presumed to be the result of retrograde flow of adrenaline and/or xylometazoline hydrochloride (Otrivine) through the nasolacrimal duct into the eye. We review the literature and highlight the importance of correct interpretation of finding a dilated pupil post-operatively. To our knowledge. we report the first such case involving xylometazoline hydrochloride and also following nasal electrocautery. Unilateral mydriasis is alarming after nasal surgery but must be interpreted with caution. During minimally invasive procedures it is likely to be due to the effects of topical medication to the nose rather than surgical trauma. PMID:21158576

  10. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Tiina M; Alho, Olli-Pekka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects' reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS. PMID:27196870

  11. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-12-01

    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  12. Non-pharmacological management of nasal polyp: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajiv; Murthy, B T C; Vinudha

    2009-01-01

    Nasal polyp causes difficulty in breathing due to blockage of nasal passage. The pathogenesis of nasal polyposis is not known. The primary medical therapy available for nasal polyposis is steroid administration. Antihistamines, decongestants and cromolyn sodium provide little benefit. With this background of nasal polyp pathophysiology and the existing management, a case of nasal polyp was treated with the cleansing process of yoga i.e. neti kriya and naturopathy with good result. This isolated case report warrants a need for controlled clinical trial of neti kriya to establish its role in the management of nasal polyposis.

  13. Catecholamine concentrations in rat nasal mucus are modulated by trigeminal stimulation of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Lucero, M T; Squires, A

    1998-10-01

    Olfactory mucus provides the perireceptor environment in which the initial steps of olfactory signal transduction occur [5]. Extrinsic autonomic and trigeminal innervation controls mucus secretion and may release neurotransmitters into nasal mucus [13]. We quantitated catecholamines in rat nasal mucus and found that catecholamine levels first increased and then declined with trigeminal stimulation. These data indicate that catecholamine levels are regulated in nasal mucus and could modulate the odor sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons.

  14. [Disturbances of nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum and the rationale for its surgical correction].

    PubMed

    Tulebaev, R K; Mustafin, A A; Zholdybaeva, Z T

    2011-01-01

    Serious disturbances of nasal aerodynamics contribute to the development of diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus. The early recognition of ventilation problems in patients with the curved nasal septum is paramount for the efficacious prevention and treatment of respiratory complications. The authors describe principles of rhinosurgical correction of affected nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum.

  15. Liposomal Nasal Spray versus Guideline-Recommended Steroid Nasal Spray in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Comparison of Tolerability and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Eitenmüller, Anna; Böhm, Myriam; Glowania, Andreas; Pfaar, Oliver; Mösges, Ralph; Klimek, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the tolerability and impact on quality of life of liposomal nasal spray compared to guideline-recommended steroid-based therapy in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Symptom reduction and use of antisymptomatic medication were also examined. Methods. In this monocenter, prospective, controlled, open, and noninterventional study, 60 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were treated with liposomal nasal spray and 30 patients received steroid-based therapy. The study comprised five visits occurring at intervals of two to four weeks. Efficacy was determined according to the sinusitis symptom score documented daily. The polyp score was recorded at the initial and final visits. Tolerability was determined through the Nasal Spray Evaluation Questionnaire, and quality of life was ascertained with the SNOT-20 Score. Results. Both treatments achieved a significant reduction of sinusitis symptoms (P < 0.05) and also rhinoscopic improvement (P < 0.05). The majority of patients assessed the treatments as “good” or “very good,” and the quality of life improved significantly (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in symptom reduction, QoL, and endoscopic exams between both treatments. Conclusion. The treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with liposomal nasal spray results in a similar, significant reduction of symptoms and significant improvement in quality of life as guideline-recommended treatment and is therefore a comparable alternative. PMID:24963305

  16. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Finitsis, Stefanos; Giavroglou, Constantinos; Potsi, Stamatia; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Mpaltatzidis, Angelos; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tzioufa, Valentini

    2009-05-15

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a benign tumor that was described in 1998. The occurrence of this lesion in the nasal cavity of infants and children is especially rare, with only 21 cases reported in the international literature. We report a 12-month-old boy with respiratory distress due to nasal obstruction. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a soft-tissue mass obstructing the left nasal cavity. Digital subtraction angiography and preoperative superselective embolization with microparticles were also performed. The tumor was completely resected surgically. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor disclosed a NCMH. The imaging characteristics of the tumor are described and the radiology literature is reviewed.

  17. Nasal toxicity of cocaine: a hypercoagulable effect?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R.; Shah, R.; Baredes, S.; Spillert, C. R.; Lazaro, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Nasal insufflation of cocaine injures the nasal mucosa and can perforate the septum. Cocaine-induced vasoconstriction resulting in ischemia is one of the methods that may be responsible for this damage. We are determining whether cocaine also produces a hypercoagulable state that may compound factors which have been previously established to cause damage to the nasal mucosa and septum. This study uses Modified Recalcification Time (MRT), a test developed in our laboratory that has the ability to measure the overall coagulation process. Our study revealed no connection between cocaine and enhanced platelet function or monocyte-released tissue factor. The coagulation process was unaffected by the addition of the drug, so we conclude that cocaine does not cause a hypercoagulable state and cannot assist in the explanation regarding the ischemic changes of the nasal septum. PMID:10800286

  18. Nasal foreign body: an unexpected discovery.

    PubMed

    Yasny, Jeffrey S; Stewart, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nasal foreign bodies may result from the abundant availability of tiny objects in our society and a curious child exploring his or her nasal cavities. An inserted object that is not witnessed or retrieved can remain relatively asymptomatic or cause local tissue damage and potentially yield more serious consequences. An unusual case of a young child who presented for dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia is described. Immediately prior to the nasotracheal intubation, an unanticipated foreign body was detected and safely removed before any injury occurred. This case report discusses the presentation and pathophysiology of nasal foreign bodies. Moreover, applicable suggestions are provided to aid in the prevention and management of the unexpected discovery of a nasal foreign body after the induction of general anesthesia.

  19. Nasal Mucociliary Transport Before and After Jogging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Anna; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of nasal mucociliary transport in 11 healthy subjects before and after they jogged 8-10 kilometers indicated that the transport time was significantly longer after jogging than before jogging. (Author/CB)

  20. Management of the cleft lip nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    Dutton, J M; Bumsted, R M

    2001-02-01

    Management of the cleft lip nasal deformity offers a unique and ongoing challenge in facial plastic surgery. Although there has been no consensus regarding the optimal timing and technique for surgical repair of this deformity, the authors have found a three-tiered approach to be satisfactory. This approach involves a primary rhinoplasty performed at the time of the initial cleft lip repair to address reconstruction of the nasal floor and sill, columellar lengthening, repositioning of the alar base, and repositioning of the skin and mucosa of the lower lateral cartilage. Following alveolar bone grafting, an intermediate rhinoplasty is often performed at 6 to 10 years of age through an open approach to correct the cartilaginous lower nasal deformity. A delayed rhinoplasty is then performed in the later teenage years to correct the bony dorsal deformity and the various causes of nasal obstruction.

  1. Development of the cetacean nasal skull.

    PubMed

    Klima, M

    1999-01-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to aquatic life habits is reflected, in their nasal region, in three marked changes from the original relations found in land mammals. These changes include (1) the loss of the sense of smell, (2) translocation of the nostrils from the tip of the rostrum to the vertex of the head, and (3) elongation of the anterior head to form a rostrum protruding far towards anterior. The morphogenetic processes taking place during embryogenesis of the nasal skull play a decisive part in the development of all these changes. The lateral parts of the embryonic nasal capsule, encompassing the nasal passages, change their position from horizontal to vertical. At the same time, the structures of the original nasal floor (the solum nasi) are shifted in front of the nasal passages towards the rostrum. The structures of the original nasal roof (the tectum nasi) and of the nasal side wall (the paries nasi) are translocated behind the nasal passages towards the neurocranium. The medial nasal septum (the septum nasi) mostly loses its connection to the nasal passages and is produced into a point protruding far towards anterior. The transformed embryonic nasal skull of the Cetacea can be divided into three sections: 1. The median structures. These include the cartilaginous structures, viz., the rostrum nasi, the septum interorbitale and the spina mesethmoidalis, which are accompanied by the dermal bones, the vomer and the praemaxillare. In adult cetaceans the rostrum nasi is mostly preserved as a robust cartilage of the skull, which may possibly serve as a sound transmitting structure of the sonar system, or it may be responsible for the sensing of water streams and vibrations. 2. The posterior side wall structures. These include the following cartilaginous structures that are mostly heavily reduced or mutually fused: the cupula nasi anterior, the tectum nasi, the lamina cribrosa, the paries nasi, the commissura orbitonasalis, the cupula nasi posterior, the

  2. [Diagnostic methods of nasal respiratory function].

    PubMed

    Mlynski, G; Beule, A

    2008-01-01

    Objective assessment of nasal obstruction may help with preoperative planning for rhinosurgery and indicate different aspects of endonasal pathology. To improve quality control, preoperative and postoperative objective assessment is desirable. This review presents objective functional diagnostic tools and explains their appropriate uses, the information obtained, and their limitations. An algorithm is presented for analysing nasal obstruction by means of objective functional assessment. Examples illustrate how to use this information for preoperative planning in rhinosurgery. PMID:18210011

  3. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Chen, K T

    1982-01-01

    A case of necrotizing sialometaplasia involving the mucous membrane of a nasal turbinate is described. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign, self-limited process characterized by necrosis and squamous metaplasia of the salivary or mucous glands. Typically, the lesion manifests as an ulcer of the hard palate. Nonulcerated lesions and involvement of sites other than the hard palate have also been reported. This case appears to be the second reported case of involvement of the nasal cavity by necrotizing sialometaplasia.

  4. Powered nasal polypectomy in the office setting.

    PubMed

    Krouse, J H; Christmas, D A

    1996-09-01

    The use of powered instrumentation has revolutionized the practice of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. We have expanded the role of the instrument to the treatment of polypoid disease of the nose within the office setting. We have found the technique to be both safe and effective, and to allow thorough exenteration of nasal polyps with minimal bleeding and discomfort. We recommend the use of the powered device as the primary tool in the surgical treatment of nasal polyps in the office.

  5. Efficacy of intranasally applied dimethindene maleate solution as spray in adult volunteers with symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in the Vienna challenge chamber.

    PubMed

    Kyrein, H J; Horak, F; Nirnberger, G; Rehn, D

    1996-08-01

    Twelve asymptomatic subjects (4 female, 8 male), being allergic to grass pollen proved by positive anamnesis, positive Prick-test and positive nasal provocation test, were challenged under controlled conditions with purified airborne grass pollen of Dactylis glomerata in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC), located at the Universitätsklinik für Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Allgemeines Krankenhaus (AKH), der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria) by means of a double-blind, randomised, cross-over design, with 2 weeks wash-out periods between. Efficacy and safety of 2 concentrations of dimethindene (dimethindene maleate; DMM, CAS 3614-69-5, Fenistil resp. Foristal) 0.025% DMM, 0.1% DMM) were tested vs placebo as negative control and vs 0.1% azelastine as positive control, as topical nasal sprays. The tested nasal sprays were applied as single doses in the morning (2 puffs = 0.28 ml of the respective solution) to each nostril 15 min before the start of the 4 h lasting provocation procedure in the VCC, thus representing a total daily dose of 0.14 mg resp. 0.56 mg DMM and 0.56 mg azelastine, respectively. Compared to placebo, the objective variables nasal flow (150 Pa., measured by active anterior rhinomanometry) and nasal secretion (g), showed similar onset of antiobstructive and antisecretory effects in the nose after 0.1% DMM and 0.1% azelastine, respectively. The same applied for the subjective nasal symptom complex and for nasal symptom scores, evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS): Time curves showed statistically significant and clinically relevant superiority of 0.1% DMM and 0.1% azelastine vs placebo, during the 4 h lasting provocation period. 0.025% DMM was not significantly different from placebo. No systemic adverse events were reported after the 4 tested preparations. Only a total of 3 subjects reported very slight local irritations (1 subject after placebo, 1 subject after 0.025% DMM and 1 subject after 0.1% azelastine). However, after 0.1% DMM no local adverse

  6. Effect on the nasal mucosa of long-term treatment with oxymetazoline, benzalkonium chloride, and placebo nasal sprays.

    PubMed

    Graf, P; Hallén, H

    1996-05-01

    A parallel, randomized, double-blind study was performed in 30 healthy subjects to investigate the effects on the nasal mucosa of a 1-month treatment with nasal sprays. Ten subjects received oxymetazoline nasal spray; 10 subjects used a nasal spray containing the preservative benzalkonium chloride, and the others were treated with a placebo nasal spray. The three variables that were studied --nasal mucosal swelling, symptom scores, and nasal reactivity-- were estimated by histamine challenge before and after 28 days of treatment. Rhinostereometry was used to measure nasal mucosal swelling and nasal reactivity. After 28 days of use, benzalkonium chloride spray alone induced an increase in nasal mucosal swelling. At the end of the month, the score for nasal stuffiness was significantly higher for the group treated with oxymetazoline than for those treated with benzalkonium chloride. Oxymetazoline nasal spray induced a pronounced increase in nasal reactivity, which was significantly greater than that induced in the placebo group. Long-term use of placebo and benzalkonium chloride nasal sprays also caused an increase in nasal reactivity, but not to the same extent as with the nasal sprays containing oxymetazoline. The authors concluded that long-term use of oxymetazoline induces a sensation of nasal stuffiness, which may be due to unconscious exaggeration of the degree of nasal stuffiness, induced nasal hyperreactivity, or a combination of both. These factors are probably the main reasons for the prolonged use of nasal decongestive sprays and the development of rhinitis medicamentosa. Benzalkonium chloride induces mucosal swelling, which explains why the presence of this preservative in a decongestant spray aggravates rhinitis medicamentosa.

  7. Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  8. Hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  9. RANS and LES simulations of the airflow through nasal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics and health problems. The long-term goal of the OpenNOSE project is to develop a reliable open-source computational tool based on the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox that can assist surgeons in their daily practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the turbulence model and boundary conditions on simulations of the airflow in nasal cavities. The geometry, including paranasal sinuses, was reconstructed from a carefully selected CT scan, and RANS and LES simulations were carried out for steady inspiration and expiration. At a flow rate near 20 l/min, the flow is laminar in most of the domain. During the inspiration phase, turbulence develops in nasopharynx and oropharynx regions; during the expiration phase, another vortical region is observed down the nostrils. A comparison between different boundary conditions suggests the use of a total pressure condition, or alternatively a uniform velocity, at the inlet and outlet. In future work the same geometry will be used for setting up a laboratory experiment, intended to cross-validate the numerical results.

  10. An evaluation of short-term corticosteroid response in perennial allergic rhinitis using histamine and adenosine monophosphate nasal challenge

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew M; Sims, Erika J; Orr, Linda C; Robb, Fiona; Lipworth, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the role of AMP nasal challenge as a measure of short-term treatment response in patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) challenge has been shown to be a good inflammatory surrogate in the lower airways, but it has not been properly evaluated as a nasal challenge test. Methods Fourteen patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) were randomized to receive 2 weeks treatment with placebo (PL) or 200 µg intranasal mometasone furoate (MF) once daily in a randomized single-blind crossover study. AMP (25–800 mg ml−1) and histamine (0.25–8 mg ml−1) nasal challenge testing were performed after each treatment period with 30% decrease in minimal cross-sectional area (MCA). Domiciliary symptom data were collected. Results There was a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in PC30 MCA and nasal volume with AMP but not with histamine comparing MF vs PL. This amounted to a 2.8 (95% CI 1.5, 4.0) and 0.7 (95% CI −0.5, 1.9) doubling-dose change for AMP and histamine challenges, respectively. There were significant (P < 0.05) improvements in nasal symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions AMP nasal challenge using acoustic rhinometry may be a useful test to assess short-term treatment response in patient with PAR. PMID:12680883

  11. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  12. Decongestant effects of nasal xylometazoline and mometasone furoate in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Martyn L; Biallosterski, Bart T; Gray, Robert D; Fardon, Tom C; Lipworth, Brian J

    2005-12-01

    Thirty-six persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) sufferers were studied, to both compare and correlate 15 minute response to nasal xylometazoline (XYLO) with 28 day response to nasal mometasone furoate (MF). 0.1% XYLO (1 spray each nostril) response was measured on two occasions, then a randomised double blind cross-over comparison of MF (200 mcg daily) to placebo conducted. Outcomes were peak nasal inspiratoly flow (PNIF), nasal forced inspiratory volume in one second (nFIV1) and nasal blockage score (NBS) improvements. Thirty-one participants completed per protocol. Within subject standard deviation for percentage improvement to XYLO was 26.0 for PNIF and 25.2 for nFIV1. Median % improvement (95%CI) in PNIF for XYLO vs. MF was 20.0 (11.4 to 31.0) vs. 9.6 (3.2 to 15.8) and in nFIV1 was 17.8 (10.0 to 28.1) vs. 3.3 (-4.3 to 19.1). XYLO effects were greater than MF (p<0.05) for PNIF, nFIV1 and NBS. There was no significant correlation of MF to XYLO improvements in PNIF, nFIV1 or NBS. In conclusion, acute reversibility to XYLO showed poor repeatability and XYLO reversibility is not predictive of decongestant response to nasal corticosteroid. XYLO was a stronger decongestant than MF but rhinitis medicamentosa still precludes any preference for long term XYLO therapy at this time. PMID:16405274

  13. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis increases nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Claire L; Hardy, Katherine J; Verlander, Neville Q; Hawkey, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococci are a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for infection in surgical patients and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a major cause of prosthetic joint infections. The impact that antibiotic surgical prophylaxis has on the nasal carriage of staphylococci has not been studied. Daily nasal swabs were taken from 63 patients who received antibiotic surgical prophylaxis and 16 patients who received no antibiotics. Total aerobic bacterial count, S. aureus and CNS were enumerated by culture from nasal swabs. Representative isolates were typed by staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRU) typing and PFGE, and MICs to nine antibiotics were determined. After antibiotic administration, there was a reduction in S. aureus counts (median - 2.3 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1)) in 64.0 % of S. aureus carriers, compared with only a 0.89 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1) reduction in 75.0 % of S. aureus carriers who did not receive antibiotics. A greater increase in the nasal carriage rate of meticillin-resistant CNS was observed after antibiotic surgical prophylaxis compared with hospitalization alone, with increases of 16.4 and 4.6 %, respectively. Antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis carriage rate increased by 16.6 % after antibiotic administration compared with 7.5 % with hospitalization alone. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis impacts the nasal carriage of both S. aureus and CNS. PMID:26445858

  14. Correlations of nasal responses to leukotriene D4 and histamine nasal provocation with quality of life in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Gao, Yi; Xia, Shu; Shi, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) greatly affect the quality of life (QoL) in the patients with AR. The correlations of nasal response to leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and histamine nasal provocation with health related QoL in AR are not clear. Objective To evaluate the correlations of nasal response to LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge with QoL in AR. Methods Patients randomly underwent LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge tests, completed the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQoLQ), and rating the symptom severity score (total symptom score 4, TSS4) in the previous week. The correlations between nasal challenge tests induced nasal responses and QoL in RQoLQ were analyzed. Results A total of 25 eligible AR patients enrolled and finished both LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge and completed the questionnaire of RQoLQ. Histamine nasal challenge induced sneezing, increased nasal resistant were correlated with most of the dimensions (general, practical, nasal, eye problems, and quality of sleep, p < 0.05), while LTD4 nasal challenge induced sneeze, increased nasal resistant only correlated with nasal and ocular problems. On the contrary, the severity of the sneeze assessed by TSS4, was not correlated with QoL, while the severity of rhinorrhea, congestion, and nasal pruritus were correlated with nasal and practical problems, and nasal congestion was also correlated with ocular problems (r = 0.60, p = 0.01). Conclusion LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge induced nasal responses were correlated with different clinical symptoms severity and QoL, which can be used as a good diagnosis and evaluation methods for the management of AR. PMID:27803885

  15. Numerical study of the effect of the nasal cycle on unilateral nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Jo, Gyehwan; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Na, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We used computational fluid dynamics to study the effects of the nasal cycle on the modification of unilateral nasal resistance using nasal cavity models from 2 different patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. A steady airflow field with an inspiratory flow rate of 250 mL/s was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT v14.5. The distribution of local unilateral nasal resistance showed different shapes of variation and magnitudes of resistance depending on the distribution of cross-sectional area in the nasal cavity models. The highest local resistance on the congested side was found near the nasal valve area in the first patient, whereas the highest value was found in the nasal vestibule for the second patient. The relative importance of nasal resistance in the turbinated air passage differed for the 2 patients. The unilateral resistance of the congested state was in the range of 0.0229-0.221 Pas/mL. In the inferior meatus, greater flow rate was allowed during the congested state than during the decongested state if an extensive backflow developed.

  16. Objective Measures in Aesthetic and Functional Nasal Surgery – Perspectives on Nasal Form and Function

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sachin S.; Garcia, Guilherme J.M.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Rhee, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The outcomes of aesthetic and functional nasal surgery are difficult to assess objectively due to the intricate balance between nasal form and function. Despite historical emphasis on patient-reported subjective measures, objective measures are gaining importance in both research and the current outcomes-driven healthcare environment. Objective measures presently available have several shortcomings which limit their routine clinical use. In particular, the low correlation between objective and subjective measures poses a major challenge. However, advances in computer, imaging, and bioengineering technology are now setting the stage for the development of innovative objective assessment tools for nasal surgery that can potentially address some of the current limitations. Assessment of nasal form following aesthetic surgery is evolving from two-dimensional analysis to more sophisticated three-dimensional analysis. Similarly, assessment of nasal function is evolving with the introduction of computational fluid dynamics techniques, which allow for a detailed description of the biophysics of nasal airflow. In this paper, we present an overview of objective measures in both aesthetic and functional nasal surgery and discuss future trends and applications that have the potential to change the way we assess nasal form and function. PMID:20665410

  17. Effects of an external nasal dilator strip (ENDS) compared to xylometazolin nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Høyvoll, L R; Lunde, K; Li, Henrik S; Dahle, S; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Steinsvåg, S K

    2007-11-01

    Nasal blockage is a common complaint in Family Practice. Decongestive nosedrops are frequently employed therapeutic measures. Due to a considerable risk of abuse and side effects, alternatives are wanted. The purpose of this study was to elucidate to what extent ENDS might represent an alternative to decongestive nose sprays (DNS). The effects of DNS (xylometazolin) and ENDS (BreatheRight) on subjective and objective nasal blockage were compared in 89 patients. Main outcome measures were recordings of nasal symptom scores on visual analogue scales (VAS), minimal cross-sectional areas (MCA) and nasal cavity volumes (NCV) as measured by acoustic rhinometry (AR), and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF). ENDS significantly increased the MCA and the NCV in the anterior 0.0-3.0 cm of the nose compared to DNS, but had no effect on MCA from 3.0 to 5.4 cm behind the nostrils. In contrast to DNS, ENDS had no effect on the posterior NCV. ENDS and DNS gave comparable increase in nasal inspiratory flow as measured by PNIF, and in the subject's own experience of nasal obstruction. ENDS may represent an alternative to DNS as a measure against nasal blockage. PMID:17530269

  18. Nasal meatus plasty: a contribution to plastic reconstruction of the nasal valve during midfacial degloving.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Kai J; Maier, Heinz; Wilde, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Midfacial degloving is a proven method for easily accessing the midface, the nasal pyramid, the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses, the orbits, as well as the anterior skull base. Indications for this method of access mainly include tumour resections in the area of the midface, the septum, the maxillary sinus, the paranasal to the sphenoidal sinus as well as the clivus. In addition, this method of access allows for the exposure of the bony structures of the midface in the event of extensive fractures. In general, this method of access combines an incision in the oral vestibule and circular incisions in the nasal vestibule area in order to release the nasal pyramid. After removing the facial wall of the maxillary sinus, extensive exposure of the surgical site is possible. One disadvantage of this method of access is the difficult reconstruction of the nasal valve area, which often leads to cicatricial stenoses and difficulties with breathing through the nose. Furthermore, wound healing problems and osteoradionecrosis in the area of the lateral margin of the anterior nasal aperture after replantation of the facial wall of the maxillary sinus have been described, because in this area sufficient soft tissue coverage cannot be ensured when a conventional technique is used. We describe a soft tissue flap pedicled in the cranial and caudal directions in the nasal valve area which makes both the reconstruction of the nasal vestibule and sufficient soft tissue coverage of the anterior nasal aperture possible. PMID:26504717

  19. [A case of nasal tip necrosis after hyaluronic acid injection].

    PubMed

    Honart, J-F; Duron, J-B; Mazouz Dorval, S; Rausky, J; Revol, M

    2013-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the most used dermal filler. Some complications associated with its use have been described, but most of them are rare and benign. We report an exceptional case of skin necrosis of the tip of the nose, in a 22-year-old patient, after HA injection. The initial appearance may occurred subsequent aesthetic sequels. After necrotic tissue excision, patient was followed in rapid succession. Daily local care has led to wound healing, without any important sequel. This rare complication reminds us that HA injections are not without risk, despite their apparent simplicity of use. Moreover, the case presented confirms the potential healing of the nasal tip, allowing treatment with wound healing, rather than other early invasive procedure.

  20. Effects of nasal allergen challenge on dynamic viscoelasticity of nasal mucus.

    PubMed

    Hattori, M; Majima, Y; Ukai, K; Sakakura, Y

    1993-04-01

    The effects of nasal provocation on the rheologic properties of nasal mucus were investigated in patients with allergic rhinitis provoked by house dust. The elastic modulus (G') and the dynamic viscosity (eta') of nasal mucus were determined by an oscillating sphere magnetic rheometer. Before and after the allergen challenge, G' increased, whereas eta' decreased with increasing oscillatory frequency; these findings indicate that the nasal mucus under these conditions is a non-newtonian fluid and has the cross-linked gel-like nature typical of mucus. Both G' and eta' values after nasal provocation were significantly lower than before. The values of G' and eta' after allergen challenge were in the optimal viscoelasticity range for mucociliary transport. PMID:8476173

  1. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-01-01

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health. PMID:24713325

  2. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-04-08

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  3. Histamine, norepinephrine and serotonin content of nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Bumsted, R M; El-Ackad, T; Smith, J M; Brody, M J

    1979-05-01

    Histamine, norepinephrine and serotonin were assayed and localized by fluorescence histochemistry in normal mucosa and nasal polyps because of their possible role in the development of inflammation and edema. Histamine was present in greater concentration in nasal polyps than in normal mucosa. Norepinephrine was present primarily in the base of nasal polyps and in greater concentration than in normal mucosa. Patients with aspirin sensitivity and asthma had much lower histamine concentrations in their nasal polyps than all other patients with nasal polyps. A proposal for a possible mechanism of formation of nasal polyps based on vascular and inflammatory mechanisms and incorporative roles for histamine and norepinephrine is presented.

  4. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-06-16

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection.

  5. Nasal Involvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Daniel de Sousa; Rodrigues, Amanda da Mota Silveira; Nakanishi, Márcio; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological treatment presents some beneficial effects on the frequency of respiratory events and sleep architecture. Nonetheless, objective data assessing snoring and daytime sleepiness are still necessary. Nasal surgery can improve the quality of life and snoring in a select group of patients with mild OSAS and septal deviation but is not an effective treatment for OSA as such. Despite the conflicting results in the literature, it is important that patients who are not perfectly adapted to CPAP are evaluated in detail, in order to identify whether there are obstructive factors that could be surgically corrected. PMID:25548569

  6. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  7. Septoplasty and decongestant improve distribution of nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jiaoping; Fan, Yunping; Feng, Shaoyan; Xia, Wentong; Wang, Jingqing; Li, Huabin

    2011-12-01

    This study prospectively examined the intranasal distribution of nasal spray after nasal septal correction and decongestant administration. A cohort of 20 patients was assessed for the distribution of nasal spray before and after nasal septum surgery. Sprays were dyed and administered one puff per nostril when patients hold their head up in an upright position. Before and after decongestant administration, the intranasal distribution was semi-quantitatively determined by nasal endoscopy. The results showed that the dyed drug was preferentially sprayed onto the nasal vestibule, the head of the inferior turbinate, the anterior part of septum and nasal floor. As far as the anterior-inferior segment of the nasal cavity was concerned, the distribution was found to be influenced neither by the decongestant nor by the surgery (P>0.05). However, both the decongestant and surgery expanded the distribution to the anatomical structures in the superior and posterior nasal cavity such as olfactory fissure, middle turbinate head and middle nasal meatus. No distribution was observed in the sphenoethmoidal recess, posterior septum, tail of inferior turbinate and nasopharynx. It was concluded that nasal septum surgery and decongestant administration significantly improves nasal spray distribution in the nasal cavity. PMID:22173509

  8. Decongestion effect and rebound swelling of the nasal mucosa during 4-week use of oxymetazoline.

    PubMed

    Graf, P; Juto, J E

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term use of oxymetazoline induces a rebound swelling of the nasal mucosa and whether the decongestion effect is altered during medication. Eight healthy volunteers had oxymetazoline nasal spray (0.5 mg/ml; 0.1 ml in each nostril, three times daily) for 30 days and registrations of the mucosal surface positions were made using rhinostereometry. Compared to the registrations before the start of medication, no rebound swelling was registered after 10 days. After 30 days, however, a rebound swelling was registered in all subjects (p < 0.001). All of them, then, also reported nasal stuffiness. The decongested position of the nasal mucosa after one single dose of oxymetazoline was the same in the whole study. It is concluded that rhinitis medicamentosa develops after a relatively short time on oxymetazoline, even in healthy volunteers, and that the swelling probably is due to a vasodilatation rather than an edema. The study supports the recommendation that the drug should not be used over periods > 10 days.

  9. The relationship between particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage and nasal passage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, J; Bascom, R; Laube, B; Swift, D L

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nasal passage characteristics on anterior particle deposition during cyclical breathing. Forty healthy, nonsmoking, adult subjects participated in this study. Nasal passage characteristics such as nostril length, width, angle, ellipticity, and minimum nasal cross-sectional area were measured. The subjects inhaled a polydisperse radioactively tagged aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter = 5.4 microns, geometric standard deviation [GSD] = 1.3) into the nose and exhaled through the mouth. The amount of radioactivity in the nose was measured immediately after inhalation and thereafter for 54 minutes. At 52.5 minutes, subjects wiped the accessible portion of the anterior nose to remove any remaining activity. The difference in activity at 52 and 54 minutes was used as a measure of activity removed during the nose wipe. Percentage of activity in the nasal passage at 52 minutes and percentage of activity removed with the nose wipe were considered surrogates for particles deposited in the anterior nasal passage. A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree of ellipticity of the nostrils was significantly related to particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage. These results suggest that ellipticity of the nostrils may be a determinant of the amount of particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage.

  10. CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159535.html CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective Agency advisors say the product has lost ... without the easier, nasal spray form of flu vaccine next flu season, a panel of experts decided ...

  11. Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine Shot far more effective against current influenza strains, ... 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The nasal spray flu vaccine is ineffective and should not be used in ...

  12. Measuring and Characterizing the Human Nasal Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kahana-Zweig, Roni; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Weissbrod, Aharon; Secundo, Lavi; Soroker, Nachum; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Nasal airflow is greater in one nostril than in the other because of transient asymmetric nasal passage obstruction by erectile tissue. The extent of obstruction alternates across nostrils with periodicity referred to as the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is related to autonomic arousal and is indicative of asymmetry in brain function. Moreover, alterations in nasal cycle periodicity have been linked to various diseases. There is therefore need for a tool allowing continuous accurate measurement and recording of airflow in each nostril separately. Here we provide detailed instructions for constructing such a tool at minimal cost and effort. We demonstrate application of the tool in 33 right-handed healthy subjects, and derive several statistical measures for nasal cycle characterization. Using these measures applied to 24-hour recordings we observed that: 1: subjects spent slightly longer in left over right nostril dominance (left = 2.63 ± 0.89 hours, right = 2.17 ± 0.89 hours, t(32) = 2.07, p < 0.05), 2: cycle duration was shorter in wake than in sleep (wake = 2.02 ± 1.7 hours, sleep = 4.5 ± 1.7 hours, (t(30) = 5.73, p < 0.0001). 3: slower breathing was associated with a more powerful cycle (the extent of difference across nostrils) (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), and 4: the cycle was influenced by body posture such that lying on one side was associated with greater flow in the contralateral nostril (p < 0.002). Finally, we provide evidence for an airflow cycle in each nostril alone. These results provide characterization of an easily obtained measure that may have diagnostic implications for neurological disease and cognitive state. PMID:27711189

  13. Hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronidases in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Panogeorgou, T; Tserbini, E; Filou, S; Vynios, D H; Naxakis, S S; Papadas, T A; Goumas, P D; Mastronikolis, N S

    2016-07-01

    Nasal polyps (NPs) are benign lesions of nasal and paranasal sinuses mucosa affecting 1-4 % of all adults. Nasal polyposis affects the quality of patient's life as it causes nasal obstruction, postnasal drainage, purulent nasal discharge, hyposmia or anosmia, chronic sinusitis, facial pain and snoring. Without treatment, the disease can alter the craniofacial skeleton in cases of extended growth of polyps. The development of NPs is caused by the hyperplasia of nasal or paranasal sinuses mucosa, and edema of extracellular matrix. This is usually the result of high concentration of high molecular mass hyaluronan (HA) which is either overproduced or accumulated from blood supply. The size of HA presents high diversity and, especially in pathologic conditions, chains of low molecular mass can be observed. In NPs, chains of about 200 kDa have been identified and considered to be responsible for the inflammation. The purpose of the present study was the investigation, in NPs and normal nasal mucosa (NM), of the expression of the wild-type and alternatively spliced forms of hyaluronidases, their immunolocalization, and the expression of HA synthases to examine the isoform(s) responsible for the increased amounts of HA in NPs. Hyaluronidases' presence was examined on mRNA (RT-PCR analysis) and protein (immunohistochemistry) levels. Hyaluronan synthases' presence was examined on mRNA levels. Hyaluronidases were localized in the cytoplasm of epithelial and inflammatory cells, as well as in the matrix. On mRNA level, it was found that hyal-1-wt was decreased in NPs compared to NM and hyal-1-v3, -v4 and -v5 were substantially increased. Moreover, HAS2 and HAS3 were the only hyaluronan synthases detected, the expression of which was almost similar in NPs and NM. Overall, the results of the present study support that hyaluronidases are the main enzymes responsible for the decreased size of hyaluronan observed in NPs; thus they behave as inflammatory agents. Therefore, they

  14. Nasal phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis.

    PubMed

    Koshi, G; Anandi, V; Kurien, M; Kirubakaran, M G; Padhye, A A; Ajello, L

    1987-12-01

    A bilateral nasal phaeohyphomycotic infection caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis in an immunocompromised woman from India is described. Repeated direct microscopic examinations of the nasal scrapings revealed the presence of septate, branched, pigmented hyphal fragments intermingled with cells that divided internally by one transverse septum and a few cells that were chestnut brown dividing internally by septa in different planes to become muriform. Cultures of the scrapings yielded B. hawaiiensis. Local excision of the crusted lesion followed by application of 0.03% nystatin solution four times a day for 3 weeks cured the infection. PMID:3325631

  15. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis. PMID:27366187

  16. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis.

  17. Absorption of acetylsalicylic acid from the rat nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A A; Iseki, K; Kagoshima, M; Dittert, L W

    1992-04-01

    The fate of salicylate in the plasma of rats was followed after nasal, intravenous, and oral administration of 2.0-mg doses of aspirin. Aspirin was well absorbed following nasal administration of a neutralized, nonirritating solution containing triethanolamine. The rate of absorption was slower than that of other nasally administered drugs, such as propranolol or progesterone. The bioavailability of aspirin following nasal administration was 100%, whereas the oral bioavailability was only 58.8% at the dose studied. PMID:1501071

  18. Underlying Phoneme Velar Nasal with Lip Rounding in Hueyapan Nahuatl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, R. Joe

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are given for the idea that Hueyapan (Morelos) Nahuatl has an underlying velar nasal with lip rounding phoneme which never has the surface reflex of a rounded velar nasal allophone, but occurs phonetically as a velar nasal allophone or a labial dental voiced allophone or disappears. (SCC)

  19. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  20. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  1. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...

  2. Entendre, lire et prononcer les voyelles nasales (Hearing, Reading, and Pronouncing Nasal Vowels).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noir, Pascal; Peifer, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Describes techniques used for teaching French language students to recognize, discriminate between, and pronounce the four French nasal vowels. Includes twenty tongue-twisting sentences exemplifying the different vowels. (MSE)

  3. Risk factors for nasal malignancies in German men: the South-German Nasal cancer study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are few studies of the effects of nasal snuff and environmental factors on the risk of nasal cancer. This study aimed to investigate the impact of using nasal snuff and of other risk factors on the risk of nasal cancer in German men. Methods A population-based case–control study was conducted in the German Federal States of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. Tumor registries and ear, nose and throat departments provided access to patients born in 1926 or later. Results Telephone interviews were conducted with 427 cases (mean age 62.1 years) and 2.401 population-based controls (mean age 60.8 years). Ever-use of nasal snuff was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for nasal cancer of 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–2.38) in the total study population, whereas OR in smokers was 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.02) and in never smokers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.43–2.80). The OR in ever-smokers vs. never-smokers was 1.60 (95% CI 1.24–2.07), with an OR of 1.06 (95% CI 1.05–1.07) per pack-year smoked, and the risk was significantly decreased after quitting smoking. Exposure to hardwood dust for at least 1 year resulted in an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.40–3.91) in the total population, which was further increased in never-smokers (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.92–12.49) in analyses stratified by smoking status. The OR for nasal cancer after exposure to organic solvents for at least 1 year was 1.53 (1.17–2.01). Ever-use of nasal sprays/nasal lavage for at least 1 month rendered an OR of 1.59 (1.04–2.44). The OR after use of insecticides in homes was 1.48 (95% CI 1.04–2.11). Conclusions Smoking and exposure to hardwood dust were confirmed as risk factors for nasal carcinoma. There is evidence that exposure to organic solvents, and in-house use of insecticides could represent novel risk factors. Exposure to asbestos and use of nasal snuff were risk factors in smokers only. PMID:23130889

  4. Randomized placebo-controlled study comparing a leukotriene receptor antagonist and a nasal glucocorticoid in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Pullerits, T; Praks, L; Skoogh, B E; Ani, R; Lötvall, J

    1999-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder associated with local leukotriene release during periods of symptoms. Therefore, it has been suggested that antileukotrienes may be beneficial in the treatment of this disease. Leukotriene receptor antagonists have recently become available for asthma treatment, but little is known of their effects on allergic rhinitis. We have evaluated the effects of the leukotriene receptor antagonist zafirlukast versus placebo in patients with allergic rhinitis during the grass pollen season, using the nasal glucocorticoid beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) as a positive treatment control. Thirty-three patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis were in a double-blind, double-dummy fashion randomized to treatments with oral zafirlukast (20 mg twice a day), intranasal beclomethasone dipropionate (200 microg twice a day), or placebo. The treatment was initiated 3 wk prior to the expected beginning of the grass pollen season. Patients completed a daily symptom-score list for sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal itch, and nasal blockage during the 50-d treatment period. Nasal biopsies for quantification of local tissue eosinophilia (immunohistochemistry; EG2) were taken 1 mo before initiation of treatment and immediately after the peak of grass pollen season. Patients receiving treatment with zafirlukast had degrees of nasal symptoms similar to those in the placebo group, whereas the BDP group had significantly less symptoms compared with both treatments (p = 0.01 and p = 0.005, respectively). The numbers of activated eosinophils in the nasal tissue increased significantly during the pollen season in both the zafirlukast and the placebo groups, but not in the BDP group. These results obtained with a limited number of patients do not support any clinical efficacy of regular treatment with an oral antileukotriene in seasonal allergic rhinitis but rather favor the use of a nasal glucocorticoid. PMID:10351924

  5. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  6. [Nasal drops addiction--the case report].

    PubMed

    Korzeniowska, Katarzyna; Simon, Karolina; Jabłecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the case of 34-years old man, who has used nasal drops with xylomethazoline for three years. Health consequence of uncontrolled use of the drops and treatment were prescribed. Described problem confirms the need of physicians and pharmacists cooperation to limit the problem of drug-addiction. PMID:23421118

  7. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    Using Nasal Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a ... Breathe in quickly while squeezing down on the pump bottle one time. Repeat in other nostril. Do ...

  8. Coblation nasal septal swell body reduction for treatment of nasal obstruction: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Jeong; Kim, Hee Tae; Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon; Bae, Jung Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present the results of coblation nasal septal swell body (NSB) reduction for the treatment of nasal obstruction in patients with abnormally thickened NSB. The study design was a retrospective clinical series conducted at a single tertiary medical center. Eight patients underwent coblation NSB reduction. Pre-operative and post-operative nasal functions were evaluated by acoustic rhinometry and subjective symptom scales. We also analyzed pre-operative CT scan images and nasal endoscopic findings. The mean maximal NSB width was 16.4 ± 2.2 mm on pre-operative coronal CT scan images. The mean visual analog scale score for nasal obstruction was decreased from preoperative 7.63 ± 0.99 points to 3.88 ± 0.92 points (postoperative 3 months), 4.16 ± 0.78 points (postoperative 6 months), and 4.63 ± 0.69 points (postoperative 1 year). Six out of the eight patients were satisfied with the clinical outcome at 1 year after the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, coblation NSB reduction has not yet been reported in the medical literature. Our results show that it can be an effective treatment modality for nasal valve narrowing in patients with abnormally thickened NSB.

  9. Frontal mucocoele secondary to nasal polyposis: an unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Chew, Y K; Noorizan, Y; Khir, A; Brito-Mutunayagam, S; Prepageran, N

    2009-11-01

    The incidence of mucocoeles associated with a non-surgically treated nasal polyposis is rare. We report a rare case of nasal polyposis with asymptomatic frontal mucocoeles in a 28-year-old Malay man who presented with bilateral nasal obstruction with anosmia. Physical examination revealed bilateral grade III nasal polyps causing obstruction. Computed tomography revealed paranasal polyposis with a large polyp extending and expanding the posterior table of the frontal sinus causing erosion and thinning of its wall. Marsupialisation of the mucocoele and nasal polypectomy were done. Endoscopic sinus surgery and marsupialisation should be the treatment of choice for asymptomatic frontal mucocoele.

  10. Effect of environmental contaminants on nasal lysozyme secretions.

    PubMed

    Noble, Rudolf E

    2002-02-01

    Human nasal secretions are comprised of lysozyme and albumin as their main protein components. Lysozyme, an anti-microbial substance, is produced by nasal serous cells while albumin is obtained, primarily, from increased nasal vasculature permeability. We measured lysozyme levels in nasal secretions following challenge by a variety of non-infectious environmental contaminants. The methodology given presents a simple and rapid method of collecting nasal secretions and determining their lysozyme content, a technique which can be used for a host of environmental irritants.

  11. Nasal Vestibular Furunculosis Presenting as the Rudolph Sign.

    PubMed

    Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kilic, Korhan; Ucuncu, Harun

    2015-09-01

    Nasal furunculosis is a deep infection of hair follicle within the nasal vestibule. In this report, the authors presented a 49-year-old woman with 4-day history of focal red area and tender swelling on the tip of her nose. On physical examination, together with a swelling at nasal vestibulum, erythema, and edema on the skin of nasal tip were observed, which is called the Rudolph Sign. The patient was treated with intranasal topical mupirocin and oral sodium fusidate. Because nasal furunculosis may lead to serious complications such as ophthalmic vein thrombosis and cavernous sinus thrombosis, early diagnosis and effective treatment is essential. PMID:26335324

  12. External Fixation of Unstable, “Flail” Nasal Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Anastassov, George E.; Payami, Ali; Manji, Zain

    2012-01-01

    Nasal bone fractures are the most common among facial fractures. Usually these are adequately treated with closed reduction and internal and/or external stabilization with splints. However, there are clinical situations where the nasal bones are severely displaced, the nasal septum fractured and displaced, or there are external drape lacerations which preclude the use of nasal splints. If the nasal bones are reducible but unstable we consider them “flail” and in this case transmucosal, endonasal Kirschner wires are used for dorsal support until sufficient healing occurs. The technique is simple, quick, and predictable and causes minimal discomfort to the patients. PMID:23730426

  13. Pleomorphic adenoma originates from inferior nasal turbinate causing epiphora.

    PubMed

    Erol, Bekir; Selçuk, Ömer Tarik; Gürses, Cemil; Osma, Üstün; Köroğlu, Mert; Süren, Dinç

    2013-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands. A 62-year-old female patient presented with epiphora and was suffering from breathing difficulties. With the diagnostic nasal endoscopy, a mass, originating from right inferior nasal turbinate and filling the entire nasal cavity, was seen. Originating from the inferior nasal turbinate is a very rare entity. Paranasal sinus computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed a mass that fills and expands the right nasal cavity. Mass was hypoechoic in B-mode ultrasonography and hypovascular in color Doppler ultrasonography, and rate of tissue stiffness was high in sonoelastography. These were helpful for the diagnosis.

  14. Free Auricular Composite Graft for Acquired Nasal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Charles A.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Gray, Mingyang Liu; Graham, H. Devon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acquired nasal stenosis poses a reconstructive challenge for the facial plastic surgeon. Many surgical options are available, ranging from primary closure to skin grafts to free flap reconstruction for complex defects. The free auricular composite graft is a single-stage procedure that can be used to repair nasal vestibular stenosis causing nasal obstruction. Case Report: We present the case of a patient with acquired nasal stenosis as a result of prolonged nasal tampon placement secondary to severe epistaxis and subsequent nasal vestibular infection. Repair via auricular composite graft was successful, and we provide a thorough explanation of graft design and operative technique. Conclusion: Free auricular composite grafts can produce desirable functional and aesthetic outcomes and should be considered in patients presenting with acquired nasal stenosis. PMID:27303225

  15. Alae nasi activation and nasal resistance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Strohl, K P; O'Cain, C F; Slutsky, A S

    1982-06-01

    To investigate the effect of alae nasi (AN) activation on nasal resistance, we monitored AN electromyographic (EMG) activity in 17 healthy subjects using surface electrodes placed on either side of the external nares and measured inspiratory nasal resistance utilizing the method of posterior rhinometry. With CO2 inhalation (6 subj), AN EMG activity increased as nasal resistance fell 23 +/- 5% (P less than 0.01). In the same subjects, voluntary flaring of the external nares also increased AN EMG and decreased nasal resistance by 29 +/- 5% (P less than 0.01). Nasal resistance was altered by nasal flaring and CO2 inhalation even after administration of a topical nasal vasoconstrictive spray (8 subj). In six subjects, voluntary nasal flaring or inhibition with the mouth closed produced a 21 +/- 12% change (P less than 0.01) in total airway resistance as measured by body plethysmography. We conclude that activation of the alae nasi will decrease nasal and total airway resistance during voluntary nasal flaring and during CO2 inhalation and thus should be considered in any studies of upper airway resistance.

  16. Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    London, Nyall R; Reh, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    Nasal polyps are semi-translucent mucosal outgrowths of the paranasal sinuses which typically arise in the setting of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Nasal polyps are also associated with asthma, aspirin sensitivity, cystic fibrosis and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFS). The majority of nasal polyps are bilateral and characterized by tissue edema and eosinophil infiltration. Patients with nasal polyps often present with complaints including nasal obstruction, congestion, rhinorrhea or altered sense of smell. The differential diagnosis ranges from benign masses such as schneiderian papilloma, antrochoanal polyp, angiofibroma and encephalocele to malignant neoplasms such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), esthesioneuroblastoma, nasal lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. These lesions may have a similar appearance as nasal polyps and particular attention to an alternative diagnosis for nasal polyps should be entertained if the mass is unilateral or congenital in nature. Workup for patients with a unilateral mass should include radiographic imaging, possible biopsy and careful follow-up when appropriate. Here, we review the disease etiology of nasal polyps and describe the approach to the patient with nasal polyps with emphasis on differential diagnosis and workup. PMID:27466841

  17. Patient experience with mupirocin or povidone-iodine nasal decolonization.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Jed; Hutzler, Lorraine; Cuff, Germaine; Rosenberg, Andrew; Phillips, Michael; Bosco, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Led by the federal government, the payers of health care are enacting policies designed to base provider reimbursement on the quality of care they render. This study evaluated and compared patient experiences and satisfaction with nasal decolonization with either nasal povidone-iodine (PI) or nasal mupirocin ointment (MO). A total of 1903 patients were randomized to undergo preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal MO or PI solution. All randomized patients were also given 2% chlorhexidine gluconate topical wipes. Patients were interviewed prior to discharge to assess adverse events and patient experience with their assigned preoperative antiseptic protocol. Of the 1903 randomized patients, 1679 (88.1%) were interviewed prior to discharge. Of patients receiving PI, 3.4% reported an unpleasant or very unpleasant experience, compared with 38.8% of those using nasal MO (P<.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients using nasal MO believed it to be somewhat or very helpful in reducing surgical site infections, compared with 71% of patients receiving PI (P>.05). Being recruited as an active participant in surgical site infection prevention was a positive experience for 87.2% of MO patients and 86.3% of PI patients (P=.652). Those assigned to receive PI solution preoperatively reported significantly fewer adverse events than the nasal MO group (P<.01). Preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal PI or MO was considered somewhat or very helpful by more than two-thirds of patients. PMID:24972440

  18. Airflow patterns in a human nasal model

    SciTech Connect

    Hornung, D.E.; Leopold, D.A.; Youngentob, S.L.; Sheehe, P.R.; Gagne, G.M.; Thomas, F.D.; Mozell, M.M.

    1987-02-01

    Nasal airflow patterns were studied by using xenon 133 gas to image the course taken by air as it flowed through a plastic model of the human nasal cavity. The model was produced from the head of a human cadaver, and was anatomically correct. A needle catheter was used to infuse the radioactive xenon into a continuous flow of room air maintained through the model by a variable vacuum source connected to the nasopharynx. The radioactive gas was infused at one of five release sites in the nostril, and the distribution of the radioactivity was imaged in the sagittal plane with a scintillation camera. The data were organized to show the activity in six contiguous regions of the midnose. For each catheter, release site activity patterns were determined for three flow rates. The results of this experiment showed that both catheter position and flow rate had significant and reproducible effects on the distribution of radioactivity within the model.

  19. Surgery of the nasal septum and turbinates

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The following article presents nasal septum and turbinate surgery. First an overview with special consideration of the anatomical and physiological background is given followed by indications for surgical procedures. Key steps of the gold standard procedure first described by Cottle and common variations are presented. Furthermore, some techniques dealing with special problems of the septumplasty are discussed followed by an overview on complications and long term results. However, it should be mentioned that studies on surgical procedures of the nasal septum are still not sufficient as higher evidence levels are very rare. Within a separated chapter techniques for closure of septum perforations are presented and indications particularly in the background of the standard procedure of bridge flaps forwarded by Schultz-Coulon are discussed. The second part focusses on turbinate surgery. Accordingly, anatomical and physiological basics are presented followed by indications for surgical procedures and the surgical steps of different procedures as well as postsurgical treatment and long term results. PMID:22073086

  20. Assessment of the effect of deviated nasal septum on the structure of nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junguo; Dou, Xin; Liu, Dingding; Song, Panpan; Qian, Xiaoyun; Wang, Shoulin; Gao, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of DNS on the structure of nasal cavity. The paranasal sinus coronal view CT of 108 patients with DNS and 129 hospitalized patients without DNS was retrospectively analyzed. The transverse diameter of nasal cavity (a), transverse diameter of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (b), angle between maxillary and palatal bone, interalveolar distance, and maxillary rotation distance were measured. The ratio of a/b in experimental group was 0.367 ± 0.006 which was significantly (P = 0.0023) less than that in control group (0.391 ± 0.005). For the angle between maxillary and palatal bone, there was no significant difference found between DNS and control group for both right and left sides. The interalveolar distance was 40.75 mm in experimental group, and 38.8 mm in control (P = 0.0002). For the maxillary rotation distance, findings were considered as significant (P < 0.0001) in experimental group (11.25 mm) compared with control (10.1 mm). The present study demonstrates that long-term DNS affects the development of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, as well as increases the interalveolar distance and maxillary rotation distance. These influences may be caused by the alteration of airflow inside the nasal cavities.

  1. Superficial nasal mucosal blood flow and nasal patency following topical oxymetazoline hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Witek, T J; Canestrari, D A; Hernandez, J R; Miller, R D; Yang, J Y; Riker, D K

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 60 micrograms oxymetazoline on nasal mucosal blood flow (NMBF) measured by laser Doppler velocimetry. Nasal airflow (measured by anterior rhinomanometry) and subjectively perceived airflow (measured by visual analog scales) were also evaluated. A reduction of NMBF (mL/100 g tissue/min) was observed following local application of 60 micrograms oxymetazoline that was not observed after the vehicle was applied. For example, NMBF at baseline was measured at 78.8 +/- 10.3 mL/100 g tissue/min (mean +/- SEM). During the five minutes following vehicle application, mean values remained at 81.8 +/- 8.8 mL/100 g tissue/min. Five minutes after topical oxymetazoline treatment, NMBF was reduced 49% to 38.3 +/- 10.2 mL/100 g tissue/min. Nasal airflow (mL/sec), which was measured before and after LDV probe placement, was not significantly increased in either the ipsilateral (281.4 +/- 33.1 to 314.3 +/- 31.6) or contralateral nostril (335.7 +/- 26.9 to 262.1 +/- 36.4), probably due to the limited surface application of drug. Subjective assessments of congestion by both the investigator and the subject showed significant improvements in the ipsilateral nostril. We conclude that, under the conditions of our study, localized application of 60 micrograms oxymetazoline significantly reduces superficial nasal blood flow and provides subjectively perceived improvements in nasal stuffiness.

  2. Misuse of xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Salamon, Marek; Habrat, Boguslaw; Scinska, Anna; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2008-12-01

    Six male prisoners who misused xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation were interviewed by a prison physician in 2006. The prisoners received xylometazoline drops during regular visits in the prison ambulatory service. In order to get the medication, the subjects reported false symptoms of rhinosinusitis and allergic reactions. Psychoactive effects of inhaled xylometazoline were described as "stimulation," "excitation," and "feeling of strength." Although preliminary, our findings suggest that topical adrenergic decongestants can produce rewarding effects when administered by inhalation. PMID:19085441

  3. Targeted Lung Delivery of Nasally Administered Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2014-01-01

    Using the nasal route to deliver pharmaceutical aerosols to the lungs has a number of advantages including co-administration during non-invasive ventilation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and deposition characteristics of nasally administered aerosol throughout the conducting airways based on delivery with streamlined interfaces implementing two forms of controlled condensational growth technology. Characteristic conducting airways were considered including a nose-mouth-throat (NMT) geometry, complete upper tracheobronchial (TB) model through the third bifurcation (B3), and stochastic individual path (SIP) model to the terminal bronchioles (B15). Previously developed streamlined nasal cannula interfaces were used for the delivery of submicrometer particles using either enhanced condensational growth (ECG) or excipient enhanced growth (EEG) techniques. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations predicted aerosol transport, growth and deposition for a control (4.7 μm) and three submicrometer condensational aerosols with budesonide as a model insoluble drug. Depositional losses with condensational aerosols in the cannula and NMT were less than 5% of the initial dose, which represents an order-of-magnitude reduction compared to the control. The condensational growth techniques increased the TB dose by a factor of 1.1–2.6x, delivered at least 70% of the dose to the alveolar region, and produced final aerosol sizes ≥2.5 μm. Compared to multiple commercial orally inhaled products, the nose-to-lung delivery approach increased dose to the biologically important lower TB region by factors as large as 35x. In conclusion, nose-to-lung delivery with streamlined nasal cannulas and condensational aerosols was highly efficient and targeted deposition to the lower TB and alveolar regions. PMID:24932058

  4. [Myoepithelioma of nasal cavity: a case report].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Tu, Xiang; Jiang, Hongqun

    2015-03-01

    Myoepithelioma is an uncommon benign tumor that most likely occurs in the salivary gland. Extra-salivary myoepithelioma are sporadic and rare, especially the quantities occur in the sinonasal cavity are fewer in related literature reported. In this paper, we present a rare case of benign myoepithelioma that occurred in the nasal cavity, and the related process of pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  5. Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Jassar, P; Stafford, N D; MacDonald, A W

    1999-05-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest benign tumour of the major salivary glands. It can also occur in minor salivary glands, mainly in the oral cavity, but also in other sites in the head and neck both within and outwith the upper aerodigestive tract. We present a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum with consideration of the clinical management and a review of the literature.

  6. Naphazoline nasal drops intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    Vitezić, D; Rozmanić, V; Franulović, J; Ahel, V; Matesić, D

    1994-03-01

    Naphazoline, a sympathomimetic and an imidazoline derivative, is used as 0.05-0.1% solution for local decongestion of the nasal and ocular mucosa. In excessive dosage, or if ingested by accident, may cause depression of the central nervous system (disturbances of consciousness progressing to coma), hypothermia, bradycardia and sweating. These naphazoline effects are particularly strongly pronounced in children. Anglo-Saxon pharmacotherapy excludes the application of naphazoline nasal drops in children younger than six years, whereas the Croatian pharmacotherapeutic literature (and practice) allows its use even in infancy. At the Kantrida Paediatric Clinic, Clinical Hospital Centre in Rijeka, 11 children with signs of intoxication with naphazoline nasal drops were hospitalized from 1990 to 1992. The symptoms pertaining to the central nervous system i.e. disturbances of consciousness in the form of somnolence were clearly marked in all children. Some children developed skin pallor, bradycardia, bradypnoea and hypothermia. Resolution occurred within 24 hours and the findings returned to normal values. Clinical picture followed by rapid resolution and normal findings, with a personal history of drug taking, is a safe indication for diagnosis. There are several reasons to account for intoxication (drops difficult to use with children, containers inadequate for proper dosage), but the major factor is the age of the patient--all hospitalized children were younger than six years. It is pointed out that administration of naphazoline drops at an early age is not advisable.

  7. Minimally Invasive Procedures for Nasal Aesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Redaelli, Alessio; Limardo, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Nose has an important role in the aesthetics of face. It is easy to understand the reason of the major interest that has revolved around the correction of its imperfections for several centuries, or even from the ancient times. In the last decade, all the surgical or medical minimal-invasive techniques evolved exponentially. The techniques of rejuvenation and corrections of nasal imperfections did not escape this development that is much widespread in the medicine of the third millennium. In many cases, the techniques of surgical correction involve invasive procedure that necessitates, for the majority of cases, hospitalisation. The author, using a different approach, has developed mini-invasive techniques using botulinum toxin A (BTxA) and absorbable fillers for the correction of nasal imperfections. BTxA allows to reduce the imperfections due to hypertension of muscles, while the absorbable fillers allow to correct all the imperfections of the nasal profile from the root to the tip in total safety. The correction is based on the precise rules that allow avoiding the majority of side effects. Results are long lasting and well appreciated by patients. PMID:23060706

  8. Surgical Nasal Implants: Indications and Risks.

    PubMed

    Genther, Dane J; Papel, Ira D

    2016-10-01

    Rhinoplasty often requires the use of grafting material, and the goal of the specific graft dictates the ideal characteristics of the material to be used. An ideal material would be biologically inert, resistant to infection, noncarcinogenic, nondegradable, widely available, cost-effective, readily modifiable, and easily removable, have compatible biomechanical characteristics, retain physical properties over time, and not migrate. Unfortunately, no material currently in existence meets all of these criteria. In modern rhinoplasty, autologous grafts are the gold standard against which all other nasal implants are measured and offer the safest long-term results for most patients. They are easily manipulated, have inherent stability and biomechanical characteristics similar to the native nasal framework, and confer minimal risk of complications. Modern homologous and alloplastic materials have gained considerable support in recent years because they are readily available in endless quantity, do not require a second surgical site for harvest, and are generally considered safe if most circumstances, but they confer additional risk and have biomechanical characteristics different from that of the native nasal framework. To address some of these issues, we provide a contemporary review of autologous, homologous, and alloplastic materials commonly used in rhinoplasty surgery. PMID:27680520

  9. Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females. PMID:23840279

  10. Satratoxin-G from the black mold Stachybotrys chartarum induces rhinitis and apoptosis of olfactory sensory neurons in the nasal airways of rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Carey, Stephan A; Plopper, Charles G; Hyde, Dallas M; Islam, Zahidul; Pestka, James J; Harkema, Jack R

    2012-08-01

    Satratoxin-G (SG) is a trichothecene mycotoxin of Stachybotrys chartarum, the black mold suggested to contribute etiologically to illnesses associated with water-damaged buildings. We have reported that intranasal exposure to SG evokes apoptosis of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and acute inflammation in the nose and brain of laboratory mice. To further assess the potential human risk of nasal airway injury and neurotoxicity, we developed a model of SG exposure in monkeys, whose nasal airways more closely resemble those of humans. Adult, male rhesus macaques received a single intranasal instillation of 20 µg SG (high dose, n = 3), or 5 µg SG daily for four days (repeated low dose, n = 3) in one nasal passage, and saline vehicle in the contralateral nasal passage. Nasal tissues were examined using light and electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. SG induced acute rhinitis, atrophy of the olfactory epithelium (OE), and apoptosis of OSNs in both groups. High-dose and repeated low-dose SG elicited a 13% and 66% reduction in OSN volume density, and a 14-fold and 24-fold increase in apoptotic cells of the OE, respectively. This model provides new insight into the potential risk of nasal airway injury and neurotoxicity caused by exposure to water-damaged buildings.

  11. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  12. Postrhinoplasty nasal cysts and the use of petroleum-based ointments and nasal packing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Edmund S; Kridel, Russell W H

    2003-07-01

    Nasal cysts are rare complications of rhinoplasty, and numerous theories exist regarding their cause. The term "paraffinoma" has been used to describe cyst formation observed after topical antibiotic ointment application with nasal packing in the immediate postoperative period. Such complications are rare but may occur because of the inherent properties of the agent used or a lack of meticulous technique (in the placement of incisions and nasal packing). Three cases of postrhinoplasty cysts with a variety of presentations, including incidental intraoperative findings, bilateral medial canthal masses, and a draining dorsal cyst, are described. Although such cysts are uncommon, techniques to prevent these unwanted sequelae should routinely be used, with the judicious application of non-petroleum-based topical antibiotic preparations.

  13. External nasal dilators: definition, background, and current uses

    PubMed Central

    Dinardi, Ricardo Reis; de Andrade, Cláudia Ribeiro; Ibiapina, Cássio da Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to revise the literature about external nasal dilators (ENDs) as to their definition, history, and current uses. We reviewed journals in the PubMed and MEDLINE databases. The current uses hereby presented and discussed are physical exercise, nasal congestion and sleep, snoring, pregnancy, cancer, and healthy individuals. Numerous studies have shown that ENDs increase the cross-sectional area of the nasal valve, reducing nasal resistance and transnasal inspiratory pressure and stabilizing the lateral nasal vestibule, avoiding its collapse during final inspiration. These effects also facilitate breathing and are beneficial to patients with nasal obstruction. Furthermore, END use is simple, noninvasive, painless, affordable, and bears minimum risk to the user. Most studies have limited sample size and are mainly focused on physical exercise. In conclusion, ENDs seem useful, so further studies involving potential effects on the performance of physical tests and improvements in sleep quality are necessary, especially in children and teenagers. PMID:25419156

  14. [Language tests for the examination of nasal resonance].

    PubMed

    Gasiorek, J; Pruszewicz, A; Obrebowski, A

    1996-01-01

    A set of 7 word tests with different number of nasal phonemes was prepared. These tests are adjusted to technical possibilities of nasal resonance examination by means of own construction apparatus. The VII-th test consisting only oral speech sounds appeared to be most important for estimating physiological nasal resonance characteristic for the Polish language and gave individual timbre of the voice. For Polish language these resonance rate is 15.2%. It is useful as reference data to evaluate patients with pathological nasal resonance. The VII-th test together with the V-th one which contain 6.3% of nasal consonants, and the VI-th with 33.3% of them were used for detailed evaluation of nasal resonance.

  15. Tips for Daily Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Share Plus on Google Plus I Have Alzheimer's Disease alz.org | IHaveAlz I Have Alz Homepage Know ... others living with Alzheimer's back to top The Alzheimer's ... living with the disease, share their personal insights about the daily strategies ...

  16. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  17. Web-based analysis of nasal sound spectra.

    PubMed

    Seren, Erdal

    2005-10-01

    The spectral analysis of the nasal sound is an indicator of the nasal airflow pattern. We investigated a new technique for nasal sound analysis via Internet. This study includes 27 patients and 22 healthy people. Patients were treated by septoplasty operation for septal deviation. Postoperation 10(th) day, this technique was applied to follow nasal airflow course. The patients recorded the nasal sound by microphone into the computer as a .wav file and sent us via internet, all those records were evaluated by us. The results were sent back to themselves. The 11 patients who had nasal obstruction symptoms (group A) were called to the hospital to check. In the nasal sound analyses e-mails of those patients, the sound intensity was at high frequencies (2-4 kHz, 4-6 kHz) above 30 dB, but low (500-1000 Hz) and medium frequencies (1-2 kHz), are below then 10 dB. In the patients without nasal obstruction symptom (group B), the sound intensity was at high frequencies below 10 dB, but low and medium frequencies are above 20 dB. There was a statistically significant difference in sound intensity between group A and group B. In the endoscopical examination of those obstructions, which decreases the nasal airway, crusting formation in the nasal cavity was found. Web-based nasal sound analysis is an important method to follow the postoperative course and the nasal airflow evaluation. The new method will save time and money, avoiding a return visit to the hospital unnecessarily.

  18. Nasal airway impairment: the oral response in cleft palate patients.

    PubMed

    Warren, D W; Hairfield, W M; Dalston, E T

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the oral response to severe nasal airway impairment in patients with cleft palate. Inductive plethysmography was used to measure the percent of nasal breathing, and the pressure-flow technique was used to estimate nasal area in 15 persons with severe nasal airway impairment. Mean nasal area was 0.17 cm2, and the average percent of nasal breathing was 20%. Analysis revealed a strong correlation (0.87) between nasal size and percent of nasal breathing in this selected group. Modeling studies based on the mean values from the subjects' data indicated that the model "mouth" would have to open 0.5 cm2 to shunt 80% of the airflow orally, an amount equivalent to the mean value of the subjects' respiratory mode. More important, the extrapolated data revealed that upper-airway resistance decreased in the model from 8.7 cm H2O/L/sec to a level of 3.2 cm H2O/L/sec, which is an average value for healthy adults. These data support the concept that the mouth acts as a variable resistor to maintain an optimal respiratory tract resistance when the nasal airway is impaired. PMID:2008894

  19. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T T; Kirkeby, L P; Poulsen, K; Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal microbiota was dominated by species of the genera Corynebacterium, Aureobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Staphylococcus, including S. epidermis, S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis and S. warneri. These studies show that the microbiota of the nasal cavity of adults is strikingly different from that of the pharynx, and that the nasal cavity is a primary habitat for several species of diphtheroids recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Under special circumstances, single species, including IgA1 protease-producing bacteria, may become predominant in a restricted area of the nasal mucosa. PMID:11200821

  20. Inhibition of capsaicin-driven nasal hyper-reactivity by SB-705498, a TRPV1 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Carlijn; Drunen, Cornelis Van; Denyer, Jane; Smart, Kevin; Segboer, Christine; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Newlands, Amy; Beerahee, Misba; Fokkens, Wytske; Tsitoura, Daphne C

    2014-01-01

    AIMS To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of intranasal SB-705498, a selective TRPV1 antagonist. METHODS Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical studies were performed: (i) an intranasal SB-705498 first time in human study to examine the safety and PK of five single escalating doses from 0.5 to 12 mg and of repeat dosing with 6 mg and 12 mg twice daily for 14 days and (ii) a PD efficacy study in subjects with non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) to evaluate the effect of 12 mg intranasal SB-705498 against nasal capsaicin challenge. RESULTS Single and repeat dosing with intranasal SB-705498 was safe and well tolerated. The overall frequency of adverse events was similar for SB-705498 and placebo and no dose-dependent increase was observed. Administration of SB-705498 resulted in less than dose proportional AUC(0,12 h) and Cmax, while repeat dosing from day 1 to day 14 led to its accumulation. SB-705498 receptor occupancy in nasal tissue was estimated to be high (>80%). Administration of 12 mg SB-705498 to patients with NAR induced a marked reduction in total symptom scores triggered by nasal capsaicin challenge. Inhibition of rhinorrhoea, nasal congestion and burning sensation was associated with 2-to 4-fold shift in capsaicin potency. CONCLUSIONS Intranasal SB-705498 has an appropriate safety and PK profile for development in humans and achieves clinically relevant attenuation of capsaicin-provoked rhinitis symptoms in patients with NAR. The potential impact intranasal SB-705498 may have in rhinitis treatment deserves further evaluation. PMID:23909699

  1. What's New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers What’s new in nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer research ... Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research? ...

  2. Parameters of nasal airway anatomy on magnetic resonance imaging correlate poorly with subjective symptoms of nasal patency.

    PubMed

    Saunders, M W; Jones, N S; Kabala, J E

    1999-09-01

    Forty-four patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head scans for non-nasal disease were asked to complete a questionnaire immediately after the scan. Subjective patency was scored for each nasal airway, patients were also asked about other nasal symptoms, hay fever, upper respiratory tract infections, medication and any history of nasal surgery or trauma. The following measurements from MRI scans were made: the cross-sectional area of the nasal airway at the anterior end of the middle turbinate, the horizontal width of the inferior turbinate and maximum septal mucosal thickness. In addition the presence of any septal deviation and the thickness or the mucosa of the paranasal sinuses was assessed. Correlation between subjective airway patency and the anatomical parameters studied was generally very weak. However, patients with sinus mucosal thickening on MRI scanning had significantly lower subjective patency scores (left P = 0.003, right P = 0.029) for both nasal airways. Assessment of the nasal airway on MRI correlates poorly with symptoms of nasal obstruction. However, patients with sinus mucosal thickening (> 5 mm) had significantly more symptoms of nasal obstruction on both sides.

  3. Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Roopa G; Rajanna, Konandur; Mahapatra, Roy D; Dorasala, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (-0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ≤0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice.

  4. Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Roopa G.; Mahapatra, Roy D.; Dorasala, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (−0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ≤0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice. PMID:24498519

  5. Necrotizing sialometaplasia involving the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Maisel, R H; Johnston, W H; Anderson, H A; Cantrell, R W

    1977-03-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a disease process which affects minor salivary glands. It may clinically and microscopically resemble squamous cell or mucoepidermoid carcinoma but is histologically benign. Thirteen patients with this process occurring on the hard palate have been reported in the past two years. We describe two cases in the nasal cavity and propose that compromise of the blood supply contributed to the occurrence of these lesions. This apparently benign lesion may represent nonspecific reaction of salivary and mucous glands to ischemic injury and must be distinguished from carcinoma.

  6. Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S B; Kennedy, K S; Parker, G S; Tatum, S A

    1990-11-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of glandular tissue occurring in the head and neck region. There have been several reports of metastasis of this benign-appearing tumor from the salivary glands to distant sites, suggesting hematogenous spread and implantation. Although occurrence of pleomorphic adenoma on the nasal septum has been described, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of recurrent septal pleomorphic adenoma with histologically benign tissue in an enlarged metastatic ipsilateral submandibular lymph node, suggesting lymphatic spread. The literature concerning the subject is reviewed. Wide septal excision and modified neck dissection is the recommended treatment.

  7. Polyvinyl siloxane: novel material for external nasal splinting.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, N K; Rathnaprabhu, V; Ramesh, S; Parameswaran, A

    2016-01-01

    External nasal splinting is performed routinely after nasal bone fracture reductions, osteotomies, and rhinoplasties. Materials commonly used include plaster of Paris (POP), thermoplastic splints, self-adhesive padded aluminium splints, and Orthoplast, among many others. The disadvantages of these materials are described in this paper, and polyvinyl siloxane is recommended as an effective and more readily available alternative material to counter these pitfalls.

  8. Chitosan in nasal delivery systems for therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Casettari, Luca; Illum, Lisbeth

    2014-09-28

    There is an obvious need for efficient and safe nasal absorption enhancers for the development of therapeutically efficacious nasal products for small hydrophilic drugs, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, which do not easily cross mucosal membranes, including the nasal. Recent years have seen the development of a range of nasal absorption enhancer systems such as CriticalSorb (based on Solutol HS15) (Critical Pharmaceuticals Ltd), Chisys based on chitosan (Archimedes Pharma Ltd) and Intravail based on alkylsaccharides (Aegis Therapeutics Inc.), that is presently being tested in clinical trials for a range of drugs. So far, none of these absorption enhancers have been used in a marketed nasal product. The present review discusses the evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives as nasal absorption enhancers, for a range of drugs and in a range of formulations such as solutions, gels and nanoparticles and finds that chitosan and its derivatives are able to efficiently improve the nasal bioavailability. The revirtew also questions whether chitosan nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery provide any real improvement over simpler chitosan formulations. Furthermore, the review also evaluates the use of chitosan formulations for the improvement of transport of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the brain, based on its mucoadhesive characteristics and its ability to open tight junctions in the olfactory and respiratory epithelia. It is found that the use of chitosan nanoparticles greatly increases the transport of drugs from nose to brain over and above the effect of simpler chitosan formulations. PMID:24818769

  9. MRSA nasal colonization burden and risk of MRSA infection

    PubMed Central

    Stenehjem, Edward; Rimland, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization burden has been identified as a risk factor for infection. This study evaluates methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) nasal burden, as defined by the cycle threshold (Ct) and risk of subsequent infection. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, United States veterans were classified into 3 MRSA nasal colonization groups: noncarriers, low burden (Ct > 24 cycles), and high burden (Ct ≤ 24 cycles). MRSA infections were identified prospectively, and clinical information was obtained by chart review. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association of MRSA nasal burden and risk of MRSA infection. Results During 4-years of follow-up, 4.3% of noncarriers, 18.5% of low burden, and 17.2% of high burden developed a MRSA infection. In multivariate analysis, MRSA nasal colonization was a risk factor for MRSA infection (P = .008) with low burden (risk ratio [RR], 3.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47–8.93) and high burden (RR, 2.71; 95% CI: 0.95–7.72) associated with subsequent MRSA infection when compared with noncarriers. When compared with low burden, high burden nasal carriers were not at increased risk of infection (RR, 0.75; 95% CI 0.36–1.55). Conclusion MRSA nasal colonization was a risk factor for MRSA infection. High nasal burden of MRSA did not increase the risk of infection. PMID:23261345

  10. NASAL FILTERING OF FINE PARTICLES IN CHILDREN VS. ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nasal efficiency for removing fine particles may be affected by developmental changes in nasal structure associated with age. In healthy Caucasian children (age 6-13, n=17) and adults (age 18-28, n=11) we measured the fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (1 and 2um MMAD)...

  11. Nasal cytochrome P4502A: Identification in rats and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Ding, Xinxin

    1995-12-01

    The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.

  12. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  13. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  14. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  15. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  16. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  17. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  18. 21 CFR 868.5340 - Nasal oxygen cannula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen cannula. 868.5340 Section 868.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5340 Nasal oxygen cannula....

  19. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  20. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  1. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter....

  2. Chitosan in nasal delivery systems for therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Casettari, Luca; Illum, Lisbeth

    2014-09-28

    There is an obvious need for efficient and safe nasal absorption enhancers for the development of therapeutically efficacious nasal products for small hydrophilic drugs, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, which do not easily cross mucosal membranes, including the nasal. Recent years have seen the development of a range of nasal absorption enhancer systems such as CriticalSorb (based on Solutol HS15) (Critical Pharmaceuticals Ltd), Chisys based on chitosan (Archimedes Pharma Ltd) and Intravail based on alkylsaccharides (Aegis Therapeutics Inc.), that is presently being tested in clinical trials for a range of drugs. So far, none of these absorption enhancers have been used in a marketed nasal product. The present review discusses the evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives as nasal absorption enhancers, for a range of drugs and in a range of formulations such as solutions, gels and nanoparticles and finds that chitosan and its derivatives are able to efficiently improve the nasal bioavailability. The revirtew also questions whether chitosan nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery provide any real improvement over simpler chitosan formulations. Furthermore, the review also evaluates the use of chitosan formulations for the improvement of transport of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the brain, based on its mucoadhesive characteristics and its ability to open tight junctions in the olfactory and respiratory epithelia. It is found that the use of chitosan nanoparticles greatly increases the transport of drugs from nose to brain over and above the effect of simpler chitosan formulations.

  3. Correlation between Objective and Subjective Assessment of Nasal Patency

    PubMed Central

    Mozzanica, Francesco; Gera, Roberto; Bulgheroni, Chiara; Ambrogi, Federico; Schindler, Antonio; Ottaviani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study was performed to evaluate the correlation between the objective and subjective sensation of nasal patency, assessed through a validated questionnaire, the Italian version of the NOSE scale, and the rhinomanometric results in a large cohort of patients complaining about nasal obstruction. Materials and Methods: Data was obtained from a total of 233 adult patients, (123 males, 110 females, with a mean age of 43.7 years) with a diagnosis of septal deviation and complaining about nasal obstruction. Anterior active rhinomanometry was used for objective assessment, while the I-NOSE scale and a visual analog scale (VAS) were used for subjective evaluation. Results: Positive correlations between I-NOSE scores and VAS and rhinomanometric results were found. The higher correlation was demonstrated between the HUNR (higher unilateral nasal resistance) parameter of rhinomanometry and the second item of the I-NOSE scale (Nasal blockage or obstruction). No significant correlation was found between the fourth item of the I-NOSE (Trouble sleeping) and the VAS score. The VAS score appeared mildly, but still significantly, correlated with the HUNR parameter of rhinomanometry. Conclusion: The correlation between the subjective sensation of nasal patency and the rhinomanometric data proved to be significant. No correlation between subjective sensation of trouble sleeping and rhinomanometric assessment was found. In counselling with patients complaining of nasal obstruction trouble in sleeping should not be considered as a symptom related to nasal obstruction. PMID:27738607

  4. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  5. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  6. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  7. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  8. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  9. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  10. Dialectical Effects on Nasalance: A Multicenter, Cross-Continental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Bressmann, Tim; Poburka, Bruce; Roy, Nelson; Sharp, Helen; Watts, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated nasalance in speakers from six different dialectal regions across North America using recent versions of the Nasometer. It was hypothesized that many of the sound changes observed in regional dialects of North American English would have a significant impact on measures of nasalance. Method: Samples of the Zoo…

  11. SUBMUCOSAL DISSECTION OF THE RETROPHARYNGEAL SPACE DURING NASAL INTUBATION.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Mumin; Cartabuke, Richard S; Krishna, Senthil G; Veneziano, Giorgio; Syed, Ahsan; Lind, Meredith N Merz; Tobias, Qoseph D

    2015-10-01

    Various complications have been reported with nasal endotracheal intubation including bleeding, epistaxis, bacteremia, damage to intranasal structures, and even intracranial penetration. We present two cases that required general anesthesia for dental surgery. Submucosal dissection of the retropharyngeal tissues occurred during attempted nasal endotracheal intubation. Previous reports of this complication are reviewed, treatment strategies presented, and potential maneuvers to prevent this complication suggested. PMID:26860021

  12. Angiolipoma presenting as a nasal mass: how rare a presentation?

    PubMed

    Rao, Sridhara Suryanarayan; Panda, Naresh K; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Saravanan, Karuppiah

    2008-07-01

    Angiolipomas are benign adipose tumors. There are two types: infiltrating and noninfiltrating. An angiolipoma presenting as a nasal mass is rare. To our knowledge, this is only the second documented case of angiolipoma presenting in the nasal dorsum. Total surgical excision by an external rhinoplasty technique with close follow-up is advised. Recurrence is not common.

  13. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  14. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  15. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  16. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.20 Nasal decongestant active ingredients....

  17. Epidemiology and differential diagnosis of nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Chaaban, Mohamad R.; Walsh, Erika M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common chronic medical conditions, with a significant impact on patient quality of life. CRS is broadly classified into two groups: CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) and CRS without NP (CRSsNP). Clinically, the major subtypes of CRSwNP may be divided into eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (e.g., allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease [AERD]) and nasal polyps associated with neutrophilic inflammation (e.g., cystic fibrosis [CF]). CF is characterized by mutation of the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is usually required for most NP patients with increased frequency in patients with AERD. This study provides a review of the epidemiology and major classification of CRSwNP. Methods: A review was performed of the literature regarding different subtypes of CRSwNP. Results: Many definitions of CRSwNP exist and estimates of prevalence vary. Conclusion: CRSwNP is a clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous inflammatory profile. Of the subtypes associated with eosinophilic inflammation, AERD remains the most recalcitrant to medical and surgical therapeutic interventions. PMID:24274222

  18. The nasal distribution of metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Newman, S P; Morén, P F; Clarke, S W

    1987-02-01

    The intranasal distribution of aerosol from a metered dose inhaler has been assessed using a radiotracer technique. Inhalers were prepared by adding 99Tcm-labelled Teflon particles (simulating the drug particles) to chlorofluorocarbon propellants, and scans of the head (and chest) taken with a gamma camera. Ten healthy subjects (age range 19-29 years) each performed two radioaerosol studies with the inhaler held in two different ways: either in a single position (vial pointing upwards) or in two positions (vial pointing upwards and then tilted by 30 degrees in the sagittal plane). The vast majority of the dose (82.5 +/- 2.8 (mean +/- SEM) per cent and 80.7 +/- 3.1 per cent respectively for one-position and two-position studies) was deposited on a single localized area in the anterior one-third of the nose, the initial distribution pattern being identical for each study. No significant radioaerosol was detected in the lungs. Only 18.0 +/- 4.7 per cent and 15.4 +/- 4.1 per cent of the dose had been removed by mucociliary action after 30 minutes, and it is probable that the remainder had not penetrated initially beyond the vestibule. Since the deposition pattern was highly localized and more than half the dose probably failed to reach the turbinates it is possible that the overall effect of nasal MDIs is suboptimal for the treatment of generalized nasal disorders.

  19. Sphenochoanal polyp presenting with concomitant nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Tysome, James R; Saleh, Hesham A

    2007-01-01

    A sphenochoanal polyp is a rare lesion that originates in the sphenoid sinus. It occurs most often in adolescents and young adults. We present what to the best of our knowledge is the first reported case of a sphenochoanal polyp associated with concomitant nasal polyps. The patient was a 54-year-old man who presented with bilateral nasal obstruction, possible obstructive sleep apnea, and an altered voice, all of which had likely been caused by the presence of a massive left sphenochoanal polyp and bilateral grade III anterior and posterior ethmoid polyps. Because the patient had dilated cardiomyopathy, he was not a good candidate for general anesthesia. Therefore, the polyps were removed endoscopically under local anesthesia. The sphenochoanal polyp measured 7.5 cm in its greatest dimension and weighed 41 g. The patient remained symptom-free at the 1-year follow-up. The presentation of a sphenochoanal polyp is similar to that of the more common antrochoanal polyp, but the two can usually be differentiated on computed tomography. Endoscopic sinus surgery allows for complete removal of the polyp, including its site of origin, which minimizes the risk of recurrence.

  20. [Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the nasal cavity].

    PubMed

    Deubel, M; Meister, F; Podvinec, M; Stamm, B

    1994-11-01

    In the present paper we report two cases of "necrotizing sialometaplasia" in uncommon locations. The relevant literature is reviewed. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is self-limiting and is characterized by necrosis and squamous pseudohypertrophy. Typically occurring in the minor salivary glands of the oral mucosa, our cases appear to be the sixth and seventh cases of involvement of the nasal cavity reported in the literature. Owing to the similarity of histological findings, the term "sialometaplasia" is also used for this disorder. This rare disease is a benign process but may be misdiagnosed as mucoepidermoid or squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, the possibility of this disease in the nose should again be presented. Both of our cases show that with a histological examination considering defined morphological findings, the diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia can be verified and a diagnosis of a carcinoma can be excluded. Especially with regard to radical and possibly unnecessary invasive therapeutic procedures we emphasize the importance of considering "necrotizing sialometaplasia" as part of the differential diagnosis of nasal lesions.

  1. Early Stage Relapsing Polychondritis Diagnosed by Nasal Septum Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Moody, Sandra; Komori, Masafumi; Jibatake, Akira; Yaegashi, Makito

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare inflammation of cartilaginous tissues, the diagnosis of which is usually delayed by a mean period of 2.9 years from symptom onset. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with nasal pain and fever. Physical examination of the nose was grossly unremarkable, but there was significant tenderness of the nasal bridge. Acute sinusitis was initially diagnosed due to thickened left frontal sinus mucosa on computed tomography (CT); however, there was no improvement after antibiotic intake. Repeat CT showed edematous inflammation of the nasal septum; biopsy of this site demonstrated erosion and infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils in the hyaline cartilage. Relapsing polychondritis was confirmed by the modified McAdam's criteria and can be diagnosed at an early stage by nasal septum biopsy; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with nasal symptoms alone or persistent sinus symptoms. PMID:26843866

  2. [Pharmacological and clinical evalutation of nasal obstruction: application to xylometazoline].

    PubMed

    Pradalier, André

    2006-01-01

    Nasal obstruction, a prominent feature of rhinitis, may be quantified in humans by haemodynamic techniques (measuring local blood flux), static methods (measuring the geometry of nasal cavities) and dynamic methods (assessing the patency of nasal airways through the measure of resistance to air flow). These methods demonstrated the nasal decongestant activity of xylometazoline in healthy volunteers and rhinitis patients. Controlled double-blind studies established the clinical efficacy of xylometazoline in infectious and allergic (seasonal and perennial) rhinitis versus placebo and in comparison with various reference substances. The effects on nasal epithelium ciliary activity which are observed in vitro are modest and even less pronounced in vivo owing to dilution in situ and protective physiological processes. PMID:16792148

  3. New maneuver for fixation of pediatric nasal bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Aldelaimi, Tahrir N

    2011-07-01

    Surgical treatment of nasal bone fractures in children is a complex and challenging task not only to maxillofacial surgeons but exceeding to ears, nose, and throat and plastic surgeons. Twelve child patients including 9 boys (75%) and 3 girls (25%) with nasal bone fractures were seen at the Maxillofacial Surgery Department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital during the period of December 2009 to December 2010. Fractured nasal bone is reduced to its anatomic position with Walsham forceps, and the dislocated or disrupted nasal septum with Asch forceps. The most common cause of the injury was road traffic accident and motorcycle accident 5 (42%); nasal deviation was found in 9 cases (75%), and depression in 2 (17%). In 9 patients (75%), injuries were isolated, and 3 (25%) were associated with other facial bone fractures. Significant advances have been made in the management of these injuries, decreasing the incidence of secondary deformities.

  4. Early reexploration after closed reduction of nasal bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Hong Sik

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cases that were reexplored shortly after closed reduction of the nasal bone fracture. From 1996 to 2009, 955 patients (757 males and 198 females) were operated on for the nasal bone fractures. The nasal splints were applied and removed 1 week postoperatively, and the results of nasal reduction were reviewed. Indications for reexploration were undercorrection or deviation of the reduced nasal bone.Of the 955 patients, 13 (11 males and 2 females; 1.36%) were reexplored. The recorrection was done 7.78 +/- 4.77 days after the initial surgery. Mostly local anesthesia was carried out on the reoperation of 11 patients. All 13 patients were satisfied with the final result.If any undercorrection or deviation is persistent, the corrective reexploration should be discussed with the patient in detail and corrective reexploration should be planned soon.

  5. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. PMID:27509293

  6. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery.

  7. Medial Femoral Condyle Free Flap for Nasal Reconstruction: New Technique for Full-Thickness Nasal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Paolo; Turri-Zenoni, Mario; Tamborini, Federico; Giudice, Marco; Sallam, Davide; Corno, Martina; Pietrobon, Giacomo; Valdatta, Luigi; Castelnuovo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The nose is a functionally complex organ implicated in breathing, olfaction, and phonation, with a critical role also in the aesthetic appearance of a person. This latter aspect should be carefully considered whenever a total or subtotal rhinectomy is performed for resection of locally advanced nasal cancer. To reconstruct large nasal defects, several techniques were described, including the use of cartilaginous grafts, bony grafts, local flaps, and free flaps. In cases of extensive full-thickness resections, free flaps probably represent the most adequate option. The aim of this report is to present the functional and aesthetical outcomes of a reconstruction of the nose after rhinectomy, using the medial femoral condyle free flap associated with the forehead flap. PMID:27757320

  8. Phenylephrine as an alternative to cocaine for nasal vasoconstriction before nasal surgery: A randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    AlHaddad, Sawsan T; Khanna, Ashish K; Mascha, Edward J; Abdelmalak, Basem B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cocaine is often used topically to provide the profound vasoconstriction required for nasal surgery; however, it has been associated with intraoperative cardiac adverse effects. We compared cocaine with phenylephrine as an alternative to ascertain their relative efficacy as vasoconstrictors in nasal septoplasty. Methods: Adult patients, presenting for elective nasal septoplasty, of American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-III, were randomised to either 0.5% phenylephrine or 4% cocaine. The primary outcome was quality of vasoconstriction on a 5-point scale (1=unacceptable, 5=excellent), rated by the surgeon at the end of the procedure. Results: Twenty-nine patients received phenylephrine and 26 received cocaine. The median rating for quality of the vasoconstriction was 4.0 (good) in both the phenylephrine and cocaine groups (P=0.84). Median blood loss was 50 ml in the phenylephrine group and 62.5 ml in the cocaine group (P=0.49). In secondary analyses, phenylephrine was shown to be non-inferior to cocaine on both quality of vasoconstriction (non-inferiority delta of 1 point, P=0.009) and estimated blood loss (non-inferiority delta of 25 ml, P=0.028). The frequency of ventricular ectopy, ST segment changes or blood pressure changes after nasal packing was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Phenylephrine in a concentration of 0.5% is not different from 4% cocaine on the quality of vasoconstriction in septoplasty. Given the abuse potential of cocaine and the added administrative burden associated with its handling, phenylephrine might serve as an alternative. PMID:23825816

  9. An approach to the nasal septum in children.

    PubMed

    Healy, G B

    1986-11-01

    Surgery of the nasal septum has long been discouraged in the pediatric population. Concerns about growth and development of the nose have led surgeons to adopt an extremely cautious attitude toward the correction of nasal septal deformities in childhood. More recently, studies have shown that with proper preservation of septal cartilage, surgery can be safely undertaken in this area. Frequently, however, exposure to the nasal septum is limited in small children due to the size of the nasal vestibule. Sublabial septoplasty has been safely carried out now in ten patients ranging in age from 4 to 9 years. This approach allows for complete access to the nasal septum while avoiding any external cosmetic deformity. The nasal septum has been preserved in all cases through morsalization and repositioning. Growth and development of the nose has been followed for up to 60 months without evidence of deformity or alteration. Sublabial septoplasty would, therefore, appear to be a safe and cosmetically acceptable approach to the correction of severe nasal septal deformities of childhood. PMID:3773624

  10. Pathophysiology of rhinitis. Lactoferrin and lysozyme in nasal secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, G D; Jeney, E V; Baraniuk, J N; Kim, I; Meredith, S D; Kaliner, M A

    1989-01-01

    The antimicrobial proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and lysozyme (Ly) are invariably found in nasal secretions. To investigate the cellular sources and the secretory control of these nasal proteins in vivo, 34 adult subjects underwent nasal provocation tests with methacholine (MC), histamine (H), and gustatory stimuli. Nasal lavages were collected and analyzed for total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), Lf, and Ly. MC (25 mg), H (1 mg), and gustatory stimuli (spicy foods) all increased the concentrations of TP, Alb, Lf, and Ly. However, when each protein was assessed as a percentage of TP (i.e., Alb% = Alb/TP; Lf% = Lf/TP; Ly% = Ly/TP), MC and gustatory stimuli, which both induce glandular secretion, selectively augmented Lf% and Ly% without changing Alb%, while H, which primarily increases vascular permeability, increased Alb% without significantly affecting Lf% or Ly%. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis of nasal secretions demonstrated both Lf and Ly in cholinergically induced secretions. Furthermore, histochemical analyses of nasal turbinate tissue revealed Lf and Ly colocalization within the serous cells of submucosal glands, providing evidence that both proteins are strictly glandular products within the nasal mucosa. Therefore, both Lf and Ly are produced and secreted from the glands, and their secretion may be pharmacologically regulated in attempts to improve host defenses. Images PMID:2681268

  11. Epstein-barr virus induced cellular changes in nasal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Gelardi, Matteo; Tomaiuolo, Marilena; Cassano, Michele; Besozzi, Gaspare; Fiorella, Maria Luisa; Calvario, Agata; Castellano, Maria Antonia; Cassano, Pasquale

    2006-01-01

    A 21-year-old man presented with nasal obstruction of the right nasal fossa of 1 year duration. Nasal endoscopy revealed in the right inferior turbinate head a rounded neoplasm about 1 cm in diameter. Cytologic study of a nasal scraping specimen disclosed numerous clusters containing columnar cells with cytomegaly, prominent multinucleation, markedly sparse shortened cilia; the cytoplasm contained an acidophil area and a small round area that stained poorly; cells with a large intracytoplasmic vacuole that was acidophil and PAS+. Serology tests using the nested polymer chain reaction (PCR) technique on serum, nasal and pharyngeal smears revealed an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection that was confirmed at electron microscopy. The clinical and cytological features resolved 19 months after the initial evaluation. Conclusion The authors advise carrying out clinical (endoscopy, serology, etc.) evaluation of all endonasal neoplasms and to routinely perform cytological study on nasal scraping specimens. When samples test positive for EBV, nasal and nasopharyngeal endoscopy should be performed regularly to detect possible evidence for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). PMID:16451721

  12. Relationships between indoor environments and nasal inflammation in nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Smedbold, Hans Thore; Ahlen, Catrine; Unimed, Sintef; Nilsen, Asbjørn M; Norbäck, Dan; Hilt, Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the authors sought to address the relationships between measured indoor environmental factors and nasal patency (i.e., minimum cross-sectional area) and volume and markers of nasal inflammation in nasal lavage fluid. Clinical data were obtained for 115 females who worked at 36 geriatric nursing departments. The indoor climates in the nursing departments were characterized by high room temperatures (median = 23 degrees C), low relative air humidities (median = 24%), and high air exchange rates indicated by low carbon dioxide levels (median = 570 ppm). Evidence of microbial amplification was observed in the ventilation unit in 3 of the departments. Decreased nasal patency was observed relative to microbial amplification in the ventilation units (minimum cross-sectional area 1 = 0.80 cm2 vs. 0.64 cm2, p = .003, minimum cross-sectional area 2 = 0.80 cm2 vs. 0.67 cm2, p = .02) and in relation to elevated indoor temperature (volume 1 = 3.46 cm3 vs. 3.22 cm3, p = .03). The authors concluded that the indoor environment may have affected the nasal mucosa of nursing personnel, thus causing nasal mucosal swelling. The results support the view that fungal contamination of air-supply ducts may be a source of microbial pollution, which can affect the nasal mucosa.

  13. The switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing.

    PubMed

    Niinimaa, V; Cole, P; Mintz, S; Shephard, R J

    1980-10-01

    The switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing during incrementally graded submaximal exercise was determined in 30 (14 M, 16 F) healthy adult volunteers. Nasal airflow was measured by a pneumotachograph attached to a nasal mask. Oral airflow was determined as the difference between nasal airflow and total pulmonary airflow, the latter being measured by a head-out exercise body plethysmograph. The airflow and pressure signals were sampled every 20 msec by a micropressor, which calculated respiratory volumes and nasal work of breathing, and produced an on-line print-out. Twenty of the 30 subjects (normal augmenters) switched from nasal to oronasal breathing at submaximal exercise of 105.0 W (SD = 30.1), four subjects (mouth breathers) breathed habitually oronasally, five subjects (nose breathers) persistently breathed through the nose only, and one subject showed no consistent nose/mouth breathing pattern. In normal augmenters, the onset of oronasal breathing (VE 35.3 +/- 10.81 . min-1) was quite consistent individually, but varied considerably between inividuals without showing a significant sex difference. The factors most closely related to the switching point were rating of perceived exertion of breathing and nasal work of breathing. PMID:7444224

  14. May nasal hyperreactivity be a sequela of recurrent common cold?

    PubMed

    Cassano, M; Cassano, P; Ciprandi, G

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections may worsen bronchial hyperreactivity. However, there is no data on the possible role of recurrent infectious rhinitis in nose hyperreactivity. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether subjects suffering from recurrent common cold have nasal hyperreactivity, assessed by histamine nasal challenge. This study included a group of 40 patients (19 males, mean age 34.1 years) with history of at least five episodes of common cold in the previous year, but without documented allergy, and twenty healthy subjects (8 males, mean age 32.3 years) were enrolled as control group, all of whom were non-allergic. Nasal provocation test with histamine was performed in all subjects. Nasal provocation test with histamine induced a 200% increase in nasal resistance after provocation in 24 (60%) patients suffering from recurrent viral rhinitis. No normal subject had an increase >180% in nasal resistance. There was a significant difference between the patient group and the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that nasal hyperreactivity might be a sequela of recurrent common cold. Further studies should be conducted to confirm this preliminary finding.

  15. Inverted papillomas and benign nonneoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Casiano, Roy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Benign lesions of the nasal cavity represent a diverse group of pathologies. Furthermore, each of these disorders may present differently in any given patient as pain and discomfort, epistaxis, headaches, vision changes, or nasal obstruction. Although these nasal masses are benign, many of them have a significant capacity for local tissue destruction and symptomatology secondary to this destruction. Advances in office-based endoscopic nasendoscopy have equipped the otolaryngologist with a safe, inexpensive, and rapid means of directly visualizing lesions within the nasal cavity and the initiation of appropriate treatment. Methods: The purpose of this study is to review the diagnosis, management, and controversies of many of the most common benign lesions of the nasal cavity encountered by the primary care physician or otolaryngologist. Results: This includes discussion of inverted papilloma (IP), juvenile angiofibroma, squamous papilloma, pyogenic granuloma, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, schwannoma, benign fibro-osseous lesions, and other benign lesions of the nasal cavity, with particular emphasis on IP and juvenile angiofibroma. Conclusion: A diverse array of benign lesions occur within the nasal cavity and paranasal cavities. Despite their inability to metastasize, many of these lesions have significant capability for local tissue destruction and recurrence. PMID:22487294

  16. Role of allergy in nasal polyposis: a review.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J M; Gorfien, J; Noble, B

    1995-12-01

    We propose a multivariate theory for the pathogenesis of nasal polyps. Turbulent flow of air in the lateral wall of the nose or viral-bacterial-host interactions produce an inflammatory change in the mucosa of the lateral wall of the nose. Ulceration and prolapse of the submucosa with reepithelialization and new gland formation may then follow. The structural cells of the nasal polyp, including epithelial cells and fibroblasts, have the ability to produce messenger RNA for granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor and other cytokines. Stimulation of such an effector capability by structural cell-derived cytokines would undoubtedly represent a major amplification pathway of the inflammatory response in nasal polyps. Allergy may be one mechanism for the development of this cascade of events. This microenvironmental structural inflammatory response in the nasal polyp, in turn, can affect the bioelectric integrity of the Na+ and Cl- channels at the luminal surface of the respiratory epithelial cell. The change in the Na+ absorption, which has been demonstrated in our studies, may result in an increased movement of water into the cell and into the interstitial fluid. The resultant edema can lead to growth and enlargement of the nasal polyp. Finally, the rapid recurrence of nasal polyps despite adequate surgery may reflect some intrinsic phenotypic characteristic of nasal epithelial cells in the lateral wall of the nose, which is likely to be under genetic control.

  17. Surgical Approaches to the Nasal Cavity and Sinuses.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Alyssa Marie; Degner, Daniel Alvin

    2016-07-01

    The nasal cavity and sinuses may be exposed primarily via a dorsal or ventral surgical approach. Surgical planning involves the use of advanced imaging, such as computed tomography or MRI. Surgical treatment of lesions of the nasal cavity usually is limited to benign lesions or can also be used in combination with adjunctive therapy, such as radiation therapy. Extreme caution must be exercised with a dorsal approach to the nasal cavity to avoid complications of inadvertent penetration into the brain case. Gentle tissue handling and careful closure of the mucoperiosteum must be exercised following a ventral approach to minimize the risk of oronasal fistula formation. PMID:27217006

  18. Using acoustic sensors to discriminate between nasal and mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing.

  19. Air-conditioning in the human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Elad, David; Wolf, Michael; Keck, Tilman

    2008-11-30

    Healthy humans normally breathe through their nose even though its complex geometry imposes a significantly higher resistance in comparison with mouth breathing. The major functional roles of nasal breathing are defense against infiltrating particles and conditioning of the inspired air to nearly alveolar conditions in order to maintain the internal milieu of the lung. The state-of-the-art of the existing knowledge on nasal air-conditioning will be discussed in this review, including in vivo measurements in humans and computational studies on nasal air-conditioning capacity. Areas where further studies will improve our understanding and may help medical diagnosis and intervention in pathological states will be introduced. PMID:18565805

  20. Bilateral congenital lacrimal sac mucoceles with nasal extension and drainage.

    PubMed

    Divine, R D; Anderson, R L; Bumsted, R M

    1983-02-01

    A newborn infant with bilateral mucoceles of the lacrimal sacs also had submucosal masses along the floor of the nose beneath the inferior turbinates communicating with the mucoceles. Drainage of the mucoceles was performed by needle aspiration and wide marsupialization of the nasal masses into the nose under direct visualization. To our knowledge, this is the first time that intranasal extension of mucoceles has been reported, and the first time that lacrimal sac mucoceles have been successfully treated via direct nasal drainage. We advocate careful nasal evaluation in cases of congenital lacrimal sac mucoceles to determine whether intranasal extension is common and whether intranasal drainage can be curative.

  1. Deformities of the nasal septum in human foetuses.

    PubMed

    Ruano-Gil, D; Montserrat-Viladiu, J M; Vilanova-Trías, J; Burgés-Vila, J

    1980-06-01

    In a seris of 50 embryos and foetuses ranging from 20 mm to 190 mm in length two foetuses of 34 and 37 mm (48 to 50 days old) were found, that presented deformities of the septum of the cartilaginous nasal capsule, representing 4% of our material. The deformities consisted of curves of the nasal septum, located to both vomeronasal nerves. We therefore think that this study is interesting because it adds a new factor, the congenital one, to the etiology of deformities of the nasal septum.

  2. A case of myoepithelioma of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Takeshi; Watanabe, Mika; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Higashi, Kenjiro; Honkura, Yohei; Hara, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2010-10-01

    Myoepithelioma is a rare tumor, most frequently located in the salivary gland. Case reports of extra-salivary myoepithelioma are sporadic, with only one case in the nasal cavity. A 68-year-old male patient presented with a myoepithelioma of the nasal cavity manifesting as nasal obstruction and epistaxis, which was treated successfully with endoscopic excision. Histological examination revealed myoepithelial cells and myxoid stroma, which confirmed the diagnosis of myoepithelioma. The behavioral pattern is similar to if not identical with that of the mixed tumor, pleomorphic adenoma, which is benign, but the potential for recurrence is always present, especially if complete resection is not achieved.

  3. Pleomorphic adenoma originated from the inferior nasal turbinate.

    PubMed

    Unlu, H Halis; Celik, Onur; Demir, M Akif; Eskiizmir, Gorkem

    2003-12-01

    Although pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign neoplasm of the salivary glands, it has also been reported to be present in the neck, ear, mediastinum, external nose and nasal cavity. Intranasal localization of this lesion is very rare and mainly originates from the nasal septum. From wherever the lesion originates, the main treatment modality should be surgical. We presented a very rare case of intranasal pleomorphic adenoma originated from the inferior nasal turbinate. Due to the expansile nature of the lesion, a midfacial degloving approach was preferred.

  4. Effects of endogenous formaldehyde in nasal tissues on inhaled formaldehyde dosimetry predictions in the rat, monkey, and human nasal passages.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Jeffry D; Campbell, Jerry; Kimbell, Julia S; Conolly, Rory B; Clewell, Harvey J; Andersen, Melvin E

    2014-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a nasal carcinogen in rodents at high doses and is an endogenous compound that is present in all living cells. Due to its high solubility and reactivity, quantitative risk estimates for inhaled formaldehyde have relied on internal dose estimates in the upper respiratory tract. Dosimetry calculations are complicated by the presence of endogenous formaldehyde concentrations in the respiratory mucosa. Anatomically accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the rat, monkey, and human nasal passages were used to simulate uptake of inhaled formaldehyde. An epithelial structure was implemented in the nasal CFD models to estimate formaldehyde absorption from air:tissue partitioning, species-specific metabolism, first-order clearance, DNA binding, and endogenous formaldehyde production. At an exposure concentration of 1 ppm, predicted formaldehyde nasal uptake was 99.4, 86.5, and 85.3% in the rat, monkey, and human, respectively. Endogenous formaldehyde in nasal tissues did not significantly affect wall mass flux or nasal uptake predictions at exposure concentrations > 500 ppb; however, reduced nasal uptake was predicted at lower exposure concentrations. At an exposure concentration of 1 ppb, predicted nasal uptake was 17.5 and 42.8% in the rat and monkey; net desorption of formaldehyde was predicted in the human model. The nonlinear behavior of formaldehyde nasal absorption will affect the dose-response analysis and subsequent risk estimates at low exposure concentrations. Updated surface area partitioning of nonsquamous epithelium and average flux values in regions where DNA-protein cross-links and cell proliferation rates were measured in rats and monkeys are reported for use in formaldehyde risk models of carcinogenesis.

  5. Effects of hypercapnia and hypoxia on nasal vasculature and airflow resistance in the anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Lung, M A; Wang, J C

    1986-04-01

    The experiments were performed on anaesthetized dogs which breathed spontaneously or were artificially ventilated and paralysed. The spontaneous nasal arterial blood flow was measured on one side of the nose while nasal vascular resistance was determined on the other side simultaneously. Nasal arterial blood flow was measured by means of an electromagnetic flow sensor placed around the terminal branch of the internal maxillary artery, the main arterial supply to the nasal mucosa. Nasal vascular resistance was measured by constant-flow perfusion of the terminal branch of the internal maxillary artery. Nasal airway resistance was assessed by monitoring the transnasal pressure at constant airflow through each side of the nose simultaneously. Hypercapnic gas challenge (8% CO2, 30% O2 in N2) to the lungs increased nasal vascular resistance and decreased nasal airway resistance. Similar gas challenge to the nose did not affect nasal vascular resistance but decreased nasal airway resistance. Hypoxic gas challenge (6% O2 in N2) to the lungs did not affect the nasal vascular resistance but decreased nasal airway resistance only when the nasal vascular bed was under controlled perfusion. Similar gas challenge to the nose did not affect either nasal vascular or airway resistance. Arterial chemoreceptor stimulation by intracarotid injection of sodium cyanide increased nasal vascular resistance and decreased nasal airway resistance. The nasal vascular response to hypercapnia and arterial chemoreceptor stimulation was reflex in nature, being abolished by nasal sympathectomy. The nasal airway response to hypercapnia, hypoxia and arterial chemoreceptor stimulation was reflex in nature, being partially or completely abolished by nasal sympathectomy. Hypercapnia probably induced a local vasodilatatory effect on the capacitance vessels whereas hypoxia had no direct action on the vasculature.

  6. The effect of breath holding, hyperventilation, and exercise on nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Kern, E B

    1978-12-01

    A group of 51 patients was studied by a technique of active posterior rhinomanometry that assessed the influence of breath holding, hyperventilation, and exercise on nasal resistance. Breath hodling of 30 seconds or longer produced a decrease in nasal resistance in most of the subjects tested. Hyperventilation had variable effects on nasal resistance, and exercise consistently decreased nasal resistance. These observations are consistent with the proposed effect of chemoreceptor stimulation on nasal airway resistance.

  7. Nasal septum perforation in patient with pyoderma gangrenosum

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Camilla Bezerra da Cruz; Felix, Felippe; Paes, Vania; de Azevedo, Julia Alves; Grangeiro, Eliza Raquel Negrão; Riccio, Jonatah Lucas N.; Rito, Helen Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the coca (Erythroxylon coca). It can be used in many ways, but the most common is the drug inhalation. The Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction at nasal mucous membrane and its chronic use can cause necrosis and nasal septum perforation. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon idiopathic disease characterized by ulcerations, usually observed on the legs. Its diagnosis is most common an exclusion of others diseases. So far, there is no specific treatment based on evidence by randomized controlled trials. Objective: Describe the rare association between Pyoderma gangrenosum and cocaine. Case Report: E. A., 27-year-old woman with destruction of nasal septum and palate who has been using a big amount of cocaine, been necessary note the difference from which disease cause de damage. Final Comments: Also there are only three cases of Pyoderma gangrenosum complicated with nasal septum perforation in cocaine users. PMID:25991946

  8. [Analysis of the projection of the nasal tip].

    PubMed

    Vertu-Ciolino, D; Disant, F

    2007-01-01

    The success of a rhinoplasty is conditioned by a detailed preoperative analysis of the morphology of the nose and face of the patient. A good knowledge of the characteristic reference marks and nasal proportions authorize a detailed description of the nose. The position of the nasal tip is one of the principal characteristics of the nose. It is expressed by the combination of its projection and its height. A reflexion on the position of the tip and its ideal position post-operatively enabled us to work out a conceptual approach aiming at guiding the surgical project. The drawing of two circles centered on the nasal pyramid is the expression of this concept. Thus, a detailed analysis of the nasal pyramid and a biomechanical approach are the key to a relevant surgical plan.

  9. How Are Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACS » Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses Cancer + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and ... other structures such as the skin of the cheek, the front part of the eye socket, the ...

  10. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

    PubMed

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  11. [Congenital nasal obstruction due to choanal atresia: case series].

    PubMed

    Zanetta, Adrián; Rodríguez, Hugo; Quiroga, Víctor; Cuestas, Giselle; Tiscornia, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Nasal obstruction in neonates is a potential fatal condition because of their exclusive nasal breathing. The most common congenital causes include choanal atresia, dermoid cyst, glioma and encephalocele. Choanal atresia is the most common congenital nasal anomaly. When bilateral, it presents with respiratory distress at birth. Unilateral atresia is manifested by respiratory failure and unilateral rhinorrhea, and may go along unnoticed. Diagnosis is suspected in the absence of airfow in the nasal cavity and for the inability to advance a nasogastric tube. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic examination and computed tomography. The definitive treatment is surgical, and there are different techniques and surgical approaches. We describe our experience with 7 patients with this disease, successfully treated by transnasal endoscopic technique. PMID:22451289

  12. Ameloblastoma of the Nasal Septum Origin: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zatoński, Tomasz; Roszkowska, Anna; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background. Ameloblastoma is the most common odontogenic tumor. It represents about 1% of all tumors of the jaw. Extragnathic location of the ameloblastoma is typical and extremely rare. Case Report. We report a case of ameloblastoma of the nasal septum origin, causing nasal obstruction. According to our information, this is the first reported case of ameloblastoma coming from the nasal septum as a primary tumor without maxillary sinus involvement. Conclusions. Ameloblastoma can not only locate in the maxilla and mandible, but also in other regions of the craniofacial. Ameloblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors causing nasal obstruction. Nonspecific clinical features of sinonasal ameloblastoma make it extremely important to perform accurate diagnostic imaging and histopathological examination. PMID:24171127

  13. Effectiveness of steam inhalation and nasal irrigation for chronic or recurrent sinus symptoms in primary care: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Mullee, Mark; Thomas, Tammy; Johnson, Sophie; Leydon, Gerry; Rabago, David; Richards-Hall, Samantha; Williamson, Ian; Yao, Guiqing; Raftery, James; Zhu, Shihua; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Systematic reviews support nasal saline irrigation for chronic or recurrent sinus symptoms, but trials have been small and few in primary care settings. Steam inhalation has also been proposed, but supporting evidence is lacking. We investigated whether brief pragmatic interventions to encourage use of nasal irrigation or steam inhalation would be effective in relieving sinus symptoms. Methods: We conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled trial involving adults (age 18–65 yr) from 72 primary care practices in the United Kingdom who had a history of chronic or recurrent sinusitis and reported a “moderate to severe” impact of sinus symptoms on their quality of life. Participants were recruited between Feb. 11, 2009, and June 30, 2014, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 advice strategies: usual care, daily nasal saline irrigation supported by a demonstration video, daily steam inhalation, or combined treatment with both interventions. The primary outcome measure was the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI). Patients were followed up at 3 and 6 months. We imputed missing data using multiple imputation methods. Results: Of the 961 patients who consented, 871 returned baseline questionnaires (210 usual care, 219 nasal irrigation, 232 steam inhalation and 210 combined treatment). A total of 671 (77.0%) of the 871 participants reported RSDI scores at 3 months. Patients’ RSDI scores improved more with nasal irrigation than without nasal irrigation by 3 months (crude change −7.42 v. −5.23; estimated adjusted mean difference between groups −2.51, 95% confidence interval −4.65 to −0.37). By 6 months, significantly more patients maintained a 10-point clinically important improvement in the RSDI score with nasal irrigation (44.1% v. 36.6%); fewer used over-the-counter medications (59.4% v. 68.0%) or intended to consult a doctor in future episodes. Steam inhalation reduced headache but had no significant effect on other outcomes. The proportion of

  14. Nasal solitary fibrous tumor arising from the anterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Hicks, David L; Moe, Kris S

    2004-11-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal, spindle cell neoplasm that was originally found in pleural tissue. Recently, however, numerous extrapleural sites have been discovered, including the nasal cavity. We present the 15th case of a nasal SFT, and the first such tumor to arise from the cribriform plate and extend into the anterior cranial fossa. In addition to highlighting the aggressive nature of this tumor, we review its clinical features and the diagnostic difficulties posed by SFT.

  15. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    PubMed

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations.

  16. [Design of the Rolling Type Nasal Feeding Perfusion Apparatus].

    PubMed

    Yu, Dong; Yang, Yonghuan; Hu, Huiqin; Luo, Hongjun; Feng, Yunhao; Hao, Xiali

    2015-09-01

    At present, the existing problem in nasal feeding perfusion apparatus is laborious and instability. Designing the rolling type perfusion apparatus by using a roller pump, the problem is solved. Compared with the traditional perfusion apparatus, the advantage lies in liquid carrying only need once and simulating human swallowing process. Through testing and verification, the apparatus can be used in nasal feeding perfusion for elderly or patients.

  17. Overview of Nasal Soft Tissue Reconstruction: Keeping It Simple

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, William M.; Koshy, John C.; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Thornton, James F.

    2013-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of nasal soft tissue reconstruction and of the senior author's practice. Nasal soft tissue reconstruction is a challenging endeavor as the nose is one of the most prominent and complex facial features. A multitude of surgical repair options exist, which can make the decision-making process unnecessarily complicated. It is advisable that the reconstructive surgeon become facile with a handful of surgical techniques versus trying to master many techniques. PMID:24872747

  18. [One case of pleomorphic adenoma originates from inferior nasal turbinate].

    PubMed

    Hao, Fang; Xu, Xuehai

    2014-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands. Originating from the nasal cavity is very rare. This paper reports one case of pleomorphic adenoma of the inferior nasal turbinate to analyze the clinic characteristic of this disease. Although these tumors are rarely seen in everyday practice, one should consider this possibility as an uncommon aetiology when confronted with an intranasal mass.

  19. Neandertal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract “specialization”

    PubMed Central

    Franciscus, Robert G.

    1999-01-01

    Schwartz and Tattersall [Schwartz, J. H. & Tattersall, I. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10852–10854] have argued for a previously unrecognized suite of autapomorphies in the internal nasal region of Neandertals that make them unique, not only among hominids, but possibly among all other terrestrial mammals. These purported autapomorphies include (i) the development of an internal nasal margin bearing a well developed and vertically oriented medial projection; (ii) a pronounced medial swelling of the lateral nasal wall into the posterior nasal cavity; and (iii) the lack of an ossified roof over the lacrimal groove. In addition, Laitman et al. [Laitman, J. T., Reidenberg, J. S., Marquez, S. & Gannon, P. J. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10543–10545] pointed to these features as evidence for upper respiratory tract specializations among the Neandertals, indicating potential differences in behavior compared with modern humans. Critically reviewing the anatomical basis for Schwartz and Tattersall’s contentions reveals several serious problems with their analysis, including (i) reliance on specimens with damaged, incomplete, or, in some cases, entirely absent relevant anatomy; (ii) failure to consider primary vs. secondary spatial consequences in nasal trait conceptualization; and (iii) failure to consider actual ranges of variation in these traits in both fossil and recent humans. Accordingly, the unique phylogenetic and adaptive “specializations” attributed to Neandertal internal nasal structures are unwarranted. PMID:9990106

  20. Transfixion incision as an initial technique in nasal tip deprojection

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Philip; Rival, Richard; Mabini, Aimee; Boyd, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The overprojected nasal tip presents a significant challenge to the surgeon performing rhinoplasty. Full transfixion incision as a means of dealing with this deformity has been studied only in combination with other surgical methods. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether transfixion incision alone would result in significant nasal tip deprojection, and if skin thickness had an effect on the extent of deprojection the procedure yielded. METHOD: Seventy-two consecutive patients with an aesthetic goal of nasal tip deprojection were enrolled. The sole surgical means of deprojection used was transfixion incision. Subjects were categorized as thin-, medium- or thick-skinned based on the surgeon’s analysis. These groups were compared in terms of their postprocedural nasal tip deprojection. RESULTS: Using transfixion incision as the sole means of correcting this deformity resulted in a mean nasal tip deprojection of 1.6 mm (ranging from 0 mm to 3 mm). Patients in the thin skin group had a mean deprojection of 2.12 mm. This was significantly greater than for both the medium- and thick-skinned groups. There was no significant difference between the medium- and thick-skinned groups. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons may use skin thickness when planning interventions for correcting nasal tip overprojection. When used alone, transfixion incision resulted in tip deprojection comparable with that achieved when combined with other methods, particularly for thin-skinned patients. Surgeons can thus use a graduated approach in which transfixion incision, the least destructive method, is used before proceeding with other interventions. PMID:19949502

  1. Use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure during neonatal transfers

    PubMed Central

    Bomont, R K; Cheema, I U

    2006-01-01

    Objective To review all cases in which nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was used as a means of respiratory support during land based ambulance transfers by a regional neonatal transport service. Design Retrospective study based on review of transport records. Results A total of 1175 transfer requests were received over the 21 month period. The infant in 163 of these cases was receiving nasal CPAP. Ninety two referrals were accepted by the doctor/nurse practitioner led team. Of these, 84 were transported while receiving nasal CPAP. Intervention during transport was required in three of these cases. Fifty five referrals were accepted by the nurse led team. Of these, 16 were transported while receiving nasal CPAP. Intervention was required in two cases. Conclusion There is a small but significant demand for transferring infants who are receiving nasal CPAP. Nasal CPAP appears to be a safe method of respiratory support for a carefully selected group of infants during land based ambulance transfers. PMID:16204357

  2. Treatment of rhinitis sicca anterior with ectoine containing nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Scherner, Olaf; Werkhäuser, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The safety and efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and ectoine nasal spray with dexpanthenol in the treatment of rhinitis sicca were evaluated in two studies. Design and Methods. Two noninterventional observational studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nasal spray containing ectoine (study 1) and ectoine/dexpanthenol (study 2) over a period of two weeks including comparable numbers of patients suffering from rhinitis sicca anterior. Patients and physicians were asked to rate the efficacy in reducing symptoms and the tolerability over the treatment phase. Results. The treatment in both studies resulted in a clinical and statistical significant reduction of the main diagnosis parameters, nasal airway obstruction, and crust formation. There was also a significant reduction in the secondary diagnosis parameters in both studies. Importantly, the tolerability was very good. During the whole observational study, neither patients nor doctors stopped the medication due to unwanted effects. Conclusion. Rhinitis sicca could be successfully treated with a nasal spray containing ectoine and a nasal spray combining ectoine with dexpanthenol. The combination of both substances led to slight advantages.

  3. Treatment of Rhinitis Sicca Anterior with Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Werkhäuser, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The safety and efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and ectoine nasal spray with dexpanthenol in the treatment of rhinitis sicca were evaluated in two studies. Design and Methods. Two noninterventional observational studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nasal spray containing ectoine (study 1) and ectoine/dexpanthenol (study 2) over a period of two weeks including comparable numbers of patients suffering from rhinitis sicca anterior. Patients and physicians were asked to rate the efficacy in reducing symptoms and the tolerability over the treatment phase. Results. The treatment in both studies resulted in a clinical and statistical significant reduction of the main diagnosis parameters, nasal airway obstruction, and crust formation. There was also a significant reduction in the secondary diagnosis parameters in both studies. Importantly, the tolerability was very good. During the whole observational study, neither patients nor doctors stopped the medication due to unwanted effects. Conclusion. Rhinitis sicca could be successfully treated with a nasal spray containing ectoine and a nasal spray combining ectoine with dexpanthenol. The combination of both substances led to slight advantages. PMID:24822072

  4. Treatment of rhinitis sicca anterior with ectoine containing nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Scherner, Olaf; Werkhäuser, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The safety and efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and ectoine nasal spray with dexpanthenol in the treatment of rhinitis sicca were evaluated in two studies. Design and Methods. Two noninterventional observational studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nasal spray containing ectoine (study 1) and ectoine/dexpanthenol (study 2) over a period of two weeks including comparable numbers of patients suffering from rhinitis sicca anterior. Patients and physicians were asked to rate the efficacy in reducing symptoms and the tolerability over the treatment phase. Results. The treatment in both studies resulted in a clinical and statistical significant reduction of the main diagnosis parameters, nasal airway obstruction, and crust formation. There was also a significant reduction in the secondary diagnosis parameters in both studies. Importantly, the tolerability was very good. During the whole observational study, neither patients nor doctors stopped the medication due to unwanted effects. Conclusion. Rhinitis sicca could be successfully treated with a nasal spray containing ectoine and a nasal spray combining ectoine with dexpanthenol. The combination of both substances led to slight advantages. PMID:24822072

  5. Bioactivation of the Nasal Toxicant 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile: An Assessment of Metabolic Activity in Human Nasal Mucosa and Identification of Indicators of Exposure and Potential Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fang; D’Agostino, Jaime; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) is a potent nasal toxicant in rodents; however it is not known whether DCBN causes similar nasal toxicity in humans. The tissue-selective toxicity of DCBN in mouse nasal mucosa is largely dependent on target tissue bioactivation by CYP2A5. The human orthologs of CYP2A5, CYP2A6 and CYP2A13, are both expressed in nasal mucosa, and are capable of activating DCBN. In this study, we directly determined the ability of human nasal mucosa to bioactivate DCBN. We also tested the suitability of a glutathione conjugate of DCBN (GS-DCBN) or its derivatives as biomarkers of DCBN exposure and nasal toxicity in mouse models. We found that human fetal nasal-mucosa microsomes catalyze the formation of GS-DCBN, with a Km value comparable to that of adult mouse nasal-mucosa microsomes. The activity of the human nasal-mucosa microsomes was inhibited by 8-methoxypsoralen, a known CYP2A inhibitor. GS-DCBN and its metabolites were detected in the nasal mucosa and nasal-wash fluid obtained from DCBN-treated mice, in amounts that increased with escalations in DCBN dose, and they were all still detectable at 24 h after a DCBN treatment (at 10 mg/kg). Further studies in Cyp2a5-null mice indicated that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid were generated in the nasal mucosa, rather than in other organs. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that the human nasal mucosa is capable of bioactivating DCBN, and that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid may collectively serve as indicators of DCBN exposure and potential nasal toxicity in humans. PMID:23360412

  6. Utility of a single nasal polymerase chain reaction assay in predicting absence of skin and environmental contamination in hospitalized patients with past methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Dubert M; Wagner, Matthew; Carson, Grace; Hanish, Christine; Thompson, Jody; Orr, Megan; Roth, Felix; Carson, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated hospitalized patients with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for persistent colonization and need for contact precautions. Up to 3 daily cultures of nares, skin, and any present wounds were compared with a single nasal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Most patients (76.2%) were no longer colonized with MRSA. A single PCR assay was sufficient to exclude persistent colonization and environmental contamination and remove the contact precautions.

  7. Nasalance and nasality at experimental velopharyngeal openings in palatal prosthesis: a case study

    PubMed Central

    LIMA-GREGIO, Aveliny Mantovan; MARINO, Viviane Cristina de Castro; PEGORARO-KROOK, Maria Inês; BARBOSA, Plinio Almeida; AFERRI, Homero Carneiro; DUTKA, Jeniffer de Cassia Rillo

    2011-01-01

    The use of prosthetic devices for correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is an alternative treatment for patients with conditions that preclude surgery and for those individuals with a hypofunctional velopharynx (HV) with a poor prognosis for the surgical repair of VPI. Understanding the role and measuring the outcome of prosthetic treatment of velopharyngeal dysfunction requires the use of tools that allow for documenting pre- and post-treatment outcomes. Experimental openings in speech bulbs have been used for simulating VPI in studies documenting changes in aerodynamic, acoustic and kinematics aspects of speech associated with the use of palatal prosthetic devices. The use of nasometry to document changes in speech associated with experimental openings in speech bulbs, however, has not been described in the literature. Objective This single-subject study investigated nasalance and nasality at the presence of experimental openings drilled through the speech bulb of a patient with HV. Material and Methods Nasometric recordings of the word "pato" were obtained under 4 velopharyngeal conditions: no-opening (control condition), no speech bulb, speech bulb with a 20 mm2 opening, and speech bulb with 30 mm2 opening. Five speech-language pathologists performed auditory-perceptual ratings while the subject read an oral passage under all conditions. Results Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant difference among conditions (p=0.0002), with Scheffé post hoc test indicating difference from the no-opening condition. Conclusion The changes in nasalance observed after drilling holes of known sizes in a speech bulb suggest that nasometry reflect changes in transfer of sound energy related to different sizes of velopharyngeal opening. PMID:22230996

  8. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule.

    PubMed

    Horsmans, J D; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K E; Bastholt, L; Løntoft, E

    1999-09-01

    From 1978 to 1992, 66 patients (32 women and 34 men) were treated for carcinoma of the nasal vestibule at Odense University Hospital. The treatment was radiotherapy (41 patients), surgery (13 patients) or a combination of the two modalities (12 patients). Twenty-one patients (32%) developed recurrence. Of these, 17 (81%) were diagnosed within the first two years of follow up. The recurrence rate was found to be correlated to the anatomic site of the tumour-origin; septal site of origin meant higher risk of recurrence. Five-year disease specific and crude survival of all patients were 87.0% and 58.5%, respectively. Several variables (sex, age, anatomic site of origin, Wang-classification, tumour volume and regional lymphnode metastases at time of diagnosis) were evaluated as possible prognostic indicators. In univariate analysis, regional lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis and anatomic site of origin of the tumour showed a significant influence on survival. In multivariate analysis, septal origin of primary tumour was a significant, independent predictive factor of recurrence and the presence of lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis showed to be a highly significant prognosticator of both disease specific and crude survival (p < 0.0001). We conclude that patients with primary lymph node metastases and septal location of primary tumour need intensive primary treatment and close follow up. PMID:10567990

  10. Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma of Sheep in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, A.O.; Thorsen, J.; Hayes, M.A.; Misener, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of veterinary diagnostic laboratories revealed that intranasal tumors occur in sheep in most provinces of Canada. Tumors were diagnosed in 44 sheep of several breeds including Polled Dorset, Suffolk, Cheviot, Rambouillet and various crossbreeds. Twenty-seven percent of tumors occurred in sheep that were less than two years old. Most tumors were sporadic but 33% of cases occurred in six related flocks, indicating that this disease can be an enzootic problem. The clinical signs were persistent serous, mucous or mucopurulent nasal discharge and stridor. Affected sheep progressively developed anorexia, dyspnea and mouth breathing and most died from effects of asphyxia and inanition within 90 days of the onset of clinical signs. Tumors originated unilaterally or occasionally bilaterally in the olfactory mucosa of the ethmoid turbinates. They were expansive and sometimes locally invasive but metastases were not found. Histologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas or, more frequently, adenocarcinomas. The etiology was not established but retrovirus like particles were observed in tumor tissue from one affected sheep. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17422121

  11. Oral Therapeutics for Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyposis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Alt, Jeremiah A

    2016-01-01

    Oral therapeutics for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) include oral corticosteroids (OCS), antibiotics, antifungals and anti-leukotrienes. Of these treatments, the strongest evidence exists to support the use of a short course of OCS for treatment of CRSwNP, and OCS are the most consistently recommended oral therapy in practice guidelines. Antibiotics have demonstrated some utility, which appears more likely related to an anti-inflammatory rather than antimicrobial effect. The non-macrolide antibiotics lack sufficient evidence to support their use, though among this class doxycycline has some limited evidence of benefit in CRSwNP. Greater evidence exists for the use of macrolide antibiotics which have shown reduction of subjective and objective measures of CRSwNP severity. A short course of a macrolide should be considered as an option. Oral antifungals are not recommended in the treatment of CRSwNP given disappointing results and known potential adverse effects, except in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis where they may play a role. Leukotriene antagonists have demonstrated some promise in the treatment of CRSwNP, though studies are limited, but should be considered a potentially useful oral therapeutic. The current level of evidence for these oral therapeutic options for CRSwNP is reviewed in this chapter. PMID:27466856

  12. Metabolism of diethylnitrosamine by nasal mucosa and hepatic microsomes from hamster and rat: species specificity of nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Longo, V; Citti, L; Gervasi, P G

    1986-08-01

    The oxidative metabolism of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated by acetaldehyde determination using microsomes from nasal mucosa and liver of Sprague-Dawley rats and nasal mucosa and liver of Syrian Golden hamsters, to establish the role of metabolic activation in the organo-targets for the carcinogenicity of the nitrosamine. The hepatic microsomal de-ethylation of DEN followed simple and biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics for rat liver and hamster liver, respectively. Both de-ethylations were inducible by phenobarbital (PB) and the DEN-de-ethylase activities and the Michaelis constants were determined. Microsomes from hamster liver showed a higher metabolic rate (Vmax) and a better affinity (Km) towards DEN with respect to microsomes from rat liver. In hamster, microsomes from nasal tissue biotransformed DEN at a rate and affinity quite similar to those of liver. In contrast, nasal mucosa of rat metabolized DEN poorly. The effect of metyrapone, a classical inhibitor of P-450 monooxygenases, on DEN de-ethylation was studied. It inhibited both hepatic and nasal DEN-de-ethylase activity, with greater affinity towards the latter. In addition metyrapone had a greater inhibitory effect on the hepatic P-450 isozymes induced in PB-treated animals. These results correlate well with the organotrophy of DEN carcinogenesis in the nasal region of hamster, but not of rat. They suggest that for the nose the metabolic activation of DEN in situ is necessary to elicit its carcinogenic effect.

  13. Relative vascular permeability and vascularity across different regions of the rat nasal mucosa: implications for nasal physiology and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niyanta N; Gautam, Mohan; Lochhead, Jeffrey J; Wolak, Daniel J; Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Thorne, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported. Here, we determined that the relative capillary permeability to hydrophilic macromolecule tracers is significantly greater in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Mean capillary density in the nasal mucosa was also approximately 5-fold higher in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Applying capillary pore theory and normalization to our permeability data yielded mean pore diameter estimates ranging from 13-17 nm for the nasal respiratory vasculature compared to <10 nm for the vasculature in olfactory regions. The results suggest lymphatic drainage for CNS immune responses may be favored in olfactory regions due to relatively lower clearance to the bloodstream. Lower blood clearance may also provide a reason to target the olfactory area for drug delivery to the brain. PMID:27558973

  14. Relative vascular permeability and vascularity across different regions of the rat nasal mucosa: implications for nasal physiology and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Niyanta N.; Gautam, Mohan; Lochhead, Jeffrey J.; Wolak, Daniel J.; Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Thorne, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported. Here, we determined that the relative capillary permeability to hydrophilic macromolecule tracers is significantly greater in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Mean capillary density in the nasal mucosa was also approximately 5-fold higher in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Applying capillary pore theory and normalization to our permeability data yielded mean pore diameter estimates ranging from 13–17 nm for the nasal respiratory vasculature compared to <10 nm for the vasculature in olfactory regions. The results suggest lymphatic drainage for CNS immune responses may be favored in olfactory regions due to relatively lower clearance to the bloodstream. Lower blood clearance may also provide a reason to target the olfactory area for drug delivery to the brain. PMID:27558973

  15. The effects of naris occlusion on mouse nasal turbinate development.

    PubMed

    Coppola, David M; Craven, Brent A; Seeger, Johannes; Weiler, Elke

    2014-06-15

    Unilateral naris occlusion, a standard method for causing odor deprivation, also alters airflow on both sides of the nasal cavity. We reasoned that manipulating airflow by occlusion could affect nasal turbinate development given the ubiquitous role of environmental stimuli in ontogenesis. To test this hypothesis, newborn mice received unilateral occlusion or sham surgery and were allowed to reach adulthood. Morphological measurements were then made of paraffin sections of the whole nasal cavity. Occlusion significantly affected the size, shape and position of turbinates. In particular, the nasoturbinate, the focus of our quantitative analysis, had a more delicate appearance on the occluded side relative to the open side. Occlusion also caused an increase in the width of the dorsal meatus within the non-occluded and occluded nasal fossae, compared with controls, and the position of most turbinates was altered. These results suggest that a mechanical stimulus from respiratory airflow is necessary for the normal morphological development of turbinates. To explore this idea, we estimated the mechanical forces on turbinates caused by airflow during normal respiration that would be absent as a result of occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to construct a three-dimensional model of the mouse nasal cavity that provided the input for a computational fluid dynamics simulation of nasal airflow. The simulation revealed maximum shear stress values for the walls of turbinates in the 1 Pa range, a magnitude that causes remodeling in other biological tissues. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that nasal turbinates develop partly under the control of respiratory mechanical forces.

  16. Nasal patency is related to dust exposure in woodworkers

    PubMed Central

    Schlunssen, V; Schaumburg, I; Andersen, N; Sigsgaard, T; Pedersen, O

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: A cross sectional study of 54 furniture factories and three control factories was conducted to investigate the relation between subjective and objective nasal obstruction and exposure to wood dust. Methods: Acoustic rhinometry was performed on 161 woodworkers and 19 controls. For each person, four measuring rounds were performed: before work, after 4 hours of work, and after 7 hours of work before and after decongestion. Before the first and third measuring round, each person rated the current feeling of nasal obstruction in the left and right nostril separately, using a visual analogue scale. Personal passive dust measurements were performed on 140 woodworkers. Results: The mean (SD) of equivalent inhalable dust was relatively low, 1.17 (0.62) mg/m3, range 0.17–3.44 mg/m3. The exposure was divided into four levels: controls, low exposure, medium exposure, and high exposure. For the two highest concentrations of exposure, a significant increase in congestion—decreased nasal cavity volume and cross sectional areas—was found after 4 and 7 hours of work, compared with before work. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed positive correlations between concentration of dust and change in mucosal swelling. A significant increase in self rated nasal obstruction was found after work compared with before work for the two highest exposure groups. No correlation between objective nasal variables and self rated nasal obstruction was found. Conclusion: Exposure to wood dust was related in a dose dependent manner to acute nasal obstruction measured by acoustic rhinometry and self reported obstruction, but no correlation was found between measured and self reported obstruction. PMID:11836465

  17. European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007.

    PubMed

    Fokkens, Wytske; Lund, Valerie; Mullol, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis is a significant and increasing health problem which results in a large financial burden on society. This evidence based position paper describes what is known about rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps, offers evidence based recommendations on diagnosis and treatment, and considers how we can make progress with research in this area. Rhinitis and sinusitis usually coexist and are concurrent in most individuals; thus, the correct terminology is now rhinosinusitis. Rhinosinusitis (including nasal polyps) is defined as inflammation of the nose and the paranasal sinuses characterised by two or more symptoms, one of which should be either nasal blockage/obstruction/congestion or nasal discharge (anterior/posterior nasal drip), +/- facial pain/pressure, +/- reduction or loss of smell; and either endoscopic signs of polyps and/or mucopurulent discharge primarily from middle meatus and/or; oedema/mucosal obstruction primarily in middle meatus, and/or CT changes showing mucosal changes within the ostiomeatal complex and/or sinuses. The paper gives different definitions for epidemiology, first line and second line treatment and for research. Furthermore the paper describes the anatomy and (patho)physiology, epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, evidence based diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment in acute and chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis in adults and children. Evidence based schemes for diagnosis and treatment are given for the first and second line clinicians. Moreover attention is given to complications and socio-economic cost of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Last but not least the relation to the lower airways is discussed. PMID:17844873

  18. Nasal toxicity, carcinogenicity, and olfactory uptake of metals.

    PubMed

    Sunderman, F W

    2001-01-01

    Occupational exposures to inhalation of certain metal dusts or aerosols can cause loss of olfactory acuity, atrophy of the nasal mucosa, mucosal ulcers, perforated nasal septum, or sinonasal cancer. Anosmia and hyposmia have been observed in workers exposed to Ni- or Cd-containing dusts in alkaline battery factories, nickel refineries, and cadmium industries. Ulcers of the nasal mucosa and perforated nasal septum have been reported in workers exposed to Cr(VI) in chromate production and chrome plating, or to As(III) in arsenic smelters. Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium has been observed in rodents following inhalation of NiSO4 or alphaNi3S2. Cancers of the nose and nasal sinuses have been reported in workers exposed to Ni compounds in nickel refining, cutlery factories, and alkaline battery manufacture, or to Cr(VI) in chromate production and chrome plating. In animals, several metals (eg, Al, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Zn) have been shown to pass via olfactory receptor neurons from the nasal lumen through the cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb. Some metals (eg, Mn, Ni, Zn) can cross synapses in the olfactory bulb and migrate via secondary olfactory neurons to distant nuclei of the brain. After nasal instillation of a metal-containing solution, transport of the metal via olfactory axons can occur rapidly, within hours or a few days (eg, Mn), or slowly over days or weeks (eg, Ni). The olfactory bulb tends to accumulate certain metals (eg, Al, Bi, Cu, Mn, Zn) with greater avidity than other regions of the brain. The molecular mechanisms responsible for metal translocation in olfactory neurons and deposition in the olfactory bulb are unclear, but complexation by metal-binding molecules such as carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) may be involved. PMID:11314863

  19. Nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis and facial cellulitis in a child.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-H; Huang, I-S

    2007-06-01

    Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess is rare, commonly seen in patients with poor immunity, and presents as isolated nasal septal abscess. Further, nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis is rather rare. Very little literature has been generated for non-traumatic nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis in healthy patients. Prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment will help to prevent the complications associated with nasal septal abscess such as saddle nose and intracranial involvement. Herein, to our knowledge, we present the first case involving an otherwise healthy little girl with nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis and facial cellulitis.

  20. Human nasal mucosal changes after exposure to urban pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Garcidueñas, L; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, A; Garcia, R; Sanchez, G; Barragan, G; Camacho, R; Ramirez, L

    1994-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are living in areas where ozone (O3) concentrations exceed health standards (an hourly average of 235 micrograms/m3/0.12 ppm, not to be exceeded more than once per year). Ozone induces acute nasal inflammatory responses and significant epithelial lesions in experimental animals and humans. To determine the nasal effects of a 15-day exposure to an urban polluted atmosphere with O3 as the main pollutant, we studied a population of healthy, young males newly arrived to southwest metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC). The study included 49 non-smoking residents in an unpolluted port, Veracruz City; 14 subjects stayed in the port and served as controls, while 35 subjects traveled to SWMMC and had serial nasal lavages at different times after arriving in SWMMC. Subjects had exposures to ambient O3 an average of 10.2 hr/day, with a total cumulative O3 exposure of 10.644 ppm.hr. Nasal inflammatory responses, polymorphonuclear leukocyte PMN-CD11b surface expression, rhinoscopic changes, and respiratory symptoms were evaluated. Exposed subjects had massive nasal epithelial shedding and significant responses in PMN nasal influx (p < 0.00001) and in PMN-CD11b expression (p < 0.05). Cumulative O3 exposure correlated with respiratory symptoms, PMNs (rs = 0.2374, p < 0.01), and CD11b (rs = 0.3094, p < 0.01); 94% of exposed subjects experienced respiratory symptoms, and 97% left the city with an abnormal nasal mucosa by rhinoscopy. Nasal epithelial changes persisted 2 weeks after the exposed subjects returned to their nonpolluted environment. Exposure to an urban polluted atmosphere induces significant and persistent nasal epithelial alterations in healthy subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 2. D Figure 2. E Figure 2. F Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. B PMID:7713020

  1. Treatment of nasal burns: analysis of 150 cases.

    PubMed

    Prousskaia, E; El-Muttardi, N; Philp, B; Dziewulski, P; Shelley, O P

    2015-06-30

    Nasal burns present a challenge for the plastic surgeon in terms of immediate management, choice of primary treatment and secondary reconstruction with the goals of good aesthetic and functional outcome. We present a retrospective analysis of the management of 150 patients with nasal burns treated in our center between July 2005 and July 2011. We rationalized our conservative and all surgical treatments of this subset of burns patients and organized them in a simple and structured way. The reconstructive options for most complex full thickness nasal injury is determined by the integrity of adjacent facial tissues which would always be preferred when available. Microsurgical free tissue transfer is dependent upon the fitness of the patient and the availability of unburned skin at the donor site. Secondary nasal reconstruction is based on an assessment of the residual functional and cosmetic problems. Airways narrowing from scar contracture or loss of support are managed using standard plastic surgical and rhinoplasty principles. Cosmetic refinements range from flap debulking to the importation of new tissue on to the nose. Our experience with this challenging group of patients has led us to develop a simple treatment algorithm for the management of nasal burns.

  2. Optimization of Thermoreversible In Situ Nasal Gel of Timolol Maleate

    PubMed Central

    Shewale, Nirupama; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S.

    2016-01-01

    Nasal route had shown better systemic bioavailability due to its large surface area, porous endothelial membrane, high total blood flow, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism. Timolol maleate is a beta blocker used primarily in the treatment of hypertension. Drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism (80%). The drug has half-life of 4 hrs. Oral bioavailability of timolol maleate is 61%. The aim of the present study was to optimize controlled release in situ nasal delivery for timolol maleate. HPMC and Poloxamer 407 were selected as polymer in formulation of thermoreversible in situ nasal gel. Optimization was carried out using 32 factorial design. It was observed that formulations f1 and f4 revealed the highest % drug release, that is, 93.57% and 91.66%, respectively. Factorial design study indicated that the drug release and viscosity were most significant dependent factors. Ex vivo diffusion study through nasal mucosa indicated 67.26 ± 2.10% and 61.07 ± 2.49% drug release for f1 and f4 formulations. f1 was the optimized batch. This batch thus can act as a potential nasal delivery with enhanced bioavailability for the drug. PMID:27293975

  3. Comparative morphometry of the nasal cavity in rats and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, E A; Swenberg, J A; Fields, S; Popp, J A

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of the various epithelial types lining the nasal cavity in normal 7 and 16 weeks old male Fischer-344 rats and male B6C3F1 mice has been mapped at the light microscopic level. Photographs of transverse sections of the nose were analysed using a Zeiss Videoplan computerized image analysis system programmed for measurement and evaluation of count, area, perimeter and length. In rats, the volumes of the nasal cavity at 7 and 16 weeks are 156 and 257 mm3 respectively; while in mice the nasal cavity volume is essentially the same (32 . 5 and 31 . 5 mm3) at the same two ages. Total surface areas of the nasal cavity in rats at 7 and 16 weeks are 799 and 1344 mm2 respectively; and in mice 278 and 289 mm2. The percentages of the nasal cavity surface lined by squamous, respiratory and olfactory epithelium are similar at both ages in both species. Applications and significance of these data are discussed. PMID:7130058

  4. Actual therapeutic management of allergic and hyperreactive nasal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rudack, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and hyperractive disorders of the upper airways, depending upon the type of releasing stimuli, are defined as nasal hyperreactivity, for example in the case of AR, or as non-specific nasal hyperreactivity and as idiopathic rhinitis (IR) (synonyms frequently used in the past: non-specific nasal hyperreactivity; vasomotor rhinitis) in the case of non-characterised stimuli. An early and professional therapy of allergic disorders of the upper airways is of immense importance as allergic rhinitis is detected in comorbidities such as asthma and rhino sinusitis. The therapeutic concept is influenced by new and further developments in pharmacological substance classes such as antihistamines and glucocorticosteroids. Specific immune therapy, the only causal therapy for AR, has been reviewed over the past few years in respect of the type and pattern of application. However, to date no firm recommendations on oral, sublingual and /or nasal immune therapy have yet been drawn up based on investigations of these modifications. Therapeutic management of IR is aimed at a symptom-oriented therapy of nasal hyperactivity as etiological factors relating to this form of rhinitis are not yet sufficiently known. Drug groups such as mast cell stabilizers, systemic and topic antihistamines, topic and systemic glucocorticosteroids, ipatroium bromide and alpha symphatomimetics belong to the spectrum of the therapeutics employed. PMID:22073046

  5. Modeling the pharyngeal pressure during adult nasal high flow therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Haribalan; Spence, Callum J T; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2015-12-01

    Subjects receiving nasal high flow (NHF) via wide-bore nasal cannula may experience different levels of positive pressure depending on the individual response to NHF. In this study, airflow in the nasal airway during NHF-assisted breathing is simulated and nasopharyngeal airway pressure numerically computed, to determine whether the relationship between NHF and pressure can be described by a simple equation. Two geometric models are used for analysis. In the first, 3D airway geometry is reconstructed from computed tomography images of an adult nasal airway. For the second, a simplified geometric model is derived that has the same cross-sectional area as the complex model, but is more readily amenable to analysis. Peak airway pressure is correlated as a function of nasal valve area, nostril area and cannula flow rate, for NHF rates of 20, 40 and 60 L/min. Results show that airway pressure is related by a power law to NHF rate, valve area, and nostril area.

  6. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use.

  7. The effect of xylometazoline spray for expansion of nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun-Sung; Park, Sang-Hi; Shin, Young Duck; Kwon, Eunjung; Shim, Woo Sub

    2013-01-01

    Background During nasotracheal intubation it is important to have proper pretreatment for nasal mucosa constriction and nasal cavity expanding. Nasal packing of epinephrine gauze is widely used as well as xylometazoline. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic intranasal spray of xylometazoline against epinephrine gauze packing in expanding the nasal cavity. Methods Volunteers (n = 32) in their twenties without nasal disease such as septal deviation or rhinitis were enrolled in the study. The more patent nostril in each subject was measured by acoustic rhinometry as the base value. After intranasal spray of xylometazoline, the same nostril was remeasured by same method. Twenty four hours later, intranasal packing of epinephrine gauze was done and the same treatment was done. Subject preferences about the procedures were asked. Results There were significant difference among treatments (base value: 0.582 ± 0.164 cm2, xylometazoline spray: 0.793 ± 0.165 cm2, epinephrine gauze packing: 0.990 ± 0.290 cm2) in acoustic rhinometry. While the epinephrine gauze packing showed more efficient mucosa constriction, subjects preferred xylometazoline spray. Conclusions Even though xylometazoline spray was less effective than epinephrine gauze packing, the simplicity and convenience compensated. In patients undergoing nasotracheal intubation, xylometazoline spray can be an alternative to epinephrine gauze packing. PMID:24023995

  8. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use. PMID:26894006

  9. Treatment of nasal burns: analysis of 150 cases

    PubMed Central

    Prousskaia, E.; El-Muttardi, N.; Philp, B.; Dziewulski, P.; Shelley, O.P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nasal burns present a challenge for the plastic surgeon in terms of immediate management, choice of primary treatment and secondary reconstruction with the goals of good aesthetic and functional outcome. We present a retrospective analysis of the management of 150 patients with nasal burns treated in our center between July 2005 and July 2011. We rationalized our conservative and all surgical treatments of this subset of burns patients and organized them in a simple and structured way. The reconstructive options for most complex full thickness nasal injury is determined by the integrity of adjacent facial tissues which would always be preferred when available. Microsurgical free tissue transfer is dependent upon the fitness of the patient and the availability of unburned skin at the donor site. Secondary nasal reconstruction is based on an assessment of the residual functional and cosmetic problems. Airways narrowing from scar contracture or loss of support are managed using standard plastic surgical and rhinoplasty principles. Cosmetic refinements range from flap debulking to the importation of new tissue on to the nose. Our experience with this challenging group of patients has led us to develop a simple treatment algorithm for the management of nasal burns. PMID:27252610

  10. Contemporary Concepts for the Bilateral Cleft Lip and Nasal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rohit K.; McGregor, Jyoti; Kelley, Patrick K.; Gruss, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    The bilateral cleft lip and nasal deformity presents a complex challenge for repair. Surgical techniques continue to evolve and are focused on primary anatomic realignment of the tissues. This can be accomplished in a single-stage or two-stage repair early in infancy to provide a foundation for future growth of the lip and nasal tissue. Most cleft surgeons currently perform a single-stage repair for simplifying patient care. Certain institutions utilize presurgical orthopedics for alignment of the maxillary segments and nasal shaping. Methods for the bilateral cleft lip repair are combined with various open and closed rhinoplasty techniques to achieve improved correction of the primary nasal deformity. There is recent focus on shaping the nose for columellar and tip support, as well as alar contour and alar base position. The authors will present a new technique for closure of the nasal floor to prevent the alveolar cleft fistula. Although the alveolar fistula is closed, alveolar bone grafting is still required at the usual time in dental development to fuse the maxilla. It is paramount to try and minimize the stigmata of secondary deformities that historically have been characteristic of the repaired bilateral cleft lip. A properly planned and executed repair reduces the number of revisions and can spare a child from living with secondary deformities. PMID:24179448

  11. The Effect of Nasal Packing Removal on Patients Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Caner; Aras, Hatice Imer

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to investigate the effect of removal of merocel nasal packings on patients anxiety after septoplasty using Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Material and methods: Total amount of 50 patients who had septoplasty operation in the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of our hospital were enrolled to the study. Patients anxiety determined using Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The patients anxiety levels were measured before 24 hours before the operation (Group 1), 48 hours after operation before nasal packing removal (Group 2) and 60 minutes after nasal packing removal (Group 3). Results: Patients were evaluated according to the Hamilton Anxiety Scale; in Group 1 15.3 ± 7.2, 19.3 ± 7 in Group 2, 14.6 ± 6,5 in Group 3 was measured. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference between Groups 1 and 3. There is a statistically significant difference on patients anxiety levels 48 hours after operation before nasal packing removal (p<0.001). There is an statistically significant increase of patients anxiety before packing removal. We recommend using soluble packings or sewing techniques without nasal packings after septoplasty because of patient comfort after operation. PMID:26843732

  12. Shape of the human nasal cavity promotes retronasal smell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trastour, Sophie; Melchionna, Simone; Mishra, Shruti; Zwicker, David; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Brenner, Michael P.

    2015-11-01

    Humans are exceptionally good at perceiving the flavor of food. Flavor includes sensory input from taste receptors but is dominated by olfactory (smell) receptors. To smell food while eating, odors must be transported to the nasal cavity during exhalation. Olfactory performance of this retronasal route depends, among other factors, on the position of the olfactory receptors and the shape of the nasal cavity. One biological hypothesis is that the derived configuration of the human nasal cavity has resulted in a greater capacity for retronasal smell, hence enhanced flavor perception. We here study the air flow and resulting odor deposition as a function of the nasal geometry and the parameters of exhalation. We perform computational fluid dynamics simulations in realistic geometries obtained from CT scans of humans. Using the resulting flow fields, we then study the deposition of tracer particles in the nasal cavity. Additionally, we derive scaling laws for the odor deposition rate as a function of flow parameters and geometry using boundary layer theory. These results allow us to assess which changes in the evolution of the human nose led to significant improvements of retronasal smell.

  13. The effect of rapid maxillary expansion on nasal airway resistance.

    PubMed

    White, B C; Woodside, D G; Cole, P

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to provide quantitative data describing the effects of rapid palatal expansion on nasal airway resistance. Rapid palatal expansion is an orthodontic procedure which is commonly used to widen the maxilla to correct maxillary narrowing resulting in the orthodontic abnormality of crossbite and to provide more space for alignment of crowded teeth. Recordings of nasal airway resistance were taken prior to expansion, immediately after expansion (approximately one month), after a retention period of approximately 4 months and approximately one year after initiation of treatment. Findings indicate an average reduction in nasal airway resistance of 48.7 per cent which was statistically significant at the 0.005 level. The reduction also appeared stable throughout the post treatment observation period (maximum one year) as each series of readings was statistically significantly lower than the initial reading, but not significantly different from each other. Reduction of nasal airway resistance was highly correlated to the initial nasal resistance level prior to rapid maxillary expansion. Those individuals with the greater initial resistance tended to have greater reductions in airway resistance following the expansion.

  14. Study of eosinophil activation in nasal mucosa in patients with perennial nasal allergy: effects of CO2 laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Furukido, Kyosuke; Takeno, Sachio; Osada, Rika; Ishino, Takashi; Yajin, Koji

    2002-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser surgery has been shown to be clinically effective in the treatment of nasal allergy. To investigate the mechanisms of eosinophil infiltration and activation underlying the therapeutic effects of CO2 laser surgery, we examined changes in the cytological profile of nasal mucosa after surgery. Twenty-two patients with perennial nasal allergy against house-dust mites underwent two or three rounds of laser surgery at 1-month intervals on an outpatient basis. The following parameters were evaluated at each visit: (i) improvement of clinical symptoms (nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, and sneezing), (ii) percentage of infiltrating eosinophils in nasal mucosa, and (iii) the degree of EG2+ cells and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression by immunocytochemistry. All clinical symptoms significantly decreased after surgery. Significant reductions in eosinophil infiltration (p < 0.01) and the percentage of EG2+ cells (p < .005) were observed also. However, the degree of ICAM-1 expression in epithelial cells was not changed. These results suggest that CO2 laser surgery partially reduced the allergic reactions, leading to improvement of clinical symptoms.

  15. Electromyographic analysis of trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus muscles during nasal and oral inspiration in nasal- and mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, E C; Marchiori, S C; Silva, A M T

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate sternocleidomastoideus (SCM) and trapezius (superior fibers) muscle activity patterns in mouth-breathing children, and to compare them with nasal-breathing children. Forty-six children, of both sexes, ranging from 8 to 12 years old, were evaluated through electromyography. The selected children were divided into two groups; Group I, was made up of 26 mouth-breathing children and Group II of 20 nasal-breathing children. Electromyographic recordings were obtained through surface electrodes in the SCM and trapezius muscles, bilaterally, during oral and nasal inspiration. Root-mean-square (RMS) data expressed in microvolts (microV), were analyzed using the Kruskall-Wallis statistical test. From the results obtained, we concluded that there was a significant difference in the muscle activity between the groups, with higher activity during nasal inspiration in the mouth-breathing group. During oral inspiration, there was no significant difference between groups. Within the groups, only the mouth-breathing group showed higher activity during nasal inspiration.

  16. In vitro permeation of desmopressin across rabbit nasal mucosa from liquid nasal sprays: the enhancing effect of potassium sorbate.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Fabrizio; Fabrizio, Bortolotti; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Giulia, Balducci Anna; Sonvico, Fabio; Fabio, Sonvico; Russo, Paola; Paola, Russo; Colombo, Gaia; Gaia, Colombo

    2009-04-11

    Nasal spray products containing desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) were tested in vitro to evaluate the effect of the contained preservatives on drug permeation across rabbit nasal mucosa. Experiments were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells with rabbit nasal mucosa as model barrier. Transport profiles obtained in comparison with a preservative-free solution evidenced that in the presence of preservatives DDAVP permeation in vitro always increased (p<0.05), although at different extents (chlorobutanolnasal mucosa with different mechanisms. If a correlation existed between these data and in vivo DDAVP bioavailability after nasal administration, this could strengthen the safety concerns related to the use of this medication in adults and children.

  17. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Zeitler, Daniel M; Kanowitz, Seth J; Har-El, Gady

    2007-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are unusual mesenchymal tumors that were first described as primary spindle-cell neoplasms of the pleura. These tumors have been described in many other locations, including the urogenital system, orbit, mediastinum, and upper respiratory tract. Twenty-two cases of an SFT of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity have been reported, but none described a malignant SFT extending through the anterior skull base. A 70-year-old man had a 6-month history of unilateral left-sided epiphora and nasal obstruction. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large left-sided nasal cavity mass with extension into the left extraconal orbit and intracranial extension through the left cribriform plate and ethmoid roof. The patient underwent preoperative embolization of the internal maxillary artery and a subsequent anterior craniofacial resection via a midfacial degloving approach and a left anterior craniotomy. Histopathological analysis of the specimen was consistent with a malignant SFT.

  18. Formulation and stability study of chlorpheniramine maleate nasal gel.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Iman I; Soliman, Nadia A; Abdou, Ebtsam M

    2010-01-01

    Nasal administration has been of special interest in the last decade due to its feasibility and relative high bioavailability compared to the oral rout of administration. Our study aimed to develop a nasal gel formulation for an antihistaminic drug, Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), which suffers from poor oral bioavailability (25-45%) due to its first-pass metabolism in the liver. Different formulations of CPM nasal gels were prepared using different polymers in different concentrations, these gels were evaluated for their in vitro (physico-chemical properties, release, permeability and stability) to select the best formulation which subject to in vivo tests including mucociliary clearance and bioavailability, both in comparison to the solution and commercial tablet Allergyl.

  19. Deposition of radon progeny in nonhuman primate nasal airways

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.; Su, Y.F. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Morgan, K.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Information on aerosol deposition patterns in the human respiratory tract is needed to improve health risk estimates for exposure to airborne radon progeny. To investigate this, deposition of {sup 220}Rn progeny in Rhesus monkey nasal casts was examined. A substantial fraction of the inhaled ultrafine particles are deposited in the nasal cast. Deposition efficiency increases with decreasing particle size, reaching a maximum value of 80% for particles 1.7 nm in diameter. Breathing flow rate has a minimal effect on deposition efficiency. Deposition efficiencies for particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter are similar for monkey and human nasal casts. Equations based on turbulent diffusion can be fitted to these data for either inspirational or expirational flow. These mathematical expressions will be useful for modifying the inhaled particle deposition and dosimetry models. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab (MHB)

  20. Nasal endoscopy in the management of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faky, Yasser H.

    2013-01-01

    Probing is a reliable surgical intervention for the management of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO). However, it is a blind procedure that carries the risk of false passage formation. Moreover, its success rate is variable, with unexplained causes of failure. Recent literature suggests the use of nasal endoscopic-assisted probing to minimize nasal mucosal trauma, decreases the chance of creating a false passage and provides the optimum management option of different congenital variants of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Nasal endoscopic-assisted probing has more or less consistent success rates varied between 85% and 98% compared with probing success rates, which vary between 55% and 95% despite having almost the same age range. PMID:24526852

  1. Skin metastasis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma to the nasal tip.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Masahisa; Yoshida, Yuichi; Tominaga, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2013-06-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rarely metastasizes to the skin. Metastases to the nasal tip from hypopharyngeal malignancies are extremely rare. We present a patient with nasal tip metastasis from hypopharyngeal SCC. A 74-year-old man with hypopharyngeal and esophageal carcinomas had a red nodule on his nasal tip (so-called "clown nose"). Histopathologically, atypical squamoid cell nests had proliferated in a lobular fashion from the dermis to subcutaneous tissue. Those atypical cells were identical to primary tumor cells in the hypopharynx. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of skin metastasis from hypopharyngeal SCC was made. In patients with malignant disease, biopsy should be performed for any suspicious skin lesion. In a patient like ours, "clown nose" might be a symptom of cutaneous metastasis. When clinicians note a "clown nose", they should consider malignancies in the neck and chest areas.

  2. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

    2013-07-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient.

  3. High Flow Nasal Cannula as a Method for Rapid Weaning From Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Zohreh; Eshghi, Alireza; Mohammadizadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare two methods of weaning premature infants from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). Methods: Between March and November 2012, 88 preterm infants who were stable on NCPAP of 5 cmH2O with FIO2 <30% for a minimum of 6 h were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) group received HFNC with flow of 2 L/min and FIO2 = 0.3 and then stepwise reduction of FIO2 and then flow. The non-HFNC group was maintained on NCPAP of 5 cmH2O and gradual reduction of oxygen until they were on FIO2 = 0.21 for 6 h, and we had weaned them directly from NCPAP (with pressure of 5 cmH2O) to room air. Results: No significant differences were found between 2 study groups with regards to gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min after birth, patent ductus arteriosus and use of xanthines. The mean duration of oxygen therapy after randomization was significantly lower in HFNC group compared to non-HFNC group (20.6 ± 16.8 h vs. 49.6 ± 25.3 h, P < 0.001). Also, the mean length of hospital stay was significantly lower in HFNC group compared to non-HFNC group (11.3 ± 7.8 days vs. 14.8 ± 8.6 days, P = 0.04). The rate of successful weaning was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusions: Weaning from NCPAP to HFNC could decrease the duration of oxygen therapy and length of hospitalization in preterm infants. PMID:25949783

  4. Effect of cochlear implantation on nasality in post-lingually deafened adults.

    PubMed

    Langereis, M C; Dejonckere, P H; van Olphen, A F; Smoorenburg, G F

    1997-01-01

    The present study addresses the effect of cochlear implantation on nasality in 21 post-lingually deafened Dutch subjects. All subjects received the Nucleus 22 implant (MSP version). Speech recordings were made pre-implantation and 3 and 12 months post-implantation with the implant switched on and off. Nasality measurements were performed on a standard text and on two sentences without nasal phonemes. The results show that post-lingual deafness in individuals can result in a deviant degree of nasality in speech production. However, the nasalance value of 86% of the subjects of our study fell within the normative range defined as the mean +/- 2 standard deviations of the normal population. After implantation we found no statistically significant effect of implant use. However, individual nasality values outside the normative range may improve. Furthermore, 12 months post-implantation we found a significant decrease in the variability of the nasalance values obtained for two sentences without nasal phonemes. PMID:9415736

  5. Nasal PMN response to repeated challenge with endotoxin in healthy volunteers**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Rationale: We have employed nasal challenge with Iipopolysaccharid (lPS) followed by nasal lavage (NU to experimentally induce and examine upper airway inflammation in human volunteers.It is unclear however whether adaptation within individuals occurs following repeated ...

  6. Nasal Foreign Bodies: A Review of Management Strategies and a Clinical Scenario Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pavan M.; Anand, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a toothbrush head lodged into the nasal cavity, which required an external rhinoplasty for retrieval. A review of the literature on management strategies in case of nasal foreign bodies is presented. PMID:22379507

  7. Detecting Nasal Vowels in Speech Interfaces Based on Surface Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, João; Teixeira, António; Silva, Samuel; Oliveira, Catarina; Dias, Miguel Sales

    2015-01-01

    Nasality is a very important characteristic of several languages, European Portuguese being one of them. This paper addresses the challenge of nasality detection in surface electromyography (EMG) based speech interfaces. We explore the existence of useful information about the velum movement and also assess if muscles deeper down in the face and neck region can be measured using surface electrodes, and the best electrode location to do so. The procedure we adopted uses Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RT-MRI), collected from a set of speakers, providing a method to interpret EMG data. By ensuring compatible data recording conditions, and proper time alignment between the EMG and the RT-MRI data, we are able to accurately estimate the time when the velum moves and the type of movement when a nasal vowel occurs. The combination of these two sources revealed interesting and distinct characteristics in the EMG signal when a nasal vowel is uttered, which motivated a classification experiment. Overall results of this experiment provide evidence that it is possible to detect velum movement using sensors positioned below the ear, between mastoid process and the mandible, in the upper neck region. In a frame-based classification scenario, error rates as low as 32.5% for all speakers and 23.4% for the best speaker have been achieved, for nasal vowel detection. This outcome stands as an encouraging result, fostering the grounds for deeper exploration of the proposed approach as a promising route to the development of an EMG-based speech interface for languages with strong nasal characteristics. PMID:26069968

  8. Detecting Nasal Vowels in Speech Interfaces Based on Surface Electromyography.

    PubMed

    Freitas, João; Teixeira, António; Silva, Samuel; Oliveira, Catarina; Dias, Miguel Sales

    2015-01-01

    Nasality is a very important characteristic of several languages, European Portuguese being one of them. This paper addresses the challenge of nasality detection in surface electromyography (EMG) based speech interfaces. We explore the existence of useful information about the velum movement and also assess if muscles deeper down in the face and neck region can be measured using surface electrodes, and the best electrode location to do so. The procedure we adopted uses Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RT-MRI), collected from a set of speakers, providing a method to interpret EMG data. By ensuring compatible data recording conditions, and proper time alignment between the EMG and the RT-MRI data, we are able to accurately estimate the time when the velum moves and the type of movement when a nasal vowel occurs. The combination of these two sources revealed interesting and distinct characteristics in the EMG signal when a nasal vowel is uttered, which motivated a classification experiment. Overall results of this experiment provide evidence that it is possible to detect velum movement using sensors positioned below the ear, between mastoid process and the mandible, in the upper neck region. In a frame-based classification scenario, error rates as low as 32.5% for all speakers and 23.4% for the best speaker have been achieved, for nasal vowel detection. This outcome stands as an encouraging result, fostering the grounds for deeper exploration of the proposed approach as a promising route to the development of an EMG-based speech interface for languages with strong nasal characteristics.

  9. The 'Pinocchio' nasal deformity due to cavernous lymphangioma.

    PubMed

    Hobby, J L; Tiernan, E; Mayou, B J

    1995-09-01

    The 'Pinocchio' or 'Cyrano' nose is a rare condition in which deformity of the nasal tip is produced by an underlying soft tissue tumour. Previously reported cases have been due to either capillary or cavernous haemangiomas (angiolipomas). The deformity is the cause of much teasing in children. There has been debate as to whether surgical intervention is indicated, as a proportion of cases will regress spontaneously. We report a case of 'Pinocchio' nose with a lymphangioma of the nasal tip which is previously undescribed and review the options for management.

  10. The 'Pinocchio' nasal deformity due to cavernous lymphangioma.

    PubMed Central

    Hobby, J L; Tiernan, E; Mayou, B J

    1995-01-01

    The 'Pinocchio' or 'Cyrano' nose is a rare condition in which deformity of the nasal tip is produced by an underlying soft tissue tumour. Previously reported cases have been due to either capillary or cavernous haemangiomas (angiolipomas). The deformity is the cause of much teasing in children. There has been debate as to whether surgical intervention is indicated, as a proportion of cases will regress spontaneously. We report a case of 'Pinocchio' nose with a lymphangioma of the nasal tip which is previously undescribed and review the options for management. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7562857

  11. Avoiding irregularities on the nasal dorsum in rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, Fernando Javier; Cardemil, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Palpable irregularities along the nasal dorsum are a frequent complication of dorsal handling in rhinoplasty because resection techniques are used. This is often a result of improper management of the dorsum after resection. The surgical technique for handling of dorsal irregularities following dorsal resection is described. The key steps to avoid irregularities are diamond rasps, autospreader and morselized cartilage as camouflage. Following resection of the hump, the anatomy of the nasal dorsum should be adequately restructured; thereby we achieve an adequate aesthetic result and ideally preventing irregularities on palpation. PMID:27097285

  12. Cerebro-oculo-nasal syndrome: 13 new Brazilian cases.

    PubMed

    Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria; Richieri-Costa, Antonio

    2007-12-15

    Cerebro-oculo-nasal syndrome (CONS) is characterized by structural anomalies of the central nervous system (encephalocele, ventricular dilatation, defects of corpus callosum, and even holoprosencephaly in one instance), by ocular alterations ranging from anophthalmia/microphthalmia to normal eyes, and by proboscis-like nares. Here, we report on 13 new cases with CONS, review 7 previously published cases, and evaluate the findings in all 20 patients. Despite marked variability among cases, the nasal configuration appears to be unique and diagnostic. Although one patient had a mutation in the PTCH gene, the cause of all other cases remains unknown to date. PMID:17985375

  13. Overgrowth of a costochondral graft in nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Baek, Rong-Min; Lee, Yoonho; Song, Yong-Tai

    2005-07-01

    Nasal reconstruction with autogenous costochondral graft has been one of the surgical managements in craniofacial clefts. We have recently seen one patient who underwent this operation and the graft had overgrown like as in Pinocchio's nose-overly projecting nasal tip for almost 7 years. This case supports the notion that the costochondral graft itself carries intrinsic factors and the growth of the graft depends mainly on the costochondral graft itself. Therefore we acknowledge "the primary growth center theory" rather than "the functional matrix theory".

  14. Avoiding irregularities on the nasal dorsum in rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, Fernando Javier; Cardemil, Felipe

    2016-03-30

    Palpable irregularities along the nasal dorsum are a frequent complication of dorsal handling in rhinoplasty because resection techniques are used. This is often a result of improper management of the dorsum after resection. The surgical technique for handling of dorsal irregularities following dorsal resection is described. The key steps to avoid irregularities are diamond rasps, autospreader and morselized cartilage as camouflage. Following resection of the hump, the anatomy of the nasal dorsum should be adequately restructured; thereby we achieve an adequate aesthetic result and ideally preventing irregularities on palpation.

  15. Is antibiotic prophylaxis in nasal packing for anterior epistaxis needed?

    PubMed

    Pérez, Francisco; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-07

    Epistaxis is an extremely common problem that sometimes requires anterior nasal packing. Antibiotics are frequently indicated to prevent infectious complications, although the role of this measure is controversial. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified one systematic review including three primary studies, none of them randomized. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether prophylactic antibiotics reduce infectious complications in patients with nasal packing for anterior epistaxis because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  16. Medicinal leeches used to salvage a traumatic nasal flap.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, B W; Dawson, K H; Murakami, C

    1998-12-01

    We report a case in which medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) were used to rescue a traumatic nasal flap from venous congestion and loss. A healthy 18-year-old had a bicycling accident and, in addition to other facial injuries, presented with a complex full thickness nasal laceration. After he had been resuscitated and the flap sutured, he was treated with two leeches four times a day for 48 h. His recovery was satisfactory and uncomplicated. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be familiar with the use of leeches, as they have a small but occasionally important role in the management of both traumatic and reconstructive flaps.

  17. Nasal Cancer in the Northamptonshire Boot and Shoe Industry

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, E. D.; Cowdell, R. H.; Jolles, B.

    1970-01-01

    A survey of the incidence of nasal cancer in Northamptonshire during the period 1953 to 1967 is reported. Of the 46 patients with nasal cancer ascertained during the 15-year period 21 (19 males and 2 females) had been employed at some time in the boot and shoe industry. Five other cases diagnosed either before 1953 or after 1967 in persons who had worked in the boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire were ascertained from various sources. The incidence of nasal cancer (all histological types considered together) was significantly higher in male boot and shoe operatives in Northamptonshire than in males of all occupational classes in the Cancer Register areas selected for comparison and in males working in other occupations in Northamptonshire. The excess incidence has recently given rise to the occurrence of between 1 and 2 new cases per annum in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry. The cases within the Northamptonshire industry occurred almost entirely in the relatively small number of workers who are exposed to the dust of the materials used in the manufacture of footwear. Possibly there are two carcinogenic factors in the industry—one related to the production of nasal adenocarcinoma, and the other to squamous and possibly other types of carcinoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses. This requires further study. Our best estimate of the latent period for the adenocarcinoma cases was 54·6 years, which is substantially longer than for the patients with squamous, transitional, and anaplastic tumours (41·7 years). We have no evidence to answer the question whether the facts are still present in the industrial environment, though undoubtedly the standards of hygiene in the industry has improved substantially since these men were first exposed. There is probably an increased risk of nasal adenocarcinoma in the footwear repairing industry, but this requires further study. Our evidence suggests that snuff taking should be considered as a possible contributory

  18. Is antibiotic prophylaxis in nasal packing for anterior epistaxis needed?

    PubMed

    Pérez, Francisco; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Epistaxis is an extremely common problem that sometimes requires anterior nasal packing. Antibiotics are frequently indicated to prevent infectious complications, although the role of this measure is controversial. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified one systematic review including three primary studies, none of them randomized. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether prophylactic antibiotics reduce infectious complications in patients with nasal packing for anterior epistaxis because the certainty of the evidence is very low. PMID:26817470

  19. Nasal Potential Difference Measurements to Assess CFTR Ion Channel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Jean-Paul; Wilschanski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nasal potential difference is used to measure the voltage across the nasal epithelium, which results from transepithelial ion transport and reflects in part CFTR function. The electrophysiologic abnormality in cystic fibrosis was first described 30 years ago and correlates with features of the CF phenotype. NPD is an important in vivo research and diagnostic tool, and is used to assess the efficacy of new treatments such as gene therapy and ion transport modulators. This chapter will elaborate on the electrophysiological principles behind the test, the equipment required, the methods, and the analysis of the data. PMID:21594779

  20. [The role of modern methods for frontal tamponade in the strategic management of recurrent nasal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Magomedov, M M; Dibirova, T A

    2012-01-01

    Nasal hemorrhage remains a challenging clinical problem due to the high prevalence of this pathology that frequently recurs and leads to serious deterioration of the patient's condition. This paper deals with modern therapeutic modalities used to stop and control nasal bleeding. The authors proposed a device for arresting nasal bleeding and present its detailed description laying emphasis on its clinical efficacy and advantages over other methods for the management of recurrent nasal bleeding.

  1. Nasal visualization on radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy due to benign abnormality.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Wang, Qiao; Huang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    Nasal iodine activity can be observed on 123Iodine (123I) or 131I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) commonly as a normal variant caused by nasal or salivary secretion of the tracer. We encountered 2 patients whose increased accumulation of 131I activity was associated with underlying abnormalities. One patient had a nasal polyp, whereas the other had an abscess.

  2. Speech Production Time and Judgments of Disordered Nasalization in Speakers with Cleft Palate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study investigated effect of production time on the perception of disordered nasalization in 20 children (ages 6-18) with cleft palate. Ten judges used direct magnitude estimates to rate severity of disordered nasalization. Results indicated that reducing the production time did not change perceptible nasalization. (Author/DB)

  3. Effects of Computer System and Vowel Loading on Measures of Nasalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Omlor, Kristin; Watts, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine similarities and differences in nasalance scores observed with different computerized nasalance systems in the context of vowel-loaded sentences. Methodology: Subjects were 46 Caucasian adults with no perceived hyper-or hyponasality. Nasalance scores were obtained using the Nasometer 6200 (Kay…

  4. A secure method of nasal endotracheal tube stabilization with suture and rubber tube.

    PubMed

    Ota, Y; Karakida, K; Aoki, T; Yamazaki, H; Arai, I; Mori, Y; Nakatogawa, N; Suzuki, T

    2001-12-01

    A new method of stabilizing the nasal endotrascheal tube was described. The tube was secured to the anterior portion of the nasal septum with braided silk thread, which was tightened over the rubber tube to keep air route of the cuff open. There found no complications such as unplanned extubation, necrosis and infections of the nasal septum.

  5. Perceptual Processing of Mandarin Nasals by L1 and L2 Mandarin Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yi-hsiu

    2012-01-01

    Nasals are cross-linguistically susceptible to change, especially in the syllable final position. Acoustic reports on Mandarin nasal production have recently shown that the syllable-final distinction is frequently dropped. Few studies, however, have addressed the issue of perceptual processing in Mandarin nasals for L1 and L2 speakers of Mandarin…

  6. Numerical Analysis of the Relationship between Nasal Structure and Its Function

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shen; Sun, Xiu-zhen; Liu, Ying-xi

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the nasal cavity are closely related to its structure. In this study the three-dimensional finite element models were established based on the clinical data of twenty-four volunteers to study the influence of nasal structure on nasal functions of heating the inhaled airflow. Numerical simulations mainly concerning the airflow distribution and the airflow temperature are performed. The character of airflow heating process in these models is gained from the simulation results of these nasal cavities. The parameters describing the geometry of nasal cavity, such as the surface area of nasal airway and the volume of nasal cavity, are considered to be related to the nasal function of heating the inhaled airflow. The approximate function describing the relationship between the geometric parameters of the nasal airway and the nasal functions is gotten. This study can provide a numerical platform for studying some clinical problems and will contribute to the further research on the relationship between nasal structure and nasal functions. PMID:24672336

  7. Strabismus secondary to frontal sinus mucocele associated with nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Koktekir, Bengu Ekinci; Karalezli, Aylin; Topal, Ozgul; Erbek, Selim

    2012-07-01

    Paranasal mucoceles are regarded as slow-growing and benign lesions. They are usually recognized by otorhinolaryngologists, but a clinically relevant mucocele with orbital complications may present to an ophthalmologist. We report a 15-year-old's case with unilateral reduced ocular motility due to bilateral frontal mucocele associated with grade II nasal polyposis.

  8. Does nasal echolocation influence the modularity of the mammal skull?

    PubMed

    Santana, S E; Lofgren, S E

    2013-11-01

    In vertebrates, changes in cranial modularity can evolve rapidly in response to selection. However, mammals have apparently maintained their pattern of cranial integration throughout their evolutionary history and across tremendous morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we use phylogenetic, geometric morphometric and comparative analyses to test the hypothesis that the modularity of the mammalian skull has been remodelled in rhinolophid bats due to the novel and critical function of the nasal cavity in echolocation. We predicted that nasal echolocation has resulted in the evolution of a third cranial module, the 'nasal dome', in addition to the braincase and rostrum modules, which are conserved across mammals. We also test for similarities in the evolution of skull shape in relation to habitat across rhinolophids. We find that, despite broad variation in the shape of the nasal dome, the integration of the rhinolophid skull is highly consistent with conserved patterns of modularity found in other mammals. Across their broad geographical distribution, cranial shape in rhinolophids follows two major divisions that could reflect adaptations to dietary and environmental differences in African versus South Asian distributions. Our results highlight the potential of a relatively simple modular template to generate broad morphological and functional variation in mammals.

  9. Nicotine nasal spray and vapor inhaler: abuse liability assessment.

    PubMed

    Schuh, K J; Schuh, L M; Henningfield, J E; Stitzer, M L

    1997-04-01

    Acute subjective and physiological effects were examined to provide information relevant to abuse liability of new nicotine delivery systems. Subjects (n = 12) were overnight-deprived smokers who received 0, 4, 8 and 16 active puffs from nicotine-containing cigarettes (0.1 mg per puff), 0, 1, 2 or 4 nasal sprays (0.5 mg nicotine per spray) and 0, 30, 60 and 120 vapor inhalations (estimated 0.013 mg nicotine per inhalation) in a within-subject single blinded design. While smokers clearly liked cigarette puffs, there was much less evidence of liking produced by either nasal spray or vapor inhaler; only modest elevations on a measure of good drug effects were observed. The novel delivery products engendered unpleasant effects of burning throat and nose, watery eyes, runny nose, coughing and sneezing that might be expected to limit abuse liability. Nicotine plasma level and heart rate increase was dose-related for cigarettes and nasal spray but not for vapor inhaler, indicating limited nicotine delivery with the latter device. Overall, results are consistent with the conclusion that the nicotine nasal spray and vapor inhaler are of substantially lower abuse liability than cigarettes in experienced cigarette smokers receiving initial exposure to these products. PMID:9160851

  10. Thermally reversible xyloglucan gels as vehicles for nasal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Hitendra S; Tyagi, Vinod; Lohiya, Gopal; Nerkar, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential application of thermosensitive gels formed by a xyloglucan polysaccharide derived from tamarind seed for nasal drug delivery. Xyloglucan that had been partially degraded by β-galactosidase to eliminate 45% of galactose residues formed gels at concentrations of 2.5% w/w at gelation temperatures decreasing over the range 27-28°C. The in vitro release of ondansetron hydrochloride from the enzyme-degraded xyloglucan gels followed higuchi kinetics over a period of 5 h at 34°C by anomalous transport mechanism. The ex vivo permeation of ondansetron hydrochloride from the gels was sustained. Histological examination of nasal mucosa following a single administration of the gels showed no evidence of mucosal damage. Finally, the bioavailability study in rabbits revealed that the absolute bioavailability of ondansetron hydrochloride was significantly increased from 28.64% in the case of the oral drug solution to 52.79% in the case of the nasal in situ gel. The results of this study suggest the potential of the enzyme-degraded xyloglucan gels as vehicles for nasal delivery of drugs.

  11. Nasal Vowels as Two Segments: Evidence from Borrowings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Carole; Prunet, Jean-Francois

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that the substitution of a foreign segment in the borrowing of a database, which includes 14,350 segmental malformations from French and English loanwords in eight distinct languages, involves its replacement by a single native placement. This tendency is without exception, other than in cases where nasal vowels are concerned.…

  12. Extramedullary nasal plasmacytoma: Literature review and a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Corvo, Marco Antonio dos Anjos; Granato, Lídio; Ikeda, Felipe; de Próspero, José Donato

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a plasma cell tumor that grows within any of the soft tissues of the organism. Similar to all plasmacytic dyscrasia, the disease is extremely rare. Aim: This study reports a case of an extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasal cavity and provides a literature review on the topic. Case report: A 51-year-old woman presented at our tertiary university hospital with a 6-month history of progressive nasal obstruction, predominantly to the right side, and self-limiting epistaxis. Examination revealed a large pale-reddish tumor within the right nasal cavity. Anatomopathological analysis showed features consistent with a plasmacytoma diagnosis, which was subsequently confirmed by immunohistochemical techniques. Further assessment revealed the solitary nature of the condition, consistent with extramedullary plasmacytoma. Radiotherapy was initiated, which led to partial regression of the symptoms. The tumor was surgically removed by using a mid-facial degloving approach. The patient evolved with a naso-oral fistula and underwent 3 corrective surgeries. No evidence of associated systemic disease was found after 5 years of follow-up. Conclusions: This case report, which describes a rare tumor of the nasal cavity, is expected to improve the recognition and referral of this condition by ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialists for multidisciplinary management and long-term follow-up. PMID:25992016

  13. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the nasal fossa.

    PubMed

    González-Lagunas, Javier; Alasà-Caparrós, Cristian; Vendrell-Escofet, Gerard; Huguet-Redecilla, Pere; Raspall-Martin, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    An unusual case of a T4N2CMx polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma located in the nasal fossae and extending to the pterygoid area is presented. The primary tumor was excised through a Lefort I maxillotomy and the neck was managed with a supraomohyoid neck dissection. Adjuntive postoperative radiotherapy was also administered to the patient.

  14. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS...

  15. Septic arthritis: a unique complication of nasal septal abscess.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steven M; Koch, Cody A; Ekbom, Dale C

    2015-03-01

    Nasal septal abscesses (NSAs) occur between the mucoperichondrium and the nasal septum. They most often arise when an untreated septal hematoma becomes infected. The most commonly reported sequela is a loss of septal cartilage support, which can result in a nasal deformity. Other sequelae include potentially life-threatening conditions such as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, brain abscess, and subarachnoid empyema. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed an NSA after he had been struck in the face with a basketball. He presented to his primary care physician 5 days after the injury and again the next day, but his condition was not correctly diagnosed. Finally, 7 days after his injury, he presented to an emergency department with more serious symptoms, and he was correctly diagnosed with NSA. He was admitted to the intensive care unit, and he remained hospitalized for 6 days. Among the abscess sequelae he experienced was septic arthritis, which has heretofore not been reported as a complication of NSA. He responded well to appropriate treatment, although he lost a considerable amount of septal cartilage. He was discharged home on intravenous antibiotic therapy, and his condition improved. Reconstruction of the nasal septum will likely need to be pursued in the future. PMID:25738728

  16. Effects of diesel exhaust on influenza-induced nasal inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: Effects of Diesel Exhaust on Influenza-Induced Nasal Inflammation T L Noah, MD1,2, K Horvath, BS3, C Robinette, RN2, 0 Diaz Sanchez, PhD4 and I Jaspers, PhD1,2. 1UNC Dept. of Pediatrics, United States; 2UNC Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, ...

  17. [Specific anaesthetic procedures for nasal and sinus surgery].

    PubMed

    Boisson-Bertrand, D; Jacquot, C

    2014-12-01

    In nasal and sinus surgery, the anaesthetist must share the operating field with the surgeon and take into account some patients' specific pathologies. Bleeding must be avoided by different means but the accurate gesture of the surgeon, added to the properties of the new anaesthetic drugs, may reduce the risk of this functional surgery. PMID:25458457

  18. Nasal cancer in England and Wales: an occupational survey.

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, E D; Cowdell, R H; Rang, E H

    1981-01-01

    A national survey of the incidence of nasal cancer in England and Wales during the period 1963-7 with special reference to occupation confirmed the well-known increases in incidence of nasal cancer in cabinet makers and wood machinists, together with the absence of any significant increase in carpenters and joiners, and the increases in boot and shoe operatives and repairers, and in nickel smelters in South Wales. The significant excesses of cases found among coalminers, furnacemen in the gas, coke, and chemical industry, and furnacemen and labourers in foundries may be associated with exposure to coal and coke dust or may be spurious. No excess of nasal cancer was found among male textile workers. Excesses of uncertain significance were found among tailors and dressmakers, bakers and pastry cooks, and printers. Apart from the well-known relationships between adenocarcinoma and work in the furniture and footwear industries there is no definite indication in this survey of any association between a particular histological type of nasal tumour and occupation in England and Wales. PMID:7272233

  19. Effect of marbofloxacin on Haemophilus parasuis nasal carriage.

    PubMed

    Vilalta, Carles; Galofré, Nuria; Aragon, Virginia; Pérez de Rozas, Ana María; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2012-09-14

    Haemophilus parasuis is a colonizer of the upper respiratory tract and the causative agent of Glässer's disease in swine. This study focused on the nasal carriage of H. parasuis after treatment with marbofloxacin. Three marbofloxacin treatments (three doses of 2mg/kg body weight [bw] every 24h, two doses of 4 mg/kg bw every 48 h and 8 mg/kg bw in one single shot) were used and all of them reduce significantly (p<0.05) the nasal carriage of H. parasuis as compared to control animals. Moreover, H. parasuis was not detected in the nasal cavities of piglets after administering the highest dose. The effect of a dose of 8 mg marbofloxacin/kg bw in one shot was further studied in a farm with clinical cases of Glässer's disease using a longitudinal study. Statistically significant reduction of nasal carriage of H. parasuis was detected during the first week after treatment in comparison with the control group. However, a clear relationship between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the different strains, their putative virulence or the treatment group (antibiotic or control) from which they were isolated was not detected. Finally, the effect induced by the antibiotic treatment on the bacterial strains seemed to be transitory, since diverse H. parasuis strains (with high and low marbofloxacin MICs) were observed 7 days after finishing the treatment.

  20. Severe psychological disturbance resulting from abuse of nasal decongestants.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, G W

    1982-04-01

    A case is reported in which a lady suffered long-term personality change, a paranoid psychosis of several months duration, and an acute delirium, secondary to abuse of Vicks Sinex Nasal Spray and Vicks Vaporub. The problems were reversible on withdrawal of these well used products which have not previously been reported to cause psychological disturbance.

  1. Thermally reversible xyloglucan gels as vehicles for nasal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Hitendra S; Tyagi, Vinod; Lohiya, Gopal; Nerkar, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential application of thermosensitive gels formed by a xyloglucan polysaccharide derived from tamarind seed for nasal drug delivery. Xyloglucan that had been partially degraded by β-galactosidase to eliminate 45% of galactose residues formed gels at concentrations of 2.5% w/w at gelation temperatures decreasing over the range 27-28°C. The in vitro release of ondansetron hydrochloride from the enzyme-degraded xyloglucan gels followed higuchi kinetics over a period of 5 h at 34°C by anomalous transport mechanism. The ex vivo permeation of ondansetron hydrochloride from the gels was sustained. Histological examination of nasal mucosa following a single administration of the gels showed no evidence of mucosal damage. Finally, the bioavailability study in rabbits revealed that the absolute bioavailability of ondansetron hydrochloride was significantly increased from 28.64% in the case of the oral drug solution to 52.79% in the case of the nasal in situ gel. The results of this study suggest the potential of the enzyme-degraded xyloglucan gels as vehicles for nasal delivery of drugs. PMID:22823894

  2. Chrome induced nasal septal perforation-An occupational hazard.

    PubMed

    Krishna, N Joshi

    2004-04-01

    86 patients, working in a chemical factory dealing with Chrome manufacturing job, were referred by Health Inspectai to F S 1 S Hospital O PD 32 patients out of above were found to be having Nasal septal perforation and were recommended to Medical Board for consideration of compensation as cases of Occupational hazard.

  3. Nasal and Oral Inspiration during Natural Speech Breathing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method: Ten healthy adults, 18-45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations…

  4. Nasal septum perforation in patient with pyoderma gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Maia, Camilla Bezerra da Cruz; Felix, Felippe; Paes, Vania; de Azevedo, Julia Alves; Grangeiro, Eliza Raquel Negrão; Riccio, Jonatah Lucas N; Rito, Helen Cruz

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: A cocaína é extraída das folhas do arbusto da coca (Erythroxylon coca), podendo ser consumida de várias formas, mas o modo mais comum é pela aspiração da droga, sendo absorvida pela mucosa nasal, causando vasoconstricção, levando o seu uso crônico à perfuração de septo nasal. Pioderma gangrenoso é uma doença inflamatória rara, idiopática que se caracteriza pela presença de úlceras destrutivas principalmente em membros inferiores. Seu diagnóstico clínico é muitas vezes de exclusão.Objetivo: Descrever a raridade de associação entre Pioderma Gangrenoso e cocaína.Relato de Caso: E. A., 27 anos, com apresentação atípica de Pioderma Gangrenoso com perfurações de septo nasal e palato duro usuária de grande quantidade de cocaína, sendo necessário diferenciar qual patologia causou esse dano.Comentários Finais: Além da necessidade dessa diferenciação, apenas existem três casos relatados na literatura, envolvendo o Pioderma Gangrenoso complicado com perfuração de septo nasal em usuários de cocaína.

  5. Septic arthritis: a unique complication of nasal septal abscess.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steven M; Koch, Cody A; Ekbom, Dale C

    2015-03-01

    Nasal septal abscesses (NSAs) occur between the mucoperichondrium and the nasal septum. They most often arise when an untreated septal hematoma becomes infected. The most commonly reported sequela is a loss of septal cartilage support, which can result in a nasal deformity. Other sequelae include potentially life-threatening conditions such as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, brain abscess, and subarachnoid empyema. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed an NSA after he had been struck in the face with a basketball. He presented to his primary care physician 5 days after the injury and again the next day, but his condition was not correctly diagnosed. Finally, 7 days after his injury, he presented to an emergency department with more serious symptoms, and he was correctly diagnosed with NSA. He was admitted to the intensive care unit, and he remained hospitalized for 6 days. Among the abscess sequelae he experienced was septic arthritis, which has heretofore not been reported as a complication of NSA. He responded well to appropriate treatment, although he lost a considerable amount of septal cartilage. He was discharged home on intravenous antibiotic therapy, and his condition improved. Reconstruction of the nasal septum will likely need to be pursued in the future.

  6. A repositioning technique for nasal fracture using the little finger.

    PubMed

    Ichida, Masayuki; Komuro, Yuzo; Koizumi, Takuya; Shimizu, Azusa; Yanai, Akira

    2008-11-01

    A nasal bone fracture is usually repositioned using either Walsham or Asch forceps. However, accurate repositioning is often difficult. We therefore performed a repositioning technique using the little finger in 10 patients with a new nasal fracture. The results were satisfactory in all of the patients. Although medical experts may consider our method to be primitive, we believe that our method is both safe and effective, because the operator can recognize both the fractured part and its actual condition using the little finger. With this method, the occurrence of unnecessary new fractures can be prevented, in addition to minimizing the degree of mucosal damage and the occurrence of nasal hemorrhage. Furthermore, we consider that this technique can also reduce the occurrence of postoperative deformities due to the reduced mucosal contracture with this treatment modality. Even if the use of an instrument is deemed necessary, such as in treating saddle-nose-type fractures, initially feeling the fracture with the little finger will still allow for a more precise fracture reduction. We therefore consider our method to be both safe and effective at the initial stage of diagnosis and for the treatment of patients presenting with nasal bone fractures.

  7. Design of landfill daily cells.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the daily cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where daily soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large daily cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill.

  8. Nasal vasomotor responses in man to breath holding and hyperventilation recorded by means of intranasal balloons.

    PubMed

    Babatola, F D; Eccles, R

    1986-12-01

    Nasal vasomotor responses were recorded in conscious human subjects by means of water filled balloons. Hyperventilation caused an increase in intranasal balloon pressure associated with vasodilatation whereas breath holding caused a decrease associated with vasoconstriction. The amplitude of the nasal vasomotor response was influenced by the nasal cycle with the greatest response always observed on the congested or low airflow side of the nose. The results suggest that an elevated arterial level of carbon dioxide causes a pronounced vasoconstruction of the nasal blood vessels and that this response may be clinically relevant in controlling nasal bleeding.

  9. A Comparative Study of Airflow and Odorant Deposition in the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Joseph; Rumple, Christopher; Ranslow, Allison; Quigley, Andrew; Pang, Benison; Neuberger, Thomas; Krane, Michael; van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The complex structure of the mammalian nasal cavity provides a tortuous airflow path and a large surface area for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of inspired contaminants, and olfaction. Due to the small and contorted structure of the nasal turbinals, nasal anatomy and function remains poorly understood in most mammals. Here, we utilize high-resolution MRI scans to reconstruct anatomically-accurate models of the mammalian nasal cavity. These data are used to compare the form and function of the mammalian nose. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of nasal airflow and odorant deposition are presented and used to compare olfactory function across species (primate, rodent, canine, feline, ungulate).

  10. Does Nasal Septal Deviation Affect the Success of Tympanoplasty Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, M; Kalcioglu, MT; Akarcay, M; Toplu, Y; Karaca, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This paper deals with the investigation of the effects of nasal septal deviation evaluated by acoustic rhinometry (ARM) in the success of tympanoplasty surgery. Subject and Methods: All patients who underwent tympanoplasty surgery by the same surgeon were reviewed. The patients with nasopharyngeal or nasal masses, polyps, symptoms of allergic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis, or concha bullosa were excluded from the study. Forty patients who underwent tympanoplasty at least one year ago were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the graft success results. Acoustic rhinometry evaluations of the patients were performed. Results: There were 25 and 15 cases in the intact graft (group A) and re-perforated group (group B), respectively. For the same side of the operated ear, ARM values of group A were 0.47 cm 2 at the first narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 1), 0.43 cm2 at the second narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 2), 1.51 cm3 volume at the first 2 cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 1) and 3.33 cm3 volume between the second and fifth cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 2). Acoustic rhinometry values of group B were 0.50 cm2, 0.47 cm2, 1.60 cm3 and 3.19 cm3 for MCA 1, MCA 2, Vol 1, and Vol 2, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that nasal septal deviation may not affect the success of tympanoplasty surgery, and septoplasty may not be necessary before ear surgery. PMID:26624593

  11. Alterations in Maxillary Sinus Volume among Oral and Nasal Breathers

    PubMed Central

    Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Gulsun, Belgin; Koparal, Mahmut; Atalay, Yusuf; Aksoy, Orhan; Adiguzel, Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral breathing causes many changes in the facial anatomical structures in adult patients. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of long-term oral breathing (>5 years) on the maxillary sinus volumes among adult male patients. Material/Methods We accessed medical records of 586 patients who had undergone cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for any reason between September 2013 and April 2014. Patients who had undergone cone-beam dental volumetric tomography scans for any reason and who had answered a questionnaire about breathing were screened retrospectively. Cone beam dental volumetric tomography (I-Cat, Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) was used to take the images of the maxillo-facial area at a setting of 120 kVp and 3.7 mA. This study involved male patients older than 21 years of age. Results The study included a total of 239 male patients, of which 68 were oral breathers and 171 were nasal breathers. The mean age of the oral breathers was 48.4 years and that of the nasal breathers was 46.7 years and the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The mean maxillary sinus volumes of the oral and nasal breathers were 9043.49±1987.90 and 10851.77±2769.37, respectively, and the difference in maxillary sinus volume between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions The volume of maxillary sinus in oral breathers (>5 years) was significantly lower than in nasal breathers, but it remains unclear whether this is due to malfunctioning of the nasal cavity or due to the underlying pathological condition. PMID:25553770

  12. Visualization of drug translocation in the nasal cavity and pharmacokinetic analysis on nasal drug absorption using positron emission tomography in the rat.

    PubMed

    Shingaki, Tomotaka; Katayama, Yumiko; Nakaoka, Takayoshi; Irie, Satsuki; Onoe, Kayo; Okauchi, Takashi; Hayashinaka, Emi; Yamaguchi, Masataka; Tanki, Nobuyoshi; Ose, Takayuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Wada, Yasuhiro; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Cui, Yilong; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    We performed positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nasal drug absorption in the rat. The dosing solution of [(18)F]FDG was varied in volume (ranging from 5 to 25 μl) and viscosity (using 0% to 3% concentrations of hydroxypropylcellulose). We modeled the pharmacokinetic parameters regarding the nasal cavity and pharynx using mass balance equations, and evaluated the values that were obtained by fitting concentration-time profiles using WinNonlin® software. The regional nasal permeability was also estimated using the active surface area derived from the PET images. The translocation of [(18)F]FDG from the nasal cavity was visualized using PET. Analysis of the PET imaging data revealed that the pharmacokinetic parameters were independent of the dosing solution volume; however, the viscosity increased the absorption rate constant and decreased the mucociliary clearance rate constant. Nasal permeability was initially higher but subsequently decreased until the end of the study, indicating regional differences in permeability in the nasal cavity. We concluded that the visualization of drug translocation in the nasal cavity in the rat using PET enables quantitative analysis of nasal drug absorption, thereby facilitating the development of nasal formulations for human use.

  13. In situ gelling, bioadhesive nasal inserts for extended drug delivery: in vitro characterization of a new nasal dosage form.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Ulrike; Bodmeier, Roland

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the preparation and characterization of sponge-like, in situ gelling inserts based on bioadhesive polymers. Hydrophilic polymers (carrageenan, Carbopol, chitosan, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K15M and E5, sodium alginate, sodium carboxy methylcellulose (NaCMC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) 90, xanthan gum) were dissolved with/without the model drug oxymetazoline HCl in demineralized water and lyophilized into small inserts. The drug release, water uptake, mechanical properties, X-ray diffraction and bioadhesion potential of the nasal inserts were investigated. A sponge-like structure of nasal inserts was formed with amorphous, but not with crystalline polymers during the freeze-drying process. The insert hardness increased with the glass transition temperature of the polymer (PVP25nasal inserts have a high potential as new nasal dosage form for extended drug delivery.

  14. Effects of Endogenous Formaldehyde in Nasal Tissues on Inhaled Formmaldehyde Dosimetry Predictions in the Rat, Monkey, and Human Nasal Passages

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Formaldehyde, a nasal carcinogen, is also an endogenous compound that is present in all living cells. Due to its high solubility and reactivity, quantitative risk estimates for inhaled formaldehyde rely on internal dose calculations in the upper respiratory tract which ...

  15. The spectrum of nasal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus and its association with the disease activity.

    PubMed

    Kusyairi, K A; Gendeh, B S; Sakthiswary, R; Shaharir, S S; Haizlene, A H; Yusof, K H

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of nasal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its association with the disease activity of SLE based on the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). This was a cross-sectional and observational study involving 73 stable SLE patients. All subjects were evaluated for the SLEDAI scores and had nasal endoscopic examination. The most commonly reported symptom was nasal congestion (31.5%) followed by nasal itchiness (26.0%), runny nose (20.5%) and nasal dryness (19.2%). Almost half (42.9%) of the subjects had nasal mucosal abnormalities, which included mucositis, crusting, ulceration, bifid middle turbinate, septal spur, Jacobson's organ, deviated nasal septum, bilateral inferior turbinate hypertrophy, everted uncinate process, nasopharynx cleft and torus palatinus. The median SLEDAI score for subjects with nasal symptoms was significantly higher than subjects without nasal symptoms (p < 0.05). Similarly, subjects with moderate to high activity (SLEDAI scores of 6-19) had a significantly higher frequency of both nasal symptoms and nasal mucosal abnormalities (p < 0.05) compared to subjects with no to mild activity (SLEDAI scores of 0-5).

  16. Exhaled nasal nitric oxide output is reduced in humans at night during the sleep period.

    PubMed

    O'Hearn, Daniel J; Giraud, George D; Sippel, Jeffrey M; Edwards, Chad; Chan, Benjamin; Holden, William E

    2007-04-16

    The physiologic function of nasal nitric oxide (NO) release is unknown. In prior experiments, topical NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on nasal mucosa reduced exhaled nasal NO output and caused daytime sleepiness. We hypothesized that nasal NO output is reduced at night during the sleep period. We measured exhaled nasal NO concentration and minute ventilation and calculated nasal NO output in humans over 24 h. Daytime awake NO output was greater than NO output at night during sleep or transient wakefulness. Exhaled NO concentration decreased during sleep along with minute ventilation. A daytime voluntary reduction in minute ventilation also decreased nasal NO output but exhaled NO concentration increased. Nasal NO output was not changed by body position. We conclude that exhaled nasal NO output is decreased at night due to decreased mass flow of NO into nasal air in addition to decreased minute ventilation. Our findings suggest a role of nasal NO in sleep or in the physiologic processes accompanying sleep.

  17. Utility of Computed Tomography Scans in Predicting Need for Surgery in Nasal Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Benjamin E.; Doerr, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    In many centers, computed tomography (CT) scan is preferred over plain film radiographs in the setting of acute nasal injury because CT scan is thought to be more sensitive in predicting nasal bone fracture. However, the usefulness of CT scans in predicting the need for surgery in acute nasal injury has not been well-studied. We conducted a retrospective review of 232 patients with known nasal bone fracture and found very similar rates of surgery in patients with a diagnosis of nasal fracture by CT scan as by nasal radiographs (41 and 37%, respectively). This suggests that experienced clinical examination remains the gold standard for determining the need for surgery in isolated nasal trauma, regardless of CT findings. PMID:24436764

  18. Stereoscopic PIV measurements of flow in the nasal cavity with high flow therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C. J. T.; Buchmann, N. A.; Jermy, M. C.; Moore, S. M.

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of the airflow characteristics within the nasal cavity with nasal high flow (NHF) therapy and during unassisted breathing is essential to understand the treatment's efficacy. The distribution and velocity of the airflow in the nasal cavity with and without NHF cannula flow has been investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry at steady peak expiration and inspiration. In vivo breathing flows were measured and dimensionally scaled to reproduce physiological conditions in vitro. A scaled model of the complete nasal cavity was constructed in transparent silicone and airflow simulated with an aqueous glycerine solution. NHF modifies nasal cavity flow patterns significantly, altering the proportion of inspiration and expiration through each passageway and producing jets with in vivo velocities up to 17.0 ms-1 for 30 l/min cannula flow. Velocity magnitudes differed appreciably between the left and right sides of the nasal cavity. The importance of using a three-component measurement technique when investigating nasal flows has been highlighted.

  19. Tractor Operation and Daily Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, J. M.; And Others

    Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

  20. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  1. A Recently Established Murine Model of Nasal Polyps Demonstrates Activation of B Cells, as Occurs in Human Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Sun Hye; Carter, Roderick G; Kato, Atsushi; Schleimer, Robert P; Cho, Seong H

    2016-08-01

    Animal model systems are invaluable for examining human diseases. Our laboratory recently established a mouse model of nasal polyps (NPs) and investigated similarities and differences between this mouse model and human NPs. We especially focus on the hypothesis that B cell activation occurs during NP generation in the murine model. After induction of ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinosinusitis, 6% ovalbumin and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (10 ng) were instilled into the nasal cavity of mice three times per week for 8 weeks. The development of structures that somewhat resemble NPs (which we will refer to as NPs) was confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The mRNA and protein levels of various inflammatory cell markers and mediators were measured by real-time PCR in nasal tissue and by ELISA in nasal lavage fluid (NLF), respectively. Total Ig isotype levels in NLF were also quantitated using the Mouse Ig Isotyping Multiplex kit (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA) on a Luminex 200 instrument (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY). Similar to human NPs, there were significant increases in gene expression of inflammatory cell markers, such as CD19, CD138, CD11c, and mast cell protease-6 in nasal tissue samples of the NP group compared with those of the control group. In further investigations of B cell activation, mRNA expressions of B cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand were found to be significantly increased in mouse NP tissue. B cell-activating factor protein concentration and IgA and IgG1 levels in NLF were significantly higher in the NP group compared with the control group. In this study, the NP mouse model demonstrated enhanced B cell responses, which are reminiscent of B cell responses in human NPs. PMID:27163839

  2. Cancers of the Lung and Nasal Sinuses in Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R.; Morgan, L. G.; Speizer, F. E.

    1970-01-01

    Men employed in a nickel refinery in South Wales were investigated to determine whether the specific risks of developing carcinoma of the bronchi and nasal sinuses, which had been associated with the refining of nickel, are still present. The data obtained were also used to compare the effect of age at exposure on susceptibility to cancer induction and to determine the rate of change of mortality after exposure to a carcinogenic agent had ceased. Eight hundred and forty five men were studied who had been employed in the industry for at least 5 years and whose first employment was in or before April 1994. All but 27 (3.2 per cent) were traced until death or January 1, 1967. Altogether 482 of the men had died: 113 from lung cancer and 39 from nasal cancer. In men employed before 1925, deaths from lung cancer varied from about 5 to 10 times the numbers that would have been expected from the corresponding national mortality rates, while the deaths from nasal cancer varied from about 100 to 900 times the expected numbers. Among men first employed in 1925 or after there were 8 deaths from lung cancer against 6.2 expected and no deaths from nasal cancer. The death rate from causes other than cancer was similar to that experienced by men in the same geographical area irrespective of their date of first employment. Susceptibility to the induction of nasal cancer increased with age at first exposure, but susceptibility to the induction of lung cancer varied irregularly. The trends in susceptibility showed some similarity to the trends in the national mortality among men employed at similar ages. It is suggested that susceptibility to cancer induction is determined by the amount of previous exposure to other agents. The risk of developing nasal cancer persisted with little change 15 to 42 years after the carcinogen was eliminated whereas the risk of developing lung cancer decreased. If the effects of cigarette smoking and the specific occupational hazard interact, the

  3. Cancers of the lung and nasal sinuses in nickel workers.

    PubMed

    Doll, R; Morgan, L G; Speizer, F E

    1970-12-01

    Men employed in a nickel refinery in South Wales were investigated to determine whether the specific risks of developing carcinoma of the bronchi and nasal sinuses, which had been associated with the refining of nickel, are still present. The data obtained were also used to compare the effect of age at exposure on susceptibility to cancer induction and to determine the rate of change of mortality after exposure to a carcinogenic agent had ceased.Eight hundred and forty five men were studied who had been employed in the industry for at least 5 years and whose first employment was in or before April 1994. All but 27 (3.2 per cent) were traced until death or January 1, 1967.Altogether 482 of the men had died: 113 from lung cancer and 39 from nasal cancer. In men employed before 1925, deaths from lung cancer varied from about 5 to 10 times the numbers that would have been expected from the corresponding national mortality rates, while the deaths from nasal cancer varied from about 100 to 900 times the expected numbers. Among men first employed in 1925 or after there were 8 deaths from lung cancer against 6.2 expected and no deaths from nasal cancer. The death rate from causes other than cancer was similar to that experienced by men in the same geographical area irrespective of their date of first employment.Susceptibility to the induction of nasal cancer increased with age at first exposure, but susceptibility to the induction of lung cancer varied irregularly. The trends in susceptibility showed some similarity to the trends in the national mortality among men employed at similar ages. It is suggested that susceptibility to cancer induction is determined by the amount of previous exposure to other agents.The risk of developing nasal cancer persisted with little change 15 to 42 years after the carcinogen was eliminated whereas the risk of developing lung cancer decreased. If the effects of cigarette smoking and the specific occupational hazard interact, the reduction

  4. Effects of Nasal Calcitonin vs. Oral Gabapentin on Pain and Symptoms of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Clinical Trial Study.

    PubMed

    Haddadi, Kaveh; Asadian, Leila; Isazade, Ahdie

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a chronic and prevalent disease that occurs in 10.8% of the general population, mostly in old age. We designed the first clinical trial study to compare the effects of administering the nasal salmon calcitonin spray and gabapentin in patients with LSS. In this clinical trial, 90 patients with symptoms of neurogenic claudication and magnetic resonance imaging-proven LSS were randomly assigned to nasal salmon calcitonin, gabapentin, or placebo treatments for eight weeks (30 participants in each group). This was followed by a washout period of four weeks. After three months of study and after four weeks off the prescription, mean values of Oswestry Disability Index in the calcitonin, gabapentin, and control groups were 23 ± 12.05, 32 ± 16.08, and 38 ± 22.09, respectively (P ≤ 0.05, calcitonin group vs. gabapentin group, and P ≤ 0. 001, calcitonin group vs. control group with respect to pretreatment scores). Thus, three months after the treatment, although most of the patients in the control group had a satisfactory period of improvement, the improvement in the calcitonin group was more than the other two groups with a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 when compared to gabapentin group and P ≤ 0.01 when compared to placebo group). We revealed that the 200 International Unit (IU) and nasal calcitonin spray daily are more effective compared to 300 mg gabapentin three times per day and the placebo effect for eight weeks of treatment of symptoms of patients with LSS.

  5. Effects of Nasal Calcitonin vs. Oral Gabapentin on Pain and Symptoms of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Haddadi, Kaveh; Asadian, Leila; Isazade, Ahdie

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a chronic and prevalent disease that occurs in 10.8% of the general population, mostly in old age. We designed the first clinical trial study to compare the effects of administering the nasal salmon calcitonin spray and gabapentin in patients with LSS. In this clinical trial, 90 patients with symptoms of neurogenic claudication and magnetic resonance imaging-proven LSS were randomly assigned to nasal salmon calcitonin, gabapentin, or placebo treatments for eight weeks (30 participants in each group). This was followed by a washout period of four weeks. After three months of study and after four weeks off the prescription, mean values of Oswestry Disability Index in the calcitonin, gabapentin, and control groups were 23 ± 12.05, 32 ± 16.08, and 38 ± 22.09, respectively (P ≤ 0.05, calcitonin group vs. gabapentin group, and P ≤ 0. 001, calcitonin group vs. control group with respect to pretreatment scores). Thus, three months after the treatment, although most of the patients in the control group had a satisfactory period of improvement, the improvement in the calcitonin group was more than the other two groups with a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 when compared to gabapentin group and P ≤ 0.01 when compared to placebo group). We revealed that the 200 International Unit (IU) and nasal calcitonin spray daily are more effective compared to 300 mg gabapentin three times per day and the placebo effect for eight weeks of treatment of symptoms of patients with LSS. PMID:27398032

  6. Observability of market daily volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  7. Evaluation of nasal morphology in predicting vertical and sagittal maxillary skeletal discrepancies’

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Chaitanya, Nellore; Reddy, Karnati Praveen Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Myla, Vijaya Bhaskar; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the relationship between nasal morphology and maxillary skeletal pattern. The clinical significance was to emphasize the importance of role of nasal pattern in diagnosis and treatment planning. Materials and Methods: The sample included the pre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of 180 South Indian adults (94 women, 86 men), aged 18 to 28 years. Six maxillary and six nasal soft tissue parameters were measured. Pearson correlation coefficients and Analysis of variance were used for statistical analyses. Results: There were significant correlations between maxillary vertical and sagittal, skeletal and soft tissue parameters. The Mean and standard deviations were correlated between low insignificant range to high significant levels with nasal length, nasal depth and columella convexity. Nasal length also showed significant correlation with inclination of palatal plane. Significant influence of gender was seen on nasal length, nasal depth, columella convexity and nasal tip angle. A statistically significant difference was seen regarding nasal length between males and females, with nasal length being more in males (50.26 ± 4.18) than in females (48.86 ± 3.45), nasal depth being more in males (18.64 ± 2.56) than in females (16.63 ± 2.16), columella convexity being greater in males (4.31 ± 1.26) than in females (3.41 ± 1.13), nasolabial angle decreased in males (87.26° ±13.79°) than in females (89.38° ±15.72°) and nasal tip angle being more in females (80.18° ±9.44°) than in males (73.60° ±10.24°). There was no statistically significant difference in nasal hump between males (-2.01 ± 1.76) and females (-2.02 ± 1.62). Conclusion: Long nose with increased nasal prominence were seen with increase in the anteroposterior length and vertical height of maxilla. Male and female genders had a varied amount of nasal length, nasal depth and columella convexity along with nasal

  8. Awareness of Daily Life Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris

    The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and daily routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.

  9. Formaldehyde production promoted by rat nasal cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases with nasal decongestants, essences, solvents, air pollutants, nicotine, and cocaine as substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Hadley, W.M.

    1983-02-01

    To identify compounds which might be metabolized to formaldehyde in the nasal cavity, 32 potential substrates for cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases were screened with rat nasal and, for comparison, liver microsomes. Tested substrates included 6 nasal decongestants, cocaine, nicotine, 9 essences, 3 potential air pollutants, and 12 solvents. Each test substrate, with the possible exception of the air pollutants, contained one or more N-methyl, O-methyl, or S-methyl groups. Eighteen of the tested materials were metabolized to produce formaldehyde by nasal microsomes. Five substrates, namely, the solvents HMPA and dimethylaniline, cocaine, and the essences dimethyl anthranilate and p-methoxyacetophenone, were metabolized to produce formaldehyde at rates exceeding 1000 pmol/mg microsomal protein/min by nasal microsomes. Eight substrates, including four nasal decongestants, nicotine, and an extract of diesel exhaust particles, were metabolized to produce formaldehyde at rates of 200 to 1000 pmol/mg microsomal protein/min. Five other substrates were metabolized to formaldehyde at detectable rates. The results indicate that a variety of materials which often come in contact with the nasal mucosa can be metabolized to formaldehyde by nasal enzymes. The released formaldehyde may influence the irritancy of inhaled compounds and has been suggested to play a role in the tumorigenicity of some compounds.

  10. Pale nasal mucosa affects airflow limitations in upper and lower airways in asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Odajima, Hiroshi; Yamada, Atsunobu; Taba, Naohiko; Murakami, Yoko; Nishima, Sankei

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe asthmatics are thought to have severer rhinitis than mild asthmatics. A pale nasal mucosa is a typical clinical finding in subjects with severe allergic rhinitis. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether a pale nasal mucosa affects airflow limitations in the upper and lower airways in asthmatic children. Methods Rhinomanometry, nasal scraping, and spirometry were performed in 54 asthmatic children (median age, 10 years). The nasal mucosa was evaluated by an otolaryngologist. Thirty-seven patients were treated with inhaled corticosteroids, and 11 patients were treated with intranasal corticosteroids. Results Subjects with a pale nasal mucosa (n = 23) exhibited a lower nasal airflow (p < 0.05) and a larger number of nasal eosinophils (p < 0.05) in the upper airway as well as lower pulmonary functional parameters (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), i.e., the forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and the peak expiratory flow, compared with the subjects who exhibited a normal or pinkish mucosa (n = 31). No significant difference in the forced expiratory flow between 25%–75% of the FVC, regarded as indicating the peripheral airway, was observed between the 2 groups. Conclusion A pale nasal mucosa may be a predictor of eosinophil infiltration of the nasal mucosa and central airway limitations in asthmatic children. When allergists observe a pale nasal mucosa in asthmatic children, they should consider the possibility of airflow limitations in not only the upper airway, but also the lower airway. PMID:27803882

  11. pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Sophie; Hellgren, Johan

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a new method to assess nasal pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate in adults. The study included 19 healthy, non-smoking, adult volunteers without current upper respiratory disease, COPD or asthma. Expiratory breath condensate (EBC) was collected from the nose and mouth respectively. A Jaeger breath condenser was fitted with a transparent facemask and during oral sampling it was fitted with a mouthpiece. The condensates were bubbled with argon gas for 10 minutes to reduce carbon dioxide and the samples were analysed immediately using a calibrated glass electrode and a portable pH-meter. The mean pH in the nasal EBC was 7.0 +/- 0.5 and in oral EBC 6.9 +/- 0.7 (p = 0.6). The nasal EBC-pH was well in agreement with data from previous studies, which measured pH directly on the nasal mucosa with an electrode. In conclusion, this paper describes a method to measure pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in healthy adults during tidal breathing. The nasal EBC-pH related well to previous data from intranasal pH measurements suggesting that nasal EBC-pH could have a role in monitoring pH alterations in the nasal mucosa such as nasal inflammation.

  12. [Nasal comfort and Cottle septoplasty. Prospective acoustic rhinometry study apropos of 102 cases].

    PubMed

    Truilhé, Y; Stoll, D

    2000-01-01

    Between june 1997 and september 1998, we have prospectively studied a cohort of 102 patients who were referred to ENT consultation. All patients suffered a septal deviation and a syndrome that we call "morphological". All were operated on following the Cottle's septoplasty technique. At pre- and postoperative consultation, patients were asked to answer a questionnaire and a functional evaluation of the nasal air flow was assessed by acoustic rhinometry. We have described a nasal comfort grading that we compare with the objective results as assessed by acoustic rhinometry. Our study did not permit us to find any correlation between nasal comfort and minimal cross sectional area (MCA). But evaluation of the MCA was disturbed by several methodological artifacts. A statistical correlation between the nasal comfort grading and nasal volume in the side of the septal deviation was found. The acoustic rhinometry evaluation elicited two essential observations: the first is the increase of nasal fossae volume of 30% (and, at least, 26% of the MCA). The other is a relative decrease of 45% of nasal mucosa congestion. This study shows that the nasal septum has an essential function in the pathogenesis of the so-called "morphological" functional syndrome. The morphological correction obtained by the Cottle's septoplasty acts upon the nasal vasomotricity in decreasing nasal mucosa congestion and avoid a surgical reduction of the inferior turbinate.

  13. Effects of nasalance on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and the head voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Nicholas Kevin

    This study aims to measure the effect that nasality has on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and head voice. Not to be confused with forward resonance, nasality here will be defined as nasalance, the reading of a Nasometer, or the percentage of nasal and oral airflow during phonation. A previous study by Peer Birch et al. has shown that professional tenors used higher percentages of nasalance through their passaggio. They hypothesized that tenors used nasalance to make slight timbral adjustments as they ascended through passaggio. Other well respected authors including Richard Miller and William McIver have claimed that teaching registration issues is the most important component of training young tenors. It seemed logical to measure the acoustic effects of nasalance on the tenor passaggio and head voice. Eight professional operatic tenors participated as subjects performing numerous vocal exercises that demonstrated various registration events. These examples were recorded and analyzed using a Nasometer and Voce Vista Pro Software. Tenors did generally show an increase of nasalance during an ascending B-flat major scale on the vowels [i] and [u]. Perhaps the most revealing result was that six of seven tenors showed at least a 5-10% increase in nasalance on the note after their primary register transition on the vowel of [a]. It is suggested that this phenomenon receive further empirical scrutiny, because, if true, pedagogues could use nasalance as a tool for helping a young tenor ascend through his passaggio.

  14. Tap water nasal irrigation in adults with seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Min; Fu, Xiaoyan; Deng, Wenting; Lai, Huangwen; Yang, Chuanhong

    2014-06-01

    Saline nasal irrigation is effective in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and sodium chloride itself has no antiallergic effects. The mechanism of saline nasal irrigation depends mainly on washing away allergens and inflammatory mediators induced by allergic reactions. Tap water has the same washing effects as saline. In this study, it was investigated if tap water nasal irrigation was effective in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Sixty-four patients diagnosed with seasonal allergic rhinitis were enrolled. Patients were randomized to tap water nasal irrigation group and non-tap water nasal irrigation group for treatment. Patients of both groups were treated with desloratadine. Treatment outcomes were measured using allergic rhinitis Quality of Life (QoL) survey was completed at baseline and after 3 weeks of therapy. There were statistically significant differences in QoL scores between tap water nasal irrigation group and non-tap water nasal irrigation group. The tap water nasal irrigation group had better QoL scores than the non-tap water nasal irrigation group. Tap water nasal irrigation can be a valuable adjuvant therapy for patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  15. The over-projecting nasal tip: precise reduction without rotation.

    PubMed

    Close, L G; Schaefer, S D; Schultz, B A

    1987-08-01

    Excessive projection of the nasal tip is a relatively uncommon deformity, often referred to as the "Pinocchio" nose. When this unaesthetic appearance is secondary to abnormally long medial and lateral crura of the lower lateral cartilages, and when tip rotation is undesirable, surgical correction can represent a challenging problem. A simple and reproducible method via the open septorhinoplasty approach is described for correction of this deformity. In this technique, preoperative photographs are analyzed to calculate the exact length of cartilage to be excised from the medial and lateral crura. The results of this procedure are critically analyzed in six consecutive patients followed for 7 to 19 months. Based on this experience, the operation is recommended as a reliable method for correction of the over-projecting nasal tip when minimal or no rotation is desirable.

  16. Multifocal primary cutaneous extranodal NK/T lymphoma nasal type*

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcelos, Pedro; Ferreira, Cristina; Soares-Almeida, Luís; Filipe, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Nasal type extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma is a distinct entity according to the World Health Organization classification. Although 60% to 90% of patients with this disease present with a destructive mass in the midline facial tissues, it may also primarily or secondarily involve extranasal sites, like the skin. We report the case of a 77-year-old patient that came to our department with erythematous plaques of the right leg and eczematous lesions of the trunk. These lesions were biopsied and the patient was diagnosed with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. He was treated with multi-agent systemic chemotherapy but died 5 months after diagnosis. This case highlights the rarity and variability of cutaneous features of this disease and its aggressive course and poor prognosis. PMID:27192524

  17. Underwater application of nasal decongestants: method for special operations.

    PubMed

    Mutzbauer, T S; Mueller, P H; Sigg, O; Tetzlaff, K; Neubauer, B

    2000-11-01

    A simple method of emergency underwater application of a nasal decongestant in divers to prevent diving-related accidents or even fatalities attributable to sequelae of middle-ear and sinus barotrauma of ascent was evaluated. Eleven military divers had to inject 1 mL of 0.02% methylene blue into a central venous catheter after having inserted the tip between their upper lip and the mask at 1 m depth in a pool. After injection, the head had to be reclined. Blue liquid flowing from a diver's nostril and a "bitter" taste sensation reported immediately after surfacing indicated successful application. All divers were observed to have had blue liquid flowing from the nostril of application, and one diver could not describe the taste. This method of underwater application of nasal decongestants may be useful for emergency prevention in divers, especially during covert operations. Underwater availability of the system in a special kit carried by divers would be required.

  18. The contoured auricular projection graft for nasal tip projection.

    PubMed

    Porter, J P; Tardy, M E; Cheng, J

    1999-01-01

    In all rhinoplasty surgery, the universal need exists to increase, decrease, or preserve existing tip projection. When proper tip projection is lacking, a variety of techniques are useful for improving projection. We describe a valuable technique for tip projection, particularly useful and indicated in the Asian rhinoplasty, African American rhinoplasty, and in certain revision rhinoplasties. In the past 15 years, the senior author (M.E.T.) has used the contoured auricular projection graft in selected patients for achieving satisfactory tip projection in patients with blunted tips. The aesthetic outcomes have been predictable, pleasing, and reliable for the long term. Precision pocket preparation for auricular conchal cartilage graft placement is key to symmetry and projection of the final outcome. The results yielded a rounded nasal tip that may be more natural-appearing in Asians, African Americans, and selected patients with revision rhinoplasty. The contoured auricular projection graft provides a highly useful graft for the nasal tip. PMID:10937122

  19. Objectivity in the classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, L.; Hyams, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of tumours derived from each of the four cell types of nasal epithelium is presented. Criticism is levelled at the adoption of additional terms for tissue types such as lympho-epithelium and transitional cell epithelium and tumours said to be derived from them. Electron microscopy is of assistance in classification particularly in the detection of evidence of keratin synthesis. The proposed classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium is: (1) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium: (a) papillary adenoma, (b) papillary carcinoma. (2) Squamous epithelium: (a) everted squamous papilloma, (b) inverted papilloma, (c) squamous carcinoma of any grade of differentiation from well differentiated to undifferentiated. (3) Melanocyte: malignant melanoma. (4) Olfactory neuroepithelium: olfactory neuroblastoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 21Fig. 20 PMID:1197175

  20. Full-Thickness Skin Grafting in Nasal Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, William M.; Bhadkamkar, Mohin; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Thornton, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Skin grafting in nasal reconstruction, long used by dermatologists, can provide superior results and can well be the “go to” procedure for nasal reconstruction. The upper two-thirds of the nose is composed of both flattened, featureless and often thin skin that is well recreated with defect-only full-thickness grafting. Skin grafting for the lower third of the nose has been practiced for years by dermatologists; over the last 4 to 5 years, it has been embraced by plastic surgeons. The patient and donor site selection is critical. Meticulous attention to graft selection, utilization of a no-touch technique during graft harvest and placement of surgical bolsters with through-and-through tacking sutures are essential to ensure 100% graft take and a successful aesthetic result. PMID:24872748

  1. Pneumocephalus in Child Following Bilateral Otomastoiditis and Nasal Septum Infection.

    PubMed

    Soni, Jai Prakash; Choudhary, Sandeep; Makwana, Mohan; Tripathi, Nikita

    2016-07-01

    Pneumocephalus is collection of gas or air within the cranial cavity, commonly associated with trauma, cranial surgery, air embolism, open meningomyelocele; and rarely as a result of central nervous system infections. Asymptomatic pneumocephalus usually recovers spontaneously within few days. Untreated pneumocephalus can progress to tension pneumocephalus, manifesting as severe headache, dizziness, cranial nerve palsy, mental changes, seizure and disorientation. Herein, we report a rare case of pneumocephalus in a 9-month infant with subdural effusion following infection of nasal septum and otomastoiditis. There was no sign of meningitis but CThead showed communication of intracranial dura mater across widened foramen caecum with pre-nasal space, and bilateral otomastoiditis with erosion of anterior and lateral wall of right mastoid bone. The patient was treated successfully and discharged without sequelae. PMID:27504559

  2. Forensic facial reconstruction: Nasal projection in Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi-Oliveira, Silvia Virginia; Beaini, Thiago Leite; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-09-01

    The nose has a marked cognitive influence on facial image; however, it loses its shape during cadaveric decomposition. The known methods of estimating nasal projection using Facial Reconstruction are lacking in practicality and reproducibility. We attempted to relate the points Rhinion, Pronasale and Prosthion by studying the angle formed by straight lines that connect them. Two examiners measured this angle with the help of analysis and image-processing software, Image J, directly from cephalometric radiographs. The sample consisted of 300 males, aged between 24 and 77 years, and 300 females, aged 24 to 69 years. The proposed angle ranged from 80° to 100° in both sexes and all ages. It was considered possible to use a 90° angle from projections of the Rhinion and Prosthion points in order to determine the Pronasale position, as well as to estimate the nasal projection of Brazilian adults.

  3. Clinical Effect of Surgical Correction for Nasal Pathology on the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that relief of nasal obstruction in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) would lead to reduce OSA severity and to discuss the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of nasal surgery as a treatment modality for OSA. Study Design Twenty-five subjects who had reduced patency of nasal cavity and narrowing of retroglossal or retropalatal airways were diagnosed with OSA and underwent nasal surgery, such as septoplasty or turbinoplasty to correct nasal pathologies. The effect of the surgery on nasal patency was quantified by measuring minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) using acoustic rhinometry. The watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured before and after nasal surgery. Results The present study shows that the AHI and RDI decreased significantly and the lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time rose after nasal surgery in 25 OSA subjects. In addition, a reduction in subjective symptoms was observed in subjects and mean MCA increased after nasal surgery. Fourteen subjects were classified as responders and 11 subjects as non-responders. Responders showed considerable improvement of their subjective symptoms and the AHI and RDI were significantly lower after surgery. We found that the changes between pre- and post-operative AHI and RDI values were minimal in 11 non-responders. However, daytime somnolence and REM sleep time improved after nasal surgery in non-responders. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that the surgical treatment of nasal pathology improves nasal airway patency and reduces OSA severity in 56% subjects. Furthermore, correction of nasal pathology appears to result in improved sleep quality in both responder and non-responders OSA subjects. PMID:24896824

  4. EFFECTS OF FLUID AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL FACTORS ON CONSPICUITY OF CANINE AND FELINE NASAL TURBINATES

    PubMed Central

    Uosyte, Raimonda; Shaw, Darren J; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Fraga-Manteiga, Eduardo; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Turbinate destruction is an important diagnostic criterion in canine and feline nasal computed tomography (CT). However decreased turbinate visibility may also be caused by technical CT settings and nasal fluid. The purpose of this experimental, crossover study was to determine whether fluid reduces conspicuity of canine and feline nasal turbinates in CT and if so, whether CT settings can maximize conspicuity. Three canine and three feline cadaver heads were used. Nasal slabs were CT-scanned before and after submerging them in a water bath; using sequential, helical, and ultrahigh resolution modes; with images in low, medium, and high frequency image reconstruction kernels; and with application of additional posterior fossa optimization and high contrast enhancing filters. Visible turbinate length was measured by a single observer using manual tracing. Nasal density heterogeneity was measured using the standard deviation (SD) of mean nasal density from a region of interest in each nasal cavity. Linear mixed-effect models using the R package ‘nlme’, multivariable models and standard post hoc Tukey pair-wise comparisons were performed to investigate the effect of several variables (nasal content, scanning mode, image reconstruction kernel, application of post reconstruction filters) on measured visible total turbinate length and SD of mean nasal density. All canine and feline water-filled nasal slabs showed significantly decreased visibility of nasal turbinates (P < 0.001). High frequency kernels provided the best turbinate visibility and highest SD of aerated nasal slabs, whereas medium frequency kernels were optimal for water-filled nasal slabs. Scanning mode and filter application had no effect on turbinate visibility. PMID:25867935

  5. EFFECTS OF FLUID AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL FACTORS ON CONSPICUITY OF CANINE AND FELINE NASAL TURBINATES.

    PubMed

    Uosyte, Raimonda; Shaw, Darren J; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Fraga-Manteiga, Eduardo; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Turbinate destruction is an important diagnostic criterion in canine and feline nasal computed tomography (CT). However decreased turbinate visibility may also be caused by technical CT settings and nasal fluid. The purpose of this experimental, crossover study was to determine whether fluid reduces conspicuity of canine and feline nasal turbinates in CT and if so, whether CT settings can maximize conspicuity. Three canine and three feline cadaver heads were used. Nasal slabs were CT-scanned before and after submerging them in a water bath; using sequential, helical, and ultrahigh resolution modes; with images in low, medium, and high frequency image reconstruction kernels; and with application of additional posterior fossa optimization and high contrast enhancing filters. Visible turbinate length was measured by a single observer using manual tracing. Nasal density heterogeneity was measured using the standard deviation (SD) of mean nasal density from a region of interest in each nasal cavity. Linear mixed-effect models using the R package 'nlme', multivariable models and standard post hoc Tukey pair-wise comparisons were performed to investigate the effect of several variables (nasal content, scanning mode, image reconstruction kernel, application of post reconstruction filters) on measured visible total turbinate length and SD of mean nasal density. All canine and feline water-filled nasal slabs showed significantly decreased visibility of nasal turbinates (P < 0.001). High frequency kernels provided the best turbinate visibility and highest SD of aerated nasal slabs, whereas medium frequency kernels were optimal for water-filled nasal slabs. Scanning mode and filter application had no effect on turbinate visibility. PMID:25867935

  6. Flexible plastic collars compared to nasal discs for marking geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, G.A.

    1966-01-01

    Construction of a flexible plastic collar for marking geese is described. The usefulness of the collars, tried on 468 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge from 1963 to 1965, was compared with that of nasal discs attached to 361 Canada geese at Seney in 1961 and 1962. The collars were superior to the discs in visibility, retention, and ease of placement, and injury to the geese was eliminated. There was no evidence that the collars affected breeding behavior.

  7. Transfer of human nasal papilloma into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Riglar, C; Mackay, I R; Burns, G F; Dowling, J P; Millar, H S

    1984-08-01

    We transferred tumor tissue from two inverted schneiderian nasal papillomas to hypothymic nude mice. Tissue from one tumor, which later underwent malignant change, was transferred three times. Forty days lapsed before growth was evident, with a subsequent period of rapid growth. Histologic appearances of the primary tumor and xenografts were similar. Although the data are derived from only two cases, our findings suggest that the capacity of these tumors to grow in nude mice may be an index of their malignant potential.

  8. Establishment of a rat nasal epithelial tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Hood, A T; Currie, D; Garte, S J

    1987-04-01

    A new cell line designated NAS 2BL has been established from a rat nasal tumor induced by inhalation of the direct-acting carcinogen methylmethane sulfonate. The cells are epithelial in morphology, have a generation time of 34 h, require 10% fetal bovine serum for optimal growth, and exhibit keratinization at confluence. The karyotype is aneuploid, with several marker chromosomes, and the cells are transformed by the criterion of nude mouse tumorigenicity.

  9. [Effect of methylrosanilinium chloride to MRSA nasal carriers].

    PubMed

    Ogino, J; Murakami, Y; Yamada, T

    1992-03-01

    Since the end of 1987, we have noticed an increasing incidence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among the inpatients of Yamanashi Medical College Hospital. MRSA strains were identified in 70-80 percent of the specimens obtained from patients with Staphylococcus aureus. From 1988 we performed yearly bacteriological examinations of the nares of medical personnel at Yamanashi Medical College Hospital. We treated nasal carriers with OFLX drop lotion or Povidone-iodine applied to the nares. In 1991 we treated eight nasal carriers, who had been unsuccessfully treated with Povidone-iodine, with 0.01% Methylrosanilinium Chloride ointment which was applied to the nares once a day for two weeks. A post-bacteriological examination again revealed that MRSA vanished from the nares of six nasal carriers. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Methylrosanilinium Chloride was determined by the agar plate dilution method. The 100% MICs of MSSA were 1.0 microgram/ml and of MRSA were 1.0 microgram/ml by Methylrosanilinium Chloride. Moreover we examined the MICs of Methylrosanilinium Chloride against MRSA under the existing 5% Albumin, and consequently the 100% MICs were 4.0 micrograms/ml. Therefore a 0.01% Methylrosanilinium Chloride has sufficient efficacy against MRSA. The reaction of the skin and nasal mucosa to Methylrosanilinium Chloride was examined by using three groups of guinea pigs. 0.1% and 0.01% Methylrosanilinium Chloride ointment and hydrophylic poloid were applied to the nares and skin once a day for two weeks. Post-observation with an opticmicroscope revealed no significant findings. Methylrosanilinium Chloride shows good anti-Staphylococcus aureus ability. Further investigation is needed to determine if Methylrosanilinium Chloride has additional clinical application.

  10. [Nasal obstruction and mouth breathing: the ENT's point of view].

    PubMed

    Leboulanger, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Obstructive diseases of children's upper airways are frequent, mostly caused by tonsils and adenoids hypertrophy. A nasal septum deviation or a lower turbinate hypertrophy may also cause a significant obstruction. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy must be performed in case of clinical obstruction, sometimes documented by a sleep study. A tonsils' hypertrophy without significant obstruction and clinical symptoms is not an indication of adenotonsillectomy, even in case of snoring or if an orthodontic treatment is planned.

  11. [Neodymium magnet injury causing nasal fracture: a case report].

    PubMed

    Aykan, Andaç; Güzey, Serbülent; Avşar, Sedat; Öztürk, Serdar

    2015-05-01

    In parallel with technological developments, small size but strong magnets are commonly used in modern devices. In terms of foreign body injuries, magnet injuries are quite rare. However, due to their unique characteristics, there are some difficulties in their management. The magnetic field generated by the magnet affects the surgical instruments and make treatment difficult. In this case report, a nasal injury due to neodymium magnet and our alternative approach for its management was reported.

  12. Preparation of proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartilage under nondenaturing conditions.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Yota; Suto, Shinichiro; Sasaki, Yoshitaka; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Salmon nasal cartilage was micronized in ethanol using a rotor-stator homogenizer for the high yield of proteoglycan extraction. This procedure also brought about depressing the degradation of proteoglycan and the contamination of collagens. Proteoglycan was extracted by 4 M magnesium chloride and isolated by anion-exchange chromatography. The gel filtration HPLC and the antibody reactivity showed that the core protein was intact.

  13. Computed Intranasal Spray Penetration: Comparisons Before and After Nasal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Cannon, Daniel; Rhee, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantitative methods for comparing intranasal drug delivery efficiencies pre- and postoperatively have not been fully utilized. The objective of this study is to use computational fluid dynamics techniques to evaluate aqueous nasal spray penetration efficiencies before and after surgical correction of intranasal anatomic deformities. Methods Ten three-dimensional models of the nasal cavities were created from pre- and postoperative computed tomography scans in five subjects. Spray simulations were conducted using a particle size distribution ranging from 10–110μm, a spray speed of 3m/s, plume angle of 68°, and with steady state, resting inspiratory airflow present. Two different nozzle positions were compared. Statistical analysis was conducted using Student T-test for matched pairs. Results On the obstructed side, posterior particle deposition after surgery increased by 118% and was statistically significant (p-value=0.036), while anterior particle deposition decreased by 13% and was also statistically significant (p-value=0.020). The fraction of particles that by-passed the airways either pre- or post-operatively was less than 5%. Posterior particle deposition differences between obstructed and contralateral sides of the airways were 113% and 30% for pre- and post-surgery, respectively. Results showed that nozzle positions can influence spray delivery. Conclusions Simulations predicted that surgical correction of nasal anatomic deformities can improve spray penetration to areas where medications can have greater effect. Particle deposition patterns between both sides of the airways are more evenly distributed after surgery. These findings suggest that correcting anatomic deformities may improve intranasal medication delivery. For enhanced particle penetration, patients with nasal deformities may explore different nozzle positions. PMID:22927179

  14. Necrotizing sialometaplasia involving the mucous glands of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W H

    1977-09-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia was found in maxillary sinus mucous glands of an 83 year old woman who had undergone a radical maxillectomy for basal cell carcinoma 10 days earlier. Previously recognized as an ulcerating lesion involving salivary glands in the oral cavity, this benign reactive process may also occur in the mucous glands of the nasal cavity and sinuses and can simulate squamous cell or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Ischemia appears to be pathogenetic.

  15. Subarachnoid space of the CNS, nasal mucosa, and lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R T; Tigges, J; Arnold, W

    1979-04-01

    We have briefly reviewed the literature pertaining to the movement of tracer molecules and infectious organisms within the olfactory nerve. There is a body of evidence indicating that tracers placed in the CSF will quickly move via the olfactory nerve to the nasal mucosa and then to the cervical lymph nodes. Organic and inorganic tracer materials and organisms as diverse as viruses, a bacillus, and an amoeba, when placed in the nasal cavity, have been shown to move from the nasal mucosa via the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb and the CSF. We think that a portion of the data on tracer movement is due to incorporation of tracer materials and organisms into the axoplasm of the olfactory neurons with subsequent anterograde or retrograde axoplasmic transport. However, some of the movement of tracers may occur within the olfactory perineural space. This space may be continuous with a subarachnoid extension that surrounds the olfactory nerve as it penetrates the cribriform plate. To our knowledge, no one has yet followed the perineural space to determine if it is continuous from olfactory receptor to olfactory bulb. The consideration of this space and its role is the main reason for this review. PMID:85446

  16. The Healthy Infant Nasal Transcriptome: A Benchmark Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chin-Yi; Qiu, Xing; Wang, Lu; Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Lofthus, Gerry; Corbett, Anthony; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Grier, Alex; Tesini, Brenda; Gill, Steven R.; Falsey, Ann R.; Caserta, Mary T.; Walsh, Edward E.; Mariani, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Responses by resident cells are likely to play a key role in determining the severity of respiratory disease. However, sampling of the airways poses a significant challenge, particularly in infants and children. Here, we report a reliable method for obtaining nasal epithelial cell RNA from infants for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, and describe baseline expression characteristics in an asymptomatic cohort. Nasal epithelial cells were collected by brushing of the inferior turbinates, and gene expression was interrogated by RNA-seq analysis. Reliable recovery of RNA occurred in the absence of adverse events. We observed high expression of epithelial cell markers and similarity to the transcriptome for intrapulmonary airway epithelial cells. We identified genes displaying low and high expression variability, both inherently, and in response to environmental exposures. The greatest gene expression differences in this asymptomatic cohort were associated with the presence of known pathogenic viruses and/or bacteria. Robust bacteria-associated gene expression patterns were significantly associated with the presence of Moraxella. In summary, we have developed a reliable method for interrogating the infant airway transcriptome by sampling the nasal epithelium. Our data demonstrates both the fidelity and feasibility of our methodology, and describes normal gene expression and variation within a healthy infant cohort. PMID:27658638

  17. Comparative nasal absorption of allergens in atopic and nonatopic subjects.

    PubMed

    Kontou-Karakitsos, K; Salvaggio, J E; Mathews, K P

    1975-04-01

    Based on sensitization following intranasal antigen administration, previous investigations have suggested greater absorption of allergens through the nasal mucous membranes of atopic than of nonatopic subjects. In this study mucosal absorption was assessed more directly by determining the capacity of allergens applied intranasally to elicit cutaneous Prausnitz-Küstner (P-K) reactions in nonatopic persons as compared with asymptomatic atopic subjects sensitive to other allergens. Two series of reaginic human serum dilutions were injected intracutaneously in recipients backs, and 48 hours later one series was challenged intracutaneously with test allergen. After the responses had been recorded, concentrated allergenic extract was sprayed into the nose and the second series of P-K sites observed for reactivity. Sometimes these P-K sites were rechallenged intracutaneously the following day to determine passive transfer neutralization. Two allergens were studied: bovine ribonuclease (RNase) and peanut extract. Two sera containing peanut reagins and one with RNase antibodies were each used in 10 to 11 atopic and 9 to 11 nonatopic recipients. The atopic group failed to show greater or more rapid absorption of either allergen through the nose based on the highest serum dilution reacting after nasal challenge. the speed of the reaction, the ratio of the titer by nasal challenge to the intracutaneous titer, or passive transfer neutralization. Controls showed that the results were not influenced by systemic absorption of allergen employed for intracutaneous tests. Drinking the amount of peanut extract applied intranasally did not elicit P-K reactions.

  18. Toxic rhinitis-induced changes of human nasal mucosa innervation.

    PubMed

    Groneberg, David A; Heppt, Werner; Cryer, Annette; Wussow, Anke; Peiser, Christian; Zweng, Martina; Dinh, Q Thai; Witt, Christian; Fischer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Irritative toxic rhinitis is a nasal disorder induced by chemical compounds like ozone, formaldehyde, nickel, chrome, solvents and tobacco smoke. These noxious stimuli may have effects on the nasal innervation leading to a cascade of neuro-immune interactions and an augmentation of the symptoms. Here we examined changes in the neuropeptide content of mucosal parasympathetic, sympathetic and sensory nerves of patients with toxic rhinitis caused by chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry using antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was carried out on cryostat sections of human nasal mucosa obtained from normal subjects and patients with toxic rhinitis and revealed significant differences between both groups. Toxic rhinitis patients had significantly elevated expression scores for VIP (2.83 +/- 0.31 vs 1.27 +/- 0.47 control group) and NPY (3.17 +/- 0.31 vs 0.91 +/- 0.37 control group) revealing an increase of mediators in distinct subpopulations of airway nerves. In summary, the present studies indicate a differential participation of subclasses of mucosal nerves in the pathophysiology of toxic rhinitis. Airway innervation may have a major role in the pathophysiology of toxic rhinitis associated with chronic cigarette smoke exposure.

  19. CPAP and High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ian P; McBride, Antonia K S; Smith, Rachel; Fernandes, Ricardo M

    2015-09-01

    Severe respiratory failure develops in some infants with bronchiolitis because of a complex pathophysiologic process involving increased airways resistance, alveolar atelectasis, muscle fatigue, and hypoxemia due to mismatch between ventilation and perfusion. Nasal CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen may improve the work of breathing and oxygenation. Although the mechanisms behind these noninvasive modalities of respiratory support are not well understood, they may help infants by way of distending pressure and delivery of high concentrations of warmed and humidified oxygen. Observational studies of varying quality have suggested that CPAP and HFNC may confer direct physiologic benefits to infants with bronchiolitis and that their use has reduced the need for intubation. No trials to our knowledge, however, have compared CPAP with HFNC in bronchiolitis. Two randomized trials compared CPAP with oxygen delivered by low-flow nasal cannula or face mask and found some improvements in blood gas results and some physiologic parameters, but these trials were unable to demonstrate a reduction in the need for intubation. Two trials evaluated HFNC in bronchiolitis (one comparing it with headbox oxygen, the other with nebulized hypertonic saline), with the results not seeming to suggest important clinical or physiologic benefits. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of respiratory failure in bronchiolitis, discuss these trials in detail, and consider how future research studies may be designed to best evaluate CPAP and HFNC in bronchiolitis.

  20. Proteomic analysis of nasal epithelial cells from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Ludovic; Guerrera, Ida Chiara; Papon, Jean-François; Chhuon, Cerina; Zadigue, Patricia; Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Amselem, Serge; Escudier, Estelle; Coste, André; Edelman, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease remains incompletely understood. New explanations for the pathogenesis of CF lung disease may be discovered by studying the patterns of protein expression in cultured human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). To that aim, we compared the level of protein expressions in primary cultures of HNEC from nasal polyps secondary to CF (CFNP, n = 4), primary nasal polyps (NP, n = 8) and control mucosa (CTRL, n = 4) using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. The analysis of the data revealed 42 deregulated protein expressions in CFNP compared to NP and CTRL, suggesting that these alterations are related to CF. Overall, AmiGo analysis highlighted six major pathways important for cell functions that seem to be impaired: metabolism, G protein process, inflammation and oxidative stress response, protein folding, proteolysis and structural proteins. Among them, glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways could be impaired in CF with nine deregulated proteins. Our proteomic study provides a reproducible set of differentially expressed proteins in airway epithelial cells from CF patients and reveals many novel deregulated proteins that could lead to further studies aiming to clarify the involvement of such proteins in CF pathophysiology.

  1. Nasal profile changes with le fort I maxillary advancement surgery.

    PubMed

    Marşan, Gülnaz; Hocaoğlu, Emre; Cura, Nil; Emekli, Ufuk

    2015-03-01

    Introduction : The purpose of this study was to quantify anteroposterior facial soft tissue changes with respect to underlying skeletal movements after Le Fort I maxillary advancement surgery by using lateral cephalograms taken before and after the operation. Materials and Methods : The study group consisted of 20 patients (10 women, 10 men; mean age 23.4 ± 1.4 years) having a Class III skeletal deformity caused by a retrognathic maxilla. All patients were treated by Le Fort I maxillary advancement osteotomy. Lateral cephalograms were taken before and 1.6 ± 0.4 years after surgery. Results : The anteroposterior position of A-point and anteroposterior position of maxillary incisor were significantly protracted (-2.69 ± 3.34 and -2.68 ± 3.21, respectively; P < .01). The nasal anteroposterior and superoinferior positions (NASALAP and NASALSI, respectively) were significantly changed (-2.70 ± 6.81, P < .01, and -2.55 ± 5.80, P < .05, respectively) and nasal elevation and protraction were observed after Le Fort I maxillary advancement surgery. Conclusions : The changes in anteroposterior and superoinferior positions of A-point were correlated with the nasal superoinferior position (r = -0.71 , P < .05; r = 0.72, P < .05) after Le Fort I maxillary advancement surgery.

  2. CPAP and High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ian P; McBride, Antonia K S; Smith, Rachel; Fernandes, Ricardo M

    2015-09-01

    Severe respiratory failure develops in some infants with bronchiolitis because of a complex pathophysiologic process involving increased airways resistance, alveolar atelectasis, muscle fatigue, and hypoxemia due to mismatch between ventilation and perfusion. Nasal CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen may improve the work of breathing and oxygenation. Although the mechanisms behind these noninvasive modalities of respiratory support are not well understood, they may help infants by way of distending pressure and delivery of high concentrations of warmed and humidified oxygen. Observational studies of varying quality have suggested that CPAP and HFNC may confer direct physiologic benefits to infants with bronchiolitis and that their use has reduced the need for intubation. No trials to our knowledge, however, have compared CPAP with HFNC in bronchiolitis. Two randomized trials compared CPAP with oxygen delivered by low-flow nasal cannula or face mask and found some improvements in blood gas results and some physiologic parameters, but these trials were unable to demonstrate a reduction in the need for intubation. Two trials evaluated HFNC in bronchiolitis (one comparing it with headbox oxygen, the other with nebulized hypertonic saline), with the results not seeming to suggest important clinical or physiologic benefits. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of respiratory failure in bronchiolitis, discuss these trials in detail, and consider how future research studies may be designed to best evaluate CPAP and HFNC in bronchiolitis. PMID:25836649

  3. Antitussive effects of nasal thymol challenges in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gavliakova, S; Biringerova, Z; Buday, T; Brozmanova, M; Calkovsky, V; Poliacek, I; Plevkova, J

    2013-06-01

    Eighteen healthy volunteers with normal lung function were tested for cough. Before and after nasal administration of thymol (0.025 ml, 10(-3) M) into both nostrils, urge-to-cough, cough threshold, cumulative and total count of coughs per provocation were estimated during standardized and validated capsaicin cough challenge. Nasal thymol challenges induced pleasant olfactory sensation and in 6 out of the 18 subjects also mild cooling sensation. Cough threshold was not influenced when compared with intranasal saline and vehicle challenges (12.5 vs. 13.2 vs. 10.2 μM of capsaicin to induce two or more coughs (C2), respectively), but the total count of coughs after nasal thymol challenge was significantly lower than that obtained after saline or vehicle (19 vs. 20 vs. 14 coughs/provocation, respectively; p<0.05). Importantly, subjects did not report the urge to cough, which appeared to correspond to C2. We conclude that the modulation of cough by thymol is mostly of olfactory origin.

  4. Cavernous sinus thrombosis of nasal origin in children.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Saurabh; Malhotra, Manu; Gupta, Pratima; Gairola, Priyanka; Kaur, Navjot

    2015-03-01

    Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a rare presentation. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are required to prevent morbidity and mortality. Nasal infections can give rise to serious intracranial complications. Presented here is a case series of cavernous sinus thrombosis of nasal septic origin. The purpose of this article is to report our experience in pediatric patients with this illness to ascertain a clinical course and outcomes for further clinical application. Eight (08) cases of nasalseptic origin of cavernous sinus thrombosis ata tertiary care teaching hospital in the north India region of India were included in the study. Cases presented with various symptoms like headache, proptosis, ophthalmoplegia and fever. The patients were investigated by doing High Resolution Computed Tomography of nose & PNS and brain with intravenous contrast. The cases were treated with intravenous broad spectrum antibiotics. Eight patients less than 16 years of age (mean age of 11.2 years)diagnosed with cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis due to nasal septic focus over the period of 05 years were reviewed retrospectively. The predisposing infections and causative microorganisms were similar to previous reports in children. A conservative management strategy with antibiotics gave a good prognosis in these cases. There were no deaths. Early recognition of this condition, the appropriate selection of empirical antibiotic therapy, and the awareness of associated complication were the key factors leading to excellent outcome. PMID:25621244

  5. [Intranasal meningocele presenting as a nasal polyp--case report].

    PubMed

    Kosztyła-Hojna, Bozena; Popko, Mariola

    2008-01-01

    Intranasal meningocele occurs rarely. It is difficult to diagnose because its appearance resembles common polyps. If it coexists with other inborn cranio-facial malformation they are easier to diagnose. In the case investigated by us, the 32 year-old woman's ailments suggested intranasal polyps and we discovered the meningocele localized intranasal on the right. The CT scan of the nasal sinuses is the most reliable examination for the developing diagnosis. The CT findings revealed the meningocele protruding from the anterior cranial fosse through the lamina cribrosa to the right nasal cavity. During the operation the meningocele was removed and the durra mater was sutured. The bony-mucosal lesion was covered with composite graft taken from bony part of nasal septum and mucosal part of the inferior turbinate. The graft has been incorporated into the surrounding tissue. Neither a cerebrospinal fluid leak nor any other complications have been reported within the past 6 years. Therefore, we consider this a successful procedure. PMID:18634248

  6. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510

  7. Defining the Best Nasal Tip Projection among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Alireza; Jahandideh, Hesam; Faham, Zhaleh; Jafari, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most complicated aesthetic surgeries. One important factor in nasal profile analysis before surgery is the NTP (Nasal Tip Projection). There has been controversy over defining the best tip projection and due to cultural differences there is a need to find the best formulation for Iranian noses. We selected 50 randomized patients. Lateral nasal views were captured from all of the patients. In order to equalize the photos, all tip rotations changed first to 105. We selected four methods for measuring NTP (Goode, Crumley 1, Crumley 2, and Powell and Humphreys). Based on these methods NTP was shown in four pictures. A questionnaire was designed for rating the pictures. Questionnaires were filled in by 3 different groups: rhinoplasty surgeons, general people, and artists. A total of 73 questionnaires were filled in. The analysis and comparison were done. Crumley 2 is the best NTP measurement method from the surgeons' and artists' view. Goode is the method preferred by general people. Powell & Humphreys method seems to be the worst method from all 3 groups' view. It seems that general people prefer smaller noses, because projection in Goode method is almost less than Crumley 2. PMID:27293886

  8. Experimental infection of dogs with the nasal mite Pneumonyssoides caninum.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, L; Zakrisson, G; Lilliehook, I; Christensson, D; Rehbinder, C; Uggla, A

    1998-06-15

    A successful experimental transmission of the canine nasal mite, Pneumonyssoides caninum, is described. Some 11 weeks after repeated systemic ivermectin treatment, four Beagles were inoculated via the right nostril with 20 P. caninum mites of different sexes and life stages, obtained at the necropsy of an infected dog. The inoculated dogs and a matching uninoculated control were observed for clinical signs for 14 weeks and then euthanised. Vague upper respiratory signs and a transient minor increase in the number of eosinophils in peripheral blood were recorded in the inoculated dogs. At necropsy 4-12 P. caninum mites were found in the nasal cavities and sinuses of the inoculated dogs, but none in the control. In three out of the four infected dogs mites were found in both the right and left nasal cavities and sinuses of the skull. Since in no case more mites than the number used for inoculation were detected it is not clear if the mites managed to reproduce in the dogs. Inflammatory lesions were seen most consistently in the olfactory mucosa, respiratory mucosa and tonsils, and growth of opportunistic bacteria was observed in the tonsils of the infected dogs. The inflammatory lesions seen in the olfactory mucosa may explain why dogs infected with P. caninum sometimes appear to suffer from impaired scenting ability.

  9. Reconstruction of the nasal dorsum with autologous rib cartilage.

    PubMed

    Cervelli, V; Bottini, D J; Gentile, P; Fantozzi, L; Arpino, A; Cannatà, C; Fiumara, L; Casciani, C U

    2006-03-01

    The authors present their experience with the correction of deformities of the nasal saddleback using rib cartilage grafts. They present a review of international literature on this topic, analyzing 33 patients selected from 452 cases of rhinoplasties performed between January 1990 and December 2004 at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University of Rome "Tor Vergata." Nasal saddleback is one of the most complicated defects to correct surgically. It can be a consequence of nasoethmoid-orbital fractures and is in this case associated with other evident signs like telecanthus, teleorbitism, or orbital dystopia. It can be also a consequence of surgical procedures in the nasal area where a loss of bone or septal cartilaginous support has occurred. They compare the techniques employed in the reconstruction and describe the advantage of the use of cartilage from the 11th rib and evaluate the results of an engineering analysis of tension forces on the rib cartilage. Of the total number of patients treated, good cosmetic results were obtained in 84% of the cases and excellent functional results in almost all of the cases (94%). PMID:16508354

  10. Insulin delivery through nasal route using thiolated microspheres.

    PubMed

    Nema, Tarang; Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Shilpi, Satish; Gulbake, Arvind; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of developed thiolated microspheres for insulin delivery through nasal route. In the present study, cysteine was immobilized on carbopol using EDAC. A total of 269.93 µmol free thiol groups per gram polymer were determined. The prepared nonthiolated and thiolated microspheres were studied for particle shape, size, drug content, swellability, mucoadhesion and in vitro insulin release. The thiolated microspheres exhibited higher mucoadhesion due to formation of covalent bonds via disulfide bridges with the mucus gel layer. Drug permeation through goat nasal mucosa of nonthiolated and thiolated microspheres were found as 52.62 ± 2.4% and 78.85 ± 3.1% in 6 h, respectively. Thiolated microspheres bearing insulin showed better reduction in blood glucose level (BGL) in comparison to nonthiolated microspheres as 31.23 ± 2.12% and 75.25 ± 0.93% blood glucose of initial BGL were observed at 6 h after nasal delivery of thiolated and nonthiolated microspheres in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rabbits.

  11. Sulforaphane induces SLPI secretion in the nasal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Megan; Kesic, Matthew J.; Clarke, John; Ho, Emily; Simmen, Rosalia C.M.; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Noah, Terry L.; Jaspers, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cells lining the respiratory tract are equipped with mechanisms that dampen the effects of oxidative stress. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a mediator involved in regulating oxidative stress. Recent data indicate Nrf2 also controls expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, enhances Nrf2 activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that SFN supplementation induces SLPI secretion in the nasal mucosa in an Nrf2 dependent manner. Healthy nonsmoking adults ingested SFN-containing broccoli shake homogenate (BSH) for 3 consecutive days. Nasal lavage fluid (NLF) was collected before and after BSH ingestion and analyzed for SLPI protein levels. In follow up in vitro experiments, differentiated primary nasal epithelial cells were used to evaluate the relationship between SFN, Nrf2, and SLPI. Epithelial cells were transduced with Nrf2-specific shRNA to examine the regulatory role of Nrf2 on SLPI expression. Supplementation with BSH significantly increased SLPI levels in NLF. SFN supplementation in vitro significantly enhanced SLPI secretion and these effects were significantly decreased in cells transduced with Nrf2-specific shRNA. PMID:23195333

  12. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the nasal cavity mimicking juvenile angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Hyo; Kim, Beom Joon; Jang, Tae Young

    2012-10-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the nasal cavity (LEC NC) all could be found as a hyper-vascular mass in the nasopharynx area. Performing biopsy for histopathologic confirmation is necessary in the case of NPC or LEC NC but could be fatal in the case of angiofibroma. In our case, a 21-year-old male who was suffering from unilateral nasal stuffiness and frequent epistaxis had a mass with an easily bleeding tendency in his right nasal cavity. Juvenile angiofibroma was suspected by clinical and radiologic examinations. We performed preoperative angiography and the feeding vessel from the right internal maxillary artery was obliterated with polyvinyl alcohol nanoparticle. The mass was completely removed endoscopically, and there was profound hemorrhage in spite of the preoperative embolization. The mass turned out to be LEC NC by postoperative histopathologic examination. To avoid this misdiagnosis, the authors suggest that we should perform biopsy under rigid endoscopy 24h after angiographic embolization. If the result of frozen biopsy is juvenile angiofibroma, we could perform surgery another 24h later. If the result is nasopharyngeal carcinoma or LEC NC, we could avoid unnecessary surgical removal and perform radiotherapy. In terms of treatment strategies, we suggest endoscopic removal of gross tumor and postoperative combination of chemoradiotherapy as the more curative regimen with less complications related with radiotherapy.

  13. Stable Dry Powder Formulation for Nasal Delivery of Anthrax Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheena H.; Kirwan, Shaun M.; Abraham, Soman N.; Staats, Herman F.; Hickey, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a current biodefense interest in protection against Anthrax. Here we developed a new generation of stable and effective anthrax vaccine. We studied the immune response elicited by rPA delivered intranasally with a novel mucosal adjuvant, a mast cell activator Compound 48/80. The vaccine formulation was prepared in a powder form by spray-freeze-drying (SFD) under optimized conditions to produce particles with a target size of D50=25μm, suitable for delivery to the rabbit nasal cavity. Physicochemical properties of the powder vaccines were characterized to assess their delivery and storage potential. Structural stability of rPA was confirmed by CD and ATR-FTIR, while functional stability of rPA and C48/80 was monitored by cell-based assays. Animal study was performed using a unitdose powder device for direct nasal application. Results showed that C48/80 provided effective mucosal adjuvant activity in rabbits. Freshly prepared SFD powder vaccine formulations or powders stored for over two years at room temperature elicited significantly elevated serum PA-specific and lethal toxin neutralization antibody titers that were comparable to that induced by IM immunization with rPA. Nasal delivery of this vaccine formulation may be a viable alternative to the currently licensed vaccine, or an attractive vaccine platform for other mucosally transmitted diseases. PMID:21905034

  14. Nasal absorption of interferon: Enhancement by surfactant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Baglioni, C.; Phipps, R.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of spraying the nasal mucosa with an aerosol of recombinant human interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha 2a) was studied in an animal model, the sheep, because cultures of sheep cells were found to be responsive to the antiviral activity of this IFN. Binding assays with {sup 125}I-labeled IFN-alpha 2a detected very few receptors in sheep nasal mucosa, but a membrane fraction prepared from this mucosa had abundant high-affinity receptors. Nasal mucosa homogenates were prepared from the turbinates of sheep that had been sprayed with IFN-alpha 2a aerosols, and the 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) activity induced in response was measured. To try to enhance the permeability of the mucosa, surfactant agents were added to the IFN and aerosols generated. There were measurable levels of 2-5A synthetase after aerosols with added sodium deoxycholate or, better, polyoxyethylene 9-lauryl ether. This latter surfactant was well tolerated in previous studies with intranasally administered insulin. The level of 2-5A synthetase induced was related to the dose of IFN, and the increased activity persisted up to 72 h after an IFN aerosol. These studies suggest that surfactant agents may make IFN aerosols much more effective for the prophylaxis of respiratory virus infections.

  15. Case-control study of nasal cancer in workers employed in wood-related industries.

    PubMed

    Viren, J R; Imbus, H R

    1989-01-01

    A case-control study of nasal cancer deaths in the states of Washington, Oregon, Mississippi, and North Carolina was undertaken to determine whether there was an excess of nasal cancer deaths occurring among workers in wood-related industries. This involved analysis of 536 cases of nasal cancer deaths occurring from 1962 to 1977, compared with 1,072 deaths matched for control. The study showed no overall excess of deaths from nasal cancer in wood-related industries, including furniture manufacturing. There was a statistically significant excess of deaths from nasal cancer occurring in lumber and wood products (risk ratio = 1.95, P less than .05); however, this was largely due to excess in these industries occurring in the states, of North Carolina and Mississippi. Summarizing the available evidence of this study, there seems to be no association between nasal cancer and industry/occupation normally identified with wood dust.

  16. [The possibility of using соformulated intranasal drugs after surgical correction of nasal breathing].

    PubMed

    Nikiforova, G N; Svistushkin, V M; Zakharova, N M; Shevchik, E A; Zolotova, A V; Dedova, M G

    2016-01-01

    One of the major causes of chronic nasal obstruction is the nasal septum deformation and increase of the lower nasal turbinates. The number of septoplasty--operations ranges from 14% to 44,2% of all ENT-operations. The results of surgery are swelling of the tissues and damaged ciliar epithelium, that leads to the inparament of the mucociliar transport. In the postoperati e period the nasal cavity should be cleaned. Drugs, that are used, should reduce swelling, improve regeneration and should not supress ciliar activity. The results of supervisory, non-interventional study have shown, that application of Nasiс after septoplasty and submucose vasotomy of inferior nasal turbinates increases reparative process and leads to more rapid recovery of respiratory function of nasal cavity.

  17. Role of Interleukin-10 on Nasal Polypogenesis in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Han, Ruining; Kim, Dae Woo; Mo, Ji-Hun; Jin, Yongde; Rha, Ki-Sang; Kim, Yong Min

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. The dysregulation of IL-10 is associated with an enhanced immunopathologic response to infection, as well as with an increased risk for developing numerous autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated IL-10 expression in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and assessed the possible role of IL-10 in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. Materials and Methods Thirty-five patients with CRSwNP, 12 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without NP (CRSsNP) and 10 control subjects were enrolled in this study. NP tissues and uncinated tissues (UT) were collected for analysis. Dispersed NP cells (DNPCs) were cultured in the presence or absence of IL-25 and IL-10, and a flow cytometric assay was performed to identify the constitutive cell populations of the DNPCs. Murine NP (n = 18) models were used for the in vivo experiments. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blotting analysis and ELISA were performed to measure the expression levels of the selected inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-associated molecules. Results The mRNA expression levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-17A, IL-25 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were significantly higher in the NP tissues than in the UT tissues. Strong positive correlations were observed between IL-10 and a variety of inflammatory cytokines (IL-5, IL-17A, IL-25, IFN-γ) and inflammation-associated molecules (B-cell activating factor; BAFF, CD19). Other than the IL-25 to IL-10 ratio, the expression ratios of the other measured inflammatory cytokines to IL-10 were significantly lower in the CRSwNP group than in the CRSsNP or control groups. Administrating IL-25 into the cultured DNPCs significantly increased the production of IL-10, but administrating IL-10 had no effect on the production of IL-25. Conclusion Increased expression of IL-10, IL-10 related inflammatory cytokine, and IL-10 related B cell activation indicated that IL-10, a potent

  18. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma causing sleep-disordered breathing in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cha Hee; Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon; Bae, Jung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma is an extremely rare neoplasm of the nasal and paranasal sinuses. We present the case of a 10-month-old boy with a huge nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma that was complicated by sleep-disordered breathing. The mass was completely resected by image-guided endoscopic surgery and confirmed histopathologically as a chondromesenchymal hamartoma. In this report, we discuss the characteristics and treatment of this unusual tumor. PMID:26464731

  19. Identification and Analysis of Natural Killer Cells in Murine Nasal Passages

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kazunari; Sato, Shintaro; Sato, Ayuko; Mandelboim, Ofer; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Natural killer (NK) cells in the upper respiratory airways are not well characterized. In the current study, we sought to characterize and functionally assess murine nasal NK cells. Methods Using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, we compared the nasal NK cells of Ncr1GFP/+ knock-in mice, whose NK cells produced green fluorescent protein, with their splenic and pulmonary counterparts. In addition, we functionally analyzed the nasal NK cells of these mice in vitro. To assess the in vivo functions of nasal NK cells, C57BL/6 mice depleted of NK cells after treatment with PK136 antibody were nasally infected with influenza virus PR8. Results Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the presence of NK cells in the lamina propria of nasal mucosa, and flow cytometry showed that these cells were of NK cell lineage. The expression patterns of Ly49 receptor, CD11b/CD27, CD62L and CD69 revealed that nasal NK cells had an immature and activated phenotype compared with that of their splenic and pulmonary counterparts. Effector functions including degranulation and IFN(interferon)-γ production after in vitro stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate plus ionomycin or IL(interleukin)-12 plus IL-18 were dampened in nasal NK cells, and the depletion of NK cells led to an increased influenza virus titer in nasal passages. Conclusions The NK cells of the murine nasal passage belong to the conventional NK cell linage and characteristically demonstrate an immature and activated phenotype. Despite their hyporesponsiveness in vitro, nasal NK cells play important roles in the host defense against nasal influenza virus infection. PMID:26575399

  20. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of nasal bone fractures: a comparison with conventional radiography and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Sook; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Woo, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hak Jin; Sol, Yu Li; Song, Jong Woon; Cho, Kyu-Sup

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasonography (US) with radiography and multi-detector computed tomography (CT) for the detection of nasal bone fractures. Forty-one patients with a nasal bone fracture who underwent prospective US examinations were included. Plain radiographs and CT images were obtained on the day of trauma. For US examinations, radiologist used a linear array transducer (L17-5 MHz) in 24 patients and hockey-stick probe (L15-7 MHz) in 17. The bony component of the nose was divided into three parts (right and left lateral nasal walls, and midline of nasal bone). Fracture detection by three modalities was subjected to analysis. Furthermore, findings made by each modality were compared with intraoperative findings. Nasal bone fractures were located in the right lateral wall (n = 28), midline of nasal bone (n = 31), or left lateral wall (n = 31). For right and left lateral nasal walls, CT had greater sensitivity and specificity than US or radiography, and better agreed with intraoperative findings. However, for midline fractures of nasal bone, US had higher specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value than CT. Although two US evaluations showed good agreements at all three sites, US findings obtained by the hockey-stick probe showed closer agreement with intraoperative findings for both lateral nasal wall and midline of nasal bone. Although CT showed higher sensitivity and specificity than US or radiography, US found to be helpful for evaluating the midline of nasal bone. Furthermore, for US examinations of the nasal bone, a smaller probe and higher frequency may be required.

  1. Flow through the nasal cavity of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm-Davis, L. L.; Fish, F. E.

    2015-12-01

    The nasal cavity of spiny dogfish is a blind capsule with no internal connection to the oral cavity. Water is envisioned to flow through the cavity in a smooth, continuous flow pattern; however, this assumption is based on previous descriptions of the morphology of the olfactory cavity. No experimentation on the flow through the internal nasal cavity has been reported. Morphology of the head of the spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias) does not suggest a close external connection between the oral and nasal systems. However, dye visualization showed that there was flow through the nasal apparatus and from the excurrent nostril to the mouth when respiratory flows were simulated. The hydrodynamic flow through the nasal cavity was observed from flow tank experiments. The dorsum of the nasal cavity of shark heads from dead animals was exposed by dissection and a glass plate was glued over of the exposed cavity. When the head was placed in a flow, dye was observed to be drawn passively into the cavity showing a complex, three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow. Dye entered the incurrent nostril, flowed through the nasal lamellae, crossed over and under the nasal valve, and circulated around the nasal valve before exiting the excurrent nostril. When the nasal valve was removed, the dye became stagnant and back flowed out through the incurrent nostril. The single nasal valve has a hydrodynamic function that organizes a coherent flow of water through the cavity without disruption. The results suggest that the morphology of the nasal apparatus in concert with respiratory flow and ambient flows from active swimming can be used to draw water through the olfactory cavity of the shark.

  2. [The differential diagnosis of benign neoplasms of the nasal septum (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rauchfuss, A; Städtler, F

    1981-04-01

    More than 90 per cent of neoplasms of the nasal septum are malignant. A 37 year old man with a bleeding nasal cavity neoplasm, which histologically was a pleomorphic adenoma is reported. These benign lesions usually occur in the salivary glands and this case is discussed with due regard to the unusual site of origin. The rare reports of pleomorphic adenomas of the nasal septum, especially regarding management and prognosis, are reviewed.

  3. Daily cycles in coastal dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

  4. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  5. Mediation of muscular control of rhinarial motility in rats by the nasal cartilaginous skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Haidarliu, Sebastian; Kleinfeld, David; Ahissar, Ehud

    2014-01-01

    The Rhinarium is the rostral-most area of the snout that surrounds the nostrils, and is hairless in most mammals. In rodents, it participates in coordinated behaviors, active tactile sensing, and active olfactory sensing. In rats, the Rhinarium is firmly connected to the nasal cartilages, and its motility is determined by movements of the rostral end of the nasal cartilaginous skeleton. Here we demonstrate the nature of different cartilaginous regions that form the Rhinarium and the nasofacial muscles that deform these regions during movements of the nasal cartilaginous skeleton. These muscles, together with the dorsal nasal cartilage that was described here, function as a rhinarial motor plant. PMID:24249396

  6. Nasal septal abscess--retrospective analysis of 14 cases from University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, M A

    1993-10-01

    Fourteen patients who presented to the University Hospital of Kuala Lumpur between June 1981 and June 1991 were reviewed retrospectively. Nasal septal abscesses are uncommon and therefore there are limited reports in the medical literature. Early diagnosis and immediate therapy is mandatory to avoid cosmetic nasal deformity or intracranial infection. Two out of the fourteen patients developed saddle nose deformity and septal perforation because of delay in treatment, the cases were misdiagnosed by non-otolaryngologist as turbinates swelling. The leading cause of nasal septal abscess was non-surgical trauma which accounted for about 85.7%. The commonest pathogenic organism isolated from the pus of nasal septal abscess was Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. In vivo deposition of ultrafine aerosols in human nasal and oral airways

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Swift, D.L.; Simpson, S.Q.

    1995-12-01

    The extrathoracic airways, including the nasal passage, oral passage, pharynx, and larynx, are the first targets for inhaled particles and provide an important defense for the lung. Understanding the deposition efficiency of the nasal and oral passages is therefore crucial for assessing doses of inhaled particles to the extrathoracic airways and the lung. Significant inter-subject variability in nasal deposition has been shown in recent studies by Rasmussen, T.R. et al, using 2.6 {mu}m particles in 10 human subjects and in our preliminary studies using 0.004-0.15 {mu}m particles in four adult volunteers. No oral deposition was reported in either of these studies. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. The aims of the present study were to measure in vivo the nasal airway dimensions and the deposition of ultrafine aerosols in both the nasal and oral passages, and to determine the relationship between nasal airway dimensions and aerosol deposition. A statistical procedure incorporated with the diffusion theory was used to model the dimensional features of the nasal airways which may be responsible for the biological variability in particle deposition. In summary, we have correlated deposition of particles in the size range of 0.004 to 0.15 {mu}m with the nasal dimensions of each subject.

  8. Clinical efficacy of milbemycin oxime in the treatment of nasal mite infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, L K; Möller, L C; Einarsson, A M; Zakrisson, G; Hagman, B G; Christensson, D A; Uggla, A H; Hedhammar, A A

    1999-01-01

    A multicentric clinical trial was done to evaluate the clinical efficacy of milbemycin oxime in the treatment of nasal mite (Pneumonyssoides caninum) infection in dogs. Milbemycin oxime was given to 70 dogs of different breeds, genders, and ages, with clinical signs associated with nasal mite infection. Twenty-five dogs had a verified infection, and 45 dogs had signs suggestive of nasal mite infection. Milbemycin oxime was given at the dosage of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg body weight orally once a week for three consecutive weeks. One month after initiation of treatment, 68 of the dogs had no more clinical signs associated with nasal mite infection.

  9. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of ectoine nasal spray in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Eichel, Andrea; Bilstein, Andreas; Werkhäuser, Nina; Mösges, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The meta-analysis aims to investigate the efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and eye drops in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. Design and Methods. This meta-analysis is based on yet unpublished data of four studies. Both nasal and eye symptoms were documented in patient diary cards. All scales were transformed into a 4-point scale: 0 = no, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe symptoms. Each symptom was analysed individually in a meta-analysis of the area under the curve values as well as in a meta-analysis of pre- and posttreatment comparison. Results. After seven days of treatment with ectoine nasal spray both nasal and ocular symptoms decreased significantly. A strong reduction of symptom severity was shown for the parameters rhinorrhoea (31.76% reduction) and nasal obstruction (29.94% reduction). Furthermore, the meta-analyses of individual symptoms to investigate the strength of effect after seven days of medication intake showed significant improvement for nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, nasal itching, sneezing, itching of eyes, and redness of eyes. The improvement of the symptom nasal obstruction was associated with a strong effect 0.53 (±0.26). Conclusions. The ectoine nasal spray and eye drops seem to be equally effective as guideline-recommended medication in the treatment of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms.

  10. Cell-Penetrating Peptide Penetratin as a Potential Tool for Developing Effective Nasal Vaccination Systems.

    PubMed

    Muto, Keiya; Kamei, Noriyasu; Yoshida, Mia; Takayama, Kozo; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2016-06-01

    Nasal vaccination is considered an attractive strategy to prevent the infection and spread of viruses. However, the vaccine formulations available on the market remain imperfect on account of their limited effectiveness. In the present study, we hypothesized that the nasal coadministration of antigens with cell-penetrating peptides promotes antigen delivery immune response in the nasal mucosa, thereby enhancing the production of mucosal IgA and systemic IgG. The levels of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG and IgA in plasma and nasal perfusate, respectively, increased after 2 or 4 weeks on nasal coadministration of OVA with l- or d-penetratin, suggesting that OVA antigen was effectively delivered by penetratin to the nasal epithelium. An additional study demonstrated that the production of systemic IgG and nasal mucosal IgA against influenza A virus was specifically promoted by nasal coadministration of influenza A virus with d-penetratin. The results of this study suggested that cell-penetrating peptides are a promising tool for the delivery of vaccines to the nasal mucosa and for the subsequent dual stimulation of systemic and mucosal immune responses. PMID:27155764

  11. [Nasal type natural killer/T cell lymphoma: case series and literature review].

    PubMed

    Düzlü, Mehmet; Ant, Ayça; Tutar, Hakan; Karamert, Recep; Şahin, Melih; Sayar, Erolcan; Cesur, Nesibe

    2016-01-01

    Nasal type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma is a rare type of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma which originates from nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Exact diagnosis of nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, which is a rapidly progressive clinical condition, may be established by immunohistochemical analysis on biopsy material after clinical suspicion. In this article, we report four cases of nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma who were followed-up in our clinic and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in light of the literature data. PMID:27405082

  12. Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Ectoine Nasal Spray in Patients with Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Eichel, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The meta-analysis aims to investigate the efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and eye drops in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. Design and Methods. This meta-analysis is based on yet unpublished data of four studies. Both nasal and eye symptoms were documented in patient diary cards. All scales were transformed into a 4-point scale: 0 = no, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe symptoms. Each symptom was analysed individually in a meta-analysis of the area under the curve values as well as in a meta-analysis of pre- and posttreatment comparison. Results. After seven days of treatment with ectoine nasal spray both nasal and ocular symptoms decreased significantly. A strong reduction of symptom severity was shown for the parameters rhinorrhoea (31.76% reduction) and nasal obstruction (29.94% reduction). Furthermore, the meta-analyses of individual symptoms to investigate the strength of effect after seven days of medication intake showed significant improvement for nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, nasal itching, sneezing, itching of eyes, and redness of eyes. The improvement of the symptom nasal obstruction was associated with a strong effect 0.53 (±0.26). Conclusions. The ectoine nasal spray and eye drops seem to be equally effective as guideline-recommended medication in the treatment of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. PMID:24949019

  13. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  14. Nasal NK/T cell lymphoma presents with long-term nasal blockage and fever: a rare case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Hai; Pan, Ke-Hua; Wu, Liang; Pan, Hong-Ying; Ding, Ya-Hui; Zheng, Ming-Hua

    2016-01-01

    NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is a common disease which is a threat to human health. Nasal NKTCL is a rare but serious type of systemic lymphoma because of its high mortality rate and serious complications. In this case report, we describe a male who presented with nasal blockage in the right side, a fever of one month duration and a soy-like, painless and gradually increasing mass in the right submandibular region due to nasal NKTCL. The patient had no significant medical history and the initial clinical symptoms were nasal blockage. Contrast computed tomography showed that the nasopharyngeal mucosa was thickened and that the celiac and retroperitoneal lymphaden was intumescent. Finally a biopsy, guided by nasal endoscopy and examined using flow cytometry confirmed a diagnosis of NKTCL. Nasal NKTCL is rare and has no unique characteristics at first presentation, such as epidemiology and obvious clinical manifestation. As no effective therapy is currently available for this disease, early diagnosis and therapy of nasal NKTCL remains challenging. PMID:26885897

  15. Salvage of venous congestion using medicinal leeches for traumatic nasal flap.

    PubMed

    Jose, Mathew; Varghese, Jomy; Babu, Arun

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal leeches are extremely useful and safe in the salvage of venous outflow compromised tissue, particularly in digit replants and various forms of flaps. Although it is unusual for a partial soft tissue avulsion of the face to require medicinal leech therapy, situations may occur in which there is adequate arterial inflow but inadequate venous outflow. In such cases, medicinal leeches may play a very important role in salvaging the soft tissue segment. We report a case of a 34-year-old gentleman who showed signs of venous congestion following primary management for a traumatic nasal flap. Successful salvage of venous congestion was done using medicinal leech therapy, once daily, for 5 days. His recovery deemed satisfactory and uncomplicated. Medicinal leeches are well-known in the treatment of venous congestion or complete venous outflow obstruction in larger pedicled flaps and microvascular transfers. In trauma, it is well established that medicinal leeches are invaluable in treating venous congestion in digit replants and replantation of totally avulsed external ear segments. A limited number of other reports have demonstrated the use of medicinal leeches for salvage of other partially avulsed facial structures. Medicinal leeches have a significant role in the management of traumatic and microvascular flaps, the oral and maxillofacial surgeon should weigh the benefits of such treatment before instituting other expensive or complex treatment modalities.

  16. Nasal Levels of Antimicrobial Peptides in Allergic Asthma Patients and Healthy Controls: Differences and Effect of a Short 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3 Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, Willemien; Janssen, Kirsten; van Schadewijk, Annemarie M.; Papapoulos, Socrates E.; le Cessie, Saskia; Middeldorp, Saskia; Melissant, Christian F.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergy is often accompanied by infections and lower levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Vitamin D has been shown to increase expression of selected AMPs. In this study we investigated whether antimicrobial peptide levels in nasal secretions of allergic asthma patients are lower than in healthy controls, and whether administration of the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) affects these antimicrobial peptide levels. Methods The levels of antimicrobial peptides in nasal secretions were compared between 19 allergic asthma patients and 23 healthy controls. The effect of seven days daily oral treatment with 2 μg 1,25(OH)2D3 on antimicrobial peptides in nasal secretions was assessed in a placebo-controlled cross-over clinical study. Results Levels of neutrophil α-defensins (human neutrophil peptides 1–3; HNP1-3) and lipocalin 2 (LCN2; also known as NGAL) were significantly lower in asthmatics, but no differences in LL-37 and SLPI were detected. Treatment with a short-term 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a small increase in HNP1-3, but not when the asthma and control groups were analyzed separately. LL-37, LCN2 and SLPI did not change after treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3. Conclusion Levels of the antimicrobial peptides HNP1-3 and LCN2 are lower in nasal secretions in asthmatics and are not substantially affected by a short-term treatment with active vitamin D. PMID:26545199

  17. Comparison of outcomes between endoscopic surgery and conventional nasal packing for epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus

    PubMed Central

    Zou, You; Deng, Yu-Qin; Xiao, Chang-Wu; Kong, Yong-Gang; Xu, Yu; Tao, Ze-Zhang; Chen, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus and compare the treatment outcomes of endoscopic surgery and conventional nasal packing for this intractable form of epistaxis. Methods: Between August 2011 and August 2014, the medical records of 53 adult patients with idiopathic epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus diagnosed by nasal endoscopy were obtained from our department. Of these, 38 patients underwent endoscopic surgery (surgery group) and 15 received a nasal pack (packing group). The patients’ background characteristics, incidence of re-bleeding, extent of discomfort after treatment as assessed using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) and incidence of nasal cavity adhesion after treatment were analysed. Results: There were no significant differences in background characteristics between the two groups. The incidence of re-bleeding (0/38 vs. 4/15, surgery vs. control, P = 0.001), VAS score for discomfort (2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 7.6 ± 1.0, surgery vs. control, P = 0.001) and incidence of nasal cavity adhesion after treatment (2/38 vs. 7/15, surgery vs. control, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the surgery group than in the packing group. Conclusion: Endoscopic surgery is superior to conventional nasal packing for the management of epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus. During surgery, it is crucial to expose the bleeding sites by shifting the inferior turbinate inward by fracture. PMID:26870097

  18. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846

  19. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  20. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...