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Sample records for daily dyeing method

  1. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample.

  2. Eco-Friendly Dyeing of Cotton with Indigo Dye By Electrochemical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, H. Gurumallesh; Sarala, K.; Babu, S. Ananda; Savitha, K. U.

    2011-07-01

    Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton was performed in two step process; (i) enzymatic pre-treatment of grey cotton fabric and (ii) Electrochemical dyeing of the pre-treated cotton fabric with indigo. The enzymatic pre-treatment was done in three methods; (i) amylase treatment only, (ii) amylase and hydrogen peroxide treatment and (iii) single bath method. The dyeing was carried out with the pre-treated cotton fabric. The reduction of indigo dye by electrochemical method was initiated by applying potential. Then the dyeing was carried out different concentrations of dye, glucose and NaOH. Conventional method of dyeing was also carried out and compared with the electrochemical method. Dyeability was measured by computer colour matching (CCM) GretagMacbeth colour eye 2180UV instrument.

  3. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.L.

    2000-07-25

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  4. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  5. A method of determining spectral analytical dye densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Friederichs, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    A straightforward method for the user of color imagery to determine the spectral analytical density of dyes present in the processed imagery is presented. The method involves exposing a large number of different color patches on the film which span the gamut of the film's imaging capabilities. From integral spectral density measurements at 16 to 19 different wavelengths, the unit spectral dye curves for each of the three dyes present were determined in two different types of color films. A discussion of the use of these spectral dye densities to determine the transformation between integral density measurements and analytical density is presented.

  6. Rapid double-dye-layer coating for dye-sensitized solar cells using a new method.

    PubMed

    Jung, Cho-long; Han, Chi-Hwan; Moon, Doo Kyung; Jun, Yongseok

    2014-10-01

    Intensive research with the specific aim of developing inexpensive renewable energy sources is currently being undertaken. In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) production, the most time-consuming process is coating the dye on working electrodes: absorption of ruthenium-based dyes [e.g., N719=bis(trtrabutylammonium)-cis-di(thiocyanato)-N,N'-bis(4-carboxylato-4'-carboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(II)] on a photoanode takes a long time. We report a simple dye-coating method using a mixed solvent of ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol (Gly). According to our experiments, dye-coating time can be reduced to 5 min from several hours. Maximum performance was obtained with an EG/Gly ratio of 1:1. This mixture of solvents gave a performance of 9.1%. Furthermore, the viscous solvent system could control coating depth; positioning dye coatings to a specific depth was rapid and facile. A cell containing two different dyes (N719+black dye) had an efficiency of 9.4%.

  7. Brilliant Blue Dyes in Daily Food: How Could Purinergic System Be Affected?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Leonardo Gomes Braga; Ferreira, Natiele Carla da Silva; Soares-Bezerra, Rômulo José

    2016-01-01

    Dyes were first obtained from the extraction of plant sources in the Neolithic period to produce dyed clothes. At the beginning of the 19th century, synthetic dyes were produced to color clothes on a large scale. Other applications for synthetic dyes include the pharmaceutical and food industries, which are important interference factors in our lives and health. Herein, we analyzed the possible implications of some dyes that are already described as antagonists of purinergic receptors, including special Brilliant Blue G and its derivative FD&C Blue No. 1. Purinergic receptor family is widely expressed in the body and is critical to relate to much cellular homeostasis maintenance as well as inflammation and cell death. In this review, we discuss previous studies and show purinergic signaling as an important issue to be aware of in food additives development and their correlations with the physiological functions. PMID:27833914

  8. Dye visualization--a method for investigating biomechanical flows.

    PubMed

    Leweke, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Flow visualization using dye is an inexpensive and easy-to-implement experimental technique. It can be used for a rapid qualitative assessment of fluid flows in configurations relevant to biomedical or biotechnological applications, which often involve small spatial dimensions and flow velocities (low Reynolds numbers). This paper gives an overview of the practical aspects related to dye visualization in liquids (dyes, introduction of dye into the flow, illumination), and discusses the information that can be obtained by this method, which includes the distribution of coherent structures/ vortices, the location of recirculation zones, and certain characteristic spatial and temporal scales. Visualization results for three examples of generic flows related to biomechanical applications are presented: the flow behind a contraction in a pipe (stenosis), the wake of a particle moving along a wall, and the flow inside a lid-driven mixing vessel (bioreactor).

  9. Limitations of the Dye-Based Method for Determining Vaginal Applicator Use in Microbicide Trials

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Michele N.; Rabe, Lorna K.; Hillier, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Background A dye-based method for determining applicator usage in microbicide trials has been developed to assess whether applicators have been exposed to vaginal fluid. Our objective was to evaluate this method on polypropylene HTI applicators which are being widely used in several effectiveness trials of microbicides. Methods Study participants enrolled in a clinical trial assessing SPL7013 (VivaGel) inserted gel intravaginally twice daily for 14 days and returned used and unused applicators. Prior to staining, smears were prepared from each participant-inserted applicator, Gram stained and assessed independently for the presence of vaginal cells and bacteria. Of the 169 participant-inserted applicators, 168 (99%) had vaginal cells identified by Gram stain. Participant-inserted applicators were stained with a 0.05% FD&C Blue Dye No. 1 solution and compared to 70 inserted positive control applicators and 70 unused negative control applicators. Intravaginally inserted applicators should stain turquoise, while unused applicators should not retain any stain. The individual responsible for labeling and preparing the applicators did not serve as an evaluator. Results Under optimized conditions, the sensitivity and specificity ranged from 81–95% and 86–93%, respectively for single use and unused applicators. The dye-based method was only 47–77% sensitive for participant-inserted applicators obtained from women using gel twice daily. Conclusion The dye test for HTI polypropylene applicators had a sensitivity of 47–95% depending on the evaluator and whether gel was present in the vagina. The sensitivity was decreased with multiple gel applications. The dye-based method cannot be recommended for HTI polypropylene applicators to monitor product adherence. PMID:19556930

  10. An efficient and rapid thin-layer chromatography method for the identification of 32 dye substances in hair dye products.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H J; Yang, Y W; Zhu, Y

    2014-08-01

    The use of dye substances in hair dye products has led to controversial public and scientific discussions about their impact on human health. This study aimed to explore a rapid method for identification of dye substances in hair dye products. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) method was conducted in this study. We developed basic data of 32 dye substances by 4 developing solvents and 2 indicator sprays. The dye substances were identified by comparing the Rf values and colors between samples and reference substances. Thirty samples were identified by the established method. 22 hair dye substances were detected in 16 formula known samples, 15 hair dye substances were detected in 14 formula unknown samples. Four laboratories participated in the validation and the results showed good interlaboratory reproducibility. The developed TLC method is simple, rapid, reliable and can be finely used for identification of dye substances in hair dye products. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Daily Experience Research: Methods and Applications in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkl, Judith E.; Baldwin, Cheryl K.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the major approaches used by social scientists to measure daily experiences, including interval-contingent, signal- contingent, and event-contingent methods. Examples of how these methods have been used in therapeutic recreation and leisure research are provided. The unique challenges and issues of measuring the daily experiences of…

  12. Measurement of cardiac output by earpiece dye-dilution method with automatic calibration of dye concentration.

    PubMed

    Katori, R; Hayashi, T; Kanamasa, K; Ishikawa, K

    1977-05-01

    A non-invasive method for measuring cardiac output by an earpiece dye densitometer was proposed. The densitometer is dichromatic and has an air capsule to make subject's ear bloodless by inflation, so that it can calibrate indocyanine green dye concentration without blood sampling. Duplicate measurements of cardiac output showed a good agreement in 40 cases (r = 0.97, standard deviation (S.D.) = 8.9%), which was comparable to the result of the cuvette method (r = 0.98, S.D. = 8.1%). Simultaneous measurements of cardiac output by the earpiece method (x) and the standard cuvette method (y) revealed a good agreement (r = 0.91, y = 0.96x+0.34, S.D. = 16.4%) in 52 measurements of 25 cases. A similarly good correlation was obtained between the two methods during ergometer exercise in supine position in 5 cases. These suggest that this earpiece dye-dilution method is reliable for cardiac output measurement and advantageous for clinical use because of non-invasive technique.

  13. Spectrophotometric estimation of tamsulosin hydrochloride by acid-dye method.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Saxena, Prachi; Gupta, Vipin B

    2011-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the estimation of tamsulosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms has been developed and validated. The method is based on reaction between drug and bromophenol blue and complex was measured at 421 nm. The slope, intercept and correlation coefficient was found to be 0.054, -0.020 and 0.999, respectively. Method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, range, precision and accuracy. The developed method can be used to determine drug in both tablet and capsule formulations. Reaction was optimized using three parameters i.e., concentration of the dye, pH of the buffer, volume of the buffer and shaking time. Maximum stability of the chromophore was achieved by using pH 2 and 2 ml volume of buffer. Shaking time kept was 2 min and concentration of the dye used was 2 ml of 0.05% w/v solution. Method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, range, accuracy, LOD and LOQ and stochiometry of the method was also established using Mole ratio and Job's method of continuous variation. The dye benzonoid form (blue color) of dye ionized into quinonoid form (purple color) in presence of buffer and reacts with protonated form of drug in 1:1 ratio and forms an ion-pair complex (yellow color).

  14. Rapid Dye Decolorization Method for Screening Potential Wood Preservatives

    PubMed Central

    Borokhov, Olga; Rothenburger, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    We developed a new screening method for potential wood preservatives based on decolorization of the dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R by extracellular oxidative agents produced by wood decay fungi. Oxidative biodegradation of lignin yielded decolorized zones around and under fungal cultures on a dyed agar medium. Inhibitory effects were detected by direct observation and measurement of the decolorized zones. PMID:11097927

  15. Homogenization of daily Spanish temperatures using SNHT and HOM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, E.; Rodrigo, F. S.; Fernández-Montes, S.; Luna, M. Y.; Rasilla, D.; Sigró, J.; Brunet, M.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, in connection with the need to improve our knowledge about climatic extremes, the homogenization community has focused on the adjustment of daily climatological data. The Spanish funded projects EXPICA (Spanish grant CGL2007-65546-C03) and its coordinated project CAFIDEXPI (Spanish grant CGL2007-65546-C03-02) is devoted to analyze changes in extremes over the Iberian Peninsula, thus needing daily homogeneous data suitable for such purposes. As daily resolution would increase the problems encountered by homogenizers to apply the different detection/correction methods, a widely used approach (as demonstrated by the survey conducted in the framework of the Working Group I of the COST-ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach-HOME) is to combine a detection approach based on lower resolution data (monthly, seasonal, annual) and a correction method specifically designed for daily data. In this work, we present the results of the homogenization of a subset of 28 daily temperature stations, centered around the Iberian Peninsula, which were subsequently used to derive a basic climatology for the above mentioned projects. All stations are almost complete for the 1971-2000 reference period and many of them go back to the 19th century. The procedure detects potential breaks applying the SNHT test to annual and quarterly data, using additional support station as references and the limited available metadata. Daily adjustments were calculated using the HOM method and covering the longest possible period (variable for each station), allowed by available, well correlated, overlapping data. Trends before and after homogenization were assessed by calculating a set of climate change indices.

  16. Fiber optics interface for a dye laser oscillator and method

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Steve A.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1986-01-01

    A dye laser oscillator in which one light beam is used to pump a continuous tream of dye within a cooperating dye chamber for producing a second, different beam is generally disclosed herein along with a specific arrangement including an optical fiber and a fiber optics interface for directing the pumping beam into the dye chamber. The specific fiber optics interface illustrated includes three cooperating lenses which together image one particular dimension of the pumping beam into the dye chamber from the output end of the optical fiber in order to insure that the dye chamber is properly illuminated by the pumping beam.

  17. Fiber optics interface for a dye laser oscillator and method

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, S.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1984-06-13

    A dye laser oscillator in which one light beam is used to pump a continuous stream of dye within a cooperating dye chamber for producing a second, different beam is generally disclosed herein along with a specific arrangement including an optical fiber and a fiber optics interface for directing the pumping beam into the dye chamber. The specific fiber optics interface illustrated includes three cooperating lenses which together image one particular dimension of the pumping beam into the dye chamber from the output end of the optical fiber in order to insure that the dye chamber is properly illuminated by the pumping beam.

  18. Continuous-wave organic dye lasers and methods

    DOEpatents

    Shapira, Ofer; Chua, Song-Liang; Zhen, Bo; Lee, Jeongwon; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-16

    An organic dye laser produces a continuous-wave (cw) output without any moving parts (e.g., without using flowing dye streams or spinning discs of solid-state dye media to prevent photobleaching) and with a pump beam that is stationary with respect to the organic dye medium. The laser's resonant cavity, organic dye medium, and pump beam are configured to excite a lasing transition over a time scale longer than the associated decay lifetimes in the organic dye medium without photobleaching the organic dye medium. Because the organic dye medium does not photobleach when operating in this manner, it may be pumped continuously so as to emit a cw output beam. In some examples, operation in this manner lowers the lasing threshold (e.g., to only a few Watts per square centimeter), thereby facilitating electrical pumping for cw operation.

  19. Development and Validation of a Triple Quad LC/MS Method for Fiber Dye Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly-Ingram, Ceirin M.

    This study aims to determine whether the analysis of dyed fiber through liquid chromatography (HPLC) with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) can be used as a reliable alternative to the current chemical techniques used to differentiate dyes. Other methods of analysis involving HPLC and MS have proven to be capable of distinguishing chemically different dyes within a few dye classifications, but none have proven capable of providing a complete alternative to the current accepted technique of thin layer chromatography (TLC). In theory, HPLC-triple quad MS is capable of providing more reproducible and reliable data than the conventional TLC methods with a much greater depth of measurable information with which to characterize dye components. In this study, dyes will be extracted from various types of fibers, including commonly worn types like cotton, polyester, nylon, and wool, and examine dyes from most of the eight different dye classes.

  20. Novel method for evaluation of natural dyes in DSSC

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshmi, M.; Kavitha, S.; Paul, Mercyleena

    2014-10-15

    Dye sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is presently centered on Ruthenium based dyes. Recent research is diverted to explore the potential of natural dyes in replacing the conventional dyes. In this work we have chosen few natural dyes, which when coated on TiO{sub 2} leads to increase in absorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}. Co-relation of absorption and electrochemical properties of natural dyes gives a scientific insight of the probable performance of a dye, even without fabricating a cell. We have tried to compare this predictions based on HOMO-LUMO energy levels with the real cell performance. Measurements of cell parameters suggest that there is scope for further research in this area.

  1. New method for quantification of dye sorption using SBA mesoporous silica as a target sorbent.

    PubMed

    Nesic, Aleksandra R; Kokunesoski, Maja J; Volkov-Husovic, Tatjana D; Velickovic, Sava J

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a new method for the quantification of methyl violet cationic dye sorption onto SBA-15 mesoporous silica was developed. This method related the intensity of coloration of SBA-15 samples (after reached equilibrium sorption) within dye concentration in aqueous solution using Image-Pro Plus software. The sorption process of methyl violet dye onto SBA-15 was analyzed varying different initial parameters (dye concentration, mass of sorbent, pH of dye solution, and contact sorption time). SBA-15 proved as efficient sorbent for removal of methyl violet dye in contact time of 5 min, with maximum percentage of dye removal 99% at pH 8. The results obtained from Image-Pro Plus showed to be in good agreement with the sorption parameters obtained by UV/Vis spectroscopy, which has been the most commonly used instrument for quantification of dye sorption. The image analysis method proved well prediction of dye concentrations with maximum relative error of 1.83%. The advantages of this method are low cost and reliable quantitative evaluation with minimum of time.

  2. A method of determining spectral dye densities in color films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friederichs, G. A.; Scarpace, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical analysis technique called characteristic vector analysis, reported by Simonds (1963), is used to determine spectral dye densities in multiemulsion film such as color or color-IR imagery. The technique involves examining a number of sets of multivariate data and determining linear transformations of these data to a smaller number of parameters which contain essentially all of the information contained in the original set of data. The steps involved in the actual procedure are outlined. It is shown that integral spectral density measurements of a large number of different color samples can be accurately reconstructed from the calculated spectral dye densities.

  3. A method of determining spectral dye densities in color films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friederichs, G. A.; Scarpace, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical analysis technique called characteristic vector analysis, reported by Simonds (1963), is used to determine spectral dye densities in multiemulsion film such as color or color-IR imagery. The technique involves examining a number of sets of multivariate data and determining linear transformations of these data to a smaller number of parameters which contain essentially all of the information contained in the original set of data. The steps involved in the actual procedure are outlined. It is shown that integral spectral density measurements of a large number of different color samples can be accurately reconstructed from the calculated spectral dye densities.

  4. Measurement method for photoluminescent quantum yields of fluorescent organic dyes in polymethyl methacrylate for luminescent solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L R; Richards, B S

    2009-01-10

    A method for measuring the photoluminescent quantum yields (PLQY) of luminescent organic dyes is presented. The self-absorption probability calculated at different dye concentrations is used to determine the absolute quantum yield from the observed values. The results for a range of commercially available dyes show high quantum yields, even at high concentrations, and an absence of quenching. The PLQY of several dye mixtures are also presented. The results indicate an absence of any reduction of PLQY in a dye mixture as compared with the individual PLQY of the dyes.

  5. New method for covalent fluorescent biomolecule labeling with hemicyanine dye.

    PubMed

    Kostenko, Olexander M; Kovalska, Vladyslava B; Volkova, Kateryna D; Shaytanov, Pavel; Kocheshev, Igor O; Slominskiy, Yuriy L; Pisareva, Irina V; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M

    2006-07-01

    Fluorescent chromophore, alkylamino-(tetra-hydronaphthalenylidene)- benzothiazolium derivatives (HBTN dyes), are proposed as covalent labels for proteins via aliphatic amino groups. Spectral-luminescent properties of 3-methyl-2-{(E)-[7-(methylamino)-4,4a,5,6-tetra-hydronaphthalen-2(3H)-ylidene]methyl}-1,3-benzothiazol-3-ium chloride (HBTN, R=Me) and its predecessor, 2-[(E)-(7-methoxy-4,4a,5,6-tetrahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-ylidene)methyl]-3-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-3-ium chloride (ABTN), are studied for free dyes and in the presence of DNA and BSA. Considerable spectral-luminescent changes accompany the transformation of ABTN into HBTN that allows monitoring conjugation reaction. In presence of DNA and BSA the HBTN increases its emission in 15 and 4 times respectively and becomes strongly fluorescent. The conditions for labeling are developed and a model conjugate of HBTN dye with BSA is synthesized. It was shown that using of HBTN dye as a fluorescent label allows detection by eye of about 3 mug/band of BSA on polyacrylamide gel upon UV-irradiation.

  6. Further Development of Selective Dyeing Method for Detecting Chrysotile Asbestos in Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Maeta, N.; Fujimaki, H.; Hashida, T.

    2008-02-01

    Extensive usage of chrysotile asbestos has resulted in the remains of large numbers of chrysotile asbestos-containing buildings to be surveyed. We have recently developed a simple dyeing method for detecting chrysotile asbestos in building materials, which involves pretreatment with calcium-chelating agent and dyeing treatment with magnesium-chelating organic dyes. In this study, we further developed a method which eliminates dyed asbestos substitutes containing magnesium, potentially present in building materials. In the new method, post-treatment with formic acid was conducted to dissolve the non-chrysotile asbestos materials in order to delineate dyed chrysotile asbestos. The calcium-masking process was also shown to be an essential process even when the post-treatment was conducted. It was shown that the new method developed in this study may enable us to dye chrysotile asbestos only without detecting asbestos substitutes in building materials.

  7. RELIC: a novel dye-bias correction method for Illumina Methylation BeadChip.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongli; Langie, Sabine A S; De Boever, Patrick; Taylor, Jack A; Niu, Liang

    2017-01-03

    The Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and its successor, Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip, have been extensively utilized in epigenome-wide association studies. Both arrays use two fluorescent dyes (Cy3-green/Cy5-red) to measure methylation level at CpG sites. However, performance difference between dyes can result in biased estimates of methylation levels. Here we describe a novel method, called REgression on Logarithm of Internal Control probes (RELIC) to correct for dye bias on whole array by utilizing the intensity values of paired internal control probes that monitor the two color channels. We evaluate the method in several datasets against other widely used dye-bias correction methods. Results on data quality improvement showed that RELIC correction statistically significantly outperforms alternative dye-bias correction methods. We incorporated the method into the R package ENmix, which is freely available from the Bioconductor website ( https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/ENmix.html ). RELIC is an efficient and robust method to correct for dye-bias in Illumina Methylation BeadChip data. It outperforms other alternative methods and conveniently implemented in R package ENmix to facilitate DNA methylation studies.

  8. Photo-Electrochemical Treatment of Reactive Dyes in Wastewater and Reuse of the Effluent: Method Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Mireia; López-Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the efficiency of a photo-electrochemical method to remove color in textile dyeing effluents is discussed. The decolorization of a synthetic effluent containing a bi-functional reactive dye was carried out by applying an electrochemical treatment at different intensities (2 A, 5 A and 10 A), followed by ultraviolet irradiation. The combination of both treatments was optimized. The final percentage of effluent decolorization, the reduction of halogenated organic volatile compound and the total organic carbon removal were the determinant factors in the selection of the best treatment conditions. The optimized method was applied to the treatment of nine simulated dyeing effluents prepared with different reactive dyes in order to compare the behavior of mono, bi, and tri-reactive dyes. Finally, the nine treated effluents were reused in new dyeing processes and the color differences (DECMC (2:1)) with respect to a reference were evaluated. The influence of the effluent organic matter removal on the color differences was also studied. The reuse of the treated effluents provides satisfactory dyeing results, and an important reduction in water consumption and salt discharge is achieved. PMID:28788251

  9. Photo-Electrochemical Treatment of Reactive Dyes in Wastewater and Reuse of the Effluent: Method Optimization.

    PubMed

    Sala, Mireia; López-Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2014-11-14

    In this work, the efficiency of a photo-electrochemical method to remove color in textile dyeing effluents is discussed. The decolorization of a synthetic effluent containing a bi-functional reactive dye was carried out by applying an electrochemical treatment at different intensities (2 A, 5 A and 10 A), followed by ultraviolet irradiation. The combination of both treatments was optimized. The final percentage of effluent decolorization, the reduction of halogenated organic volatile compound and the total organic carbon removal were the determinant factors in the selection of the best treatment conditions. The optimized method was applied to the treatment of nine simulated dyeing effluents prepared with different reactive dyes in order to compare the behavior of mono, bi, and tri-reactive dyes. Finally, the nine treated effluents were reused in new dyeing processes and the color differences (DECMC (2:1)) with respect to a reference were evaluated. The influence of the effluent organic matter removal on the color differences was also studied. The reuse of the treated effluents provides satisfactory dyeing results, and an important reduction in water consumption and salt discharge is achieved.

  10. Composition and method of preparation of solid state dye laser rods

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention includes solid polymeric-host laser rods prepared using bulk polymerization of acrylic acid ester comonomers which, when admixed with dye(s) capable of supporting laser oscillation and polymerized with a free radical initiator under mild thermal conditions, produce a solid product having the preferred properties for efficient lasing. Unsaturated polymerizable laser dyes can also be employed as one of the comonomers. Additionally, a method is disclosed which alleviates induced optical stress without having to anneal the polymers at elevated temperatures (>85.degree. C.).

  11. Green-synthesis, characterization, photostability and polarity studies of novel Schiff base dyes using spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Marwani, Hadi M; Asiri, Abdullah M; Khan, Salman A

    2012-01-01

    Preparation, characterization, photostability and polarity studies of novel Schiff base dyes using spectroscopic methods were achieved. The Schiff base dyes were prepared by the reaction of salicylaldehyde/2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with aminophenazone under microwave irradiation. The spectroscopic (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C-NMR, Mass) studies and elemental analyses were in good agreement with chemical structure of synthesized compounds. In addition, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic experiments showed that these dyes are good absorbent and fluorescent. Based on the photostability study of these dyes, minimal to no loss in fluorescence intensities of 4-[(2-Hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino] 1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (D1) (6.14%) and 4-[(2-Hydroxy-naphthalen-1-ylmethylene)-amino]-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (D2) (2.95%) was observed with an increase in the exposure time using time-based fluorescence steady-state experiments. These studies also inferred that these Schiffbase dyes have a high photostability against photobleaching. In addition, Dye 2 is found to be more sensitive than Dye 1 to the polarity of the microenvironment provided by different solvents based on the results of fluorescence polarity studies.

  12. Spectral transmittance of organic dye-doped glass films obtained by the solgel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Shojiro; Hirokawa, Naoyuki

    1996-06-01

    The spectral transmittance of colored glass films synthesized by the solgel method is presented. The film was formed on a glass slide by dipping it into an organic dye-doped solution and, thereafter, by putting it into a furnace for solidification. Three dyes, Methylene Blue, Eosin, and Uranine, were used that exhibit transparent blue, pink, and yellow colors, respectively, when they are dissolved in the starting solution. We clarify how the spectral transmittance of the films varies with the solidification temperature. The films doped with two of the three dyes that exhibit violet, orange, and green colors are also synthesized, and their transmittance is measured. Moreover, the chemical durability of the films and the transmittance change caused by aging and illumination are examined. organic dye, solgel method.

  13. Label-free DNA hybridization detection by various spectroscopy methods using triphenylmethane dyes as a probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Changqun; Ma, Ying; Luo, Lin; Weng, Chao; Chen, Xiaoming

    2012-12-01

    A new assay is developed for direct detection of DNA hybridization using triphenylmethane dye as a probe. It is based on various spectroscopic methods including resonance light scattering (RLS), circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet spectra and fluorescence spectra, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), six triphenylmethane dyes interact with double strand DNA (dsDNA) and single strand DNA (ssDNA) were investigated, respectively. The interaction results in amplified resonance light scattering signals and enables the detection of hybridization without the need for labeling DNA. Mechanism investigations have shown that groove binding occurs between dsDNA and these triphenylmethane dyes, which depends on G-C sequences of dsDNA and the molecular volumes of triphenylmethane dyes. Our present approaches display the advantages of simple and fast, accurate and reliable, and the artificial samples were determined with satisfactory results.

  14. Improved dye-sensitized solar cell with a ZnO nanotree photoanode by hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shou-Yi; Yang, Jui-Fu; Lai, Fang-I

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of ZnO nanostructures on dye adsorption to increase the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. ZnO nanostructures were grown in both tree-like and nanorod (NR) arrays on an AZO/FTO film structure by using a hydrothermal method. The results were observed in detail using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and solar simulation. The selective growth of tree-like ZnO was found to exhibit higher dye adsorption loading and conversion efficiency than ZnO NRs. The multiple 'branches' of 'tree-like nanostructures' increases the surface area for higher light harvesting and dye loading while reducing charge recombination. These improvements result in a 15% enhancement in power conversion. The objective of this study is to facilitate the development of a ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cell.

  15. Label-free DNA hybridization detection by various spectroscopy methods using triphenylmethane dyes as a probe.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Changqun; Ma, Ying; Luo, Lin; Weng, Chao; Chen, Xiaoming

    2012-12-01

    A new assay is developed for direct detection of DNA hybridization using triphenylmethane dye as a probe. It is based on various spectroscopic methods including resonance light scattering (RLS), circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet spectra and fluorescence spectra, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), six triphenylmethane dyes interact with double strand DNA (dsDNA) and single strand DNA (ssDNA) were investigated, respectively. The interaction results in amplified resonance light scattering signals and enables the detection of hybridization without the need for labeling DNA. Mechanism investigations have shown that groove binding occurs between dsDNA and these triphenylmethane dyes, which depends on G-C sequences of dsDNA and the molecular volumes of triphenylmethane dyes. Our present approaches display the advantages of simple and fast, accurate and reliable, and the artificial samples were determined with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A method for concentrating organic dyes: colorimetric measurements of nitric oxides and sialic acids.

    PubMed

    Lalezari, Parviz; Lekhraj, Rukmani; Casper, Diana

    2011-09-01

    A new method for extraction and concentration of organic dyes that uses a reagent composed of a nonionic detergent mixed with an alcohol is described. We have observed that water-soluble organic dyes are also soluble in nonionic detergents and can be extracted by adding salt, which separates the dye-detergent component from the aqueous phase. We have also found that mixing nonionic detergents with alcohols markedly reduces their viscosity and produces stable, free-flowing, and effective reagents for color extraction. On the basis of these observations, we used a mixture of Triton X-100 and 1-butanol and observed that water-soluble natural and synthetic chromophores, as well as dyes generated in biochemical reactions, can be extracted, concentrated, and analyzed spectrophotometrically. Trypan blue and phenol red are used as examples of synthetic dyes, and red wine is used as an example of phenolic plant pigments. Applications for quantification of nitric oxides and sialic acids are described in more detail and show that as little as 0.15 nmol of nitric oxide and 0.20 nmol of sialic acid can be detected. A major advantage of this method is its ability to concentrate chromophores from dye-containing solutions that otherwise cannot be measured because of their low concentrations.

  17. A hybrid sorption - Spectrometric method for determination of synthetic anionic dyes in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Tikhomirova, Tatyana I; Ramazanova, Gyulselem R; Apyari, Vladimir V

    2017-04-15

    A sorption-spectrometric method for determination of the anionic synthetic dyes based on their sorption on silica sorbent modified with hexadecyl groups (C16) followed by measuring the diffuse reflectance spectra on the surface of the sorbent has been proposed. Adsorption of sulfonated azo dyes Tartrazine (E102), Sunset Yellow FCF (E110), Ponceau 4R (E124) reaches maximum in acidic medium (1M HCl - pH 1). For the quinophthalone type dye Quinoline Yellow (E104), the adsorption is also maximal in an acidic medium (1M HCl - pH 2). The triphenylmethane dye Fast Green FCF (E143) is absorbed in the wider area of pH (1M HCl - pH 6). Increasing concentration of the dyes in a solution led to the increase in absorption band intensity in diffuse reflectance spectra of the adsorbent, which was used for their direct determination. The proposed method was applied to the determination of dyes in beverages and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards low temperature sintering methods for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Sukanya

    Access to economically viable renewable energy sources is essential for the development of a globally sustainable society. Solar energy has a large potential to satisfy the future need for renewable energy sources. Dye sensitized solar cells are a third generation of photovoltaic technologies with the potential for low cost environmentally safe energy production. Commercialization of this technology requires that dye sensitized solar cells with higher efficiencies can be fabricated on flexible substrates. The commonly used material for the anode in a Dye Sensitized Solar Cell consists of titanium dioxide nanoparticles covered with a layer of light sensitizing dye. For efficient electron transport throughout the nanoparticle network, good particle interconnections are necessary. For low temperature processing these interconnections can be achieved through a hydrothermal process. The focus of this research is to understand at a fundamental level this reaction-based sintering process. A titanium alkoxide precursor was mixed with commercial titania nanoparticles and coated on a transparent conductive oxide substrate. The product of the hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxide served to connect the nanoparticles thus improving the electrical conduction of the titania electrode; this was confirmed by solar cell testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. To further understand the formation of interconnections during reactive sintering, a model system based on inert silica particles was investigated. Titanium alkoxide precursor was mixed with commercial silica particles and reacted. Three different types of silica particles were used: each with a different morphology. The silica-titania multilayers/powders were characterized using SEM, XRD and BET. The efficiency of DSSCs is higher when larger non-porous silica particles are used and thin nanocrystalline titania is coated on this superstructure. This gave insight into the locations where the reactive liquid

  19. Accounting for dye diffusion and orientation when relating FRET measurements to distances: three simple computational methods.

    PubMed

    Walczewska-Szewc, Katarzyna; Corry, Ben

    2014-06-28

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) allows in principal for the structural changes of biological systems to be revealed by monitoring distributions and distance fluctuations between parts of individual molecules. However, because flexible probes usually have to be attached to the macromolecule to conduct these experiments, they suffer from uncertainty in probe positions and orientations. One of the way to address this issue is to use molecular dynamics simulations to explicitly model the likely positions of the probes, but, this is still not widely accessible because of the large computational effort required. Here we compare three simpler methods that can potentially replace MD simulations in FRET data interpretation. In the first, the volume accessible for dye movement is calculated using a fast, geometrical algorithm. The next method, adapted from the analysis of electron paramagnetic studies, utilises a library of rotamers describing probe conformations. The last method uses preliminary MD simulations of fluorescent dyes in solution, to identify all conformational states of dyes and overlays this on the macromolecular system. A comparison of these methods in the simple system of dye-labelled polyproline, shows that in the case of lack of interaction between the dye and host, all give results comparable with MD simulations but require much less time. Differences between these three methods and their ability to compete with MD simulations in the analysis of real experiment are demonstrated and discussed using the examples of cold shock protein and leucine transporter systems.

  20. Studies on degradation of reactive textile dyes solution by electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Kariyajjanavar, Prakash; Jogttappa, Narayana; Nayaka, Yanjerappa Arthoba

    2011-06-15

    The indirect electrochemical degradation of industrial effluents has become an attractive method in recent years. This paper deals with the electrochemical degradation of Novacron Deep Red C-D (NDRCD) and Novacron Orange C-RN (NOCRN) reactive azo dyes from aqueous solution using graphite carbon electrodes. The results indicated that initial pH, current density and supporting electrolytes were played an important role in the degradation of dyes. Electrochemical behavior of reactive azo dyes has been studied with cyclic voltammetry in acidic medium using pencil graphite as working electrode. The potentials selected for the two dyes were in the range +1.0 to -0.4V and +0.5 to -0.2V, respectively. The CV, UV-Vis and chemical oxygen demand (COD) studies were selected to evaluate the degradation efficiency. The maximum colour removal efficiency of 99% and 97% and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 88% and 82% could be achieved for CDRCD and COCRN, respectively at 7 g L(-1) of NaCl concentration. The LC-MS study revealed the degradation of both the dyes and confirmed that the azo groups and aromatic rings were destroyed. The results revealed the suitability of the present process for the effective degradation of dye effluents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel selective dyeing method for chrysotile asbestos detection in concrete materials.

    PubMed

    Oke, Yoshihiko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Amamoto, Go Y; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Maeta, Naomi; Fujimaki, Hirokazu; Hashida, Toshiyuki

    2008-03-01

    There are a tremendous number of asbestos-containing buildings without any surveys on the presence of asbestos because of the difficulty to detect asbestos in building materials simply and quickly, although a great deal of worldwide effort was put into removing asbestos of which inhalation causes serious diseases. In this study, we newly developed a simple dyeing method to detect chrysotile asbestos, the most commonly used type of asbestos, in asbestos-cement composite materials using magnesium-chelating organic dyes. As an essential process for selective dyeing of chrysotile asbestos, special pretreatment with a calcium-chelating agent was developed to prevent the dyes from reacting with calcium, which is the major component of concrete materials. Our developed selective dyeing method was shown to possess sufficient sensitivity for detecting chrysotile asbestos in an amount greater than 0.1 mass% in concrete specimens, and there was an approximately linear relationship between the area fraction of dyed spots and the mass fraction of chrysotile asbestos. Our results may provide a basis for further development of a simple on-site detection method for chrysotile asbestos in building materials and may facilitate the progress of control and removal of asbestos in the environment.

  2. Dye lasing arrangement including an optical assembly for altering the cross-section of its pumping beam and method

    DOEpatents

    O'Neil, Richard W.; Sweatt, William C.

    1992-01-01

    An optical assembly is disclosed herein along with a method of operation for use in a dye lasing arrangement, for example a dye laser oscillator or a dye amplifier, in which a continuous stream of dye is caused to flow through a given zone in a cooperating dye chamber while the zone is being illuminated by light from a pumping beam which is directed into the given zone. This in turn causes the dye therein to lase and thereby produce a new dye beam in the case of a dye laser oscillator or amplify a dye beam in the case of a dye amplifier. The optical assembly so disclosed is designed to alter the pump beam such that the beam enters the dye chamber with a different cross-sectional configuration, preferably one having a more uniform intensity profile, than its initially produced cross-sectional configuration. To this end, the assembly includes a network of optical components which first act on the beam while the latter retains its initially produced cross-sectional configuration for separating it into a plurality of predetermined segments and then recombines the separated components in a predetermined way which causes the recombined beam to have the different cross-sectional configuration.

  3. Methods for the analysis of azo dyes employed in food industry--A review.

    PubMed

    Yamjala, Karthik; Nainar, Meyyanathan Subramania; Ramisetti, Nageswara Rao

    2016-02-01

    A wide variety of azo dyes are generally added for coloring food products not only to make them visually aesthetic but also to reinstate the original appearance lost during the production process. However, many countries in the world have banned the use of most of the azo dyes in food and their usage is highly regulated by domestic and export food supplies. The regulatory authorities and food analysts adopt highly sensitive and selective analytical methods for monitoring as well as assuring the quality and safety of food products. The present manuscript presents a comprehensive review of various analytical techniques used in the analysis of azo dyes employed in food industries of different parts of the world. A brief description on the use of different extraction methods such as liquid-liquid, solid phase and membrane extraction has also been presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Critical Comparison of Methods for the Analysis of Indigo in Dyeing Liquors and Effluents.

    PubMed

    Buscio, Valentina; Crespi, Martí; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2014-08-29

    Indigo is one of the most important dyes in the textile industry. The control of the indigo concentration in dyeing liquors and effluents is an important tool to ensure the reproducibility of the dyed fabrics and also to establish the efficiency of the wastewater treatment. In this work, three analytical methods were studied and validated with the aim to select a reliable, fast and automated method for the indigo dye determination. The first method is based on the extraction of the dye, with chloroform, in its oxidized form. The organic solution is measured by Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometry at 604 nm. The second method determines the concentration of indigo in its leuco form in aqueous medium by UV-visible spectrophotometry at 407 nm. Finally, in the last method, the concentration of indigo is determined by redox titration with potassium hexacyanoferrate (K₃(Fe(CN)₆)). The results indicated that the three methods that we studied met the established acceptance criteria regarding accuracy and precision. However, the third method was considered the most adequate for application on an industrial scale due to its wider work range, which provides a significant advantage over the others.

  5. A Critical Comparison of Methods for the Analysis of Indigo in Dyeing Liquors and Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Buscio, Valentina; Crespi, Martí; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Indigo is one of the most important dyes in the textile industry. The control of the indigo concentration in dyeing liquors and effluents is an important tool to ensure the reproducibility of the dyed fabrics and also to establish the efficiency of the wastewater treatment. In this work, three analytical methods were studied and validated with the aim to select a reliable, fast and automated method for the indigo dye determination. The first method is based on the extraction of the dye, with chloroform, in its oxidized form. The organic solution is measured by Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometry at 604 nm. The second method determines the concentration of indigo in its leuco form in aqueous medium by UV-visible spectrophotometry at 407 nm. Finally, in the last method, the concentration of indigo is determined by redox titration with potassium hexacyanoferrate (K3(Fe(CN)6)). The results indicated that the three methods that we studied met the established acceptance criteria regarding accuracy and precision. However, the third method was considered the most adequate for application on an industrial scale due to its wider work range, which provides a significant advantage over the others. PMID:28788185

  6. Novel methods for the estimation of acceptable daily intake

    SciTech Connect

    Dourson, M.L.; Hertzberg, R.C.; Hartung, R.; Blackburn, K.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes two general methods for estimating ADIs that circumvent some of the limitations inherent in current approaches. The first method is based on a graphic presentation of toxicity data and is also shown to be useful for estimating acceptable intakes for durations of toxicant exposure other than the entire lifetime. The second method uses dose-response or dose-effect data to calculate lower CLs on the dose rate associated with specified response or effect levels. These approaches should lead to firmer, better established ADIs through increased use of the entire spectrum of toxicity data.

  7. Comparison of impedance cardiography and dye dilution method for measuring cardiac output

    PubMed Central

    Spiering, W; van Es, P N; de Leeuw, P W

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess the degree of agreement between impedance cardiography, using the NCCOM3-R7 device, and the gold standard—the dye dilution method—both under basal conditions and after stimulation of cardiac output.
Patients—35 paired measurements in five healthy male volunteers.
Interventions—To obtain higher levels of cardiac output, cardiac performance was stimulated with a dopamine infusion.
Results—In 35 paired measurements, the mean of all the impedance values was higher than that of the dye dilution values, at 10.2 v 7.4 l/min (p < 0.0001). The mean discrepancy between the two methods was 3.3 l/min, and the mean bias −2.9 l/min, with limits of agreement of −9.0 and 3.2 l/min. A change in cardiac output could not adequately be predicted by the NCCOM3-R7. In 20 of 25 measurements obtained during continuous intravenous dopamine infusions there was a rise in dye dilution cardiac output (range 0.2 to 5.9 l/min). Neither the magnitude nor the direction of the change in dye dilution values corresponded with the change measured by impedance cardiography. The mean discrepancy here between the two methods was 1.8 l/min, and the mean bias −0.8 l/min, with limits of agreement of −4.9 and 3.3 l/min.
Conclusions—In healthy volunteers, impedance cardiography with NCCOM3-R7 is inadequate for assessing cardiac output when compared with the dye dilution method.

 Keywords: cardiac output;  impedance cardiography;  dye dilution PMID:9659188

  8. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of acid green 25 dye by Z–scan method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaram, S.; Geethakrishnan, T.

    2017-03-01

    Third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of aqueous solutions of an anthraquinone dye (Acid green 25 dye, color index: 61570) have been studied by Z–scan method with a 5 mW continuous wave (CW) diode laser operating at 635 nm. The nonlinear refractive index (n2) and the absorption coefficient (β) have been evaluated respectively from the closed and open aperture Z–scan data and the values of these parameters are found to increase with increase in concentration of the dye solution. The negative sign of the observed nonlinear refractive index (n2) indicates that the aqueous solution of acid green 25 dye exhibits self-defocusing type optical nonlinearity. The mechanism of the observed nonlinear absorption (NLA) and nonlinear refraction (NLR) is attributed respectively to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and thermal nonlinear effects. The magnitudes of n2 and β are found to be of the order of 10-7 cm2/W and 10-3 cm/W respectively. With these experimental results, the authors suggest that acid green 25 dye may have potential applications in nonlinear optics.

  9. Evaluation of azo food dyes for mutagenicity and inhibition of mutagenicity by methods using Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Prival, M J; Davis, V M; Peiperl, M D; Bell, S J

    1988-10-01

    The mutagenicity of 4 azo dyes (FD&C Yellow No. 5, FD&C Yellow No. 6, FD&C Red No. 40 and amaranth) that are widely used to color food has been evaluated. 4 different methods were used: (1) the standard Ames plate-incorporation assay performed directly on the dyes in the absence of S9 and in the presence of rat- or hamster-liver S9; (2) application of the standard plate assay to ether extracts of aqueous solutions of the dyes; (3) a variant of the standard assay, using hamster liver S9, preincubation, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and other modifications designed to facilitate azo reduction; and (4) reduction of the dyes with sodium dithionite, followed by ether extraction and the standard plate assay. Assays that include chemical reduction (methods 3 and 4) were included because azo compounds ingested orally are reduced in the intestine with the release of free aromatic amines. No mutagenic activity was seen for any of the azo dyes tested by using the standard Ames plate assay (method 1). Ether extracts of some samples of FD&C Yellow No. 6, FD&C Red No. 40 and amaranth were active (method 2), but only at high doses, generally 250 mg-equivalents or more per plate. These results indicate the presence of low levels of ether-extractable mutagenic impurities. The FMN preincubation assay (method 3) gave negative results for all dye samples tested. Most batches of FD&C Red No. 40 tested had mutagenic activity that was detectable when the ether extract of less than 1 mg of dithionite-reduced dye was plated in the presence of S9 (method 4). This finding implies that an impurity in these samples of FD&C Red No. 40 can be reduced to yield an ether-extractable mutagen. Dithionite-reduced samples of FD&C Yellow No. 6 and amaranth showed ether-extractable mutagenic activity only at much higher doses than those at which activity was seen with most dithionite-reduced samples of FD&C Red No. 40 (method 4). FD&C Yellow No. 5 showed no mutagenic activity with this method. Mutagenic

  10. Map correlation method: Selection of a reference streamgage to estimate daily streamflow at ungaged catchments.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Daily streamflow time series are critical to a very broad range of hydrologic problems. Whereas daily streamflow time series are readily obtained from gaged catchments, streamflow information is commonly needed at catchments for which no measured streamflow information exists. At ungaged catchments, methods to estimate daily streamflow time series typically require the use of a reference streamgage, which transfers properties of the streamflow time series at a reference streamgage to the ungaged catchment. Therefore, the selection of a reference streamgage is one of the central challenges associated with estimation of daily streamflow at ungaged basins. The reference streamgage is typically selected by choosing the nearest streamgage; however, this paper shows that selection of the nearest streamgage does not provide a consistent selection criterion. We introduce a new method, termed the map-correlation method, which selects the reference streamgage whose daily streamflows are most correlated with an ungaged catchment. When applied to the estimation of daily streamflow at 28 streamgages across southern New England, daily streamflows estimated by a reference streamgage selected using the map-correlation method generally provides improved estimates of daily streamflow time series over streamflows estimated by the selection and use of the nearest streamgage. The map correlation method could have potential for many other applications including identifying redundancy and uniqueness in a streamgage network, calibration of rainfall runoff models at ungaged sites, as well as for use in catchment classification.

  11. Using the reactive dye method to covalently attach antibacterial compounds to cotton.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antibacterial compounds used were sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. A version of the reactive dye method was used to react these two compounds chemically with the cotton fiber molecule. The two compounds were activated and then covalently bonded to cotton fabric, either separately or together...

  12. Two rapid methods of counterstaining fluorescent dye tracer containing sections without reducing the fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Sripanidkulchai, K; Wyss, J M

    1986-11-05

    A method is described for counterstaining neural tissue containing cells that are retrogradely labeled by fluorescent dyes or horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Specifically, protocols are detailed for the combined use of the tracers with Methylene blue for a Nissl stain or with silver methods for the detection of acetylcholine esterase. The usefulness of these techniques is evaluated in relation to cortico-cortico and thalamocortico projections. The findings indicate that the methods do not mask the labeling of the most sensitive fluorescent dyes or by HRP. Only the yellow dyes are significantly affected by the Methylene blue counterstain. Further, Fast blue labeling in neurons is not significantly diminished by the Bodian fiber stain. The effect of coverslipping sections containing fluorescent dye labeled cells also was evaluated and found to significantly extend the life of the labeling while not reducing the sensitivity. Thus the two counterstaining techniques provide excellent structural information, do not seriously affect tracer labeling and have few of the disadvantages common to other counterstaining methods.

  13. Approximate Bayesian computation methods for daily spatiotemporal precipitation occurrence simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Branden; Kleiber, William

    2017-04-01

    Stochastic precipitation generators (SPGs) produce synthetic precipitation data and are frequently used to generate inputs for physical models throughout many scientific disciplines. Especially for large data sets, statistical parameter estimation is difficult due to the high dimensionality of the likelihood function. We propose techniques to estimate SPG parameters for spatiotemporal precipitation occurrence based on an emerging set of methods called Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), which bypass the evaluation of a likelihood function. Our statistical model employs a thresholded Gaussian process that reduces to a probit regression at single sites. We identify appropriate ABC penalization metrics for our model parameters to produce simulations whose statistical characteristics closely resemble those of the observations. Spell length metrics are appropriate for single sites, while a variogram-based metric is proposed for spatial simulations. We present numerical case studies at sites in Colorado and Iowa where the estimated statistical model adequately reproduces local and domain statistics.

  14. Determination of torasemide by fluorescence quenching method with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhiping; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Li, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaoli; Tian, Jing

    2013-10-01

    A novel fluorescence quenching method for the determination of torasemide (TOR) with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as fluorescence probes was developed. In acidulous medium, TOR could interact with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes such as dichlorofluorescein (DCF), dibromofluorescein (DBF) and diiodofluorescein (DIF) to form binary complexes, which could lead to fluorescence quenching of above dihalogenated fluorescein dyes. The maximum fluorescence emission wavelengths were located at 532 nm (TOR-DCF), 535 nm (TOR-DBF) and 554 nm (TOR-DIF). The relative fluorescence intensities (ΔF = F0 - F) were proportional to the concentration of TOR in certain ranges. The detection limits were 4.8 ng mL-1 for TOR-DCF system, 9.8 ng mL-1 for TOR-DBF system and 35.1 ng mL-1 for TOR-DIF system. The optimum reaction conditions, influencing factors were studied; and the effect of coexisting substances was investigated owing to the highest sensitivity of TOR-DCF system. In addition, the reaction mechanism, composition and structure of the complex were discussed by quantum chemical calculation and Job's method. The fluorescence quenching of dihalogenated fluorescein dyes by TOR was a static quenching process judging from the effect of temperature and the Stern-Volmer plots. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TOR in tablets and human urine samples.

  15. A simple method for Alexa Fluor dye labelling of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Summer Li-Xin; Tan, Hwee-Cheng; Hanson, Brendon J; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2010-08-01

    Dengue virus causes frequent and cyclical epidemics throughout the tropics, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality rates. There is neither a specific antiviral treatment nor a vaccine to prevent epidemic transmission. The lack of a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease complicates these efforts. The development of methods to probe the interaction between the virus and host cells would thus be useful. Direct fluorescence labelling of virus would facilitate the visualization of the early events in virus-cell interaction. This report describes a simple method of labelling of dengue virus with Alexa Fluor succinimidyl ester dye dissolved directly in the sodium bicarbonate buffer that yielded highly viable virus after labelling. Alexa Fluor dyes have superior photostability and are less pH-sensitive than the common dyes, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, making them ideal for studies on cellular uptake and endosomal transport of the virus. The conjugation of Alexa Fluor dye did not affect the recognition of labelled dengue virus by virus-specific antibody and its putative receptors in host cells. This method could have useful applications in virological studies.

  16. Determination of torasemide by fluorescence quenching method with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as probes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhiping; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Li, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaoli; Tian, Jing

    2013-10-01

    A novel fluorescence quenching method for the determination of torasemide (TOR) with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as fluorescence probes was developed. In acidulous medium, TOR could interact with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes such as dichlorofluorescein (DCF), dibromofluorescein (DBF) and diiodofluorescein (DIF) to form binary complexes, which could lead to fluorescence quenching of above dihalogenated fluorescein dyes. The maximum fluorescence emission wavelengths were located at 532 nm (TOR-DCF), 535 nm (TOR-DBF) and 554 nm (TOR-DIF). The relative fluorescence intensities (ΔF=F0-F) were proportional to the concentration of TOR in certain ranges. The detection limits were 4.8 ng mL(-1) for TOR-DCF system, 9.8 ng mL(-1) for TOR-DBF system and 35.1 ng mL(-1) for TOR-DIF system. The optimum reaction conditions, influencing factors were studied; and the effect of coexisting substances was investigated owing to the highest sensitivity of TOR-DCF system. In addition, the reaction mechanism, composition and structure of the complex were discussed by quantum chemical calculation and Job's method. The fluorescence quenching of dihalogenated fluorescein dyes by TOR was a static quenching process judging from the effect of temperature and the Stern-Volmer plots. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TOR in tablets and human urine samples.

  17. A simple method to prepare magnetic modified beer yeast and its application for cationic dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to use a simple method to prepare magnetic modified biomass with good adsorption performances for cationic ions. The magnetic modified biomass was prepared by two steps: (1) preparation of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified biomass in N, N-dimethylacetamide solution and (2) preparation of magnetic PMDA modified biomass by a situ co-precipitation method under the assistance of ultrasound irradiation in ammonia water. The adsorption potential of the as-prepared magnetic modified biomass was analyzed by using cationic dyes: methylene blue and basic magenta as model dyes. Optical micrograph and x-ray diffraction analyses showed that Fe(3)O(4) particles were precipitated on the modified biomass surface. The as-prepared biosorbent could be recycled easily by using an applied magnetic field. Titration analysis showed that the total concentration of the functional groups on the magnetic PMDA modified biomass was calculated to be 0.75 mmol g(-1) by using the first derivative method. The adsorption capacities (q(m)) of the magnetic PMDA modified biomass for methylene blue and basic magenta were 609.0 and 520.9 mg g(-1), respectively, according to the Langmuir equation. Kinetics experiment showed that adsorption could be completed within 150 min for both dyes. The desorption experiment showed that the magnetic sorbent could be used repeatedly after regeneration. The as-prepared magnetic modified sorbent had a potential in the dyeing industry wastewater treatment.

  18. Development of a Direct Spectrophotometric and Chemometric Method for Determining Food Dye Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Arroz, Erin; Jordan, Michael; Dumancas, Gerard G

    2017-01-01

    An ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometric and partial least squares (PLS) chemometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of erythrosine B (red), Brilliant Blue, and tartrazine (yellow) dyes. A training set (n = 64) was generated using a full factorial design and its accuracy was tested in a test set (n = 13) using a Box-Behnken design. The test set garnered a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.79 × 10(-7) for blue, 4.59 × 10(-7) for red, and 1.13 × 10(-6) for yellow dyes. The relatively small RMSE suggests only a small difference between predicted versus measured concentrations, demonstrating the accuracy of our model. The relative error of prediction (REP) for the test set were 11.73%, 19.52%, 19.38%, for blue, red, and yellow dyes, respectively. A comparable overlay between the actual candy samples and their replicated synthetic spectra were also obtained indicating the model as a potentially accurate method for determining concentrations of dyes in food samples.

  19. Synthesis of oxidized guar gum by dry method and its application in reactive dye printing.

    PubMed

    Gong, Honghong; Liu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Bing; Cui, Dapeng; Gao, Chunmei; Ni, Boli; Chen, Jiucun

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare oxidized guar gum with a simple dry method, basing on guar gum, hydrogen peroxide and a small amount of solvent. To obtain a product with suitable viscosity for reactive dye printing, the effects of various factors such as the amount of oxidant and solvent, reaction temperature and time were studied with respect to the viscosity of reaction products. The product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The hydrated rate of guar gum and oxidized guar gum was estimated through measuring the required time when their solutions (1%, w/v) reached the maximum viscosity. The effects of the salt concentration and pH on viscosity of the resultant product were studied. The mixed paste containing oxidized guar gum and carboxymethyl starch was prepared and its viscosity was determined by the viscometer. The rheological property of the mixed paste was appraised by the printing viscosity index. In addition, the applied effect of mixed paste in reactive dye printing was examined by assessing the fabric stiffness, color yield and sharp edge to the printed image in comparison with sodium alginate. And the results indicated that the mixed paste could partially replace sodium alginate as thickener in reactive dye printing. The study also showed that the method was low cost and eco-friendly and the product would have an extensive application in reactive dye printing.

  20. A new method for in vivo visualization of vessel remodeling using a near-infrared dye

    PubMed Central

    Billaud, Marie; Ross, Jeremy A; Greyson, Mark A; Bruce, Anthony C; Seaman, Scott A; Heberlein, Katherine R; Han, Jenny; Best, Angela K; Peirce, Shayn M; Isakson, Brant E

    2011-01-01

    Intro Vascular obstructive events can be partially compensated for by remodeling processes that increase vessel diameter and collateral tortuosity. However, methods for visualizing remodeling events in vivo and with temporal comparisons from the same animal remain elusive. Methods Using a novel infrared conjugated polyethylene glycol dye, we investigated the possibility of intravital vascular imaging of the mouse ear before and after ligation of the primary feeder artery. For comparison, we used two different mouse models known to have impaired vascular remodeling post ligation (i.e. aged and PAI-1−/− mice). The results obtained with the infrared dye were confirmed using immunofluorescence labeling of the ear microvasculature with confocal microscopy. Results After ligation, increases in vessel diameter (between 10% and 60%) and tortuosity (approximately 15%) were observed in C57Bl/6 mice using both the infrared dye and the immunofluorescence technique. However, aged C57Bl/6 and PAI-1−/− mice did not show vascular remodeling following ligation. Conclusion Vascular remodeling can be visualized and accurately quantified using a new infrared dye in vivo. This analysis technique could be generally employed for quantitative investigations of changes in vascular remodeling. PMID:21418375

  1. COD and color removal of reactive orange 16 dye solution by electrochemical oxidation and adsorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Zuhailie; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2015-09-01

    Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) dye was investigated using electrochemical oxidation and adsorption (batch method) using mixture of coconut trunk charcoal-graphite-tin-polyvinyl chloride(PVC). In batch studies for adsorbents pellet and powder form of the charcoal mixture were used. RO16 was chosen as the model dye because of its high resistance towards conventional treatment methods. NaCl and RO16 concentration, treatment duration, weight of electrode and adsorbent and volume of solution were kept constant for both methods. The effectiveness of the treatments were compared and evaluated by percentage of RO16 decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and results indicated that electrochemical oxidation method ables to decolorized RO16 dye up to 98.5% after 20 minutes electrolysis time while pellet and powder in batch method only removed 17.1 and 33.6% of RO16 color respectively. However, only 45.6% of COD can be removed using electrochemical oxidation method while pellet and powder in batch method removed 47.8 and 49.6% of COD respectively. The decolorization and COD removal of RO16 was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer (by the changes of absorption spectrum intensity of azo chromophore (-N=N-) at λ=388 and 492.50 nm and Hach spectrophotometer respectively. FTIR was used to determine functional groups present in the coconut trunk charcoal.

  2. Acidity Constant (pKa ) Calculation of Large Solvated Dye Molecules: Evaluation of Two Advanced Molecular Dynamics Methods.

    PubMed

    De Meyer, Thierry; Ensing, Bernd; Rogge, Sven M J; De Clerck, Karen; Meijer, Evert Jan; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2016-11-04

    pH-Sensitive dyes are increasingly applied on polymer substrates for the creation of novel sensor materials. Recently, these dye molecules were modified to form a covalent bond with the polymer host. This had a large influence on the pH-sensitive properties, in particular on the acidity constant (pKa ). Obtaining molecular control over the factors that influence the pKa value is mandatory for the future intelligent design of sensor materials. Herein, we show that advanced molecular dynamics (MD) methods have reached the level at which the pKa values of large solvated dye molecules can be predicted with high accuracy. Two MD methods were used in this work: steered or restrained MD and the insertion/deletion scheme. Both were first calibrated on a set of phenol derivatives and afterwards applied to the dye molecule bromothymol blue. Excellent agreement with experimental values was obtained, which opens perspectives for using these methods for designing dye molecules.

  3. Improved dye-sensitized solar cell with a ZnO nanotree photoanode by hydrothermal method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of ZnO nanostructures on dye adsorption to increase the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. ZnO nanostructures were grown in both tree-like and nanorod (NR) arrays on an AZO/FTO film structure by using a hydrothermal method. The results were observed in detail using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and solar simulation. The selective growth of tree-like ZnO was found to exhibit higher dye adsorption loading and conversion efficiency than ZnO NRs. The multiple ‘branches’ of ‘tree-like nanostructures’ increases the surface area for higher light harvesting and dye loading while reducing charge recombination. These improvements result in a 15% enhancement in power conversion. The objective of this study is to facilitate the development of a ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cell. PMID:24872799

  4. Performance comparison of three predictor selection methods for statistical downscaling of daily precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunli; Wang, Ninglian; Wang, Shijin; Zhou, Liang

    2016-10-01

    Predictor selection is a critical factor affecting the statistical downscaling of daily precipitation. This study provides a general comparison between uncertainties in downscaled results from three commonly used predictor selection methods (correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis, and stepwise regression analysis). Uncertainty is analyzed by comparing statistical indices, including the mean, variance, and the distribution of monthly mean daily precipitation, wet spell length, and the number of wet days. The downscaled results are produced by the artificial neural network (ANN) statistical downscaling model and 50 years (1961-2010) of observed daily precipitation together with reanalysis predictors. Although results show little difference between downscaling methods, stepwise regression analysis is generally the best method for selecting predictors for the ANN statistical downscaling model of daily precipitation, followed by partial correlation analysis and then correlation analysis.

  5. Investigation of the spontaneous emission rate of perylene dye molecules encapsulated into three-dimensional nanofibers via FLIM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acikgoz, Sabriye; Demir, Mustafa M.; Yapasan, Ece; Kiraz, Alper; Unal, Ahmet A.; Inci, M. Naci

    2014-09-01

    The decay dynamics of perylene dye molecules encapsulated in polymer nanofibers produced by electrospinning of polymethyl methacrylate are investigated using a confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy technique. Time-resolved experiments show that the fluorescence lifetime of perylene dye molecules is enhanced when the dye molecules are encapsulated in a three-dimensional photonic environment. It is hard to produce a sustainable host with exactly the same dimensions all the time during fabrication to accommodate dye molecules for enhancement of spontaneous emission rate. The electrospinning method allows us to have a control over fiber diameter. It is observed that the wavelength of monomer excitation of perylene dye molecules is too short to cause enhancement within nanofiber photonic environment of 330 nm diameters. However, when these nanofibers are doped with more concentrated perylene, in addition to monomer excitation, an excimer excitation is generated. This causes observation of the Purcell effect in the three-dimensional nanocylindrical photonic fiber geometry.

  6. A novel method to convert daytime evapotranspiration into daily evapotranspiration based on variable canopy resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoshui; Hafeez, Mohsin; Liu, Yu; Xu, Di; Vote, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    SummaryA method to convert daytime evapotranspiration (ET) into daily ET based on variable canopy resistance was investigated in this paper. The study was carried out for maize and canola crops grown in Coleambally Irrigation Area which is located in Murray Darling Basin of Australia. Variable canopy resistance was simulated on the basis of Todorovic method. This study has shown that the method performed well to scale daily ET from daytime ET measurements for both crops. In the case of the maize crop, the coefficient of determination ( R2) was 0.979 and the index of agreement ( d) was 0.981. In the case of the canola crop, the coefficient of determination ( R2) was 0.936 and the index of agreement ( d) was 0.960. Future work will focus on the study of this method to scale daily ET map from satellite-derived daytime ET map.

  7. Comparison of correction methods for inhomogeneities in daily time series on example of Central European datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.,

    2010-09-01

    Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for daily data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of daily adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of daily values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods emerged only in recent years. Their results were investigated in this work more deeply and they were mutually compared. Among the analyzed methods belong HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM method of Olivier Mestre and own methods (DAP). We applied multi-element approach (using e.g. weather types) as well and investigated if it can improve the models. Comparison of the available correction methods is also current task of the ongoing COST action ESO601 (www. homogenisation.org). Performance of the available correction methods (on daily scale) is shown on example of Central European series of various meteorological elements (air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, sunshine duration). Comparisons among the methods as well as its various modifications (parameters settings) were investigated. For the task, ProClimDB software has been used (read more at www.climahom.eu).

  8. Metal substrate based electrodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells: fabrication methods, progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Balasingam, Suresh Kannan; Kang, Man Gu; Jun, Yongseok

    2013-12-21

    A step towards commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) requires more attention to engineering aspects, such as flexibility, the roll to roll fabrication process, the use of cost effective materials, etc. In this aspect, advantages of flexible DSSCs attracted many researchers to contemplate the transparent conducting oxide coated flexible plastic substrates and the thin metallic foils. In this feature article, the pros and cons of these two kinds of substrates are compared. The flexible dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using metal substrates are briefly discussed. The working electrodes of DSSCs fabricated on various metal substrates, their fabrication methods, the effect of high temperature calcination and drawbacks of back illumination are reviewed in detail. A few reports on the flexible metal substrate based counter electrodes that could be combined with the plastic substrate based working electrodes are also covered at the end.

  9. Light amplification and lasing from dyes doped in DNA-complex thin films prepared by soaking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yutaka; Suzuki, Takemasa; Iisaka, You

    2014-08-01

    An alternative fabrication method for dye-doped DNA-surfactant complex films was developed and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and lasing under low energy optical pumping were demonstrated. In this new preparation technique, thin DNA-cethyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) complex films made by a spin coating method were stained with a hemicyanine dye by soaking them in acetone solution of the dye for one day. Molar ratio of the dye to DNA base pair for the final products was estimated to be 0.2, the value was much higher than those achieved via usual mixing method. ASE threshold value under pumping of a pulsed frequency-doubled YAG laser was about 0.3 mJ/cm2. Laser emission was also attained under the excitation with two interfering beams forming a dynamic grating of gain coefficient. Durability test indicated that 70% of their initial performance was maintained after 1 hour of continuous pumping. The technique was applied to water soluble dyes because the DNA complex was insoluble to water as well as acetone. We employed anionic Eosin Y dye, succeeding in sample formation and ASE emission. Different types of surfactants were also complexed with DNA, showing variation of emission peak wavelength. These results give a clue about the structure of the complex or interaction modes between DNA and surfactants, strongly suggesting that dye molecules are not intercalated into nor bound to DNA double strand directly, but are incorporated in the complex system via ion-exchange process or aggregating with cationic surfactants.

  10. Optimal conditions for visualizing water-conducting pathways in a living tree by the dye injection method.

    PubMed

    Umebayashi, Toshihiro; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Koga, Shinya; Inoue, Susumu; Shiiba, Yasuki; Arakawa, Keita; Matsumura, Junji; Oda, Kazuyuki

    2007-07-01

    To elucidate the water-conducting pathways in living trees by the dye injection method, suitable sample preparation procedures are needed. We evaluated quantitatively the properties and concentrations of three dyes (acid fuchsin, basic fuchsin and safranin) widely used for this purpose, and determined the optimal conditions required to avoid artifacts after dye injection into the sap stream of Pieris japonica D. Don. Among the dyes tested, an aqueous solution of acid fuchsin at a concentration of 0.1% or more was the most useful for delineating water movement. In non-transpiring stem segments, the vertical movement of acid fuchsin by capillarity and diffusion from the dye injection site was limited. However, acid fuchsin moved rapidly in the horizontal direction by capillarity and diffusion, and most xylem cells were stained within 2 h. A delay of more than 2 h between dye injection and examination of the tissues greatly reduces the precision of the method. Use of the dye injection method without appropriate, well-defined experimental procedures may give rise to misleading information about the functional water-conducting pathway in living trees.

  11. Correcting inhomogeneities in daily time series - comparison of methods for various meteorological elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Farda, A.

    2012-04-01

    The homogenization of climate data is of major importance because non-climatic factors make data unrepresentative of the actual climate variation and the conclusions of climatic studies are potentially biased. Instrumental series of various meteorological elements are often affected by inhomogeneities. Several methods are available for their correction, either on monthly or, in the last decade, also on daily data. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for daily data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for the adjustment of inhomogeneity were adopted and compared: (i) the "delta" method - the adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into an annual variation of daily adjustments (e.g. Vincent et al. 2002) and (ii) the "variable" correction of daily values according to the corresponding percentiles, e.g. HOM (Della-Marta and Wanner, 2006), SPLIDHOM (Mestre et al., 2011), DAP (Stepanek 2009) and Quantile Matching (Wang 2009 and 2010). The "variable" correction methods have only emerged in the recent years. They were applied in this work to the COST ESO601 daily validation dataset (air temperature) and also to the various meteorological elements based on the data from the Czech Republic. Their results were mutually compared and investigated. The results were processed via the software ProClimDB (Štěpánek, 2010, www.climahom.eu) and R (www.r-project.org).

  12. 3D-QSPR method of computational technique applied on red reactive dyes by using CoMFA strategy.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Uzma; Rashid, Sitara; Ali, S Ishrat; Parveen, Rasheeda; Zaheer-Ul-Haq; Ambreen, Nida; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are "reactive dyes" because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR) technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps) help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the characteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber.

  13. A novel method for photodegradation of high-chroma dye wastewater via electrochemical pre-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kunjiao; Zhao, Guohua; Li, Peiqiang; Gao, Junxia; Lv, Baoying; Li, Dongming

    2010-06-01

    A new two-step process involving the electrocatalytic (EC) pre-oxidation and the following photoelectrocatalytic synergistic (PEC) oxidation is proposed to treat the high concentration and high-chroma methyl orange dye wastewater, which cannot be degraded by photocatalytic oxidation (PC) directly. The SnO(2)/TiO(2)-NTs/Ti electrode simultaneously possessing the outstanding PC oxidation properties of TiO(2)-NTs and the excellent EC oxidation abilities of the Sb doped SnO(2) was synthesized by impregnating Sb doped SnO(2) nanoparticles into TiO(2)-NTs. In the pre-oxidation process as the first stage, the high-color dye wastewater is decolorized with electrochemical method to some extent. Then, the wastewater becomes a light transmission system. It provides a suitable condition for PC oxidation reaction in the second stage. The synergistic effects of PC and EC oxidation led to the high PEC efficiency and the complete mineralization of dye wastewater is achieved. This two-step process is fast and efficient, which is worthy to study and explore in the practical environmental treatment.

  14. Spectrophotometric and thermodynamic study on the dimerization equilibrium of ionic dyes in water by chemometrics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, Ali; Yazdanipour, Ateesa; Ghasemi, Jahanbakhsh; Kubista, Mikael

    2006-09-01

    The monomer-dimer equilibrium and thermodynamic of several ionic dyes (Neutral Red, Nile Blue A, Safranine T and Thionine) has been investigated by means of spectrophotometric and chemometrics methods. The dimerization constants of these ionic dyes have been determined by studying the dependence of their absorption spectra on the temperature in the range 20-75 °C at concentrations of Neutral Red (1.73 × 10 -5 M), Nile Blue A (3.94 × 10 -5 M), Safranine (6.59 × 10 -5 M) and Thionine (6.60 × 10 -5 M). The monomer-dimer equilibrium of these dyes has been determined by chemometrics refinement of the absorption spectra obtained by thermometric titrations performed. The processing of the data carried out for quantitative analysis of undefined mixtures, based on simultaneous resolution of the overlapping bands in the whole set of absorption spectra. The enthalpy and entropy of the dimerization reactions were determined from the dependence of the equilibrium constants to the temperature (van't Hoff equation).

  15. TiO2 Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells Fabricated by Hydrothermal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yang; Gu, Haoshuang; Xia, Huating; Hu, Mingzhe

    2011-02-01

    TiO2 nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by using hydrothermal method. The synthesizing of TiO2 nanowire/nanorod arrays directly on FTO substrate would cause a high conducting loss to solar cells. Through la minating a compact layer between FTO substrate and photonic anode layer, the conducting loss could be effectively prevented. Results indicated that using different concentration of titanium tetrabutoxide would affect the photoelectric conversion efficiency and different producing methods of the compact layer also played an important role to the conversion efficiency.

  16. A visible dye-based staining method for DNA in polyacrylamide gels by ethyl violet.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei-Tao; Zhu, Zhong-Xin; He, Hong-Zhang; Jin, Yan; Jiang, Cheng-Xi; Choi, Jung-Kap; Jin, Li-Tai; Li, Xiao-Kun

    2010-07-01

    We describe a visible dye-based staining method for DNA in polyacrylamide gels using ethyl violet (EV). The novel method is a background-free, sensitive, economical, and simple procedure involving only staining and washing steps that can be completed within 30 min. As little as 0.8-1.6 ng of phiX174 DNA/HaeIII can be detected by EV, which is about eightfold more sensitive than Nile blue (NB) stain and twofold less sensitive than ethidium bromide (EB) stain. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating daily net radiation in the FAO Penman-Monteith method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Facundo; Rivas, Raúl; Kruse, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we evaluate the procedures of the Manual No. 56 of the FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) for predicting daily net radiation using measures collected in Tandil (Argentina) between March 2007 and June 2010. In addition, a new methodology is proposed for estimating daily net radiation over the reference crop considered in the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The calculated and observed values of daily net radiation are compared. Estimation errors are reduced from ±22 to ±12 W m-2 considering the new model. From spring-summer data, estimation errors of less than ±10 % were observed for the new physical model, which represents an error of just ±0.4 mm d-1 for computing reference evapotranspiration. The new model presented here is not restricted to a climate regime and is mainly appropriate for application in the FAO Penman-Monteith method to determine the reference crop evapotranspiration.

  18. Estimating daily net radiation in the FAO Penman-Monteith method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Facundo; Rivas, Raúl; Kruse, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we evaluate the procedures of the Manual No. 56 of the FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) for predicting daily net radiation using measures collected in Tandil (Argentina) between March 2007 and June 2010. In addition, a new methodology is proposed for estimating daily net radiation over the reference crop considered in the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The calculated and observed values of daily net radiation are compared. Estimation errors are reduced from ±22 to ±12 W m-2 considering the new model. From spring-summer data, estimation errors of less than ±10 % were observed for the new physical model, which represents an error of just ±0.4 mm d-1 for computing reference evapotranspiration. The new model presented here is not restricted to a climate regime and is mainly appropriate for application in the FAO Penman-Monteith method to determine the reference crop evapotranspiration.

  19. Evaluation of different methods to estimate daily reference evapotranspiration in ungauged basins in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included daily and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum temperature (Tmax, °C), minimum temperature (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s-1), daily solar radiation (Rs, MJ m- 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at daily time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate daily reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-Temperature, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than

  20. Treatment of Basic Red 29 dye solution using iron-aluminum electrode pairs by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Yusuf; Shahbazi, Reza; Koparal, A Savaş; Öğütveren, Ulker Bakır

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the treatment of Basic Red 29 (BR29) dye solution using hybrid iron-aluminum electrodes by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods. The effect of current density, initial pH, supporting electrolyte, H₂O₂, and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency was investigated, and the best experimental conditions were obtained. Time-coarse variation of UV-Vis spectra and toxicity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were also examined at the best experimental conditions. Both systems were found very successful for the removal of BR29 dye. The removal efficiency of >95% for BR29 dye solution was reached easily in a short time. At the best experimental conditions, for the initial BR29 concentration of 100 mg/L, >95% BR29 dye and 71.43% COD removal were obtained after 20 and 40 min of electrolysis, respectively. Additionally, toxicity results for electro-Fenton treatment of 100 mg/L BR29 were also very promising. According to the results obtained, although electro-Fenton is more effective, both systems can be used successfully to treat textile wastewater including dyes.

  1. Quantification methods for human and large animal leukocytes using DNA dyes by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Ina Laura; Radley, Gemma; Chan, Chris H H; Friedmann, Yasmin; Foster, Graham; Thornton, Catherine A

    2016-06-01

    Ovine and bovine blood is used heavily within the development of blood-handling medical devices, such as heart pumps (left ventricular assist devices, LVADs), for which blood cell damage needs to be monitored during in vitro testing. Hematology analyzers provide cell counts but no information about cell viability. The anthraquinone DNA dyes CyTRAK Orange™ and DRAQ7™ have practical and spectral properties rendering them suitable for multicolor assays. Compared to other DNA dyes such as Vybrant Dyecycle, CyTRAK Orange enables a faster staining protocol and does not require incubation at +37°C. Compared to traditional viability dyes such as propidium iodide and 7AAD, DRAQ7's unique spectral profile of excitation in both blue and red lasers and far-red emission enables identification of dual positive dead cell events and frees up detectors for use with other reagents. CyTRAK Orange and DRAQ7 could be used in combination with absolute counting bead standards to provide cell counts and viability but the combination of these dyes has previously only been used for microscopy on rodent cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of these dyes in combination in large animal blood samples for flow cytometry. A viability and cell counting protocol for bovine, ovine, and human leukocytes using CyTRAK Orange and DRAQ7 was prepared. Four different counting bead standards were evaluated using the Navios and FACSAria cytometers and compared to counts obtained from hematology analyzers. CyTRAK Orange successfully detected CD45(+) leukocytes in all species. The DRAQ7 single-stained dead cell counts correlated well with the CyTRAK Orange/DRAQ7 double-stained dead cell counts in human and bovine blood, but not in ovine blood, which could be related to the blood source. In conclusion, for human and bovine blood, this method works well for viability counts using different flow cytometers and bead standards. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Snowmelt Infiltration Into Alpine Soils Visualised In Situ With A Dye Tracer Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähli, M.; Bayard, D.; Wydler, H.; Flühler, H.

    The mechanisms governing snowmelt infiltration into frozen or unfrozen alpine soils are complex due to the fact that many factors influence the flow paths from the snow pack into the soil, such as soil type, slope inclination and aspect, ground vegetation and the occurrence and persistence of ice on the soil surface or in the frozen soil. Dye tracer experiments are a feasible method to provide a better insight into the real distribution of such water flow paths, which can be very preferential. The main objec- tive of this study was to test the potential of dye tracer methods for visualising in situ snowmelt infiltration at alpine sites and to gain quantitative information on snowmelt infiltration into frozen and unfrozen soils. Field experiments were carried out during winter 2000/01 in southern Switzerland at Hannigalp (2100 m a.s.l.), where a 60 to 80 cm deep Ferric Podzole facing north-west is covered by sparse Ericaceae, and at Gd-St-Bernard pass (2500 m a.s.l.), where a shallow stony Ranker facing south is cov- ered with grass. At the beginning of December a dye tracer (Brilliant Blue FCF) was applied on the soil surface covering an area 5 m downhill x 1.5 m horizontally. At dif- ferent stages during the snowmelt (March to June) we excavated vertical soil profiles on these plots (from below upwards) and took photographs of the stained soil profiles using a digital camera. From these digital images the areas of the soil profiles stained with the dye tracer were determined using a supervised classification method, and the depth distribution of areal coverage of dye tracer was calculated. The water flow pat- tern showed to be extremely heterogeneous in the Hannigalp soil, and more uniform in the Gd-St-Bernard soil. Already in an early stage of the snowmelt we observed infil- tration down to 40 to 60 cm, indicating a relatively high soil matrix infiltration rate at Gd-St-Bernard and efficient preferential flow channels (e.g. along roots) at Hannigalp. Soil frost

  3. A method for assaying perchlorate concentration in microbial cultures using the fluorescent dye resazurin.

    PubMed

    Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H; Crawford, Ronald L; Paszczynski, Andrzej J; Hess, Thomas F

    2010-04-01

    Low concentrations (microg/L) of the perchlorate anion, ClO(4)(-), have been measured in surface and ground water supplies in many locations throughout the United States. Perchlorate is known to affect the function of the thyroid gland in mammals and its toxicity primarily results from its inhibition of thyroid hormone output. The major sources of perchlorate contamination in surface and ground waters are defense contractors, military installations, propellant manufacturers and agriculture. The currently accepted method of perchlorate analysis, recommended by the US EPA, is neither fast nor easy to use and requires purchase of an expensive high performance ion chromatograph (IC). The novel method described here uses dye resazurin to measure perchlorate reduction by bacterial cultures and bacterial consortia in a high-throughput, multi-well, culture plate format. The method is based on the observation that perchlorate reduction and the decrease of resazurin fluorescence occur simultaneously in perchlorate degrading cultures. The bioassays were performed in anaerobic serum bottles or 96-well plates with constant shaking, using a minimal ATCC medium with 10 mM acetate as electron donor/carbon source and 200 ppm perchlorate as an electron acceptor. Fluorescence measurements with excitation at 570 nm and emission at 590 nm were taken in 20 min intervals. Changes in perchlorate concentration were confirmed using IC. Based on the experimental data, a simple model showing the correlation between perchlorate concentration in microbial culture and resazurin fluorescence level was proposed. Other dyes including redox indicators, reactive azo dyes and electron shuttle chemicals were also tested for comparison and were found less useful. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Examination of the effects of stress coping on later affect using daily diary methods].

    PubMed

    Takamoto, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    In response to recent calls in the literature for within-person examination of coping processes over time, this study used daily diary methods to investigate the relationships between daily events, coping, and daily affects. Every day for two weeks, 62 undergraduates recorded their perceived interpersonal stress, most troublesome events, how they coped, positive events, and positive and negative affect. A hierarchical linear model was used to examine the relations between these variables. The results suggested that both positive and negative events made significantly influenced current-day positive and negative affect. In addition, avoidance thinking was associated with within-level adjustment, while emotional sharing with others, distancing and positive reappraisal were associated with within-level maladjustment.

  5. Cloud removing method for daily snow mapping over Central Asia and Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoqi; Qiu, Yubao; Guo, Huadong; Chen, Lijuan

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia and Xinjiang, China are conjunct areas, located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent, where the snowfall is an important water resource supplement form. The induced seasonal snow cover is vita factors to the regional energy and water balance, remote sensing plays a key role in the snow mapping filed, while the daily remote sensing products are normally contaminated by the occurrence of cloud, that obviously obstacles the utility of snow cover parameters. In this paper, based on the daily snow product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS A1), a cloud removing method was developed by considering the regional snow distribution characteristics with latitude and altitude dependence respectively. In the end, the daily cloud free products was compared with the same period of eight days MODIS standard product, revealing that the cloud free snow products are reasonable, while could provide higher temporal resolution, and more details over Center Asia and Xinjiang Province.

  6. A nonparametric stochastic method for generating daily climate-adjusted streamflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagge, J. H.; Moglen, G. E.

    2013-10-01

    A daily stochastic streamflow generation model is presented, which successfully replicates statistics of the historical streamflow record and can produce climate-adjusted daily time series. A monthly climate model relates general circulation model (GCM)-scale climate indicators to discrete climate-streamflow states, which in turn control parameters in a daily streamflow generation model. Daily flow is generated by a two-state (increasing/decreasing) Markov chain, with rising limb increments randomly sampled from a Weibull distribution and the falling limb modeled as exponential recession. When applied to the Potomac River, a 38,000 km2 basin in the Mid-Atlantic United States, the model reproduces the daily, monthly, and annual distribution and dynamics of the historical streamflow record, including extreme low flows. This method can be used as part of water resources planning, vulnerability, and adaptation studies and offers the advantage of a parsimonious model, requiring only a sufficiently long historical streamflow record and large-scale climate data. Simulation of Potomac streamflows subject to the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1b, A2, and B1 emission scenarios predict a slight increase in mean annual flows over the next century, with the majority of this increase occurring during the winter and early spring. Conversely, mean summer flows are projected to decrease due to climate change, caused by a shift to shorter, more sporadic rain events. Date of the minimum annual flow is projected to shift 2-5 days earlier by the 2070-2099 period.

  7. A simulated dye method for flow visualization with a computational model for blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kim, T; Cheer, A Y; Dwyer, H A

    2004-08-01

    A numerical dye method for the visualization of unsteady three-dimensional flow calculations is introduced by coupling the unsteady convection-diffusion equation to the Navier-Stokes equation for mass and momentum. This system of equations is descretized using a finite volume projection-like algorithm with generalized coordinates and overset grids. A powerful pressure prediction method is used to accelerate the convergence of the Pressure Poisson equation. To demonstrate the visualization technique, blood flow through the aortic arch region and the three main arterial branches is computed using various Womersley numbers. In this technique, parcels of fluid are followed in time as a function of the cardiac cycle without having to track individual particles, which in turn aids us to better understand some important aspects of the three-dimensionality of the developing unsteady flow. Using this numerical dye method we analyze the strength of the cross flow during the cardiac cycle, the relationship between the penetration of blood into the aortic branches from its relative position in the ascending aortic region and the effects of the Womersley parameter. This technique can be very useful in the design and development of stents where the topology of the device would require understanding where the blood emanating from the heart ends up at the end of the cardiac cycle. Moreover, this method could be useful in investigating the influence of flow and geometry on the local introduction of medication.

  8. An Optical Dye Method for Continuous Determination of Acidity in Ice Cores.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Svensson, Anders; Elleskov L Kristensen, Magnus; Tibuleac, Catalin; Winstrup, Mai; Kipfstuhl, Sepp

    2016-10-04

    The pH of polar ice is important for the stability and mobility of impurities in ice cores and can be strongly influenced by volcanic eruptions or anthropogenic emissions. We present a simple optical method for continuous determination of acidity in ice cores based on spectroscopically determined color changes of two common pH-indicator dyes, bromophenol blue, and chlorophenol red. The sealed-system method described here is not equilibrated with CO2, making it simpler than existing methods for pH determination in ice cores and offering a 10-90% peak response time of 45 s and a combined uncertainty of 9%. The method is applied to Holocene ice core sections from Greenland and Antarctica and compared to standard techniques such as electrical conductivity measurement (ECM) conducted on the solid ice, and electrolytic meltwater conductivity, EMWC. Acidity measured in the Greenland NGRIP ice core shows good agreement with acidity calculated from ion chromatography. Conductivity and dye-based acidity Hdye(+) are found to be highly correlated in the Greenland NEGIS firn core (75.38° N, 35.56° W), with all signals greater than 3σ variability coinciding with either volcanic eruptions or possible wild fire activity. In contrast, the Antarctic Roosevelt Island ice core (79.36° S, 161.71° W) features an anticorrelation between conductivity and Hdye(+), likely due to strong influence of marine salts.

  9. Synthesis of Organic Dye-Impregnated Silica Shell-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by a New Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cuiling; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Qian; Ren, Juan; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide; Xue, Desheng

    2008-12-01

    A new method for preparing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated by organic dye-doped silica shell was developed in this article. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first coated with dye-impregnated silica shell by the hydrolysis of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HTMOS) which produced a hydrophobic core for the entrapment of organic dye molecules. Then, the particles were coated with a hydrophilic shell by the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), which enabled water dispersal of the resulting nanoparticles. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and vibration sample magnetometer. All the characterization results proved the final samples possessed magnetic and fluorescent properties simultaneously. And this new multifunctional nanomaterial possessed high photostability and minimal dye leakage.

  10. Synthesis of Organic Dye-Impregnated Silica Shell-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by a New Method

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    A new method for preparing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated by organic dye-doped silica shell was developed in this article. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first coated with dye-impregnated silica shell by the hydrolysis of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HTMOS) which produced a hydrophobic core for the entrapment of organic dye molecules. Then, the particles were coated with a hydrophilic shell by the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), which enabled water dispersal of the resulting nanoparticles. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and vibration sample magnetometer. All the characterization results proved the final samples possessed magnetic and fluorescent properties simultaneously. And this new multifunctional nanomaterial possessed high photostability and minimal dye leakage. PMID:20596479

  11. Extraction methods and food uses of a natural red colorant from dye sorghum.

    PubMed

    Akogou, Folachodé Ug; Kayodé, Ap Polycarpe; den Besten, Heidy Mw; Linnemann, Anita R

    2017-06-10

    The interest in stable natural colorants for food applications continues to grow. A red pigment extracted from the leaf sheaths of a sorghum variety (Sorghum bicolor) with a high content of apigeninidin is widely used as a biocolorant in processed foods in West Africa. This study compared the colour and anthocyanin composition from traditional extraction methods to determine options for improvement and use of the red biocolorant from dye sorghum in the food sector. Sorghum biocolorant was commonly applied in fermented and heated foods. Traditional extraction methods predominantly differed in two aspects, namely the use of an alkaline rock salt (locally known as kanwu) and the temperature of the extraction water. Cool extraction using the alkaline ingredient was more efficient than hot alkaline and hot aqueous extractions in extracting anthocyanins. The apigeninidin content was three times higher in the cool and hot alkaline extracts than in the aqueous extract. Cool and hot alkaline extractions at pH 8-9 were the most efficient methods for extracting apigeninidin from dye sorghum leaf sheaths. Broader use of the sorghum biocolorant in foods requires further research on its effects on nutrient bioavailability and antioxidant activity. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Uzma; Rashid, Sitara; Ali, S. Ishrat; Parveen, Rasheeda; Zaheer-ul-Haq; Ambreen, Nida; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR) technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps) help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber. PMID:22272108

  13. Method for quality control of laboratory tests using histograms of daily patient data.

    PubMed

    Okada, M

    1990-01-01

    A method for controlling the quality of laboratory tests is proposed. Histograms of patients' daily results which fall within reference ranges of healthy individuals are used for estimating accuracy and precision of measurements. For the determination of accuracy, three methods are evaluated; computing an average of patients' results; determining the location of the peak of the histogram; approximating the histogram by an Erland distribution and determining the peak of the distribution. For precision control, standard deviations are calculated from patient data. We applied these methods to serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) and total cholesterol of patients in a general hospital. Averages, peaks of approximated Erland distribution, and standard deviations were found to be useful to daily quality control in laboratories of large hospitals.

  14. An accurate and efficient method to predict the electronic excitation energies of BODIPY fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Nan; Jin, Jun-Ling; Geng, Yun; Sun, Shi-Ling; Xu, Hong-Liang; Lu, Ying-Hua; Su, Zhong-Min

    2013-03-15

    Recently, the extreme learning machine neural network (ELMNN) as a valid computing method has been proposed to predict the nonlinear optical property successfully (Wang et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2012, 33, 231). In this work, first, we follow this line of work to predict the electronic excitation energies using the ELMNN method. Significantly, the root mean square deviation of the predicted electronic excitation energies of 90 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) derivatives between the predicted and experimental values has been reduced to 0.13 eV. Second, four groups of molecule descriptors are considered when building the computing models. The results show that the quantum chemical descriptions have the closest intrinsic relation with the electronic excitation energy values. Finally, a user-friendly web server (EEEBPre: Prediction of electronic excitation energies for BODIPY dyes), which is freely accessible to public at the web site: http://202.198.129.218, has been built for prediction. This web server can return the predicted electronic excitation energy values of BODIPY dyes that are high consistent with the experimental values. We hope that this web server would be helpful to theoretical and experimental chemists in related research.

  15. New method for the simultaneous determination of diffusion and adsorption of dyes in silica hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Perullini, Mercedes; Jobbágy, Matías; Japas, María Laura; Bilmes, Sara A

    2014-07-01

    The fine tuning of porosity in sol gel based devices makes possible the design of novel applications in which the transport of molecules through the oxide gel plays a crucial role. In this work we develop a new method for the simultaneous analysis of diffusion and adsorption of small diffusing probes, as anionic and cationic dyes, through silica mesoporous hydrogels synthesized by sol-gel. The novelty of the work resides in the simplicity of acquisition of the experimental data (by means of a desk scanner) and further mathematical modeling, which is in line with high throughput screening procedures, enabling rapid and simultaneous determination of relevant diffusion and adsorption parameters. Net mass transport and adsorption properties of the silica based hydrogels were contrasted to dye adsorption isotherms and textural characterization of the wet gels by SAXS, as well as that of the corresponding aerogels determined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and N2 adsorption. Thus, the validation of the results with well-established characterization methods demonstrates that our approach is robust enough to give reliable physicochemical information on these systems.

  16. Performance assessment of different data mining methods in statistical downscaling of daily precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, M.; Tavakol-Davani, H.; Zahraie, B.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, nonlinear Data-Mining (DM) methods have been used to extend the most cited statistical downscaling model, SDSM, for downscaling of daily precipitation. The proposed model is Nonlinear Data-Mining Downscaling Model (NDMDM). The four nonlinear and semi-nonlinear DM methods which are included in NDMDM model are cubic-order Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Model Tree (MT), k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) and Genetic Algorithm-optimized Support Vector Machine (GA-SVM). The daily records of 12 rain gauge stations scattered in basins with various climates in Iran are used to compare the performance of NDMDM model with statistical downscaling method. Comparison between statistical downscaling and NDMDM results in the selected stations indicates that combination of MT and MARS methods can provide daily rain estimations with less mean absolute error and closer monthly standard deviation and skewness values to the historical records for both calibration and validation periods. The results of the future projections of precipitation in the selected rain gauge stations using A2 and B2 SRES scenarios show significant uncertainty of the NDMDM and statistical downscaling models.

  17. Dye-adsorption capacity of high surface-area hydrogen titanate nanosheets processed via modified hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Padinhattayil, Hareesh; Augustine, Rimesh; Shukla, Satyajit

    2013-04-01

    High surface-area (380 m2 x g(-1)) hydrogen titanate nanosheets (HTNS) processed via the modified hydrothermal method have been utilized for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from an aqueous solution via the surface-adsorption process involving the electrostatic attraction mechanism. The HTNS have been characterized using the transmission electron microscope (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface-area measurement techniques. The amount of MB dye adsorbed on the surface of HTNS at equilibrium (q(e)) has been examined as a function of contact time, initial dye-concentration, and initial solution-pH. Within the investigated range of initial solution-pH (2.5-11), the MB dye adsorption on the surface of HTNS has been observed to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics with the dye-adsorption capacity of 119 mg x g(-1) at the initial solution-pH of - 10. The adsorption equilibrium follows the Langmuir isotherm within the initial solution-pH range of 2.5-10. However, in a highly basic solution (initial solution-pH -11), the adsorption equilibrium has been observed to follow the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) models in the different ranges of initial MB dye concentration. The mere dependence on the DKR model has not been observed within the investigated range of initial solution-pH. The differences in the dye-adsorption characteristics and capacity of HTNS, compared with those of hydrogen titanate nanotubes, have been attributed to the difference in their specific surface-area. Irrespective of the morphology, the maximum coverage of MB dye on the surface of hydrogen titanate has been noted to be the same (52%).

  18. Rapid and Inexpensive Method of Loading Fluorescent Dye into Pollen Tubes and Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Haiyong; Xing, Wenxi; Wu, Fenfen; Wang, Yongzhang

    2016-01-01

    The most direct technique for studying calcium, which is an essential element for pollen tube growth, is Ca2+ imaging. Because membranes are relatively impermeable, the loading of fluorescent Ca2+ probes into plant cells is a challenging task. Thus, we have developed a new method of loading fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester into cells that uses a cell lysis solution to improve the introduction of this fluorescent dye into pollen tubes. Using this method, the loading times were reduced to 15 min. Furthermore, loading did not have to be performed at low (4°C) temperatures and was successful at room temperature, and pluronic F-127 was not required, which would theoretically allow for the loading of an unlimited number of cells. Moreover, the method can also be used to fluorescently stain root hairs. PMID:27055240

  19. Estimation of postmortem interval through albumin in CSF by simple dye binding method.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Ankita K; Menon, Shobhana K

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of postmortem interval is a very important question in some medicolegal investigations. For the precise estimation of postmortem interval, there is a need of a method which can give accurate estimation. Bromocresol green (BCG) is a simple dye binding method and widely used in routine practice. Application of this method in forensic practice may bring revolutionary changes. In this study, cerebrospinal fluid was aspirated from cisternal puncture from 100 autopsies. A study was carried out on concentration of albumin with respect to postmortem interval. After death, albumin present in CSF undergoes changes, after 72 h of death, concentration of albumin has become 0.012 mM, and this decrease was linear from 2 h to 72 h. An important relationship was found between albumin concentration and postmortem interval with an error of ± 1-4h. The study concludes that CSF albumin can be a useful and significant parameter in estimation of postmortem interval.

  20. Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex.

    PubMed

    Becht, Andrik I; Branje, Susan J T; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Maciejewski, Dominique F; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Denissen, Jaap J A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with regard to future implications to study identity processes, both on smaller and larger time intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  2. Conformal Electronics Wrapped Around Daily Life Objects Using an Original Method: Water Transfer Printing.

    PubMed

    Le Borgne, Brice; De Sagazan, Olivier; Crand, Samuel; Jacques, Emmanuel; Harnois, Maxime

    2017-09-06

    The water transfer printing method is used to transfer patterned films on random three-dimensional objects. This industrially viable technology has been demonstrated to intimately wrap metallic and polymeric films around different materials. This method avoids the use of rigid substrate during the transfer step. Patterns can be transferred to objects without folds even when holed, addressing a challenging issue in the field of conformal electronics. This technique allows high film bending properties to be reached. This promising method enables us to integrate large-area films onto daily life objects. A bent capacitive touchpad is fabricated showing the potential applications of this technology.

  3. An improved constant evaporative fraction method for estimating daily evapotranspiration from remotely sensed instantaneous observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ronglin; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a primary mechanism for water and heat transfer between land and the atmosphere. One approach to estimate ET is from instantaneous remotely sensed data. The constant evaporative fraction (EF) method is then usually used to estimate integrated daily fluxes, which are typically underestimated values. Here we present a theoretical improvement to the conventional EF. The improved EF is shown to be robust and superior to the conventional approach, and it significantly reduces the underestimation bias.

  4. Pulsed microwave heating method for preparation of dye-sensitized solar cells for greener, faster, cheaper production of photovoltaic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Clifford B.; Cotta, Robert; Blais, Timothy; Hall, Charles B.

    2015-05-01

    Microwave heating methods are very popular for developing chemical syntheses that are achieved much more rapidly or with less solvent than via conventional heating methods. Their application to solar cell development has been primarily in developing improvements in the synthesis of dyes and curing of polymer substrates, but not in assisting the photoanode construction of dye-sensitized solar cells. Microwave heating of conducting substrates can lead to arcing of electricity in the reactor, which in turn, can lead to extensive degradation or complete destruction of the photoanode. Here we present our work in applying a pulsed microwave heating method that affords quicker dye deposition times in comparison to conventional heating (μw 40 min, conventional 60 min) with similar dye concentrations as characterized by UV-Vis absorbance, contact angle measurements, and cyclic voltammetry. Our photoanodes are constructed with anatase TiO2 cured onto FTO glass, and deposition of the N719 ruthenium dye either directly to the TiO2 layer or through amide bond formation to a silane layer that has been deposited on the TiO2 layer. Modest improvements in the solar energy conversion efficiency are shown through the microwave method in comparison to conventional heating (μw 0.78% vs. conventional 0.25% reported by K. Szpakolski, et. Al. Polyhedron, 2013, 52, 719-732.)

  5. A screening method of oil-soluble synthetic dyes in chilli products based on multi-wavelength chromatographic fingerprints comparison.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yonghong; Wu, Yanlei; Zhou, Chunjie; Zhao, Bo; Yun, Wen; Huang, Siyu; Tao, Peng; Tu, Dawei; Chen, Shiqi

    2016-02-01

    A multi-wavelength HPLC fingerprint comparison method was proposed for the screening of oil-soluble synthetic dyes in chilli products. The screening was based on the fingerprint differences of normal unadulterated chilli sample with tested chilli samples. The samples were extracted with acetone and fingerprinted by HPLC under four visible light wavelengths (450 nm, 490 nm, 520 nm, and 620 nm). It was found that the fingerprints of different chilli product samples had a relatively fixed number of peaks and stable retention time. When 16 kinds of known synthetic dyes were used as model analytes to assess the screening efficiency, 14 of them could be screened using fingerprint comparison method, with LOD of 0.40-2.41 mg/kg. The new screening method was simple and had the possibility of finding existence of the adulterated dyes which could not be identified using known standard analytes as control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterizing the marker-dye correction for Gafchromic EBT2 film: A comparison of three analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    McCaw, Travis J.; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Gafchromic EBT2 film has a yellow marker dye incorporated into the active layer of the film that can be used to correct the film response for small variations in thickness. This work characterizes the effect of the marker-dye correction on the uniformity and uncertainty of dose measurements with EBT2 film. The effect of variations in time postexposure on the uniformity of EBT2 is also investigated. Methods: EBT2 films were used to measure the flatness of a {sup 60}Co field to provide a high-spatial resolution evaluation of the film uniformity. As a reference, the flatness of the {sup 60}Co field was also measured with Kodak EDR2 films. The EBT2 films were digitized with a flatbed document scanner 24, 48, and 72 h postexposure, and the images were analyzed using three methods: (1) the manufacturer-recommended marker-dye correction, (2) an in-house marker-dye correction, and (3) a net optical density (OD) measurement in the red color channel. The field flatness was calculated from orthogonal profiles through the center of the field using each analysis method, and the results were compared with the EDR2 measurements. Uncertainty was propagated through a dose calculation for each analysis method. The change in the measured field flatness for increasing times postexposure was also determined. Results: Both marker-dye correction methods improved the field flatness measured with EBT2 film relative to the net OD method, with a maximum improvement of 1% using the manufacturer-recommended correction. However, the manufacturer-recommended correction also resulted in a dose uncertainty an order of magnitude greater than the other two methods. The in-house marker-dye correction lowered the dose uncertainty relative to the net OD method. The measured field flatness did not exhibit any unidirectional change with increasing time postexposure and showed a maximum change of 0.3%. Conclusions: The marker dye in EBT2 can be used to improve the response uniformity of the film

  7. Acidity Constant (pK a) Calculation of Large Solvated Dye Molecules: Evaluation of Two Advanced Molecular Dynamics Methods

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Thierry; Ensing, Bernd; Rogge, Sven M. J.; De Clerck, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract pH‐Sensitive dyes are increasingly applied on polymer substrates for the creation of novel sensor materials. Recently, these dye molecules were modified to form a covalent bond with the polymer host. This had a large influence on the pH‐sensitive properties, in particular on the acidity constant (pK a). Obtaining molecular control over the factors that influence the pK a value is mandatory for the future intelligent design of sensor materials. Herein, we show that advanced molecular dynamics (MD) methods have reached the level at which the pK a values of large solvated dye molecules can be predicted with high accuracy. Two MD methods were used in this work: steered or restrained MD and the insertion/deletion scheme. Both were first calibrated on a set of phenol derivatives and afterwards applied to the dye molecule bromothymol blue. Excellent agreement with experimental values was obtained, which opens perspectives for using these methods for designing dye molecules. PMID:27570194

  8. Spectroscopic studies of biologically active coumarin laser dye: Evaluation of dipole moments by solvatochromic shift method

    SciTech Connect

    Koppal, V. V. Muddapur, G. V. Patil, N. R.; Melavanki, R. M.

    2016-05-06

    In this paper we attempted to record absorption and emission spectra of 2-acetyl-3H-benzo[f]chromen-3-one [2AHBC] laser dye in different solvents of varying polarities to investigate its solvatochromic behavior. The two electronic states dipole moments of 2AHBC are calculated using solvatochromic spectral shifts which are correlated with dielectric constant (ε) refractive index (n) of various solvents. A systematic approach is made to estimate ground and excited state dipole moments on the basis of different solvent correlation methods like Bilot-Kawski equations, Lippert-Mataga, Bakhsheiv, Kawaski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt methods. Dipole moments in the excited state was found to be higher than the ground state by confirming π→π* transition.

  9. Spectroscopic studies of biologically active coumarin laser dye: Evaluation of dipole moments by solvatochromic shift method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppal, V. V.; Muddapur, G. V.; Patil, N. R.; Melavanki, R. M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we attempted to record absorption and emission spectra of 2-acetyl-3H-benzo[f]chromen-3-one [2AHBC] laser dye in different solvents of varying polarities to investigate its solvatochromic behavior. The two electronic states dipole moments of 2AHBC are calculated using solvatochromic spectral shifts which are correlated with dielectric constant (ɛ) refractive index (n) of various solvents. A systematic approach is made to estimate ground and excited state dipole moments on the basis of different solvent correlation methods like Bilot-Kawski equations, Lippert-Mataga, Bakhsheiv, Kawaski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt methods. Dipole moments in the excited state was found to be higher than the ground state by confirming π→π* transition.

  10. Characterizing the marker-dye correction for Gafchromic(®) EBT2 film: a comparison of three analysis methods.

    PubMed

    McCaw, Travis J; Micka, John A; Dewerd, Larry A

    2011-10-01

    Gafchromic(®) EBT2 film has a yellow marker dye incorporated into the active layer of the film that can be used to correct the film response for small variations in thickness. This work characterizes the effect of the marker-dye correction on the uniformity and uncertainty of dose measurements with EBT2 film. The effect of variations in time postexposure on the uniformity of EBT2 is also investigated. EBT2 films were used to measure the flatness of a (60)Co field to provide a high-spatial resolution evaluation of the film uniformity. As a reference, the flatness of the (60)Co field was also measured with Kodak EDR2 films. The EBT2 films were digitized with a flatbed document scanner 24, 48, and 72 h postexposure, and the images were analyzed using three methods: (1) the manufacturer-recommended marker-dye correction, (2) an in-house marker-dye correction, and (3) a net optical density (OD) measurement in the red color channel. The field flatness was calculated from orthogonal profiles through the center of the field using each analysis method, and the results were compared with the EDR2 measurements. Uncertainty was propagated through a dose calculation for each analysis method. The change in the measured field flatness for increasing times postexposure was also determined. Both marker-dye correction methods improved the field flatness measured with EBT2 film relative to the net OD method, with a maximum improvement of 1% using the manufacturer-recommended correction. However, the manufacturer-recommended correction also resulted in a dose uncertainty an order of magnitude greater than the other two methods. The in-house marker-dye correction lowered the dose uncertainty relative to the net OD method. The measured field flatness did not exhibit any unidirectional change with increasing time postexposure and showed a maximum change of 0.3%. The marker dye in EBT2 can be used to improve the response uniformity of the film. Depending on the film analysis method used

  11. Control of optical properties in cyanine dye thin film fabricated by a layer-by-layer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Osamu; Fujii, Ryoji; Kita, Takashi; Shim, YongGu

    2014-02-01

    We report the fabrication of cyanine dye molecule thin films by a layer-by-layer (LBL) method. In the LBL thin film, the photoluminescence properties can be controlled by the separation between the donor and acceptor dye molecule layers. While the distance dependence of the energy-transfer rate changes around 2 nm, which is comparable with the lengths of the molecules, the energy-transfer rate as evaluated from the photoluminescence decay time shows a maximum value of approximately 15 ns-1. The thin films fabricated by the LBL method will be therefore applicable for ultrafast optical switches with higher repetition rate.

  12. A simple method for screening photoelectric dyes towards their use for retinal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Toshihiko

    2003-10-01

    Photoelectric dyes absorb light and convert photon energy to electric potentials. To test whether these dyes could be used for retinal prostheses, a simple in vitro screening system was developed. Retinal neurons were cultured from the eyes of chick embryos at the 10-day embryonic stage, at which time no retinal photoreceptor cells have yet developed. Intracellular calcium elevation was observed with Fluo-4 in cultured retinal neurons before and after photoelectric dye was applied at varying concentrations to the culture medium. Five of 7 photoelectric dyes tested in this in vitro system induced intracellular calcium elevation in cultured chick retinal neurons. The intracellular calcium elevation generated by the 5 photoelectric dyes was blocked by extracellular calcium depletion in the case of all 5 dyes, and, except for one dye, by the presence of voltage-gated calcium channel blockers. The photoelectric dyes absorbed light under an inverted microscope and stimulated retinal neurons. This simple in vitro system allows the screening of photoelectric dyes which can be used for retinal prostheses.

  13. Competitive removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous solution by MIL-68(Al): Derivative spectrophotometric method and response surface methodology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehrani, Mahnaz Saghanejhad; Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah

    2016-05-01

    MIL-68(Al) as a metal-organic framework (MOF) was synthesized and characterized by different techniques such as SEM, BET, FTIR, and XRD analysis. This material was then applied for simulations removal of malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) dyes from aqueous solutions using second order derivative spectrophotometric method (SODS) which was applied to resolve the overlap between the spectra of these dyes. The dependency of dyes removal efficiency in binary solutions was examined and optimized toward various parameters including initial dye concentration, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and ultrasonic contact time using central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The optimized experimental conditions were set as pH 7.78, contact time 5 min, initial MB concentration 22 mg L- 1, initial MG concentration 12 mg L- 1 and adsorbent dosage 0.0055 g. The equilibrium data was fitted to isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin and the results revealed the suitability of the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of 666.67 and 153.85 mg g- 1 was obtained for MB and MG removal respectively. Kinetics data fitting to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich models confirmed the applicability of pseudo-second order kinetic model for description of the mechanism and adsorption rate. Dye-loaded MIL-68(Al) can be easily regenerated using methanol and applied for three frequent sorption/desorption cycles with high performance. The impact of ionic strength on removal percentage of both dyes in binary mixture was studied by using NaCl and KCl soluble salts at different concentrations. According to our findings, only small dosage of the proposed MOF is considerably capable to remove large amounts of dyes at room temperature and in very short time that is a big advantage of MIL-68(Al) as a promising adsorbent for adsorptive removal processes.

  14. Absorption of triphenylmethane dyes Brilliant Blue and Patent Blue through intact skin, shaven skin and lingual mucosa from daily life products.

    PubMed

    Lucová, Marianna; Hojerová, Jarmila; Pažoureková, Silvia; Klimová, Zuzana

    2013-02-01

    Currently, there is evidence of health risks of triphenylmethane dyes after systemic absorption. This paper investigates the fate of Brilliant Blue (BB) and Patent Blue (PB) after 24-h in vitro diffusion, firstly through intact and secondly through shaven pig-ear skin (stored by freezing) from four leave-on cosmetics under in-use conditions. Both dyes showed no measurable permeation through intact skin but significant permeation was found through shaven skin. From 250 ng/cm(2) of dye in one applied dose there were found 52 ng/cm(2) of BB and 91 ng/cm(2) of PB from ethanol-based after-shave, 39 ng/cm(2) of BB and 86 ng/cm(2) of PB from ethanol-free facial-cleanser, 35 ng/cm(2) of BB and 43 ng/cm(2) of PB from O/W emulsion, and no amount from W/O emulsion, as available to become systemically absorbed. Thirdly, the paper focuses on lingual mucosa after licking lollipops. Ex vivo porcine tongue dorsum was exposed to human saliva with 15,000 ng/cm(2) of dye for 20 min. 24-h diffusion resulted in 34 ng/cm(2) of BB and 86 ng/cm(2) of PB which can be directly absorbed into the blood system. Findings are troubling, particularly with regard to the frequent use of after-shave products by the male population and repeated lollipops licking by children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of a spectrophotometer-based method for estimating daily sperm production and deferent duct transit.

    PubMed

    Froman, D P; Rhoads, D D

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of the present work were 3-fold. First, a new method for estimating daily sperm production was validated. This method, in turn, was used to evaluate testis output as well as deferent duct throughput. Next, this analytical approach was evaluated in 2 experiments. The first experiment compared left and right reproductive tracts within roosters. The second experiment compared reproductive tract throughput in roosters from low and high sperm mobility lines. Standard curves were constructed from which unknown concentrations of sperm cells and sperm nuclei could be predicted from observed absorbance. In each case, the independent variable was based upon hemacytometer counts, and absorbance was a linear function of concentration. Reproductive tracts were excised, semen recovered from each duct, and the extragonadal sperm reserve determined by multiplying volume by sperm cell concentration. Testicular sperm nuclei were procured by homogenization of a whole testis, overlaying a 20-mL volume of homogenate upon 15% (wt/vol) Accudenz (Accurate Chemical and Scientific Corporation, Westbury, NY), and then washing nuclei by centrifugation through the Accudenz layer. Daily sperm production was determined by dividing the predicted number of sperm nuclei within the homogenate by 4.5 d (i.e., the time sperm with elongated nuclei spend within the testis). Sperm transit through the deferent duct was estimated by dividing the extragonadal reserve by daily sperm production. Neither the efficiency of sperm production (sperm per gram of testicular parenchyma per day) nor deferent duct transit differed between left and right reproductive tracts (P > 0.05). Whereas efficiency of sperm production did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high sperm mobility lines, deferent duct transit differed between lines (P < 0.001). On average, this process required 2.2 and 1.0 d for low and high lines, respectively. In summary, we developed and then tested a method for quantifying male

  16. Elucidating the structure of merocyanine dyes with the ASEC-FEG method. Phenol blue in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Leandro R.; Brandão, Idney; Fonseca, Tertius L.; Georg, Herbert C.

    2016-11-01

    The electronic structure of phenol blue (PB) was investigated in several protic and aprotic solvents, in a wide range of dielectric constants, using atomistic simulations. We employed the sequential QM/MM and the free energy gradient methods to optimize the geometry of PB in each solvent at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level. The ASEC mean field is used to include the ensemble average of the solute-solvent interaction into the molecular hamiltonian, both for the geometry optimization and for the calculations of the electronic properties. We found that the geometry of PB changes considerably, from a polyene-like structure in nonpolar solvents to a cyanine-like in water. Moreover, and quite interestingly, in protic solvents with higher dielectric constant than water, the structure of the molecule is less affected and lies in an intermediate state. The results illustrate the important role played by hydrogen bonds in the conformation of merocyanine dyes.

  17. Toward a robust method for subdaily rainfall downscaling from daily data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuchat, X.; Schaefli, B.; Soutter, M.; Mermoud, A.

    2011-09-01

    Compared to daily rainfall data, observed subdaily rainfall times are rare and often very short. For hydrologic modeling, this problem is often addressed by generating synthetic hourly rainfall series, with rainfall generators calibrated on relevant rainfall statistics. The required subdaily rainfall statistics are traditionally derived from daily rainfall records by assuming some temporal scaling behavior of these statistics. However, as our analyzes of a large data set suggest, the mathematical form of this scaling behavior might be specific to individual gauges. This paper presents, therefore, a novel approach that bypasses the temporal scaling behavior assumption. The method uses multivariate adaptive regression splines; it is learning-based and seeks directly relationships between target subdaily statistics and available predictors (including (supra-) daily rainfall statistics and external information such as large-scale atmospheric variables). A large data set is used to investigate these relationships, including almost 340 hourly rainfall series coming from gauges spread over Switzerland, the USA and the UK. The predictive power of the new approach is assessed for several subdaily rainfall statistics and is shown to be superior to the one of temporal scaling laws. The study is completed with a detailed discussion of how such reconstructed statistics improve the accuracy of an hourly rainfall generator based on Poisson cluster models.

  18. General practice fundholding: observations on prescribing patterns and costs using the defined daily dose method.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, M; Heaney, D; Howie, J G; Noble, S

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare prescribing patterns between a group of fundholding practices and a group of non-fundholding practices in north east Scotland using a method which provides more accurate statements about volumes prescribed than standard NHS statistics. DESIGN--The pharmacy practice division of the National Health Service in Scotland provided data for selected British National Formulary sections over two years. Each prescription issued was converted using the World Health Organisation "defined daily dose" mechanism. SETTING--Six fundholding groups (nine practices) in Grampian and Tayside regions and six non-fundholding practices in Grampian. RESULTS--During the past two years both fundholding and control practices reduced the volume of their prescribing for the classes of drug analysed. The unit costs of drugs in some classes, however, rose substantially, contributing to higher costs per patient. The unit costs rose more in the control practices (24%) than in the fundholding practices (11% in Tayside, 16% in Grampian). CONCLUSION--The use of defined daily doses helped identify cost and volume trends in specific areas of prescribing in fundholding and control practices. The basis on which funds are set needs improving, and defined daily doses may prove useful for setting volume targets within drug classes for all practices, whether fundholding or not. PMID:8305075

  19. Methods to estimate historical daily streamflow for ungaged stream locations in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, David L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.

    2016-03-14

    Effective and responsible management of water resources relies on a thorough understanding of the quantity and quality of available water; however, streamgages cannot be installed at every location where streamflow information is needed. Therefore, methods for estimating streamflow at ungaged stream locations need to be developed. This report presents a statewide study to develop methods to estimate the structure of historical daily streamflow at ungaged stream locations in Minnesota. Historical daily mean streamflow at ungaged locations in Minnesota can be estimated by transferring streamflow data at streamgages to the ungaged location using the QPPQ method. The QPPQ method uses flow-duration curves at an index streamgage, relying on the assumption that exceedance probabilities are equivalent between the index streamgage and the ungaged location, and estimates the flow at the ungaged location using the estimated flow-duration curve. Flow-duration curves at ungaged locations can be estimated using recently developed regression equations that have been incorporated into StreamStats (http://streamstats.usgs.gov/), which is a U.S. Geological Survey Web-based interactive mapping tool that can be used to obtain streamflow statistics, drainage-basin characteristics, and other information for user-selected locations on streams.

  20. Estimation of daily ultraviolet radiation in Beijing using a semiempirical method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinghua; Hu, Bo; Wang, Yuesi

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a semiempirical method to reconstruct daily ultraviolet (UV) radiation from global solar (G) radiation measurements using a radiative transfer model. The attenuation ratio and cloud modification factors are calculated based on measured and simulated data under cloudless-sky conditions. A reconstruction method of UV radiation is established using cloud modification factors; based on comparisons among reconstructions and measurements, the reconstruction model is demonstrated to offer high resolution. The bias errors for daily measured and reconstructed UV radiation are maintained within ±20%, the mean absolute bias error (mabe) is 7.7% and the root mean square error (rmse) is 9.7%. Furthermore, the model performance and transferability were tested by comparison with a simple empirical model in Beijing, Eerduosi and Hailun. A comparison of the measured and estimated UV values for the two methods in the aforementioned three locations revealed that smaller mabe and rmse were observed in our method, with both of these values in the three locations being less than 14%. Thus, a better applicability and transferability has been confirmed. The results and analysis should contribute to improving the knowledge about actual UV climate characteristics. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Method and apparatus for passive optical dosimeter comprising caged dye molecules

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.

    2001-07-03

    A new class of ultraviolet dosimeters is made possible by exposing caged dye molecules, which generate a dye molecule on exposure to ultraviolet radiation, to an exterior environment. Applications include sunburn monitors, characterizing the UV exposure history of UV-sensitive materials, especially including structural plastics, and use in disposable `one-use` optical equipment, especially medical devices.

  2. A visible-light-excited fluorescence method for imaging protein crystals without added dyes.

    PubMed

    Lukk, Tiit; Gillilan, Richard E; Szebenyi, Doletha M E; Zipfel, Warren R

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescence microscopy methods have seen an increase in popularity in recent years for detecting protein crystals in screening trays. The fluorescence-based crystal detection methods have thus far relied on intrinsic UV-inducible tryptophan fluorescence, nonlinear optics or fluorescence in the visible light range dependent on crystals soaked with fluorescent dyes. In this paper data are presented on a novel visible-light-inducible autofluorescence arising from protein crystals as a result of general stabilization of conjugated double-bond systems and increased charge delocalization due to crystal packing. The visible-light-inducible autofluorescence serves as a complementary method to bright-field microscopy in beamline applications where accurate crystal centering about the rotation axis is essential. Owing to temperature-dependent chromophore stabilization, protein crystals exhibit tenfold higher fluorescence intensity at cryogenic temperatures, making the method ideal for experiments where crystals are cooled to 100 K with a cryostream. In addition to the non-damaging excitation wavelength and low laser power required for imaging, the method can also serve a useful role for differentiating protein crystals from salt crystals in screening trays.

  3. A visible-light-excited fluorescence method for imaging protein crystals without added dyes

    PubMed Central

    Lukk, Tiit; Gillilan, Richard E.; Szebenyi, Doletha M. E.; Zipfel, Warren R.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy methods have seen an increase in popularity in recent years for detecting protein crystals in screening trays. The fluorescence-based crystal detection methods have thus far relied on intrinsic UV-inducible tryptophan fluorescence, nonlinear optics or fluorescence in the visible light range dependent on crystals soaked with fluorescent dyes. In this paper data are presented on a novel visible-light-inducible autofluorescence arising from protein crystals as a result of general stabilization of conjugated double-bond systems and increased charge delocalization due to crystal packing. The visible-light-inducible autofluorescence serves as a complementary method to bright-field microscopy in beamline applications where accurate crystal centering about the rotation axis is essential. Owing to temperature-dependent chromophore stabilization, protein crystals exhibit tenfold higher fluorescence intensity at cryogenic temperatures, making the method ideal for experiments where crystals are cooled to 100 K with a cryostream. In addition to the non-damaging excitation wavelength and low laser power required for imaging, the method can also serve a useful role for differentiating protein crystals from salt crystals in screening trays. PMID:26937240

  4. Migration and penetration of a fluorescent textile dye into the skin--in vivo versus in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Martina; Abdollahnia, Mandana; Gähr, Frank; Platzek, Thomas; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    The amount of textile dye migration from the textile and penetration into the skin is relevant when assessing the risk of textile dyes. In this paper, in vivo methods were developed using a harmless textile dye with a strong fluorescence and were then compared with in vitro methods. For the in vivo method, the textile was applied to the lower back of six volunteers wearing the textile 12 h and to the lower back of 12 volunteers during 30 min active sport. The maximum skin absorption of 55 +/- 17 ng/cm(2) was obtained in the group engaged in sports. The in vitro methods, which involved the application of the textile to the pig ear skin, was shown to yield similar results to the 12 h in vivo group (31.2 +/- 9.6 ng/cm(2) vs 27 +/- 14 ng/cm(2)). The migration of the textiles into artificial sweat resulted in approximately 20 microg/cm(2). The disadvantage of such textile extract applications on pig ear skin is discussed. It could be demonstrated that the absorption of the dye is strongly correlated to the amount of sweat, whereas the contact time was less important.

  5. Method for colorimetric detection of double-stranded nucleic acid using leuco triphenylmethane dyes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shigehiko; Sano, Sotaro; Takahashi, Koji; Jikihara, Takaaki

    2015-03-15

    Because loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) can amplify substantial amounts of DNA under isothermal conditions, its applications for simple genetic testing have attracted considerable attention. A positive LAMP reaction is indicated by the turbidity caused by by-products or by the color change after adding a metallochromic indicator to the reaction solution, but these methods have certain limitations. Leuco crystal violet (LCV), a colorless dye obtained after sodium sulfite treatment of crystal violet (CV), was used as a new colorimetric method for detecting LAMP. LCV is reconverted into CV through contact with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Therefore, the positive reaction of LAMP is indicated by color change from colorless to violet. The assay is sensitive enough to detect LAMP products, with a detection limit of 7.1 ng/μl for dsDNA. It is also highly selective to dsDNA, and interference with single-stranded DNA and deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) is not observed. LCV facilitates direct colorimetric detection of the main product rather than a by-product of the LAMP reaction; therefore, this method can be used under various reaction conditions such as those with added pyrophosphatase in solution. This colorimetric LAMP detection method using LCV is useful for point-of-care genetic testing given its simplicity.

  6. Evaluation of interpolating methods for daily precipitation at various station densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Xu, C.-Y.; Chen, H.; Zhang, Z. X.; Xu, H. L.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial continuous data play a significant role in planning, risk assessment and decision making in climate research and geosciences. It is essential to get accurate grid precipitation data of high resolution in hydrological modeling and water resources management. In recent years, radar and satellite provide an alternative way for spatial precipitation data, but due to technique problems and deficient accuracy, interpolating the observed point data is still the common way to obtain gridding precipitation data for research and management purposes. Many interpolating methods have been proposed and great effort has been made to evaluate and compare them. But by far, no universal method is widely accepted because of the diversity in study regions, difference in climate situations, and differences in data quality and quantity, and selected methods in comparisons. It has been well known that the most paramount factor affecting the performance of interpolating methods is the density of sampling points. However, the performance of different interpolating methods at various sampling densities, which means the performance degradation caused by density changes, has not been deeply examined. This work focuses on the evaluation of interpolating methods in daily precipitation at various station densities and tries to provide guidance on choosing interpolating method under different circumstance. To fill this objective, we choose five commonly used or recommended interpolation methods, i.e. nearest neighbor (NN), inverse distance weighting (IDW), Gradient plus Inverse Distance Squared (GIDS), ordinary kriging (OK) and simple kriging (SK) at five designed sampling densities ranging from 22.6 to 9.8 stations per ten thousand square kilometers at Xiangjiang River basin during 2000 to 2005 when the precipitation data were in the highest density. Four criteria were used for method assessment, i.e., mean error (ME), root mean absolute error (RMSE), model efficient (EF) and index of

  7. Adults with autism in India: a mixed-method approach to make meaning of daily routines.

    PubMed

    Daley, Tamara C; Weisner, Thomas; Singhal, Nidhi

    2014-09-01

    Although individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been diagnosed in India for over fifty years, virtually nothing is known about the social circumstances of adults, their daily lives, and their families. Where are adults with autism? How do they spend their time? Who are they with, and what are they doing all day? A mixed-method approach was used to obtain information on daily routines of 54 adults with ASD living in New Delhi, India, and about parent levels of stress associated with these routines during a study collected from January through June, 2013. Whether or not they attended a structured setting during the day (59% did so), adults engaged in some 20 activities both inside and outside their home. Contrary to our expectations, most adults were not "hidden" and were out in public at least on occasion. Higher functioning adults were more likely to attend a structured setting, but parents described challenging behaviors, both adult and parent preference, and lack of options as reasons that adults stayed home. The amount of time adults spent outside their home was not associated with parent reported stress, but stress was significantly higher for mothers who were employed. Most families described adaptation to caring for their adult children. A partnership with an Indian nongovernmental organization provided mechanisms to amplify our research findings, making them meaningful to our participants and others. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density. Effects on daily energy intake.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rachel A; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-07-01

    Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 4 weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667 ± 77 kcal/day; 11,166 ± 322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396 ± 44 kcal/day (1658 ± 184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308 ± 41 kcal/day (1290 ± 172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230 ± 35 kcal/day (963 ± 147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2011-07-01

    Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi). Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation

  10. Titania-based molecularly imprinted polymer for sulfonic acid dyes prepared by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Li, Rong; Tan, Jin; Jiang, Zi-Tao

    2013-03-30

    A novel titania-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized through sol-gel process with sunset yellow (Sun) as template, without use of functional monomer. MIP was used as a solid-phase extraction material for the isolation and enrichment of sulfonic acid dyes in beverages. The results showed that MIP exhibited better selectivity, higher recovery and adsorption capacity for the sulfonic acid dyes compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP). MIP presented highest extraction selectivity to Sun when pH less than or equal to 3. The adsorption capacity was 485.9 mg g(-1), which was larger than that of NIP (384.7 mg g(-1)). The better clean-up ability demonstrated the capability of MIP for the isolation and enrichment of sulfonic acid dyes in complicated food samples. The mean recoveries for the sulfonic acid dyes on MIP were from 81.9% to 97.2% in spiked soft drink.

  11. Long-lived laser dye

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1986-07-29

    A method is described of obtaining in a flashlamp pumped laser system, a long-lived flashpumped laser dye having a low threshold of lasing and a moderate output comprising the steps of: placing a dye solution comprising a laser dye, the N-methyl tosylate salt of 2-(4-pyridyl)-5-(4-methoxphenyl)oxazole, and a solvent into a laser dye cavity; screening the dye solution from ultraviolet light with an optical filter; flushing the dye solution with an inert gas; and optically pumping the dye solution with a flashlamp to produce laser emission.

  12. Methods of sequencing and detection using energy transfer labels with cyanine dyes as donor chromophores

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Mathies, Richard A.; Hung, Su-Chun; Ju, Jingyue

    2000-01-01

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures.

  13. Influence of reduced air pressure methods on dye penetration in standardized voids.

    PubMed

    Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola M; Manzulli, Nicola; Chiaradia, Giacomina; La Torre, Giuseppe; Somma, Francesco

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the moment when reduced pressure is applied on dye penetration patterns. Nine hundred and sixty glass capillary tubes of different inner diameter (0.3 mm and 0.8 mm), divided into 48 groups, were submerged into dye in 3 different positions (horizontally, opening upwards, and opening downwards) under different vacuum conditions (passive, 5 kPa, 35 kPa, 70 kPa reduced pressure). When reduced pressure was applied half of the groups were submerged into dye before and half of the groups after the application of reduced pressure. Linear dye penetration was measured. Univariate analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test to select variables to be included in the regression model. A multiple logistic regression analysis with backward elimination was performed to assess the influence of different covariates on linear dye penetration. The multivariate linear regression showed that the moment of vacuuming had the greatest positive effect on linear dye penetration value (beta = 10.6, P < .0001). Also the level of pressure reduction had a positive effect on the outcome variable (beta = 0.2, P < .0001) while the vertical positioning of the tubes has negatively affected the outcome variable both for the open end upside (beta = -1.01, P = .024) and the open end downside (beta = -1.05, P = .019). Diameter of the tubes (P = .442) and immersion time (P = .727) had no effect on the outcome of linear dye penetration. Even minimum air pressure reduction applied before immersion of the specimens allowed the dye to extensively penetrate the voids.

  14. A sensitive fluorescence method for detection of E. Coli using rhodamine 6G dyeing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaohui; Jiang, Caina; Wen, Guiqing; Zhang, Xinghui; Luo, Yanghe; Qin, Aimiao; Liang, Aihui; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2016-06-01

    Negatively charged bacteria combined with positively charged alkaline dye rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) in NaH2 PO4 -Na2 HPO4 buffer solution pH 7.4, by electrostatic interaction. The dyed bacteria exhibited a strong fluorescence peak at 552 nm and fluorescence intensity was directly linear to Escherichia coli (E. coli), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) concentrations in the range of 7.06 × 10(4) to 3.53 × 10(7) , 4.95 × 10(5) to 2.475 × 10(8) and 32.5 to 16250 colony forming unit/mL (cfu/mL) respectively, with detection limits of 3.2 × 10(4) cfu/mL E. coli, 2.3 × 10(5) cfu/mL B. subtilis and 16 cfu/mL S. aureus, respectively. Samples were cultured for 12 h, after which the linear detection range for E. coli was 2 to 88 cfu/mL. This simple, rapid and sensitive method was used for the analysis of water and drinking samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Feasibility of Using Fluorescence Spectrophotometry to Develop a Sensitive Dye Immersion Method for Container Closure Integrity Testing of Prefilled Syringes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xujin; Lloyd, David K; Klohr, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted for a sensitive and robust dye immersion method for the measurement of container closure integrity of unopened prefilled syringes using fluorescence spectrophotometry as the detection method. A Varian Cary Eclipse spectrofluorometer was used with a custom-made sample holder to position the intact syringe in the sample compartment for fluorescence measurements. Methylene blue solution was initially evaluated as the fluorophore in a syringe with excitation at 607 nm and emission at 682 nm, which generated a limit of detection of 0.05 μg/mL. Further studies were conducted using rhodamine 123, a dye with stronger fluorescence. Using 480 nm excitation and 525 nm emission, the dye in the syringe could be easily detected at levels as low as 0.001 μg/mL. The relative standard deviation for 10 measurements of a sample of 0.005 μg/mL (with repositioning of the syringe after each measurement) was less than 1.1%. A number of operational parameters were optimized, including the photomultiplier tube voltage, excitation, and emission slit widths. The specificity of the testing was challenged by using marketed drug products and a protein sample, which showed no interference to the rhodamine detection. Results obtained from this study demonstrated that using rhodamine 123 for container closure integrity testing with in-situ (in-syringe) fluorescence measurements significantly enhanced the sensitivity and robustness of the testing and effectively overcame limitations of the traditional methylene blue method with visual or UV-visible absorption detection. Ensuring container closure integrity of injectable pharmaceutical products is necessary to maintain quality throughout the shelf life of a sterile drug product. Container closure integrity testing has routinely been used to evaluate closure integrity during product development and production line qualification of prefilled syringes, vials, and devices. However, container closure integrity testing

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye by zinc oxide nanoparticles obtained from precipitation and sol-gel methods.

    PubMed

    Balcha, Abebe; Yadav, Om Prakash; Dey, Tania

    2016-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods. The aim of this study was to understand how different synthetic methods can affect the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles. As-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. XRD patterns of ZnO powders synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods revealed their hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite sizes of 30 and 28 nm, respectively. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue, a common water pollutant, under UV radiation. The effects of operational parameters such as photocatalyst load and initial concentration of the dye on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue were investigated. While the degradation of dye decreased over the studied dye concentration range of 20 to 100 mg/L, an optimum photocatalyst load of 250 mg/L was needed to achieve dye degradation as high as 81 and 92.5 % for ZnO prepared by precipitation and sol-gel methods, respectively. Assuming pseudo first-order reaction kinetics, this corresponded to rate constants of 8.4 × 10(-3) and 12.4 × 10(-3) min(-1), respectively. Hence, sol-gel method is preferred over precipitation method in order to achieve higher photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures. Photocatalytic activity is further augmented by better choice of capping ligand for colloidal stabilization, starch being more effective than polyethylene glycol (PEG).

  17. Comparison of artificial intelligence methods and empirical equations to estimate daily solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2016-08-01

    In the present research, three artificial intelligence methods including Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) as well as, 48 empirical equations (10, 12 and 26 equations were temperature-based, sunshine-based and meteorological parameters-based, respectively) were used to estimate daily solar radiation in Kerman, Iran in the period of 1992-2009. To develop the GEP, ANN and ANFIS models, depending on the used empirical equations, various combinations of minimum air temperature, maximum air temperature, mean air temperature, extraterrestrial radiation, actual sunshine duration, maximum possible sunshine duration, sunshine duration ratio, relative humidity and precipitation were considered as inputs in the mentioned intelligent methods. To compare the accuracy of empirical equations and intelligent models, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute relative error (MARE) and determination coefficient (R2) indices were used. The results showed that in general, sunshine-based and meteorological parameters-based scenarios in ANN and ANFIS models presented high accuracy than mentioned empirical equations. Moreover, the most accurate method in the studied region was ANN11 scenario with five inputs. The values of RMSE, MAE, MARE and R2 indices for the mentioned model were 1.850 MJ m-2 day-1, 1.184 MJ m-2 day-1, 9.58% and 0.935, respectively.

  18. A comparison of methods for calculating population exposure estimates of daily weather for health research

    PubMed Central

    Hanigan, Ivan; Hall, Gillian; Dear, Keith BG

    2006-01-01

    Background To explain the possible effects of exposure to weather conditions on population health outcomes, weather data need to be calculated at a level in space and time that is appropriate for the health data. There are various ways of estimating exposure values from raw data collected at weather stations but the rationale for using one technique rather than another; the significance of the difference in the values obtained; and the effect these have on a research question are factors often not explicitly considered. In this study we compare different techniques for allocating weather data observations to small geographical areas and different options for weighting averages of these observations when calculating estimates of daily precipitation and temperature for Australian Postal Areas. Options that weight observations based on distance from population centroids and population size are more computationally intensive but give estimates that conceptually are more closely related to the experience of the population. Results Options based on values derived from sites internal to postal areas, or from nearest neighbour sites – that is, using proximity polygons around weather stations intersected with postal areas – tended to include fewer stations' observations in their estimates, and missing values were common. Options based on observations from stations within 50 kilometres radius of centroids and weighting of data by distance from centroids gave more complete estimates. Using the geographic centroid of the postal area gave estimates that differed slightly from the population weighted centroids and the population weighted average of sub-unit estimates. Conclusion To calculate daily weather exposure values for analysis of health outcome data for small areas, the use of data from weather stations internal to the area only, or from neighbouring weather stations (allocated by the use of proximity polygons), is too limited. The most appropriate method conceptually

  19. Holographic method for investigating the diffusion of dye molecules in the polymer host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. H.; Xia, J. L.

    1990-02-01

    Laser induced holographic grating relaxation studies of thymoquinone dissolved in amorphous poly(α-methyl styrene) have been carried out. The Onsager theory of mutual diffusion for binary and tertiary systems are utilized to analyze the shape of the diffraction intensity curve. Different line shapes that are associated with the relaxation of the diffraction intensity are interpreted in terms of the diffusion processes. Diffusion coefficients are obtained as a function of thymoquinone concentration from 0.3 to 20 wt. % at various temperatures. It is shown that at very low concentrations (less than 0.5%), the self-diffusion coefficients of the dye molecule and its photoproduct are obtained. Above 0.5% concentrations the diffusion coefficient rapidly increases with increasing dye concentration. The temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient follows the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, whereas the mutual diffusion coefficient at higher dye concentrations follows the Arrhenius equation. The self-diffusion coefficient rapidly decreases as the sample temperature is traversed across the glass transition temperature (Tg). However at finite dye concentrations there is no detectable effect owing to the onset of Tg on the mutual diffusion coefficient. The difference is attributed to the plasticizing effect of the dye molecules.

  20. MODIFIED BROMOPHENOL BLUE DYE BINDING METHOD FOR QUANTITATION OF MICROALBUMINURIA IN DIABETES MELLITUS.

    PubMed

    Somani, B L; Saha, T K; Arora, M M; Sharma, Y V

    1995-04-01

    Albumin excretion in microalbuminuria range is one of the earliest manifestation of nephropathy, specially in diabetes mellitus. The modified dye binding method using bromo-phenol blue was studied in 27 healthy controls and 54 patients of diabetes mellitus, negative for albuminuria by albustix test. The analytical recovery (99.4 to 104.0%), within run coefficient of variation (0.8 to 0.36%) and day-to-day coefficient of variation (2.39 to 0.82%), for low and higher range were within acceptable limits. The values in controls ranged as follows: urinary albumin concentration (mg/L) 7.7 - 28.4 in 2-hour specimen and 10.3 - 29.2 in overnight specimen; albumin excretion rate (µg/min) 7.8 - 29.7 in 2-hour and 9.2 - 29.6 in overnight specimen; and albumin creatinine ratio (mg/g) 10.6 - 29.6 in 2-hour and 11.9 - 29.6 in overnight specimens. Correlation analysis of various albumin excretion parameters revealed excellent correlation between estimations from overnight and 2-hour samples for albumin-creatinine ratio (r = 1.00) and albumin excretion rate (r=0.96). Equally good correlation was observed between 2-hour albumin-creatinine ratio and albumin excretion rate (r=0.95). In 10 of 54 patients excretion rate was more than 200 µg/min and could have been detected by repeat albustix test. Of the 36 positive for microalbuminuria, 21 had one or more target organ involvement. There was no target organ involvement in 8 patients negative for microalbuminuria. Screening for microalbuminuria by this simple and economic method, using 2-hour albumin-excretion rate or albumin-creatinine ratio could be one of the earliest investigations in diabetic patients.

  1. Evaluation of methods to derive green-up dates based on daily NDVI satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doktor, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Bridging the gap between satellite derived green-up dates and in situ phenological observations has been the purpose of many studies over the last decades. Despite substantial advancements in satellite technology and data quality checks there is as yet no universally accepted method for extracting phenological metrics based on satellite derived vegetation indices. Dependent on the respective method derived green-up dates can vary up to serveral weeks using identical data sets. Consequently, it is difficult to compare various studies and to accurately determine an increased vegetation length due to changing temperature patterns as observed by ground phenological networks. Here, I compared how the characteristic NDVI increase over temperate deciduous forests in Germany in spring relates to respective budburst events observed on the ground. MODIS Terra daily surface reflectances with a 250 m resolution (2000-2008) were gathered to compute daily NDVI values. As ground truth, observations of the extensive phenological network of the German Weather Service were used. About 1500 observations per year and species (Beech, Oak and Birch) were available evenly distributed all over Germany. Two filtering methods were tested to reduce the noisy raw data. The first method only keeps NDVI values which are classified as ‚ideal global quality' and applies on those a temporal moving window where values are removed which differ more than 20% of the mean. The second method uses an adaptation of the BISE (Best Index Slope Extraction) algorithm. Subsequently, three functions were fitted to the selected observations: a simple linear interpolation, a sigmoidal function and a double logistic sigmoidal function allowing to approximate two temporally separated green-up signals. The green-up date was then determined at halfway between minimum and maximum (linear interpolation) or at the inflexion point of the sigmoidal curve. A number of global threshold values (NDVI 0.4,0.5,0.6) and

  2. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B.

    2016-01-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions. PMID:26957472

  3. Merging daily sea surface temperature data from multiple satellites using a Bayesian maximum entropy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shaolei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Dong, Di; Li, Ziwei

    2015-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important variable for understanding interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. SST fusion is crucial for acquiring SST products of high spatial resolution and coverage. This study introduces a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method for blending daily SSTs from multiple satellite sensors. A new spatiotemporal covariance model of an SST field is built to integrate not only single-day SSTs but also time-adjacent SSTs. In addition, AVHRR 30-year SST climatology data are introduced as soft data at the estimation points to improve the accuracy of blended results within the BME framework. The merged SSTs, with a spatial resolution of 4 km and a temporal resolution of 24 hours, are produced in the Western Pacific Ocean region to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed methodology. Comparisons with in situ drifting buoy observations show that the merged SSTs are accurate and the bias and root-mean-square errors for the comparison are 0.15°C and 0.72°C, respectively.

  4. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods.

    PubMed

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J; Murabito, Joanne M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-08-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions.

  5. New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    The use of harmful organic solvents in classrooms has become a critical issue of concern in the field of chemistry education. This article describes a classroom activity at a high school in which an acrylic fabric was used as the extraction medium in the analysis of the detergent concentration in water instead of organic solvents. Dyes were used…

  6. New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    The use of harmful organic solvents in classrooms has become a critical issue of concern in the field of chemistry education. This article describes a classroom activity at a high school in which an acrylic fabric was used as the extraction medium in the analysis of the detergent concentration in water instead of organic solvents. Dyes were used…

  7. Removal of chromium(VI) and dye Alizarin Red S (ARS) using polymer-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Sara; Shahzad, Asma

    2014-06-01

    The present research was conducted with an aim to develop such adsorbent system: polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles which can remove heavy metal and dye from water of different concentration. Synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for contaminated water purification has been one of the outcomes of application of rapidly growing field of Nanotechnology in Environmental Science. In the present study, the efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles for removal of Cr(VI) and dye (alizarin) from water solutions of known concentrations were evaluated. The nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polymer-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles carrying functional groups on their surface were synthesized by different methods for permanent magnet-assisted removal of heavy metal (chromium) and dye (Alizarin Red S) from water. The characterization showed that synthesized nanoparticles were in the size range of 10-50 nm. The adsorption capacities of the Fe3O4 using polyMETAC-coated particles for dye (Alizarin Red S) removal were 80-96 % and chromium 62-91 %. The chromium concentration was determined after magnetic separation using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and dye concentration was estimated with UV-visible spectrophotometer. Nanoparticles of polymer coated showed the highest removal capacity from water for metal and dye. The developed adsorbents had higher capacity for removal of heavy metal ions and dye.

  8. A simple method for simultaneous determination of basic dyes encountered in food preparations by reversed-phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sumita; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2011-01-01

    The present method utilizes a simple pretreatment step, cleanup on polyamide SPE cartridges, and HPLC resolution on reversed-phase C18 for the detection of the three basic nonpermitted dyes encountered in food matrixes. Polyamide cartridges were chosen because both acidic and basic dyes can be cleaned up due to their amphoteric nature. Analysis was performed on a reversed-phase C18 micro-Bondapak column using the isocratic mixture of acetonitrile-sodium acetate with a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min and a programmable lambda(max) specific visible detection to monitor colors, achieving higher sensitivity and expanded scope to test multicolor blends. All the colors showed linearity with the regression coefficient, from 0.9983 to 0.9995. The LOD and LOQ ranged between 0.107 and 0.754 mg/L and 0.371 and 2.27 mg/L or mg/kg, respectively. The intraday and interday precision gave good RSDs, and percentage recoveries in different food matrixes ranged from 75 to 96.5%. The study demonstrates that the use of a combination of a simple SPE cleanup and HPLC resolution with UV-Vis end point detection was successful in screening the presence of these three basic nonpermitted dyes individually or in blend, in a variety of food matrixes.

  9. Spectroscopic investigations on the photodegradation of toluidine blue dye using cadmium sulphide nanoparticles prepared by a novel method.

    PubMed

    Neelakandeswari, N; Sangami, G; Dharmaraj, N; Taek, Nam Ki; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-05-01

    A novel method to prepare cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) possessing nearly uniform size was adopted using eggshell membrane (ESM), under different pH conditions. Significant yield of CdS NPs with smallest possible size was obtained by increasing the pH of the reaction medium from acidic to alkaline. The above prepared CdS NPs have been characterized by UV-vis absorption as well as emission spectra, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The efficiency of the above prepared CdS NPs as a catalyst for the photodegradation of toluidine blue (TB) dye, as a function of pH as well as the ratio between the catalyst and the substrate was studied after irradiation with UV light. The results showed that an efficient interaction took place between the catalyst and the substrate to cause degradation of the selected dye. A maximum degradation of toluidine blue dye (90%) was observed at pH 8 which is higher than that of the efficiencies at pH 4 and pH 6.

  10. Using a time-geographical diary method in order to facilitate reflections on changes in patterns of daily occupations.

    PubMed

    Orban, Kristina; Edberg, Anna-Karin; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2012-05-01

    Time-use methodologies have been proposed to be established research techniques when exploring aspects of daily occupations. In this study, two graphs illustrating the time arrangement of occupations as they appear in a continuous sequence were used in order to encourage individuals to reflect on their everyday life. The aim was to investigate the usefulness of a time-geographical diary method (using illustrative graphs) in combination with stimulated-recall interviews, to facilitate reflections on how patterns of daily occupations change over time and the causes that lie behind these changes. The study had a qualitative design. The participants were two working, married mothers, i.e. individuals considered to have highly complex patterns of daily occupations. The data analysis was performed by using thematic content analysis. The results showed that the stimulated-recall interviews, based on the graphs, facilitated new insights that came to light concerning the scope of the participants' daily life. The method enabled the participants to reflect on their patterns of daily occupations and become aware of changes relevant to explain the causes for engaging in occupations the way they did. The method thus seems useful in research and practice for occupational therapists working with individuals with a need to change lifestyle.

  11. Statistical downscaling of daily precipitation over Llobregat river basin in Catalonia (Spain) using three downscaling methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballinas, R.; Versini, P.-A.; Sempere, D.; Escaler, I.

    2009-09-01

    environmental impact studies. Downscaling methods to assess the effect of large-scale circulations on local parameters have. Statistical downscaling methods are based on the view that regional climate can be conditioned by two factors: large-scale climatic state and regional/local features. Local climate information is derived by first developing a statistical model which relates large-scale variables or "predictors" for which GCMs are trustable to regional or local surface "predictands" for which models are less skilful. The main advantage of these methods is that they are computationally inexpensive, and can be applied to outputs from different GCM experiments. Three statistical downscaling methods are applied: Analogue method, Delta Change and Direct Forcing. These methods have been used to determine daily precipitation projections at rain gauge location to study the intensity, frequency and variability of storms in a context of climate change in the Llobregat River Basin in Catalonia, Spain. This work is part of the European project "Water Change" (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program). It deals with Medium and long term water resources modelling as a tool for planning and global change adaptation. Two stakeholders involved in the project provided the historical time series: Catalan Water Agency (ACA) and the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET).

  12. Accuracy evaluation of ClimGen weather generator and daily to hourly disaggregation methods in tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safeeq, Mohammad; Fares, Ali

    2011-12-01

    Daily and sub-daily weather data are often required for hydrological and environmental modeling. Various weather generator programs have been used to generate synthetic climate data where observed climate data are limited. In this study, a weather data generator, ClimGen, was evaluated for generating information on daily precipitation, temperature, and wind speed at four tropical watersheds located in Hawai`i, USA. We also evaluated different daily to sub-daily weather data disaggregation methods for precipitation, air temperature, dew point temperature, and wind speed at Mākaha watershed. The hydrologic significance values of the different disaggregation methods were evaluated using Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model. MuDRain and diurnal method performed well over uniform distribution in disaggregating daily precipitation. However, the diurnal method is more consistent if accurate estimates of hourly precipitation intensities are desired. All of the air temperature disaggregation methods performed reasonably well, but goodness-of-fit statistics were slightly better for sine curve model with 2 h lag. Cosine model performed better than random model in disaggregating daily wind speed. The largest differences in annual water balance were related to wind speed followed by precipitation and dew point temperature. Simulated hourly streamflow, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge were less sensitive to the method of disaggregating daily air temperature. ClimGen performed well in generating the minimum and maximum temperature and wind speed. However, for precipitation, it clearly underestimated the number of extreme rainfall events with an intensity of >100 mm/day in all four locations. ClimGen was unable to replicate the distribution of observed precipitation at three locations (Honolulu, Kahului, and Hilo). ClimGen was able to reproduce the distributions of observed minimum temperature at Kahului and wind speed at Kahului and Hilo. Although the weather

  13. Using Microcontact Printing as a Novel Method for Patterned Dyeing of Surface-adsorbed DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Emily; Budassi, Julia; Zhu, Ke; Sokolov, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    We use microcontact printing (MCP)^1 to stain individual DNA molecules adsorbed and combed onto a polymer-coated silicon surface. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps with micron-sized features have been used to selectively stain lambda DNA molecules with SyBr Gold dye. DNA was deposited out of dilute solution onto polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) layers, 70nm thick, spun-coated on Si wafers, producing linearly stretched and aligned molecules. The stamps were soaked in dye solutions for one minute, followed by wiping of excess solution with a swap. The stamp was pressed onto the surface, varying the pressure and time of application (typically 5-10 minutes) to control the staining. The DNA molecules were imaged with a fluorescence microscope equipped with a cooled CCD camera. Single molecules of DNA were successfully dyed and imaged with stamps having a grating pattern either parallel to or perpendicular to the DNA orientation. Supported by NSF-DMR MRSEC program.

  14. A comparative study of non-covalent encapsulation methods for organic dyes into silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Numerous luminophores may be encapsulated into silica nanoparticles (< 100 nm) using the reverse microemulsion process. Nevertheless, the behaviour and effect of such luminescent molecules appear to have been much less studied and may possibly prevent the encapsulation process from occurring. Such nanospheres represent attractive nanoplatforms for the development of biotargeted biocompatible luminescent tracers. Physical and chemical properties of the encapsulated molecules may be affected by the nanomatrix. This study examines the synthesis of different types of dispersed silica nanoparticles, the ability of the selected luminophores towards incorporation into the silica matrix of those nanoobjects as well as the photophysical properties of the produced dye-doped silica nanoparticles. The nanoparticles present mean diameters between 40 and 60 nm as shown by TEM analysis. Mainly, the photophysical characteristics of the dyes are retained upon their encapsulation into the silica matrix, leading to fluorescent silica nanoparticles. This feature article surveys recent research progress on the fabrication strategies of these dye-doped silica nanoparticles. PMID:21711855

  15. Comparison of correction methods of inhomogeneities in daily data on example of Central European temperature and precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Gruber, Ch.; Zahradnicek, P.

    2009-04-01

    Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for daily data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of daily adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of daily values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods were investigated more deeply and their results were mutually compared. The methods used were HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM of Olivier Mestre and a new method of Petr Stepanek. For the calculation, the software ProClimDB has been combined with R software scripts containing HOM and SPLIDHOM and the different methodological approaches were applied to daily data of various meteorological elements measured in the area of the Czech Republic. The tool is open and freely available. Series were processed by means of the developed ProClimDB and AnClim software (www.climahom.eu).

  16. An accurate method of plasma volume measurement by direct analysis of Evans blue spectra in plasma without dye extraction: origins of albumin-space variations during maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Farjanel, J; Denis, C; Chatard, J C; Geyssant, A

    1997-01-01

    The Evans blue dye (EBD) dilution method, including a dye extraction step, is a standard way of measuring plasma volume. This report describes a new direct spectrophotometric method, which is simple and specific and avoids the dye extraction step. To begin with, all the contaminants which may appear during a plasma volume study were added to plasma samples, prior to the absorbance measurements. In this way we calculated correction factors for the haemolysis and the turbidity of the plasma samples, without dye. The study of the visible spectra showed that the correction factors could be obtained by measuring absorbances at only four visible wavelengths: 780, 720, 619 and 578 nm. The addition of various amounts of contaminants to dye-containing plasma samples allowed us to obtain precise values for the absorbance errors. The previously defined correction factors were then applied, and the residual absorbance errors were found to become nil. This spectrophotometric method can be used to check the efficiency of a dye-extraction procedure, as well as to study other biological fluids containing EBD. When used to analyse a chronological series of blood samples this method appeared to provide an effective way of simultaneously studying the processes of plasma volume concentration and albumin extravasation induced by maximal exercise.

  17. A square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric method for the determination of Amaranth, a food additive dye.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Ahmad H

    2005-01-01

    Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) determinations of trace concentrations of the azo coloring agent Amaranth are described. The analytical methodology used was based on the adsorptive preconcentration of the dye on the hanging mercury drop electrode, followed by initiation of a negative sweep. In a pH 10 carbonate supporting electrolyte, Amaranth gave a well-defined and sensitive AdSV peak at -518 mV. The electroanalytical determination of this azo dye was found to be optimal in carbonate buffer (pH 10) under the following experimental conditions: accumulation time, 120 s; accumulation potential, 0.0 V; scan rate, 600 mV/s; pulse amplitude, 90 mV; and frequency, 50 Hz. Under these optimized conditions the AdSV peak current was proportional over the concentration range 1 x 10(-8)-1.1 x 10(-7) mol/L (r = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-9) mol/L (1.03 ppb). This analytical approach possessed enhanced sensitivity, compared with conventional liquid chromatography or spectrophotometry and it was simple and fast. The precision of the method, expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 0.23%, whereas the accuracy, expressed as the mean recovery, was 104%. Possible interferences by several substances usually present as food additive azo dyes (E110, E102), gelatin, natural and artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and antioxidants were also investigated. The developed electroanalyticals method was applied to the determination of Amaranth in soft drink samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by a reference spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) of these data showed that the results of the 2 methods compared favorably.

  18. The Use of a Daily Quiz "TOPday" as Supportive Learning Method for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Fluit, Cornelia R. M. G.; Holla, Micha; Drost, Gea; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; de Waal Malefijt, Maarten C.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Tanck, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Medical students consider anatomy, neurology, and traumatology as difficult study topics. A recent study showed that the daily quiz "Two Opportunities to Practice per day (TOPday)" positively supported biomedical students in analyzing and solving biomechanical problems. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of…

  19. Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Daily Activity in Terms of Ground Reaction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T. (Inventor); Breit, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to record and analyze habitual daily activity in terms of the history of gait-related musculoskeletal loading is disclosed. The device consists of a pressure-sensing insole placed into the shoe or embedded in a shoe sole, which detects contact of the foot with the ground. The sensor is coupled to a portable battery-powered digital data logger clipped to the shoe or worn around the ankle or waist. During the course of normal daily activity, the system maintains a record of time-of-occurrence of all non-spurious foot-down and lift-off events. Off line, these data are filtered and converted to a history of foot-ground contact times, from which measures of cumulative musculoskeletal loading, average walking- and running-specific gait speed, total time spent walking and running, total number of walking steps and running steps, and total gait-related energy expenditure are estimated from empirical regressions of various gait parameters to the contact time reciprocal. Data are available as cumulative values or as daily averages by menu selection. The data provided by this device are useful for assessment of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health and risk factors associated with habitual patterns of daily activity.

  20. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  1. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  2. Modeling daily discharge responses of a large karstic aquifer using soft computing methods: Artificial neural network and neuro-fuzzy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtulus, Bedri; Razack, Moumtaz

    2010-02-01

    SummaryThis paper compares two methods for modeling karst aquifers, which are heterogeneous, highly non-linear, and hierarchical systems. There is a clear need to model these systems given the crucial role they play in water supply in many countries. In recent years, the main components of soft computing (fuzzy logic (FL), and Artificial Neural Networks, (ANNs)) have come to prevail in the modeling of complex non-linear systems in different scientific and technologic disciplines. In this study, Artificial Neural Networks and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interface System (ANFIS) methods were used for the prediction of daily discharge of karstic aquifers and their capability was compared. The approach was applied to 7 years of daily data of La Rochefoucauld karst system in south-western France. In order to predict the karst daily discharges, single-input (rainfall, piezometric level) vs. multiple-input (rainfall and piezometric level) series were used. In addition to these inputs, all models used measured or simulated discharges from the previous days with a specified delay. The models were designed in a Matlab™ environment. An automatic procedure was used to select the best calibrated models. Daily discharge predictions were then performed using the calibrated models. Comparing predicted and observed hydrographs indicates that both models (ANN and ANFIS) provide close predictions of the karst daily discharges. The summary statistics of both series (observed and predicted daily discharges) are comparable. The performance of both models is improved when the number of inputs is increased from one to two. The root mean square error between the observed and predicted series reaches a minimum for two-input models. However, the ANFIS model demonstrates a better performance than the ANN model to predict peak flow. The ANFIS approach demonstrates a better generalization capability and slightly higher performance than the ANN, especially for peak discharges.

  3. A method for continuous monitoring of the Ground Reaction Force during daily activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Quintana, Jason; Emery, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling have identified peak cyclic force levels (or cyclic tissue strain energy density), number of daily loading cycles, and load (strain) rate as possible contributors to bone modeling and remodeling stimulus. To test our theoretical model and further investigate the influence of mechanical forces on bone density, we have focused on the calcaneus as a model site loaded by calcaneal surface tractions which are predominantly determined by the magnitude of the external ground reaction force (GRF).

  4. A ratiometric method of autofluorescence correction used for the quantification of Evans blue dye fluorescence in rabbit arterial tissues.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christopher L; Lever, M John

    2002-03-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) conjugates with albumin in the circulation and is frequently used to measure vascular protein leakage. The fluorescence of the dye from tissue sections can be used to measure its uptake at very specific anatomical locations, but problems arise with dye quantification because tissue components also fluoresce; so-called autofluorescence. We have measured uptake of EBD by blood vessel walls at various points around the aorto-renal branch of rabbits. High resolution, digitised, fluorescence images of histological sections of artery wall allowed detailed microscopic analysis of EBD accumulation; and a ratiometric method was developed to enable autofluorescence to be separated from EBD fluorescence. When EBD-free tissue sections were illuminated with blue light, the ratio of red to green fluorescence was constant throughout the tissue (0.59 +/- 0.03, mean +/- S.D., n = 32). Therefore, at each individual pixel, the level of red autofluorescence could be determined by multiplying the green intensity at that pixel by the calculated red to green ratio. Since EBD fluorescence was detected only in the red region of the spectrum, intensity values of the dye alone were obtained from EBD-exposed tissue by subtracting the red autofluorescence estimated by this ratiometric method. In such cases the red to green fluorescence ratio was measured from adjacent sites known to be free of EDB (0.59 +/- 0.02, mean +/- S.D., n = 56). We were therefore able to increase the sensitivity of tracer quantification by complete elimination of background autofluorescence on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Use of EBD standards allowed calibration of corrected fluorescence intensities and calculation of mass transfer coefficients for albumin into the artery wall. Spatial variations in the permeability of the artery wall around the renal ostium were detected with the present high resolution technique, with an average mass transfer coefficient of (6.8 +/- 0.9) x 10(-8) cm s(-1) for all

  5. An easy and inexpensive method for quantitative analysis of endothelial damage by using vital dye staining and Adobe Photoshop software.

    PubMed

    Saad, Hisham A; Terry, Mark A; Shamie, Neda; Chen, Edwin S; Friend, Daniel F; Holiman, Jeffrey D; Stoeger, Christopher

    2008-08-01

    We developed a simple, practical, and inexpensive technique to analyze areas of endothelial cell loss and/or damage over the entire corneal area after vital dye staining by using a readily available, off-the-shelf, consumer software program, Adobe Photoshop. The purpose of this article is to convey a method of quantifying areas of cell loss and/or damage. Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty corneal transplant surgery was performed by using 5 precut corneas on a human cadaver eye. Corneas were removed and stained with trypan blue and alizarin red S and subsequently photographed. Quantitative assessment of endothelial damage was performed by using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The average difference for cell area damage for analyses performed by 1 observer twice was 1.41%. For analyses performed by 2 observers, the average difference was 1.71%. Three masked observers were 100% successful in matching the randomized stained corneas to their randomized processed Adobe images. Vital dye staining of corneal endothelial cells can be combined with Adobe Photoshop software to yield a quantitative assessment of areas of acute endothelial cell loss and/or damage. This described technique holds promise for a more consistent and accurate method to evaluate the surgical trauma to the endothelial cell layer in laboratory models. This method of quantitative analysis can probably be generalized to any area of research that involves areas that are differentiated by color or contrast.

  6. High-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method for acrylic and polyester forensic fiber dye analysis.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Lauren M; Wilson, Trevor A; Ronald Fawcett, W

    2006-07-01

    A critical point of comparison between a fiber collected from a crime scene and a fiber from a known source is the color. Fiber dye analysis using thin-layer chromatography or ultraviolet (UV)-visible (Vis) microspectrophotometry provides useful, although limited, data for comparison. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/MS) overcomes these limitations by integrating chromatography, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry into a single instrument. In order to evaluate the applicability of the LC/MS to forensic fiber dye analysis, a multi-stage chromatographic method using acidified water and acidified acetonitrile was developed that separated and identified a mixture of 15 basic and 13 disperse dye standards. The LC/MS also detected and analyzed dyes extracted from individual 0.5 cm acrylic and polyester fibers, demonstrating its applicability to this type of analysis. With regard to the analysis of disperse dyes in polyester fibers, the replacement of pyridine with acetonitrile in the extraction system allowed direct injection of the extracts into the LC/MS. The advantage of the LC/MS over other instrumental methods of textile dye analysis is demonstrated by the analysis and differentiation of three black acrylic fibers: two fibers had similar UV-Vis spectra but were differentiated with chromatography and two had similar UV-Vis spectra and chromatograms but were differentiated using the mass spectrometer.

  7. A rapid screening method using DNA binding dyes to determine whether hair follicles have sufficient DNA for successful profiling.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Linacre, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    We report a simple screening method to assess the viability of successful DNA profiling from single hair follicles. A total of 48 hair samples (shed and plucked) were collected from male and female donors and the root tips (0.5cm) were stained using one of three DNA binding dyes (EvaGreen™, Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye and RedSafe™) at 20× concentration. The hairs were subsequently viewed under a Nikon Optiphot fluorescent microscope to count the approximate number of nuclei in one plane of view. The hairs were then processed using either (1) a DNA extraction kit (QIAmp(®) Mini Kit) and then amplified using the AmpFLSTR(®) NGM™ kit, which amplifies 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus the gender marker amelogenin, or (2) by direct PCR amplification using the same DNA profiling kit. Diamond™ dye had the lowest background signal and plucked hairs treated with this dye produced full DNA profiles when amplified directly and was chosen to screen a further 150 mixed hair samples. These hairs were separated into one of five categories (1, >100 nuclei; 1.5, 50-99 nuclei; 2, 1-49 nuclei; 2.5, no nuclei but high fluorescent signal; 3, no nuclei and very low fluorescent signal) from which 60 of the hairs were chosen to undergo direct amplification using the NGM™ kit. It was found that there was a direct correlation to the category designation and the ability to obtain a DNA profile up-loadable to the Australian DNA Database. Approximately 91% of category 1 hairs resulted in either a full or high partial (12-29 alleles) profile by direct PCR whereas about 78% of category 3 hairs exhibited no amplification. The results show that this method can be used to predict successful STR amplification from single hair follicles. It is a rapid, sensitive, cheap, non-destructive and easy to perform methodology applicable for screening multiple hairs in order to aid forensic investigators in predicting hairs that will yield DNA results.

  8. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Effect of air flow and effect of fabric dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    One sample each of commercial polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams were evaluated using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Air flow rates of 0, 0.16, 16, and 48 ml/sec were used to determine the effect of air flow on relative toxicity. Time to first sign of incapacitation and time to death were substantially reduced with both polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams by the introduction of 16 to 48 ml/sec air flow. The relative toxicity rankings of these materials were not altered by changes in air flow. Under these test conditions, the polyurethane foam consistently appeared more toxic than the polychloroprene foam. Samples of six different colors from the same fabric were evaluated separately, using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method, to determine the effect of fabric dye, if any. The material was an upholstery fabric, consisting of 46 percent cotton, 33 percent wool, and 21 percent nylon. There appeared to be no significant effect of fabric dye on relative toxicity, for this material under these test conditions.

  9. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Effect of air flow and effect of fabric dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    One sample each of commercial polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams were evaluated using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Air flow rates of 0, 0.16, 16, and 48 ml/sec were used to determine the effect of air flow on relative toxicity. Time to first sign of incapacitation and time to death were substantially reduced with both polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams by the introduction of 16 to 48 ml/sec air flow. The relative toxicity rankings of these materials were not altered by changes in air flow. Under these test conditions, the polyurethane foam consistently appeared more toxic than the polychloroprene foam. Samples of six different colors from the same fabric were evaluated separately, using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method, to determine the effect of fabric dye, if any. The material was an upholstery fabric, consisting of 46 percent cotton, 33 percent wool, and 21 percent nylon. There appeared to be no significant effect of fabric dye on relative toxicity, for this material under these test conditions.

  10. Production of Superoxide in Bacteria Is Stress- and Cell State-Dependent: A Gating-Optimized Flow Cytometry Method that Minimizes ROS Measurement Artifacts with Fluorescent Dyes

    PubMed Central

    McBee, Megan E.; Chionh, Yok H.; Sharaf, Mariam L.; Ho, Peiying; Cai, Maggie W. L.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microbial metabolism and stress response has emerged as a major theme in microbiology and infectious disease. Reactive fluorescent dyes have the potential to advance the study of ROS in the complex intracellular environment, especially for high-content and high-throughput analyses. However, current dye-based approaches to measuring intracellular ROS have the potential for significant artifacts. Here, we describe a robust platform for flow cytometric quantification of ROS in bacteria using fluorescent dyes, with ROS measurements in 10s-of-1000s of individual cells under a variety of conditions. False positives and variability among sample types (e.g., bacterial species, stress conditions) are reduced with a flexible four-step gating scheme that accounts for side- and forward-scattered light (morphological changes), background fluorescence, DNA content, and dye uptake to identify cells producing ROS. Using CellROX Green dye with Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG as diverse model bacteria, we show that (1) the generation of a quantifiable CellROX Green signal for superoxide, but not hydrogen peroxide-induced hydroxyl radicals, validates this dye as a superoxide detector; (2) the level of dye-detectable superoxide does not correlate with cytotoxicity or antibiotic sensitivity; (3) the non-replicating, antibiotic tolerant state of nutrient-deprived mycobacteria is associated with high levels of superoxide; and (4) antibiotic-induced production of superoxide is idiosyncratic with regard to both the species and the physiological state of the bacteria. We also show that the gating method is applicable to other fluorescent indicator dyes, such as the 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride for cellular esterase and reductive respiratory activities, respectively. These results demonstrate that properly controlled flow cytometry coupled

  11. Production of Superoxide in Bacteria Is Stress- and Cell State-Dependent: A Gating-Optimized Flow Cytometry Method that Minimizes ROS Measurement Artifacts with Fluorescent Dyes.

    PubMed

    McBee, Megan E; Chionh, Yok H; Sharaf, Mariam L; Ho, Peiying; Cai, Maggie W L; Dedon, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microbial metabolism and stress response has emerged as a major theme in microbiology and infectious disease. Reactive fluorescent dyes have the potential to advance the study of ROS in the complex intracellular environment, especially for high-content and high-throughput analyses. However, current dye-based approaches to measuring intracellular ROS have the potential for significant artifacts. Here, we describe a robust platform for flow cytometric quantification of ROS in bacteria using fluorescent dyes, with ROS measurements in 10s-of-1000s of individual cells under a variety of conditions. False positives and variability among sample types (e.g., bacterial species, stress conditions) are reduced with a flexible four-step gating scheme that accounts for side- and forward-scattered light (morphological changes), background fluorescence, DNA content, and dye uptake to identify cells producing ROS. Using CellROX Green dye with Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG as diverse model bacteria, we show that (1) the generation of a quantifiable CellROX Green signal for superoxide, but not hydrogen peroxide-induced hydroxyl radicals, validates this dye as a superoxide detector; (2) the level of dye-detectable superoxide does not correlate with cytotoxicity or antibiotic sensitivity; (3) the non-replicating, antibiotic tolerant state of nutrient-deprived mycobacteria is associated with high levels of superoxide; and (4) antibiotic-induced production of superoxide is idiosyncratic with regard to both the species and the physiological state of the bacteria. We also show that the gating method is applicable to other fluorescent indicator dyes, such as the 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride for cellular esterase and reductive respiratory activities, respectively. These results demonstrate that properly controlled flow cytometry coupled

  12. Mesoporous Nb2O5/SiO2 material obtained by sol-gel method and applied as adsorbent of crystal violet dye.

    PubMed

    Umpierres, Cibele S; Prola, Lizie D T; Adebayo, Matthew A; Lima, Eder C; Dos Reis, Glaydson S; Kunzler, Diego D F; Dotto, G L; Arenas, Leliz T; Benvenutti, Edilson V

    2017-03-01

    In this work, SiO2/Nb2O5 (SiNb) material was prepared using sol-gel method and employed as adsorbent for removal of crystal violet dye (CV). The material was characterized using nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, FTIR spectroscopy, pHpzc, and SEM-EDS. The analysis of N2 isotherms revealed the presence of micro- and mesopores in the SiNb sample with specific surface area as high as 747 m(2) g(-1). For the CV adsorption process, variations of several parameters such as of pH, temperature, contact time, and concentration of dye of the process were evaluated. The optimum initial pH of the CV dye solution was 7.0. The adsorption kinetic and equilibrium data for CV adsorption were suitably represented by the general-order and Liu models, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of the CV dye by SiNb was achieved at 303 K, which attained 116 mg g(-1) at this temperaure. Dye effluents were simulated and used to check the applicability of the SiNb material for treatment of effluents - the material showed very good efficiency for decolorization of dye effluents.

  13. Development and validation of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method for determination of illegal dyes and comparison to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Khalikova, Maria A; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr; Nováková, Lucie

    2015-05-18

    A novel simple, fast and efficient ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) method was developed and validated for the separation and quantitative determination of eleven illegal dyes in chili-containing spices. The method involved a simple ultrasound-assisted liquid extraction of illegal compounds with tetrahydrofuran. The separation was performed using a supercritical fluid chromatography system and CSH Fluoro-Phenyl stationary phase at 70°C. The mobile phase was carbon dioxide and the mixture of methanol:acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with 2.5% formic acid as an additive at the flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1). The UV-vis detection was accomplished at 500 nm for seven compounds and at 420 nm for Sudan Orange G, Butter Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC and Methyl Red due to their maximum of absorbance. All eleven compounds were separated in less than 5 min. The method was successfully validated and applied using three commercial samples of chili-containing spices - Chili sauce (Indonesia), Feferony sauce (Slovakia) and Mojo sauce (Spain). The linearity range of proposed method was 0.50-9.09 mg kg(-1) (r ≥ 0.995). The detection limits were determined as signal to noise ratio of 3 and were ranged from 0.15 mg kg(-1) to 0.60 mg kg(-1) (1.80 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet) for standard solution and from 0.25 mg kg(-1) to 1.00 mg kg(-1) (2.50 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet, 1.50 mg kg(-1) for Sudan Red 7B) for chili-containing samples. The recovery values were in the range of 73.5-107.2% and relative standard deviation ranging from 0.1% to 8.2% for within-day precision and from 0.5% to 8.8% for between-day precision. The method showed potential for being used to monitor forbidden dyes in food constituents. The developed UHPSFC method was compared to the UHPLC-UV method. The orthogonality of Sudan dyes separation by these two methods was demonstrated. Benefits and drawbacks were discussed showing the reliability of both methods for monitoring of studied illegal dyes in real

  14. Spectral analysis of complexes of the dye, 3,3'-diethyl thiacyanine and the anionic surfactant, SDS by the principal component analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Mandal, Anil; Kanta Pal, Medini

    1999-07-01

    The spectroscopic feature of the interaction of a cationic dye, 3,3'-diethyl thiacyanine iodide (THIA), with an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), in aqueous medium is discussed. SDS induces two metachromatic peaks in THIA at 404 and 380 nm at premicellar concentrations and only the monomeric peak at 425 nm at high postmicellar concentrations. The principal component analysis (PCA) method has been applied to determine the compositions as well as molar absorption coefficient ( ɛ) spectra of the metachromatic dye-surfactant complexes. Results of the PCA method definitely show that the observed peaks at 425, 404 and 380 nm of THIA in the presence of SDS at appropriate concentrations are due to the monomer, dimer, and trimer of THIA, respectively. Moreover, the equilibrium constant between monomer and trimer of the dye and surfactant has also been calculated by the method followed by Vitagliano et al., and found to be in close agreement with that obtained by the PCA method.

  15. A new in vivo interdental sampling method comparing a daily flossing regime versus a manual brush control.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, P; Barlow, A; Puri, G; Wright, K I T; Mussett, A; Zhou, X

    2004-01-01

    The impact of flossing the interdental space is typically assessed by visual methods of questionable reliability, such as clinician observations and evaluations for scoring of plaque on visual tooth surfaces. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a method to measure interproximal quantities of dental plaque, thereby permitting quantitative evaluations of between-teeth cleaning and biofilm removal. Laboratory studies were performed correlating the quantity of bacteria to the amount of measured protein in a sample using a standardized protein assay (Bio-Rad Protein Assay) and samples containing single bacterial species and saliva/bacterial pellets. Analysis of the plaque was standardized against a bovine serum albumin (BSA) control. Pilot studies helped develop a technique for hygienist-applied interproximal flossing, reducing contamination from saliva and other possible sources of indeterminate error. Repeated sampling experiments were carried out to optimize the technique needed to remove the majority of quantifiable plaque, the best choice of flossing material, and establish the technique for collection. A pilot clinical trial assessed the benefits of daily flossing in reducing measurable quantities of interproximal plaque using the developed method. Thirty-nine subjects had six interdental sites (distributed across all four quadrants, pre-molar and molar boundaries) sampled on either side, over a three-week treatment period, in two balanced and equally sized treatment groups, with twice-daily manual brushing with or without daily flossing. Laboratory studies confirmed the accuracy of the protein detection kit in assaying bacterial plaque loads from single species or complex biofilms. In pilot developmental screens, single flossing sweeps with appropriate dental floss were sufficient to remove the majority of quantifiable biomass from interproximal sites. The clinical study demonstrated that after three weeks, interdental plaque in floss users

  16. Development of a solid phase microextraction method for detection of the use of banned azo dyes in coloured textiles and leather

    PubMed

    Cioni; Bartolucci; Pieraccini; Meloni; Moneti

    1999-01-01

    A new method to detect the use of banned azo dyes in the manufacture and treatment of coloured textiles and leather is described. The determination of the azo dyes was made by quantification of aromatic amines generated by reductive cleavage in a citrate buffer medium. The aromatic amines were then extracted from 1 mL of the reaction solution by means of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We also evaluate accuracy, precision, range of linearity and limit of detection for the eighteen aromatic amines investigated, and show that the method is comparable with current established methods. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Interaction between azo dye Acid Red 14 and pepsin by multispectral methods and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ludan; Guo, Ronghui; Sun, Qiaomei; Lan, Jianwu; Li, Hui

    2017-04-05

    The interaction of synthetic azo dye Acid Red 14 with pepsin was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism and molecular docking. Results from the fluorescence spectroscopy show that Acid Red 14 has a strong capability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of pepsin with static quenching. Binding constant, number of the binding sites and thermodynamic parameters were measured at different temperatures. The result indicates that Acid Red 14 interact with pepsin spontaneously by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism spectra reveal that Acid Red 14 could slightly change the structure of pepsin. The hydrogen bond is formed between Acid Red 14 and Tyr-189 and Thr-218 residues of pepsin. Furthermore, the binding between Acid Red 14 and pepsin inhibits pepsin activity. The study can provide a way to analyze the biological safety of Acid Red 14 on digestive proteases or other proteins. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Method for retarding dye fading during archival storage of developed color photographic film. [inert atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.; Rhodes, C. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Dye fading during archival storage of developed color photographic film is retarded by placing the film in a sealed, opaque vault, introducing a dry, pressurized inert gas into the vault while the latter is vented, and sealing the vault after the air within the vault has been purged and replaced by the inert gas. Preferably, the gas is nitrogen; and the vault is stored at a temperature below room temperature to preserve the color photographic emulsions on the film contained within the vault. For short-term storage, sodium thiocyanate pads charged with water are placed within the vault. For long term storage, the interior of the vault is kept at a low relative humidity.

  19. A 'Plug and Play' Method to Create Water-dispersible Nanoassemblies Containing an Amphiphilic Polymer, Organic Dyes and Upconverting Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Arafeh, Khaled M; Asadirad, Amir M; Li, Jason Woodson; Wilson, Danielle; Wu, Tuoqi; Branda, Neil R

    2015-11-14

    In this protocol, we first describe a procedure to synthesize lanthanide doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs). We then demonstrate how to generate amphiphilic polymers in situ, and describe a protocol to encapsulate the prepared UCNPs and different organic dye molecules (porphyrins and diarylethenes) using polymer shells to form stable water-dispersible nanoassemblies. The nanoassembly samples containing both the UCNPs and the diarylethene organic dyes have interesting photochemical and photophysical properties. Upon 365 nm UV irradiation, the diarylethene group undergoes a visual color change. When the samples are irradiated with visible light of another specific wavelength, the color fades and the samples return to the initial colorless state. The samples also emit visible light from the UCNPs upon irradiation with 980 nm near-infrared light. The emission intensity of the samples can be tuned through alternate irradiation with UV and visible light. Modulation of fluorescence can be performed for many cycles without observable degradation of the samples. This versatile encapsulation procedure allows for the transfer of hydrophobic molecules and nanoparticles from an organic solvent to an aqueous medium. The polymer helps to maintain a lipid-like microenvironment for the organic molecules to aid in preservation of their photochemical behavior in water. Thus this method is ideal to prepare water-dispersible photoresponsive systems. The use of near-infrared light to activate upconverting nanoparticles allows for lower energy light to be used to activate photoreactions instead of more harmful ultraviolet light.

  20. A Novel Method for Simulating Stochastic Simulations of Daily Precipitation and Air Temperature at Multiple Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K.; Strong, C.; Rassoul-Agha, F.

    2016-12-01

    A parametric stochastic weather generator (SWG) is introduced that simulates trended, nonstationary precipitation and temperature values directly, circumventing the conventional approach of adding simulated standardized anomalies of temperature to a prescribed cyclostationary mean. The model mean makes autocorrelated transitions between wet- and dry-state values, and its parameters are determined by optimizing harmonic and trend terms. If the stochastic ("noise") term is assumed to have constant amplitude, analytical results are available via maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and are equivalent to least squares estimation (LSE). Where observations motivate a seasonally-varying noise coefficient, MLE becomes nonlinear, and we formulate an analytical solution via LSE. For illustration, the SWG is shown to produce realistic representations of daily precipitation and maximum and minimum air temperature at multiple sites, which for the study includes the eastern Great Basin in Northern Utah.

  1. Reuse of reactive dyes for dyeing of jute fabric.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S N; Pan, N C; Day, A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the work was to find out suitable method of dyeing so that costly reactive dye can be reused without draining them. The bleached jute fabric was dyed with four different class of reactive dyes namely, cold brand, hot brand, vinyl sulphone and high exhaustion (HE) brand. It is found that the two-step two-bath method of reactive dyeing, where exhaustion and fixation step is separated, is most ideal for reuse of dye bath. Separate original samples produced K/S value same as that of original sample and the K/S value of separate reuse sample varied from 50% to 80% of the original sample depending on the class of dye. In case of same bath method, colour yield of original reuse samples varies from only 10% to maximum 30% of the original samples depending on the class of dyes. Reuse of reactive dyes following separate bath method is particularly suitable for higher depth of shade (4% and above). This process not only utilises costly reactive dyes to the maximum extent but it also produces low water pollution as the effluent contain minimum amount of dye. So the process is economic and eco-friendly as well.

  2. Occupational competence strategies in old age: a mixed-methods comparison between Hispanic women with different levels of daily participation.

    PubMed

    Orellano, Elsa M; Mountain, Gail; Varas, Nelson; Labault, Nirzka

    2014-01-01

    In this pilot study, we explored the difference in the use of occupational competence strategies for daily participation between more active and less active older Hispanic women. Twenty-nine women who were 70 and older and lived alone participated in this study. We used a mixed-methods design by which the principal investigator administered a tool to measure participation restrictions during the quantitative phase and conducted in-depth interviews with a subsample in the qualitative phase. More active women predominantly used transportation resources, emotional social support, and spirituality to support participation in life activities. Less active women used more practical social support, assistive technology, and environmental modifications. Personal facilitators seemed to directly modify these strategies. These results suggest that older women with different activity levels use distinct internal and external resources to maintain or enhance daily participation. Future studies should explore whether these resources remain consistent across gender, living status, and ethnicity.

  3. A facile one-pot solvothermal method to produce superparamagnetic graphene-Fe3O4 nanocomposite and its application in the removal of dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiuhua; Feng, Cheng; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    A superparamagnetic graphene-Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposite (G/Fe(3)O(4)) was synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The nanocomposite G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the new method was firstly used as an adsorbent to remove dye for water pollution remediation. In comparison with G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the in situ chemical coprecipitation, the newly prepared G/Fe(3)O(4) had a higher adsorption efficiency for the dye. The adsorption characteristics of the nanocomposite adsorbent were examined using the organic dye pararosaniline as the adsorbate. The adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, and the effect of the adsorbent dosage and solution pH on the removal efficiency of pararosaniline were investigated. The adsorption capacity of G/Fe(3)O(4) for pararosaniline was evaluated using the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite can be easily manipulated in magnetic field for desired separation, leading to an easy removal of the dye from polluted water. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite would have a great potential in removing organic dyes from polluted water.

  4. An empirical method for estimating probability density functions of gridded daily minimum and maximum temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussana, C.

    2013-04-01

    The presented work focuses on the investigation of gridded daily minimum (TN) and maximum (TX) temperature probability density functions (PDFs) with the intent of both characterising a region and detecting extreme values. The empirical PDFs estimation procedure has been realised using the most recent years of gridded temperature analysis fields available at ARPA Lombardia, in Northern Italy. The spatial interpolation is based on an implementation of Optimal Interpolation using observations from a dense surface network of automated weather stations. An effort has been made to identify both the time period and the spatial areas with a stable data density otherwise the elaboration could be influenced by the unsettled station distribution. The PDF used in this study is based on the Gaussian distribution, nevertheless it is designed to have an asymmetrical (skewed) shape in order to enable distinction between warming and cooling events. Once properly defined the occurrence of extreme events, it is possible to straightforwardly deliver to the users the information on a local-scale in a concise way, such as: TX extremely cold/hot or TN extremely cold/hot.

  5. A Dye-Tracer Technique for Experimentally Obtaining Impingement Characteristics of Arbitrary Bodies and a Method for Determining Droplet Size Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonGlahn, Uwe H.; Gelder, Thomas F.; Smyers, William H., Jr.

    1955-01-01

    A dye-tracer technique has been developed whereby the quantity of dyed water collected on a blotter-wrapped body exposed to an air stream containing a dyed-water spray cloud can be colorimetrically determined in order to obtain local collection efficiencies, total collection efficiency, and rearward extent of impingement on the body. In addition, a method has been developed whereby the impingement characteristics obtained experimentally for a body can be related to theoretical impingement data for the same body in order to determine the droplet size distribution of the impinging cloud. Several cylinders, a ribbon, and an aspirating device to measure cloud liquid-water content were used in the studies presented herein for the purpose of evaluating the dye-tracer technique. Although the experimental techniques used in the dye-tracer technique require careful control, the methods presented herein should be applicable for any wind tunnel provided the humidity of the air stream can be maintained near saturation.

  6. A Method for Gait Analysis in a Daily Living Environment by Body-Mounted Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtaki, Yasuaki; Sagawa, Koichi; Inooka, Hikaru

    A new method is proposed to investigate kinematics and dynamics of locomotion without any limitation of laboratorial conditions. This method enables simple measurements and numerical kinematical calculations with small body-mounted instruments utilizing accelerometers and gyroscopes. Temporal parameters of gait are determined by classification of accelerations and angular velocities. Joint angles, joint moments, and energy consumptions as mechanical works are estimated assuming rigid-body dynamics in sagittal plane. The method is verified by comparing the results of video-based motion capture system and force plates as conventional standards, evaluating accuracy for normal level walking at four cadences. No significant differences are observed between the results of the proposed method and those from the conventional method. It confirms the validity of the proposed method for healthy subjects and the method can provides free mobility in the investigation of locomotive dynamics beyond the gait laboratory.

  7. Highly transparent carbon counter electrode prepared via an in situ carbonization method for bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bu, Chenghao; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Zhenhua; You, Sujian; Huang, Niu; Liang, Liangliang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2013-08-14

    A facile in situ carbonization method was demonstrated to prepare the highly transparent carbon counter electrode (CE) with good mechanical stability for bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical and electrochemical properties of carbon CEs were dramatically affected by the composition and concentration of the precursor. The well-optimized carbon CE exhibited high transparency and sufficient catalytic activity for I3(-) reduction. The bifacial DSC with obtained carbon CE achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.04% under rear-side illumination, which approaches 85% that of front-side illumination (6.07%). Moreover, the device shows excellent stability as confirmed by the aging test. These promising results reveal the enormous potential of this transparent carbon CE in scaling up and commercialization of low cost and effective bifacial DSCs.

  8. A shortcut organic dye-based staining method for the detection of DNA both in agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cong, Weitao; Chen, Mao; Zhu, Zhongxin; Liu, Zhiguo; Nan, Jia; Ye, Weijian; Ni, Maowei; Zhao, Ting; Jin, Litai

    2013-02-21

    In this study, we describe a brief, sensitive and safe organic dye-based staining method for the visualization of DNA both in agarose and polyacrylamide gels by using Victoria Pure Blue BO (VPBBO). Down to 0.8-1.6 ng of λ DNA/HindIII markers in agarose gels and 0.4-0.8 ng of pUC18 DNA/Mspl markers in polyacrylamide gels can be successfully detected within 15 and 10 min by the new developed technique, respectively. Moreover, the mechanism of the VPBBO staining was investigated and further confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and molecular docking. The results indicated that the interaction between VPBBO and DNA is mainly due to groove binding.

  9. Axillary lymph node recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy performed using a combination of indocyanine green fluorescence and the blue dye method in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoo; Nishi, Toshio; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Nishimae, Ayaka; Sawai, Yuka; Yamasaki, Masaru; Inaji, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    There is limited information on indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence and blue dye for detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) in early breast cancer. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the feasibility of an SLN biopsy using the combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method. Seven hundred and fourteen patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer were included in this study. They underwent SLN biopsy using a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method from March 2007 to February 2014. The ICG (a fluorescence-emitting source) and patent blue (the blue dye) were injected into the patients' subareolar region. The removed lymph nodes that had ICG fluorescence and/or blue dye uptake were defined as SLNs. The results of the SLN biopsies and follow-up results of patients who underwent SLN biopsy alone were investigated. In 711 out of 714 patients, SLNs were identified by a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method (detection rate, 99.6 %). The average number of SLNs was 2.4 (range 1-7), and the average number of resected swollen para-SLNs was 0.4 (range 0-5). Ninety-nine patients with an SLN and/or para-SLN involvement during the intraoperative pathological diagnosis underwent axillary lymph node resection (ALND). In addition, two of three patients whose SLN was not identified also underwent ALND. In 46 of 101 patients with an ALND, non-SLN involvement was not found. Follow-up results were analyzed in 464 patients with invasive carcinoma excluding those with ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 148) and those who underwent ALND (n = 101). During the follow-up period (range 4.4-87.7 months; median, 38 months), two patients (0.4 %) developed axillary lymph node recurrence. They were successfully salvaged, and to date, no further locoregional recurrence has been observed. A high rate of SLN detection and low rate of axillary lymph node recurrence were confirmed by an SLN biopsy using a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye

  10. A comparison of methods to predict historical daily streamflow time series in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, William H.; Archfield, Stacey A.; Over, Thomas M.; Hay, Lauren E.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.; Kiang, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Effective and responsible management of water resources relies on a thorough understanding of the quantity and quality of available water. Streamgages cannot be installed at every location where streamflow information is needed. As part of its National Water Census, the U.S. Geological Survey is planning to provide streamflow predictions for ungaged locations. In order to predict streamflow at a useful spatial and temporal resolution throughout the Nation, efficient methods need to be selected. This report examines several methods used for streamflow prediction in ungaged basins to determine the best methods for regional and national implementation. A pilot area in the southeastern United States was selected to apply 19 different streamflow prediction methods and evaluate each method by a wide set of performance metrics. Through these comparisons, two methods emerged as the most generally accurate streamflow prediction methods: the nearest-neighbor implementations of nonlinear spatial interpolation using flow duration curves (NN-QPPQ) and standardizing logarithms of streamflow by monthly means and standard deviations (NN-SMS12L). It was nearly impossible to distinguish between these two methods in terms of performance. Furthermore, neither of these methods requires significantly more parameterization in order to be applied: NN-SMS12L requires 24 regional regressions—12 for monthly means and 12 for monthly standard deviations. NN-QPPQ, in the application described in this study, required 27 regressions of particular quantiles along the flow duration curve. Despite this finding, the results suggest that an optimal streamflow prediction method depends on the intended application. Some methods are stronger overall, while some methods may be better at predicting particular statistics. The methods of analysis presented here reflect a possible framework for continued analysis and comprehensive multiple comparisons of methods of prediction in ungaged basins (PUB

  11. A Simple and Effective Daily Pain Management Method for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, Regiane S.; Proctor, Julian W.; Slack, Robert; Marlowe, Ursula; Ashby, Karlotta R.; Schenken, Larry L.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: The incidence of painful bone metastases increases with longer survival times. Although external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is an effective palliative treatment, it often requires several days from the start of treatment to produce a measurable reduction in pain scores and a qualitative amelioration of patient pain levels. Meanwhile, the use of analgesics remains the best approach early on in the treatment course. We investigated the role of radiation therapists as key personnel for collecting daily pain scores to supplement assessments by physician and oncology nursing staff and manage pain more effectively during radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Daily pain scores were obtained by the radiation therapists for 89 patients undertaking a total of 124 courses of EBRT for bone metastases and compared with pretreatment pain scores. The majority of patients (71%) were treated to 30 Gy (range, 20-37.5) in 10 fractions (range, 8-15 fractions). Results: One hundred nineteen treatment courses (96%) were completed. Pain scores declined rapidly to 37.5%, 50%, and 75% of the pretreatment levels by Days 2, 4, and 10, respectively. Pain was improved in 91% of patients with only 4% of worse pain at the end of treatment. Improved pain scores were maintained in 83% of patients at 1-month follow-up, but in 35% of them, the pain was worse than at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Collection of daily pain scores by radiation therapists was associated with an effective reduction in pain scores early on during EBRT of painful osseous metastases.

  12. Bismuth oxide decorated graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized via sonochemical assisted hydrothermal method for adsorption of cationic organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Das, Trupti R; Patra, Santanu; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2017-09-01

    Bismuth oxide decorated graphene oxide (Bi2O3@GO) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by sonochemical method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The structural, morphology/microstructure and functional groups were investigated through X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. In the FESEM and TEM studies, well dispersed Bi2O3 nanoparticles of size 3-5nm were found uniformly distributed throughout the surface and edges of GO sheets. The HRTEM measurements on the Bi2O3 nanoparticle decorated graphene oxide shows imaged lattice spacing of 3.2Å corresponding to (111) plane of Bi2O3 which confirms the successful synthesis of bismuth oxide decorated graphene oxide (Bi2O3@GO) nanocomposite. The synthesized nanocomposite was employed for adsorption and removal of cationic organic dyes like RhB from industrial wastewater. The effect of various parameters, viz., contact time, temperature, pH and amount of adsorbent on the adsorption capability as well as dye removal capacity of the adsorbent was studied in detail. Under optimized conditions, like, contact time (65min), amount of adsorbent (5mg), temperature (35°) and pH (4), the adsorption capacity of GO and Bi2O3@GO were recorded and the percentage of removal was found to be 64% and 80.7% for GO and Bi2O3@GO, respectively. The Bi2O3@GO nanocomposite shows higher adsorption capacity (320mg/g) as compare to only GO (224mg/g). The adsorption isotherm follows both the Temkin as well as Langmuir isotherm having heat of sorption 65.88 with Langmuir constant of 13.13 corresponding to the complete monolayer coverage of 387.44mg/g. The adsorption kinetics also follow, both pseudo first order and intraparticle diffusion model with adsorption capacity of 84.91mg/g and intra particle diffusion rate constant of 10.53mg/g min(1/2) for Bi2O3@GO nanocomposites. Our results suggest that the

  13. Application of contact glow discharge electrolysis method for degradation of batik dye waste Remazol Red by the addition of Fe2+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksono, Nelson; Puspita, Indah; Sukreni, Tulus

    2017-03-01

    Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (CGDE) has been shown to degrade much weight organic compounds such as dyes because the production of hydroxil radical (•OH) is excess. This research aims to degrade batik dye waste Remazol Red, using CGDE method with the addition of Fe2+ ion. The addition of iron salt compounds has proven to increase process efficiency. Dye degradation is known by measure its absorbances with Spectrophotometer UV-Vis. The result of study showed that percentage degradation was 99.92% in 20 minutes which obtained by using Na2SO4 0.01 M, with addition FeSO4 0,1 gram, applied voltage 860 volt, and 1 wolfram anode 5 mm depth.

  14. Application of a dye-binding method for the determination of available lysine in skim milk powders.

    PubMed

    Aalaei, Kataneh; Rayner, Marilyn; Tareke, Eden; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

    2016-04-01

    A dye-binding method using Acid Orange 12 was investigated regarding its suitability for the quantification of available lysine, as a means of monitoring the Maillard reaction in skim milk powders. The method was evaluated by analyzing a wide range of milk powders produced by three different drying methods and stored under various conditions. A pilot-scale freeze-dryer, spray-dryer and drum-dryer were used to produce skim milk powders and the samples were stored at two temperatures (20 °C and 30 °C) and two relative humidities (33% and 52%) under strictly controlled conditions. Moreover to validate the method, two protein isolates; bovine serum albumin and casein were investigated for their available lysine content. The results demonstrate the suitability of this method for measuring the available lysine in skim milk powders with good precision and high reproducibility. The relative standard deviations obtained from the 125 freeze-dried powders were 1.8%, and those from the 100 drum-dried samples were all 1.9%. The highest variation was found for the spray-dried powders, which showed relative standard deviations between 0.9% and 6.7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mild extraction methods using aqueous glucose solution for the analysis of natural dyes in textile artefacts dyed with Dyer's madder (Rubia tinctorum L.).

    PubMed

    Ford, Lauren; Henderson, Robert L; Rayner, Christopher M; Blackburn, Richard S

    2017-03-03

    Madder (Rubia tinctorum L.) has been widely used as a red dye throughout history. Acid-sensitive colorants present in madder, such as glycosides (lucidin primeveroside, ruberythric acid, galiosin) and sensitive aglycons (lucidin), are degraded in the textile back extraction process; in previous literature these sensitive molecules are either absent or present in only low concentrations due to the use of acid in typical textile back extraction processes. Anthraquinone aglycons alizarin and purpurin are usually identified in analysis following harsh back extraction methods, such those using solvent mixtures with concentrated hydrochloric acid at high temperatures. Use of softer extraction techniques potentially allows for dye components present in madder to be extracted without degradation, which can potentially provide more information about the original dye profile, which varies significantly between madder varieties, species and dyeing technique. Herein, a softer extraction method involving aqueous glucose solution was developed and compared to other back extraction techniques on wool dyed with root extract from different varieties of Rubia tinctorum. Efficiencies of the extraction methods were analysed by HPLC coupled with diode array detection. Acidic literature methods were evaluated and they generally caused hydrolysis and degradation of the dye components, with alizarin, lucidin, and purpurin being the main compounds extracted. In contrast, extraction in aqueous glucose solution provides a highly effective method for extraction of madder dyed wool and is shown to efficiently extract lucidin primeveroside and ruberythric acid without causing hydrolysis and also extract aglycons that are present due to hydrolysis during processing of the plant material. Glucose solution is a favourable extraction medium due to its ability to form extensive hydrogen bonding with glycosides present in madder, and displace them from the fibre. This new glucose method offers an

  16. Ecological Momentary Assessment: A Research Method for Studying the Daily Lives of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Russell L.; Weiss, Howard M.; Templin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as an effective approach for capturing teachers' emotional states and behaviours over time. Although the implementation of EMA has a rich and successful history among social science researchers in general, traditional retrospective, self-report methods for collecting…

  17. Bias correction of global and regional simulated daily precipitation and surface mean temperature over Southeast Asia using quantile mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, Sheau Tieh; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew

    2017-02-01

    A trend preserving quantile mapping (QM) method was applied to adjust the biases of the global and regional climate models (GCM and RCMs) simulated daily precipitation and surface mean temperature over Southeast Asia regions based on APHRODITE dataset. Output from four different RCMs as well as their driving GCM in CORDEX-EA archive were corrected to examine the added value of RCMs dynamical downscaling in the context of bias adjustment. The result shows that the RCM biases are comparable to that of the GCM biases. In some instances, RCMs amplified the GCM biases. Generally, QM method substantially improves the biases for both precipitation and temperature. However, the bias adjustment method works better for surface mean temperature and less so for daily precipitation. The large inter-models variability is reduced remarkably after bias adjustment. Overall, study indicates no strong evident that RCMs downscaling as an immediate step before bias correction provides additional improvement to the sub-regional climate compared to the correction directly carried out on their forcing GCM.

  18. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of dye residues in aquaculture products: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud-Pessel, D; Couëdor, P; Verdon, E

    2011-03-25

    A method is described for the identification and the quantitative determination of the triphenylmethane dyes, malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), brilliant green (BG) and leuco malachite green (LMG) and leuco crystal violet (LCV). The analytes were isolated from the matrix by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile. Determination was performed using LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionisation. 4 different deuterated internal standards were introduced to improve the quantitative performance of the method. The method has been validated in line with the EU criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC in accordance with the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) set at 2 μgkg(-1) for the sum of MG and LMG. For all the monitored compounds, accuracy, intra-day and inter-day precision were determined at each level of fortification (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 2.0 μgkg(-1)). Decision limits CCα and detection capabilities CCβ were calculated according to the standard ISO 11843-2. A study on the applicability of the method was conducted on various aquacultured species with the aim to assess the matrix effects. The presence of residues of leuco brilliant green in fish has also been confirmed from experimental study performed on trout treated with brilliant green, using LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

  19. On a possible method for daily adjustment of severe storm radar criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brylev, G. B.; Salman, Y. M.

    1975-01-01

    A method is proposed of adjusting the radar criteria for severe storms, taking into account the height of the minus 22 C isotherm, the minimum value of the maximum magnitude of the radar reflectivity in thunderstorms at the same level for a specific region, and the various types of homogeneous air masses in the air. Formulas for the criteria are presented which take into account specified errors of discrimination.

  20. Threshold detection for the generalized Pareto distribution: Review of representative methods and application to the NOAA NCDC daily rainfall database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langousis, Andreas; Mamalakis, Antonios; Puliga, Michelangelo; Deidda, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    In extreme excess modeling, one fits a generalized Pareto (GP) distribution to rainfall excesses above a properly selected threshold u. The latter is generally determined using various approaches, such as nonparametric methods that are intended to locate the changing point between extreme and nonextreme regions of the data, graphical methods where one studies the dependence of GP-related metrics on the threshold level u, and Goodness-of-Fit (GoF) metrics that, for a certain level of significance, locate the lowest threshold u that a GP distribution model is applicable. Here we review representative methods for GP threshold detection, discuss fundamental differences in their theoretical bases, and apply them to 1714 overcentennial daily rainfall records from the NOAA-NCDC database. We find that nonparametric methods are generally not reliable, while methods that are based on GP asymptotic properties lead to unrealistically high threshold and shape parameter estimates. The latter is justified by theoretical arguments, and it is especially the case in rainfall applications, where the shape parameter of the GP distribution is low; i.e., on the order of 0.1-0.2. Better performance is demonstrated by graphical methods and GoF metrics that rely on preasymptotic properties of the GP distribution. For daily rainfall, we find that GP threshold estimates range between 2 and 12 mm/d with a mean value of 6.5 mm/d, while the existence of quantization in the empirical records, as well as variations in their size, constitute the two most important factors that may significantly affect the accuracy of the obtained results.

  1. Application of experimental design and derivative spectrophotometry methods in optimization and analysis of biosorption of binary mixtures of basic dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ghezelbash, Gholam Reza; Pepe, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Simultaneous biosorption of malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) on biosorbent Yarrowia lipolytica ISF7 was studied. An appropriate derivative spectrophotometry technique was used to evaluate the concentration of each dye in binary solutions, despite significant interferences in visible light absorbances. The effects of pH, temperature, growth time, initial MG and CV concentration in batch experiments were assessed using Design of Experiment (DOE) according to central composite second order response surface methodology (RSM). The analysis showed that the greatest biosorption efficiency (>99% for both dyes) can be obtained at pH 7.0, T=28°C, 24h mixing and 20mgL(-1) initial concentrations for both MG and CV dyes. The quadratic constructed equation ability for fitting experimental data is judged based on criterions like R(2) values, significant p and lack-of-fit value strongly confirm its high adequacy and applicability for prediction of revel behavior of the system under study. The proposed model showed very high correlation coefficients (R(2)=0.9997 for CV and R(2)=0.9989 for MG), while supported by closeness of predicted and experimental value. A kinetic analysis was carried out, showing that for both dyes a pseudo-second order kinetic model adequately describes the available data. The Langmuir isotherm model in single and binary components has better performance for description of dyes biosorption with maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of 59.4 and 62.7mgg(-1) in single component and 46.4 and 50.0mgg(-1) for CV and MB in binary components, respectively. The surface structure of biosorbents and the possible biosorbents-dyes interactions between were also evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The values of thermodynamic parameters including ΔG° and ΔH° strongly confirm which method is spontaneous and endothermic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. An improved method for removal of azo dye orange II from textile effluent using albumin as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Tadashi; Jara, Alícia M T; Batista, Anabelle C L; Franco, Luciana O; Barbosa Lima, Marcos A; Benachour, Mohand; Alves da Silva, Carlos A; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2012-11-30

    Azo dyes are generally resistant to biodegradation due to their complex structures. Acid orange II is one of the most widely used dyes in the textile industry. The influence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in different concentrations, pH, and time of contact on Orange II was investigated using kinetics and adsorption-isotherm experiments. The results showed that the maximum colour removed from dye/albumin was 99.50% and that a stable dye-protein complex had been formed at pH 3.5 and in a proportion of 1:3 (v/v), respectively. The synthetic effluent did not show toxicity to the microcrustacean Artemia salina, and showed a CL₅₀ equal to 97 µg/mL to azo dye orange II. Additionally, the methodology was effective in removing the maximum of orange II using BSA by adsorption at pH 3.5 which mainly attracted ions to the azo dye during the adsorption process. This suggests that this form of treatment is economical and easy to use which potentially could lead to bovine serum albumin being used as a sorbent for azo dyes.

  3. Photophysical property and photostability of J-aggregate thin films of thiacyanine dyes prepared by the spin-coating method.

    PubMed

    Tani, Katsuhiko; Ito, Chizuru; Hanawa, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Mamoru; Otaguro, Kunihiko; Horiuchi, Hiroaki; Hiratsuka, Hiroshi

    2008-01-24

    By use of electrostatic interactions of dye molecules and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), the spin-coating technique has been successfully applied to the preparation of stable J-aggregate thin films of thiacarbocyanine dyes on a polycarbonate or quartz plate. The J-aggregate thin films were prepared by the spin-coating of PDDA aqueous solution on dye thin films prepared on a substrate by the spin-coating of 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propanol solution of dyes. Photophysical properties of the dye thin films and J-aggregate thin films were studied by measuring the fluorescence spectra, quantum yields, and lifetimes. Coherent size of the J-aggregates was estimated to be 3-12 by means of the absorption bandwidth (full width at half maximum) or radiative lifetime. Photostability of the J-aggregate thin films was also studied in terms of photodegradation efficiency under argon and oxygen in comparison with the dye thin films, and J-aggregate thin films were found to be more stable than the corresponding dye thin films.

  4. Detection of germline BRCA1 mutations by Multiple-Dye Cleavase Fragment Length Polymorphism (MD-CFLP) method

    PubMed Central

    Casadei, S; Cortesi, L; Pensotti, V; Radice, P; Pierotti, M; Amadori, D; Calistri, D

    2001-01-01

    We describe the Multiple-Dye Cleavase Fragment Length Polymorphism (MD-CFLP) method set up for a sensitive and preliminary rapid screening of BRCA1 mutations. We analysed exons 11 and 16, which are known to cover slightly more than 70% of the whole coding region of the gene, subdivided into 4 amplicons and labelled with different fluorescent dUTPs. MD-CFLP was first utilised on a panel of 30 DNA samples in which the presence of single-base substitutions or small deletions/insertions had been previously identified by direct sequencing as gold standard, in order to define the optimal conditions in terms of PCR amplification and temperature of digestion. In a second step, we blindly analysed 21 DNA samples by MD-CFLP to verify its reliability. The sensitivity and specificity of MD-CFLP were both 100% in the first study, and 80% and 94%, respectively, in the blind sample assay. Our results demonstrate the capability of the MD-CFLP method to detect DNA sequence alterations in fragments of more than 1 kb. We conclude that CFLP is a powerful tool in mutational analysis, offering reliable results in a shorter time and at a lower cost than conventional methods, and its potential can be enhanced when internal fluorescent labelling and laser detection are used. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11556835

  5. A marine bacterial adhesion microplate test using the DAPI fluorescent dye: a new method to screen antifouling agents.

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Delbarre-Ladrat, C; Ghillebaert, F; Rochet, M J; Compère, C; Combes, D

    2007-04-01

    To develop a method to screen antifouling agents against marine bacterial adhesion as a sensitive, rapid and quantitative microplate fluorescent test. Our experimental method is based on a natural biofilm formed by mono-incubation of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41 in sterile natural sea water in a 96-well polystyrene microplate. The 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dye was used to quantify adhered bacteria in each well. The total measured fluorescence in the wells was correlated with the amount of bacteria showing a detection limit of one bacterium per 5 microm(2) and quantifying 2 x 10(7) to 2 x 10(8) bacteria adhered per cm(2). The antifouling properties of three commercial surface-active agents and chlorine were tested by this method in the prevention of adhesion and also in the detachment of already adhered bacteria. The marine bacterial adhesion inhibition rate depending on the agent concentration showed a sigmoid shaped dose-response curve. This test is well adapted for a rapid and quantitative first screening of antifouling agents directly in seawater in the early steps of marine biofilm formation. In contrast to the usual screenings of antifouling products which detect a bactericidal activity, this test is more appropriate to screen antifouling agents for bacterial adhesion removal or bacterial adhesion inhibition activities. This screening test focuses on the antifouling properties of the products, especially the initial steps of marine biofilm formation.

  6. Statistical downscaling of daily precipitation over Llobregat River Basin in Catalunya, Spain using analog method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballinas, R.; Versini, P.-A.; Sempere, D.; Escaler, I.

    2009-04-01

    Since anthropogenic climate change has become an important issue, the need to provide regional climate change information has increased, both for impact assessment studies and policy making. A regional climate is determined by interactions at large, regional and local scales. The general circulation models (GCMs) are run at too coarse resolution to permit accurate description of these regional and local interactions. So far, they have been unable to provide consistent estimates of climate change on a local scale. Several regionalization techniques have been developed to bridge the gap between the large-scale information provided by GCMs and fine spatial scales required for regional and environmental impact studies. Statistical downscaling technique is based on the view that regional climate may be seen to be conditioned by two factors: large-scale climatic state and regional/local features. Local climate information is derived by first developing a statistical model which relates large-scale variables or ‘‘predictors'' for which GCMs are trustable to regional or local surface ‘‘predictands'' for which models are less skilful. The main advantage of these techniques is that they are computationally inexpensive, and can be applied to outputs from different GCM experiments. In dynamical downscaling methods, a regional climate model (RCM) uses GCM outputs as its initial and boundary conditions. A statistical downscaling procedure based on an analogue technique has been used to determine projections for future climate change in the Llobregat River Basin in Catalunya, Spain. Llobregat Basin is one of the most important of Catalonia because it provides a significant amount of water for numerous cities that make up including Barcelona. This work is part of the European project "Water Change" (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program). It deals with Medium and long term water resources modelling as a tool for planning and global change

  7. Repeated plasma volume determination with the Evans Blue dye dilution technique: the method and a computer program.

    PubMed

    Foldager, N; Blomqvist, C G

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a reliable multiple sample Evans Blue dye dilution technique and a Pascal program which computes plasma and blood volume on the basis of this technique. The program performs needed corrections and dye disappearance curve fitting. It provides menu-driven facilities for data correction, graphic display of the dye disappearance curve, and print-out of all the involved data. Means +/- S.E.M. for three plasma volume determinations in each of six resting subjects were: 3239 +/- 96 ml, 3189 +/- 81 ml, and 3187 +/- 102 ml. The differences were not statistically significant.

  8. Response surface methodology (RSM) modeling of microwave-assisted extraction of natural dye from Swietenia mahagony: A comparation between Box-Behnken and central composite design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuma, Heri Septya; Sudrajat, Robby Ginanjar Margo; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Gala, Selfina; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand of non-toxic and environmentally friendly dyes, colorants that come from natural source have risen as an alternative of sintetic poisonous dyes. In this research natural dye from S. mahagony was extracted using microwave-assisted extraction method under different operating condition such as extraction time (10-30min), plant material to solvent ratio (0.03-0.05g/mL) and microwave power level (100-380 watt). Box-Behnken method and central composite design (CCD) method is widely used for modeling response surface methodology (RSM), both methods show good prediction performance. In this study response surface methodology was performed to optimize the process, both methods were performed by the help Statgraphics Centurion 16 to evaluate the effects of different operating parameters. Finally, both methods were statistically compared by root mean square error (RMSE) and absolute average deviation (AAD) based on validation data set. Further, result suggests that CCD has better performance as compared to Box-Behnken method. The maximum yield obtained for Box-Behnken is 3.7647% (380 watt, 0.0339g/mL, 28.8899min) and 3.7506% (379.986 watt, 0.0378g/mL, 30min) for central composite design method.

  9. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus lamk) wood waste as a textile natural dye by micowave-assisted extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadariyah, Lailatul; Gala, Selfina; Widoretno, Dhaniar Rulandri; Kunhermanti, Delita; Bhuana, Donny S.; Sumarno, Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    The development of technology causes most of textile industries in Indonesia prefer to use synthetic dyes in the fabric dyeing process. In fact, synthetic dyes is able to have negative effect since it is is toxic to the health of workers and environment. To resolve this issues, one way to do is to use natural dyes. One of untapped potential in Indonesia is wood waste of jackfruit from furniture industry. Jackfruit wood itself containing dyestuffs which gives yellow color pigment so that it can be used as an alternative source of natural dyes. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of extraction time, mass to solvent volume ratio, and microwave power to yield of dyes. The extract of dye analyzed by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and GC-MS, along the coloring and endurance tests of natural dyes on fabric and compare it with synthetic dyes. In this research, material is going to be extracted is the wood of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus lamk) with material size between 35 mesh - 60 mesh. The extraction process is done by using ethanol 96%. Extraction using MAE is carried out at the ratio of materials to solvent of 0,02-0,1 g/mL, the microwave power of 100-800 Watt, and the extraction time of 10-90 minutes. The conclusion is at microwave power of 400 Watt, material to solvent ratio of the 0,02 g/mL, the yield is 3,39% while at microwave power of 600 Watt, material to solvent ratio of the 0,02 g/mL, the yield is 3,67% with extraction time of 30 minutes. The highest recovery from ethanol 96% solvent is 60,41%. The result of UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and GC-MS test show that there is a chromophore compound in the extract of natural dye. The test results show the natural dyes of jackfruit wood can be used to coloring on the textile because it can gives staining result permanently.

  10. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

  11. UV-Vis microspectrophotometry as a method of differentiation between cotton fibre evidence coloured with reactive dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-05-01

    The main purposes of this study was to assess the usefulness of microspectrophotometry (MSP), both in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) range for discriminating single cotton fibres dyed with reactive dyes coming from the same manufacturer, as well as the possibility of evaluation of the concentration of dye in an examine fibre. This study utilised woven cotton fabrics dyed with different concentrations of one-compound reactive dyes with the commercial name Cibacron® (at present Novacron®) as the focus of the MSP analysis. The spectra were recorded in the UV-Vis range between 200 and 800 nm, in transmission mode. The results from this study illustrated that all of the analysed cotton samples dyed with reactive dyes were distinguishable between each other with the use of MSP, mostly in the visible, and also in ultraviolet range. The limit for applied MSP techniques was 0.18% of the concentration of a dye in the textile sample. The results indicate that based on the absorbance measurements for fibres constituting e.g. forensic traces it was not possible to estimate the concentration of the dye in the fibre because Beer's law did not obey. The intra-sample, and inter- sample variation, as well as dichroism effect in a case of a cotton fibres dyed with reactive dye were observed. On the basis of the results obtained for each analysed cotton sample, it was concluded that there was no correlation between colour uniformity in cotton fabric (changes in lightness, red/green and yellow/blue colour) and concentration of the reactive dye.

  12. UV-Vis microspectrophotometry as a method of differentiation between cotton fibre evidence coloured with reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-05-05

    The main purposes of this study was to assess the usefulness of microspectrophotometry (MSP), both in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) range for discriminating single cotton fibres dyed with reactive dyes coming from the same manufacturer, as well as the possibility of evaluation of the concentration of dye in an examine fibre. This study utilised woven cotton fabrics dyed with different concentrations of one-compound reactive dyes with the commercial name Cibacron® (at present Novacron®) as the focus of the MSP analysis. The spectra were recorded in the UV-Vis range between 200 and 800nm, in transmission mode. The results from this study illustrated that all of the analysed cotton samples dyed with reactive dyes were distinguishable between each other with the use of MSP, mostly in the visible, and also in ultraviolet range. The limit for applied MSP techniques was 0.18% of the concentration of a dye in the textile sample. The results indicate that based on the absorbance measurements for fibres constituting e.g. forensic traces it was not possible to estimate the concentration of the dye in the fibre because Beer's law did not obey. The intra-sample, and inter- sample variation, as well as dichroism effect in a case of a cotton fibres dyed with reactive dye were observed. On the basis of the results obtained for each analysed cotton sample, it was concluded that there was no correlation between colour uniformity in cotton fabric (changes in lightness, red/green and yellow/blue colour) and concentration of the reactive dye.

  13. Flotation of Mineral and Dyes: A Laboratory Experiment for Separation Method Molecular Hitchhikers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappon, Tim; Sylvestre, Jarrett A.; Rappon, Manit

    2016-01-01

    Flotation as a method of separation is widely researched and is applied in many industries. It has been used to address a wide range of environmental issues including treatment of wastewater, recovery of heavy metals for recycling, extraction of minerals in mining, and so forth. This laboratory attempts to show how such a simple method can be used…

  14. Flotation of Mineral and Dyes: A Laboratory Experiment for Separation Method Molecular Hitchhikers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappon, Tim; Sylvestre, Jarrett A.; Rappon, Manit

    2016-01-01

    Flotation as a method of separation is widely researched and is applied in many industries. It has been used to address a wide range of environmental issues including treatment of wastewater, recovery of heavy metals for recycling, extraction of minerals in mining, and so forth. This laboratory attempts to show how such a simple method can be used…

  15. A diagnostic study on folium and orchil dyes with non-invasive and micro-destructive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Arrais, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Folium and orchil are dyes of vegetal origin. Folium is obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss., whereas orchil is obtained from Roccella and other genera of lichens. These dyes were used in the past to impart purple hue to paintings and textiles as substitutes for the more prised Tyrian purple dye, obtained from shellfish. Despite several citations in ancient technical treatises dating back at least to the Greek-Roman age, the identification of these dyes in artworks is rare. In the case of folium, an additional drawback is that its composition is presently unknown. In this work different non-invasive (FT-IR, FT-Raman, fibre optic reflectance spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and micro-invasive (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) techniques were used in order to increase the diagnostic information available on these dyes. Measurements were carried out on the dyes extracted from raw materials and on painted or dyed parchments. The possibility to distinguish between folium and orchil by chemical analysis is discussed.

  16. A diagnostic study on folium and orchil dyes with non-invasive and micro-destructive methods.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Arrais, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica

    2015-05-05

    Folium and orchil are dyes of vegetal origin. Folium is obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss., whereas orchil is obtained from Roccella and other genera of lichens. These dyes were used in the past to impart purple hue to paintings and textiles as substitutes for the more prised Tyrian purple dye, obtained from shellfish. Despite several citations in ancient technical treatises dating back at least to the Greek-Roman age, the identification of these dyes in artworks is rare. In the case of folium, an additional drawback is that its composition is presently unknown. In this work different non-invasive (FT-IR, FT-Raman, fibre optic reflectance spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and micro-invasive (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) techniques were used in order to increase the diagnostic information available on these dyes. Measurements were carried out on the dyes extracted from raw materials and on painted or dyed parchments. The possibility to distinguish between folium and orchil by chemical analysis is discussed.

  17. Contact urticaria to cosmetic and industrial dyes.

    PubMed

    Davari, P; Maibach, H I

    2011-01-01

    Contact urticaria (CU) defines the weal-and-flare reaction that occurs after external cutaneous contact with a causative agent. These reactions often cause discomfort for patients, affect their quality of life, and in severe cases may be life-threatening. Some dyes are known to be urticariogens. Many people have daily exposure to these urticariogens, because of the widespread use of dyes, for example in textiles, cosmetics and foods. We reviewed industrial and cosmetic dyes such as hair dyes, basic blue 99 dye, patent blue dyes, henna, red dyes, curcumin and reactive dyes, which can potentially cause CU. Overall, the reported cases of CU lacked appropriate controls. Hair-dye constituents such as preservatives and intensifiers may play an important role as causative agents of CU. We recommend appropriate protection guidelines to reduce the incidence of CU in high-risk groups such as hairdressers, dye-factory workers or workers in dye-related industries. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Comparison of Threshold Detection Methods for the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD): Application to the NOAA-NCDC Daily Rainfall Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, Roberto; Mamalakis, Antonis; Langousis, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most crucial issues in statistical hydrology is the estimation of extreme rainfall from data. To that extent, based on asymptotic arguments from Extreme Excess (EE) theory, several studies have focused on developing new, or improving existing methods to fit a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model to rainfall excesses above a properly selected threshold u. The latter is generally determined using various approaches that can be grouped into three basic classes: a) non-parametric methods that locate the changing point between extreme and non-extreme regions of the data, b) graphical methods where one studies the dependence of the GPD parameters (or related metrics) to the threshold level u, and c) Goodness of Fit (GoF) metrics that, for a certain level of significance, locate the lowest threshold u that a GPD model is applicable. In this work, we review representative methods for GPD threshold detection, discuss fundamental differences in their theoretical bases, and apply them to daily rainfall records from the NOAA-NCDC open-access database (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/ghcn-daily/). We find that non-parametric methods that locate the changing point between extreme and non-extreme regions of the data are generally not reliable, while graphical methods and GoF metrics that rely on limiting arguments for the upper distribution tail lead to unrealistically high thresholds u. The latter is expected, since one checks the validity of the limiting arguments rather than the applicability of a GPD distribution model. Better performance is demonstrated by graphical methods and GoF metrics that rely on GPD properties. Finally, we discuss the effects of data quantization (common in hydrologic applications) on the estimated thresholds. Acknowledgments: The research project is implemented within the framework of the Action «Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers» of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" (Action's Beneficiary: General

  19. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction method based on SH-Au modified silica gel for the detection of six Sudan dyes in chili powder samples.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingming; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhenjia; Gong, Junjie

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the successfully developed molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) method based on SH-Au modified silica gel for Sudan dyes determination has been described. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were organized onto the surface of silica gel through the covalent binding between sulfydryl and Au. Subsequently, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared via the graft polymerization using Au NPs as the functional monomer. The composition and morphology of MIPs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Binding property was systematically evaluated through adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, and selective recognition capacity. MISPE pretreatment was successfully established after optimizing various parameters. Under optimized conditions, good linearity for six investigated Sudan dyes was ranged from 0.005 to 10.0μgg(-1) (R(2)>0.999) with low limits of detection and quantification (1.5-4.7 and 5.2-15.5ngg(-1), respectively). The recoveries at three different spiked levels (0.05, 0.5, and 2.0μgg(-1) of each Sudan dye) were ranged from 87.2% to 94.7% with RSD below 6.1% (n=3). The results demonstrated one reliable, sensitive and accurate MISPE pretreatment technique with excellent reproducibility for the determination of six Sudan dyes in chili powder samples.

  20. A simple and accurate analytical method for determination of three commercial dyes in different water systems using partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Al-Degs, Yahya S; El-Sheikh, Amjad H; Issa, Ayman A; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Sunjuk, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    A simple analytical procedure is proposed for simultaneous determination of three common dyes (Basic Blue 9, Brilliant Blue E-4BA, and Reactive Blue 2) in natural waters without prior separation of the solutes. A popular chemometric method, partial least squares regression PLS-1, was effectively applied for spectral resolution of a highly overlapping system. At the best modeling conditions, mean recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSD) for dyes quantification by PLS-1 were found to be 102.1 (4.4), 95.7 (8.4), and 98.9 (6.2) for Basic Blue, Brilliant Blue, and Reactive Blue, respectively. The estimated limits of detection (LOD) were estimated using net-analyte signal concept and were 0.11, 0.52, 0.49 mg L(-1) for Basic Blue, Brilliant Blue, and Reactive Blue, respectively. The quantitative determination of dyes spiked in real water samples was carried out successfully by PLS-1 with satisfactory recoveries for dyes (90-106%).

  1. Preferred delivery method and acceptability of Wheat-Soy Blend (WSB++) as a daily complementary food supplement in northwest Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Hanif, Abu A M; Merrill, Rebecca D; Campbell, Rebecca K; Kumkum, Mehnaz Alam; Shaikh, Saijuddin; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Parveen, Monira; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are widely used to prevent undernutrition in early childhood in food-insecure settings. We field tested enhanced Wheat Soy Blend (WSB++)-a FBF fortified with micronutrients, milk powder, sugar, and oil-in preparation for a complementary food supplement (CFS) trial in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Formative work was conducted to determine the optimal delivery method (cooked vs. not) for this CFS, to examine mothers' child feeding practices with and acceptance of the WSB++, and to identify potential barriers to adherence. Our results suggest WSB++ is an acceptable CFS in rural Bangladesh and the requirement for mothers to cook WSB++ at home is unlikely to be a barrier to its daily use as a CFS in this population.

  2. A simple method for in vivo labelling of infiltrating leukocytes in the mouse retina using indocyanine green dye

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Dawn A.; Chu, Colin J.; Selvam, Senthil; Powner, Michael B.; Liyanage, Sidath; Copland, David A.; Keane, Pearse A.; Tufail, Adnan; Egan, Catherine A.; Bainbridge, James W. B.; Lee, Richard W.; Dick, Andrew D.; Fruttiger, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have developed a method to label and image myeloid cells infiltrating the mouse retina and choroid in vivo, using a single depot injection of indocyanine green dye (ICG). This was demonstrated using the following ocular models of inflammation and angiogenesis: endotoxin-induced uveitis, experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model. A near-infrared scanning ophthalmoscope was used for in vivo imaging of the eye, and flow cytometry was used on blood and spleen to assess the number and phenotype of labelled cells. ICG was administered 72 h before the induction of inflammation to ensure clearance from the systemic circulation. We found that in vivo intravenous administration failed to label any leukocytes, whereas depot injection, either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous, was successful in labelling leukocytes infiltrating into the retina. Progression of inflammation in the retina could be traced over a period of 14 days following a single depot injection of ICG. Additionally, bright-field microscopy, spectrophotometry and flow cytometric analysis suggest that the predominant population of cells stained by ICG are circulating myeloid cells. The translation of this approach into clinical practice would enable visualization of immune cells in situ. This will not only provide a greater understanding of pathogenesis, monitoring and assessment of therapy in many human ocular diseases but might also open the ability to image immunity live for neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease and systemic immune-mediated disorders. PMID:26398933

  3. A seeding method to change primary particle of oriented attachment network titanium dioxide for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ping-Lin; Liao, Chun-Hou

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we use seeding methods to improve crystal thermal stability and thermal stress by oriented attachment (OA) particles as seeds. The OA S2 synthesized by repeating two times the seed process has pure anatase phase even if was calcined and high surface area (113.2 m2 g-1). Further, the lattice images of OA S2 obtains from oriented attachment mechanism showed perfect alignment in grain orientation and no grain boundary appears between the necking particles. The films of OA S2 after calcination at 500 °C is homogeneous without cavities over large area. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells made of OA S2 exhibits higher JSC and FF than the devices made of JGC 18NRT. The reason for the higher JSC can be attributed to the high surface area and pure anatase phase. The OA S2 shows the lower Rw (charge transport resistance) than the JGC 18NRT. It is confirmed that the OA S2 film has the capability of higher electron transmission due to oriented attachment structure, so it displays low internal resistance and results in higher FF. A higher light-to-electricity power conversion efficiency of 6.10% is achieved by applying the OA S2 as compared with JGC 18NRT (5.85%).

  4. A simple method for in vivo labelling of infiltrating leukocytes in the mouse retina using indocyanine green dye.

    PubMed

    Sim, Dawn A; Chu, Colin J; Selvam, Senthil; Powner, Michael B; Liyanage, Sidath; Copland, David A; Keane, Pearse A; Tufail, Adnan; Egan, Catherine A; Bainbridge, James W B; Lee, Richard W; Dick, Andrew D; Fruttiger, Marcus

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a method to label and image myeloid cells infiltrating the mouse retina and choroid in vivo, using a single depot injection of indocyanine green dye (ICG). This was demonstrated using the following ocular models of inflammation and angiogenesis: endotoxin-induced uveitis, experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model. A near-infrared scanning ophthalmoscope was used for in vivo imaging of the eye, and flow cytometry was used on blood and spleen to assess the number and phenotype of labelled cells. ICG was administered 72 h before the induction of inflammation to ensure clearance from the systemic circulation. We found that in vivo intravenous administration failed to label any leukocytes, whereas depot injection, either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous, was successful in labelling leukocytes infiltrating into the retina. Progression of inflammation in the retina could be traced over a period of 14 days following a single depot injection of ICG. Additionally, bright-field microscopy, spectrophotometry and flow cytometric analysis suggest that the predominant population of cells stained by ICG are circulating myeloid cells. The translation of this approach into clinical practice would enable visualization of immune cells in situ. This will not only provide a greater understanding of pathogenesis, monitoring and assessment of therapy in many human ocular diseases but might also open the ability to image immunity live for neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease and systemic immune-mediated disorders. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Development of a cost-effective method for capripoxvirus genotyping using snapback primer and dsDNA intercalating dye.

    PubMed

    Gelaye, Esayas; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Silber, Roland; Tuppurainen, Eeva S M; Grabherr, Reingard; Diallo, Adama

    2013-01-01

    Sheep pox virus (SPPV), goat pox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) are very closely related viruses of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus of the Poxviridae family. They are responsible for sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease which affect sheep, goat and cattle, respectively. The epidemiology of capripox diseases is complex, as some CaPVs are not strictly host-specific. Additionally, the three forms of the disease co-exist in many sub-Saharan countries which complicates the identification of the virus responsible for an outbreak. Genotyping of CaPVs using a low-cost, rapid, highly specific, and easy to perform method allows a swift and accurate identification of the causative agent and significantly assists in selecting appropriate control and eradication measures, such as the most suitable vaccine against the virus during the outbreaks. The objective of this paper is to describe the design and analytical performances of a new molecular assay for CaPV genotyping using unlabelled snapback primers in the presence of dsDNA intercalating EvaGreen dye. This assay was able to simultaneously detect and genotype CaPVs in 63 samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The genotyping was achieved by observing the melting temperature of snapback stems of the hairpins and those of the full-length amplicons, respectively. Fourteen CaPVs were genotyped as SPPVs, 25 as GTPVs and 24 as LSDVs. The method is highly pathogen specific and cross platform compatible. It is also cost effective as it does not use fluorescently labelled probes, nor require high-resolution melting curve analysis software. Thus it can be easily performed in diagnostic and research laboratories with limited resources. This genotyping method will contribute significantly to the early detection and genotyping of CaPV infection and to epidemiological studies.

  6. A Quantitative Method for Comparing the Brightness of Antibody-dye Reagents and Estimating Antibodies Bound per Cell.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Aaron B; Moore, Wayne A; Meehan, Stephen; Parks, David R

    2016-07-01

    We present a quantitative method for comparing the brightness of antibody-dye reagents and estimating antibodies bound per cell. The method is based on complementary binding of test and fill reagents to antibody capture microspheres. Several aliquots of antibody capture beads are stained with varying amounts of the test conjugate. The remaining binding sites on the beads are then filled with a second conjugate containing a different fluorophore. Finally, the fluorescence of the test conjugate compared to the fill conjugate is used to measure the relative brightness of the test conjugate. The fundamental assumption of the test-fill method is that if it takes X molecules of one test antibody to lower the fill signal by Y units, it will take the same X molecules of any other test antibody to give the same effect. We apply a quadratic fit to evaluate the test-fill signal relationship across different amounts of test reagent. If the fit is close to linear, we consider the test reagent to be suitable for quantitative evaluation of antibody binding. To calibrate the antibodies bound per bead, a PE conjugate with 1 PE molecule per antibody is used as a test reagent and the fluorescence scale is calibrated with Quantibrite PE beads. When the fluorescence per antibody molecule has been determined for a particular conjugate, that conjugate can be used for measurement of antibodies bound per cell. This provides comparisons of the brightness of different conjugates when conducted on an instrument whose statistical photoelectron (Spe) scales are known. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia: comparison of a carbon monoxide rebreathing method and dye dilution with Evans' blue.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P; Kanstrup, I L; Fogh-Andersen, N; Olsen, N V

    1998-04-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level and again 24 h after rapid passive ascent to high altitude (4,350 m). Hypobaric hypoxia decreased arterial oxygen saturation to 79 (74-83)% (mean with 95% confidence intervals). The PV(Evans') remained unchanged from 3.49 (3.30-3.68) l at sea level to 3.46 (3.24-3.68) l at high altitude. In contrast PV(CO) decreased from 3.39 (3.17-3.61) l at sea level to 3.04 (2.75-3.33) l at high altitude (P < 0.05). Compared with sea level, this resulted in an increase of the mean bias between the two methods [from 0.11 (-0.05-0.27) l at sea level to 0.43 (0.26-0.60) l at high altitude] so that the ratio between PV(Evans') and PV(CO) increased from 1.04 (0.99-1.09) at sea level to 1.15 (1.06-1.24) at high altitude (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the two methods were not interchangeable as measures of hypoxia-induced changes in PV. The mechanism responsible for the bias remains unknown, but it is suggested that the results may reflect a redistribution of albumin caused by the combined effects in hypoxia of both an increased capillary permeability to albumin and a decrease in PV. As a result, the small perivascular compartment of albumin beyond the endothelium may increase without changes in the overall albumin distribution volume.

  8. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method.

  9. A new pH indicator dye-based method for rapid and efficient screening of l-asparaginase producing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mihooliya, Kanti N; Nandal, Jitender; Swami, Laxmi; Verma, Himanshu; Chopra, Lipsy; Sahoo, Debendra K

    2017-12-01

    l-asparaginase is a pharmaceutically and industrially important enzyme as it has potential to treat different cancers and inhibit acrylamide formation in fried and baked food products. In the present study, an attempt was made to screen for new and novel l-asparaginase producers using a widely applied phenol red and bromothymol blue (BTB)(1) dye-based plate assay. Screening of four different soil samples for l-asparaginase producers resulted in the isolation of three new potential l-asparaginase producing bacteria. These three strains identified (by 16S rRNA sequencing) as a Pseudomonas resinovorans strain IGS-131, a Bacillus safensis strain IGS-81, and a Glutamicibacter arilaitensis strain ICS-13 with enzyme activities of 10.91 IU/ml, 6.65 IU/ml, and 1.47 IU/ml, respectively. These three strains of bacteria have not been reported as l-asparaginase producers previously. Also, we developed a new pH indicator dye-based plate assay for the screening of l-asparaginase producers after testing eight different pH indicator dyes. This cresol red dye-based method gave a better differentiable zone of hydrolysis and consistent results as compared to previously reported phenol red and BTB-based plate assay. It was also found to be efficient in comparison to all other dyes studied. It produced a bright yellow color at acidic pH (5.5) and turned into a dark red or maroon color when pH was increased (above 7.5). This finding is expected to make screening of all kinds of l-asparaginases more comfortable, rapid, and efficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving the degree-day method for sub-daily melt simulations with physically-based diurnal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Cara; Schaefli, Bettina; Nicótina, Ludovico; Simoni, Silvia; Barrenetxea, Guillermo; Smith, Russell; Parlange, Marc; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes a new extension of the classical degree-day snowmelt model applicable to hourly simulations for regions with limited data and adaptable to a broad range of spatially-explicit hydrological models. The snowmelt schemes have been tested with a point measurement dataset at the Cotton Creek Experimental Watershed (CCEW) in British Columbia, Canada and with a detailed dataset available from the Dranse de Ferret catchment, an extensively monitored catchment in the Swiss Alps. The snowmelt model performance is quantified with the use of a spatially-explicit model of the hydrologic response. Comparative analyses are presented with the widely-known, grid-based method proposed by Hock which combines a local, temperature-index approach with potential radiation. The results suggest that a simple diurnal cycle of the degree-day melt parameter based on minimum and maximum temperatures is competitive with the Hock approach for sub-daily melt simulations. Advantages of the new extension of the classical degree-day method over other temperature-index methods include its use of physically-based, diurnal variations and its ability to be adapted to data-constrained hydrological models which are lumped in some nature.

  11. Validation of a Brief Yesterday Measure of Hedonic Well-Being and Daily Activities: Comparison with the Day Reconstruction Method.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Christopher; Schneider, Stefan; Stone, Arthur A

    2014-02-01

    There has been increasing interest in the measurement of hedonic well-being (HWB), due in part to its broad implications in areas such as health and society. The day reconstruction method (DRM) is a validated technique assessing HWB and daily activities using instructions that help respondents recover their experiences from the previous day, thus reducing recall bias. Unfortunately, large-scale surveys are typically not able to implement the time-consuming DRM procedure; instead, they rely on single-item or very brief questionnaire assessment of HWB and time usage. Despite their wide use, brief questionnaires have rarely been compared to the DRM, which could provide validation of these short assessments. In the present study we compared these two questionnaire formats in 45 adults who completed both a DRM and a "hybrid" short form (HSF) questionnaire that included a very brief procedure to reconstruct yesterday's events. Results were that the mean HSF ratings tended to overestimate HWB in comparison to the DRM, though effects were generally small to moderate. With regard to estimates of time spent on daily activities, the HSF also differed from the DRM, though with generally small to moderate effects. Correlations between estimates indicated that the HSF explained an average of almost half the variance in the DRM ratings for both HWB (rs ranging from .52 to .97) and time use (rs ranging from .43 to .85). In general, HSF ratings displayed considerable overlap with those of the DRM though the brief instructions apparently did not eliminate recall bias in the shorter questionnaire.

  12. Photoelectric Dye Used for Okayama University-Type Retinal Prosthesis Reduces the Apoptosis of Photoreceptor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shihui; Hosoya, Osamu; Uchida, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Our previous study demonstrated that photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film (Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis), which was implanted in subretinal space of the eyes of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, prevented retinal neurons from apoptotic death. In this study, we aimed to examine whether photoelectric dye itself would protect retinal neurons from apoptosis in RCS rats. Methods: RCS rats received intravitreous injection of different concentrations of the dye in the left eye and housed under a 12-h light–dark cycle. Saline injection in the right eye served as control. In addition, RCS rats with dye injection were kept in 24-h daily dark condition. Sections were processed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluorescein-conjugated-dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunohistochemical staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Results: The number of TUNEL-positive cells significantly decreased in the retina of dye-injected eyes compared with those in saline-injected eyes (P = 0.0001, 2-factor analysis of variance [ANOVA]), under 12-h light–dark cycle. Significant decrease of TUNEL-positive cells was noted in the retina of rats with dye injection compared with those with saline injection, kept under 24-h dark condition (P = 0.0001, 2-factor ANOVA). Immunoreactive area for GFAP decreased significantly in the retina of dye-injected eyes compared with that in controls (P = 0.0001, 2-factor ANOVA), whereas immunoreactive area for PKCα increased significantly in the retina of dye-injected eyes compared with that in controls (P = 0.01, 2-factor ANOVA). Conclusions: Photoelectric dye inhibits apoptotic death of photoreceptor cells in RCS rats and downregulates GFAP expression in retinal Müller cells. Photoelectric dye may be a candidate agent for neuroprotection in retinitis pigmentosa and other retinal diseases. PMID:28085534

  13. A novel method of synthesis of small band gap SnS nanorods and its efficient photocatalytic dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipika; Dutta, Raj Kumar

    2015-11-01

    A facile one pot method has been developed for synthesis of stable (ξ=-37.5 mV), orthorhombic structured SnS nanorods capped with mercaptoacetic acid by precipitation method. The SnS nanorods were measured to be about 45 nm long with a diameter of 20 nm, as studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The band gap of the MAA capped SnS nanorods was 1.81 eV, measured by diffused reflectance spectroscopy and was larger than the bulk SnS. The relative positions of highest valence band and lowest conduction band were determined from theoretical band structure calculation as 1.58 eV and -0.23 eV, respectively. The UV-Visible-NIR fluorescence emission spectrum of the SnS nanorods revealed intense emission peak at 1000 nm (1.239 eV) and weaker peaks at 935 nm, 1080 nm, 1160 nm which is likely to be due to Sn(2+) vacancies. The as-synthesized SnS nanorods exhibited more than 95% sunlight induced photocatalytic degradation of trypan blue in 4 h, following first order kinetics with high rate of degradation (k) (0.0124 min(-1)). The observed dye degradation is attributable to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), confirmed from terephthalic acid assay. The ROS generation has been explained on the basis of interaction between photoexcited electrons from conduction band with molecular oxygen adhered to the surface of nanorods owing to favourable redox potentials of O2/O2(-) (-0.20 eV) in normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) scale.

  14. Digitise This! A Quick and Easy Remote Sensing Method to Monitor the Daily Extent of Dredge Plumes

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Richard D.; Murray, Kathy L.; Field, Stuart N.; Moore, James A. Y.; Shedrawi, George; Huntley, Barton G.; Fearns, Peter; Broomhall, Mark; McKinna, Lachlan I. W.; Marrable, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Technological advancements in remote sensing and GIS have improved natural resource managers’ abilities to monitor large-scale disturbances. In a time where many processes are heading towards automation, this study has regressed to simple techniques to bridge a gap found in the advancement of technology. The near-daily monitoring of dredge plume extent is common practice using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and associated algorithms to predict the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in the surface waters originating from floods and dredge plumes. Unfortunately, these methods cannot determine the difference between dredge plume and benthic features in shallow, clear water. This case study at Barrow Island, Western Australia, uses hand digitising to demonstrate the ability of human interpretation to determine this difference with a level of confidence and compares the method to contemporary TSS methods. Hand digitising was quick, cheap and required very little training of staff to complete. Results of ANOSIM R statistics show remote sensing derived TSS provided similar spatial results if they were thresholded to at least 3 mg L−1. However, remote sensing derived TSS consistently provided false-positive readings of shallow benthic features as Plume with a threshold up to TSS of 6 mg L−1, and began providing false-negatives (excluding actual plume) at a threshold as low as 4 mg L−1. Semi-automated processes that estimate plume concentration and distinguish between plumes and shallow benthic features without the arbitrary nature of human interpretation would be preferred as a plume monitoring method. However, at this stage, the hand digitising method is very useful and is more accurate at determining plume boundaries over shallow benthic features and is accessible to all levels of management with basic training. PMID:23240055

  15. Application of a deep-learning method to the forecast of daily solar flare occurrence using Convolution Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seulki; Moon, Yong-Jae; Chu, Hyoungseok

    2017-08-01

    As the application of deep-learning methods has been succeeded in various fields, they have a high potential to be applied to space weather forecasting. Convolutional neural network, one of deep learning methods, is specialized in image recognition. In this study, we apply the AlexNet architecture, which is a winner of Imagenet Large Scale Virtual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) 2012, to the forecast of daily solar flare occurrence using the MatConvNet software of MATLAB. Our input images are SOHO/MDI, EIT 195Å, and 304Å from January 1996 to December 2010, and output ones are yes or no of flare occurrence. We select training dataset from Jan 1996 to Dec 2000 and from Jan 2003 to Dec 2008. Testing dataset is chosen from Jan 2001 to Dec 2002 and from Jan 2009 to Dec 2010 in order to consider the solar cycle effect. In training dataset, we randomly select one fifth of training data for validation dataset to avoid the overfitting problem. Our model successfully forecasts the flare occurrence with about 0.90 probability of detection (POD) for common flares (C-, M-, and X-class). While POD of major flares (M- and X-class) forecasting is 0.96, false alarm rate (FAR) also scores relatively high(0.60). We also present several statistical parameters such as critical success index (CSI) and true skill statistics (TSS). Our model can immediately be applied to automatic forecasting service when image data are available.

  16. Clean and time-effective synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanocrystalline by microwave-assisted solvothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Po-Shen; Tai, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Peter; Wu, Yu-Chun

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we report a clean and time-effective solvothermal synthesis route using microwave-assisted heating method to prepare nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 with its application for dye-sensitized solar cells. With this proposed method, pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with size about 20 nm are successfully obtained at 220 °C for 30 min. Our method of microwave-assisted organic solvothermal route significantly reduces the elaborating process of washing and solvent exchange for the subsequent paste formation. The as-synthesized TiO2 colloidal solution is ready for particle dispersion that markedly simplified the preparation procedures. Material characterizations of the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles are performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The photovoltaic performances of the dye-sensitized solar cells assembled with the as-synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallines as photoanodes in various film thicknesses are examined. An excellent energy conversion efficiency of 7.8% is achieved which is comparable to the previously reported dye-sensitized solar cells made of hydrothermal microwave-synthesized TiO2.

  17. Extraction-Free Ion-Pair Methods for the Assay of Trifluoperazine Dihydrochloride in Bulk Drug, Tablets, and Spiked Human Urine Using Three Sulfonphthalein Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prashanth, K. N.; Swamy, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2014-11-01

    Three simple and sensitive extraction-free spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFH). The methods are based on ion pair complex formation between the nitrogenous compound trifluoperazine (TFP) converted from trifluoperazine dihydrochloride and sulfonphthalein dyes, namely, bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), and bromophenol blue (BPB) in dichloromethane medium in which all the above experimental variables were circumvented. The colored products are measured at 425 nm in the BCG method, 415 nm in the BTB method, and 420 nm in the BPB method. The stoichiometry of the ion-pair complexes formed between the drug and dye (1:1) was determined by Job's continuous variations method, and the stability constants of the complexes were also calculated. These methods quantify TFP over the concentration ranges of 1.25-20.0 μg/ml in the BCG method, 1.5-21.0 μg/ml in the BTB method, and 1.5-18.0 μg/ml in the BPB method. The molar absorptivity (l·mol-1·cm-1) and Sandell sensitivity (ng/cm2) were calculated to be 2.06·104 and 0.0197; 1.82·104 and 0.0224; and 2.22·104 and 0.0183 for the BCG, BTB, and BPB methods, respectively. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of TFP in pure drug, pharmaceuticals, and in spiked human urine with good accuracy and precision.

  18. Sonochemical method for synthesizing Co3O4/graphene nanocomposites for use as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamar, E. M.; Reda, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    Co3O4/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized via sonochemical method, and its application as a counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was demonstrated. The prepared Co3O4/graphene nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results of SEM showed that Co3O4 nanoparticles deposited on the graphene sheets as spacers to keep the neighboring sheets separated. The Co3O4 have diameters ranging from 16 to 43 nm. The influence of the Co3O4 content on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell was investigated. It was found that the performances of Co3O4/graphene composites are better than that of graphene-based DSSCs. The Co3O4/graphene composite CE with 80 % Co3O4 content exhibits the best conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.1 %.

  19. A simplified method for synthesis of Fe3O4@PAA nanoparticles and its application for the removal of basic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yin-Yin; Zhou, Min; Geng, Hui-Juan; Hao, Jun-Jie; Ou, Qian-Qian; Qi, Sheng-Da; Chen, Hong-Li; Chen, Xing-Guo

    2012-02-01

    A simplified method for synthesis of polyacrylic acid-bound iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PAA NPs) was reported. The as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, VSM and XRD. Characterization results indicated that PAA was successfully introduced onto the surface of Fe3O4 and did not cause any changes in magnetic property. The Fe3O4@PAA NPs were used to adsorb rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a model basic dye pollutant from aqueous solution. Kinetics data and adsorption isotherms were better fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium could be reached at about 20 min, showing that the as-prepared adsorbent exhibited extremely rapid adsorption rate. The aqueous solution of the Yellow River was chosen as the test sample, and the results showed that the magnetic adsorbent was efficient for the removal of the basic dye in the real sample.

  20. Flower-shaped ZnO nanocrystallite aggregates synthesized through a template-free aqueous solution method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Wei-Chen; Chen, Hung-Shuo; Yu, Wan-Chin

    2015-01-05

    Hierarchically structured flower-shaped aggregates composed of ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized through a template-free aqueous solution method. The synthesized nanocrystallite aggregates were demonstrated to be promising photoanode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared with commercially available ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs), the flower-like aggregates (ZnONFs), each having an overall dimension of 400–600 nm, exhibited similar dye loading but higher light-scattering ability, which led to a substantial increase in the light-harvesting efficiency of resulting cells. The unique morphology of ZnONFs also boosted the absorbed photon-to-electric current generation efficiency. Consequently, DSSCs constructed from ZnONFs showed significantly improved photocurrent and achieved an overall conversion efficiency of 4.42%, which was 47% higher than that attained by ZnONP-based cells.

  1. On-line SPE-UHPLC method using fused core columns for extraction and separation of nine illegal dyes in chilli-containing spices.

    PubMed

    Khalikova, Maria A; Satínský, Dalibor; Smidrkalová, Tereza; Solich, Petr

    2014-12-01

    The presented work describes the development of a simple, fast and effective on-line SPE-UHPLC-UV/vis method using fused core particle columns for extraction, separation and quantitative analysis of the nine illegal dyes, most frequently found in chilli-containing spices. The red dyes Sudan I-IV, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red G, Sudan Orange G, Para Red, and Methyl Red were separated and analyzed in less than 9 min without labor-consuming pretreatment procedure. The chromatographic separation was performed on Ascentis Express RP-Amide column with gradient elution using mixture of acetonitrile and water, as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and 55°C of temperature. As SPE sorbent for cleanup and pre-concentration of illegal dyes short guard fused core column Ascentis Express F5 was used. The applicability of proposed method was proven for three different chilli-containing commercial samples. Recoveries for all compounds were between 90% and 108% and relative standard deviation ranged from 1% to 4% for within- and from 2% to 6% for between-day. Limits of detection showed lower values than required by European Union regulations and were in the range of 3.3-10.3 µg L(-1) for standard solutions, 5.6-235.6 µg kg(-1) for chilli-containing spices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison between the indocyanine green fluorescence and blue dye methods for sentinel lymph node biopsy using novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in different types of hospitals.

    PubMed

    He, Kunshan; Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Huang, Wenhe; Wu, Jundong; Wang, Yabing; He, Lifang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard of care to detect axillary lymph metastasis in early-stage breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. Current SLNB detection modalities comprising a blue dye, a radioactive tracer, or a combination of both have advantages as well as disadvantages. Thus, near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been regarded as a novel method that has generated interest for SLNB around the world. However, the lack of appropriate fluorescence imaging systems has hindered further research and wide application of this method. Therefore, we developed novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment (FIRE) to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Moreover, to compare the ICG fluorescence imaging method with the blue dye method and to explore the universal feasibility of the former, a different type of hospital study was conducted. Ninety-nine eligible patients participated in the study at 3 different types of hospitals. After subcutaneous ICG allergy testing, all the patients were subcutaneously injected with methylene blue and ICG into the subareolar area. Consequently, 276 SLNs (range 1-7) were identified in 98 subjects (detection rate: 99%) by using the ICG fluorescence imaging method. In contrast, the blue dye method only identified 202 SLNs (range 1-7) in 91 subjects (detection rate: 91.92%). Besides, the results of the fluorescence imaging method were similar in the 3 hospitals. Our findings indicate the universal feasibility of the ICG fluorescence imaging method for SLNB using the fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in early breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The analogue method for precipitation prediction: finding better analogue situations at a sub-daily time step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Pascal; Obled, Charles; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Analogue methods (AMs) predict local weather variables (predictands) such as precipitation by means of a statistical relationship with predictors at a synoptic scale. The analogy is generally assessed on gradients of geopotential heights first to sample days with a similar atmospheric circulation. Other predictors such as moisture variables can also be added in a successive level of analogy. The search for candidate situations similar to a given target day is usually undertaken by comparing the state of the atmosphere at fixed hours of the day for both the target day and the candidate analogues. This is a consequence of using standard daily precipitation time series, which are available over longer periods than sub-daily data. However, it is unlikely for the best analogy to occur at the exact same hour for the target and candidate situations. A better analogue situation may be found with a time shift of several hours since a better fit can occur at different times of the day. In order to assess the potential for finding better analogues at a different hour, a moving time window (MTW) has been introduced. The MTW resulted in a better analogy in terms of the atmospheric circulation and showed improved values of the analogy criterion on the entire distribution of the extracted analogue dates. The improvement was found to increase with the analogue rank due to an accumulation of better analogues in the selection. A seasonal effect has also been identified, with larger improvements shown in winter than in summer. This may be attributed to stronger diurnal cycles in summer that favour predictors taken at the same hour for the target and analogue days. The impact of the MTW on the precipitation prediction skill has been assessed by means of a sub-daily precipitation series transformed into moving 24 h totals at 12, 6, and 3 h time steps. The prediction skill was improved by the MTW, as was the reliability of the prediction. Moreover, the improvements were greater for days

  4. Mean Excess Function as a method of identifying sub-exponential tails: Application to extreme daily rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Papalexiou, Simon Michael

    2017-04-01

    Identifying precisely the distribution tail of a geophysical variable is tough, or, even impossible. First, the tail is the part of the distribution for which we have the less empirical information available; second, a universally accepted definition of tail does not and cannot exist; and third, a tail may change over time due to long-term changes. Unfortunately, the tail is the most important part of the distribution as it dictates the estimates of exceedance probabilities or return periods. Fortunately, based on their tail behavior, probability distributions can be generally categorized into two major families, i.e., sub-exponentials (heavy-tailed) and hyper-exponentials (light-tailed). This study aims to update the Mean Excess Function (MEF), providing a useful tool in order to asses which type of tail better describes empirical data. The MEF is based on the mean value of a variable over a threshold and results in a zero slope regression line when applied for the Exponential distribution. Here, we construct slope confidence intervals for the Exponential distribution as functions of sample size. The validation of the method using Monte Carlo techniques on four theoretical distributions covering major tail cases (Pareto type II, Log-normal, Weibull and Gamma) revealed that it performs well especially for large samples. Finally, the method is used to investigate the behavior of daily rainfall extremes; thousands of rainfall records were examined, from all over the world and with sample size over 100 years, revealing that heavy-tailed distributions can describe more accurately rainfall extremes.

  5. Daily Stress Magnifies the Association between Cognitive Decline and Everyday Memory Problems: An Integration of Longitudinal and Diary Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth H.; Almeida, David M.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether long-term fluid cognitive decline was associated with memory problems in everyday life, and whether stress plays a moderating role. We expected that the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems would be magnified in the context of self-reported and physiological stress. Data are from the Boston Longitudinal Study, a subsample of the Midlife in the United States study. Participants in the current study (n=112) completed a battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning at Time 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) over ten years. At T2, participants completed weekly diaries of self-reported daily stressors and everyday memory problems for twelve consecutive weeks. Also at T2, participants provided four saliva samples over the course of one day to assess physiological stress using diurnal cortisol profiles [cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS)]. Self-reported daily stressors and a less healthy DCS were associated with more everyday memory problems, and participants with greater cognitive decline reported more memory problems compared to those with less or no decline. Self-reported daily stressors and CAR moderated the relationship of cognitive decline and memory problems. As expected, more cognitive decline was associated with greater increases in memory problems on weeks when individuals reported more daily stressors and for individuals with a less healthy CAR. The current findings can inform interventions aimed to identify factors, such as daily stress, that contribute to daily functioning in the context of cognitive decline. PMID:25365691

  6. Photooxidation of different organic dyes (RB, MO, TB, and BG) using Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 nanophotocatalyst prepared by novel chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorai, Tanmay K.; Biswas, Soumya K.; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2008-09-01

    The nano-structured Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts with anatase phase have been developed for the oxidation of non-biodegradable different organic dyes like methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RB), thymol blue (TB) and bromocresol green (BG) using UV-Hg-lamp. The different compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2 ( x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1) nanocatalysts synthesized by chemical method (CM), have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, specific surface area (BET), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) analysis, XPS, ESR and zeta potential. From XRD analysis, the results indicate that all the compositions of Fe(III) doped in TiO 2 catalysts gives only anatase phase not rutile phase. For complete degradation of all the solutions of the dyes (MO, RB, TB, and BG), the composition with x = 0.005 is more photoactive compared all other compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2, and degussa P25. The decolorization rate of different dyes decreases as Fe(III) concentration in TiO 2 increases. The energy band gap of Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 is found to be 2.38 eV. The oxidation state of iron has been found to be 3+ from XPS and ESR show that Fe 3+ is in low spin state.

  7. Reduction of ultraviolet transmission through cotton T-shirt fabrics with low ultraviolet protection by various laundering methods and dyeing: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Q; Kopf, A W; Marx, J; Bogdan, A; Polsky, D; Bart, R S

    2001-05-01

    The public has long been instructed to wear protective clothing against ultraviolet (UV) damage. Our purpose was to determine the UV protection factor (UPF) of two cotton fabrics used in the manufacture of summer T-shirts and to explore methods that could improve the UPF of these fabrics. Each of the two types of white cotton fabrics (cotton T-shirt and mercerized cotton print cloth) used in this study was divided into 4 treatment groups: (1) water-only (machine washed with water), (2) detergent-only (washed with detergent), (3) detergent-UV absorber (washed with detergent and a UV absorber), and (4) dyes (dyed fabrics). Ultraviolet transmission through the fabrics was measured with a spectrophotometer before and after laundry and dyeing treatments. Based on UV transmission through these fabrics, the UPF values were calculated. Before any treatments, the mean UPFs were 4.94 for the T-shirt fabric and 3.13 for the print cloth. There was greater UVA (320-400 nm) than UVB (280-320 nm) transmission through these fabrics. After 5 washings with water alone and with detergent alone, UPF increased by 51% and 17%, respectively, for the cotton T-shirt fabric. Washing the T-shirt fabrics with detergent plus the UV-absorbing agent increased the UPF by 407% after 5 treatments. Dyeing the fabric blue or yellow increased the UPF by 544% and 212%, respectively. Similar changes in UPFs were observed for the print cloth fabric. The two cotton fabrics used in this study offered limited protection against UV radiation as determined by spectrophotometric analysis. Laundering with detergent and water improves UPF slightly by causing fabric shrinkage. Dyeing fabrics or adding a UV-absorbing agent during laundering substantially reduces UV transmission and increases UPF. More UVA is transmitted through the fabrics than UVB.

  8. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

  9. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  10. Comparison of methods for non-stationary hydrologic frequency analysis: Case study using annual maximum daily precipitation in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Chun; Wang, Yuan-Heng; You, Gene Jiing-Yun; Wei, Chih-Chiang

    2017-02-01

    Future climatic conditions likely will not satisfy stationarity assumption. To address this concern, this study applied three methods to analyze non-stationarity in hydrologic conditions. Based on the principle of identifying distribution and trends (IDT) with time-varying moments, we employed the parametric weighted least squares (WLS) estimation in conjunction with the non-parametric discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Our aim was to evaluate the applicability of non-parameter approaches, compared with traditional parameter-based methods. In contrast to most previous studies, which analyzed the non-stationarity of first moments, we incorporated second-moment analysis. Through the estimation of long-term risk, we were able to examine the behavior of return periods under two different definitions: the reciprocal of the exceedance probability of occurrence and the expected recurrence time. The proposed framework represents an improvement over stationary frequency analysis for the design of hydraulic systems. A case study was performed using precipitation data from major climate stations in Taiwan to evaluate the non-stationarity of annual maximum daily precipitation. The results demonstrate the applicability of these three methods in the identification of non-stationarity. For most cases, no significant differences were observed with regard to the trends identified using WLS, DWT, and EEMD. According to the results, a linear model should be able to capture time-variance in either the first or second moment while parabolic trends should be used with caution due to their characteristic rapid increases. It is also observed that local variations in precipitation tend to be overemphasized by DWT and EEMD. The two definitions provided for the concept of return period allows for ambiguous interpretation. With the consideration of non-stationarity, the return period is relatively small under the definition of expected

  11. Rationale and methods of the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The EURIKA study aims to assess the status of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) across Europe. Specifically, it will determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors in current clinical practice in relation to the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention. It will also assess physicians' knowledge and attitudes about CVD prevention as well as the barriers impeding effective risk factor management in clinical practice. Methods/Design Cross-sectional study conducted simultaneously in 12 countries across Europe. The study has two components: firstly at the physician level, assessing eight hundred and nine primary care and specialist physicians with a daily practice in CVD prevention. A physician specific questionnaire captures information regarding physician demographics, practice settings, cardiovascular prevention beliefs and management. Secondly at the patient level, including 7641 patients aged 50 years or older, free of clinical CVD and with at least one classical risk factor, enrolled by the participating physicians. A patient-specific questionnaire captures information from clinical records and patient interview regarding sociodemographic data, CVD risk factors, and current medications. Finally, each patient provides a fasting blood sample, which is sent to a central laboratory for measuring serum lipids, apolipoproteins, hemoglobin-A1c, and inflammatory biomarkers. Discussion Primary prevention of CVD is an extremely important clinical issue, with preventable circulatory diseases remaining the leading cause of major disease burden. The EURIKA study will provide key information to assess effectiveness of and attitudes toward primary prevention of CVD in Europe. A transnational study creates opportunities for benchmarking good clinical practice across countries and improving outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00882336.) PMID:20591142

  12. A comparison of patient adherence and preference of packaging method for oral anticancer agents using conventional pill bottles versus daily pill boxes.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, P W; Pond, G R; Pond, B J; Leung, V; Siu, L L

    2007-07-01

    Adherence to medications is an important issue in oncology due to the increasing number of anticancer agents, such as targeted therapies, formulated for oral dosing. A prospective, crossover design was utilized in which patients on capecitabine were randomly assigned to one of two packaging methods for one cycle, and then switched over to the alternate packaging method in the subsequent cycle. Twenty-five patients were accrued to this study. Adherence rates were similar when using the daily pill boxes (17/21 = 81%) and when using the conventional pill bottles (18/21 = 86%). However, more patients were satisfied with the daily pill boxes (61% versus 11%, P = 0.027), preferred the daily pill boxes (61% versus 17%, P = 0.061), and thought the daily pill boxes were more helpful in reminding them to take their medications (50% versus 11%, P = 0.070). In conclusion, this small pilot study did not demonstrate that the use of daily pill boxes improved patient adherence with capecitabine, but patient satisfaction and preference for this packaging method were greater than for the conventional pill bottles. Further exploration of this intervention in a larger study is warranted.

  13. Ultrasound energy to accelerate dye uptake and dye-fiber interaction of reactive dye on knitted cotton fabric at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tissera, Nadeeka D; Wijesena, Ruchira N; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic cavitation formed due to propagation of ultrasound wave inside a dye bath was successfully used to dye cotton fabric with a reactive dye at lower temperatures. The energy input to the system during sonication was 0.7 W/cm(2). This was within the energy range that contributes towards forming cavitation during ultra-sonication. The influence of ultrasound treatment on dye particle size and fiber morphology is discussed. Particle size analysis of the dye bath revealed ultra-sonication energy was capable of de-agglomeration of hydrolyzed dye molecules during dyeing. SEM micrograph and AFM topographical image of the fiber surface revealed fiber morphology remains unchanged after the sonication. The study was extended in understanding the contribution of ultrasound method of dyeing towards achieving good color strength on the fabric, compared to the normal heating method of dyeing. Study showed color strength obtained using ultra sound method of dyeing is higher compared to normal heating dyeing. Ultrasound energy was able to achieve the good color strength on cotton fabric at very low temperature such as 30 °C, which was approximately 230% more than the color strength achieved in normal heating method of dyeing. This indicates that energy input to the system using ultrasound was capable of acting as an effective alternative method of dyeing knitted cotton fabrics with reactive dye. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental and theoretical study using DFT method for the competitive adsorption of two cationic dyes from wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regti, Abdelmajid; Ayouchia, Hicham Ben El; Laamari, My Rachid; Stiriba, Salah Eddine; Anane, Hafid; Haddad, Mohammadine El

    2016-12-01

    The adsorption of cationic dyes, Basic Yellow (BY28) and Methylene Blue (MB) on a new activated carbon from medlar species were studied in both single and binary system. Some experimental parameters, namely, pH, amount of adsorbent and contact time are studied. Quantum chemical results indicate that the adsorption efficiency was directly related to the dye electrophilicity power. Some theorical parameters were calculated and proved that MB is more electrophilic than BY28, than greatest interaction with surface sites. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption follows the pseudo-second-order model and Freundlich was the best model to describe the phenomenon in the single and binary system. According to the local reactivity results using Parr functions, the sulphur and nitrogen atoms will be the main adsorption sites.

  15. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells using Nb2O5 blocking layer made by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jongsung

    2011-08-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline Nb2O5 thin film has been prepared via sol-gel process using niobium ethoxide as a precursor. Sol-gel films using various ratios of H2O/Nb have been prepared on fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, and used as electron-blocking layer of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The Nb2O5 film as deposited was amorphous, but became crystalline with hexagonal phase after heat treatment at 600 degrees C. With higher H2O/Nb molar ratio, denser and more uniform Nb2O5 film surface was obtained. DSSCs with the structure of FTO/Nb2O5/TiO2/Dye/EL/Pt/FTO have been prepared, and their solar-cell performance was evaluated. By introduction of Nb2O5 sol-gel film between FTO and TiO2 layer in DSSCs, energy conversion efficiency could be improved.

  16. Intraoperative extraocular Indocyanine Green (IE-ICG) dye test: a new method of detecting a peeled internal limiting membrane.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Hwang, J-M; Kim, J H; Yu, H G; Yu, Y S; Chung, H

    2008-03-01

    To develop an intraoperative, extraocular Indocyanine Green dye staining test (IE-ICG) for the differentiation of a peeled ILM from a thin epiretinal membrane, and to evaluate its efficacy. This was a consecutive observational case and laboratory observational series. We performed ILM peeling in patients with an idiopathic macular hole (MH, n = 10) and diabetic macular oedema (DME, n = 10) without vital dye staining such as ICG or Trypan Blue. We also performed membrane peeling in patients with an idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM, n = 10). Then, the peeled membranes were stained with ICG (1.25 mg/ml) beyond the operation field and examined under a light microscope. After this examination, membranes were fixed with glutaraldehyde, and an electron microscope was used to confirm whether they were ILMs or thin ERM. The concordance rates between surgeon's intraoperative impression of membranes (SI), IE-ICG results (IT) and histological findings (HF) of peeled membranes were evaluated to reveal the efficacy of IE-ICG. The ILMs were homogenously stained with ICG dye (positive IE-ICG), and the ERMs were not stained at all by ICG dye (negative IE-ICG). The concordance rate between IT and HF was 100% in all three groups of patients. However, concordance rates between SI and IT were 100% in MH, 80% in DME and 50% in ERM, respectively. The surgeon's impression of the membrane is inaccurate, especially in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Considering the cost, difficulties of tissue preparation, and the time-consuming process of histological confirmation of an ILM, IE-ICG may be a useful alternative for the differentiation of a peeled ILM and a thin ERM.

  17. An effective method to enhance working temperature range of lasers from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, JianLong; Zhang, YaTing; Cao, MingXuan; Song, XiaoXian; Che, YongLi; Dai, HaiTao; Zhang, GuiZhong; Yao, JianQuan

    2016-10-01

    Stable and homogeneous dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals (DDCLCs) were prepared. The lasers generated from DDCLCs can be tuned by temperature, and the working temperature range of DDCLCs was from 20 °C to 60 °C. After adding bi-functional monomer RM257 and photoinitiator Irgacure 2959, the working temperature range of lasers from DDCLCs was enhanced from 20-60 °C to 20-70 °C.

  18. Effects of Dye Structure in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Anna R.

    rather than for the entire dye structure and DSSC construct. While the wavelength shift is small for the dyes in this study, the measured values indicate that increasing dye conjugation lengths may be a method for extension of photon acceptance into the IR region of the solar spectrum.

  19. Daily stress magnifies the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems: an integration of longitudinal and diary methods.

    PubMed

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Almeida, David M; Seeman, Teresa E; Lachman, Margie E

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether long-term fluid cognitive decline was associated with memory problems in everyday life, and whether stress plays a moderating role. We expected that the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems would be magnified in the context of self-reported and physiological stress. Data are from the Boston Longitudinal Study, a subsample of the Midlife in the United States study. Participants in the current study (n = 112) completed a battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning at Time 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) over 10 years. At T2, participants completed weekly diaries of self-reported daily stressors and everyday memory problems for 12 consecutive weeks. Also at T2, participants provided 4 saliva samples over the course of 1 day to assess physiological stress using diurnal cortisol profiles [cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS)]. Self-reported daily stressors and a less healthy DCS were associated with more everyday memory problems, and participants with greater cognitive decline reported more memory problems compared to those with less or no decline. Self-reported daily stressors and CAR moderated the relationship of cognitive decline and memory problems. As expected, more cognitive decline was associated with greater increases in memory problems on weeks when individuals reported more daily stressors and for individuals with a less healthy CAR. The current findings can inform interventions aimed to identify factors, such as daily stress, that contribute to daily functioning in the context of cognitive decline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Estimating rainfall erosivity from daily precipitation records: A comparison among methods using data from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Martínez, M.; Beguería, S.

    2009-12-01

    SummaryAmong the major factors controlling soil erosion, as vegetation cover or soil erodibility, rainfall erosivity has a paramount importance since it is difficult to predict and control by humans. Accurate estimation of rainfall erosivity requires continuous rainfall data; however, such data rarely demonstrate good spatial and temporal coverage. Daily weather records are now commonly available, providing good coverage that better represents rainfall intensity behavior than do more aggregated rainfall data. In the present study annual rainfall erosivity was estimated from daily rainfall records, and compared to data obtained employing the RUSLE R factor procedure. A spatially-dense precipitation database of high temporal resolution (15 min) was used. Two methodologies were applied: (i) daily rainfall erosivity estimated using several parametric models, and, (ii) annual rainfall erosivity estimated by regression-based techniques employing several intensity precipitation indices and the modified Fournier index. To determine the accuracy of estimates, several goodness-of-fit and error statistics were computed in addition to a spatial distribution comparison. The daily rainfall erosivity models accurately predicted annual rainfall erosivity. Parametric models with few combined parameters and a periodic function simulating intra-annual rainfall behavior provided the best results. Where daily rainfall records were not available, good estimates of annual rainfall erosivity were also obtained using regression-based techniques based on 5-day maximum precipitation events, the maximum wet spell duration, and the ratio between the lengths of average wet and dry spells. Inherent limitations remain in the use of daily weather records for estimating rainfall erosivity. Future research should focus on incorporating measures of natural rainfall properties of the particular region, including kinetic energy and intensity, and their effects on the soil.

  1. Subsequence dynamic time warping as a method for robust step segmentation using gyroscope signals of daily life activities.

    PubMed

    Barth, Jens; Oberndorfer, Cacilia; Kugler, Patrick; Schuldhaus, Dominik; Winkler, Jurgen; Klucken, Jochen; Eskofier, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    The segmentation of gait signals into single steps is an important basis for objective gait analysis. Only a precise detection of step beginning and end enables the computation of step parameters like step height, variability and duration. A special challenge for the application is the accurateness of such an algorithm when based on signals from daily live activities. In this study, gyroscopes were attached laterally to sport shoes to collect gait data. For the automated step segmentation, subsequence Dynamic Time Warping was used. 35 healthy controls and ten patients with Parkinson's disease performed a four times ten meter walk. Furthermore 4 subjects were recorded during different daily life activities. The algorithm enabled counting steps, detecting precisely step beginning and end and rejecting other movements. Results showed a recognition rate of steps during ten meter walk exercises of 97.7% and in daily life activities of 86.7%. The segmentation procedure can be used for gait analysis from daily life activities and can constitute the basis for computation of precise step parameters. The algorithm is applicable for long-term gait monitoring as well as for analyzing gait abnormalities.

  2. Effect of thermal treatment on TiO2 nanorod electrodes prepared by the solvothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells: Surface reconfiguration and improved electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingyong; Yao, Jianxi; Zhang, Yongzhe; Guli, Mina; Xiao, Li

    2014-06-01

    Solvothermal synthesis is considered a novel method of preparing the photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which can directly synthesize material with good crystallinity at low temperatures without thermal treatment. However, how thermal treatment influences the properties of the materials synthesized by this method is still unclear, especial at the microscopic level. In this study, we applied TiO2 nanorod arrays prepared by the solvothermal method to DSSCs. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman results indicate that the crystal structure of TiO2 nanorods did not change after thermal treatment. However, the photovoltaic performance improved by 39%. Detailed analysis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results demonstrate that a surface reconfiguration occurred, shifting one thin amorphous TiO2 layer to tiny crystallite spheres. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements further confirm this morphology change, and the surface states also become more suitable for dye absorption, which leads to a significant improvement in efficiency. Moreover, good electrical transport is observed due to the low concentration of surface defects. Therefore, we believe the performance improvement comes from crystalline surface and surface chemical bonding improvements. Our results could be useful in photoelectrical applications of the solvothermal synthesis method.

  3. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins, dyes and pesticides in spices.

    PubMed

    Ferrer Amate, C; Unterluggauer, H; Fischer, R J; Fernández-Alba, A R; Masselter, S

    2010-05-01

    Based on several alerts from European countries over the last years concerning spices, we have been encouraged to establish an accurate method for the determination of dyes, aflatoxins and pesticides in various types of spices using reversed-phase (RP) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry interfaced with electrospray (LC-ESI-MS/MS). A simple sample treatment procedure entailing the use of an extraction step with acetonitrile without further cleanup has been developed. A C18 column with an aqueous ammonium formate/methanol mixture as the mobile phase was used, and gradient elution was performed. Mass spectral acquisition was done in positive ion mode by applying multiple reaction monitoring of at least two fragmentation transitions per compound to provide a high degree of selectivity. The method was in-house validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, recovery and selectivity on six kinds of spices. Satisfactory results in the majority of the cases were obtained for all analytes and matrices, with practical limits of quantitation acceptable for routine monitoring purposes. Extraction recoveries for most of the compounds ranged from 60% to 140% at spiking levels of 0.05 and 0.5 mg kg(-1). The applicability of the method for the simultaneous determination of dyes, aflatoxins and pesticides in several types of spices was demonstrated, and the method successfully applied to a limited number of products from the local market.

  4. Metal oxide-encapsulated dye-sensitized photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Son, Ho-Jin

    2016-01-12

    Dye-sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films for photoanodes, photoanodes incorporating the films and DSCs incorporating the photoanodes are provided. Also provided are methods for making the dye sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films. The methods of making the films are based on the deposition of an encapsulating layer of a semiconducting metal oxide around the molecular anchoring groups of photosensitizing dye molecules adsorbed to a porous film of the semiconducting metal oxide. The encapsulating layer of semiconducting metal oxide is formed in such a way that it is not coated over the chromophores of the adsorbed dye molecules and, therefore, allows the dye molecules to remain electrochemically addressable.

  5. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    PubMed

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-05

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  6. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  7. Ultrasonic assisted dyeing: dyeing of acrylic fabrics C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200%.

    PubMed

    Kamel, M M; Helmy, H M; Mashaly, H M; Kafafy, H H

    2010-01-01

    The dyeing of acrylic fabrics using C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200% has been studied with both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The effect of dye concentration, dye bath pH, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with both techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic than with conventional heating. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were studied. X-ray and Scanning Electron Microscope SEM were carried out on dyed samples using both methods of dyeing to find out an explanation for the better dyeability of acrylic fabrics with (US) method. Dyeing kinetics of acrylic fabrics using C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200% using conventional and ultrasonic conditions were compared. The time/dye-uptake isotherms are revealing the enhanced dye-uptake in the second phase of dyeing. The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time of dyeing and standard affinity and ultrasonic efficiency have been calculated and discussed.

  8. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  9. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  10. Dye laser principles, with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, F.J. . Dept. of Physics); Hillman, L.W. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers which explain dye laser principles. Topics covered include: laser dynamics, femtosecond dye lasers, CW dye lasers, technology of pulsed dye lases, photochemistry of laser dyes, and laser applications.

  11. Comparative analysis of bacterial community composition in bulk tank raw milk by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods using the viability dye propidium monoazide.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mareike; Geißert, Janina; Kruse, Myriam; Lipski, André

    2014-11-01

    Microbial diversity of 3 raw milk samples after 72 h of storage at 4 °C in a bulk tank was analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent methods. The culture-dependent approach was based on the isolation of bacteria on complex and selective media, chemotaxonomic differentiation of isolates, and subsequent identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The culture-independent approach included the treatment of raw milk with the dye propidium monoazide before direct DNA extraction by mechanic and enzymatic cell lysis approaches, and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The selective detection of viable bacteria improved the comparability between bacterial compositions of raw milk based on culture-dependent and -independent methods, which was the major objective of this study. Several bacterial species of the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were detected by the culture-dependent method, whereas mainly bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria as well as low proportions of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were detected by the culture-independent method. This led to the conclusion that the phylum Firmicutes was strongly discriminated by the culture-independent approach. Generally, species richness detected by the culture-dependent method was higher than that detected by the culture-independent method for all samples. However, few taxa could be detected solely by the direct DNA-based method. In conclusion, the combination of culture-dependent and -independent methods led to the detection of the highest bacterial diversity for the raw milk samples analyzed. It was shown that DNA extraction from raw milk as the essential step in culture-independent methods causes the discrimination of taxa by incomplete cell lysis. Treatment of raw milk with the viability dye propidium monoazide was optimized for the application in raw milk without former removal of milk ingredients and proved to be a suitable tool to ensure comparability

  12. [RDBH-method and big DyeTM terminator technology in accurate diagnosis of β-thalassemia and the allelic polymorphism of β-globin cluster].

    PubMed

    Akperova, G A

    2014-11-01

    IThe purpose of this study was to evaluate of the efficiency of RDBH-method and Big DyeTM Terminator technology in an accurate diagnosis of β-thalassemia and the allelic polymorphism of β-globin cluster. It was done a complete hematology analysis (HB, MCH, MCV, MCHC, RBC, Hct, HbA2, HbF, Serum iron, Serum ferritin at four children (males, 6-10 years old) and their parents. Molecular analysis included Reverse Dot-Blot Hybridization StripAssay (RDBH) and DNA sequencing on ABI PRISM Big DyeTM Terminator. Hematologic and molecular parameters were contradictory. The homozygosity for β0-thalassemia (β0IVS2.1[G>A] and β0codon 8[-AA]) at three boys with the mild clinical manifestation and heterozygosity of their parents for mutations, and the absence of β-globin mutations at parents and a boy who holds monthly transfusion was established by RDBH-analysis. DNA sequencing by technology Big DyeTM Terminator showed polymorphism at positions -551 and -521 of Cap5'-region (-650-250) - (AT)7(T)7 and (AT)8(T)5. Application of the integrated clinical-molecular approach is an ideal method for an accurate diagnosis, identification of asymptomatic carriers and a reduce of the risk of complications from β-thalassemia, moreover screening of γG-gene and the level of fetal hemoglobin in early childhood will help manage of β-thalassemia clinic and prevent heavy consequences of the disease.

  13. Drooling in children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative method to evaluate parental perceptions of its impact on daily life, social interaction, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    van der Burg, Jan; Jongerius, Peter; van Limbeek, Jacques; van Hulst, Karen; Rotteveel, Jan

    2006-06-01

    Research on the treatment of drooling applies measures such as salivary flow rate, qualitative observations of drooling severity in standardized situations, and anecdotal or one-dimensional parental and teacher reports. To assess drooling severity in a range of everyday conditions, and its impact on the daily life of children and their families, two parent questionnaires were constructed. Results of baseline measurements of 43 children with cerebral palsy showed that the questionnaires measured the variation in drooling severity across daily life conditions, and enabled evaluation of the impact of drooling on the ability to eat, drink and speak, on daily care, economic consequences, and social interactions. The section on the impact of drooling on self-esteem appeared not to be fully applicable for non-speaking children with a low developmental status. The questionnaires offer a qualitative method to evaluate parental perceptions of the impact of drooling and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce drooling.

  14. Preparation of 6-hydroxyindolines and their use for preparation of novel laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Field, George F.; Hammond, Peter R.

    1993-01-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of 6-hydroxyindolines and new fluorescent dyes produced therefrom, which dyes are ring-constrained indoline-based rhodamine class dyes. These dyes have absorption and emission spectra which make them particularly useful in certain dye laser applications.

  15. Preparation of 6-hydroxyindolines and their use for preparation of novel laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.F.; Hammond, P.R.

    1993-10-26

    A novel method is described for the synthesis of 6-hydroxyindolines and new fluorescent dyes produced therefrom, which dyes are ring-constrained indoline-based rhodamine class dyes. These dyes have absorption and emission spectra which make them particularly useful in certain dye laser applications.

  16. Green dyeing process of modified cotton fibres using natural dyes extracted from Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. leaves.

    PubMed

    Baaka, Noureddine; Mahfoudhi, Adel; Haddar, Wafa; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk; Mighri, Zine

    2017-01-01

    This research work involves an eco-friendly dyeing process of modified cotton with the aqueous extract of Tamarix aphylla leaves. During this process, the dyeing step was carried out on modified cotton by several cationising agents in order to improve its dyeability. The influence of the main dyeing conditions (dye bath pH, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, salt addition) on the performances of this dyeing process were studied. The dyeing performances of this process were appreciated by measuring the colour yield (K/S) and the fastness properties of the dyed samples. The effect of mordant type with different mordanting methods on dyeing quality was also studied. The results showed that mordanting gave deeper shades and enhanced fastness properties. In addition, environmental indicators (BOD5, COD and COD/BOD5) were used to describe potential improvements in the biodegradability of the dyebath wastewater. Further, HPLC was used to identify the major phenolic compounds in the extracted dye.

  17. The Daily 110 MHz Survey (BSA Fian) in the On-line Mode: Database and Processing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samodurov, V. A.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Logvinenko, S. V.; Isaev, E. A.; Dumsky, D. V.; Pugachev, V. D.

    From 2012 on radio telescope BSA FIAN multi beams diagram was started. It capable at July 2014 daily observing by 96 beams in declination -8 .. 42 degrees in the frequency band 109-111.5 MHz. The number of frequency bands are from 6 to 32, the time constant are from 0.1 to 0.0125 sec. In receiving mode with 32 band (plus one common band) with a time constant of 12.5 ms (80 times per second) respectively produced 33x96x80 four byte real and so daily we produced 87.5 Gbt (yearly to 32 Tbt). These data are enormous opportunities for both short and long-term monitoring of various classes of radio sources (including radio transients) and for space weather and the Earth's ionosphere monitoring, for search for different classes of radio sources, etc.

  18. [Time use in the daily life of aged women: an indicative method of the life style of population groups].

    PubMed

    Doimo, Leonice Aparecida; Derntl, Alice Moreira; do Lago, Olival Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Time use research analyzes the multi-factorial aspects of aging. The purpose of this research was to describe time use within a group of 75 elderly women, 68,04 +/- 8,36 years old, based on their daily activities from waking up to going to sleep. The instruments used in the study were a cognition test (Clock Completion Test), a questionnaire for obtaining personal data and structured interviews (Time Diary) for obtaining information about the activities carried out on the day prior to the interview. The daily activities were decoded and classified by means of an international classification for time use studies, thus obtaining the profiles of the daily activities assigned to nine groups of main activities and their physical and social contexts. It was verified that the greater part of time was spent with mandatory activities (housework and personal care). Most of the free time was spent with passive leisure (TV watching) and little physical activity. Most of the activities were performed at home (physical context), and the elderly women used to live either with members of their family or alone (social context). Individual factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status and socioeconomic level probably play a role in the time use patterns found.

  19. Characterizing dye bias in microarray experiments.

    PubMed

    Dobbin, K K; Kawasaki, E S; Petersen, D W; Simon, R M

    2005-05-15

    Spot intensity serves as a proxy for gene expression in dual-label microarray experiments. Dye bias is defined as an intensity difference between samples labeled with different dyes attributable to the dyes instead of the gene expression in the samples. Dye bias that is not removed by array normalization can introduce bias into comparisons between samples of interest. But if the bias is consistent across samples for the same gene, it can be corrected by proper experimental design and analysis. If the dye bias is not consistent across samples for the same gene, but is different for different samples, then removing the bias becomes more problematic, perhaps indicating a technical limitation to the ability of fluorescent signals to accurately represent gene expression. Thus, it is important to characterize dye bias to determine: (1) whether it will be removed for all genes by array normalization, (2) whether it will not be removed by normalization but can be removed by proper experimental design and analysis and (3) whether dye bias correction is more problematic than either of these and is not easily removable. We analyzed two large (each >27 arrays) tissue culture experiments with extensive dye swap arrays to better characterize dye bias. Indirect, amino-allyl labeling was used in both experiments. We found that post-normalization dye bias that is consistent across samples does appear to exist for many genes, and that controlling and correcting for this type of dye bias in design and analysis is advisable. The extent of this type of dye bias remained unchanged under a wide range of normalization methods (median-centering, various loess normalizations) and statistical analysis techniques (parametric, rank based, permutation based, etc.). We also found dye bias related to the individual samples for a much smaller subset of genes. But these sample-specific dye biases appeared to have minimal impact on estimated gene-expression differences between the cell lines.

  20. Improved performance of anodic titanium oxide nanotube arrays synthesized by sonoelectrochemical anodization method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peighambardoust, Naeimeh-Sadat; Khameneh-Asl, Shahin; Azimi, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    With rising demand for using solar cell systems for energy and environmental applications, considerable interest in anode materials of these cells has dramatically emerged. In this work, TiO2 nanotubular electrodes of varying thicknesses as anode were fabricated using effective process in a short time by sonoelectrochemical anodizing of Ti using an organic electrolyte, containing Na2[H2EDTA]. Long TiO2 nanotubes about 30-40 μm thick containing ordered hexagonal TiO2 were achieved through manipulating anodization parameters. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with different TiO2 electrode morphologies of varying thicknesses were compared to DSSCs based on TiO2 Nanoparticle electrodes. The effect of controlling parameters of the sonoelectrochemical process including surface preparation and anodizing time was investigated. This report brings to attention the desirable properties of the structurally oriented TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell applications. It found that the best cell performance was achieved about 3.14% in the case of using TiO2 NT layers that were treated by TiCl4 treatment.

  1. Quantum dots-based double imaging combined with organic dye imaging to establish an automatic computerized method for cancer Ki67 measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Wei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Wen-Lou; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Wu, Han; Li, Yan; Liu, Juan

    2016-02-01

    As a widely used proliferative marker, Ki67 has important impacts on cancer prognosis, especially for breast cancer (BC). However, variations in analytical practice make it difficult for pathologists to manually measure Ki67 index. This study is to establish quantum dots (QDs)-based double imaging of nuclear Ki67 as red signal by QDs-655, cytoplasmic cytokeratin (CK) as yellow signal by QDs-585, and organic dye imaging of cell nucleus as blue signal by 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and to develop a computer-aided automatic method for Ki67 index measurement. The newly developed automatic computerized Ki67 measurement could efficiently recognize and count Ki67-positive cancer cell nuclei with red signals and cancer cell nuclei with blue signals within cancer cell cytoplasmic with yellow signals. Comparisons of computerized Ki67 index, visual Ki67 index, and marked Ki67 index for 30 patients of 90 images with Ki67 ≤ 10% (low grade), 10% < Ki67 < 50% (moderate grade), and Ki67 ≥ 50% (high grade) showed computerized Ki67 counting is better than visual Ki67 counting, especially for Ki67 low and moderate grades. Based on QDs-based double imaging and organic dye imaging on BC tissues, this study successfully developed an automatic computerized Ki67 counting method to measure Ki67 index.

  2. Study of TiO2 nano-tubes using electrochemical anodization method for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, T.; Mujahid, M.; Mehmood, M.; Shahzad, Q.

    2016-08-01

    TiO2 nano-tubes are getting strong attraction in many fields due to their unique properties. They are important in biomedical application, Dye sensitized solar cells, sensor and photocatalys is applications, etc. Our prime interest is to grow these tubes for dye-sensitized solar cells with high conversion efficiency and low production cost. In this research, we have synthesized TiO2 naonotubes by anodizing 25 µm thick titanium foil at 40V using two-step anodization method. The electrolyte used is the ethylene glycol with varying concentration of NH4F and fixed concentration of deionized water. Effect of different concentrations of the electrolyte on tube crystal structure has been studied. It is observed that crystallinity increases with increased concentration of fluoride ions. It is found that two-stepanodization method results in more crystalline and open structures. Scanning electron microscopy is utilized to study the surface morphology and tubes growth, whereas observation of the crystal structure of nano-tubes is made by X-ray diffraction.

  3. Analysis of dye degradation products and assessment of the dye purity in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Sabine M K; Mavrynsky, Denys; Meierjohann, Axel; Tiihonen, Armi; Miettunen, Kati; Asghar, Imran; Halme, Janne; Kronberg, Leif; Leino, Reko

    2015-12-15

    For commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), improvement of their long-term stability and efficiency is important. A key component in solar cells is the dye, its high purity and high stability. Here, methods for dye extraction and purification, and for determination of dye purity and dye degradation in DSSCs, were developed. A method was developed for extraction of the dye Z907 from intact solar cells using a water/ethanol mixture containing tetrabutylammonium hydroxide. The N719 dye synthesized in our laboratory was purified by gel filtration on Sephadex LH20. These dyes, along with the dyes N3 and RuL2 (NC)2, were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass analyzer (LC/MS) operating in negative ionization mode. Purification of the synthesized N719 removed several impurities, including its undesired isomer with the thiocyanate ligand attached to ruthenium through sulfur instead of nitrogen. The dyes N719 and Z907 were successfully extracted from solar cells and together with N3 and RuL2 (NC)2 analyzed by LC/MS, although N719 isomerized almost immediately in basic aqueous solution. The [M-H](-1) ions were observed and the measured mass was within a ±6 ppm range from the exact mass. LC/MS in combination with NMR spectroscopy was shown to provide useful information on dye structure, purity, and on the efficiency of the purification methods. These methods allow for further studies of solar cell dyes, which may provide the detailed information needed for the improvement and eventual commercialization of the solar cell technology. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Predicting with confidence the efficiency of new dyes in dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ip, Chung Man; Eleuteri, Antonio; Troisi, Alessandro

    2014-09-28

    We ask whether it is possible to predict the efficiency of a new dye in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) on the basis of the known performance of existing dyes in the same type of device. We evaluate a number of computable predictors of the efficiency for a large set of dyes whose experimental efficiency is known. We have then used statistical regression methods to establish the relation between the predictors and the efficiency. Our predictions are associated with a rigorously determined confidence level. For a new dye of the same family we are able to predict the probability that its efficiency in a DSSC is larger than a certain threshold. This method is useful for accelerating the discovery of new dyes and establishing more rigorously the existence of specific correlations between structure and properties. Within the properties considered we find that the dye efficiency correlates more strongly with its oxidation potential and reorganization energy.

  5. Photodynamic Inactivation of Acinetobacter baumannii Using Phenothiazinium Dyes: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ragàs, Xavier; Dai, Tianhong; Tegos, George P.; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective Phenothiazinium dyes have been reported to be effective photosensitizers inactivating a wide range of microorganisms in vitro after illumination with red light. However, their application in vivo has not extensively been explored. This study evaluates the bactericidal activity of phenothiazinium dyes against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii both in vitro and in vivo. Study Design/Materials and Methods We report the investigation of toluidine blue O, methylene blue, 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue, and new methylene blue for photodynamic inactivation of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in vitro. The most effective dye was selected to carry out in vivo studies using third-degree mouse burns infected with a bioluminescent A. baumannii strain, upon irradiation with a 652 nm noncoherent light source. The mice were imaged daily for 2 weeks to observe differences in the bioluminescence–time curve between the photodynamic therapy (PDT)-treated mice in comparison with untreated burns. Results All the dyes were effective in vitro against A. baumannii after 30 J/cm2 irradiation of 635 or 652 nm red light had been delivered, with more effective killing when the dye remained in solution. New methylene blue was the most effective of the four dyes, achieving a 3.2-log reduction of the bacterial luminescence during PDT in vivo after 360 J/cm2 and an 800 μM dye dose. Moreover, a statistically significant reduction of the area under the bioluminescence–time curve of PDT-treated mice was observed showing that the infection did not recur after PDT. Conclusions Phenothiazinium dyes, and especially new methylene blue, are potential photosensitizers for PDT to treat burns infected with multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in vivo. PMID:20583252

  6. Vanadium oxides (V2O5) prepared with different methods for application as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kezhong; Sun, Xiaolong; Duan, Chongyuan; Gao, Jing; Wu, Mingxing

    2016-09-01

    V2O5 was synthesized by four different procedures employing thermal decomposition, sol-gel, and hydrothermal methods which were subsequently introduced into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as counter electrode (CE) catalysts for the regeneration of traditional iodide/triiodide (I-/I3 -) redox couple. The catalytic activities of as-prepared V2O5 were significantly affected by the synthetic routes as evidenced by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Tafel polarization curve. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSCs employing V2O5 CE, fabricated by thermal decomposition method, was observed to be 3.80 % by using citric acid as an additive, while the PCE of the DSCs using V2O5 CE prepared by hydrothermal and thermal decomposition methods without additive, as well as by a sol-gel procedure, was determined to be 2.13, 2.08, and 2.04 %, respectively.

  7. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  8. Method to Estimate Long-term Change of Heat and Electric Power Daily Load Curves in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Takuya; Akisawa, Atushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    The rapid spread of CHP systems will put pressure on the regional power system to requiring an examination of the power and heat output of CHP systems. When considering the country-wide potential of the CHP system one should examine such system in coordination with the grid power system. It is essential to calculate the heat and power demand at end-use level. In the paper, annual heat and power demands of end-use sectors are forecast to the year 2025 based on 20 year data. Regression analysis is used. Estimated annual demands are divided into the seasonal hourly demands considering demand characteristics. Daily load curves of heat and power demands are determined for the Japanese end-use sectors, and the annual changes of such demands are shown by duration curves of heat to power ratios. Moreover, the grid power daily load curves are computed numerically from the estimated heat and power demands at manufacturing, residential and commercial sectors. Such load curves also consider self-generated power at manufacturing industry and own consumption of the grid power. Estimating heat and power demands allow for a joint analysis between the power system and the future phasing in of CHP systems.

  9. Estimation of daily average downward shortwave radiation from MODIS data using principal components regression method: Fars province case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzin, Razieh; Shirvani, Amin; Lotfi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Downward shortwave radiation is a key quantity in the land-atmosphere interaction. Since the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data has a coarse temporal resolution, which is not suitable for estimating daily average radiation, many efforts have been undertaken to estimate instantaneous solar radiation using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data. In this study, the principal components analysis technique was applied to capture the information of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer bands, extraterrestrial radiation, aerosol optical depth, and atmospheric water vapour. A regression model based on the principal components was used to estimate daily average shortwave radiation for ten synoptic stations in the Fars province, Iran, for the period 2009-2012. The Durbin-Watson statistic and autocorrelation function of the residuals of the fitted principal components regression model indicated that the residuals were serially independent. The results indicated that the fitted principal components regression models accounted for about 86-96% of total variance of the observed shortwave radiation values and the root mean square error was about 0.9-2.04 MJ m-2 d-1. Also, the results indicated that the model accuracy decreased as the aerosol optical depth increased and extraterrestrial radiation was the most important predictor variable among all.

  10. Mechanistic and conformational studies on the interaction of food dye amaranth with human serum albumin by multispectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guowen; Ma, Yadi

    2013-01-15

    The mechanism of interaction between food dye amaranth and human serum albumin (HSA) in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated by fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results obtained from analysis of fluorescence spectra indicated that amaranth had a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching procedure. The negative value of enthalpy change and positive value of entropy change elucidated that the binding of amaranth to HSA was driven mainly by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The surface hydrophobicity of HSA increased after binding with amaranth. The binding distance between HSA and amaranth was estimated to be 3.03 nm and subdomain IIA (Sudlow site I) was the primary binding site for amaranth on HSA. The results of CD and FT-IR spectra showed that binding of amaranth to HSA induced conformational changes of HSA.

  11. Study protocol of the multi-site randomised controlled REDALI-DEM trial - The effects of structured Relearning methods on Daily Living task performance of persons with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence from pilot trials suggests that structured learning techniques may have positive effects on the performance of cognitive tasks, movement sequences or skills in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this trial is to evaluate whether the usual method of learning by trial and error or the method of errorless learning demonstrate better effects on the performance of two selected daily living tasks six weeks after the intervention in people with mild to moderate dementia. Methods/Design A seven-centre single-blind, active-controlled design with a 1:1 randomisation for two parallel groups will include 175 persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease or mixed type dementia (MMSE 14-24), living at home, showing at least moderate need for assistance in instrumental activities of daily living; primary carer available and informed consent of patient and primary carer. Patients of both study arms will receive 15 one-hour-sessions at home by trained interventionists practising two daily living tasks individually selected. In one group the trial and error technique and in the other group the errorless learning method will be applied. Primary outcome is the task performance measured with the Task Performance Scale six weeks post treatment. Discussion The trial results will inform us to improve guidelines for instructing individuals with memory impairments. A user-friendly practice guideline will allow an efficient implementation of structured relearning techniques for a wide range of service providers in dementia care. Trial registration DRKS00003117 PMID:21851594

  12. Facile method for synthesis of TiO{sub 2} film and its application in high efficiency dye sensitized-solar cell (DSSC)

    SciTech Connect

    Widiyandari, Hendri Gunawan, S. K.V.; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro; Purwanto, Agus; Diharjo, Kuncoro

    2014-02-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is a device which converts a solar energy to electrical energy. Different with semiconductor thin film based solar cell, DSSC utilize the sensitized-dye to absorb the photon and semiconductor such as titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as a working electrode photoanode. In this report, the preparation of TiO{sub 2} film using a facile method of spray deposition and its application in DSSC have been presented. TiO{sub 2} photoanode was synthesized by growing the droplet of titanium tetraisopropoxide diluted in acid solution on the substrate of conductive glass flourine-doped tin oxide (FTO) with variation of precursor volume. DSSC was assemblied by sandwiching both of photoanode electrode and platinum counter electrode subsequently filling the area between these electrodes with triodine/iodine electrolite solution as redox pairs. The characterization of the as prepared DSSC using solar simulator (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}) and I-V source meter Keithley 2400 showed that the performance of DSSC was affected by the precursor volume.. The overall conversion efficiency of DSSC using the optimum TiO{sub 2} film was about 1.97% with the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.73 V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 4.61 mA and fill factor (FF) of 0.58.

  13. Rare earth ion (La, Ce, and Eu) doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via sol-gel method: Application in dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Padmini; Kurchania, Rajnish; Haque, Fozia Z.

    2015-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated by using ZnO nanoparticles as working electrode material synthesized via simple and cost effective sol-gel method. Crystallography and morphology was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Among various rare earth ions, 1.0 mol % La, Ce, and Eu doped ZnO nanoparticles based photoanodes were used to test DSSC performance. Lower efficiency (η = 1.14%) for La ion doped ZnO nanoparticles based cell was observed. A much lower photocurrent J sc = 2.52 mA/cm2 with 0.60% efficiency ( η) for the Ce ion doped ZnO nanoparticles based prototype was observed as compared to that ( J sc = 3.86 mA/cm2 with η = 1.24%) of the undoped one which may be due to the formation of opposite internal electric potential difference in the cell. Furthermore, the improvement in efficiency (η = 1.36%) and J sc = 3.99 mA/cm2 for Eu ion doped ZnO can be attributed to enhanced electron injection and transport abilities. This indicates that 1.0 mol % Eu ion doped ZnO film possesses better electrical conductivity probably due to the existence of high-valance Eu ions in the ZnO matrix which might be promising in ZnO-based dye sensitized solar cell.

  14. Enzymatic biotransformation of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Couto, S

    2009-11-01

    Environmental pollution by discharge of dye-containing effluents represents a serious ecological concern in many countries. Public demands for colour-free discharges to receiving waters have made decolouration of a variety of industrial wastewater a top priority. The current existing techniques for dye removal have several drawbacks such as high cost, low efficiency, use of large amounts of chemicals and formation of toxic sub-products. This has impelled the search for alternative methods such as those based on oxidative enzymes. This approach is believed to be a promising technology since it is cost-effective, environmentally friendly and does not produce sludge. Enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes can be described as the conversion of dye molecules by enzymes into simpler and generally colourless molecules. Detailed characterisation of the metabolites produced during enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes as well as ecotoxicity studies is of great importance to assess the effectiveness of the biodegradation process. However, most reports on the biotreatment of dyes mainly deal with decolouration and there are few reports on the reduction in toxicity or on the identification of the biodegradation products. This implies a limitation to assess their true technical potential.

  15. Degradation of Remazol Red in batik dye waste water by contact glow discharge electrolysis method using NaOH and NaCl electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksono, Nelson; Putri, Dita Amelia; Suminar, Dian Ratna

    2017-03-01

    Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (CGDE) method is one of Plasma Electrolysis technology which has been approved to degrade organic waste water because it is very productive in producing hydroxyl radical. This study aims to degrade Remazol Red by CGDE method and evaluate important parameters that have influent in degradation process of Remazol Red in Batik dye waste water in batch system. The kind of electrolyte (acid and base) and the addition of metal ion such as Fe2+ have affected Remazol Red degradation percentage. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra were used to monitor the degradation process. The result of study showed that percentage degradation was 99.97% which obtained by using NaCl 0.02 M with addition Fe2+ 20 ppm, applied voltage 700 volt, anode depth 0.5 cm, initial concentration of Remazol Red 250 ppm and the temperature of solutions was maintained 50-60 ˚C.

  16. Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry

  17. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  18. Steady state pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim 300 mg once daily in healthy volunteers assessed by two independent methods.

    PubMed

    Odlind, B; Hartvig, P; Fjellström, K E; Lindström, B; Bengtsson, S

    1984-01-01

    The steady state pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim was determined after 300 mg orally once daily to 6 healthy volunteers for 9 days. The microbiological assay of plasma level was unreliable at trimethoprim concentrations greater than 4 micrograms/ml, so results from an HPLC-assay are given. Steady state was present after 3 days. The plasma concentration peaked 1 to 4 h (mean 2.0 h) after the dose at a mean of 6.0 micrograms/ml (range 3.1-9.5 micrograms/ml); the minimum value was 1.5 micrograms/ml (range 0.6-2.9 micrograms/ml). The mean AUCss was 77 micrograms/ml X h and the mean plasma clearances was 67 and 74 ml/min on Days 8 and 9. Renal clearance was about 60% of the plasma clearance. The average plasma half life was 10.6 h (range 8.7-15.3 h). Thus, there was considerable interindividual variation in all pharmacokinetic parameters. 72 h after the last dose trimethoprim was detectable in plasma in only 1 of the 6 subjects. The minimum urinary concentration of trimethoprim during treatment was always well above (range 22 to 220 micrograms/ml) the MIC values for most urinary tract pathogens. Therefore, a daily dose of 300 mg trimethoprim results in a therapeutic concentration in urine at steady state that lasts throughout the dosing interval and in most subjects probably lasts also for a further 24 h. Trimethoprim administration raised mean serum creatinine from 67 to 97 mumol/l, probably due to competitive inhibition of the tubular secretion of creatinine.

  19. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    PubMed Central

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; El-Zawahry, Manal M.; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics. PMID:25258720

  20. Characteristics of dye Rhoeo spathacea in dye sensitizer solar cell (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumardiasih, Sri; Obina, Wilfrida M.; Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Septiawan, Trio Y.; Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. The magnitude of the efficiency of DSSC is mainly based on the amount of dye absorbed by the surface of TiO2. In this work, used natural dye extracted from leaves Rhoeo spathacea. The dye partially used to immerse of TiO2 as working electrodes, and the rest are directly mixed TiO2 paste to obtain dye titanium dioxide.The paste TiO2 and dye titanium dioxide coated onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate by spin coating method. The absorbance spectra of the dye, dye titanium dioxide and TiO2 were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The conductivity of the dye, dye titanium dioxide, and TiO2 was measured by two point probe El-Kahfi 100. The DSSC based on dye titanium dioxide that stirring for 5 hours the highest efficiency of 0,0520 % whereas those based on TiO2 immersed for 36 hours showed achieved 0,0501 % obtained from I-V characterization.

  1. Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

    2009-02-17

    Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them.

  2. Estimating spatial distribution of daily snow depth with kriging methods: combination of MODIS snow cover area data and ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. L.; Wang, H. W.; Hou, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Accurately measuring the spatial distribution of the snow depth is difficult because stations are sparse, particularly in western China. In this study, we develop a novel scheme that produces a reasonable spatial distribution of the daily snow depth using kriging interpolation methods. These methods combine the effects of elevation with information from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover area (SCA) products. The scheme uses snow-free pixels in MODIS SCA images with clouds removed to identify virtual stations, or areas with zero snow depth, to compensate for the scarcity and uneven distribution of stations. Four types of kriging methods are tested: ordinary kriging (OK), universal kriging (UK), ordinary co-kriging (OCK), and universal co-kriging (UCK). These methods are applied to daily snow depth observations at 50 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that the spatial distribution of snow depth can be accurately reconstructed using these kriging methods. The added virtual stations improve the distribution of the snow depth and reduce the smoothing effects of the kriging process. The best performance is achieved by the OK method in cases with shallow snow cover and by the UCK method when snow cover is widespread.

  3. Comparison between two statistically based methods, and two physically based models developed to compute daily mean streamflow at ungaged locations in the Cedar River Basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linhart, S. Mike; Nania, Jon F.; Christiansen, Daniel E.; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Sanders, Curtis L.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of individuals from water resource managers to recreational users need streamflow information for planning and decisionmaking at locations where there are no streamgages. To address this problem, two statistically based methods, the Flow Duration Curve Transfer method and the Flow Anywhere method, were developed for statewide application and the two physically based models, the Precipitation Runoff Modeling-System and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, were only developed for application for the Cedar River Basin. Observed and estimated streamflows for the two methods and models were compared for goodness of fit at 13 streamgages modeled in the Cedar River Basin by using the Nash-Sutcliffe and the percent-bias efficiency values. Based on median and mean Nash-Sutcliffe values for the 13 streamgages the Precipitation Runoff Modeling-System and Soil and Water Assessment Tool models appear to have performed similarly and better than Flow Duration Curve Transfer and Flow Anywhere methods. Based on median and mean percent bias values, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model appears to have generally overestimated daily mean streamflows, whereas the Precipitation Runoff Modeling-System model and statistical methods appear to have underestimated daily mean streamflows. The Flow Duration Curve Transfer method produced the lowest median and mean percent bias values and appears to perform better than the other models.

  4. Green chemistry methods in sulfur dyeing: application of various reducing D-sugars and analysis of the importance of optimum redox potential.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Richard S; Harvey, Anna

    2004-07-15

    The importance of sulfur dyeing of cellulosic fibers, particularly cotton, is realized economically throughout the dyeing industry. At the present time, dyeing with sulfur dyes requires the use of various auxiliaries, many of which have adverse effects on the environment. The most damaging of these is the reducing agent sodium sulfide, required to reduce the dye molecules to a water-soluble leuco form to enable adsorption and diffusion into the fiber. In this study, attempts have been made to replace the sodium sulfide used within the sulfur dyeing process with a variety of environmentally friendly reducing sugars. The redox potential of various hexose and pentose monosaccharides and reducing disaccharides was recorded and compared. Subsequently, cotton was dyed with the world's most important sulfur dye, C. I. Sulfur Black 1, using the reducing sugars under alkaline conditions, and compared to dyeings secured by employing commercial sulfide reducing agents. It was observed that reducing sugars gave comparable, and in many cases superior, color strength and wash fastness results, with respect to the commercial sulfide-based reducing agents, which still account for the vast majority of sulfur dyeing processes and that pose significant environmental concern. Employment of reducing sugars in sulfur dyeing could provide a sustainable, nontoxic, biodegradable, cost-effective alternative to sodium polysulfide and sodium hydrogen sulfide. Comparison of the redox potential of reducing sugars against the color strength of the dyeings secured demonstrated that there was an optimum redox potential of around -650 mV for maximum color strength achieved. The same redox potential also conferred the lowest color loss upon washing. These observations were attributed to reduction of the polymeric dye molecules to an optimum size for fiber affinity and diffusion into the fiber, but which would also confer maximum wash fastness upon oxidation.

  5. Practical Implementation of Evidence-Based Dentistry Into Daily Dental Practice Through a Short Time Dependent Searching Method.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, Eunice; Dianiskova, Simona; Guncu, Guliz N; Karakoca Nemli, Secil; Melo, Paulo; Yamalik, Nermin

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that the benefits of implementation of Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) into clinical practice is increasingly being highlighted, there are still clear limitations in its implementation into daily dental practice. One potentially important barrier to effective implementation into practice is the perception of EBD as a time-consuming process. The aim of the present study is to increase the familiarity of dental practitioners with the benefits of different time-dependent 'practical' search strategies important to EBD using a clinical question from the field of dental implantology as an example. The PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) question used in this study was: "In young adults with anterior single-tooth implant what is the effect of immediate or delayed loading on success?" A bibliographic search according to the Haynes 5S pyramid, together with 3 different time-dependent strategies (5-min, 30-min and more than 60-min), were applied. Both the Haynes 5S Pyramid and time-dependent search strategies revealed promising results for enhancing decision-making for determining the feasibility of immediate or conventional loading of anterior single dental implants. Results clearly showed that selection of the loading protocol would be case (patient)-specific and also indicated high primary implant stability and bone quality as the most important prerequisites for a successful immediate/early loading. From among the 3 different time-dependent strategies (5 min, 30 min and more than 60 min), the 60+ min search results were quite comparable with the Haynes pyramid search results. It is likely that the different time-dependent search strategies may have the potential to support the clinical decision making process and may improve the implementation of EBD into daily dental practice. Increased time spent searching naturally seems to increase the extent of this support. However, even with short time-dependent searches, busy dental clinicians

  6. Energy expenditures in four men estimated by D/sub 2/ /sup 18/O method at two times. II. From once daily samples of urine or breath

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, C.W.; Seale, J.L.; Collins, J.S.; Barnes, R.; Canary, J.J.; Bodwell, C.E.

    1986-03-01

    To make the doubly labelled water method for determining energy expenditure more applicable in a free-living population, collection of a single daily urine or breath sample would have advantages compared to a 24-hr urine collection. Coward et al. reported the use of a single daily urine sample. In the previously described study, a single urine collection and a fasting morning breath sample were collected from four men during two 21-day periods (fall, F, spring, S) while maintaining their body wts. on controlled diets (20% calories from protein, 40% from fat, 60% from CHO (F); 20% protein, 20% fat, 60% CHO (S)). Urine and breath samples were analyzed to determine disappearance rates of D and /sup 18/O for up to 21 days. Values were compared with metabolizable energy intake levels (EI), with or without corrections for estimated changes in body composition assessed by several methods. Preliminary evaluations suggest that the single daily urine sample values may overestimate and values from the fasting breath samples may underestimate energy expenditure compared to EI.

  7. A method for dye extraction using an aqueous two-phase system: Effect of co-occurrence of contaminants in textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gabriella Alexandre; Silva, Luciana Pereira; Penido, Jussara Alves; de Lemos, Leandro Rodrigues; Mageste, Aparecida Barbosa; Rodrigues, Guilherme Dias

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports a green and efficient procedure for extraction of the dyes Malachite Green (MG), Methylene Blue (MB), and Reactive Red 195 (RR) using an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). An ATPS consists mainly of water, together with polymer and salt, and does not employ any organic solvent. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by means of the partition coefficients (K) and residual percentages (%R) of the dyes, under different experimental conditions, varying the tie-line length (TLL) of the system, the pH, the type of ATPS-forming electrolyte, and the type of ATPS-forming polymer. For MG, the best removal (K = 4.10 × 10(4), %R = 0.0069%) was obtained with the ATPS: PEO 1500 + Na2C4H4O6 (TLL = 50.21% (w/w), pH = 6.00). For MB, the maximum extraction (K = 559.9, %R = 0.258%) was achieved with the ATPS: PEO 400 + Na2SO4 (TLL = 50.31% (w/w), pH = 1.00). Finally for RR, the method that presented the best results (K = 3.75 × 10(4), %R = 0.237%) was the ATPS: PEO 400 + Na2SO4 (TLL = 50.31% (w/w), pH = 6.00). The method was applied to the recovery of these dyes from a textile effluent sample, resulting in values of K of 1.17 × 10(4), 724.1, and 3.98 × 10(4) for MG, MB, and RR, respectively, while the corresponding %R values were 0.0038, 0.154, and 0.023%, respectively. In addition, the ATPS methodology provided a high degree of color removal (96.5-97.95%) from the textile effluent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Retrieving air humidity, global solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration from daily temperatures: development and validation of new methods for Mexico. Part III: reference evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobit, P.; Gómez Tagle, A.; Bautista, F.; Lhomme, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated two methods to estimate evapotranspiration (ETo) from minimal weather records (daily maximum and minimum temperatures) in Mexico: a modified reduced set FAO-Penman-Monteith method (Allen et al. 1998, Rome, Italy) and the Hargreaves and Samani (Appl Eng Agric 1(2): 96-99, 1985) method. In the reduced set method, the FAO-Penman-Monteith equation was applied with vapor pressure and radiation estimated from temperature data using two new models (see first and second articles in this series): mean temperature as the average of maximum and minimum temperature corrected for a constant bias and constant wind speed. The Hargreaves-Samani method combines two empirical relationships: one between diurnal temperature range ΔT and shortwave radiation Rs, and another one between average temperature and the ratio ETo/Rs: both relationships were evaluated and calibrated for Mexico. After performing a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of different approximations on the estimation of Rs and ETo, several model combinations were tested to predict ETo from daily maximum and minimum temperature alone. The quality of fit of these models was evaluated on 786 weather stations covering most of the territory of Mexico. The best method was found to be a combination of the FAO-Penman-Monteith reduced set equation with the new radiation estimation and vapor pressure model. As an alternative, a recalibration of the Hargreaves-Samani equation is proposed.

  9. RESEARCH PAPER: Forecast daily indices of solar activity, F10.7, using support vector regression method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cong; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing-Song

    2009-06-01

    The 10.7 cm solar radio flux (F10.7), the value of the solar radio emission flux density at a wavelength of 10.7 cm, is a useful index of solar activity as a proxy for solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. It is meaningful and important to predict F10.7 values accurately for both long-term (months-years) and short-term (days) forecasting, which are often used as inputs in space weather models. This study applies a novel neural network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecasting daily values of F10.7. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in short-term F10.7 forecasting. The approach, based on SVR, reduces the dimension of feature space in the training process by using a kernel-based learning algorithm. Thus, the complexity of the calculation becomes lower and a small amount of training data will be sufficient. The time series of F10.7 from 2002 to 2006 are employed as the data sets. The performance of the approach is estimated by calculating the norm mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. It is shown that our approach can perform well by using fewer training data points than the traditional neural network.

  10. Nanostructured TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells prepared by the sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Jin, Young Sam; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Joon; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2011-12-01

    TiO2 films were prepared on glass substrates using the sol-gel process for a dye-sensitized solar cell application. The TiO2 sol was prepared using hydrolysis/polycondensation. Titanium (IV) Tetra Isopropoxide (TTIP) was used as precursor and Nitric acid (HNO3) was used as a catalyst for the peptization. The crystal structure and morphology of the prepared materials were characterized by XRD, and an SEM. The observations confirmed the nanocrystalline nature of the TiO2. The reaction parameters, such as the catalyst concentrations, the calcination time, and the calcination temperature were varied during the synthesis in order to achieve nanosize TiO2 particles. The prepared TiO2 particles were coated onto FTO glass using a screen printing technique. The prepared TiO2 films were characterized by UV-vis. The TiO2 particles calcinated at low temperatures showed an anatase phase they grew into a rutile phase when the calcination temperature increased. The size and structure of the TiO2 particles were adjusted to specific surface areas. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the DSSC was highly affected by the properties of the TiO2 particles.

  11. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 nanorods via hydrothermal method: An efficient photoanode material for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraj, R.; Santhosh, N.; Senthil Pandian, M.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-06-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 nanorods (NRs) were successfully grown via hydrothermal process. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern shows larger fraction of anatase phase with good crystallinity. Surface morphology of the grown NRs and its dimensions were identified with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. The crystalline nature of the NRs was also identified with bright spots obtained from selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. The specific surface area and average pore width of the material are 34.84 m2/g and 3.1 nm respectively. Based on the surface morphology, crystalline and mesoporous properties of the NRs, nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were made and their performances were compared with commercially available Aeroxide P25 nanoparticles. The performance of the NRs shows high short circuit current density (Jsc=15.45 mA/cm2) and high conversion efficiency of 6.5% in DSSCs. From the electrochemical impedance measurement, lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) has been observed for NRs based DSSC device in the interfaces.

  12. Facile synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 nanospheres by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and its applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, N.; Govindaraj, R.; Pandian, M. Senthil; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-05-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 nanospheres were successfully synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The synthesized materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and desorption isotherm, field emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the material has mixture of anatase and brookite phase. The nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherm shows that the material has surface area of 87 m2 g-1. The average pore size distribution analysis shows that the material has pore size of 11.2 nm. The morphology studies show that the synthesized TiO2 material has sphere morphology. The power conversion efficiency of TiO2 nanosphere based DSSC was 7.2% and commercial P25 material based DSSC was 4.1%. The mesoporous TiO2 nanosphere structure is good candidate for the dye sensitized solar cells application.

  13. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  14. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  15. Application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon for ultrasonic assisted dyes removal: Experimental design and derivative spectrophotometry method.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fatemeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Asfaram, Arash

    2016-11-01

    A method based on application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NRs-AC) for adsorption of Bromocresol Green (BCG) and Eosin Y (EY) accelerated by ultrasound was described. The present material was synthesized under ultrasound assisted wet-chemical method and subsequently was characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, BET and XRD analysis. The extent of contribution of conventional variables like pH (2.0-10.0), BCG concentration (4-20mgL(-1)), EY concentration (3-23mgL(-1)), adsorbent dosage (0.01-0.03g), sonication time (1-5min) and centrifuge time (2-6min) as main and interaction part were investigated by central composite design under response surface methodology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adapted to experimental data and guide the best operational conditions mass by set at 6.0, 9mgL(-1), 10mgL(-1), 0.02g, 4 and 4min for pH, BCG concentration, EY concentration, adsorbent dosage, sonication and centrifuge time, respectively. At these specified conditions dye adsorption efficiency was higher than 99.5%. The suitability and well prediction of optimum point was tested by conducting five experiments and respective results revel that RSD% was lower than 3% and high quality of fitting was confirmed by t-test. The experimental data were best fitted in Langmuir isotherm equation and the removal followed pseudo second order kinetics. The experimentally obtained maximum adsorption capacities were estimated as 57.80 and 61.73mgg(-1) of ZnO-NRs-AC for BCG and EY respectively from binary dye solutions. The mechanism of removal was explained by boundary layer diffusion via intraparticle diffusion.

  16. Fast chromatographic method for the determination of dyes in beverages by using high performance liquid chromatography--diode array detection data and second order algorithms.

    PubMed

    Culzoni, María J; Schenone, Agustina V; Llamas, Natalia E; Garrido, Mariano; Di Nezio, Maria S; Band, Beatriz S Fernández; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2009-10-16

    A fast chromatographic methodology is presented for the analysis of three synthetic dyes in non-alcoholic beverages: amaranth (E123), sunset yellow FCF (E110) and tartrazine (E102). Seven soft drinks (purchased from a local supermarket) were homogenized, filtered and injected into the chromatographic system. Second order data were obtained by a rapid LC separation and DAD detection. A comparative study of the performance of two second order algorithms (MCR-ALS and U-PLS/RBL) applied to model the data, is presented. Interestingly, the data present time shift between different chromatograms and cannot be conveniently corrected to determine the above-mentioned dyes in beverage samples. This fact originates the lack of trilinearity that cannot be conveniently pre-processed and can hardly be modelled by using U-PLS/RBL algorithm. On the contrary, MCR-ALS has shown to be an excellent tool for modelling this kind of data allowing to reach acceptable figures of merit. Recovery values ranged between 97% and 105% when analyzing artificial and real samples were indicative of the good performance of the method. In contrast with the complete separation, which consumes 10 mL of methanol and 3 mL of 0.08 mol L(-1) ammonium acetate, the proposed fast chromatography method requires only 0.46 mL of methanol and 1.54 mL of 0.08 mol L(-1) ammonium acetate. Consequently, analysis time could be reduced up to 14.2% of the necessary time to perform the complete separation allowing saving both solvents and time, which are related to a reduction of both the costs per analysis and environmental impact.

  17. Assessment of the daily areal reduction factor of precipitations with distributed rainfall data: a means of improvement of a prediction method of extremes events in France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, A.; Fouchier, C.; Arnaud, P.; Aubert, Y.

    2012-04-01

    We have addressed the statistical variability of precipitations at different spatial scales in France via the study of the areal reduction factors (ARF) of daily rainfalls. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology to estimate the quantiles of catchment rainfall using maps of rainfall quantiles provided at the spatial resolution of 1 km2 over France by the SHYREG method which implements a regionalized stochastic hourly rainfall generation model (Arnaud, et al., 2008). Two kinds of distributed rainfall data, provided by Météo-France, the French National Weather Service, are used in this study. The first kind consists of maps of daily rainfall available throughout southern France from 1994 to 2009. These maps derive from the spatial interpolation, at the spatial resolution of 1 km2, of daily raingauge data. The second kind of data consists of maps of daily rainfall at the spatial resolution of 64 km2, resulting from the SAFRAN methodology and available throughout mainland France from 1970 to 2008. These data enable us to compute point rainfall quantiles and areal rainfall quantiles and eventually the statistical ARF of daily rainfall for spatial scales ranging from 25 to 11000 km2. The seasonal variability of our statistical ARF seems in agreement with the typology of rainfall events occurring in mainland France: convective events in late summer and autumn and more frontal events in winter and spring. The regional validity of our statistical ARF has been assessed in the Cevennes area, in southern France, where it shows close similarities with the statistical daily ARF computed by Neppel et al. (2003) with a different methodology. The statistical daily ARF assessed in this study enables us to estimate the quantiles of daily rainfall for any catchment in mainland France using the maps of rainfall quantiles of the SHYREG method. Our next objective will be to assess, thank to the methodology developed here and to hourly rainfall radar data available shortly for

  18. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2012-03-01

    Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g. Orange, Murray and

  19. Building hazard maps of extreme daily rainy events from PDF ensemble, via REA method, on Senegal River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo Osorio, J. D.; García Galiano, S. G.

    2011-11-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa, one of the poorest of the Earth, is characterized by high rainfall variability and rapid population growth. In this region, heavy storm events frequently cause extensive damage. Nonetheless, the projections for change in extreme rainfall values have shown a great divergence between Regional Climate Models (RCM), increasing the forecast uncertainty. Novel methodologies should be applied, taking into account both the variability provided by different RCMs, as well as the non-stationary nature of time series for the building of hazard maps of extreme rainfall events. The present work focuses on the probability density functions (PDFs)-based evaluation and a simple quantitative measure of how well each RCM considered can capture the observed annual maximum daily rainfall (AMDR) series on the Senegal River basin. Since meaningful trends have been detected in historical rainfall time series for the region, non-stationary probabilistic models were used to fit the PDF parameters to the AMDR time series. In the development of PDF ensemble by bootstrapping techniques, Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) maps were applied to score the RCMs. The REA factors were computed using a metric to evaluate the agreement between observed -or best estimated- PDFs, and that simulated with each RCM. The assessment of plausible regional trends associated to the return period, from the hazard maps of AMDR, showed a general rise, owing to an increase in the mean and the variability of extreme precipitation. These spatial-temporal distributions could be considered by Organization for the Development of the Senegal River (Organisation pour la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal, OMVS), in such a way as to reach a better balance between mitigation and adaptation.

  20. Building hazard maps of extreme daily rainy events from PDF ensemble, via REA method, on Senegal River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, J. D.; García Galiano, S. G.

    2011-04-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa, one of the poorest of the Earth, is characterized by high rainfall variability and rapid population growth. In this region, heavy storm events frequently cause extensive damage. Nonetheless, the projections for change in extreme rainfall values have shown a great divergence between Regional Climate Models (RCM), increasing the forecast uncertainty. Novel methodologies should be applied, taking into account both the variability provided by different RCMs, as well as the non-stationary nature of time series for the building of hazard maps of extreme rainfall events. The present work focuses in the probability density functions (PDFs)-based evaluation and a simple quantitative measure of how well each RCM considered can capture the observed annual maximum daily rainfall (AMDR) series on the Senegal River basin. Since meaningful trends have been detected in historical rainfall time series for the region, non-stationary probabilistic models were used to fit the PDF parameters to the AMDR time series. In the development of PDF ensemble by bootstrapping techniques, Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) maps were applied to score the RCMs. The REA factors were computed using a metric to evaluate the agreement between observed -or best estimated- PDFs, and that simulated with each RCM. The assessment of plausible regional trends associated to the return period, from the hazard maps of AMDR, showed a general rise, owing to an increase in the mean and the variability of extreme precipitation. These spatial-temporal distributions could be considered by local stakeholders in such a way as to reach a better balance between mitigation and adaptation.

  1. "Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex": Correction to Becht et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Assessment of Identity During Adolescence Using Daily Diary Methods: Measurement Invariance Across Time and Sex" by Andrik I. Becht, Susan J. T. Branje, Wilma A. M. Vollebergh, Dominique F. Maciejewski, Pol A. C. van Lier, Hans M. Koot, Jaap J. A. Denissen and Wim H. J. Meeus (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 10, 2015, np). In the article the participants should have been reported as N = 494. No differences were found in the results upon reanalyzing the data with the correct number of participants. Additionally, the last sentence of the first full paragraph in the Invariance Across Boys and Girls subsection of the Method section should read "In the fourth model, strict invariance was examined, in which the residual variances were constrained to be equal for boys and girls." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-36246-001.) The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with

  2. Adsorption of basic dyes from single and binary component systems onto bentonite: simultaneous analysis of Basic Red 46 and Basic Yellow 28 by first order derivative spectrophotometric analysis method.

    PubMed

    Turabik, Meral

    2008-10-01

    The present study deals with the simultaneous analysis and adsorption of Basic Yellow 28 and Basic Red 46 dyes in binary mixture onto bentonite. First order derivative spectrophotometric method was used for simultaneous analysis of BY28 and BR46 in binary mixtures. The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system. The mono- and multi-component Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to experimental data and the isotherm constants were calculated for BY28 and BR46 dyes. The monolayer coverage capacities of bentonite for BY28 and BR46 dyes in single solution system were found as 256.4 mg/g and 333.3mg/g, respectively. It was observed that the equilibrium uptake amounts of BY28 and BR46 dyes in binary mixture onto bentonite decreased considerably with increasing concentrations of the other dye resulting in their antagonistic effect. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted more adequately to mono-component Langmuir isotherm model than mono-component Freundlich isotherm model, while the extended Freundlich isotherm model adequately predicted the multi-component adsorption equilibrium data at moderate ranges of concentration. Thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of BR46 and BY28 was endothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  3. Improved performance of Ag-doped TiO2 synthesized by modified sol-gel method as photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2016-08-01

    Ag-doped TiO2 with Ag content ranging from 1 to 7 mol% was synthesized by a modified sol-gel route, and its performance as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was compared with undoped TiO2 photoanode. Titanium(IV)isopropoxide was used as precursor and hexamethylenetetramine as the capping agent. XRD results show the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 5 nm (1 % Ag-doped TiO2) and 9 nm (undoped TiO2), respectively. The TiO2 nanopowder was used to prepare its thin film photoelectrode using doctor's blade method. Significant improvement in light-to-energy conversion efficiency was achieved when thin films of 1 % Ag-doped TiO2 were applied as photoanode in DSSC taking N719 as the sensitizer dye. As evidenced by EIS measurements, the electron lifetime of DSSC with Ag-doped TiO2 increased from 1.33 (for undoped TiO2) to 2.05 ms. The short-circuit current density ( J sc), open-circuit voltage ( V oc), fill factor (FF) and the overall energy conversion efficiency ( η) were 1.07 mA cm-2, 0.72 V, 0.73 and 0.40 %, respectively, with the use of 1 % Ag-doped TiO2 photoanode, whereas with undoped TiO2 under similar conditions, J sc = 0.63 mA cm-2, V oc = 0.70 V, fill factor 0.45 and conversion efficiency 0.14 % could be obtained. Therefore, compared with the reference DSSC containing an undoped TiO2 photoanode, the power conversion efficiency of the cell based on Ag-doped TiO2 has been remarkably enhanced by ~70 %. The substantial improvement in the device performance is attributed to the reduced band-gap energy, retarded charge recombination and greater surface coverage of the sensitizing dye over Ag-doped TiO2, which ultimately resulted in improved IPCE, J SC and η values.

  4. Comparison of the ISU, NCI, MSM, and SPADE Methods for Estimating Usual Intake: A Simulation Study of Nutrients Consumed Daily.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Greice H C; Torman, Vanessa B L; Crispim, Sandra P; Dekkers, Arnold L M; Camey, Suzi A

    2016-03-15

    Various methods are available for estimating usual dietary intake distributions. Hence, there is a need for simulation studies to compare them. The methods Iowa State University (ISU), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Multiple Source Method (MSM) and Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) were previously compared in another study, but some results were inconclusive due to the small number of replications used in the simulation. Seeking to overcome this limitation, the present study used 1000 simulated samples for 12 different scenarios to compare the accuracy of estimates yielded by the aforementioned methods. The focus is on scenarios that exhibited the most uncertainty in the conclusions of the mentioned study above, i.e., scenarios with small sample sizes, skewed intake distributions, and large ratios of the between- and within-person variances. Bias was used as a measure of accuracy. For scenarios with small sample sizes (n = 150), the ISU, MSM and SPADE methods generally achieved more accurate estimates than the NCI method, particularly for the 10th and 90th percentiles. The differences between methods became smaller with larger sample sizes (n = 300 and n = 500). With few exceptions, the methods were found to perform similarly.

  5. Computing daily mean streamflow at ungaged locations in Iowa by using the Flow Anywhere and Flow Duration Curve Transfer statistical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linhart, S. Mike; Nania, Jon F.; Sanders, Curtis L.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains approximately 148 real-time streamgages in Iowa for which daily mean streamflow information is available, but daily mean streamflow data commonly are needed at locations where no streamgages are present. Therefore, the USGS conducted a study as part of a larger project in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources to develop methods to estimate daily mean streamflow at locations in ungaged watersheds in Iowa by using two regression-based statistical methods. The regression equations for the statistical methods were developed from historical daily mean streamflow and basin characteristics from streamgages within the study area, which includes the entire State of Iowa and adjacent areas within a 50-mile buffer of Iowa in neighboring states. Results of this study can be used with other techniques to determine the best method for application in Iowa and can be used to produce a Web-based geographic information system tool to compute streamflow estimates automatically. The Flow Anywhere statistical method is a variation of the drainage-area-ratio method, which transfers same-day streamflow information from a reference streamgage to another location by using the daily mean streamflow at the reference streamgage and the drainage-area ratio of the two locations. The Flow Anywhere method modifies the drainage-area-ratio method in order to regionalize the equations for Iowa and determine the best reference streamgage from which to transfer same-day streamflow information to an ungaged location. Data used for the Flow Anywhere method were retrieved for 123 continuous-record streamgages located in Iowa and within a 50-mile buffer of Iowa. The final regression equations were computed by using either left-censored regression techniques with a low limit threshold set at 0.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and the daily mean streamflow for the 15th day of every other month, or by using an ordinary-least-squares multiple

  6. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  7. Cloth dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The outcome depends on the extent of this damage. Poisoning from dye containing an alkali may result in continuing injury to these tissues for weeks or months. If the person swallowed a nonpoisonous household dye, recovery is likely.

  8. Non-destructive vacuum decay method for pre-filled syringe closure integrity testing compared with dye ingress testing and high-voltage leak detection.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Andrea; Amari, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In reaction to the limitations of the traditional sterility test methods, in 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued the guidance "Container and Closure System Integrity Testing in Lieu of Sterility Testing as a Component of the Stability Protocol for Sterile Products" encouraging sterile drug manufacturers to use properly validated physical methods, apart from conventional microbial challenge testing, to confirm container closure integrity as part of the stability protocol. The case study presented in this article investigated the capability of four container closure integrity testing methods to detect simulated defects of different sizes and types on glass syringes, prefilled both with drug product intended for parenteral administration and sterile water. The drug product was a flu vaccine (Agrippal, Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Vacuum decay, pharmacopoeial dye ingress test, Novartis specific dye ingress test, and high-voltage leak detection were, in succession, the methods involved in the comparative studies. The case study execution was preceded by the preparation of two independent sets of reference prefilled syringes, classified, respectively, as examples of conforming to closure integrity requirements (negative controls) and as defective (positive controls). Positive controls were, in turn, split in six groups, three of with holes laser-drilled through the prefilled syringe glass barrel, while the other three with capillary tubes embedded in the prefilled syringe plunger. These reference populations were then investigated by means of validated equipment used for container closure integrity testing of prefilled syringe commercial production; data were collected and analyzed to determine the detection rate and the percentage of false results. Results showed that the vacuum decay method had the highest performance in terms of detection sensitivity and also ensured the best reliability and repeatability of measurements. An innovative technical

  9. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 7. Gentian violet and other violets.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2017-01-01

    The name, gentian, appeared about 1880. Immediately following its discovery in 1861, this violet dye was known as Violet de Paris or as methyl violet. Initially used as a textile dye, it was soon used to color virtually anything. The names and identity of the components, the varying modes of manufacture, analytical methods and the dye's significant contribution to biological staining are discussed here. Finally, I discuss the dye's declining medical use following the revelation of its toxic nature.

  10. Expansion of the scope of AOAC first action method 2012.25 - single-laboratory validation of triphenylmethane dye and leuco metabolite analysis in shrimp, tilapia, catfish, and salmon by LC-MS/MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prior to conducting a collaborative study of AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood, a...

  11. Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Kilgus, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although intuitively appealing, teacher self-report of treatment integrity is not currently recommended as a method for collecting treatment integrity data. Education researchers have not, however, evaluated features of a treatment integrity self-reporting system that may facilitate accurate self-report. In this preliminary investigation, four…

  12. Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Kilgus, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although intuitively appealing, teacher self-report of treatment integrity is not currently recommended as a method for collecting treatment integrity data. Education researchers have not, however, evaluated features of a treatment integrity self-reporting system that may facilitate accurate self-report. In this preliminary investigation, four…

  13. Experimental quantification of solute transport through the vadose zone under dynamic boundary conditions with dye tracers and optical methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of subsurface solute transport processes is vital to investigate e.g. groundwater contamination, nutrient uptake by plant roots and to implement remediation strategies. Beside field measurements and numerical simulations, physical laboratory experiments represent a way to establish process understanding and furthermore validate numerical schemes. Atmospheric forcings, such as erratically varying infiltration and evaporation cycles, subject the shallow subsurface to local and temporal variations in water content and associated hydraulic conductivity of the prevailing porous media. Those variations in material properties can cause flow paths to differ between upward and downward flow periods. Thereby, the unsaturated subsurface presents a highly complicated, dynamic system. Following an extensive systematical numerical investigation of flow and transport through bimodal, unsaturated porous media under dynamic boundary conditions (Cremer et al., 2016), we conduct physical laboratory experiments in a 22 cm x 8 cm x 1 cm flow cell where we introduce structural heterogeneity in the form sharp material interfaces between different porous media. In all experiments, a constant pressure head is implemented at the lower boundary, while cyclic infiltration-evaporation phases are applied at the soil surface. As a reference case a stationary infiltration with a rate corresponding to the cycle-averaged infiltration rate is applied. By initial application of dye tracers, solute transport within the domain is visualized such that transport paths and redistribution processes can be observed in a qualitative manner. Solute leaching is quantified at the bottom outlet, where breakthrough curves are obtained via spectroscopy. Liquid and vapor flow in and out of the domain is obtained from multiple balances. Thereby, the interplay of material structural heterogeneity and alternating flow (transport) directions and flow (transport) paths is investigated. Results show lateral

  14. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  15. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  16. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability.

    PubMed

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination.

  17. Determination of energy expenditure during heavy exercise, normal daily activity, and sleep using the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, T.P.; Hoyt, R.W.; Settle, R.G.; O'Toole, M.; Hiller, W.D.

    1987-03-01

    Energy expenditure of four subjects was measured by the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method to determine if energy expenditure could be determined over short periods. Three subjects were studied while they performed 8 h of heavy exercise in a laboratory environment. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exercise. Estimated energy expended during 8 h of high-intensity exercise for three subjects was 757 +/- 118 kcal/h by the doubly-labelled-water method using urine and a two-point calculation, which compared favorably with 735 +/- 82 kcal/h obtained by respiratory gas exchange. For the fourth subject, daytime, nighttime, and daily energy expenditure was calculated by both the two-pair method and decay-curve analysis of urine and saliva samples collected in the morning and at night. Daytime and nighttime energy expenditures differed significantly (p less than 0.05).

  18. Locally Weighted Learning Methods for Predicting Dose-Dependent Toxicity with Application to the Human Maximum Recommended Daily Dose

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-10

    Advanced Technology Research Center, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702, United States ABSTRACT: Toxicological ...species. Thus, it is more advantageous to predict the toxicological effects of a compound on humans directly from the human toxicological data of related...compounds. However, many popular quantitative structure−activity relationship ( QSAR ) methods that build a single global model by fitting all training

  19. Daily quantitative precipitation forecasts based on the analogue method: Improvements and application to a French large river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Daoud, Aurélien; Sauquet, Eric; Bontron, Guillaume; Obled, Charles; Lang, Michel

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents some improvements of a probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasting method based on analogues, formerly developed on small basins located in South-Eastern France. The scope is extended to large scale basins mainly influenced by frontal systems, considering a case study area related to the Saône river, a large basin in eastern France. For a given target situation, this method consists in searching for the most similar situations observed in a historical meteorological archive. Precipitation amounts observed during analogous situations are then collected to derive an empirical predictive distribution function, i.e. the probabilistic estimation of the precipitation amount expected for the target day. The former version of this forecasting method (Bontron, 2004) has been improved by introducing two innovative variables: temperature, that allows taking seasonal effects into account and vertical velocity, which enables a better characterization of the vertical atmospheric motion. The new algorithm is first applied in a perfect prognosis context (target situations come from a meteorological reanalysis) and then in an operational forecasting context (target situations come from weather forecasts) for a three years period. Results show that this approach yields useful forecasts, with a lower false alarm rate and improved performances from the present day D to day D + 2.

  20. Photo-induced decolorization of dimethylmethylene blue with selenious acid: a novel method to examine selective monomer-dimer distribution of the dye in micelle.

    PubMed

    Nath, Sudip; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Pal, Tarasankar

    2005-07-01

    In this report, selenious acid (H2SeO3) has been exploited to study the decolorization of a cationic dye, dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) with UV-light. Micelles have effectively been employed as organized media to promote the rate of decolorization of the dye molecules. Micellar catalysis has been explained as a consequence of electrostatic, hydrophobic and charge transfer interactions. It has also been shown that strong charge transfer and electrostatic interaction lead to an appreciable enhancement of the reaction rate in micelle, whereas, weak hydrophobic interaction is of marginal importance. Existence of monomer-dimer equilibrium for the dye molecules under certain selective environments has been identified spectrophotometrically. Then the shift of dimer-monomer equilibrium of the dye has been successfully studied in aqueous and micellar environments exploiting photodecolorization process for the dye in solution. 'Salting-in' and 'salting-out' agents were introduced into the reaction mixture to examine the viability of the dye decolorization process for dye contaminated water samples.

  1. Determination of Triphenylmethane Dyes and Their Metabolites in Salmon, Catfish, and Shrimp by LC-MS/MS Using AOAC First Action Method 2012.25: Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marilyn J; Andersen, Wendy C

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood. Fourteen laboratories from the United States, Canada, and the European Union member states participated in the study including national and state regulatory laboratories, university and national research laboratories, and private analytical testing laboratories. A variety of LC-MS/MS instruments were used for the analysis. Each participating laboratory received blinded test samples in duplicate of salmon, catfish, and shrimp consisting of negative control matrix; matrix fortified with residues at 0.42, 0.90, and 1.75 μg/kg; and samples of incurred matrix. The analytical results from each participating laboratory were evaluated for both quantitative residue determination and qualitative identification of targeted analytes. Results from statistical analysis showed that this method provided excellent trueness (generally ≥90% recovery) and precision (RSDr generally ≤10%, HorRat<1). The Study Directors recommend Method 2012.25 for Final Action status.

  2. Multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of veterinary medicinal products, feed additives and illegal dyes in eggs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Piatkowska, Marta; Jedziniak, Piotr; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-15

    A multiclass method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 120 analytes in fresh eggs. The method covers the analytes from the groups of tetracyclines (6), fluoroquinolones (11), sulphonamides (17), nitroimidazoles (9), amphenicols (2), cephalosporins (7), penicillins (8), macrolides (8), benzimidazoles (20), coccidiostats (14), insecticides (3), dyes (12) and others (3). Samples were extracted using 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile:water (8:2) with the addition of EDTA and cleaned using solid phase extraction with Hybrid SPE cartridges. The chromatographic separation was achieved on C8 column using mobile phase consisting of (A) methanol:acetonitrile (8:2) - (B) 0.1% formic acid in a gradient mode. Validation results according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC are as follows: linearity (r⩾0.99), recovery (75-108%), repeatability (CV 1.60-15.9%), reproducibility (CV 2.60-15%), decision limit (CCα 2.25-1156 μg/kg) and detection capability (CCβ 2.04-1316 μg/kg). The presented method was used for analysis of 150 real eggs samples taken from monitoring control program.

  3. Heuristic method of fabricating counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells based on a PEDOT:PSS layer as a catalytic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edalati, Sh; Houshangi far, A.; Torabi, N.; Baneshi, Z.; Behjat, A.

    2017-02-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was deposited on a fluoride-doped tin oxide glass substrate using a heuristic method to fabricate platinum-free counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this heuristic method a thin layer of PEDOT:PPS is obtained by spin coating the PEDOT:PSS on a Cu substrate and then removing the substrate with FeCl3. The characteristics of the deposited PEDOT:PSS were studied by energy dispersive x-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed the micro-electronic specifications of the cathode. The aforementioned DSSCs exhibited a solar conversion efficiency of 3.90%, which is far higher than that of DSSCs with pure PEDOT:PSS (1.89%). This enhancement is attributed not only to the micro-electronic specifications but also to the HNO3 treatment through our heuristic method. The results of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization plots show the modified cathode has a dual function, including excellent conductivity and electrocatalytic activity for iodine reduction.

  4. Integrating Research on Global Climate Change and Human Use of the Oceans: a Geospatial Method for Daily Monitoring of Sea Ice and Ship Traffic in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eucker, W.; McGillivary, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    One apparent consequence of global climate change has been a decrease in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice more rapidly than models have predicted, while Arctic ship traffic has likewise increased beyond economic predictions. To ensure representative observations of changing climate conditions and human use of the Arctic Ocean, we concluded a method of tracking daily changes in both sea ice and shipping in the Arctic Ocean was needed. Such a process improves the availability of sea ice data for navigational safety and allows future developments to be monitored for understanding of ice and shipping in relation to policy decisions appropriate to optimize sustainable use of a changing Arctic Ocean. The impetus for this work was the 2009 Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) which provided baseline data on Arctic ship traffic. AMSA was based on responses from circumpolar countries, was manpower intensive, and took years to compile. A more timely method of monitoring human use of the Arctic Ocean was needed. To address this, a method of monitoring sea ice on a scale relevant to ship-navigation (<10km) was developed and implemented in conjunction with arctic ship tracking using S-AIS (Satellite Automatic Identification Systems). S-AIS is internationally required on ships over a certain size, which includes most commercial vessels in the Arctic Ocean. Daily AIS and sea ice observations were chosen for this study. Results of this method of geospatial analysis of the entire arctic are presented for a year long period from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011. This confirmed the dominance of European Arctic ship traffic. Arctic shipping is maximal during August and diminishes in September with a minimum in winter, although some shipping continues year-round in perennially ice-free areas. Data are analyzed for the four principal arctic quadrants around the North Pole by season for number and nationality of vessels. The goal of this study was not merely to monitor ship

  5. Researching children's individual empathic abilities in the context of their daily lives: the importance of mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Roerig, Simone; van Wesel, Floryt; Evers, Sandra J. T. M.; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    In social neuroscience, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between agents. In this perspective paper, we argue that to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of empathy, social neuroscience research should draw on insights and methods from anthropology. First, we discuss neuropsychological studies that investigate empathy in inter-relational contexts. Second, we highlight differences between the social neuroscience and anthropological conceptualizations of empathy. Third, we introduce a new study design based on a mixed method approach, and present initial results from one classroom that was part of a larger study and included 28 children (m = 13, f = 15). Participants (aged 9–11) were administered behavioral tasks and a social network questionnaire; in addition an observational study was also conducted over a period of 3 months. Initial results showed how children's expressions of their empathic abilities were influenced by situational cues in classroom processes. This effect was further explained by children's positions within classroom networks. Our results emphasize the value of interdisciplinary research in the study of empathy. PMID:26283901

  6. Researching children's individual empathic abilities in the context of their daily lives: the importance of mixed methods.

    PubMed

    Roerig, Simone; van Wesel, Floryt; Evers, Sandra J T M; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    In social neuroscience, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between agents. In this perspective paper, we argue that to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of empathy, social neuroscience research should draw on insights and methods from anthropology. First, we discuss neuropsychological studies that investigate empathy in inter-relational contexts. Second, we highlight differences between the social neuroscience and anthropological conceptualizations of empathy. Third, we introduce a new study design based on a mixed method approach, and present initial results from one classroom that was part of a larger study and included 28 children (m = 13, f = 15). Participants (aged 9-11) were administered behavioral tasks and a social network questionnaire; in addition an observational study was also conducted over a period of 3 months. Initial results showed how children's expressions of their empathic abilities were influenced by situational cues in classroom processes. This effect was further explained by children's positions within classroom networks. Our results emphasize the value of interdisciplinary research in the study of empathy.

  7. Laser dye stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N.

    1980-06-01

    Lasing characteristics and bleaching of four Eastman Kodak ir dyes have been examined in dimethyl sulfoxide. These ir dyes are shown to improve in performance in the absence of oxygen. Their photochemical stability was found to be comparable to the quinolone laser dyes when exposed to flashlamp excitation. Photodecomposition of the ir dyes under lasing conditions was found to vary between 1.6 and 6×10-10 moles of dye for each joule (electrical) of input energy; in comparison, the photodecomposition values for the better coumarin dyes was 0.2 to 1.0×10-10 moles/J at a concentration of 1.0×10-4 M in ethanol. It was also found that increasing the concentration of these tricarbocyanine dyes gives a marked improvement in the useful lifetime of these solutions as lasing media in the absence of oxygen.

  8. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing.

  9. Synthesis of Plant Phenol-derived Polymeric Dyes for Direct or Mordant-based Hair Dyeing.

    PubMed

    Im, Kyung Min; Jeon, Jong-Rok

    2016-12-01

    Effective hair dyeing through in situ incubation of keratin hair with the products of fungal laccase-catalyzed polymerization of plant phenols has been previously demonstrated. However, the dyeing process takes a long time to complete compared to commercial hair-dyeing products. To overcome this bottleneck, pre-synthesized polymeric products of the oxidative reaction of Trametes versicolor laccase on catechin and catechol, either with or without mordant agents (e.g., FeSO4), were here employed to achieve permanent keratin hair dyeing in various colors and shades. The laccase action in acidic sodium acetate buffer led to a deep black coloration after coupling reactions between the plant phenols. The colored dye products were then desalted and concentrated with ultrafiltration. The dyes, with or without mordant agents, caused a significant increase in ΔE values (i.e., color difference value) in gray human hair within 2.5 hours. In addition, different keratin colors and shades were induced depending upon the mordanting and pH changes. The dyed hair also exhibited a strong resistance to detergent treatments, indicating that our methods can give rise to permanent hair dyeing. Overall, our work has provided novel insight into developing eco-friendly hair-dyeing methods as alternatives to commercial toxic diamine-based dyes.

  10. Mapping daily and seasonal evapotranspiration from irrigated crops using global climate grids and satellite imagery: Automation and methods comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Trent W.; Marshall, Michael; Messina, Alex

    2016-09-01

    The surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) estimates land surface evapotranspiration (ET) from radiometric surface temperature (TR), but requires manual selection of calibration pixels, which can be impractical for mapping seasonal ET. Here pixel selection is automated and SEBAL implemented using global climate grids and satellite imagery. SEBAL is compared with the MOD16 algorithm, which uses remotely sensed data on vegetation condition to constrain reference ET from the Penman-Monteith equation. The difference between the evaporative fraction (Λ, range 0-1) from SEBAL and six eddy flux correlation towers was less than 0.10 for three of six towers, and less than 0.24 for all towers. SEBAL ET was moderately sensitive to surface roughness length and implementation over regions smaller than ˜10,000 km2 provided lower error than larger regions. Pixel selection based on TR had similar errors as those based on a vegetation index. For maize, MOD16 had lower error in mean seasonal evaporative fraction (-0.02) compared to SEBAL Λ (0.23), but MOD16 significantly underestimated the evaporative fraction from rice (-0.52) and cotton fields (-0.67) compared with SEBAL (-0.09 rice, -0.09 cotton). MOD16 had the largest error over short crops in the early growing season when vegetation cover was low but land surface was wet. Temperature-based methods like SEBAL can be automated and likely outperform vegetation-based methods in irrigated areas, especially under conditions of low vegetation cover and high soil evaporation.

  11. Triple dye plus rubbing alcohol versus triple dye alone for umbilical cord care.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Alawia K; Watts, Heidi; Beiler, Jessica; King, Tonya S; Khan, Sana; Carnuccio, Marybeth; Paul, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    Current practices for umbilical cord care vary across centers, but the evidence regarding these practices and their impact on cord separation, complications, and health care use are limited. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of triple dye alone (brilliant green, crystal violet, and proflavine hemisulfate) versus triple dye plus rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) twice daily on time to umbilical cord separation, complications, and health care use. For the 90 newborns who completed the study, there were no significant differences between treatment groups for time to cord separation, cord-related morbidities, or cord-related urgent care. Based on these study results, there does not appear to be significant benefit to the addition of twice daily applications of rubbing alcohol to neonatal umbilical cords following triple dye treatment after birth.

  12. Effect of dye concentration on the optical properties of red-BS dye-doped PVA film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossein Esfahani, Zahra; Ghanipour, Mahshad; Dorranian, Davoud

    2014-07-01

    In this experimental study, the effect of dye concentration on the optical properties of red-BS dye-doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin films is investigated. Three thin film samples with different concentration of red-BS dye were prepared by spin-coating method on the glass substrate. Using transmission and reflection spectrum of films, their optical parameter such as refractive index, absorption coefficient, and dielectric function are extracted and the effect of dye impurity on theses parameters has been studied. The band gap energy of samples is calculated using Tauc method. Band gap energy of samples is decreased by increasing the concentration of dye impurity in PVA films.

  13. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  14. Developing a service user informed intervention to improve participation and ability to perform daily activities in primary Sjögren's syndrome: a mixed-methods study protocol.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Katie L; Newton, Julia L; Deane, Katherine H O; Rapley, Tim; Deary, Vincent; Kolehmainen, Niina; Lendrem, Dennis; Ng, Wan-Fai

    2014-08-21

    A significant proportion of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) is functionally impaired and experience difficulties participating in various aspects of everyday life. There is currently no evidence of efficacy for non-pharmacological interventions aimed specifically at supporting the patients with PSS to improve their participation and ability to perform daily activities. This paper describes a research protocol for a mixed-methods study to develop an intervention to improve these outcomes. The protocol follows the Medical Research Council framework for complex interventions. We will use group concept mapping with the patients, adults who live with them and healthcare professionals to identify factors which prevent people with PSS from participating in daily life and performing daily activities. The factors will be prioritised by participants for importance and feasibility and will inform an intervention to be delivered within a National Health Service (NHS) setting. Evidence-based intervention techniques will be identified for the prioritised factors and combined into a deliverable intervention package. Key stakeholders will comment on the intervention content and mode of delivery through focus groups, and the data will be used to refine the intervention. The acceptability and feasibility of the refined intervention will be evaluated in a future study. The study has been approved by an NHS Research Ethics Committee, REC Reference: 13/NI/0190. The findings of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and through presentation at national and international conferences. UKCRN Study ID: 15939. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Strongyloides stercoralis in stool that uses a visual detection method with SYTO-82 fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Watts, Matthew R; James, Gregory; Sultana, Yasmin; Ginn, Andrew N; Outhred, Alexander C; Kong, Fanrong; Verweij, Jaco J; Iredell, Jonathan R; Chen, Sharon C-A; Lee, Rogan

    2014-02-01

    An assay to detect Strongyloides stercoralis in stool specimens was developed using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. Primers were based on the 28S ribosomal subunit gene. The reaction conditions were optimized and SYTO-82 fluorescent dye was used to allow real-time and visual detection of the product. The product identity was confirmed with restriction enzyme digestion, cloning, and sequence analysis. The assay was specific when tested against DNA from bacteria, fungi and parasites, and 30 normal stool samples. Analytical sensitivity was to < 10 copies of target sequence in a plasmid and up to a 10(-2) dilution of DNA extracted from a Strongyloides ratti larva spiked into stool. Sensitivity was increased when further dilutions were made in water, indicative of reduced reaction inhibition. Twenty-seven of 28 stool samples microscopy and polymerase chain reaction positive for S. stercoralis were positive with the LAMP method. On the basis of these findings, the assay warrants further clinical validation.

  16. On the behavior of reduced graphene oxide based electrodes coated with dispersed platinum by alternate current methods in the electrochemical degradation of reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Del Río, A I; García, C; Molina, J; Fernández, J; Bonastre, J; Cases, F

    2017-09-01

    The electrochemical behavior of different carbon-based electrodes with and without nanoparticles of platinum electrochemically dispersed on their surface has been studied. Among others, reduced graphene oxide based electrodes was used to determine the best conditions for the decolorization/degradation of the reactive dye C.I. Reactive Orange 4 in sulfuric medium. Firstly, the electrochemical behavior was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Secondly, different electrolyses were performed using two cell configurations: cell with anodic and cathodic compartments separated (divided configuration) and without any separation (undivided configuration). The best results were obtained when reduced graphene oxide based anodes were used. The degree of decolorization was monitored by spectroscopic methods and high performance liquid chromatography. It was found that all of them followed pseudo-first order kinetics. When reduced graphene oxide-based electrodes coated with dispersed platinum by alternate current methods electrodes were used, the lowest energy consumption and the higher decolorization kinetics rate were obtained. Scanning Electronic Microscopy was used to observe the morphological surface differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the chemical stability of catalyst counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells using a simple X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jungmin; Chung, Jongwon; Park, SungHoon; Baek, WoonJoong; Kim, Yongsu; Kim, Seongheon; Kwon, Young-Nam; Chung, JaeGwan; Kyoung, Yongkoo; Kim, Ki-Hong; Heo, Sung

    2014-12-01

    Since the chemical/electrical stability and catalytic activity are essential conditions for catalyst counter electrodes (CCEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a simple dipping method is employed for evaluating the chemical stability of CCE candidates in an iodine-based liquid electrolyte (I-electrolyte). The chemical stabilities and transition mechanisms of the CCEs are successfully analyzed by studying the chemical transitions in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core levels after dipping in the I-electrolyte. All films including the Pt film undergo degradation depending on the type of material. While dipping in the I-electrolyte, Cu and Au films scarcely dissolves as their respective metal sulfides, and the Al film gradually loss its metallic properties owing to Al2O3 growth. On the other hand, a previously unknown transition mechanism of organic conducting CCEs is determined based on the proposed method. Compared to the other metal films, the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and multi wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/PEDOT:PSS films undergo an entirely unique transition mechanism, which results from the chemical adsorption of organic molecules onto PEDOT:PSS molecules in the I-electrolyte. Consequently, these chemical structure transitions correspond well to the degrees of alternation in the electrical properties of DSSCs with all the investigated CCEs.

  18. Chemical stabilization of laser dyes. Final report, 1 July 1981-1 October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, T.H.

    1984-11-01

    Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output. Modes of degradation of coumarin dye lasers under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions were determined and methods of stabilization of dye lasers were established.

  19. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Use of n-fold cross-validation to evaluate three methods to calculate heavy truck annual average daily traffic and vehicle miles traveled.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna L; Souleyrette, Reginald; Lamptey, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Reliable estimates of heavy-truck volumes in the United States are important in a number of transportation applications including pavement design and management, traffic safety, and traffic operations. Additionally, because heavy vehicles emit pollutants at much higher rates than passenger vehicles, reliable volume estimates are critical to computing accurate inventories of on-road emissions. Accurate baseline inventories are also necessary to forecast future scenarios. The research presented in this paper evaluated three different methods commonly used by transportation agencies to estimate annual average daily traffic (AADT), which is used to determine vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Traffic data from continuous count stations provided by the Iowa Department of Transportation were used to estimate AADT for single-unit and multiunit trucks for rural freeways and rural primary highways using the three methods. The first method developed general expansion factors, which apply to all vehicles. AADT, representing all vehicles, was estimated for short-term counts and was multiplied by statewide average truck volumes for the corresponding roadway type to obtain AADT for each truck category. The second method also developed general expansion factors and AADT estimates. Truck AADT for the second method was calculated by multiplying the general AADT by truck volumes from the short-term counts. The third method developed expansion factors specific to each truck group. AADT estimates for each truck group were estimated from short-term counts using corresponding expansion factors. Accuracy of the three methods was determined by comparing actual AADT from count station data to estimates from the three methods. Accuracy of the three methods was compared using n-fold cross-validation. Mean squared error of prediction was used to estimate the difference between estimated and actual AADT. Prediction error was lowest for the method that developed separate expansion factors for trucks

  3. Determination of dyes in diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, E.G.; Schmidt, C.H.; Zimin, A.; Caputo, P.A.; Anderson, P.M.

    1994-10-01

    On November 24, 1993, the Internal Revenue Service issued a `Notice of Proposed Rule Making` relating taxation of on-road diesel fuels and policing by means of a dyeing program. Based on the proposed regulation, various qualitative and quantitative methods were developed by two laboratories to identify and determine concentration of various dyes in No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels. A simple qualitative method was devised which consists of extracting the dye out of the fuel and identifying dye composition by thin layer chromatography. Quantitative methods were also developed based on spectrophometric evaluation of dyed fuel. The quantitative methods are designed for use with low cost single beam spectrophometers. Independent results based on a nine terminal sampling program are included. 5 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Industrial scale salt-free reactive dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with different reactive dye chemistry.

    PubMed

    Nallathambi, Arivithamani; Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami, Giri Dev

    2017-10-15

    Dyeing of knitted cotton goods in the industry has been mostly with reactive dyes. Handling of salt laden coloured effluent arising out of dyeing process is one of the prime concerns of the industry. Cationization of cotton is one of the effective alternative to overcome the above problem. But for cationization to be successful at industrial scale it has to be carried out by exhaust process and should be adoptable for the various dye chemistries currently practiced in the industry. Hence, in the present work, industrial level exhaust method of cationization process was carried out with concentration of 40g/L and 80g/L. The fabrics were dyed with dyes of three different dye chemistry and assessed for its dyeing performance without the addition of salt. Dye shades ranging from medium to extra dark shades were produced without the addition of salt. This study will provide industries the recipe that can be adopted for cationized cotton fabric for the widely used reactive dyes at industrial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A comprehensively quantitative method of evaluating the impact of drought on crop yield using daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianfeng; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Xiaohan; Zhou, Hongkui; Yang, Jianhua; Geng, Guangpo; An, Xueli; Liu, Leizhen; Tang, Zhenghong

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative evaluation of the impact of drought on crop yield is one of the most important aspects in agricultural water resource management. To assess the impact of drought on wheat yield, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop growth model and daily Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is based on daily meteorological data, are adopted in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The winter wheat crop yields are estimated at 28 stations, after calibrating the cultivar coefficients based on the experimental site data, and SPEI data was taken 11 times across the growth season from 1981 to 2010. The relationship between estimated yield and multi-scale SPEI were analyzed. The optimum time scale SPEI to monitor drought during the crop growth period was determined. The reference yield was determined by averaging the yields from numerous non-drought years. From this data, we propose a comprehensive quantitative method which can be used to predict the impact of drought on wheat yields by combining the daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model. This method was tested in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The results suggested that estimation of calibrated EPIC was a good predictor of crop yield in the Huang Huai Hai Plain, with lower RMSE (15.4 %) between estimated yield and observed yield at six agrometeorological stations. The soil moisture at planting time was affected by the precipitation and evapotranspiration during the previous 90 days (about 3 months) in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. SPEIG90 was adopted as the optimum time scale SPEI to identify the drought and non-drought years, and identified a drought year in 2000. The water deficit in the year 2000 was significant, and the rate of crop yield reduction did not completely correspond with the volume of water deficit. Our proposed comprehensive method which quantitatively evaluates the impact of drought on crop yield is reliable. The results of this study further our

  6. A comprehensively quantitative method of evaluating the impact of drought on crop yield using daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianfeng; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Xiaohan; Zhou, Hongkui; Yang, Jianhua; Geng, Guangpo; An, Xueli; Liu, Leizhen; Tang, Zhenghong

    2016-11-01

    The quantitative evaluation of the impact of drought on crop yield is one of the most important aspects in agricultural water resource management. To assess the impact of drought on wheat yield, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop growth model and daily Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is based on daily meteorological data, are adopted in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The winter wheat crop yields are estimated at 28 stations, after calibrating the cultivar coefficients based on the experimental site data, and SPEI data was taken 11 times across the growth season from 1981 to 2010. The relationship between estimated yield and multi-scale SPEI were analyzed. The optimum time scale SPEI to monitor drought during the crop growth period was determined. The reference yield was determined by averaging the yields from numerous non-drought years. From this data, we propose a comprehensive quantitative method which can be used to predict the impact of drought on wheat yields by combining the daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model. This method was tested in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The results suggested that estimation of calibrated EPIC was a good predictor of crop yield in the Huang Huai Hai Plain, with lower RMSE (15.4 %) between estimated yield and observed yield at six agrometeorological stations. The soil moisture at planting time was affected by the precipitation and evapotranspiration during the previous 90 days (about 3 months) in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. SPEIG90 was adopted as the optimum time scale SPEI to identify the drought and non-drought years, and identified a drought year in 2000. The water deficit in the year 2000 was significant, and the rate of crop yield reduction did not completely correspond with the volume of water deficit. Our proposed comprehensive method which quantitatively evaluates the impact of drought on crop yield is reliable. The results of this study further our understanding

  7. A comprehensively quantitative method of evaluating the impact of drought on crop yield using daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianfeng; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Xiaohan; Zhou, Hongkui; Yang, Jianhua; Geng, Guangpo; An, Xueli; Liu, Leizhen; Tang, Zhenghong

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative evaluation of the impact of drought on crop yield is one of the most important aspects in agricultural water resource management. To assess the impact of drought on wheat yield, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop growth model and daily Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is based on daily meteorological data, are adopted in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The winter wheat crop yields are estimated at 28 stations, after calibrating the cultivar coefficients based on the experimental site data, and SPEI data was taken 11 times across the growth season from 1981 to 2010. The relationship between estimated yield and multi-scale SPEI were analyzed. The optimum time scale SPEI to monitor drought during the crop growth period was determined. The reference yield was determined by averaging the yields from numerous non-drought years. From this data, we propose a comprehensive quantitative method which can be used to predict the impact of drought on wheat yields by combining the daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model. This method was tested in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The results suggested that estimation of calibrated EPIC was a good predictor of crop yield in the Huang Huai Hai Plain, with lower RMSE (15.4 %) between estimated yield and observed yield at six agrometeorological stations. The soil moisture at planting time was affected by the precipitation and evapotranspiration during the previous 90 days (about 3 months) in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. SPEIG90 was adopted as the optimum time scale SPEI to identify the drought and non-drought years, and identified a drought year in 2000. The water deficit in the year 2000 was significant, and the rate of crop yield reduction did not completely correspond with the volume of water deficit. Our proposed comprehensive method which quantitatively evaluates the impact of drought on crop yield is reliable. The results of this study further our understanding

  8. Organic dyes based on fluorene and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdyukova, I. V.; Ishchenko, Aleksandr A.

    2012-03-01

    Data on various types of organic dyes based on fluorene and its derivatives, including polymethine, styryl, triphenylmethane, spiran, merocyanine, porphyrin and polymeric dyes, as well as azo dyes and donor-acceptor polyenes, are described systematically. The key methods for their synthesis are considered. The properties of the dyes are analyzed and summarized. The principles of development of modern functional materials based on these dyes are outlined. The use of these materials in advanced fields of science and technology such as photovoltaics, electroluminescence, nonlinear optics, holography, sensing photodynamic therapy are considered. The bibliography includes 476 references.

  9. Development and optimization of an analytical method for the determination of Sudan dyes in hot chilli pepper by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line electrogenerated BrO- -luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yantu; Zhang, Zhujun; Sun, Yonghua

    2006-09-29

    The determination of four Sudan dyes by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was proposed. The method was based on the enhancement effect of Sudan dyes on the chemiluminescence reaction between luminol and BrO-, which was on-line electrogenerated by constant current electrolysis. The separation was carried out on Nucleosil RP-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm, pore size, 100 A) at 35 degrees C. The mobile phase consisted of a V (methanol): V (0.2% aqueous formic acid) = 90:10 solution. At a flow-rate of 1.0 ml min(-1), the total run time was 25 min. The effects of several parameters on the HPLC resolution and CL emission were studied systematically. For the four Sudan dyes, the limits of detection (LOD) at a signal-to-noise of 3 ranged from 4 to 8 microg kg(-1) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) at a signal-to-noise of 10 ranged from 13 to 27 microg kg(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of intra-and inter-day precision were below 4.4%. The average recoveries for all four Sudan dyes (spiked at the levels of 1.0 and 1.5 mg kg(-1)) in chilli tomato sauce and hot chilli pepper ranged from 94% to 105%, and the relative standard deviations of the quantitative results were from 2.5 to 4.2%. The proposed method had been successfully applied to the determination of four Sudan dyes in hot chilli products.

  10. A General Method for Preparing Anatase TiO2 Treelike-Nanoarrays on Various Metal Wires for Fiber Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Liang; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Tu, Fanfan; Liu, Nishuang; Gao, Yihua

    2014-03-01

    Anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays were prepared on various metal wires (Ti, W, Ni, etc.) through one-step facile hydrothermal reaction. The anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays consist of long TiO2 nanowire trunks with direct charge transport channels, and a large number of short TiO2 nanorod branches with large surface areas. Fiber dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays deposited on Ti wires can achieve outstanding power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.32%, while FDSSCs on W wires have lower PCE of 3.24% due to the formation of WO3 layer, which might enhance recombination of charges. When the substrate is changed to a Nicole oxide wire, a novel p-n heterojunction can be obtained. This universal method is simple, facile, and low cost for preparing anatase TiO2 treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires, which may find potential applications in fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  11. TiO2 film decorated with highly dispersed polyoxometalate nanoparticles synthesized by micelle directed method for the efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lifei; Chen, Li; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Weilin; Shan, Chunhui; Su, Zhongmin; Wang, Enbo

    2016-10-01

    In this work, two kinds of polyoxometalate (POM) nanoparticles with controlled shapes and structures were synthesized by micelle directed method and then composited with TiO2 via calcination to remove the surfactants owing to the excellent electronic storage and transmission ability of POM, finally obtaining two kinds of TiO2 composites with highly dispersed and small-sized POM nanoparticles (∼1 nm). The TiO2 composites were then induced into the photoanodes of dye-sensitized (N719) solar cells (DSSCs). The separation of electron-holes becomes more favorable due to the nanostructure and high dispersion of POM which provide more active sites than pure POM tending to agglomeration. The TiO2 composite photoanodes finally yielded the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.4% and 8.2%, respectively, which were 42% and 39% higher than the pristine TiO2 based anodes. In addition, the mechanisms of POM in DSSC are proposed.

  12. A seeding method to synthesize aggregate scattering titanium oxide by oriented attachment network titanium oxide as a seed for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ping-Lin; Liao, Chun-Hou

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, seeding method is used to synthesize the random aggregate scattering TiO2 (OAS) by oriented attachment particles (OA S2) as seeds. The OAS process has pure anatase phase and high surface area (205 m2 g-1). Its film shows rough surface and larger void spaces due to random aggregate particle, but there is no any crack over large area in the OAS film. Form the UV-vis transmittance spectra, the OAS film is opaque and able to diffuse visible light with transmittance less than 60% of incident light in 550 nm. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells make of the double layer OA S2 + OAS exhibits higher JSC than the devices made of single layer OA S2. The reason for the higher JSC can be further proved by IPCE. The OAS film also shows lower charge transport resistance and higher electron lifetime contrasted with the commercial scattering particle CCIC 400. A higher light-to-electricity power conversion efficiency of 7.06% is achieved by applying the double layer OA S2 + OAS.

  13. Development of early post-ischemic injury in the liver as evaluated by a double staining method combining an intravital dye exclusion test and alizarin red S.

    PubMed

    Jennische, E

    1985-11-01

    The early development of post-ischemic cell injury was investigated in rat livers. Rats were subjected to 90 minutes of liver ischemia, followed by periods of re-perfusion from 10 minutes to 3 hours. The ischemia-induced injury was quantified by using a double staining method. An intravital dye exclusion test with Evans blue was combined with a histochemical stain for calcium, Alizarin red S (ARS). It was found that the markers identified two populations of injured cells, positive for Evans blue (EBA) and ARS respectively. The number of injured cells increased successively during the re-perfusion period. The overlapping between the two populations was small during the early post-ischemic phase but increased with increasing re-perfusion time. Treatment with ruthenium red, a blocker of mitochondrial calcium uptake, during the re-perfusion period significantly reduced the number of ARS-positive cells, while the number of EBA-positive cells was not affected. It is suggested that the two markers used identify cell populations, which are injured by different mechanisms operating in the post-ischemic phase. These mechanisms may or may not be dependent on calcium.

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cells using polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene) nanofibers by electrospinning method.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hae; Kim, Ji-Un; Lee, Seong-Yeop; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Jin-Kook; Kim, Mi-Ra

    2008-09-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices using polymer electrolytes based on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) nanofibers were fabricated and investigated the photovoltaic performances. The electrospun PVDF-HFP nanofibers were prepared by various parameters such as; polymer concentrations, applied voltages, and tip to collector distances (TCD) by the electrospinning method. The open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short circuit current (J(SC)), fill factor (FF), and overall power conversion efficiency (eta) of DSSC devices using electro-spun PVDF-HFP nanofibers were 0.7180-0.7420 V, 9.7200-10.8837 mA/cm2, 0.5610-0.6250, and 4.1700-5.0186%, respectively. When 15 wt% of polymer concentration, 14 kV of applied voltage, and 14 cm of TCD is applied to fabricate the PVDF-HFP nanofiber, the electrospun PVDF-HFP nanofiber should be the regular diameter of a nanofiber, the power conversion efficiency of the DSSC device reached 5.0186% as the best result.

  15. A general method for preparing anatase TiO₂ treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires for fiber dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Liang; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Tu, Fanfan; Liu, Nishuang; Gao, Yihua

    2014-03-20

    Anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays were prepared on various metal wires (Ti, W, Ni, etc.) through one-step facile hydrothermal reaction. The anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays consist of long TiO2 nanowire trunks with direct charge transport channels, and a large number of short TiO2 nanorod branches with large surface areas. Fiber dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays deposited on Ti wires can achieve outstanding power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.32%, while FDSSCs on W wires have lower PCE of 3.24% due to the formation of WO3 layer, which might enhance recombination of charges. When the substrate is changed to a Nicole oxide wire, a novel p-n heterojunction can be obtained. This universal method is simple, facile, and low cost for preparing anatase TiO2 treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires, which may find potential applications in fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  16. Total protein measurement in canine cerebrospinal fluid: agreement between a turbidimetric assay and 2 dye-binding methods and determination of reference intervals using an indirect a posteriori method.

    PubMed

    Riond, B; Steffen, F; Schmied, O; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H

    2014-03-01

    In veterinary clinical laboratories, qualitative tests for total protein measurement in canine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been replaced by quantitative methods, which can be divided into dye-binding assays and turbidimetric methods. There is a lack of validation data and reference intervals (RIs) for these assays. The aim of the present study was to assess agreement between the turbidimetric benzethonium chloride method and 2 dye-binding methods (Pyrogallol Red-Molybdate method [PRM], Coomassie Brilliant Blue [CBB] technique) for measurement of total protein concentration in canine CSF. Furthermore, RIs were determined for all 3 methods using an indirect a posteriori method. For assay comparison, a total of 118 canine CSF specimens were analyzed. For RIs calculation, clinical records of 401 canine patients with normal CSF analysis were studied and classified according to their final diagnosis in pathologic and nonpathologic values. The turbidimetric assay showed excellent agreement with the PRM assay (mean bias 0.003 g/L [-0.26-0.27]). The CBB method generally showed higher total protein values than the turbidimetric assay and the PRM assay (mean bias -0.14 g/L for turbidimetric and PRM assay). From 90 of 401 canine patients, nonparametric reference intervals (2.5%, 97.5% quantile) were calculated (turbidimetric assay and PRM method: 0.08-0.35 g/L (90% CI: 0.07-0.08/0.33-0.39); CBB method: 0.17-0.55 g/L (90% CI: 0.16-0.18/0.52-0.61). Total protein concentration in canine CSF specimens remained stable for up to 6 months of storage at -80°C. Due to variations among methods, RIs for total protein concentration in canine CSF have to be calculated for each method. The a posteriori method of RIs calculation described here should encourage other veterinary laboratories to establish RIs that are laboratory-specific. ©2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers for some reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Okutucu, Burcu; Akkaya, Alper; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon their structure, azo- and anthraquinonic dyes are the two major classes and together represent 90% of all organic colorants. Adsorption of dye molecules onto a sorbent can be an effective, low-cost method of color removal. Most of the techniques used for removal of dyes are of high production cost, and the regeneration also makes them uneconomical. There is much interest in the development of cheaper and effective newer materials for use as adsorbents. Molecular imprinting is a new kind of materials that can be alternative adsorbents. In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers of three textile dyes (Cibacron Orange P-4R, Cibacron Red P-4B, Cibacron Black PSG) were prepared. Methacrylic acid was used as a monomer for red and orange dyes and acrylamide was used for black dye. Methanol:acetonitrile was used as a porogen. The selective recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers was studied by an equilibrium-adsorption batch method. The adsorption data are for Cibacron Black PSG 65% and nonimprinted polymer (NIP) 25%; Cibacron Red P-4B 72% and NIP 18%; and Cibacron Orange P-4R 45% and NIP 10%, respectively. Dye-imprinted polymers were used as a solid-phase extraction material for selective adsorption from wastewater of textile factory.

  18. Effect of the method of preparation for consumption on calcium retention, calcium:phosphorus ratio, nutrient density and recommended daily allowance in fourteen vegetables.

    PubMed

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr; Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate calcium retention in 14 species of vegetable (from four usable groups). The material investigated consisted of raw and boiled fresh vegetables and two types of frozen product prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: one traditionally produced; the other obtained using the modified method (convenience food). The highest calcium content was found in leafy vegetables, followed (in descending order) by leguminous, root and brassica vegetables. The proportion by weight of Ca to P was highest in leafy vegetables and decreased with calcium retention despite the fact that levels of phosphorus were highest in leguminous and lowest in leafy vegetables. The nutrient density (ND%) of calcium for adults exceeded 100 for each individual vegetable species. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) percentage value varied between 23.04 (kale) and 1.46 (white cauliflower). Of the three types of product, ND and RDA values were generally greater in the frozen convenience products.

  19. Synthesis of Laser Dyes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-09

    block number) This report describes the progress made in attempts to prepare seven laser dyes. These dyes all have a 2-(L-pyridy.)-1,3- oxazole ...structure one dye, The synthesis of one dye, 2-(Ni-met.hyl-4-pyridiniiumi)pherianthroL9,10-dJ-1,3- oxazole tosylate (I) has been com-pleted. Preliminary...1,3- oxazoles . I~ 20 [IISTRI:’UTIGTJi/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 0UNITILA-,SIFIEDI.JNLiITED 0 SAME AS RPT El DTIC

  20. A simple, rapid and low-cost staining method for gel-electrophoresis separated phosphoproteins via the fluorescent purpurin dye.

    PubMed

    Cong, Weitao; Shen, Jiayi; Xuan, Yuanhu; Zhu, Xinliang; Ni, Maowei; Zhu, Zhongxin; Hong, Guoying; Lu, Xianghong; Jin, Litai

    2014-12-07

    A novel fluorescence detection method for phosphoproteins in 1-D and 2-D SDS-PAGE by using purpurin is developed in this study. Phosphoproteins as low as 4-8 ng could be specifically detected by purpurin within 60 min, and the detection limit is similar to or better than that of Pro-Q Diamond staining. Only 2 steps (staining and destaining) are needed for purpurin staining without requiring excessive fixing and washing steps, and for single use, $0.8 is enough for purpurin staining. By comprehensively comparing with Pro-Q Diamond staining, it is concluded that purpurin staining is a simple, rapid and low-cost staining method for a broad application to the research of phosphoproteins.

  1. Surgical Marking Pen Dye Inhibits Saphenous Vein Cell Proliferation and Migration in Saphenous Vein Graft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Shinsuke; Kenagy, Richard D; Gao, Lu; Wight, Thomas N; Azuma, Nobuyoshi; Sobel, Michael; Clowes, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Markers containing dyes such as crystal violet (CAS 548-62-9) are routinely used on the adventitia of vein bypass grafts to avoid twisting during placement. Since little is known about how these dyes affect vein graft healing and function, we determined the effect of crystal violet on cell migration and proliferation, which are responses to injury after grafting. Methods Fresh human saphenous veins were obtained as residual specimens from leg bypass surgeries. Portions of the vein that had been surgically marked with crystal violet were analyzed separately from those that had no dye marking. In the laboratory, they were split into easily dissected inner and outer layers after removal of endothelium. This f cleavage plane was within the circular muscle layer of the media. Cell migration from explants was measured daily as either 1) % migration positive explants, which exclusively measures migration, or 2) the number of cells on the plastic surrounding each explant, which measures migration plus proliferation. Cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively) were determined in dye-marked and unmarked areas of cultured vein rings. The dose-dependent effects of crystal violet were measured for cell migration from explants as well as proliferation, migration, and death of cultured outer layer cells. Dye was extracted from explants with ethanol and quantified by spectrophotometry. Results There was significantly less cell migration from visibly blue, compared to unstained, outer layer explants by both methods. There was no significant difference in migration from inner layer explants adjacent to blue-stained or unstained sections of vein, because dye did not penetrate to the inner layer. Ki67 staining of vein in organ culture, which is a measure of proliferation, progressively increased up to 6 days in non-blue outer layer and was abolished in the blue outer layer. Evidence of apoptosis (TUNEL staining) was present throughout the wall

  2. Simultaneous adsorption of Remazol brilliant blue and Disperse orange dyes on red mud and isotherms for the mixed dye system.

    PubMed

    Gadigayya Mavinkattimath, Ratnamala; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Govindan, Srinikethan

    2017-06-27

    The paper presents the adsorption of Remazol brilliant blue (RBB) and Disperse orange 25 (DO25) dyes from aqueous solution of the mixture of dyes onto concentrated sulphuric acid-treated red mud (ATRM). First-order derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the analysis of RBB and DO25 in mixed dye aqueous solution to overcome the limitations arising due to interference in the zero-order spectral method. The optimum conditions to maximize RBB adsorption favoured the adsorption of RBB, and those for DO25 favoured DO25 adsorption from the mixed dye aqueous solutions. Presence of a second dye always inhibited the adsorption of a target dye. The uptake and percentage adsorption of each of the dyes onto ATRM from the aqueous solution of the mixture of dyes decreased considerably with increasing concentrations of the other dye showing the antagonistic effect. Monocomponent Langmuir isotherm fitted the mixed dye adsorption equilibrium data better than the monocomponent Freundlich isotherm. However, monocomponent models are suitable for the fixed concentration of the other dye. Modified Langmuir isotherm model adequately predicted the multi-component adsorption equilibrium data for RBB-DO25-ATRM adsorption system with a good accuracy and is more generic from the application point of view.

  3. Application of linear and non-linear methods for modeling removal efficiency of textile dyes from aqueous solutions using magnetic Fe3O4 impregnated onto walnut shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, Motahare; Arab Chamjangali, Mansour; Bagherian, Ghadamali; Goudarzi, Nasser

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the Nano-magnetite Fe3O4 impregnated onto walnut shell (Fe3O4-WNS), which possessed the adsorption features of walnut shell and the magnetic property of Fe3O4, was investigated for the elimination of the methyl violet and Rhodamine 6G from contaminated aqueous solutions. The effects of different experimental variables on the removal efficiency of the cited dyes were examined. Then these variables were used as the inputs to generate linear and non-linear models such as the multiple linear regression, random forest, and artificial neural network to predict the removal efficiency of these dye species at different experimental conditions. The validation studies of these models were performed using the test set, which was not present in the modeling procedure. It was found that ANN had a higher ability to predict the adsorption process under different experimental conditions, and could be applied for the development of an automated dye wastewater removal plant. Also the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) indicated that the qmax value for Fe3O4-WNS for removal of cationic dyes was comparable or better than that for some reported adsorbents. Also it should be cited that exhausted Fe3O4-WNS was regenerated using dishwashing liquid, and reused for removal of the cited dye species from aqueous solutions.

  4. Application of linear and non-linear methods for modeling removal efficiency of textile dyes from aqueous solutions using magnetic Fe3O4 impregnated onto walnut shell.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Motahare; Arab Chamjangali, Mansour; Bagherian, Ghadamali; Goudarzi, Nasser

    2017-01-15

    The performance of the Nano-magnetite Fe3O4 impregnated onto walnut shell (Fe3O4-WNS), which possessed the adsorption features of walnut shell and the magnetic property of Fe3O4, was investigated for the elimination of the methyl violet and Rhodamine 6G from contaminated aqueous solutions. The effects of different experimental variables on the removal efficiency of the cited dyes were examined. Then these variables were used as the inputs to generate linear and non-linear models such as the multiple linear regression, random forest, and artificial neural network to predict the removal efficiency of these dye species at different experimental conditions. The validation studies of these models were performed using the test set, which was not present in the modeling procedure. It was found that ANN had a higher ability to predict the adsorption process under different experimental conditions, and could be applied for the development of an automated dye wastewater removal plant. Also the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) indicated that the qmax value for Fe3O4-WNS for removal of cationic dyes was comparable or better than that for some reported adsorbents. Also it should be cited that exhausted Fe3O4-WNS was regenerated using dishwashing liquid, and reused for removal of the cited dye species from aqueous solutions.

  5. A novel, sensitive and label-free loop-mediated isothermal amplification detection method for nucleic acids using luminophore dyes.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sharmili; Wei, Sim Xiao; Ying, Jean Liew Zhi; Safavieh, Mohammadali; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2016-12-15

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) has been widely rendered for nucleic acid testing. Here, we integrate loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with ECL technique for DNA detection and quantification. The target LAMP DNA bound electrostatically with [Ru(bpy)3](+2) on the carbon electrode surface, and an ECL reaction was triggered by tripropylamine (TPrA) to yield luminescence. We illustrated this method as a new and highly sensitive strategy for the detection of sequence-specific DNA from different meat species at picogram levels. The proposed strategy renders the signal amplification capacities of TPrA and combines LAMP with inherently high sensitivity of the ECL technique, to facilitate the detection of low quantities of DNA. By leveraging this technique, target DNA of Sus scrofa (pork) meat was detected as low as 1pg/µL (3.43×10(-1)copies/µL). In addition, the proposed technique was applied for detection of Bacillus subtilis DNA samples and detection limit of 10pg/µL (2.2×10(3)copies/µL) was achieved. The advantages of being isothermal, sensitive and robust with ability for multiplex detection of bio-analytes makes this method a facile and appealing sensing modality in hand-held devices to be used at the point-of-care (POC).

  6. Validation of an HPLC-DAD/UV method for the quantification of cyclamate in tabletop sweeteners: risk of exceeding the acceptable daily intake.

    PubMed

    Sargaço, B; Serra, C; Vasco, E

    2017-06-01

    Cyclamate is widely used as intense sweetener in the European Union. The absence of a maximum limit for the use of cyclamate in tabletop sweeteners and the growing demand for this type of product highlights the importance of developing robust analytical methods for the determination of its content to understand if the consumption of tabletop sweeteners can have a negative impact on human health. The present work aimed at the optimisation and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method for cyclamate determination in tabletop sweeteners based on the procedure of European Standard EN 12857. The validated method was then applied to the determination of this sweetener in different types of tabletop sweeteners (liquid, powder and tablets). Both standards and samples solutions were submitted to a derivatisation procedure which converted cyclamate to N,N-dichlorocyclohexylamine. The derivatised product was separated and quantified using a reversed-phase column, a mobile phase composed of water (20%) and methanol (80%), isocratic flow of 1 ml min(-1), and detection by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 314 nm. The analytical method was internally validated according to the following validation parameters: working range, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, sensitivity, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), and uncertainty. This method proved to be specific and selective for the determination of this sweetener, showing repeatability, RSDr ≤ 3%, intermediate precision, RSDR ≤ 3.3%, and recovery rates from 92% to 108% for the different tabletop sweeteners. The method uncertainty was 9.4%. The concentration of cyclamate in the samples varied significantly, from 2.9% to 73.9%, which demonstrated that a possible excessive consumption of one of the analysed sweeteners can lead to exceeding the acceptable daily intake for cyclamate.

  7. Prevalence of mobile phones and factors influencing usage by caregivers of young children in daily life and for health care in rural China: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    To capitalise on mHealth, we need to understand the use of mobile phones both in daily life and for health care. To assess the prevalence and factors that influence usage of mobile phones by caregivers of young children. A mixed methods approach was used, whereby a survey (N=1854) and semi-structured interviews (N=17) were conducted concurrently. The quantitative and qualitative data obtained were compared and integrated. Participants were caregivers of young children in Zhao County, Hebei Province, China. Four main themes were found: (i) trends in mobile phone ownership; (ii) usage of mobile phone functions; (iii) factors influencing replying to text messages; and (iv) uses of mobile phones for health care. The majority of 1,854 survey participants (1,620; 87.4%) used mobile phones, but usage was much higher among mothers (1,433; 92.6%) and fathers (41; 100.0%) compared to grandparents (142; 54.6%). Parents were able to send text messages, grandparents often not. Factors influencing the decision to reply to text messages in daily life were checking the mobile phone, trusting the sender, emotion or feeling when receiving a text message, the importance of replying and ease of use of text messages. Of 1,620 survey participants who used a mobile phone, about one in four (432; 26.7%) had used it for health care in the past three months and most (1,110; 93.5%) of 1,187 who had not wished to use their phone to receive health information. We found that usage of mobile phones is high, several factors influencing usage and an interest of caregivers to use phones for health care in Zhao County, rural China, which can be used to inform studies in settings with similar characteristics. Future work needs to assess factors influencing mobile phone usage in-depth to optimize experiences of users for specific mHealth-based interventions.

  8. Effect of mercerization and gamma irradiation on the dyeing behaviour of cotton using stilbene based direct dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Adeel, Shahid; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Irshad, Misbah; Abbas, Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    The dyeing behaviour of mercerized and gamma irradiated cotton fabric using stilbene based direct dye has been investigated. The fabric was treated with different concentrations of alkali to optimize the mercerization. The optimum mercerized cotton fabric was irradiated to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature, time of dyeing, pH of dyeing solutions and salt concentration were optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It was found that mercerized and irradiated cotton have not only improved the colour strength but enhanced the rating of fastness properties also.

  9. Charge and Energy Transfer in the Metal-free Indoline Dyes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Li-ying; Gu, Wen-xiang; Chen, Yue-hui; Ma, Feng-cai

    2006-06-01

    Metal-free indoline dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells were studied by employing quantum chemistry methods. Comparative study of the properties of both ground and excited states of metal-free indoline dyes for dye- sensitized solar cells revealed: (i) as the number of rhodanine rings increases, the energy difference between HOMO and LUMO decreases and there is a red shift in the absorption spectrum with the binding energy increased, and the transition dipole moment decreased; (ii) Based on an analysis of charge differential density, we observed that the charge and energy are transfered from the phenylethenyl to the indoline and rhodanine rings; (iii) The electron-hole coherences are mainly on the indoline and rhodanine rings, and the exciton sizes are 30 and 40 atoms for indoline dyes with one and two rhodanline rings, respectively. These results serve as a good example of computer-aided design in metal-free indoline dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  10. Uniform silica nanoparticles encapsulating two-photon absorbing fluorescent dye

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Weibing; Liu Chang; Wang Mingliang; Huang Wei; Zhou Shengrui; Jiang Wei; Sun Yueming; Cui Yiping; Xu Chunxinag

    2009-04-15

    We have prepared uniform silica nanoparticles (NPs) doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye by reverse microemulsion method. Obvious solvatochromism on the absorption spectra of dye-doped NPs indicates that solvents can partly penetrate into the silica matrix and then affect the ground and excited state of dye molecules. For dye-doped NP suspensions, both one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence are much stronger and recorded at shorter wavelength compared to those of free dye solutions with comparative overall dye concentration. This behavior is possibly attributed to the restricted twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT), which reduces fluorescence quenching when dye molecules are trapped in the silica matrix. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells with low cytotoxicity. - Graphical abstract: Water-soluble silica NPs doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye were prepared. They were found of enhanced one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence compared to free dye solutions. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells.

  11. Novel water soluble NIR dyes: does charge matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Henary, Maged; Beckford, Garfield; Daube, Alison

    2012-03-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) dyes are used as reporters, probes or markers in the biological and medical field. NIR dyes can be useful for investigating and characterizing biomolecular interactions or imaging which is possible because biological mammalian tissue has a low absorption window in the NIR region. Biomolecules such as proteins are known to bind to NIR dyes. Upon binding NIR dyes often exhibit spectral changes that can be used for characterizing the binding event. Serum albumins may be responsible for in vivo transport of NIR dyes. Studying this binding event can be useful when correlated to in vivo behavior of the NIR dye. The studies presented here use spectroscopic methods to investigate how NIR dyes that may be used in imaging, biological or bioanalytical applications bind to proteins, such as serum albumins. Our research group systematically synthesized several NIR dyes that have varying hydrophobicity, chromophore size and charge. During these investigations we developed novel NIR cyanine fluorophores having varying aqueous solubility and a variety of net charges. The binding properties of the carbocyanines change when charged or hydrophobic moieties are systematically varied. One of the properties we put a special emphasis on is what we call residual hydrophobicity of the NIR dye molecule which is defined as the unmasked (by the charged moieties) hydrophobicity of the molecule. Residual hydrophobicity may be responsible for binding the otherwise highly water soluble NIR dye to hydrophobic pockets of biomolecules. High residual hydrophobicity of a highly water soluble dye can be disadvantageous during biological, medical or similar applications.

  12. A comparative examination of the adsorption mechanism of an anionic textile dye (RBY 3GL) onto the powdered activated carbon (PAC) using various the isotherm models and kinetics equations with linear and non-linear methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Açıkyıldız, Metin; Gürses, Ahmet; Güneş, Kübra; Yalvaç, Duygu

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to compare the linear and non-linear methods used to check the compliance of the experimental data corresponding to the isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson) and kinetics equations (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order). In this context, adsorption experiments were carried out to remove an anionic dye, Remazol Brillant Yellow 3GL (RBY), from its aqueous solutions using a commercial activated carbon as a sorbent. The effects of contact time, initial RBY concentration, and temperature onto adsorbed amount were investigated. The amount of dye adsorbed increased with increased adsorption time and the adsorption equilibrium was attained after 240 min. The amount of dye adsorbed enhanced with increased temperature, suggesting that the adsorption process is endothermic. The experimental data was analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations in order to predict adsorption isotherm. It was determined that the isotherm data were fitted to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo second-order kinetic model. According to the kinetic and isotherm data, it was found that the determination coefficients obtained from linear method were higher than those obtained from non-linear method.

  13. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation.

  14. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  15. Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as...a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo ZL-30) were microencapsulated and tested on

  16. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  17. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  18. Dye screening and signal-to-noise ratio for retrogradely transported voltage-sensitive dyes.

    PubMed

    Tsau, Y; Wenner, P; O'Donovan, M J; Cohen, L B; Loew, L M; Wuskell, J P

    1996-12-28

    Using a novel method for retrogradely labeling specific neuronal populations, we tested different styryl dyes in attempt to find dyes whose staining would be specific, rapid, and lead to large activity dependent signals. The dyes were injected into the ventral roots of the isolated chick spinal cord from embryos at days E9-E12. The voltage-sensitive dye signals were recorded from synaptically activated motoneurons using a 464 element photodiode array. The best labeling and optical signals were obtained using the relatively hydrophobic dyes di-8-ANEPPQ and di-12-ANEPEQ. Over the 24 h period we examined, these dyes bound specifically to the cells with axons in the ventral roots. The dyes responded with an increase in fluorescence of 1-3% (delta F/F) in response to synaptic depolarization of the motoneurons. The signal-to-noise ratio obtained in a single trial from a detector that received light from a 14 x 14 microns2 area of the motoneuron population was about 10:1. Nonetheless, signals on neighboring diodes were similar, suggesting that we were not detecting the activity of individual neurons. Retrograde labeling and optical recording with voltage-sensitive dyes provides a means for monitoring the activity of identified neurons in situations where microelectrode recordings are not feasible.

  19. Prevalence of Mobile Phones and Factors Influencing Usage by Caregivers of Young Children in Daily Life and for Health Care in Rural China: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To capitalise on mHealth, we need to understand the use of mobile phones both in daily life and for health care. Objective To assess the prevalence and factors that influence usage of mobile phones by caregivers of young children. Materials and Methods A mixed methods approach was used, whereby a survey (N=1854) and semi-structured interviews (N=17) were conducted concurrently. The quantitative and qualitative data obtained were compared and integrated. Participants were caregivers of young children in Zhao County, Hebei Province, China. Results Four main themes were found: (i) trends in mobile phone ownership; (ii) usage of mobile phone functions; (iii) factors influencing replying to text messages; and (iv) uses of mobile phones for health care. The majority of 1,854 survey participants (1,620; 87.4%) used mobile phones, but usage was much higher among mothers (1,433; 92.6%) and fathers (41; 100.0%) compared to grandparents (142; 54.6%). Parents were able to send text messages, grandparents often not. Factors influencing the decision to reply to text messages in daily life were checking the mobile phone, trusting the sender, emotion or feeling when receiving a text message, the importance of replying and ease of use of text messages. Of 1,620 survey participants who used a mobile phone, about one in four (432; 26.7%) had used it for health care in the past three months and most (1,110; 93.5%) of 1,187 who had not wished to use their phone to receive health information. Conclusion We found that usage of mobile phones is high, several factors influencing usage and an interest of caregivers to use phones for health care in Zhao County, rural China, which can be used to inform studies in settings with similar characteristics. Future work needs to assess factors influencing mobile phone usage in-depth to optimize experiences of users for specific mHealth-based interventions. PMID:25789477

  20. Adaptation for improving lifetime of dye laser using coumarin dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1984-10-23

    The effective lasing lifetime of laser dyes including coumarin dyes are significantly extended by the use of an inert cover gas for the laser dye solution such as argon in combination with the employment of a glass filter such as Pyrex disposed between the pumping flash lamp and the dye laser cavity capable of absorbing electromagnetic radiation of about 300 nanometers or shorter wavelength.

  1. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields

  2. Ballistic labeling with fluorescent dyes and indicators.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Joshua L; Wong, Rachel O L

    2008-04-01

    Neuronal cell labeling is fundamental to investigations of the nervous system. Labeling of cells in live or fixed tissue with dyes or ion indicators using ballistic approaches has recently been developed for the study of neuronal architecture and function. In this approach, dye-coated particles are propelled into cells by a pulse of pressurized helium. This unit provides step-by-step protocols for coating tungsten particles with fluorescent or indicator dyes and for delivering these particles into cells and tissue. The major advantage of the ballistic method of dye delivery is that large populations of neurons can be rapidly labeled within a piece of live or fixed tissue. Advantages and limitations of the approach are discussed and technical advice is provided. (c) 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  4. Molecular engineering of fluorescein dyes as complementary absorbers in dye co-sensitized solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Pepe, Giulio; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Waddell, Paul G.; ...

    2016-09-22

    Fluorescein dye derivatives exhibit extended optical absorption up to 500 nm, rendering these compounds suitable as co-absorbers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A molecular engineering approach is presented, which embraces this intrinsic optical attribute of fluoresceins, while modifying the dye chemistry to enhance their light harvesting efficiency, in order to effectively tailor them for DSC applications. This approach first realizes relationships between the molecular structure and the optoelectronic properties for a series of five a priori known (parent) fluorescein dyes: 5-carboxyfluorescein (1), a mixture of m-carboxyfluorescein where m = 5 or 6 (2), 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (3), 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (4), amore » mixture of n-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate where n = 5 or 6 (5). The first step in this approach combines, where available, experimental and computational methods so that electronic structure calculations can also be validated for representative fluorescein dyes. Such calculations can then be used reliably to predict the structure and properties of fluorescein dyes for cases where experimental data are lacking. Structure-function relationships established from this initial step inform the selection of parent dye 1 that is taken forward to the second step in molecular engineering: in silico chemical derivation to re-functionalize 1 for DSC applications. For this purpose, computational calculations are used to extend the charge conjugation in 1 between its donor and acceptor moieties. These structural modifications result in a bathochromic shift of the lowest excitation by ~1.3-1.9 eV (100-170 nm), making the dye optically absorb in the visible region. Further calculations on dye molecules adsorbed onto the surface of a TiO2 cluster are used to investigate the dye sensitization behavior via dye adsorption energies and anchoring modes. The results of this theoretical investigation lead to two molecularly engineered

  5. Molecular engineering of fluorescein dyes as complementary absorbers in dye co-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pepe, Giulio; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Waddell, Paul G.; Griffiths, Joseph R. D.

    2016-09-22

    Fluorescein dye derivatives exhibit extended optical absorption up to 500 nm, rendering these compounds suitable as co-absorbers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A molecular engineering approach is presented, which embraces this intrinsic optical attribute of fluoresceins, while modifying the dye chemistry to enhance their light harvesting efficiency, in order to effectively tailor them for DSC applications. This approach first realizes relationships between the molecular structure and the optoelectronic properties for a series of five a priori known (parent) fluorescein dyes: 5-carboxyfluorescein (1), a mixture of m-carboxyfluorescein where m = 5 or 6 (2), 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (3), 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (4), a mixture of n-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate where n = 5 or 6 (5). The first step in this approach combines, where available, experimental and computational methods so that electronic structure calculations can also be validated for representative fluorescein dyes. Such calculations can then be used reliably to predict the structure and properties of fluorescein dyes for cases where experimental data are lacking. Structure-function relationships established from this initial step inform the selection of parent dye 1 that is taken forward to the second step in molecular engineering: in silico chemical derivation to re-functionalize 1 for DSC applications. For this purpose, computational calculations are used to extend the charge conjugation in 1 between its donor and acceptor moieties. These structural modifications result in a bathochromic shift of the lowest excitation by ~1.3-1.9 eV (100-170 nm), making the dye optically absorb in the visible region. Further calculations on dye molecules adsorbed onto the surface of a TiO2 cluster are used to investigate the dye sensitization behavior via dye adsorption energies and anchoring modes. The results of this theoretical

  6. Direct thermal dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  7. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  8. Fabrication of Microcapsules for Dye-Doped Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal-Based Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mingyun; Park, Kyun Joo; Seok, Seunghwan; Ok, Jong Min; Jung, Hee-Tae; Choe, Jaehoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-08-19

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is an attractive material for application in smart windows. Smart windows using a PDLC can be operated simply and have a high contrast ratio compared to those of other devices that employed photochromic or thermochromic material. However, in conventional dye-doped PDLC methods, dye contamination can cause problems and has a limited degree of commercialization of electric smart windows. Here, we report on an approach to resolve dye-related problems by encapsulating the dye in monodispersed capsules. By encapsulation, a fabricated dye-doped PDLC had a contrast ratio of >120 at 600 nm. This fabrication method of encapsulating the dye in a core-shell structured microcapsule in a dye-doped PDLC device provides a practical platform for dye-doped PDLC-based smart windows.

  9. Evaluation of seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine and cortisol levels in wild masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, sampled by a Japanese fishing method.

    PubMed

    Munakata, A; Miura, G; Matsuda, H

    2014-10-01

    A new fish sampling method was developed using a Japanese bait fishing rod (8-9 m carbon rod and a nylon line with a small fine wire single hook), which is considered to catch wild salmonid juveniles with low sampling stress. Using this method, seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine (T4 ) and cortisol levels were examined in wild parr, pre-smolts and smolts of masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou in contiguous locations in a coastal river (Kesen River; 44 km) in northern Honshu Island, Japan, overlapping the period of smoltification and seaward migration from August to March. Plasma T4 and cortisol were low in 0+ and 1+ year parr caught in August and September. In March, some yearling (1+ year) fish, which were judged as pre-smolts, and smolts appeared mainly in mid and lower reaches, while parr (0+ and 1+ year parr) continued to appear in the upper and mid reaches. In March, 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts showed high plasma T4 levels while the levels of 1+ year parr were low. During March 2008-2010, plasma T4 levels of 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts had high levels from early to mid-March, whereas plasma cortisol levels of 1+ year smolts were low in early March and increased towards mid-March. Based on these data, plasma cortisol increases probably occur following the increases of plasma T4 levels to lead the 1+ year O. masou to the completion of smoltification and initiation of seaward migration. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. The effects of preservation methods, dyes and acidification on the isotopic values (δ15N and δ13C) of two zooplankton species from the KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Lecea, Ander M; Cooper, Rachel; Omarjee, Aadila; Smit, Albertus J

    2011-07-15

    Stable isotope measurements are an important tool for ecosystem trophic linkage studies. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but in many cases organisms must be preserved and analysed later. In some cases dyes must be used to help distinguish organisms from detritus. Since preservatives and dyes are carbon-based, their addition could influence isotopic readings. This study aims to improve understanding of the effects of sample storage method, dye addition and acidification on the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of zooplankton (Euphasia frigida and Undinula vulgaris). Zooplankton was collected and preserved by freezing, or by the addition of 5% formalin, 70% ethanol, or 5% formalin with added Phloxine B or Rose Bengal, and stored for 1 month before processing. Samples in 5% formalin and 70% ethanol were also kept and processed after 3 and 9 months to study changes over time. Formalin caused the largest enrichment for δ(13)C and a slight enrichment for δ(15)N, while ethanol produced a slight depletion for δ(13)C, and different effects on δ(15)N depending on the species. In formalin, dyes depleted the δ(13)C values, but had variable effects on δ(15)N, relative to formalin alone. Acidification had no significant effect on δ(15)N or δ(13)C for either species. Long-term storage showed that the effects of the preservatives were species-dependent. Although the effects on δ(15)N varied, a relative enrichment in (13)C of samples occurred with time. This can have important consequences for the understanding of the organic flow within a food web and for trophic studies. .

  11. Organic and Inorganic Dyes in Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer films are a versatile functionalization method of surfaces and rely on the alternated adsorption of oppositely charged species. Among such species, charged dyes can also be alternated with oppositely charged polymers, which is challenging from a fundamental point of view, because polyelectrolytes require a minimal number of charges, whereas even monovalent dyes can be incorporated during the alternated adsorption process. We will not only focus on organic dyes but also on their inorganic counterparts and on metal complexes. Such films offer plenty of possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells. In addition, dyes are massively used in the textile industry and in histology to stain textile fibers or tissues. However, the excess of non bound dyes poses serious environmental problems. It is hence of the highest interest to design materials able to adsorb such dyes in an almost irreversible manner. Polyelectrolyte multilayer films, owing to their ion exchange behavior can be useful for such a task allowing for impressive overconcentration of dyes with respect to the dye in solution. The actual state of knowledge of the interactions between charged dyes and adsorbed polyelectrolytes is the focus of this review article.

  12. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dyeing and printing workers.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, Parimalam; Raghavan, Premalatha Mundankandath; Srinivasan, Padmini Dasu; Kumar, Ganguli Anindya

    2010-10-01

    Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health.. The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers' and fabric printers' knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview. The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (±10.7). When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s), all the workers agreed that dye(s) will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE) such as rubber hand gloves during work. The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.

  13. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-07

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

  14. A comparison of three methods of setting prescribing budgets, using data derived from defined daily dose analyses of historic patterns of use.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, M; Howie, J G; Pryde, C J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prescribing matters (particularly budget setting and research into prescribing variation between doctors) have been handicapped by the absence of credible measures of the volume of drugs prescribed. AIM: To use the defined daily dose (DDD) method to study variation in the volume and cost of drugs prescribed across the seven main British National Formulary (BNF) chapters with a view to comparing different methods of setting prescribing budgets. METHOD: Study of one year of prescribing statistics from all 129 general practices in Lothian, covering 808,059 patients: analyses of prescribing statistics for 1995 to define volume and cost/volume of prescribing for one year for 10 groups of practices defined by the age and deprivation status of their patients, for seven BNF chapters; creation of prescribing budgets for 1996 for each individual practice based on the use of target volume and cost statistics; comparison of 1996 DDD-based budgets with those set using the conventional historical approach; and comparison of DDD-based budgets with budgets set using a capitation-based formula derived from local cost/patient information. RESULTS: The volume of drugs prescribed was affected by the age structure of the practices in BNF Chapters 1 (gastrointestinal), 2 (cardiovascular), and 6 (endocrine), and by deprivation structure for BNF Chapters 3 (respiratory) and 4 (central nervous system). Costs per DDD in the major BNF chapters were largely independent of age, deprivation structure, or fundholding status. Capitation and DDD-based budgets were similar to each other, but both differed substantially from historic budgets. One practice in seven gained or lost more than 100,000 Pounds per annum using DDD or capitation budgets compared with historic budgets. The DDD-based budget, but not the capitation-based budget, can be used to set volume-specific prescribing targets. CONCLUSIONS: DDD-based and capitation-based prescribing budgets can be set using a simple

  15. Detoxification of azo dyes in the context of environmental processes.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Deepak; Mishra, Vandana; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    Azo dyes account for >70% of the global industrial demand (∼9 million tons). Owing to their genotoxic/carcinogenic potential, the annual disposal of ∼4,500,000 tons of dyes and/or degraded products is an environmental and socio-economic concern. In comparison to physico-chemical methods, microbe-mediated dye degradation is considered to be low-input, cost-effective and environmentally-safe. However, under different environmental conditions, interactions of chemically diverse dyes with metabolically diverse microbes produce metabolites of varying toxicity. In addition, majority of studies on microbial dye-degradation focus on decolorization with least attention towards detoxification. Therefore, the environmental significance of microbial dye detoxification research of past >3 decades is critically evaluated with reference to dye structure and the possible influence of microbial interactions in different environments. In the absence of ecosystem-based studies, the results of laboratory-based studies on dye degradation, metabolite production and their genotoxic impact on model organisms are used to predict the possible fate and consequences of azo dyes/metabolites in the environment. In such studies, the predominance of fewer numbers of toxicological assays that too at lower levels of biological organization (molecular/cellular/organismic) suggests its limited ecological significance. Based on critical evaluation of these studies the recommendations on inclusion of multilevel approach (assessment at multiple levels of biological organization), multispecies microcosm approach and native species approach in conjunction with identification of dye metabolites have been made for future studies. Such studies will bridge the gap between the fundamental knowledge on dye-microbe-environment interactions and its application to combat dye-induced environmental toxicity. Thus an environmental perspective on dye toxicity in the background of dye structure and effects of

  16. Development and optimization of a novel sample preparation method cored on functionalized nanofibers mat-solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous efficient extraction of illegal anionic and cationic dyes in foods.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feifei; Jian, Ningge; Qian, Liangliang; Cao, Weixin; Xu, Qian; Li, Jian

    2017-07-24

    A simple and efficient three-step sample preparation method was developed and optimized for the simultaneous analysis of illegal anionic and cationic dyes (acid orange 7, metanil yellow, auramine-O, and chrysoidine) in food samples. A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure based on nanofibers mat (NFsM) was proposed after solvent extraction and freeze-salting out purification. The preferred SPE sorbent was selected from five functionalized NFsMs by orthogonal experimental design, and the optimization of SPE parameters was achieved through response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design (BBD). Under the optimal conditions, the target analytes could be completely adsorbed by polypyrrole-functionalized polyacrylonitrile NFsM (PPy/PAN NFsM), and the eluent was directly analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.002 and 0.01 mg kg(-1), and satisfactory linearity with correlation coefficients (R > 0.99) for each dye in all samples was achieved. Compared with the Chinese standard method and the published methods, the proposed method was simplified greatly with much lower requirement of sorbent (5.0 mg) and organic solvent (2.8 mL) and higher sample preparation speed (10 min/sample), while higher recovery (83.6-116.5%) and precision (RSDs < 7.1%) were obtained. With this developed method, we have successfully detected illegal ionic dyes in three common representative foods: yellow croaker, soybean products, and chili seasonings. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the process of the three-step sample preparation.

  17. Synthesis and investigation of antimicrobial activity and spectrophotometric and dyeing properties of some novel azo disperse dyes based on naphthalimides.

    PubMed

    Shaki, Hanieh; Gharanjig, Kamaladin; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel disperse dyes containing azo group were synthesized through a diazotization and coupling process. The 4-amino-N-2-aminomethylpyridine-1,8-naphthalimide was diazotized by nitrosylsulphuric acid and coupled with various aromatic amines such as N,N-diethylaniline, N,N-dihydroxyethylaniline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and 2-methylindole. Chemical structures of the synthesized dyes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance ((13) C NMR), elemental analysis, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectroscopy. The spectrophotometric data of all dyes were evaluated in various solvents with different polarity. Eventually, the dyes were applied on polyamide fabrics in order to investigate their dyeing properties. The fastness properties of the dyed fabrics such as wash, light, and rubbing fastness degrees were measured by standard methods. Moreover, the color gamut of the synthesized dyes was measured on polyamide fabrics. Results indicated that some of the synthesized dyes were able to dye polyamide fabrics with deep shades. They had very good wash and rubbing fastness degrees and moderate-to-good light fastness on polyamide fabrics. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized dyes were evaluated in soluble state and on the dyed fabrics. The results indicated that dye 2 containing N,N-dihydroxyethylaniline as coupler had the highest activity against all the bacteria and fungi used. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Surfactant for dye-penetrant inspection is insensitive to liquid oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    LOX insensitive solvent is blended into a mixture of commercially available surfactants to clean metal surfaces which are to be investigated by the dye-penetrant method. The surfactant mixture is applied before and after application of the dye.

  19. Introducing a moving time window in the analogue method for precipitation prediction to find better analogue situations at a sub-daily time step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Pascal; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Obled, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Analogue methods (AMs) predict local weather variables (predictands), such as precipitation, by means of a statistical relationship with predictors at a synoptic scale. Predictors are extracted from reanalysis datasets that often have a six hourly time step. For precipitation forecasts, the predictand often consists of daily precipitation (06h to 30h UTC), given the length of their available archives, and the unavailability of equivalent archives at a finer time step. The optimal predictors to explain these daily precipitations have been obtained in a calibration procedure with fixed times of observation (e.g. geopotential heigths Z1000 at 12h UTC and Z500 at 24h UTC). In operational forecast, a new target situation is defined by its geopotential predictors at these fixed hours, i.e. Z1000 at 12h UTC and Z500 at 24h UTC. Usually, the search for candidate situations for this given target day is usually undertaken by comparing the state of the atmosphere at the same fixed hours of the day for both the target day and the candidate analogues. However, it can be expected that the best analogy among the past synoptic situations does not occur systematically at the same time of the day and that better candidates can be found by shifting to a different hour. With this assumption, a moving time window (MTW) was introduced to allow the search for candidates at different hours of the day (e.g. Z1000 at 00, 06, 12, 18 h UTC and Z500 at 12, 18, 24, 30 h UTC respectively). This MTW technique can only result in a better analogy in terms of the atmospheric circulation (compared to the method with fixed hours), with improved values of the analogy criterion on the entire distribution of analogue dates. A seasonal effect has also been identified, with larger improvements in winter than in summer. However, its interest in precipitation forecast can only be evaluated with an archive of the corresponding 24h-totals, i.e. not only 6-30h UTC totals, but also 0-24h, 12-12h and 18-18h

  20. Pad ultrasonic batch dyeing of causticized lyocell fabric with reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Babar, Aijaz Ahmed; Peerzada, Mazhar Hussain; Jhatial, Abdul Khalique; Bughio, Noor-Ul-Ain

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, cellulosic fabric dyed with reactive dyes requires significant amount of salt. However, the dyeing of a solvent spun regenerated cellulosic fiber is a critical process. This paper presents the dyeing results of lyocell fabrics dyed with conventional pad batch (CPB) and pad ultrasonic batch (PUB) processes. The dyeing of lyocell fabrics was carried out with two commercial dyes namely Drimarine Blue CL-BR and Ramazol Blue RGB. Dyeing parameters including concentration of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dwell time were compared for the two processes. The outcomes show that PUB dyed samples offered reasonably higher color yield and dye fixation than CPB dyed samples. A remarkable reduction of 12h in batching time, 18ml/l in NaOH and 05g/l in Na2CO3 quantity was observed for PUB processed samples producing similar results compared to CPB process, making PUB a more economical, productive and an environment friendly process. Color fastness examination witnessed identical results for both PUB and CPB methods. No significant change in surface morphology of PUB processed samples was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis.

  1. Decolorization of dye wastewaters by biosorbents: a review.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari

    2010-10-01

    Dye wastewater is one of the most difficult to treat. There has been exhaustive research on biosorption of dye wastewater. It is evolving as an attractive option to supplement conventional treatment processes. This paper examines various biosorbents such as fungi, bacteria, algae, chitosan and peat, which are capable of decolorizing dye wastewaters; discusses various mechanism involved, the effects of various factors influencing dye wastewater decolorization and reviews pretreatment methods for increasing the biosorption capacity of the adsorbents. The paper examines the mismatch between strong scientific progress in the field of biosorption and lack of commercialization of research. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy transfer between a biological labelling dye and gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racknor, Chris; Singh, Mahi R.; Zhang, Yinan; Birch, David J. S.; Chen, Yu

    2014-03-01

    We have demonstrated energy transfer between a biological labelling dye (Alexa Fluor 405) and gold nanorods experimentally and theoretically. The fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and density matrix method are used to study a hybrid system of dye and nanorods under one- and two-photon excitations. Energy transfer between dye and nanorods via the dipole-dipole interaction is found to cause a decrease in the fluorescence lifetime change. Enhanced energy transfer from dye to nanorods is measured in the presence of an increased density of nanorods. This study has potential applications in fluorescence lifetime-based intra-cellular sensing of bio-analytes as well as nuclear targeting cancer therapy.

  3. Cosensitization with Vat-Based Organic Dyes for Enhanced Spectral Response of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnezhad, Mozhgan

    2017-04-01

    Cosensitization using two organic dyes with supplementary absorption spectra on a photoelectrode is an effective method for improving the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. Two organic dyes based on indigo and thioindigo have been synthesized, purified, and used to sensitize solar cells with spectral response extending across the entire visible region. To improve their photoelectric properties, different molar ratios were investigated, yielding total efficiency of 6.17% at dye 1:dye 2 = 4:6. The effect of the concentration of Cheno antiaggregation agent on the performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells was also considered. The results demonstrate that higher conversion efficiency ( η = 6.82%) was achieved with 10 × 10-3 M Cheno. Finally, the performance of cosensitized solar cells was measured at different temperatures between 10°C and 50°C. The results indicated that J sc decreased with increasing temperature, directly affecting the conversion efficiency.

  4. [Experimental study of immune reactivity in Swiss mice due to topical administration of three textile dyes].

    PubMed

    Gavăt, C C; Lupuşoru, R V; Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Lupuşoru, Cătălina Elena

    2010-01-01

    Reactive Red 183, Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Blue 204 (red dye, green dye and blue dye) are three reactive dyes frequently used in textile industry. In some atmospheric conditions ( high temperature, perspiration, pH values, UV/IR radiations), some quantities of these hydrolyzed dyes, could pass from textile clothes directly into the human skin. There were used 4 groups of white Swiss mice (with similar weight and number of both sexes), control group and 3 groups, treated once daily with a retro-auricular application of different reactive dyes. After 14 days of treatment, blood samples were taken from retro-orbitary plexus to assess leukocyte count, phagocytic capacity of peripheral neutrophils, serum opsonic capacity, phagocyte capacity and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages, splenic T lymphocytes with rossetting capacity and spleen cells forming Jerne plaques. The retro-acuricular and latero-cervical nodes were weighted. Red dye did not influence the weight of the studied nodes, but determined statistically significant modifications on non-specific immune system parameters. Blue and grena dyes determined modifications of weight especially of retroauricular nodes. Grena dye determined important effects of non-specific immune system parameters (serum opsonic capacity, phagocyte capacity and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages). The blue dye did not determine a biological response. Red and green dye determined important effects on non-specific immune system parameters.

  5. Degradation of dyes from aqueous solution by Fenton processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Nidheesh, Puthiya Veetil; Gandhimathi, Rajan; Ramesh, Srikrishnaperumal Thanga

    2013-04-01

    Several industries are using dyes as coloring agents. The effluents from these industries are increasingly becoming an environmental problem. The removal of dyes from aqueous solution has a great potential in the field of environmental engineering. This paper reviews the classification, characteristics, and problems of dyes in detail. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods used for dye removal are also analyzed. Among these methods, Fenton process-based advanced oxidation processes are an emerging prospect in the field of dye removal. Fenton processes have been classified and represented as "Fenton circle". This paper analyzes the recent studies on Fenton processes. The studies include analyzing different configurations of reactors used for dye removal, its efficiency, and the effects of various operating parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, H2O2 concentration, initial dye concentration, and temperature of Fenton processes. From the present study, it can be conclude that Fenton processes are very effective and environmentally friendly methods for dye removal.

  6. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    SciTech Connect

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin Mohamed, Norani Muti Zaine, Siti Nur Azella

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  7. Acute toxicity assessment of textile dyes and textile and dye industrial effluents using Daphnia magna bioassay.

    PubMed

    Verma, Y

    2008-08-01

    Aquatic toxicity of textile dyes and textile and dye industrial effluents were evaluated in an acute toxicity study using Daphnia magna as an aquatic experimental animal model. The 48-h EC(50) value for the azo dyes, Remazol Parrot Green was 55.32 mg/L and for Remazol Golden Yellow was 46.84 mg/L. Whereas 48-h EC(50) values for three dye industrial effluents (D1, D2, and D3) were 14.12%, 15.52%, and 29.69%, respectively. Similarly, EC(50) value for three textile mill effluents (T1, T2, and T3) were >100%, 62.97%, and 63.04%, respectively. These results also showed linear relationship with high degree of confidence (r(2)A =A >0.84 to >0.99) between immobility and test concentrations. The ratio of 24 to 48-h EC(50) remains to be in between 1.1 and 1.2. The general criteria of toxicity classification showed that both dyes were minor acutely toxic having 48-h EC(50) in between 10 and 100 mg/L. Of the six textile and dye industrial effluents tested, one was not acutely toxic (48-h EC(50)A >A 100%) and five were minor acutely toxic (48-h EC(50)A >A 14.12-29.69%). The toxicity classification of effluent based on toxic unit (TU) showed that of the six effluents tested five were found toxic (TU = >1) and one was non-toxic (TU = <1). Thus, dye effluents showed highest toxicity and textile effluents lowest toxicity. The study also suggested that the assay with D.A magna was an excellent method for evaluation of aquatic toxicity of dyes and dyes containing industrial effluents.

  8. MRO SOW Daily Script

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest E.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy E.

    2008-01-01

    The MRO SOW daily script (wherein "MRO" signifies "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter" and "SOW" signifies "sequence systems engineer of the week") is a computer program that automates portions of the MRO daily SOW procedure, which includes checking file-system sizes and automated sequence processor (ASP) log files. The MRO SOW daily script effects clear reporting of (1) the status of, and requirements imposed on, the file system and (2) the ASP log files.

  9. Dye Tracing Of Flow On Forebody Of Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Richwind, David M.; Banks, Daniel W.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which flows over forebody of F-18 airplane visualized by emitting liquid containing dye from orifices on forebody. In this method, liquid flows along body and evaporates, leaving behind lines of dye marking streamlines and photographed after test flight. Results similar to those of wind-tunnel oil flows.

  10. Artificial neural network (ANN) method for modeling of sunset yellow dye adsorption using zinc oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon: Kinetic and isotherm study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, M; Ghaedi, M; Zinali, A; Ghaedi, A M; Habibi, M H

    2015-01-05

    In this research, ZnO nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NPs-AC) was synthesized simply by a low cost and nontoxic procedure. The characterization and identification have been completed by different techniques such as SEM and XRD analysis. A three layer artificial neural network (ANN) model is applicable for accurate prediction of dye removal percentage from aqueous solution by ZnO-NRs-AC following conduction of 270 experimental data. The network was trained using the obtained experimental data at optimum pH with different ZnO-NRs-AC amount (0.005-0.015 g) and 5-40 mg/L of sunset yellow dye over contact time of 0.5-30 min. The ANN model was applied for prediction of the removal percentage of present systems with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) in the hidden layer with 6 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0008 and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.998 were found for prediction and modeling of SY removal. The influence of parameters including adsorbent amount, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time on sunset yellow (SY) removal percentage were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Optimal conditions were set as follows: pH, 2.0; 10 min contact time; an adsorbent dose of 0.015 g. Equilibrium data fitted truly with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 142.85 mg/g for 0.005 g adsorbent. The adsorption of sunset yellow followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation.

  11. Artificial neural network (ANN) method for modeling of sunset yellow dye adsorption using zinc oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon: Kinetic and isotherm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghsoudi, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Zinali, A.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Habibi, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, ZnO nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NPs-AC) was synthesized simply by a low cost and nontoxic procedure. The characterization and identification have been completed by different techniques such as SEM and XRD analysis. A three layer artificial neural network (ANN) model is applicable for accurate prediction of dye removal percentage from aqueous solution by ZnO-NRs-AC following conduction of 270 experimental data. The network was trained using the obtained experimental data at optimum pH with different ZnO-NRs-AC amount (0.005-0.015 g) and 5-40 mg/L of sunset yellow dye over contact time of 0.5-30 min. The ANN model was applied for prediction of the removal percentage of present systems with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) in the hidden layer with 6 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0008 and coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998 were found for prediction and modeling of SY removal. The influence of parameters including adsorbent amount, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time on sunset yellow (SY) removal percentage were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Optimal conditions were set as follows: pH, 2.0; 10 min contact time; an adsorbent dose of 0.015 g. Equilibrium data fitted truly with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 142.85 mg/g for 0.005 g adsorbent. The adsorption of sunset yellow followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation.

  12. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure with patent V blue dye in 153 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC): is it an accurate staging method?

    PubMed

    Rubello, D; Nanni, C; Merante Boschin, I; Toniato, A; Piotto, A; Rampin, L; Mariani, G; Al-Nahhas, A; Pelizzo, M R

    2006-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping performed by intratumoral injection of blue dye in a large series of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). 153 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. All patients had a preoperative cytological diagnosis of PTC, and none had clinical or ultrasonographic (US) evidence of nodal involvement. At surgery, vital patent V blue dye was injected into the malignant thyroid nodule. Subsequently, total thyroidectomy, central compartment (CC) node dissection, and median inferior jugulocarotid node dissection of laterocervical compartment, ipsilateral to the primary tumour, were performed. The excised thyroid, the blue-positive SLN and blue-negative lymph nodes were sent for frozen section and definitive histophatologic analysis. At surgery, blue-positive SLN were found in 107/153 patients (69.9%), of whom 36 (33.6%) had micrometastasis in SLN; moreover, in 13 of these 36 patients (36.1%), other nodes were found to be metastatic. In the remaining 71/107 blue-positive SLN patients, both the SLN itself and the other removed nodes were found negative for the presence of metastatic disease. In 4 cases, a normal parathyroid gland and in 3 cases fibro-adipous tissue were blue-stained and mistakenly removed as SLN (7 false positive results). On the other hand, SLN was blue-negative in 46/153 patients (30.1%), of whom 7 patients (15.2%) had micrometastases in blue-negative lymph nodes. On the basis of these data, the blue dye procedure for SLN detection appears inappropriate as a standard of care in PTC due to a relatively high number of false negative and false positive results.

  13. Laser dye technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  14. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  16. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  17. A Global Perspective on the History, Use, and Identification of Synthetic Food Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Vinita; McKone, Harold T.; Markow, Peter G.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of the artificial coloration of foods, a discussion of the worldwide use of synthetic food dyes, and methods for separating and identifying 14 dyes in common use globally. The United States Food and Drug Administration presently has certified seven synthetic dyes for use in foods. An additional seven synthetic…

  18. Preparation of certain m-aminophenols and the use thereof for preparation of laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.

    1986-01-01

    Methods are provided for making certain m-aminophenols using a sulfonation/alkali fusion procedure. The aminophenols are key intermediates in the synthesis of dyes, particularly efficient, stable dyes for laser application. Preparations of some rhodamine and phenoxazone dyes from the m-aminophenols are described.

  19. Preparation of certain m-aminophenols and the use thereof for preparation of laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.

    1983-12-29

    Methods are provided for making certain m-aminophenols using a sulfonation/alkali fusion procedure. The aminophenols are key intermediates in the synthesis of dyes, particularly efficient, stable dyes for laser application. Preparations of some rhodamine and phenoxazone dyes from the m-aminophenols are described.

  20. A Global Perspective on the History, Use, and Identification of Synthetic Food Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Vinita; McKone, Harold T.; Markow, Peter G.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of the artificial coloration of foods, a discussion of the worldwide use of synthetic food dyes, and methods for separating and identifying 14 dyes in common use globally. The United States Food and Drug Administration presently has certified seven synthetic dyes for use in foods. An additional seven synthetic…

  1. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  2. Highly efficient nanocrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by a novel method and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Lal; Kushwaha, Suman

    2012-11-01

    Nanostructured ZnO aggregates are synthesized under controlled conditions using zinc acetate dihydrate and 1-butanol as the starting materials and triethylamine as precipitating agent. Thin films were formed by a doctor-blade technique. The phase and morphology were investigated by using SEM and XRD. These films, derivatized by N719 dye, (Bu4N)2[Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2], were used to construct sandwich-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and their photoelectrochemical characteristics were determined. The photocurrent, photovoltage and power conversion efficiency characteristics for the DSSCs were measured under illumination by light of varied irradiance power. With a typical cell, V OC=0.518 V, J SC=11.1 mA cm-2, fill factor (FF)=0.50, overall conversion efficiency ( η)=0.69 % and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE)=35 % were achieved under full light illumination (430 mW cm-2) and V OC=0.516 V, J SC=8.72 mA cm-2, fill factor 0.54 and overall conversion efficiency η=0.64 % were achieved under visible light illumination (380 mW cm-2). With the use of a thin ZnO film prepared during the present work, improved results have been achieved than many of the earlier reported ones. The good structural quality (crystallinity, densely packed spherical grains, lack of voids, nanometer-size crystallites etc.) of our thin films is mainly responsible for their better photoactivity.

  3. Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

    2006-01-01

    Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Retrieving air humidity, global solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration from daily temperatures: development and validation of new methods for Mexico. Part II: radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobit, P.; López Pérez, L.; Lhomme, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    We propose a new model to estimate daily global radiation from daily temperature range measurements. This model combines that of Majumdar et al. (Sol Energy 13(4):383-394, 1972) to estimate clear sky radiation with a Gompertz function to estimate the relation between temperature range and cloud transmittance. Model parameters are estimated from historical weather data: maximum and minimum temperatures and, if available, relative humidity; no other calibration is required. The model was parametrized and validated using 788 weather stations in Mexico. When calibrated using historical humidity data, daily global radiation was estimated with a mean root mean square error of 3.06 MJ m-2 day-1. The model performed well in all situations, except for a few stations around the Gulf of Mexico and in mountain areas. When using estimated humidity, the root mean square error of prediction was only slightly degraded (3.07 MJ m-2 day-1). Possible theoretical basis and applicability of this model to other environments are discussed.

  5. Spectrally resolved visualization of fluorescent dyes permeating into skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Ulf; Bergmann, Thorsten; Beer, Sebastian; Burg, Jan Michael; Schmidts, Thomas; Runkel, Frank; Fiebich, Martin

    2012-03-01

    We present a spectrally resolved confocal imaging approach to qualitatively asses the overall uptake and the penetration depth of fluorescent dyes into biological tissue. We use a confocal microscope with a spectral resolution of 5 nm to measure porcine skin tissue after performing a Franz-Diffusion experiment with a submicron emulsion enriched with the fluorescent dye Nile Red. The evaluation uses linear unmixing of the dye and the tissue autofluorescence spectra. The results are combined with a manual segmentation of the skin's epidermis and dermis layers to assess the penetration behavior additionally to the overall uptake. The diffusion experiments, performed for 3h and 24h, show a 3-fold increased dye uptake in the epidermis and dermis for the 24h samples. As the method is based on spectral information it does not face the problem of superimposed dye and tissue spectra and therefore is more precise compared to intensity based evaluation methods.

  6. Laser dye structures and synonyms

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, J.M.

    1980-10-15

    Laser dyes are organic chemicals whose systematic names are lengthy and confusing. Other names: some jargon, some trade: have come into everyday use, but there is no consistency, and sometimes reserch workers will have dyes from different suppliers that are identical in structure although different in name. This paper tabulates laser dyes by a characteristic identification number.

  7. Expansion of the Scope of AOAC First Action Method 2012.25--Single-Laboratory Validation of Triphenylmethane Dye and Leuco Metabolite Analysis in Shrimp, Tilapia, Catfish, and Salmon by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Wendy C; Casey, Christine R; Schneider, Marilyn J; Turnipseed, Sherri B

    2015-01-01

    Prior to conducting a collaborative study of AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood, a single-laboratory validation of method 2012.25 was performed to expand the scope of the method to other seafood matrixes including salmon, catfish, tilapia, and shrimp. The validation included the analysis of fortified and incurred residues over multiple weeks to assess analyte stability in matrix at -80°C, a comparison of calibration methods over the range 0.25 to 4 μg/kg, study of matrix effects for analyte quantification, and qualitative identification of targeted analytes. Method accuracy ranged from 88 to 112% with 13% RSD or less for samples fortified at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μg/kg. Analyte identification and determination limits were determined by procedures recommended both by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission. Method detection limits and decision limits ranged from 0.05 to 0.24 μg/kg and 0.08 to 0.54 μg/kg, respectively. AOAC First Action Method 2012.25 with an extracted matrix calibration curve and internal standard correction is suitable for the determination of triphenylmethane dyes and leuco metabolites in salmon, catfish, tilapia, and shrimp by LC-MS/MS at a residue determination level of 0.5 μg/kg or below.

  8. Superior Adsorption and Regenerable Dye Adsorbent Based on Flower-Like Molybdenum Disulfide Nanostructure

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sancan; Liu, Kerui; Hu, Linfeng; Teng, Feng; Yu, Pingping; Zhu, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    Herein we report superior dye-adsorption performance for flower-like nanostructure composed of two dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets by a facile hydrothermal method, more prominent adsorption of cationic dye compared with anodic dye indicates the dye adsorption performance strongly depends on surface charge of MoS2 nanosheets. The adsorption mechanism of dye is analyzed, the kinetic data of dye adsorption fit well with the pseudo-second-order model, meanwhile adsorption capability at different equilibrium concentrations follows Langmuir model, indicating the favorability and feasibility of dye adsorption. The regenerable property for MoS2 with full adsorption of dye molecules by using alkaline solution were demonstrated, showing the feasibility of reuse for the MoS2, which is promising in its practical water treatment application. PMID:28272411

  9. Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium acting on wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yun; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2002-01-01

    Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium in both their single form and their combined form on wheat was studied using the experimental method of seed and root exposure. The single-factor exposure indicated that the inhibitory rate of wheat root elongation was significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of the dye in the cultural solution, although seed germination of wheat was not sensitive to the dye. The toxicity of cadmium was greatly higher than that of the dye, but low concentration cadmium (< 40 mg/L) could promote the germination of wheat seed. Interactive effects of the dye and cadmium on wheat were complicated. There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory rate of seed germination and the concentrations of the dye and cadmium. Low concentration cadmium could strengthen the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation. On the contrary, high concentration cadmium could weaken the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation.

  10. Superior Adsorption and Regenerable Dye Adsorbent Based on Flower-Like Molybdenum Disulfide Nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sancan; Liu, Kerui; Hu, Linfeng; Teng, Feng; Yu, Pingping; Zhu, Yufang

    2017-03-01

    Herein we report superior dye-adsorption performance for flower-like nanostructure composed of two dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets by a facile hydrothermal method, more prominent adsorption of cationic dye compared with anodic dye indicates the dye adsorption performance strongly depends on surface charge of MoS2 nanosheets. The adsorption mechanism of dye is analyzed, the kinetic data of dye adsorption fit well with the pseudo-second-order model, meanwhile adsorption capability at different equilibrium concentrations follows Langmuir model, indicating the favorability and feasibility of dye adsorption. The regenerable property for MoS2 with full adsorption of dye molecules by using alkaline solution were demonstrated, showing the feasibility of reuse for the MoS2, which is promising in its practical water treatment application.

  11. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  12. [Vital dyes in chromovitrectomy].

    PubMed

    Dib, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchelle; Maia, Maurício; Meyer, Carsten H; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Furlani, Bruno de Albuquerque; Costa, Elaine de Paula Fiod; Farah, Michel Eid

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. A large body of published research has recently addressed the toxicity profile of indocyanine green for chromovitrectomy. Experimental data demonstrate dose-dependent toxicity of indocyanine green to various retinal cells. Newer generation vital dyes for chromovitrectomy include trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein, bromophenol blue, fluorometholone acetate and brilliant blue. Novel instruments may enable a selective painting of preretinal tissues during chromovitrectomy. This review suggests that the field of chromovitrectomy represents an expanding area of research. The first line agents for internal limiting membrane staining in chromovitrectomy are indocyanine green, infracyanine green, and brilliant blue. Patent blue, bromophenol blue and trypan blue arose as outstanding biostains for visualization of epiretinal membranes. Novel dyes available for chromovitrectomy deserve further investigation.

  13. Vital dyes for chromovitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Maia, Maurício; Meyer, Carsten H; Penha, Fernando M; Dib, Eduardo; Farah, Michel E

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this article is to present the current state-of-the-art in regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications, and complications in chromovitrectomy. A large body of published research has recently addressed the toxicity profile of indocyanine green for chromovitrectomy. Experimental data demonstrate dose-dependent toxicity of indocyanine green to various retinal cells. Newer generation vital dyes for chromovitrectomy include trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein, bromophenol blue, fluorometholone acetate and brilliant blue. Novel instruments may enable a selective painting of preretinal tissues during chromovitrectomy. This review suggests that the field of chromovitrectomy represents an expanding area of research. The first line agents for internal limiting membrane staining in chromovitrectomy are indocyanine green, infracyanine green, and brilliant blue. Patent blue, bromophenol blue and trypan blue arose as outstanding biostains for visualization of epiretinal membranes. Novel dyes available for chromovitrectomy deserve further investigation.

  14. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  15. Tips for Daily Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips and Gadgets for Daily Activities Dressing Tips Shopping Tips Modifying the Bathroom Driving After Stroke Medication ... and resources. Find a group in your area . Online Support If there is not a support group ...

  16. Textile dye degradation using nano zero valent iron: A review.

    PubMed

    Raman, Chandra Devi; Kanmani, S

    2016-07-15

    Water soluble unfixed dyes and inorganic salts are the major pollutants in textile dyeing industry wastewater. Existing treatment methods fail to degrade textile dyes and have limitations too. The inadequate treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a major concern when effluent is directly discharged into the nearby environment. Long term disposal threatens the environment, which needs reclamation. This article reviews the current knowledge of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) technique in the degradation of textile dyes. The application of nZVI on textile dye degradation is receiving great attention in the recent years because nZVI particles are highly reactive towards the pollutant, less toxic, and economical. The nZVI particles aggregate quickly with respect to time and the addition of supports such as resin, nickel, zinc, bentonite, biopolymer, kaolin, rectorite, nickel-montmorillonite, bamboo, cellulose, biochar, graphene, and clinoptilolite enhanced the stability of iron nanoparticles. Inclusion of supports may in turn introduce additional toxic pollutants, hence green supports are recommended. The majority of investigations concluded dye color removal as textile dye compound removal, which is not factual. Very few studies monitored the removal of total organic carbon and observed the products formed. The results revealed that partial mineralization of the textile dye compound was achieved. Instead of stand alone technique, nZVI can be integrated with other suitable technique to achieve complete degradation of textile dye and also to treat multiple pollutants in the real textile dyeing wastewater. It is highly recommended to perform more bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to apply this technique to the textile effluent contaminated sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A new method for application of the water-soluble dye SPADNS in a carbon paste electrode for determination of trace amounts of copper.

    PubMed

    Rohani, Tahereh; Taher, Mohammad Alu

    2008-01-01

    2-(P-sulfophenylazo)-1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-naphthalene disulfate (SPADNS) was adsorbed on surfactant modified zeolite type A by electrostatic interaction in the aqueous phase. The dye was strongly retained and not easily leached from the surfactant-modified zeolite matrix. This compound was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of trace amounts of copper. The calibration plot was linear over the copper concentration range 2.0-800 microg/L. The detection limit was found to be 0.4 microg/L Cu(II), and for 5 successive determinations of 50 and 150 microg/L Cu(II) the relative standard deviations were 1.6 and 1.2%, respectively. The modified electrode prepared in this study could be used for the determination of Cu(II) in water samples and human hair with good results.

  18. Photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes

    SciTech Connect

    von Trebra, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Coumarin laser dyes are widely used in dye lasers for the generation of tunable laser light in the blue-green spectral region. As in the case with most laser dyes, coumarin dyes undergo photochemical reactions that interfere with simulated emission and result in loss of laser power output. This thesis describes the photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and some attempts to extend the useful lifetime of several dyes in dye lasers. Irradiation of Coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-coumarin (15), in oxygen-free ethanol solution results in the inefficient dye destruction. Products formed absorb light at the lasing wavelength of the dye, interfere with stimulated emission, and decrease the power output of the dye laser. Addition of the sulfur free radical chain transfer agents ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide retard the rate of formation of photoproducts absorbing at the lasing wavelengths. Deuterium incorporation, from the irradiation of Coumarin 311 in the presence of ethanethiol-S-d and ethyl disulfide, indicates that photoproducts most likely result from the reactions of free radicals which are generated in a bimolecular reaction between excited Coumarin 311 and ground state Coumarin 311. Ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide are shown to decrease the rate of power loss from a Coumarin 1 (3) dye laser. The naturally occurring amino acid cysteine acts similarly.

  19. Analysis of a resistance-energy balance method for estimating daily evaporation from wheat plots using one-time-of-day infrared temperature observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Idso, S. B.; Reginato, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate estimates of evaporation over field-scale or larger areas are needed in hydrologic studies, irrigation scheduling, and meteorology. Remotely sensed surface temperature might be used in a model to calculate evaporation. A resistance-energy balance model, which combines an energy balance equation, the Penman-Monteith (1981) evaporation equation, and van den Honert's (1948) equation for water extraction by plant roots, is analyzed for estimating daily evaporation from wheat using postnoon canopy temperature measurements. Additional data requirements are half-hourly averages of solar radiation, air and dew point temperatures, and wind speed, along with reasonable estimates of canopy emissivity, albedo, height, and leaf area index. Evaporation fluxes were measured in the field by precision weighing lysimeters for well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Errors in computed daily evaporation were generally less than 10 percent, while errors in cumulative evaporation for 10 clear sky days were less than 5 percent for both well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Some results from sensitivity analysis of the model are also given.

  20. Wastewater treatment: Dye and pigment industry. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of wastewater containing dyes and pigments. The citations discuss the of dyes and pigments in wastewater treatment systems, biodegradation of dyes, absorption and adsorption processes to remove dyes from wastewater, environmental effects from the disposal of dye-containing wastes, and methods of analysis for dyes in waste streams. Treatment methods such as ozonation, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal filtration, activated sludge, electrochemical treatments, thermal treatments, simple filtration, and absorption media are included. (Contains a minimum of 112 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Patterned dye structures limit reabsorption in luminescent solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Shufen; Broer, Dirk J; Bastiaansen, Cees W; Debije, Michael G

    2010-11-08

    This work describes a method for limiting internal losses of a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) due to reabsorption through patterning the fluorescent dye doped coating of the LSC. By engineering the dye coating into regular line patterns with fill factors ranging from 20 - 80%, the surface coverage of the dye molecules were reduced, thereby decreasing the probability of the re-emitted light encountering another dye molecule and the probability of reabsorption. Two types of fluorescent dyes with different quantum yields were used to examine the effects of patterning on LSC performance. The effect of various dimension and geometry of the patterns on the efficiency and edge emission of LSC are presented and analyzed.

  2. Characterization of mineral and coal surfaces by adsorption of dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Dawson, M.R.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic method is described for dye adsorption measurements to characterize mineral and coal surfaces for the evaluation of coal cleaning processes. Samples of increasing mineral content were prepared by density separation of a narrowly sized (300 to 425 /mu/m) wet-sieved coal. The rates and extents of the adsorption of ionic dyes on Illinois No. 6 coal were observed to be highly dependent on mineral content and particle size of ground coal samples. A linear correlation was observed between the adsorbed quantity of dye and the total mineral content of coal samples. Dry-sieved coals were found to be coated by fine material of high mineral ash content which adsorbed greater than 20 times more methylene blue per gram than wet-sieved particles. In preliminary experiments with methylene blue dye, clay was found to adsorb significantly more dye than quartz, pyrite, calcite or low-ash specific gravity fractions of coal.

  3. Environment Sensing Merocyanine Dyes for Live Cell Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    MacNevin, Christopher J.; Gremyachinskiy, Dmitriy; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Li, Li; Rougie, Marie; Davis, Tamara T.; Hahn, Klaus M.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent biosensors based on environmentally sensitive dyes enable visualization and quantification of endogenous protein activation within living cells. Merocyanine dyes are especially useful for live cell imaging applications as they are extraordinarily bright, have long wavelengths of excitation and emission, and can exhibit readily detectable fluorescence changes in response to environment. We sought to systematically examine the effects of structural features on key photophysical properties, including dye brightness, environmental responsiveness, and photostability, through the synthesis of a library of 25 merocyanine dyes, derived from combinatorial reaction of 5 donor and 5 acceptor heterocycles. Four of these dyes showed optimal properties for specific imaging applications and were subsequently prepared with reactive side chains and enhanced aqueous solubility using a one-pot synthetic method. The new dyes were then applied within a biosensor design for Cdc42 activation, where dye mero60 showed a remarkable 1470% increase in fluorescence intensity on binding activated Cdc42 in vitro. The dye-based biosensors were used to report activation of endogenous Cdc42 in living cells. PMID:23297747

  4. Spectroscopic properties of fluorescein and rhodamine dyes attached to DNA.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Roberto F; Parkhurst, Lawrence J

    2010-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic properties of fluorescein, x-rhodamine, tetramethyl-rhodamine, attached to single strand, duplex DNA, and to the digestion products by DNAse I. The properties reported include: molar absorptivity, quantum yield, absorbance and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence lifetime, intrinsic lifetime (tau0), static quenching (S) and the Förster critical distances (R0) between fluorescein and x-rhodamine or tetramethyl-rhodamine (acceptors). These spectroscopic properties depend strongly on the local dye environment. Fluorescein was studied: (1) attached to biotin (BF), (2) BF bound to avidin; and attached to two positions in DNA. X-rhodamine and tetramethyl-rhodamine were studied as free dyes and attached at the 5'-end of DNA. We propose a general method to determine the molar absorptivity and tau0 of a dye attached to DNA based on the reaction of a biotinylated and dye-labeled oligomer with standardized avidin. The molar absorptivity of a second dye attached to a DNA duplex can be obtained by comparing spectra of doubly and singly labeled sequences. S, arising from dye-DNA interactions can then be determined. R0 for free and attached dyes showed differences from 1.1 to 4.2 A. We present evidence for the direct interaction of dyes attached to the termini of various single-stranded DNA sequences.

  5. Are allergenic disperse dyes used for dyeing textiles?

    PubMed

    Malinauskiene, Laura; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Ryberg, Kristina; Isaksson, Marléne

    2012-09-01

    There are no data showing that disperse dyes, used to patch test patients, are currently being used for dyeing synthetic garments. It is unknown whether disperse dyes, which are currently routinely patch tested, are in fact present in synthetic textiles on the market. To determine whether eight disperse dyes, hitherto most widely cited as allergenic, are still used in textiles that are sold in various countries. Textiles from 13 countries in Europe, Asia and the United States were analysed. The procedure used for dye identification was thin-layer chromatography. When there were matching spots from the textile extract and reference dye, high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. Of 121 analysed items, three showed positive results for some of the investigated disperse dyes. Four dyes in these items could be detected and confirmed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography. A pair of light brown ladies' tights manufactured and purchased in Italy contained Disperse Yellow 3, Disperse Blue 124, and Disperse Blue 106, and a set of black bra and panties purchased in India contained Disperse Orange 1. The eight disperse dyes that are most frequently incriminated in textile dye dermatitis are very rarely used in textiles nowadays. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. FY 1980 Report on Dye Laser Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    by block number) Dye Lasers Laser Dyes Tunable Lasers Photodegradation Rhodamine Dyes 20. ABSTRACT (Continue n resld* it necesiry and Identify by block...limited usefulness as a portable military device because of the photodegradation of the dye solution. Although there have been state-of-the-art reviews...on laser dyes , 1𔃼 the photodegradation of laser dyes ,3 and dye lasers, 4- 6 only authors from, or funded by, military organizations have given strict

  7. Occupational dermal exposure to permanent hair dyes among hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Lind, Marie-Louise; Boman, Anders; Sollenberg, Jan; Johnsson, Stina; Hagelthorn, Gunnel; Meding, Birgitta

    2005-08-01

    Skin exposure to permanent hair dye compounds was assessed in 33 hairdressers using a previously evaluated hand rinse method. Hand rinse samples were collected from each hand before the start of hair dyeing, after application of the dye and after cutting the newly-dyed hair. Sixteen of the hairdressers did not use gloves during dye application, and none used gloves while cutting the dyed hair. The samples were analysed for pertinent aromatic amines and resorcinol (RES) using an HPLC method. 10 of 54 hair dye mixtures contained 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD), 40 toluene-2,5-diaminesulphate (TDS), and 44 RES. After application of the hair dye, PPD was found in samples from 4 hairdressers, TDS in 12 and RES in 21. PPD was found in samples from 3 of the 17 hairdressers that used gloves during application of the hair dye, TDS in 5 and RES in 11. In the group that did not use gloves during the application of hair dye (n = 16) PPD was found in samples from 1 hairdresser, TDS in 7 and RES in 11. After cutting the dyed hair, PPD was found in samples from 5 hairdressers, TDS in 14 and RES in 20. Analysis of samples of newly-dyed hair cuttings revealed the presence of aromatic amines and/or RES in 11/12 samples. Our conclusion is that hairdressers' skin is exposed to allergenic compounds during hair dyeing. Exposure occurs from dye application, from cutting newly-dyed hair and from background exposure. The exposure loadings are in the level, where there is a risk of sensitization and/or elicitation of contact allergy (i.e. for PPD 22-939 nmol per hand). The glove use observed in this study was often improper, and was insufficient to prevent exposure. To reduce exposure, improved skin protection and work routines are important.

  8. Ultrasonic dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with natural dye. Part 1: cationization of cotton using Solfix E.

    PubMed

    Kamel, M M; El Zawahry, M M; Ahmed, N S E; Abdelghaffar, F

    2009-02-01

    The dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with Solfix E using colouring matter extracted from Cochineal dye has been studied using both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. Factors affecting dye extraction such as ultrasound power, particle size, extraction temperature and time were studied. The results indicated that the extraction by ultrasound at 300 W was more effective at lower temperature and time than conventional extraction. The effect of various factors of dye bath such as pH, salt concentration, ultrasound power, dyeing time and temperature were investigated. The colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasound than with conventional techniques. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the morphological and X-ray analyzes were measured for cationized cotton fabrics dyed with both conventional and ultrasound methods, thus showing the sonicator efficiency.

  9. The extraction and absorption study of natural dye from Areca catechu for dye sensitized solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najm, Asmaa Soheil; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Ludin, Norasikin A.

    2017-05-01

    Natural dye from local plant has a potential to replace the synthetic dye due to the lower environmental impact and simple processing method. This study focus on the properties of natural dye (Betalain) from Areca catechu, extracted using different solvents, namely hexane, ethanol, acetonitrile, and methanol. Different extracting solvent were used to observe the absorption spectra by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) were used to characterize the dye's active components at (4000 - 650) cm-1. From the FTIR result, the CO=OH which corresponds to the carboxylic group in betalain dye is observed. Hexane was appeared to be the best solvents according to the highest absorbance obtained from betalain. The optimum pH and temperature for extraction were also identified at pH 4.5 and 65 °C. At these conditions, the absorbance was the highest.

  10. An experimental research about dye-doped distributed feedback laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhigang; Fan, Rongwei; Chen, Zhaodong; Xu, Xinrui; Chen, Deying

    2016-10-01

    Dye-doped distributed feedback (DFB) structure is an essential structure for DFB laser. This paper presents an operative method to design a kind of dye-doped distributed feedback laser based on dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) matrix. The results show that we have processed DFB structure of 10μm period, with a relatively low period deviation of less than 1%. Furthermore, we gain output characteristics of DFB structure through experimental methods, which show good characteristics for wide tuning range, narrow linewidth laser output production.

  11. Two stage biological treatment of a diazo reactive textile dye and the fate of the dye metabolites.

    PubMed

    Libra, Judy A; Borchert, Maren; Vigelahn, Lothar; Storm, Thomas

    2004-07-01

    A two stage anaerobic/aerobic bacterial process was used to decolorize and partially mineralize a reactive vinyl sulfone diazo dye C.I. Reactive Black 5 (RB5) in a synthetic wastewater. Since the anchor group of reactive dyes reacts during the dyeing process, the effect the degree of hydrolysis of the vinyl sulfone dye had on decolorization, mineralization and toxicity in each stage was investigated. An overall color removal of approximately 65% was found for both the fully and partially hydrolyzed dye. Partial mineralization of the fully hydrolyzed RB5 was achieved in the two stage rotating disc reactors. While the anchor group metabolite p-aminobenzene-2-hydroxyethylsulfonic acid (p-ABHES) was mineralized, an oxidized form of the center metabolite (1,2-ketimino-7-amino-8-hydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid) remained in the aerobic stage effluent, causing the effluent to be colored although no RB5 was present. Partially hydrolyzed dye in the influent with vinyl forms of the anchor group caused cessation of biogas production and a reduction in decolorization efficiency in the anaerobic stage. No evidence for mineralization of the partially hydrolyzed dye or its metabolites was found. A method for evaluating dye mineralization using lumped parameters is presented.

  12. Comparison of Alexa Fluor and CyDye for practical DNA microarray use.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Joanne L; Peeva, Violet K; deSilva, Christopher J S; Lynch, Jessica L; Swanson, Nigel R

    2007-07-01

    Microarrays are a powerful tool for comparison and understanding of gene expression levels in healthy and diseased states. The method relies upon the assumption that signals from microarray features are a reflection of relative gene expression levels of the cell types under investigation. It has previously been reported that the classical fluorescent dyes used for microarray technology, Cy3 and Cy5, are not ideal due to the decreased stability and fluorescence intensity of the Cy5 dye relative to the Cy3, such that dye bias is an accepted phenomena necessitating dye swap experimental protocols and analysis of differential dye affects. The incentive to find new fluorophores is based on alleviating the problem of dye bias through synonymous performance between counterpart dyes. Alexa Fluor 555 and Alexa Fluor 647 are increasingly promoted as replacements for CyDye in microarray experiments. Performance relates to the molecular and steric similarities, which will vary for each new pair of dyes as well as the spectral integrity for the specific application required. Comparative analysis of the performance of these two competitive dye pairs in practical microarray applications is warranted towards this end. The findings of our study showed that both dye pairs were comparable but that conventional CyDye resulted in significantly higher signal intensities (P < 0.05) and signal minus background levels (P < 0.05) with no significant difference in background values (P > 0.05). This translated to greater levels of differential gene expression with CyDye than with the Alexa Fluor counterparts. However, CyDye fluorophores and in particular Cy5, were found to be less photostable over time and following repeated scans in microarray experiments. These results suggest that precautions against potential dye affects will continue to be necessary and that no one dye pair negates this need.

  13. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) by addition of synthetic dye into natural dye (anthocyanin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2017-02-01

    This article reported combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) applications. This study aims was to improve the performance of DSSC by addition of synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye. Anthocyanin dye was extracted from red cabbage and synthetic dye was obtained from N719. We prepared anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at 2 different volume, anthocyanin dye at volume of 10 ml and combination dyes with anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at volume of 8 mL : 2 mL. The DSSCs were designed into sandwich structure on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using TiO2 electrode, carbon electrode, anthocyanin and synthetic dyes, and redox electrolyte. The absorption wavelength of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 nm – 580 nm, the combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes can increase the absorbance peak only. The IPCE characteristic with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage and combination dyes resulted quantum efficiency of 0.081% and 0.092% at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. The DSSC by anthocyanin dye of red cabbage achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.024%, while the DSSC by combination dyes achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.054%, combination dyes by addition synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye enhanced the conversion efficiency up to 125%.

  14. A simple 2-directional high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of curcumin, metanil yellow, and sudan dyes in turmeric, chili, and curry powders.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sumita; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2008-01-01

    A method using simple extraction and 2-directional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was developed for the simultaneous determination of curcumin, metanil yellow, and sudan dyes in turmeric, chili, and various mixed curry powder formulations. The method offers resolution (Rf) of turmeric pigments, namely, curcumin (0.77), demethoxycurcumin (0.69), bis(demethoxy)curcumin (0.61), and the synthetic dye metanil yellow (0.05) by the first-directional mobile phase, chloroform-methanol (9 + 1, v/v). The resolution (Rf) of sudan I (0.30) and sudan IV (0.23) was achieved by the second-directional mobile phase, toluene-hexane-acetic acid (50 + 50 + 1, v/v/v). Natural pigments of both turmeric and chili showed no interference in the detection and quantification of synthetic colors. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for curcumin, metanil yellow, sudan I, and sudan IV were 17.39, 42.90, 15.45, and 7.01 and 52.71,130.0, 46.80, and 21.24 ng/spot, respectively. Analysis of a few market samples showed the presence of metanil yellow (1.5-4.6 mg/g), sudan I (4.8-12.1 mg/g), and sudan IV (0.9-2.0 mg/g) in loose turmeric and chili samples, whereas the curcumin content in turmeric and mixed curry powder samples ranged from 6.5 to 36.4 and from 0.3 to 1.9 mg/g, respectively. The method is relatively simple, offers reasonable sensitivity, and can be used to screen a large number of samples.

  15. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  16. Azacoumarin dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

  17. Fiberized fluorescent dye microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladev, Veselin; Eftimov, Tinko

    2013-03-01

    In the present work we study the effect of the length of fluorescent dye-filled micro-capillaries on the fluorescence spectra. Two types of micro-capillaries have been studied: a 100 μm inner diameter fused silica capillary with a transparent coating and one of the holes of a fiber optic glass ferrule with 125 μm inner diameter. The tubes were filled with solutions of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol and then in glycerin. Experimental data show that the maximum fluorescence and the largest spectral widths are observed for a sample length of about 0.25 mm for the used concentration. This results show that miniature tunable fiberized dye lasers can be developed using available standard micro-and fibre-optic components.

  18. Hydration of cyanin dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolari, Arrigo; Monti, Susanna; Ruini, Alice; Catellani, Alessandra

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the hydration properties of the cyanin dye molecule in the ionic flavylium configuration, through massive classical (force field) and ab initio (Car-Parrinello) molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature. Classical and quantum mechanical results coherently describe the structure of the first solvation shell. We discuss the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the molecule in terms of attractive lateral hydroxyl-water and repulsive carbon π-water interactions. The analysis of the electronic structure shows a net polarization and a molecular orbital redistribution induced by the polar solvent on the intrinsic (gas phase) properties of the dye. Changing the properties of the molecule, the hydration effects should be carefully taken into account in the further interactions of cyanin with the external environment.

  19. Fluorescent indicator dyes for calcium ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsien, Roger Y. (Inventor); Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The present invention discloses a new class of highly fluorescent indicator dyes that are specific for calcium ions. The new fluorescent indicator dyes combine a stilbene-type fluorophore with a tetracarboxylate parent Ca.sup.2+ chelating compound having the octacoordinate pattern of liganding groups characteristic of EGTA and BAPTA. Preferred forms contain extra heterocyclic bridges to reinforce the ethylenic bond of the stilbene and to reduce hydrophobicity. Compared to their widely used predecessor, quin2, the new dyes offer up to thirty-fold brighter fluorescence, major changes in wavelength (not just intensity) upon Ca.sup.2+ binding, slightly lower affinities for Ca.sup.2+, slightly longer wavelengths of excitation, and considerably improved selectivity for Ca.sup.2+ over other divalent cations. These properties, particularly the wavelength sensitivity to Ca.sup.2+, make the dyes useful indicators for many intracellular applications, especially in single cells, adherent cell layers, or bulk tissues. The present invention also discloses an improved method for synthesizing alpha-acyloxyalkyl bromides wherein the bromides so synthesized are free of contaminating bis(1-bromoalkyl)ether. The improved method is exemplified herein in the synthesis of acetoxymethyl bromide, a compound useful in preparing the acetoxymethyl esters disclosed herein as novel Ca.sup.2+ specific fluorescent indicators.

  20. Treatment of direct blending dye wastewater and recycling of dye sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Hui; Li, Ming-Li; Yuan, Yuan

    2012-03-06

    A new sorbent material, barium sulfate-Direct Blending Yellow D-3RNL hybrid (BSD), was synthesized and characterized by various methods. Both the anionic dyes, Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B and Weak Acid Green GS were hardly adsorbed by the BSD material, while the sorption of Ethyl Violet (EV) and Victoria Blue B were extremely obvious. The sorption of cationic dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model, which depended on the electric charge attraction. The saturation amount of EV adsorbed onto the BSD material approached to 39.36 mg/g. The sorption of EV changed little with pH from 3 to 12 while it increased with increasing levels of electrolyte. A dye wastewater sampled from Jinjiang Chemicals was treated, and the color removal rate was more than the COD removal rate. In addition, the cationic dye-BSD sludge was utilized as a colorant fill-in coating. The light stability and thermal stability of the colorant was measured and exhibited good features. This work provided a simple and eco-friendly method for dye wastewater treatment with recycling of waste.

  1. Photodissociation Dye Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    Chemical Properties of Free Radicals 5 C. Criteria for the Selection of Photodissociation Dye Laser Molecules 6 III. EXPERIMENTAL EFFORT AND...nanoseconds. In radicl systems, however, there is evidence both theoretical and experimental, that the first doublet-doublet electronic tra-jitions are...Properties, of Free Radicals Recombination is only one of many possible reaction paths that can occur in a radical system. Because they are characterized

  2. Retrograde loading of nerves, tracts, and spinal roots with fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Blivis, Dvir; O'Donovan, Michael J

    2012-04-19

    Retrograde labeling of neurons is a standard anatomical method(1,2) that has also been used to load calcium and voltage-sensitive dyes into neurons(3-6). Generally, the dyes are applied as solid crystals or by local pressure injection using glass pipettes. However, this can result in dilution of the dye and reduced labeling intensity, particularly when several hours are required for dye diffusion. Here we demonstrate a simple and low-cost technique for introducing fluorescent and ion-sensitive dyes into neurons using a polyethylene suction pipette filled with the dye solution. This method offers a reliable way for maintaining a high concentration of the dye in contact with axons throughout the loading procedure.

  3. Retrograde Loading of Nerves, Tracts, and Spinal Roots with Fluorescent Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Blivis, Dvir; O'Donovan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrograde labeling of neurons is a standard anatomical method1,2 that has also been used to load calcium and voltage-sensitive dyes into neurons3-6. Generally, the dyes are applied as solid crystals or by local pressure injection using glass pipettes. However, this can result in dilution of the dye and reduced labeling intensity, particularly when several hours are required for dye diffusion. Here we demonstrate a simple and low-cost technique for introducing fluorescent and ion-sensitive dyes into neurons using a polyethylene suction pipette filled with the dye solution. This method offers a reliable way for maintaining a high concentration of the dye in contact with axons throughout the loading procedure. PMID:22547001

  4. Fabrication of a dye-doped liquid crystal light shutter by thermal curing of polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Byeong-Hun; Ji, Seong-Min; Kim, Jin-Hun; Huh, Jae-Won; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2017-07-01

    We report a thermal curing method for fabrication of a dye-doped polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) light shutter, which can prevent the decrease in absorption and discoloration of the dye caused by the UV curing process. We found that the measured transmittance in the opaque state of a dye-doped PSLC cell fabricated by thermal curing was approximately 35% lower than that of a dye-doped PSLC cell fabricated by UV curing. Thermal curing can be an alternative approach for fabrication of a dye-doped PSLC light shutter which can be used to provide high visibility of a see-through display.

  5. Deciphering synergistic characteristics of microbial fuel cell-assisted dye decolorization.

    PubMed

    Han, Ke; Yueh, Pei-Lin; Qin, Lian-Jie; Hsueh, Chuan-Chung; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2015-11-01

    This study provided a novel evaluation scheme to quantitatively reveal "synergistic" stimulation of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted dye decolorization for industrial practicability. This work also disclosed why dye decolorization was more electrochemically favorable during simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization (SBG&DD). Quantitative assessment upon stimulating effects of different decolorized metabolites on BG and DD alone was also implemented for conclusive remarks. Apparently, using MFC as the method of dye decontamination could considerably increase ca. 40-70% of electron transfer capabilities for SBG&DD, thereby significantly improving the performance of dye decontamination.

  6. The Pattern of Hair Dyeing in Koreans with Gray Hair

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Choi, Jae Woo; Lee, Jong Hee; Cho, Soyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Hair graying is considered as a part of normal ageing process. Nonetheless, this process raises a significant cosmetic concern, especially among ethnic Korean elderly whose baseline hair color is black. For this reason, Korean elderly dye their hair with frequency despite the risk of dermatologic problems such as allergic contact dermatitis. Objective In this study, the authors investigate the prevalence and pattern of hair dyeing and its relation with scalp diseases in Korea. Methods Six hundred twenty subjects (330 men and 290 women) with graying hair were given a questionnaire survery and underwent a physical examination. Results Of the 620 total, 272 subjects (43.9%) dyed their hair. Hair dyeing was significantly more frequent among women than among men (p<0.001). Subjects from 50 to 69 years of age showed higher prevalence of hair dyeing when compared to either younger or older groups. Subjective self-assessment of the extent of hair graying was associated with increased prevalence of hair dyeing, that is, individuals who feel graying has advanced by more than 20% of the overall hair were much more likely to dye their hair (p<0.001). Hair dyeing did not correlate with either alopecia or scalp disease. Conclusion Our survey has found that the prevalence of hair dyeing is higher among Korean women than men. People in their fifties and sixties and people with more than 20% extent of grayness were more likely to dye their hair than otherwise. Hair dyeing was not associated with any increase in the prevalence of scalp diseases. PMID:24371384

  7. Evaluation of respiratory system in textile-dyeing workers

    PubMed Central

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mojahede; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Rahimian, Masoud; Ghove Nodoushan, Mohamad ali; Jafari Nodoushan, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the presence of many textile and dyeing plants in Iran, we couldn’t find similar studies in this country. Forthermore, considering progress in the dyeing process and engineering controls, assessment of respiratory system is important for these workers. The present study was performed to evaluate the respiratory system in dyeing workers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 101 dyeing workers (all dyeing workers in yazd) and 90 workers without respiratory exposures (control group), were evaluated. A questionnaire was filled for each participant included Venables questionnaire and some other questions about age, work experience, personal or familial history of asthma or atopy, acute and chronic respiratory symptoms; Then spirometry was performed before and after the shift work Results: The frequency of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher among dyeing workers than controls. According to the Venables questionnaire, 11.9% of the dyeing workers suffered from asthma. Means of FVC and FEV1 of pre-shift spirometry were lower than control (p< 0.001). Across-shift spirometry showed significant reduction of FVC (p< 0.001), FEV1 (p< 0.001), FEF25-75% (p= 0.05) and FEF25% (p= 0.007) in dyeing workers compared to the control group. Conclusion: Evaluation of dyeing workers’ respiratory system in this study showed that despite development in dyeing processes and engineering controls, workers in this job show more prevalent acute and chronic symptoms, and across-shift changes in spirometric parameters were significantly higher in this work group than the control group. Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to the control of respiratory exposures in this job. PMID:25664289

  8. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over 3D cubical Co-KIT-6 and nickel decorated graphene by Hummer's method, its application as counter electrode in dye sensitive solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Sunu; Pandurangan, Arumugam

    2016-04-01

    The challenges on carbon nanotubes and graphene are still the subject of many research works due to its unique properties. There are three main methods to synthesis carbon nanotubes in which chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method can use for large scale production. The principle of CVD is the decomposition of various hydrocarbons over transition metal supported catalyst. KIT-6 molecular sieve was used as a support to prepare cobalt catalyst for CVD method using metal impregnation method to produce cobalt loadings of 2, 4 and 6 wt%. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR &TEM. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized on Co-KIT-6 was also characterized by XRD, TGA, SEM & Raman spectra. Graphene was synthesized by Hummers method, which is the most common method for preparing graphene oxide. Graphene oxide was prepared by oxidation of graph