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Sample records for daily performances associations

  1. Perceived ability to perform daily hand activities after stroke and associated factors: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, Elisabeth; Rylander, Lars; Lexell, Jan; Brogårdh, Christina

    2016-11-02

    Despite that disability of the upper extremity is common after stroke, there is limited knowledge how it influences self-perceived ability to perform daily hand activities. The aim of this study was to describe which daily hand activities that persons with mild to moderate impairments of the upper extremity after stroke perceive difficult to perform and to evaluate how several potential factors are associated with the self-perceived performance. Seventy-five persons (72 % male) with mild to moderate impairments of the upper extremity after stroke (4 to 116 months) participated. Self-perceived ability to perform daily hand activities was rated with the ABILHAND Questionnaire. The perceived ability to perform daily hand activities and the potentially associated factors (age, gender, social and vocational situation, affected hand, upper extremity pain, spasticity, grip strength, somatosensation of the hand, manual dexterity, perceived participation and life satisfaction) were evaluated by linear regression models. The activities that were perceived difficult or impossible for a majority of the participants were bimanual tasks that required fine manual dexterity of the more affected hand. The factor that had the strongest association with perceived ability to perform daily hand activities was dexterity (p < 0.001), which together with perceived participation (p = 0.002) explained 48 % of the variance in the final multivariate model. Persons with mild to moderate impairments of the upper extremity after stroke perceive that bimanual activities requiring fine manual dexterity are the most difficult to perform. Dexterity and perceived participation are factors specifically important to consider in the rehabilitation of the upper extremity after stroke in order to improve the ability to use the hands in daily life.

  2. Association between peripheral muscle strength, exercise performance, and physical activity in daily life in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance training of peripheral muscles has been recommended in order to increase muscle strength in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). However, whether peripheral muscle strength is associated with exercise performance (EP) and physical activity in daily life (PADL) in these patients needs to be investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether strength of the quadriceps muscle (QS) is associated with EP and daily PADL in patients with COPD. Methods We studied patients with COPD (GOLD A-D) and measured maximal isometric strength of the left QS. PADL was measured for 7 days with a SenseWear-Pro® accelerometer. EP was quantified by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), the number of stands in the Sit-to-Stand Test (STST), and the handgrip-strength. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine possible associations between QS, PADL and EP. Results In 27 patients with COPD with a mean (SD) FEV1 of 37.6 (17.6)% predicted, QS was associated with 6MWD, STST, and handgrip-strength but not with PADL. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that QS was independently associated with the 6MWD (β = 0.42, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.84, p = 0.019), STST (β = 0.50, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.86, p = 0.014) and with handgrip-strength (β = 0.45, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.84, p = 0.038). Conclusions Peripheral muscle strength may be associated with exercise performance but not with physical activity in daily life. This may be due to the fact that EP tests evaluate patients’ true abilities while PADL accelerometers may not. PMID:25013723

  3. Lactation traits associated with short- and long-term once-daily milking performance in New Zealand crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Davis, S R; Turner, S-A; Obolonkin, V; Tiplady, K; Spelman, R J; Phyn, C V C

    2015-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to establish the relative value of milk yields under twice-daily milking (TDM) as a predictor of yield and yield loss under once-daily milking (ODM), and to understand the role of residual milk and udder storage capacity-related traits in regulating yield and yield loss during ODM. A Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbred herd was established over 2 seasons (years), as 2 individual cohorts on the same farm, managed on a pasture-based system over 4 lactations. Short-term (1-wk) ODM studies, with a starting total of 690 cows, were undertaken in mid- and late-lactation in lactation 2 and in mid-lactation in lactation 3 for each cohort. A 10-wk study of ODM performance began in mid-lactation in lactation 3, whereas lactation 4 was a full-lactation assessment of ODM. In the short-term studies, milk yield under ODM was well predicted (R(2)=0.7 to 0.8 in 5 of 6 studies) by the daily yield under TDM in the week before ODM. Yield loss (kg/d) increased with increasing milk yield and with increasing somatic cell count (SCC), although predictions were relatively poor (R(2)=0.09 to 0.30). Yield loss (%) decreased with increasing TDM yield in 3 of the 6 studies and was positively correlated with SCC during ODM. Nevertheless, ODM yield loss, in absolute or percentage terms, was a poorly repeatable trait in grazing cows. Part of the variation in yield loss percentage (30%) was positively associated with residual milk (%), measured pretrial, during measurement of functional udder capacity in lactation 3. Total production (kg of milk) over the full-lactation ODM study in lactation 4 was correlated with total production in the 10-wk trial in lactation 3 (r=0.72 and 0.63 for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively). Identifying the highest- and lowest-producing 10% of animals during the full lactation of ODM indicated that poor production was associated with high yields of residual milk (measured in lactation 3) and, conversely, high production was

  4. The Associations Between Executive Functions' Capacities, Performance Process Skills, and Dimensions of Participation in Activities of Daily Life Among Children of Elementary School Age.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Limor

    2015-01-01

    Effective executive functions (EFs) are crucial for efficient daily functioning. Daily functioning or involvement in life situations is defined as "participation" (International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health [ICF]; World Health Organization, 2001). Yet associations between them have been inadequately studied for children. The present study aimed to explore the associations between EFs and child participation. Participants were 60 typically developing children aged 6 to 9 years old and their parents. The children were individually evaluated using five EF cognitive tests. The parents completed three questionnaires: the Children Participation Questionnaire, the Process Skills (the observed executive performance) Questionnaire, and the Environmental Restrictions Questionnaire. Most of the EF scores were associated with the child's age. A unique contribution of executive capacities was found for the "independence" aspect of child participation, though the quantum of contribution was limited compared with the other predictors' process skills and environmental restrictions. In the context of child participation, EFs should be studied through multivariate analysis, as otherwise, the unique contribution of executive capacities measured by neuropsychological cognitive tests are likely to be ignored. Process skills are crucial for a child's independence and autonomy in daily functioning. These findings are supported by the capacity-performance distinction suggested by the ICF model.

  5. Cross-sectional associations between daily rest periods during weekdays and psychological distress, non-restorative sleep, fatigue, and work performance among information technology workers

    PubMed Central

    TSUCHIYA, Masao; TAKAHASHI, Masaya; MIKI, Keiichi; KUBO, Tomohide; IZAWA, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    A daily rest period (DRP; rest taken from daily work during a 24 h period), is essential to work recovery. This study examined DRPs’ distribution and association with health outcomes among information technology workers recruited from an internet panel (N=1,811). Participants completed a web questionnaire examining psychological distress as a primary outcome, along with non-restorative sleep, fatigue (stress reaction), and work performance. Logistic regression analysis showed elevated psychological distress when DRP was <12 h (OR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.47–4.42) and <11 h (OR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.17–5.26), although the 95% CI included 1 after adjusting for age, sex, and working and commuting hours. After the above adjustment, similar associations were found with non-restorative sleep and fatigue, but not work performance, when DRP was <12 h. These findings constitute the first analysis of a dose-response relationship between DRP and subjective health outcomes among white-collar workers. PMID:28025423

  6. Associations between performance of activities of daily living and everyday technology use among older adults with mild stage Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ryd, Charlotta; Nygård, Louise; Malinowsky, Camilla; Öhman, Annika; Kottorp, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The use of everyday technology (ET) is important for many activities in daily life (ADL) and can be especially challenging for older adults with cognitive impairments. The aim was to explore associations between ADL performance and perceived ability to use ET among older adults with mild stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). ADL motor and process ability, and ability to use ET were also compared between the groups. Participants with AD (n = 39) and MCI (n = 28) were included. Associations and group differences were explored with non-parametric statistics. Significant correlations were found between ADL process ability and ET use in both groups (Rs = 0.44 and 0.32, p < 0.05), but for ADL motor ability and ET use, correlations were only found in the MCI group (Rs = 0.51, p < 0.01). The MCI group had significantly higher measures of ADL process ability (p < 0.001) and ET use (p < 0.05). ADL performance ability and perceived ability to use ET are important to consider in evaluations of older adults with cognitive impairments. Group differences indicate that measures of ADL performance ability and ET use are sensitive enough to discriminate the MCI group from the AD group with individually overlapping measures.

  7. Exploring the association of dental care utilization with oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) - a prospective study of ageing people in Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gülcan, Ferda; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Klock, Kristin S; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2017-09-10

    To explore the association of dental health care utilization with oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) across time focusing ageing Norwegian and Swedish adults adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need related-factors as defined by Andersen's model. Data were based on Norwegian and Swedish 1942 birth-cohorts conducted in 2007 (age 65) and 2012 (age 70). In Norway, the response rates ranged from 54% to 58%. Corresponding figures in Sweden were from 72% to 73%. Self-administered questionnaires assessed OIDP, dental care utilization and predisposing, enabling and need related factors. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation was used to adjust for clustering in repeated data. Significant covariates of OIDP were satisfaction with dental services, dental care avoidance due to financial constraints, frightening experience with dental care during childhood and patient initiated dental visiting. Frequency and regularity of dental attendance were associated with OIDP in the Swedish cohort, only. In spite of country differences in the public co-financing of dental care, dental care utilization indicators were associated with OIDP across time in both cohorts. Encouraging regular and dentist initiated visiting patterns and strengthening beliefs in keeping own teeth could be useful in attempts to reduce poor oral health related quality of life in ageing people.

  8. Associations between daily physical activity, handgrip strength, muscle mass, physical performance and quality of life in prefrail and frail community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Haider, Sandra; Luger, Eva; Kapan, Ali; Titze, Sylvia; Lackinger, Christian; Schindler, Karin E; Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between daily physical activity (DPA), handgrip strength, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) and physical performance (balance, gait speed, chair stands) with quality of life in prefrail and frail community-dwelling older adults. Prefrail and frail individuals were included, as determined by SHARE-FI. Quality of life (QoL) was measured with WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD, DPA with PASE, handgrip strength with a dynamometer, ASMM with bioelectrical impedance analysis and physical performance with the SPPB test. Linear regression models adjusted for sex and age were developed: In model 1, the associations between each independent variable and QoL were assessed separately; in model 2, all the independent variables were included simultaneously. Eighty-three participants with a mean age of 83 (SD: 8) years were analysed. Model 1: DPA (ß = 0.315), handgrip strength (ß = 0.292) and balance (ß = 0.178) were significantly associated with 'overall QoL'. Balance was related to the QoL domains of 'physical health' (ß = 0.371), 'psychological health' (ß = 0.236), 'environment' (ß = 0.253), 'autonomy' (ß = 0.276) and 'social participation' (ß = 0.518). Gait speed (ß = 0.381) and chair stands (ß = 0.282) were associated with 'social participation' only. ASMM was not related to QoL. Model 2: independent variables explained 'overall QoL' (R (2) = 0.309), 'physical health' (R (2) = 0.200), 'autonomy' (R (2) = 0.247) and 'social participation' (R (2) = 0.356), among which balance was the strongest indicator. ASMM did not play a role in the QoL context of the prefrail and frail older adults, whereas balance and DPA were relevant. These parameters were particularly associated with 'social participation' and 'autonomy'.

  9. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  10. Assessment of daily-life reaching performance after stroke.

    PubMed

    van Meulen, Fokke B; Reenalda, Jasper; Buurke, Jaap H; Veltink, Peter H

    2015-02-01

    For an optimal guidance of the rehabilitation therapy of stroke patients in an in-home setting, objective, and patient-specific performance assessment of arm movements is needed. In this study, metrics of hand movement relative to the pelvis and the sternum were estimated in 13 stroke subjects using a full body ambulatory movement analysis system, including 17 inertial sensors integrated in a body-worn suit. Results were compared with the level of arm impairment evaluated with the upper extremity part of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (uFMA). Metrics of arm movement performance of the affected side, including size of work area, maximum reaching distance and movement range in vertical direction, were evaluated during a simulated daily-life task. These metrics appeared to strongly correlate with uFMA scores. Using this body-worn sensor system, metrics of the performance of arm movements can easily be measured and evaluated while the subject is ambulating in a simulated daily-life setting. Suggested metrics can be used to objectively assess the performance of the arm movements over a longer period in a daily-life setting. Further development of the body-worn sensing system is needed before it can be unobtrusively used in a daily-life setting.

  11. Ruminative self-focus in daily life: associations with daily activities and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined the situations and conditions in which ruminative self-focus is less likely to occur in daily life. Previous researchers have described a mood-brightening effect of depression, where depressed individuals exhibit greater positive emotional reactivity to positive daily events than do nondepressed individuals. To better understand this paradoxical effect, we investigated the moderating role of depression in the relationship between daily activities and ruminative thinking. Forty-one Japanese undergraduates (9 women and 32 men) recorded their thought contents and the type and subjective appraisals of activities that they engaged in 8 times a day for a week at semirandom intervals. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that subjectively pleasant activities were associated with improved mood states and reduced ruminative thinking. However, some of these associations were moderated by depressive symptoms, suggesting that individuals with higher levels of depression showed a greater reduction of ruminative thinking during pleasant activities. These results imply that daily activities are important for reducing rumination, particularly for individuals with higher levels of depression, and that the brightening effect of depression is evident for cognitive as well as emotional activities. The cognitive basis of this paradoxical effect is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. MS People's Performance and Satisfaction With Daily Occupations: Implications for Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Eman J; Badr, Hanan E; Manee, Fahad

    2017-08-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) face difficulties in performing daily occupations. The objectives of this study were to assess the performance of and level of satisfaction with daily occupations among people with MS, and to explore factors associated with their performance and satisfaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 MS individuals. The Arabic version of Satisfaction With Daily Occupations (SDO) scale was used. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression were used for data analysis. SDO performance and satisfaction median scores were 10/14 and 51/70, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that unemployment and cognitive symptoms were associated with poor occupational performance. Furthermore, unemployment, being married, visual problems, and low endurance were significant correlates of poor satisfaction with performing daily occupations. Social and clinical factors contributed to dissatisfaction with the poor performance of daily occupations among people with MS. Intervention studies are needed to investigate the role of occupational therapy in improving the performance of daily occupations in people with MS.

  13. Benchmarking the performance of daily temperature homogenisation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Rachel; Bailey, Trevor; Jolliffe, Ian; Willett, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This work explores the creation of realistic synthetic data and its use as a benchmark for comparing the performance of different homogenisation algorithms on daily temperature data. Four different regions in the United States have been selected and three different inhomogeneity scenarios explored for each region. These benchmark datasets are beneficial as, unlike in the real world, the underlying truth is known a priori, thus allowing definite statements to be made about the performance of the algorithms run on them. Performance can be assessed in terms of the ability of algorithms to detect changepoints and also their ability to correctly remove inhomogeneities. The focus is on daily data, thus presenting new challenges in comparison to monthly data and pushing the boundaries of previous studies. The aims of this work are to evaluate and compare the performance of various homogenisation algorithms, aiding their improvement and enabling a quantification of the uncertainty remaining in the data even after they have been homogenised. An important outcome is also to evaluate how realistic the created benchmarks are. It is essential that any weaknesses in the benchmarks are taken into account when judging algorithm performance against them. This information in turn will help to improve future versions of the benchmarks. I intend to present a summary of this work including the method of benchmark creation, details of the algorithms run and some preliminary results. This work forms a three year PhD and feeds into the larger project of the International Surface Temperature Initiative which is working on a global scale and with monthly instead of daily data.

  14. Increased mortality in Philadelphia associated with daily air pollution concentrations.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W

    1992-03-01

    Cause-specific deaths by day for the years 1973 to 1980 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were extracted from National Center for Health Statistics mortality tapes. Death from accidents (International Classification of Disease, Revision 9 greater than or equal to 800) and deaths outside of the city were excluded. Daily counts of deaths were regressed using Poisson regression on total suspended particulate (TSP) and/or SO2 on the same day and on the preceding day, controlling for year, season, temperature, and humidity. A significant positive association was found between total mortality (mean of 48 deaths/day) and both TSP (second highest daily mean, 222 micrograms/m3) and SO2 (second highest daily mean, 299 micrograms/m3). The strongest associations were found with the mean pollution of the current and the preceding days. Total mortality was estimated to increase by 7% (95% CI, 4 to 10%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP, and 5% (95% CI, 3 to 7%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in SO2. When both pollutants were considered simultaneously, the SO2 association was no longer significant. Mortality increased monotonically with TSP. The effect of 100 micrograms/m3 TSP was stronger in subjects older than 65 yr of age (10% increase) compared with those younger than 65 yr of age (3% increase). Cause-specific mortality was also associated with a 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD9 490-496), +19% (95% CI, 0 to 42%), pneumonia (ICD9 480-486 & 507), +11% (95% CI, -3 to +27%), and cardiovascular disease (ICD9 390-448), +10% (95% CI, 6 to 14%). These results are somewhat higher than previously reported associations, and they add to the body of evidence showing that particulate pollution is associated with increased daily mortality at current levels in the United States.

  15. Impacts on daily performances attributed to malocclusions by British adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, E; Sheiham, A; de Oliveira, C M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of condition-specific impacts on daily performances attributed to malocclusion in British adolescents. Two hundred 16- to 17-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from 957 children attending a public college in London, UK. During interviews, participants provided information about demographic variables and socio-dental impacts on quality of life attributed to malocclusions, using the Condition-Specific form of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (CS-OIDP) index. Adolescents were also clinically examined using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Statistical comparison by covariates was performed using chi-squared test and chi-squared test for trends. The prevalence of oral impacts on daily performances attributed to any oral condition was 26.5% whereas the prevalence of CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion was 21.5%. There was no statistically significant difference by sex, age, ethnicity or orthodontic treatment status of schoolchildren in the prevalence of CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion (P >/= 0.243 for all cases). However, there was a linear trend for the prevalence of CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion, by level of normative orthodontic treatment need (P = 0.042). The prevalence of such impacts increased from 16.8% for adolescents with no/slight need for orthodontic treatment, to 31.7% for those with definite need for orthodontic treatment. Although findings support the idea that malocclusion has physical, psychological and social effects on quality of life of these adolescents, the inconsistencies in findings between the self-reports of impacts of malocclusion and the assessment of normative needs highlight the shortcomings of using only clinical indexes to estimate orthodontic treatment needs.

  16. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2007-01-10

    Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Over 2500 adult daily cannabis users completed an Internet survey consisting of measures of cannabis and other drug use, in addition to measures of commonly reported negative problems resulting from cannabis use. We compared those who met a proxy measure of DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence (N = 1111) to those who did not meet the criteria (N = 1770). Cannabis dependent subjects consumed greater amounts of cannabis, alcohol, and a variety of other drugs. They also had lower levels of motivation, happiness, and satisfaction with life, with higher levels of depression and respiratory symptoms. Although all of our subjects reported daily use, only those meeting proxy criteria for cannabis dependence reported significant associated problems. Our data suggest that dependence need not arise from daily use, but consuming larger amounts of cannabis and other drugs undoubtedly increases problems.

  17. Affective reactivity to daily stressors is associated with elevated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sin, Nancy L; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Ong, Anthony D; Almeida, David M

    2015-12-01

    Inflammation increases the risk of chronic diseases, but the links between emotional responses to daily events and inflammation are unknown. We examined individual differences in affective reactivity to daily stressors (i.e., changes in positive and negative affect in response to stressors) as predictors of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A cross-sectional sample of 872 adults from the National Study of Daily Experiences (substudy of Midlife in the United States II) reported daily stressors and affect during telephone interviews for 8 days. Blood samples were obtained at a separate clinic visit and assayed for inflammatory markers. Multilevel models estimated trait affective reactivity slopes for each participant, which were inputted into regression models to predict inflammation. People who experienced greater decreases in positive affect on days when stressors occurred (i.e., positive affect reactivity) had elevated log IL-6, independent of demographic, physical, psychological, and behavioral factors (B = 1.12, SE = 0.45, p = .01). Heightened negative affect reactivity was associated with higher log CRP among women (p = .03) but not men (p = .57); health behaviors accounted for this association in women. Adults who fail to maintain positive affect when faced with minor stressors in everyday life appear to have elevated levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Women who experience increased negative affect when faced with minor stressors may be at particular risk of elevated inflammation. These findings add to growing evidence regarding the health implications of affective reactivity to daily stressors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Affective reactivity to daily stressors is associated with elevated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Nancy L.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Ong, Anthony D.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation increases the risk of chronic diseases, but the links between emotional responses to daily events and inflammation are unknown. We examined individual differences in affective reactivity to daily stressors (i.e., changes in positive and negative affect in response to stressors) as predictors of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods A cross-sectional sample of 872 adults from the National Study of Daily Experiences (sub-study of Midlife in the United States II) reported daily stressors and affect during telephone interviews for 8 days. Blood samples were obtained at a separate clinic visit and assayed for inflammatory markers. Multilevel models estimated trait affective reactivity slopes for each participant, which were inputted into regression models to predict inflammation. Results People who experienced greater decreases in positive affect on days when stressors occurred (i.e, positive affect reactivity) had elevated log IL-6, independent of demographic, physical, psychological, and behavioral factors (B = 1.12, SE = 0.45, p = 0.01). Heightened negative affect reactivity was associated with higher log CRP among women (p = 0.03) but not men (p = 0.57); health behaviors accounted for this association in women. Conclusions Adults who fail to maintain positive affect when faced with minor stressors in everyday life appear to have elevated levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Women who experience increased negative affect when faced with minor stressors may be at particular risk of elevated inflammation. These findings add to growing evidence regarding the health implications of affective reactivity to daily stressors. PMID:26030309

  19. Weak associations between the daily number of suicide cases and amount of daily sunlight.

    PubMed

    Seregi, Bernadett; Kapitány, Balázs; Maróti-Agóts, Ákos; Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Döme, Péter

    2017-02-06

    Several environmental factors with periodic changes in intensity during the calendar year have been put forward to explain the increase in suicide frequency during spring and summer. In the current study we investigated the effect of averaged daily sunshine duration of periods with different lengths and 'lags' (i.e. the number of days between the last day of the period for which the averaged sunshine duration was calculated and the day of suicide) on suicide risk. We obtained data on daily numbers of suicide cases and daily sunshine duration in Hungary from 1979 to 2013. In order to remove the seasonal components from the two time series (i.e. numbers of suicide and sunshine hours) we used the differencing method. Pearson correlations (n=22,950) were calculated to reveal associations between sunshine duration and suicide risk. The final sample consisted of 122,116 suicide cases. Regarding the entire investigated period, after differencing, sunshine duration and number of suicides on the same days showed a distinctly weak, but highly significant positive correlation in the total sample (r=0.067; p=1.17*10(-13)). Positive significant correlations (p˂0.0001) between suicide risk on the index day and averaged sunshine duration in the previous days (up to 11days) were also found in the total sample. Our results from a large sample strongly support the hypothesis that sunshine has a prompt, but very weak increasing effect on the risk of suicide (especially violent cases among males). The main limitation is that possible confounding factors were not controlled for.

  20. Association between daily activities following stroke rehabilitation and social role functioning upon return to the community.

    PubMed

    Plante, Michelle; Demers, Louise; Swaine, Bonnie; Desrosiers, Johanne

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association between independence in daily activities at discharge from rehabilitation and the degree of resumption of social roles 6 months later in older adults with stroke. A total of 111 adults participated (mean age 77 years). Daily activities were measured using portions of the Functional Measurement of Autonomy System (SMAF). Social roles, measured using the social roles section of the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H), included responsibilities, interpersonal relationships, community life, and leisure domains. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between daily activities and social roles in conjunction with several capability variables. Independence in daily activities increased the variances of the total scores for the responsibilities and community life models social role domains by 7% to 8%. The total explained variances ranged from 47% to 52% with corresponding beta values for daily activities ranging from -0.37 to -0.41. The lack of association between independence in daily activities and both leisure and interpersonal relationships was striking. The lowest scores were in the leisure domain. The association between daily activities at discharge and social roles 6 months following rehabilitation varies depending on the social role domain. Leisure may not be sufficiently addressed during rehabilitation warranting a "second wave" of rehabilitation upon return to the community.

  1. Daily meal frequency and associated variables in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fabiana A; Candiá, Samara M; Pequeno, Marina S; Sartorelli, Daniela S; Mendes, Larissa L; Oliveira, Renata M S; Netto, Michele P; Cândido, Ana Paula C

    To investigate the frequency distribution of daily meals and its relation to demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, anthropometric and biochemical factors in children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 708 schoolchildren aged 7-14 years. Data on personal information, socioeconomic status, physical activity and number of meals were obtained through semi-structured questionnaire and consumption by 24-h recall and food record. Weight and height measurements were also performed to calculate the body mass index. Finally, blood samples were collected for analysis of total cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and glucose levels. Descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney test, and Poisson regression were used in statistical analysis. Meal frequency <4 was associated in children, family income <3 Brazilian minimum wages (PR=5.42; 95% CI: 1.29-22.77; p=0.021) and adolescents, the number of sons in the family >2 (PR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.11-2.11; p=0.010). Even in the age group of 10-14 years, <4 meals was related to higher prevalence of body mass index (PR=1.33; 95% CI: 1.02-1.74; p=0.032) and low-density lipoprotein (PR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.03-1.87; p=0.030) higher after adjustments. Lower frequency of meals was related to lower income in children and adolescents, larger number of sons in the family, and increased values of body mass index and low-density lipoprotein. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Low Plasma Cholinesterase Activities are Associated with Deficits in Spatial Orientation, Reduced Ability to Perform Basic Activities of Daily Living, and Low Body Mass Index in Patients with Progressed Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dingova, Dominika; Fazekas, Tomas; Okuliarova, Petra; Strbova, Jaroslava; Kucera, Matej; Hrabovska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a central cholinergic deficit. Non-neuronal cholinergic changes are, however, described as well. Here we focused on possible changes in the activity of the plasma cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), in hospitalized AD patients. We analyzed plasma AChE and BChE activities with regards to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), cognitive functions, and ability to perform activities of daily living in AD patients in comparison to healthy subjects. We observed lower AChE activity and trend toward lower BChE activity in AD patients, which both correlated with low BMI. AD patients unable to perform basic activities of daily living (feeding, bathing, dressing, and grooming) showed reduced plasma AChE activities, while worse spatial orientation was linked to lower BChE activities. Three out of four AD patients with the lowest BChE activities died within one year. In conclusion, progressed AD was accompanied by lower plasma AChE activity and trend toward lower BChE activity, which correlated with BMI and deficits in different components of the AD.

  3. Astronaut Lucid on treadmill while Blaha performs daily planning

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-20

    STS79-E-5145 (20 September 1996) --- Astronaut and cosmonaut guest researcher Shannon W. Lucid exercises on a treadmill while astronaut, soon-to-be cosmonaut guest researcher, John E. Blaha studies the daily planner, during Flight Day 5.

  4. Performance of dairy cows milked twice daily at contrasting intervals.

    PubMed

    Rémond, B; Pomiès, D; Julien, C; Guinard-Flament, J

    2009-10-01

    The time constraints of the classic twice-daily milking routine are less easily endured by individual dairy farmers, because of their impact on quality of life. Our aim was to evaluate milk production responses by dairy cows milked twice daily at contrasting intervals. In experiments 1 (20 cows) and 2 (28 cows), four milking regimes were compared during a 3-week period beginning after the peak of lactation. Three groups of five cows were milked twice daily (TDM) with milking intervals of 11 : 13, 7 : 17 and 3 : 21 h in experiment 1, and three groups of seven cows at 11 : 13, 5 : 19 and 2.5 : 21.5 h in experiment 2. One group (five and seven cows respectively) was milked once daily (ODM) in each experiment. In experiment 3 (three groups, 12 cows per group), one group was milked at 10 : 14 h and one at 5 : 19 h, and the third group once daily. Milking treatments began during the second week of lactation and continued for an average of 23 weeks. In experiments 1 and 2, daily milk yields were reduced by 4.1%, 11.5% and 28%, for the 5 : 19, 3 : 21 and ODM milking treatments compared with the 11 : 13 h interval. In experiment 3, the decrease in daily milk yields for 5 : 19 h and ODM was 10% and 40% compared with the 10 : 14 h time interval. In the average daily milk, fat and protein contents and somatic cell counts were not different between the TDM groups, and the ODM group had (or tended to have) a higher fat and protein content. For a given milking, milk fat content decreased from about 60 to 32 g/kg as the preceding milking interval increased from 2.5 to 3 h up to 12 h. It then levelled out and even increased, mainly after 18 to 20 h. Somatic cell count showed a similar trend, and protein content did not change steadily. Dry matter intake, body weight and body condition score were not affected by contrasting milking intervals. After resumption of TDM with conventional intervals, productions of milk, fat and protein no longer differed between the TDM groups. Milk

  5. Specific Dimensions of Impulsivity Are Differentially Associated with Daily and Non-Daily Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dustin C.; Peters, Jessica R.; Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P(Negative and Positive Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, Sensation Seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults. PMID:25827335

  6. Cardiovascular responses associated with daily walking in subacute stroke.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Sanjay K; Mansfield, Avril; Gage, William H; Brooks, Dina; McIlroy, William E

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of regaining independent ambulation after stroke, the amount of daily walking completed during in-patient rehabilitation is low. The purpose of this study is to determine if (1) walking-related heart rate responses reached the minimum intensity necessary for therapeutic aerobic exercise (40%-60% heart rate reserve) or (2) heart rate responses during bouts of walking revealed excessive workload that may limit walking (>80% heart rate reserve). Eight individuals with subacute stroke attending in-patient rehabilitation were recruited. Participants wore heart rate monitors and accelerometers during a typical rehabilitation day. Walking-related changes in heart rate and walking bout duration were determined. Patients did not meet the minimum cumulative requirements of walking intensity (>40% heart rate reserve) and duration (>10 minutes continuously) necessary for cardiorespiratory benefit. Only one patient exceeded 80% heart rate reserve. The absence of significant increases in heart rate associated with walking reveals that patients chose to walk at speeds well below a level that has meaningful cardiorespiratory health benefits. Additionally, cardiorespiratory workload is unlikely to limit participation in walking. Measurement of heart rate and walking during in-patient rehabilitation may be a useful approach to encourage patients to increase the overall physical activity and to help facilitate recovery.

  7. Cardiovascular Responses Associated with Daily Walking in Subacute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Sanjay K.; Gage, William H.; McIlroy, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of regaining independent ambulation after stroke, the amount of daily walking completed during in-patient rehabilitation is low. The purpose of this study is to determine if (1) walking-related heart rate responses reached the minimum intensity necessary for therapeutic aerobic exercise (40%–60% heart rate reserve) or (2) heart rate responses during bouts of walking revealed excessive workload that may limit walking (>80% heart rate reserve). Eight individuals with subacute stroke attending in-patient rehabilitation were recruited. Participants wore heart rate monitors and accelerometers during a typical rehabilitation day. Walking-related changes in heart rate and walking bout duration were determined. Patients did not meet the minimum cumulative requirements of walking intensity (>40% heart rate reserve) and duration (>10 minutes continuously) necessary for cardiorespiratory benefit. Only one patient exceeded 80% heart rate reserve. The absence of significant increases in heart rate associated with walking reveals that patients chose to walk at speeds well below a level that has meaningful cardiorespiratory health benefits. Additionally, cardiorespiratory workload is unlikely to limit participation in walking. Measurement of heart rate and walking during in-patient rehabilitation may be a useful approach to encourage patients to increase the overall physical activity and to help facilitate recovery. PMID:23476892

  8. The Association between Dust Storms and Daily Non ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background:The impact of dust storms on human health has been studied in the context of Asian,Saharan, Arabian, and Australian storms,but there has been no recent population-level epidemiological research on the dust storms in North America . The relevance of dust storms to public health is likely to increase as extreme weather events are predicted to become more frequent with anticipated changes in climate through the 21st century.Objectives: We examined the association between dust storms and county-level non-accidental mortality in the United States from 1993 through 2005.Methods:Dust storm incidence data, including date and approximate location. are taken from the U.S. National Weather Service storm database. County-level mortality data for the years 1993-2005 were acquired from the National Center for Health Statistics. Distributed lag conditionallogistic regression models under a time-stratified case-crossover design were used to study the relationship between dust storms and daily mortality counts over the whole United States and in Arizona and California specifically. End points included total non-accidental mortality and three mortality subgroups (cardiovascular, respiratory, and other non-acc idental).Results: We estimated that for the United States as a whole, total non-accidental mortality increased by 7.4% (95% Cl: 1.6, 13.5; p = 0.011) and 6.7% (95% Cl: 1.1,12.6; p = 0.018) at 2- and 3-day lags, respectively, and by an average of 2.7% (95% Cl: 0.4,

  9. Activities of Daily Living in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: Performance, Learning, and Participation.

    PubMed

    Van der Linde, Berdien W; van Netten, Jaap J; Otten, Bert; Postema, Klaas; Geuze, Reint H; Schoemaker, Marina M

    2015-11-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in daily functioning. Little is known, however, about their difficulties in specific activities of daily living (ADL). The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate differences between children with DCD and their peers with typical development for ADL performance, learning, and participation, and (2) to explore the predictive values of these aspects. This was a cross-sectional study. In both a clinical sample of children diagnosed with DCD (n=25 [21 male, 4 female], age range=5-8 years) and a group of peers with typical development (25 matched controls), the children's parents completed the DCDDaily-Q. Differences in scores between the groups were investigated using t tests for performance and participation and Pearson chi-square analysis for learning. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the predictive values of performance, learning, and participation. Compared with their peers, children with DCD showed poor performance of ADL and less frequent participation in some ADL. Children with DCD demonstrated heterogeneous patterns of performance (poor in 10%-80% of the items) and learning (delayed in 0%-100% of the items). In the DCD group, delays in learning of ADL were a predictor for poor performance of ADL, and poor performance of ADL was a predictor for less frequent participation in ADL compared with the control group. A limited number of children with DCD were addressed in this study. This study highlights the impact of DCD on children's daily lives and the need for tailored intervention. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  10. Associations between daily chronic pain intensity, daily anger expression, and trait anger expressiveness: An ecological momentary assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Bruehl, Stephen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Burns, John W.; Chont, Melissa; Jamison, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Links between elevated trait anger expressiveness (anger-out) and greater chronic pain intensity are well documented, but pain-related effects of expressive behaviors actually used to regulate anger when it is experienced have been little explored. This study used ecological momentary assessment methods to explore prospective associations between daily behavioral anger expression and daily chronic pain intensity. Forty-eight chronic low back pain (LBP) patients and 36 healthy controls completed electronic diary ratings of momentary pain and behavioral anger expression in response to random prompts 4 times daily for 7 days. Across groups, greater trait anger-out was associated with greater daily behavioral anger expression (P < 0.001). LBP participants showed higher levels of daily anger expression than controls (P < 0.001). Generalized estimating equation analyses in the LBP group revealed a lagged main effect of greater behavioral anger expression on increased chronic pain intensity in the subsequent assessment period (P < 0.05). Examination of a trait × situation model for anger-out revealed prospective associations between elevated chronic pain intensity and later increases in behavioral anger expression that were restricted largely to individuals low in trait anger-out (P < 0.001). Trait × situation interactions for trait anger suppression (anger-in) indicated similar influences of pain intensity on subsequent behavioral anger expression occurring among low anger-in persons (P < 0.001). Overlap with trait and state negative affect did not account for study findings. This study for the first time documents lagged within-day influences of behavioral anger expression on subsequent chronic pain intensity. Trait anger regulation style may moderate associations between behavioral anger expression and chronic pain intensity. PMID:22940462

  11. Reciprocal Associations between Family and Peer Conflict in Adolescents' Daily Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study assessed daily episodes of family and peer conflict among 578 adolescents in the 9th grade to examine potential bidirectional associations between the family and peer domains. Adolescents completed a daily diary checklist at the end of each day over a 14-day period to report events of conflict and their…

  12. Reciprocal Associations between Family and Peer Conflict in Adolescents' Daily Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study assessed daily episodes of family and peer conflict among 578 adolescents in the 9th grade to examine potential bidirectional associations between the family and peer domains. Adolescents completed a daily diary checklist at the end of each day over a 14-day period to report events of conflict and their…

  13. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  14. Large daily stock variation is associated with cardiovascular mortality in two cities of Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hualiang; Zhang, Yonghui; Xu, Yanjun; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Luo, Yuan; Xu, Xiaojun; He, Yanhui; Ma, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the effects of daily change of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange Index on cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou and Taishan, China. Daily mortality and stock performance data during 2006-2010 were collected to construct the time series for the two cities. A distributed lag non-linear model was utilized to examine the effect of daily stock index changes on cardiovascular mortality after controlling for potential confounding factors. We observed a delayed non-linear effect of the stock index change on cardiovascular mortality: both rising and declining of the stock index were associated with increased cardiovascular deaths. In Guangzhou, the 15-25 lag days cumulative relative risk of an 800 index drop was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.38-3.14), and 2.38 (95% CI: 1.31-4.31) for an 800 stock index increase on the cardiovascular mortality, respectively. In Taishan, the cumulative relative risk over 15-25 days lag was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.13-2.42) for an 800 index drop and 2.08 (95% CI: 1.26-3.42) for an 800 index rising, respectively. Large ups and downs in daily stock index might be important predictor of cardiovascular mortality.

  15. Large Daily Stock Variation Is Associated with Cardiovascular Mortality in Two Cities of Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hualiang; Zhang, Yonghui; Xu, Yanjun; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Luo, Yuan; Xu, Xiaojun; He, Yanhui; Ma, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study aimed to examine the effects of daily change of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange Index on cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou and Taishan, China. Methods Daily mortality and stock performance data during 2006–2010 were collected to construct the time series for the two cities. A distributed lag non-linear model was utilized to examine the effect of daily stock index changes on cardiovascular mortality after controlling for potential confounding factors. Results We observed a delayed non-linear effect of the stock index change on cardiovascular mortality: both rising and declining of the stock index were associated with increased cardiovascular deaths. In Guangzhou, the 15–25 lag days cumulative relative risk of an 800 index drop was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.38–3.14), and 2.38 (95% CI: 1.31–4.31) for an 800 stock index increase on the cardiovascular mortality, respectively. In Taishan, the cumulative relative risk over 15–25 days lag was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.13–2.42) for an 800 index drop and 2.08 (95% CI: 1.26–3.42) for an 800 index rising, respectively. Conclusions Large ups and downs in daily stock index might be important predictor of cardiovascular mortality. PMID:23874619

  16. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007–2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0–15 years old). Middle-aged people (16–65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8–1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID

  17. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007-2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0-15 years old). Middle-aged people (16-65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8-1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place.

  18. Early to Rise? The Effect of Daily Start Times on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Finley

    2012-01-01

    Local school districts often stagger daily start times for their schools in order to reduce busing costs. This paper uses data on all middle school students in Wake County, NC from 1999 to 2006 to identify the causal effect of daily start times on academic performance. Using variation in start times within schools over time, the effect is a two…

  19. Early to Rise? The Effect of Daily Start Times on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Finley

    2012-01-01

    Local school districts often stagger daily start times for their schools in order to reduce busing costs. This paper uses data on all middle school students in Wake County, NC from 1999 to 2006 to identify the causal effect of daily start times on academic performance. Using variation in start times within schools over time, the effect is a two…

  20. Effects of daily administration of methamphetamine on multiple active/passive avoidance performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, T; Hishida, S; Hatake, K; Taniguchi, T; Ouchi, H

    1993-02-26

    The effects of daily methamphetamine (M-Amp) treatment with (2 mg/kg/day, i.p.) were examined on multiple active/passive avoidance performance (MAP) in rats. After avoidance training, the animals were given M-Amp every day; on the days of learning sessions, which were on alternate days, the drug was administered at 15 min before the session. Daily administration of M-Amp produced enhancement of the number of respondings (running) as an excitatory dimension of behavior, disruption of immobilities as an inhibitory dimension, and impairment of successes as a discriminatory dimension, when compared with saline-treated rats. Following M-Amp withdrawal, recovery from these damages of learned behavior was observed, except the deterioration in the discriminative dimension. In conclusion, the MAP paradigm is good for assessing the behavioral effects of M-Amp treatment, making it easy to distinct the behavioral effects of M-Amp into excitatory-inhibitory and discriminative dimensions. It is important to distinguish the behavioral components induced by M-Amp, since the damage of learned avoidance performance consists of different dimensions in the M-Amp-treated rats. Impairment of discriminative behavior appears to demonstrate an attentional deficit, which may explain the behavioral disorderliness in M-Amp abusers who display no disturbance of apparent consciousness. These results are discussed with association of brain monoamine alterations.

  1. Differential Associations and Daily Smoking of Adolescents: The Importance of Same-Sex Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofziger, Stacey; Lee, Hye-Ryeon

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether the importance of parents, siblings, best friends, and romantic interests are sex-specific in predicting daily juvenile smoking. Juveniles who smoke daily are strongly influenced by prosmoking attitudes and behaviors of same-sex family members. However, peers remain the most important associations in predicting daily…

  2. Influence of Caregiver Burden on the Association Between Daily Fluctuations in Pleasant Activities and Mood: A Daily Diary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T; Harmell, Alexandrea L; Moore, Raeanne C; Chattillion, Elizabeth A

    2010-01-01

    Much research has focused on behavioral activation and its effect on depression, but less is known about the effects of leisure activities on the two distinct affective domains of depression: positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Furthermore, individual factors (i.e., stress level) may moderate the impact of behavioral activation on affect. The present study utilized a daily diary approach to examine the moderating effect of stress on the relationship between leisure satisfaction and both PA and NA. Twenty-five dementia caregivers completed activity and affect measures four times daily for 14 days. Results were analyzed using multilevel modeling, an approach that considers intra-individual differences in activity and affect over time. Results supported the hypothesis that caregivers with higher burden display a stronger association between leisure satisfaction and affect than caregivers with lower burden. Specifically, caregivers with higher burden had a stronger positive relationship between leisure satisfaction and PA and a stronger negative relationship between leisure satisfaction and NA. These findings suggest that screening caregivers for level of burden may help identify those most likely to benefit from behavioral interventions. PMID:21130981

  3. Hierarchical Decline of the Initiative and Performance of Complex Activities of Daily Living in Dementia.

    PubMed

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David

    2017-03-01

    While basic activities of daily living hierarchically decline in dementia, little is known about the decline of individual instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). The objective of this study was to assess initiative and performance deficits in IADLs in dementia. A total of 581 carers completed the revised Interview for Deterioration in Daily Living Activities in Dementia 2 to rate their relative's everyday functioning. Initiating and performing IADLs deteriorated hierarchically, while people with dementia were consistently most impaired in initiating using the computer and managing finances. Initiating preparing a cold or hot meal and managing finances were more impaired than their performance, whereas performing maintaining an active social life for example were more impaired than their initiative. Findings can help identify the severity of dementia by understanding deficits in initiative and performance. This study has implications for the development of targeted interventions depending on the stage of dementia.

  4. Age-Adjusted Percentage of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose, United States, 1994–2010 From 1994 to 2010, ... diagnosed diabetes performing daily self-monitoring of blood glucose increased by 27.9 points, from 35.7% ...

  5. Associations of daily sleep duration and dietary macronutrient consumption with obesity and dyslipidemia in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Doo, Hyungie; Chun, Hyejin; Doo, Miae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Daily sleep duration is known to be associated with obesity and dyslipidemia. This study was performed to examine the interactions between daily sleep duration and the risks of obesity and dyslipidemia according to dietary macronutrient consumption in 14,680 Korean adults using the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sleep duration was inversely associated with body mass index (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein -cholesterol (P = 0.001). Participants with short sleep durations consumed less dietary protein (P < 0.001) and fat (P < 0.001), and consumed more dietary carbohydrates (P < 0.001). Among participants with the shortest sleep duration (≤5 hours a day), the odds ratio of obesity was found to increase in the high fat consumption group (1.393, 95% confidence interval 1.083–1.790) and decrease in the high carbohydrate consumption group (0.770, 95% confidence interval 0.604–0.983). High fat and low carbohydrate consumption were confirmed to be associated with the risk of obesity in the shortest sleep duration group (≤5 hours a day). These findings indicate that sleep duration was negatively associated with obesity and dyslipidemia-related indices in Korean adults. Additionally, the association of short sleep duration with the risk of obesity was potentially changed by dietary fat and carbohydrate consumption. PMID:27828860

  6. Random Number Generation in HIV Disease: Associations with Neuropsychological Functions and Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, David P; Woods, Steven Paul; Doyle, Katie L; Verduzco, Marizela

    2017-02-01

    HIV is associated with frontostriatal dysregulation and executive dysfunction. This study evaluated whether HIV-infected individuals evidence deficits in random number generation (RNG), which is a strategic task requiring paced, rule-guided production of digits. In total, 74 HIV+ adults and 54 seronegative comparison participants completed a comprehensive research neuropsychological battery. Participants produced a random digit sequence by avoiding any order and using numbers 1 through 10 for 100 s at a pace of 1 digit/s. Outcomes included intrusions, repetitions, seriation (1-2-3-4), and cycling (median length of gaps between repeating digits). HIV disease was associated with higher levels of seriation and cycling (ps < .05) but not intrusions or repetitions (ps > .10). Among HIV+ individuals, higher seriation was associated with neuropsychological performance including poorer auditory attention, verbal learning, and delayed memory, whereas higher cycling scores were associated with poorer delayed memory and verbal fluency (ps < .05). Higher seriation also was independently associated with self-reported declines in activities of daily living (ADLs) in the HIV+ group. Individuals living with HIV disease evidence moderate difficulties in inhibiting statistically unlikely non-random sequences, which showed medium associations with higher order verbal abilities and may contribute to greater declines in everyday functioning outcomes. Future studies might examine RNG's role in health behaviors such as medical decision-making or medication adherence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Dopamine system genes associated with parenting in the context of daily hassles.

    PubMed

    van IJzendoorn, M H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M J; Mesman, J

    2008-06-01

    The current study examined the molecular genetic foundations of sensitive parenting in humans and is the first to test the interaction between genes and environment in modulating parental sensitive responses to children. In a community sample of 176 Caucasian, middle class mothers with their 23-month-old toddlers at risk for externalizing behavior problems, the association between daily hassles and sensitive parenting was investigated. We tested whether two dopamine-related genes, dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms, modulate parents' vulnerability to the negative influence of daily hassles on sensitive parenting behavior to their offspring. Sensitive parenting was observed in structured settings, and parents reported on their daily hassles through a standard questionnaire. In parents with the combination of genes leading to the least efficient dopaminergic system functioning (COMT val/val or val/met, DRD4-7Repeat), more daily hassles were associated with less sensitive parenting, and lower levels of daily hassles were associated with more sensitive parenting d = 1.12. The other combinations of COMT and DRD4 polymorphisms did not show significant associations between daily hassles and maternal sensitivity, suggesting differential susceptibility to hassles depending on parents' dopaminergic system genes. It is concluded that the study of (multiple) gene-environment interactions (in the current case: gene by gene by environment interaction, G x G x E) may explain why some parents are more and others less impacted by daily stresses in responding sensitively to their offspring's signals.

  8. The Daily Consequences of Widowhood: The Role of Gender and Intergenerational Transfers on Subsequent Housework Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utz, Rebecca L.; Reidy, Erin B.; Carr, Deborah; Nesse, Randolph; Wortman, Camille

    2004-01-01

    This study examines (a) whether widowhood affects the performance of daily household activities, (b) the extent to which dependence on children mediates the effect of widowhood on subsequent housework performance, and (c) the extent to which these patterns vary by gender. Using the Changing Lives of Older Couples study, a prospective survey of…

  9. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  10. Secure base processes in couples: daily associations between support experiences and attachment security.

    PubMed

    Davila, Joanne; Kashy, Deborah A

    2009-02-01

    The authors examined secure base functioning in couples by studying the association between daily social support experiences and attachment security in a 14-day daily experiences study of 114 heterosexual dating couples. Both members of each couple reported on daily relationship-specific attachment security and support sought, provided, and received, as well as felt support. Within- and cross-partner associations were examined, as were reciprocal associations between support and security. Results of over-time Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analyses indicated that security (in the form of high comfort with intimacy and low anxiety about abandonment) was associated with the most adaptive support experiences, whereas high anxiety about abandonment was associated with the least, and particularly with a lack of sensitive caregiving. Implications for understanding secure base dynamics in couples are discussed and guidelines for where to intervene as well as what to target in relationship distress prevention programs are provided.

  11. Hand function and performance of daily activities in systemic lupus erythematosus: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Malcus Johnsson, P; Sandqvist, G; Nilsson, J-Å; Bengtsson, A A; Sturfelt, G; Nived, O

    2015-07-01

    This clinical study was performed to investigate hand problems in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in comparison with healthy controls, and to explore problems in the performance of daily activities related to these hand problems, in order to objectify findings from a previous mail survey. We also investigated whether a simple hand test could detect hand problems in SLE. All individuals, 71 with SLE and 71 healthy controls, were examined for manifestations in body structures and body functions of the hands with a study-specific protocol. The simple hand test was performed by all the individuals and the arthritis impact measurement scale (AIMS 2) questionnaire was completed by the SLE individuals. In the SLE group, 58% had some kind of difficulty in the simple hand test, compared with 8% in the control group. Fifty percent of the SLE individuals experienced problems in performing daily activities due to hand deficits. Pain in the hands, reduced strength and dexterity, Raynaud's phenomenon and trigger finger were the most prominent body functions affecting the performance of daily activities. Deficits in hand function are common in SLE and affect the performance of daily activities. The simple hand test may be a useful tool in detecting hand problems.

  12. Efficacy of daily intranasal fluticasone propionate on ocular symptoms associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Paul; Van Bavel, Julius; Mohar, Dale; Jacobs, Robert L; Hampel, Frank; Howland, William; Karwal, Ritu

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an inflammatory condition of the nasal mucosa characterized by symptoms of nasal discharge, itching, sneezing, and congestion. Ocular symptoms are commonly associated with AR and include itching or burning, tearing or watering, and redness. Intranasal corticosteroids are a mainstay of treatment, and their effect on nasal symptoms is well described. To demonstrate that a 14-day course of 200 μg/d of nasal fluticasone propionate is superior to placebo in relieving ocular symptoms associated with AR. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel group, multicenter study comparing 200 μg/d of fluticasone propionate with placebo in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. The primary end point was mean change from baseline in patient-rated reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS). Key secondary end points included mean change from baseline in the morning and evening rTOSS, end-of-treatment assessment of response, and effect on activities of daily living. The primary analysis was performed using analysis of covariance with a linear fixed-effects model. Fluticasone was statistically significantly more efficacious in reducing the ocular symptoms of AR than placebo. The least squares mean difference in the change from baseline of rTOSS was -0.36 (P = .002). A statistically significant difference in mean change from baseline was observed in favor of fluticasone for morning and evening rTOSS. Significantly more patients taking fluticasone achieved an overall response compared with placebo. Fluticasone had a significantly greater effect on daily living activities and was well tolerated. This study supports the efficacy of fluticasone in treating ocular symptoms associated with AR. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01817790. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pain mediates the association between physical activity and the impact of fibromyalgia on daily function.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Masataka; Corbin, Lisa W; Maluf, Katrina S

    2015-01-01

    This study quantified the association between recreational physical activity and daily function in women with fibromyalgia, and determined if this association is mediated by symptoms of pain, depression, or body mass. Twenty-three women diagnosed with fibromyalgia participated in an observational survey study. Recreational physical activity and the impact of fibromyalgia on daily function were assessed using the sport and leisure time physical activity subscales of the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), respectively. Potential mediators of the association between physical activity and daily function were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale for pain intensity (VAS-Pain), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and body mass index (BMI). BPAQ was inversely associated with FIQ (R (2) = 0.20) and VAS-Pain (R (2) = 0.39). VAS-Pain was positively associated with FIQ (R (2) = 0.23). The inverse association between BPAQ and FIQ was no longer significant after controlling for VAS-Pain. BDI was positively associated with FIQ (R (2) = 0.37), whereas BMI was not. BPAQ was not significantly associated with either BDI or BMI. These results indicate that the intensity of musculoskeletal pain, rather than depressive symptoms or body mass, mediates the association between physical activity and daily function among women with fibromyalgia.

  14. Empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of older couples: Fluid cognitive performance predicts pattern accuracy among men.

    PubMed

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Rauers, Antje; Schade, Hannah; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Correctly identifying other's emotional states is a central cognitive component of empathy. We examined the role of fluid cognitive performance for empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of 86 older couples (mean relationship length = 45 years; mean age = 75 years) on up to 42 occasions over 7 consecutive days. Men performing better on the Digit Symbol test were more accurate in identifying ups and downs of their partner's happiness. A similar association was not found for women. We discuss the potential role of fluid cognitive performance and other individual, partner, and situation characteristics for empathic accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Increased daily handling of ovariectomized rats enhances performance on a radial-maze task and obscures effects of estradiol replacement.

    PubMed

    Bohacek, Johannes; Daniel, Jill M

    2007-08-01

    Estrogen impacts performance on tasks of learning and memory, although there are inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the reported effects. Contributory factors to the inconsistencies may be methodological differences associated with different regimens of treatment. The goal of the present experiment was to assess the effect of increased handling, such as that commonly associated with pharmacological or other experimental manipulations, on the ability of estrogen to influence working memory performance. Young adult rats were ovariectomized and implanted with capsules containing either cholesterol or 25% estradiol diluted in cholesterol. Half of each hormone treatment group received standard handling, which consisted of handling required to carry out experimental procedures and half received increased handling, which consisted of standard handling as well as 2 min of additional daily handling by the experimenter. Animals were trained daily on a working memory task on an eight-arm radial maze for 24 days of acquisition and for eight additional daily trials in which delays of either 1 min or 3 h were imposed between the fourth and fifth arm choices. Animals that received increased handling exhibited significantly enhanced performance during acquisition and delay trials compared to those that received standard handling. Estradiol significantly enhanced performance during delay trials in animals that received standard handling but had no effect in animals that received increased handling. These results suggest that the amount of handling that animals receive as part of experimental procedures may obscure the memory enhancing effects of estradiol replacement on certain tasks of cognition.

  16. Type, intensity and duration of daily physical activities performed by adults with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Perrier, M-J; Stork, M J; Martin Ginis, K A

    2017-01-01

    Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. To describe and compare (1) self-reported intensities and durations of specific types of daily physical activities and (2) minutes per day spent on daily physical activities across key demographic groups. Community (Ontario, Canada). Participants were 695 adults with spinal cord injury (SCI; 76% male, Mage=46.81±13.41 years, Myears post injury=15.19±11.10 years). Daily activities were assessed over the telephone using the Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with SCI. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) were computed to test for differences in intensities and durations of different daily activities (objective 1) and between-group differences in minutes per day of daily activities (objective 2). Overall, participants reported 127.92±142.79 min per day of daily physical activities with significantly more time spent in mild intensity (78.93±104.62 min per day) than moderate- (40.23±68.71 min per day) or heavy-intensity activities (8.75±24.53 min per day). Four patterns emerged with respect to type, duration and intensity, with some activities being typically performed at lighter or heavier intensities than others. There were significant differences in minutes per day of activity intensity and duration between groups based on education, injury severity and mode of mobility (P<0.05). Given that some groups were more likely to engage in moderate-heavy-intensity activities, and some activities were more likely to be performed at moderate-heavy intensities, interventions that target key groups to increase certain daily activities may be one strategy to enhance overall physical activity participation among people with SCI.

  17. Reported Expressive Suppression in Daily Life Is Associated with Slower Action Planning.

    PubMed

    Niermeyer, Madison A; Franchow, Emilie I; Suchy, Yana

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Growing evidence demonstrates that (a) executive functioning (EF) becomes deleteriously affected by engagement in the emotion regulation strategy known as expressive suppression and (b) EF shows considerable functional and neuroanatomical overlap with motor output. The current study aimed to bridge these two literatures by examining the relationships between naturally occurring expressive suppression and several different aspects of motor output, including action planning, action learning, and motor-control speed and accuracy. In addition, we investigated whether any identified relationships could be explained by EF. Methods Fifty-one healthy young adults completed selected subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System as indices of EF, a self-report measure of expressive suppression, and a computerized motor sequencing task (Push Turn Taptap task; PTT) designed to assess action planning, action learning, and motor control speed and accuracy. Results Hierarchical regressions using each aspect of PTT performance as the dependent variable revealed that higher than usual self-reported expressive suppression on the day of testing (relative to the 2 weeks preceding testing) was associated with longer action-planning latencies. This relationship was fully explained by EF. No other PTT variables related to expressive suppression on the day of testing. Conclusions These results suggest that increased expressive suppression in daily life is associated with slower action planning, an aspect of motor output that is reliant on EF, highlighting the importance of factors that lead to intra-individual fluctuations in EF and motor performance. (JINS, 2016, 22, 671-681).

  18. Brief Daily Writing Activities and Performance on Major Multiple-Choice Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Haley C.; Bliss, Stacy L.; Hautau, Briana; Carroll, Erin; Jaspers, Kathryn E.; Williams, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Although past research indicates that giving brief quizzes, administered either regularly or randomly, may lead to improvement in students' performance on major exams, negligible research has targeted daily writing activities that require the processing of course information at a deeper level than might result from simply reading course materials…

  19. Brief Daily Writing Activities and Performance on Major Multiple-Choice Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Haley C.; Bliss, Stacy L.; Hautau, Briana; Carroll, Erin; Jaspers, Kathryn E.; Williams, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Although past research indicates that giving brief quizzes, administered either regularly or randomly, may lead to improvement in students' performance on major exams, negligible research has targeted daily writing activities that require the processing of course information at a deeper level than might result from simply reading course materials…

  20. A Time Series Analysis of Associations between Daily Temperature and Crime Events in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Schinasi, Leah H; Hamra, Ghassan B

    2017-07-07

    Urban crime may be an important but overlooked public health impact of rising ambient temperatures. We conducted a time series analysis of associations between temperature and crimes in Philadelphia, PA, for years 2006-2015. We obtained daily crime data from the Philadelphia Police Department, and hourly temperature and dew point data from the National Centers for Environmental Information. We calculated the mean daily heat index and daily deviations from each year's seasonal mean heat index value. We used generalized additive models with a quasi-Poisson distribution, adjusted for day of the week, public holiday, and long-term trends and seasonality, to estimate relative rates (RR) and 95% confidence intervals. We found that the strongest associations were with violent crime and disorderly conduct. For example, relative to the median of the distribution of mean daily heat index values, the rate of violent crimes was 9% (95% CI 6-12%) higher when the mean daily heat index was at the 99th percentile of the distribution. There was a positive, linear relationship between deviations of the daily mean heat index from the seasonal mean and rates of violent crime and disorderly conduct, especially in cold months. Overall, these analyses suggest that disorderly conduct and violent crimes are highest when temperatures are comfortable, especially during cold months. This work provides important information regarding the temporal patterns of crime activity.

  1. Solitude and cortisol: associations with state and trait affect in daily life.

    PubMed

    Matias, Gabriela P; Nicolson, Nancy A; Freire, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    The social context can impact psychological and physiological functioning. Being alone, in particular, is experienced as more negative on average than being with others, in both normative and pathological populations. This study investigates whether daily solitude is associated with changes in cortisol and, if so, whether momentary and trait affect can explain this relationship. Forty-four female college students used the Experience Sampling Method during a week, completing questionnaires and collecting saliva 8 times daily. Effects of current solitude, affect, and trait affectivity on cortisol were tested with multilevel regression. Cortisol levels were significantly higher when individuals were alone. Although momentary affective states changed during solitude and were also associated with cortisol, they did not fully explain the effects of solitude on cortisol. Trait affectivity moderated the association between solitude and cortisol. Findings may help clarify how daily experience may heighten risk of depression or other negative health outcomes in vulnerable individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Change in daily life behaviors and depression: Within-person and between-person associations.

    PubMed

    Snippe, Evelien; Simons, Claudia J P; Hartmann, Jessica A; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Kramer, Ingrid; Booij, Sanne H; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Delespaul, Philippe; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke

    2016-05-01

    This study examined associations between daily physical, sedentary, social, and leisure behaviors and depressive symptoms (a) at a macrolevel, over the course of an Experience Sampling (ESM) self-monitoring intervention, and (b) at a microlevel, by examining daily within-person associations. Second, we examined the effects of the ESM self-monitoring intervention on these daily life behaviors. Individuals with a diagnosis of depression (N = 102) receiving pharmacological treatment were randomized to 1 of 2 six-week ESM intervention conditions or a control condition. Physical, sedentary, social, and leisure behaviors as well as depressive symptoms were assessed prospectively in every-day life at baseline, postintervention, and during the ESM interventions. Change in physical activity and talking from baseline to postintervention was associated with change in depressive symptoms from baseline to postintervention. Within-person daily fluctuations in talking, physical activity, doing nothing/resting, and being alone predicted end-of-day depressive symptoms over and above depressive symptoms at the previous day. The ESM interventions contributed to change in talking, doing nothing/resting, and being alone over time in comparison with the control group. The analyses revealed individual differences in the amount of behavioral change over time and in the within-subject associations between daily behaviors and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that physical, sedentary, and social behaviors have affective implications for daily mental health of individuals with depression. Self-monitoring using ESM may be a useful add-on tool to achieve behavioral change and to gain personalized insight in behaviors that improve daily depressive symptoms. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Self-perceived performance and satisfaction with performance of daily activities in persons with multiple sclerosis following interdisciplinary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lexell, Eva Månsson; Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Lexell, Jan

    2014-01-01

    To assess self-perceived performance and satisfaction with performance of daily activities in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) on admission to and at discharge from interdisciplinary rehabilitation. A retrospective study with a pre-post design. Twenty-seven women and 16 men with MS (mean age 51 years; median EDSS 6.5) participated in an individualised, goal-oriented, interdisciplinary, rehabilitation programme (average length 4 weeks). The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used on admission to rehabilitation and at discharge. On admission, the persons prioritised 216 activities that they perceived difficult to perform (mean number 3, range 2-8). Of these, 136 (63%) were in the COPM area of self-care, 52 (24%) in productivity and 28 (13%) in leisure. The lowest mean ratings of performance were found in the subgroups active recreation, community management and socialisation, and for satisfaction in the subgroup socialisation. For about 60% of the 216 prioritised activities, ratings of COPM performance as well as satisfaction were higher at discharge than on admission. For 18 (42%) and 24 (56%) persons, respectively, the mean change scores of performance and of satisfaction were equal to or greater than 2.0 at discharge, indicating a clinically significant change. Persons with MS can experience problems with all types of daily activities upon admission to rehabilitation, but also perceive improvements in their performance and satisfaction with performance in these activities at discharge from rehabilitation. Using patient-reported outcome measures, such as the COPM, may contribute to a broader understanding of the benefits of interdisciplinary rehabilitation in persons with MS. Implications for Rehabilitation Persons with MS can perceive problems with all types of daily activities which have to be considered during interdisciplinary rehabilitation. Following interdisciplinary rehabilitation, persons with MS can perceive improvements in their

  4. The effect of daily disturbance on the breeding performance of mice.

    PubMed

    Peters, Alan G; Bywater, Peter M; Festing, Michael F W

    2002-04-01

    The United Kingdom Home Office Code of Practice for the housing and care of breeding animals requires that, 'the general well-being of all animals must be checked at least once daily'. However, excessive daily disturbance of rodent breeding colonies could be counter-productive to animal welfare if it increases pre-weaning mortality. An experiment involving 100 breeding cages of BALB/c mice compared daily inspection of the mouse cages, but without disturbing the mice within the nest, with daily inspection in which every individual was studied even if this involved removing the cage lid and disturbing the nest. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in breeding performance or pre-weaning mortality, though the disturbed group produced marginally fewer offspring and had slightly higher mortality. Average weaning weight did not differ between the groups, but sexual dimorphism at weaning was significantly increased in the disturbed group. It is concluded that there are unlikely to be any welfare benefits in an inspection regimen that involves disturbance of breeding mice, provided the cage is inspected daily.

  5. [State of dentition and its impact on the capacity of elders to perform daily activities].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; de la Fuente-Hernández, Javier; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; García-Peña, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dental state on the capacity of elderly individuals to carry out their daily activities during the previous six months. A transversal study was conducted in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) with insured elderly persons residing in southwestern Mexico City. Home interviews were conducted to gather sociodemographic data, data on the use of oral health services, problems in carrying out daily activities, and their relationship with the state of dentition over the past six months, utilizing the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index. Later, three oral health professionals trained in determining the state of dentition according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria performed a clinical examination on each elderly subject. A total of 540 elderly individuals were studied. The prevalence of elderly persons with problems in carrying out their daily activities was 21.5%. The main problems in daily activities were eating (14.4%), speaking (8.7%), not becoming irritated (5.4%), brushing their teeth(5%), and inability to enjoy contact with people (4.4%). There is a positive OIDP correlation between number of teeth lost and the decayed, missing, filled teeth(DMFT) index (p<0.05) and a negative correlation with the number of functional and filled teeth. The state of dentition in the elderly has repercussions on the capacity to carry out daily activities, with quality of life most seriously affected with regard to eating and enjoying food, as well as with respect to correct pronunciation.

  6. Do respiratory epidemics confound the association between air pollution and daily deaths?

    PubMed

    Braga, A L; Zanobetti, A; Schwartz, J

    2000-10-01

    Daily deaths are associated with air pollution. This association might be con*hhy;founded by uncontrolled risk factors. In order to estimate the potential confounding caused by respiratory epidemics of the association between air pollution and health effects, a time series study of air pollution and daily deaths was carried out. Daily records of deaths for all ages were obtained from five US cities: Chicago, IL; Detroit, MI; Minneapolis, MN; Pittsburgh, PA; and Seattle, WA. Daily levels of particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm (PM10) and weather measurements were obtained. City-specific analysis was carried out using Poisson regression, adjusting for time trend, ambient temperature, dew point, barometric pressure and day of the week. A cubic polynomial was used for each epidemic period (> or =10 days of excessive pneumonia hospital admissions), and a dummy variable was used to control for isolated epidemic days. A 10-microg x m(-3) increase in PM10 concentration (lag 0-1) was associated with increased daily deaths in Chicago (0.81%, 95% confidence internal (CI) 0.54-1.09); Detroit (0.87%, 95% CI 0.60-1.15), Minneapolis (1.34%, 95% CI 0.78-1.90), Pittsburgh (0.84%, 95% CI 0.51-1.18) and Seattle (0.52%, 95% CI 0.11-0.94). When controlling for respiratory epidemics, small decreases in the PMlo effect were observed (Chicago 9%, Detroit 11%, Minneapolis 3%, Pittsburgh 5%, and Seattle 15%). The overall effect of PM10 concentration was 0.85% (95% CI 0.60-1.10) per 10 microg x m(-3) before controlling for epidemics and 0.78% (95% CI 0.51-1.05) after. This study showed that the association between air pollution and daily deaths is not due to failure to control for influenza or pneumonia epidemics.

  7. Breaking-up sedentary time is associated with impairment in activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Luis B; Ekelund, Ulf; dos Santos, Leandro; Cyrino, Edilson S; Silva, Analiza M; Santos, Diana A

    2015-12-01

    Identifying modifiable behaviors associated with prevention of activities of daily living (ADL) impairments is vital to implement preventive strategies for independent living in elderly. We aimed to examine the associations between objectively measured breaks in sedentary time with ADL impairments and physical independence. Cross-sectional assessments were carried out in 371 participants (131 male) aged 65-103 years from the Portuguese surveillance system of physical activity. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) were assessed with accelerometry, and ADL impairments and physical independence with the self-reported 12-item composite physical function scale. Using ROC analyses a cut-off of 7 hourly breaks in sedentary time was identified which maximized the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing physical dependence. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that, independently of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), participants performing ≤ 7 hourly breaks in sedentary time had 2 to 7 fold increased odds for impairment in 10 of the 12 ADL. When stratifying ADL into basic, instrumental and advanced ADL we verified that less than 7 hourly breaks in sedentary time was associated with a 2 to 5 fold increased odds for impairments and physical dependence, independent of MVPA. No associations were observed between meeting PA guidelines and basic, instrumental, and advanced ADL impairment although time in MVPA was lower in participants showing impairments. In conclusion, the frequency of breaks in sedentary time in older ages is independently associated with lower risk for ADL impairments and physical dependence. Our findings support interventions to encourage older adults to increase overall PA by interrupting sedentary time.

  8. Improvements of task performance in daily life after acquired brain injury using commonly available everyday technology.

    PubMed

    Lindén, Anita; Lexell, Jan; Larsson Lund, Maria

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how individualised occupation-based interventions with commonly available everyday technology (ET) can compensate for perceived difficulties with daily life tasks after an aquired brain injury (ABI) and improve satisfaction with occupational performance. This intervention study was designed as a multiple case study according to Yin. Ten men and women with an ABI (traumatic or non-traumatic) participated. Data were collected through interviews, observations and field notes before and after the intervention and at follow-up (on average 11 weeks afterwards). The interventions focused on enabling each participant's prioritised goals related to task performance in daily life. All participants achieved all their goals by learning to use both new functions in their own familiar ET and new ET. The participant's perceived difficulties in occupational performance decreased and their satisfaction with occupational performance increased with the use of ET. An individualised intervention process, involving the use of own familiar ET or ET off-the-shelf, has the potential to compensate for perceived difficulties following an ABI and improve satisfaction with occupational performance in daily life.

  9. Oral impacts affecting daily performance in a low dental disease Thai population.

    PubMed

    Adulyanon, S; Vourapukjaru, J; Sheiham, A

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure incidence of oral impacts on daily performances and their related features in a low dental disease population. 501 people aged 35-44 years in 16 rural villages in Ban Phang district, Khon Kaen, Thailand, were interviewed about oral impacts on nine physical, psychological and social aspects of performance during the past 6 months, and then had an oral examination. The clinical and behavioural data showed that the sample had low caries (DMFT = 2.7) and a low utilization of dental services. 73.6% of all subjects had at least one daily performance affected by an oral impact. The highest incidence of performances affected were Eating (49.7%), Emotional stability (46.5%) and Smiling (26.1%). Eating, Emotional stability and Cleaning teeth performances had a high frequency or long duration of impacts, but a low severity. The low frequency performances; Physical activities, Major role activity and Sleeping were rated as high severity. Pain and discomfort were mainly perceived as the causes of impacts (40.1%) for almost every performance except Smiling. Toothache was the major causal oral condition (32.7%) of almost all aspects of performance. It was concluded that this low caries people have as high an incidence of oral impacts as industrialized, high dental disease populations. Frequency and severity presented the paradoxical effect on different performances and should both be taken into account for overall estimation of impacts.

  10. Association among activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and health-related quality of life in elderly Yi ethnic minority.

    PubMed

    Ran, Lingyun; Jiang, Xiaodong; Li, Baogang; Kong, Hongqian; Du, Mengqi; Wang, Xiaolan; Yu, Hua; Liu, Qin

    2017-03-22

    The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the elderly population of Yi ethnic minority, which is the seventh largest nationality in China, has been rarely reported. This study was designed to explore the HRQoL of the elderly Yi ethnicity and association between their HRQOL and functional abilities. A total of 291 Yi ethnic residents were randomly recruited from 12 rural counties in Yunnan province and divided into different age groups. Local residents in Yunnan province and the elderly from Hangzhou were enrolled as controls. The MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scales were utilized to evaluate the HRQoL and functional ability. One-way ANOVA was used to statistically compare the ADL and IADL among different age groups. The influential variables on HRQOL were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the association among HRQoL, ADL and IADL. The HRQoL of the elderly Yi minority was significantly lower than those of local residents in Yunnan province and the elderly counterparts in Hangzhou. The IADL ability of the elderly Yi minority was low, whereas they could perform most items of ADL. ADL, IADL, and education level were positively associated with HRQoL, whereas age, chronic diseases, and the frequency of medication use were negatively correlated with HRQoL. The HRQoL and functional capacity of the elderly Yi ethnic minority were lower compared with their counterparts in Yunnan province and Hangzhou. The low level of IADL indicated that the elderly Yi participants had a high risk of cognitive impairment. Much attention should be diverted to influential factors of the HRQoL.

  11. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  12. Daily Mini Quizzes as Means for Improving Student Performance in Anatomy Course

    PubMed Central

    Poljičanin, Ana; Čarić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina; Košta, Vana; Marinović Guić, Maja; Aljinović, Jure; Grković, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    Aim To evaluate daily-written 10-question quizzes in a medical anatomy course as a way to integrate assessment into the course and to evaluate their effect on the course success. Methods Students answering correctly 8/10 or more questions were awarded 0.5 points per quiz. There were 34 quizzes with a maximum point score 17. Measurable outcomes of academic progress in anatomy course (pass rates on 4 examination terms, total pass rate, and average marks) were calculated, and 2007/08 academic year was compared with the previous academic year in which daily written quizzes were not a part of the course. The relationship between cumulative points on daily quizzes and 3 components of the final examination (written, practical, and oral) for 2007/08 academic year was assessed by non-parametric correlation testing. Results Individual scores on quizzes ranged from 1.5 to 13.5 points. There was a positive correlation between scores on quizzes and grades on 3 components of the final examination: written (Spearman ρ = 0.784, P < 0.001, n = 79), practical (Spearman ρ = 0.342, P < 0.002, n = 79), and oral (Spearman ρ = 0.683, P < 0.001, n = 79) part. Compared with students in the previous academic year, students attending the course with daily quizzes significantly improved their academic achievement, expressed as the pass rate at the first examination term (39% vs 62%, respectively, χ2 test, P = 0.006) and the average course grade (2.71 ± 1.08 vs 3.38 ± 1.26, respectively; t test, P < 0.001). Conclusion Despite their frequency and possible associated stress, daily quizzes were associated with better academic success in the anatomy course. PMID:19260145

  13. Daily mini quizzes as means for improving student performance in anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Poljicanin, Ana; Carić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina; Kosta, Vana; Marinović Guić, Maja; Aljinović, Jure; Grković, Ivica

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate daily-written 10-question quizzes in a medical anatomy course as a way to integrate assessment into the course and to evaluate their effect on the course success. Students answering correctly 8/10 or more questions were awarded 0.5 points per quiz. There were 34 quizzes with a maximum point score 17. Measurable outcomes of academic progress in anatomy course (pass rates on 4 examination terms, total pass rate, and average marks) were calculated, and 2007/08 academic year was compared with the previous academic year in which daily written quizzes were not a part of the course. The relationship between cumulative points on daily quizzes and 3 components of the final examination (written, practical, and oral) for 2007/08 academic year was assessed by non-parametric correlation testing. Individual scores on quizzes ranged from 1.5 to 13.5 points. There was a positive correlation between scores on quizzes and grades on 3 components of the final examination: written (Spearman rho=0.784, P<0.001, n=79), practical (Spearman rho=0.342, P<0.002, n=79), and oral (Spearman rho=0.683, P<0.001, n=79) part. Compared with students in the previous academic year, students attending the course with daily quizzes significantly improved their academic achievement, expressed as the pass rate at the first examination term (39% vs 62%, respectively, chi(2) test, P=0.006, ) and the average course grade (2.71+/-1.08 vs 3.38+/-1.26, respectively; t test, P<0.001). Despite their frequency and possible associated stress, daily quizzes were associated with better academic success in the anatomy course.

  14. Persons with Alzheimer's disease perform daily activities using verbal-instruction technology: a maintenance assessment.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio; Singh, Nirbhay; O'Reilly, Mark; Zonno, Nadia; Cassano, Germana; De Vanna, Floriana; De Bari, Anna Laura; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    To assess whether verbal-instruction technology could help persons with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease maintain their recaptured performance of daily activities. This study followed nine patients who had participated in previous studies aimed at helping them recapture one or more functional daily activities (i.e. table setting, coffee, tea or snack preparation, use of make-up and shaving). The plan was to follow each patient for at least 6 months after the intervention, unless his/her condition called for an earlier end of the study. The study was interrupted after 5 months for two patients who developed serious behavioural problems and continued for 6-14 months for the other seven patients who had largely accurate performance with some adaptations of instructions/steps. Most patients also showed mood improvement during activity. Verbal-instruction technology might be considered a critical tool to help persons with Alzheimer's disease enhance their activity and mood.

  15. Daily Patterns of Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa: Associations with Eating Disorder Behaviors in the Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, Jason M.; De Young, Kyle P.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The role of anxiety has been emphasized in etiological/maintenance models of anorexia nervosa. This study identified daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa and examined the likelihood of the occurrence of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, the daily temporal distribution of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, and the extent to which the tendency to exhibit particular anxiety trajectories was associated with baseline diagnostic and trait-level personality variables. Women with full or subthreshold anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a two-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol during which they reported on a variety of behavioral and affective variables, including anxiety and eating disorder behaviors. Using latent growth mixture modeling to classify EMA days (N = 1526) based on anxiety ratings, seven distinct daily anxiety trajectories were identified. Overall differences between trajectories were found for rates of binge eating, self-induced vomiting, body checking, skipping meals, and dietary restriction. Further, distinct daily temporal distributions of eating disorder behaviors were found across the trajectories, with peaks in the probability of behaviors frequently coinciding with high levels of anxiety. Finally, traits of personality pathology (affective lability, self-harm, social avoidance, and oppositionality) and the presence of a co-occurring mood disorder were both found to be associated with the tendency to experience particular daily anxiety trajectories (e.g., Stable High anxiety). Findings support the presence of within-person variability in daily anxiety patterns in anorexia nervosa and also provide evidence for an association between these anxiety patterns and eating disorder behaviors. PMID:23647124

  16. Daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa: associations with eating disorder behaviors in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; De Young, Kyle P; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    The role of anxiety has been emphasized in etiological/maintenance models of anorexia nervosa. This study identified daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa and examined the likelihood of the occurrence of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, the daily temporal distribution of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, and the extent to which the tendency to exhibit particular anxiety trajectories was associated with baseline diagnostic and trait-level personality variables. Women with full or subthreshold anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol during which they reported on a variety of behavioral and affective variables, including anxiety and eating disorder behaviors. Using latent growth mixture modeling to classify EMA days (N = 1,526) based on anxiety ratings, we identified 7 distinct daily anxiety trajectories. Overall differences between trajectories were found for rates of binge eating, self-induced vomiting, body checking, skipping meals, and dietary restriction. Furthermore, distinct daily temporal distributions of eating disorder behaviors were found across the trajectories, with peaks in the probability of behaviors frequently coinciding with high levels of anxiety. Finally, traits of personality pathology (affective lability, self-harm, social avoidance, and oppositionality) and the presence of a co-occurring mood disorder were found to be associated with the tendency to experience particular daily anxiety trajectories (e.g., stable high anxiety). Findings support the presence of within-person variability in daily anxiety patterns in anorexia nervosa and also provide evidence for an association between these anxiety patterns and eating disorder behaviors.

  17. Obesity and use of compensatory strategies to perform common daily activities in pre-clinically disabled older adults.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Kelly M; Higgins, Torrance J; Manini, Todd M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the use of compensatory strategies to successfully complete common daily activities-an indicator of pre-clinical disability-and body mass in pre-clinically disabled older adults. Cross-sectional observational study. Two hundred and fifty-nine pre-clinically disabled older adults defined as having changed the frequency or manner of performing daily tasks without reporting any difficulty. The use of compensatory strategies were objectively evaluated using the Modification (MOD) scale-a reliable and valid scale for assessing the manner in which common daily activities were completed. Height and weight were measured to classify participants into the following body mass index (BMI) categories: (1) normal: 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2), (2) overweight: 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2), (3) obese class I: 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2), and (4) obese class II: 35.0-39.9 kg/m(2). Compared to other BMI categories, individuals with class II obesity demonstrated a significantly higher probability of using ≥1 compensatory strategies when rising from a chair (30 cm height), kneel to stand, stair ascent, stair descent, and supine to stand tasks. When summarized over all tasks, individuals with class II obesity were 18 times more likely to use extensive compensatory strategies (≥6 on MOD scale) compared to normal weight older adults. Similar trends at a lesser magnitude were found in obese and overweight compared to normal weight older adults. Obesity is associated with extensive use of compensatory strategies when performing common daily tasks prior to the onset of perceived difficulty, thus placing them at higher risk of disability compared to their peers with lower body mass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Daily online testing in large classes: boosting college performance while reducing achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    Pennebaker, James W; Gosling, Samuel D; Ferrell, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901) brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935). Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses.

  19. Short-term associations between particle oxidative potential and daily mortality and hospital admissions in London.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Richard W; Samoli, Evangelia; Analitis, Antonis; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Anderson, H Ross; Purdie, Esme; Dunster, Chrissi; Aitlhadj, Layla; Kelly, Frank J; Mudway, Ian S

    2016-08-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from traffic and other sources has been associated with adverse health effects. One unifying theory is that PM, whatever its source, acts on the human body via its capacity to cause damaging oxidation reactions related to its content of pro-oxidants components. Few epidemiological studies have investigated particle oxidative potential (OP) and health. We conducted a time series analysis to assess associations between daily particle OP measures and numbers of deaths and hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. During 2011 and 2012 particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 and 10μm (PM2.5 and PM10 respectively) were collected daily on Partisol filters located at an urban background monitoring station in Central London. Particulate OP was assessed based on the capacity of the particles to oxidize ascorbate (OP(AA)) and glutathione (OP(GSH)) from a simple chemical model reflecting the antioxidant composition of human respiratory tract lining fluid. Particulate OP, expressed as % loss of antioxidant per μg of PM, was then multiplied by the daily concentrations of PM to derive the daily OP of PM mass concentrations (% loss per m(3)). Daily numbers of deaths and age- and cause-specific hospital admissions in London were obtained from national registries. Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death or admission associated with an interquartile increment in particle OP. We found little evidence for adverse associations between OP(AA) and OP(GSH) and mortality. Associations with cardiovascular admissions were generally positive in younger adults and negative in older adults with confidence intervals including 0%. For respiratory admissions there was a trend, from positive to negative associations, with increasing age although confidence intervals generally included 0%. Our study, the first to analyse daily particle OP measures and

  20. Associations Between Fine Particulate Matter Components and Daily Mortality in Nagoya, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kayo; Yamagami, Makiko; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Hisatsune, Kunihiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Seasonal variation and regional heterogeneity have been observed in the estimated effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass on mortality. Differences in the chemical compositions of PM2.5 may cause this variation. We investigated the association of the daily concentration of PM2.5 components with mortality in Nagoya, Japan. Methods We combined daily mortality counts for all residents aged 65 years and older with concentration data for PM2.5 mass and components in Nagoya from April 2003 to December 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the association of daily mortality with PM2.5 mass and each component (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, elemental carbon [EC], and organic carbon [OC]). Results We found a stronger association between mortality and PM2.5 mass in transitional seasons. In analysis for each PM2.5 component, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, potassium, EC, and OC were significantly associated with mortality in a single-pollutant model. In a multi-pollutant model, an interquartile range increase in the concentration of sulfate was marginally associated with an increase in all-cause mortality of 2.1% (95% confidence interval, −0.1 to 4.4). Conclusions These findings suggest that some specific PM components have a more hazardous effect than others and contribute to seasonal variation in the health effects of PM2.5. PMID:26686882

  1. Assessing Fatigability in the Lab and in Daily Life in Older Adults With Osteoarthritis Using Perceived, Performance, and Ecological Measures.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Susan L; Kratz, Anna L; Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue in older adults is associated with functional decline and reduced participation in daily life; however, it is not well characterized. Examining fatigue within activity performance, or "fatigability," is a recommended approach to begin to understand fatigue and its underlying mechanisms. This study examined the construct validity of lab-based measures of fatigability and compared these measures with fatigability in daily life (termed ecological fatigability). Participants with osteoarthritis and fatigue (n = 163) underwent laboratory assessments, completed questionnaires, and wore accelerometers for 7 days while tracking symptoms and behaviors. Lab-based fatigability measures were quantified using the 6-minute walk test. Perceived fatigability was assessed by asking participants before and after the test to report: (i) fatigue severity and (ii) perceived exertion. Performance fatigability was calculated using change in walking speed divided by total distance walked. Ecological fatigability was calculated from the 7-day assessment in which fatigue severity was reported five times a day and physical activity was continuously measured. Additional ecological measures (eg, self-pacing) were examined. Lab-based perceived and performance fatigability measures were highly inter-correlated, moderately correlated with gait speed and metabolic measures, and weakly correlated with physical activity. Although ecological fatigability was weakly correlated with lab-based measures, participants with high fatigability on lab-based measures demonstrated more self-pacing behaviors than participants with low fatigability. Lab-based fatigability measures are related to physical capacity measured both in the lab and daily life. Lab-based fatigability measures provide important information regarding daily life fatigability useful for future intervention development. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2016. This work is written

  2. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lo, Yi-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants’ reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Methods Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD), 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI), were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined. Results Cronbach’s alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = –0.587, p <0.01). Notably, the TPIADL had a higher correlation coefficient with the cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = –0.663) than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = –0.541). The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812–0.965) to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%. Conclusion The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD. PMID:27851810

  3. Daily Physical Activity Is Associated with Subcortical Brain Volume and Cognition in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Alosco, Michael L; Brickman, Adam M; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Sweet, Lawrence H; Josephson, Richard; Griffith, Erica Y; Narkhede, Atul; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive impairment in heart failure (HF) is believed to in part stem from structural brain alterations, including shrinkage of subcortical regions. Fortunately, neurocognitive dysfunction in HF can be mitigated by physical activity (PA), though mechanisms for this phenomenon are unclear. PA is protective against age-related cognitive decline that may involve improved structural integrity to brain regions sensitive to aging (e.g., subcortical structures). Yet, no study has examined the benefits of PA on the brain in HF and we sought to do so and clarify related cognitive implications. Fifty older adults with HF completed a neuropsychological battery and wore an accelerometer for 7 days. All participants underwent brain MRI. This study targeted subcortical brain volume given subcortical alterations are often observed in HF and the sensitivity of PA to subcortical structures in other patient populations. Participants averaged 4348.49 (SD=2092.08) steps per day and greater daily steps predicted better attention/executive function, episodic memory, and language abilities, p's<.05. Medical and demographically adjusted regression analyses revealed higher daily steps per day predicted greater subcortical volume, with specific effects for the thalamus and ventral diencephalon, p's<.05. Greater subcortical volume was associated with better attention/executive function, p<.05. Higher daily PA was associated with increased subcortical brain volume and better cognition in older adults with HF. Longitudinal work is needed to clarify whether daily PA can attenuate brain atrophy in HF to reduce accelerated cognitive decline in this population.

  4. Design and performance of daily quality assurance system for carbon ion therapy at NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saotome, N.; Furukawa, T.; Hara, Y.; Mizushima, K.; Tansho, R.; Saraya, Y.; Shirai, T.; Noda, K.

    2017-09-01

    At National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), we have been commissioning a rotating-gantry system for carbon-ion radiotherapy. This rotating gantry can transport heavy ions at 430 MeV/u to an isocenter with irradiation angles of ±180° that can rotate around the patient so that the tumor can be irradiated from any direction. A three-dimensional pencil-beam scanning irradiation system equipped with the rotating gantry enables the optimal use of physical characteristics of carbon ions to provide accurate treatment. To ensure the treatment quality using such a complex system, the calibration of the primary dose monitor, output check, range check, dose rate check, machine safety check, and some mechanical tests should be performed efficiently. For this purpose, we have developed a measurement system dedicated for quality assurance (QA) of this gantry system: the Daily QA system. The system consists of an ionization chamber system and a scintillator system. The ionization chamber system is used for the calibration of the primary dose monitor, output check, and dose rate check, and the scintillator system is used for the range check, isocenter, and gantry angle. The performance of the Daily QA system was verified by a beam test. The stability of the output was within 0.5%, and the range was within 0.5 mm. The coincidence of the coordinates between the patient-positioning system and the irradiation system was verified using the Daily QA system. Our present findings verified that the new Daily QA system for a rotating gantry is capable of verifying the irradiation system with sufficient accuracy.

  5. Changes in Upper-Extremity Functional Capacity and Daily Performance During Outpatient Occupational Therapy for People With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Doman, Caitlin A; Waddell, Kimberly J; Bailey, Ryan R; Moore, Jennifer L; Lang, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how upper-extremity (UE) functional capacity and daily performance change during the course of outpatient rehabilitation in people with stroke. Fifteen participants receiving outpatient occupational therapy services for UE paresis poststroke were enrolled. UE motor capacity was measured with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and UE performance was measured using bilateral, wrist-worn accelerometers. Measurements were taken at or near the start of therapy, at every 10th visit or every 30 days throughout the duration of services, and at discharge. Three patterns were observed: (1) increase in ARAT scores and more normalized accelerometry profiles, (2) increase in ARAT scores but no change in accelerometry profiles, and (3) no change in ARAT scores or in accelerometry profiles. UE performance in daily life was highly variable, with inconsistencies between change in UE capacity and change in UE performance. UE capacity and performance are important constructs to assess separately during rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. New daily persistent headache: A lack of an association with white matter abnormalities on neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Todd D

    2016-09-01

    daily persistent headache population as a whole and not specific to the presence or absence of brain imaging lesions except for a post-surgery trigger, which was significantly more likely to occur in the white matter positive group. Migraine associated symptoms occurred in 77% of the white matter negative subgroup compared with 46% of the white matter positive subgroup, which was a significant difference. White matter abnormalities and infarct-like lesions do not appear to occur in primary new daily persistent headache patients. Only new daily persistent headache patients with risk factors (cardiovascular/cerebrovascular or migraine) developed white matter abnormalities on brain magnetic resonance imaging. No patient with new daily persistent headache developed infarct-like lesions. New daily persistent headache triggering events (outside of possibly post-surgery) or the presence of migrainous symptoms did not appear to enhance the development of white matter abnormalities. © International Headache Society 2015.

  7. Eccentric Viewing Training in the Home Environment: Can It Improve the Performance of Activities of Daily Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukicevic, Meri; Fitzmaurice, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration has a severe impact on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. This study investigated the impact of in-home training in eccentric viewing on near acuity and performance of activities of daily living. The results suggest that eccentric viewing can ameliorate the impact of the loss of vision that is due to…

  8. Eccentric Viewing Training in the Home Environment: Can It Improve the Performance of Activities of Daily Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukicevic, Meri; Fitzmaurice, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration has a severe impact on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. This study investigated the impact of in-home training in eccentric viewing on near acuity and performance of activities of daily living. The results suggest that eccentric viewing can ameliorate the impact of the loss of vision that is due to…

  9. Feasibility study of performing IGRT system daily QA using a commercial QA device.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jean L; Kahler, Darren; Li, Jonathan G; Amdur, Robert J; Vanek, Kenneth N; Liu, Chihray

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a single QA device for comprehensive, efficient daily QA of a linear accelerator (Linac) and three image-guided stereotactic positioning systems (IGSPSs). The Sun Nuclear Daily QA 3 (DQA3) device was used to perform daily dosimetry and mechanical accuracy tests for an Elekta Linac, as well as daily image geometric and isocenter coincidence accuracy tests for three IGSPSs: the AlignRT surface imaging system; the frameless SonArray optical tracking System (FSA) and the Elekta kV CBCT. The DQA3 can also be used for couch positioning, repositioning, and rotational tests during the monthly QA. Based on phantom imaging, the Linac coordinate system determined using AlignRT was within 0.7 mm/0.6° of that of the CBCT system. The difference is attributable to the different calibration methods that are utilized for these two systems. The laser alignment was within 0.5 mm of the isocenter location determined with the three IGSPSs. The ODI constancy was ± 0.5 mm. For gantry and table angles of 0°, the mean isocenter displacement vectors determined using the three systems were within 0.7 mm and 0.6° of one another. Isocenter rotational offsets measured with the systems were all ≤ 0.5°. For photon and electron beams tested over a period of eight months, the output was verified to remain within 2%, energy variations were within 2%, and the symmetry and flatness were within 1%. The field size and light-radiation coincidence were within 1mm ± 1 mm. For dosimetry reproducibility, the standard deviation was within 0.2% for all tests and all energies, except for photon energy variation which was 0.6%. The total measurement time for all tasks took less than 15 minutes per QA session compared to 40 minutes with our previous procedure, which utilized an individual QA device for each IGSPS. The DQA3 can be used for accurate and efficient Linac and IGSPS daily QA. It shortens QA device setup time, eliminates

  10. Saharan Dust and Associations between Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality in Rome, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mallone, Sandra; Faustini, Annunziata; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Marconi, Achille; Forastiere, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background: Outbreaks of Saharan-Sahel dust over Euro-Mediterranean areas frequently induce exceedances of the Europen Union's 24-hr standard of 50 μg/m3 for particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ than 10 μm (PM10). Objectives: We evaluated the effect of Saharan dust on the association between different PM fractions and daily mortality in Rome, Italy. Methods: In a study of 80,423 adult residents who died in Rome between 2001 and 2004, we performed a time-series analysis to explore the effects of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, and PM10 on natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality. We defined Saharan dust days by combining light detection and ranging (LIDAR) observations and analyses from operational models. We tested a Saharan dust–PM interaction term to evaluate the hypothesis that the effects of PM, especially coarse PM (PM2.5–10), on mortality would be enhanced on dust days. Results: Interquartile range increases in PM2.5–10 (10.8 μg/m3) and PM10 (19.8 μg/m3) were associated with increased mortality due to natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory causes, with estimated effects ranging from 2.64% to 12.65% [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–25.42%] for the association between PM2.5–10 and respiratory mortality (0- to 5-day lag). Associations of PM2.5–10 with cardiac mortality were stronger on Saharan dust days (9.73%; 95% CI, 4.25–15.49%) than on dust-free days (0.86%; 95% CI, –2.47% to 4.31%; p = 0.005). Saharan dust days also modified associations between PM10 and cardiac mortality (9.55% increase; 95% CI, 3.81–15.61%; vs. dust-free days: 2.09%; 95% CI, –0.76% to 5.02%; p = 0.02). Conclusions: We found evidence of effects of PM2.5–10 and PM10 on natural and cause-specific mortality, with stronger estimated effects on cardiac mortality during Saharan dust outbreaks. Toxicological and biological effects of particles from desert sources need to be further investigated and taken into account in air quality

  11. Hydraulic performance of compacted clay liners under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    PubMed

    Aldaeef, A A; Rayhani, M T

    2015-10-01

    Compacted clay liners (CCLs) are commonly used as hydraulic barriers in several landfill applications to isolate contaminants from the surrounding environment and minimize the escape of leachate from the landfill. Prior to waste placement in landfills, CCLs are often exposed to temperature fluctuations which can affect the hydraulic performance of the liner. Experimental research was carried out to evaluate the effects of daily thermal cycles on the hydraulic performance of CCLs under simulated landfill conditions. Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on different soil specimens after being exposed to various thermal and dehydration cycles. An increase in the CCL hydraulic conductivity of up to one order of magnitude was recorded after 30 thermal cycles for soils with low plasticity index (PI = 9.5%). However, medium (PI = 25%) and high (PI = 37.2%) plasticity soils did not show significant hydraulic deviation due to their self-healing potential. Overlaying the CCL with a cover layer minimized the effects of daily thermal cycles, and maintained stable hydraulic performance in the CCLs even after exposure to 60 thermal cycles. Wet-dry cycles had a significant impact on the hydraulic aspect of low plasticity CCLs. However, medium and high plasticity CCLs maintained constant hydraulic performance throughout the test intervals. The study underscores the importance of protecting the CCL from exposure to atmosphere through covering it by a layer of geomembrane or an interim soil layer.

  12. Associations of objectively measured physical activity with daily mood ratings and psychophysiological stress responses in women.

    PubMed

    Poole, Lydia; Steptoe, Andrew; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Bostock, Sophie; Mitchell, Ellen S; Hamer, Mark

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of objectively measured physical activity with daily mood ratings and psychophysiological stress responses. We recruited 40 healthy females (aged 28.7 ± 6.1 yrs) who completed a once-a-day mood rating scale for 7 days, along with a 7-day assessment of physical activity using accelerometers and psychophysiological stress testing. The findings suggest that levels of physical activity as measured using an accelerometer are associated with both depressive symptoms over the past 2 weeks (CES-D) (r = - .33, p = .038) and with daily positive emotional style (r = .49, p = .001). The relationship between physical activity and positive emotional style remained after controlling for age, body mass index, and negative emotional style (t = 3.31, p = .002). Physical activity was not related to any psychophysiological stress responses. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Performance assessment of different data mining methods in statistical downscaling of daily precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, M.; Tavakol-Davani, H.; Zahraie, B.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, nonlinear Data-Mining (DM) methods have been used to extend the most cited statistical downscaling model, SDSM, for downscaling of daily precipitation. The proposed model is Nonlinear Data-Mining Downscaling Model (NDMDM). The four nonlinear and semi-nonlinear DM methods which are included in NDMDM model are cubic-order Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Model Tree (MT), k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) and Genetic Algorithm-optimized Support Vector Machine (GA-SVM). The daily records of 12 rain gauge stations scattered in basins with various climates in Iran are used to compare the performance of NDMDM model with statistical downscaling method. Comparison between statistical downscaling and NDMDM results in the selected stations indicates that combination of MT and MARS methods can provide daily rain estimations with less mean absolute error and closer monthly standard deviation and skewness values to the historical records for both calibration and validation periods. The results of the future projections of precipitation in the selected rain gauge stations using A2 and B2 SRES scenarios show significant uncertainty of the NDMDM and statistical downscaling models.

  14. Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated with Brain Morphometric Measures in Adolescents or Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  15. Finding the middle ground: Curvilinear associations between positive affect variability and daily cortisol profiles.

    PubMed

    Human, Lauren J; Whillans, Ashley V; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Klumb, Petra; Dickerson, Sally S; Dunn, Elizabeth W

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that there are stable and meaningful individual differences in how much people vary in their experience of positive affect (PA), which in turn may have implications for health and well-being. Does such PA variability play a role in physiological processes potentially related to stress and health, such as daily cortisol profiles? We explored this question by examining whether PA variability across and within days in middle-aged adults (Study 1) and across weeks in older adults (Study 2) was associated with daily salivary cortisol profiles. In both studies, individuals who exhibited moderate PA variability demonstrated more favorable cortisol profiles, such as lower levels of cortisol and steeper slopes. Interestingly, for middle-aged adults (Study 1), high levels of within-day PA variability were associated with the least favorable cortisol profiles, whereas for older adults (Study 2), low levels of across-week PA variability were associated with the least favorable cortisol profiles. Collectively, these findings provide some of the first evidence that PA variability is related to daily cortisol profiles, suggesting that it may be better to experience a moderate degree of positive affect variability. Too much or too little variability, however, may be problematic, potentially carrying negative implications for stress-related physiological responding.

  16. Arm strength training improves activities of daily living and occupational performance in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Arikan, Hulya; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Oksuz, Cigdem; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Savci, Sema; Duger, Tulin; Coplu, Lutfi

    2015-12-01

    Arm strength training may improve functional performance for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This trial investigated the effects of arm strength training on arm exercise capacity, activities of daily living (ADL) and occupational performance in patients with COPD. These was a randomized controlled trial in an outpatient clinic. Forty-two stable patients with COPD were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The treatment group underwent an 8-week (23 sessions) arm strength training programme. Both groups completed daily breathing exercises at home. Tests included hand grip strength, arm ergometer test, the Glittre-ADL and ADL Simulation tests and measures included the Milliken ADL Scale (MAS) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Statistically significant increases were detected in hand grip strength and %hand grip strength values, peak arm ergometer workload and the number of ADL simulation test cycles for the treatment group (p < 0.05). Significant decreases were also found in dyspnea and arm fatigue perception during arm ergometer test, and heart rate and dyspnea perception during Glittre-ADL test in the treatment group (p < 0.05). The treatment group also showed significant increases in MAS-house cleaning and laundry and MAS-other activities integrated scores and COPM-performance and satisfaction scores (p < 0.05). Arm strength training increases peripheral muscle strength, arm exercise capacity, ADL performance and patients' ADL performance satisfaction. Training decreases dyspnea and arm fatigue perception during supported arm exercises, and dyspnea perception during ADL. Arm strength training is a reliable and feasible treatment for COPD patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Building high-performance system for processing a daily large volume of Chinese satellites imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Huawu; Huang, Shicun; Wang, Qi; Pan, Zhiqiang; Xin, Yubin

    2014-10-01

    The number of Earth observation satellites from China increases dramatically recently and those satellites are acquiring a large volume of imagery daily. As the main portal of image processing and distribution from those Chinese satellites, the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA) has been working with PCI Geomatics during the last three years to solve two issues in this regard: processing the large volume of data (about 1,500 scenes or 1 TB per day) in a timely manner and generating geometrically accurate orthorectified products. After three-year research and development, a high performance system has been built and successfully delivered. The high performance system has a service oriented architecture and can be deployed to a cluster of computers that may be configured with high end computing power. The high performance is gained through, first, making image processing algorithms into parallel computing by using high performance graphic processing unit (GPU) cards and multiple cores from multiple CPUs, and, second, distributing processing tasks to a cluster of computing nodes. While achieving up to thirty (and even more) times faster in performance compared with the traditional practice, a particular methodology was developed to improve the geometric accuracy of images acquired from Chinese satellites (including HJ-1 A/B, ZY-1-02C, ZY-3, GF-1, etc.). The methodology consists of fully automatic collection of dense ground control points (GCP) from various resources and then application of those points to improve the photogrammetric model of the images. The delivered system is up running at CRESDA for pre-operational production and has been and is generating good return on investment by eliminating a great amount of manual labor and increasing more than ten times of data throughput daily with fewer operators. Future work, such as development of more performance-optimized algorithms, robust image matching methods and application

  18. Cortisol dysregulation is associated with daily diary-reported hot flashes among midlife women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Carolyn J; Thurston, Rebecca C; Matthews, Karen A

    2016-10-01

    Hot flashes are reported by 70-80% of women during the menopause transition. It has been proposed that cortisol dysregulation is involved in hot flashes, but the relationship between cortisol and hot flashes has received little empirical attention. This study examined the relationship between cortisol and daily self-reported hot flashes. For 7 days, participants used electronic diaries to report their hot flash frequency, severity and bothersomeness, along with mood and health behaviours, multiple times each day. Participants also provided hair samples for cortisol assays at baseline and morning and bedtime saliva samples for salivary cortisol collection over 3 days during the observation period. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the relationships between cortisol and hot flashes. Forty-four women (41% African American, 39% non-Hispanic White) who reported daily hot flashes were enrolled. Salivary cortisol, hair cortisol and the frequency, severity and bothersomeness of daily diary-reported hot flashes were measured in this study. Controlling for health and demographic variables, higher hair cortisol was associated with a higher frequency of hot flashes (β = 0·05, P = 0·01). A flatter diurnal cortisol slope was associated with greater hot flash severity (β = 0·09, P = 0·03) and bother (β = 0·10, P = 0·01). Hair cortisol was no longer significant after adjusting for depression or disturbed sleep; all other associations persisted. Cortisol dysregulation was related to more frequent, severe and bothersome daily self-reported hot flashes. These findings support a potential role of the HPA axis in the aetiology and phenomenology of these common menopause symptoms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Patterns of acetaminophen medication use associated with exceeding the recommended maximum daily dose.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Rohay, Jeffrey M; Battista, Deena; Kelly, Judith P; Malone, Mary K; Weinstein, Rachel B; Kaufman, David W

    2015-09-01

    Acetaminophen overuse has been linked to liver injury. To identify patterns of medication use associated with exceeding the recommended daily maximum dose of 4 g acetaminophen. Respondents from a national panel completed a detailed daily medication diary online for 7 days (n = 5649), identifying medications taken from a comprehensive list of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription (Rx) acetaminophen medications. Respondents were not told the study concerned acetaminophen. Total daily intake was calculated from diary data. Generalized estimating equations assessed the association of medication patterns with exceeding 4 g per day among 3618 respondents who used acetaminophen medications (on 13,852 days) during the diary period. Acetaminophen intake exceeded 4 g on 3.1% of usage days; median intake on those days was 5.5 g. As expected, days when intake exceeded 4 g were almost always (92%) marked by deviations from label directions-exceeding the one-time dose, re-dosing too soon, and concomitant use of multiple acetaminophen medications. Re-dosing too soon was the most frequent deviation, and concomitant use was most strongly tied to exceeding the daily limit. Use of both an Rx and an OTC medication on the same day also increased the odds of exceeding 4 g on days when concomitant use occurred. Excess dosing of acetaminophen is associated with deviations from label directions and by use of both OTC and Rx medications containing acetaminophen within a single concomitant use day. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [Factors associated with quitting intention among male daily smokers in rural areas].

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Liu, Y X; Wang, J; Jia, C Q

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To study the intention on quitting smoking and related factors, so as to provide evidence on related important determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 14 villages in Shandong, China. A total of 1 287 male daily smokers were interviewed, face-to-face. Multiple logistic regression method was used to assess the factors associated with quitting intention among male daily smokers. Dominance analysis was used to assess the relative contribution of determinants on quitting intention which were identified in the multiple logistic regression model. Results: Among 1 287 male daily smokers, 24.7% expressed quitting intention within the next 6 months. Four determinants for quitting intention were identified in the multiple logistic regression model, including previous experience of quitting attempt (OR=1.691, 95% CI:1.458-1.962), lower level of smoking intensity (OR=0.751, 95%CI: 0.639-0.884), extensive knowledge on specific health effects of smoking (OR=1.038, 95% CI: 1.001-1.077) and presence of chronic disease (OR=1.765, 95% CI: 1.013-3.075). Results from the dominance analysis showed that 'previous quitting attempt experience' was the most important determinant regarding quitting intention, followed by low smoking intensity, knowledge of the specific health effects of smoking, and the presence of chronic disease. Conclusion: The rate of quitting intention on cigarette smoking among rural male smokers remained low. Quitting intention was associated with previous quit attempt experience.

  1. The grateful are patient: Heightened daily gratitude is associated with attenuated temporal discounting.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Leah; DeSteno, David

    2016-06-01

    Past research has regularly linked the experience of affect to increased impatience and, thereby, decreased self-control. Given emerging work identifying the emotion gratitude as a fairly unique affective state capable of enhancing, rather than inhibiting, patience, the present study examined the association between chronically elevated gratitude and individual differences in temporal discounting. Participants' levels of gratitude were assessed in response to a standardized lab induction and then over a 3-week period prior to measurement of their financial patience in the form of an incentivized delay discounting task. Analyses revealed a strong relation between lab-based and naturally occurring gratitude levels, thereby confirming the validity of the daily online measures. Of import, mean levels of daily gratitude were significantly associated with increased patience in the form of decreased temporal discounting. As expected, no similar relation emerged for daily levels of happiness, thereby confirming the relative specificity of the positive state of gratitude. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Fluid Cognitive Ability is associated with Greater Exposure and Smaller Emotional Reactions to Daily Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.; Lachman, Margie E.; Tun, Patricia A.; Rosnick, Christopher B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether fluid cognitive ability predicts exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. A national sample of adults from Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study and the National Study of Daily Experiences (N = 1,202) with a mean age of 57 (SD = 12, 56% female) completed positive and negative mood reports, as well as a stressor diary on 8 consecutive evenings via telephone. Participants also completed a telephone-based battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive ability. Higher levels of fluid cognitive ability were associated with greater exposure to work- and home-related overload stressors. Possessing higher levels of fluid cognitive ability was associated with smaller stressor-related increases in negative mood, primarily for interpersonal tensions and network stressors, and smaller stressor-related decreases in positive mood for interpersonal tensions. Furthermore, fluid cognitive ability was unrelated to subjective severity ratings of the stressors reported. Discussion focuses on the role of fluid cognitive ability in daily stress processes. PMID:20545418

  3. The effect of reproductive performance on the dairy cattle herd value assessed by integrating a daily dynamic programming model with a daily Markov chain model.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, A S; Cabrera, V E

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reproductive performance on dairy cattle herd value. Herd value was defined as the herd's average retention payoff (RPO). Individual cow RPO is the expected profit from keeping the cow compared with immediate replacement. First, a daily dynamic programming model was developed to calculate the RPO of all cow states in a herd. Second, a daily Markov chain model was applied to estimate the herd demographics. Finally, the herd value was calculated by aggregating the RPO of all cows in the herd. Cow states were described by 5 milk yield classes (76, 88, 100, 112, and 124% with respect to the average), 9 lactations, 750 d in milk, and 282 d in pregnancy. Five different reproductive programs were studied (RP1 to RP5). Reproductive program 1 used 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI; 42% conception rate for first TAI and 30% for second and later services) and the other programs combined TAI with estrus detection. The proportion of cows receiving artificial insemination after estrus detection ranged from 30 to 80%, and conception rate ranged from 25 to 35%. These 5 reproductive programs were categorized according to their 21-d pregnancy rate (21-d PR), which is an indication of the rate that eligible cows become pregnant every 21 d. The 21-d PR was 17% for RP1, 14% for RP2, 16% for RP3, 18% for RP4, and 20% for RP5. Results showed a positive relationship between 21-d PR and herd value. The most extreme herd value difference between 2 reproductive programs was $77/cow per yr for average milk yield (RP5 - RP2), $13/cow per yr for lowest milk yield (RP5 - RP1), and $160/cow per yr for highest milk yield (RP5 - RP2). Reproductive programs were ranked based on their calculated herd value. With the exception of the best reproductive program (RP5), all other programs showed some level of ranking change according to milk yield. The most dramatic ranking change was observed in RP1, which moved from being the worst ranked

  4. Sleep and affect in older adults: using multilevel modeling to examine daily associations

    PubMed Central

    McCRAE, CHRISTINA S.; McNAMARA, JOSEPH P. H.; ROWE, MEREDETH A.; DZIERZEWSKI, JOSEPH M.; DIRK, JUDITH; MARSISKE, MICHAEL; CRAGGS, JASON G.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The main objective of the present study was to examine daily associations (intraindividual variability or IIV) between sleep and affect in older adults. Greater understanding of these associations is important, because both sleep and affect represent modifiable behaviors that can have a major influence on older adults’ health and well-being. We collected sleep diaries, actigraphy, and affect data concurrently for 14 days in 103 community-dwelling older adults. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the sleep–affect relationship at both the group (between-persons) and individual (within-person or IIV) levels. We hypothesized that nights characterized by better sleep would be associated with days characterized by higher positive affect and lower negative affect, and that the inverse would be true for poor sleep. Daily associations were found between affect and subjective sleep, only and were in the hypothesized direction. Specifically, nights with greater reported awake time or lower sleep quality ratings were associated with days characterized by less positive affect and more negative affect. Gender was not a significant main effect in the present study, despite previous research suggesting gender differences in the sleep–affect relationship. The fact that self-ratings of sleep emerged as the best predictors of affect may suggest that perceived sleep is a particularly important predictor. Finally, our results suggest exploration of affect as a potential intervention target in late-life insomnia is warranted. PMID:18275554

  5. Coping with Daily Thermal Variability: Behavioural Performance of an Ectotherm Model in a Warming World

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, José M.; Castillo, Simón B.; Folguera, Guillermo; Abades, Sebastián; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change poses one of the greatest threats to species persistence. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the effects of acclimation to daily variance of temperature on dispersal and exploratory behavior in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis in an open field. Acclimation treatments were 24±0, 24±4 and 24±8°C. Because the performance of ectotherms relates nonlinearly to temperature, we predicted that animals acclimated to a higher daily thermal variation should minimize the time exposed in the centre of open field, – i.e. increase the linearity of displacements. Consistent with our prediction, isopods acclimated to a thermally variable environment reduce their exploratory behaviour, hypothetically to minimize their exposure to adverse environmental conditions. This scenario as well as the long latency of animals after releases acclimated to variable environments is consistent with this idea. We suggested that to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of environmental temperature on animals' performance. PMID:25207653

  6. [Cognitive reserve in substance addicts in treatment: relation to cognitive performance and activities of daily living].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Rojo-Mota, Gloria; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M; Fernández-Méndez, Laura M; Morales-Alonso, Sara; Prieto-Hidalgo, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve has gradually attracted more interest as a greater body of evidence has been collected on its relationship with the resistance of the brain to decline in its functioning when faced with neurological threats or disorders. Although a large amount of research has been conducted on (degenerative, traumatic, psychopathological) conditions, very few studies relate cognitive reserve with substance addiction, a multidimensional process with a clear neurological base. To explore the cognitive reserve of patients undergoing treatment for addiction to drugs of abuse by relating it with their cognitive performance in neuropsychological tests and in activities of daily living. The study involved a sample of 57 patients being treated for substance abuse at a centre set up for this specific purpose. The cognitive reserve questionnaire, the Montreal cognitive assessment and the prefrontal symptoms inventory were administered, and variables related with the addiction were collected. A positive relation was found between the cognitive reserve and the time of abstinence, and a negative one was seen with the severity of the addiction. Significant differences were observed according to the cognitive reserve in neuropsychological performance (especially in certain cognitive domains) and in daily activities. The cognitive reserve appears as a variable related to addiction and the cognitive deficits that accompany it. It is thus a potential target for rehabilitation activities and is linked to the environmental enrichment paradigm, as a strategy for enhancing resistance against the cognitive impairment that favours and maintains the addiction, and for lowering the reinforcing potential of the behaviour of consuming.

  7. Coping with daily thermal variability: behavioural performance of an ectotherm model in a warming world.

    PubMed

    Rojas, José M; Castillo, Simón B; Folguera, Guillermo; Abades, Sebastián; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change poses one of the greatest threats to species persistence. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the effects of acclimation to daily variance of temperature on dispersal and exploratory behavior in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis in an open field. Acclimation treatments were 24 ± 0, 24 ± 4 and 24 ± 8 °C. Because the performance of ectotherms relates nonlinearly to temperature, we predicted that animals acclimated to a higher daily thermal variation should minimize the time exposed in the centre of open field, --i.e. increase the linearity of displacements. Consistent with our prediction, isopods acclimated to a thermally variable environment reduce their exploratory behaviour, hypothetically to minimize their exposure to adverse environmental conditions. This scenario as well as the long latency of animals after releases acclimated to variable environments is consistent with this idea. We suggested that to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of environmental temperature on animals' performance.

  8. Daily propranolol administration reduces persistent injury-associated anemia after severe trauma and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Ines G; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Bible, Letitia E; Loftus, Tyler J; Ramos, Harry; Efron, Philip A; Mohr, Alicia M

    2017-04-01

    After severe trauma, patients develop a norepinephrine-mediated persistent, injury-associated anemia. This anemia is associated with suppression of bone marrow (BM) erythroid colony growth, along with decreased iron levels, and elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, which are insufficient to promote effective erythropoiesis. The impact of norepinephrine on iron regulators, such as ferroportin, transferrin, and transferrin receptor-1 (TFR-1), is unknown. Using a clinically relevant rodent model of lung contusion (LC), hemorrhagic shock (HS), and chronic stress (CS), we hypothesize that daily propranolol (BB), a nonselective β blocker, restores BM function and improves iron homeostasis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to LCHS ± BB and LCHS/CS ± BB. BB was achieved with propranolol (10 mg/kg) daily until the day of sacrifice. Hemoglobin, plasma EPO, plasma hepcidin, BM cellularity and BM erythroid colony growth were assessed. RNA was isolated to measure transferrin, TFR-1 and ferroportin expression. Data are presented as mean ± SD; *p < 0.05 versus untreated counterpart by t test. The addition of CS to LCHS leads to persistent anemia on posttrauma day 7, while the addition of BB improved hemoglobin levels (LCHS/CS: 10.6 ± 0.8 vs. LCHS/CS + BB: 13.9 ± 0.4* g/dL). Daily BB use after LCHS/CS improved BM cellularity, colony-forming units granulocyte, erythrocyte, monocyte megakaryocyte, burst-forming unit erythroid and colony-forming unit erythroid cell colony growth. LCHS/CS + BB significantly reduced plasma EPO levels and increased plasma hepcidin levels on day 7. The addition of CS to LCHS resulted in decreased liver ferroportin expression as well as decreased BM transferrin and TFR-1 expression, thus, blocking iron supply to erythroid cells. However, daily BB after LCHS/CS improved expression of all iron regulators. Daily propranolol administration after LCHS/CS restored BM function and improved anemia after severe trauma. In addition, iron regulators are

  9. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  10. Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning daily occupations. This case study explored the pattern of Global Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies…

  11. Drinking Norm-Behavior Association Over Time Using Retrospective and Daily Measures*

    PubMed Central

    Cullum, Jerry; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Social norm-based interventions in college drinking are common but show mixed efficacy. Although such interventions assume a passive social-influence process, past research relied heavily on retrospective measures, leaving open the possibility that heuristic biases during recall may alternatively account for or inflate estimates of social influence from prospective norm—drinking associations. The present study examined this possibility, using retrospective and daily aggregated measures of self and perceived peer drinking behavior. Method: For each of 3 years, students (N = 574; 288 men) reported on their drinking levels and perceptions of descriptive drinking norms, using conventional retrospective reports over a month period and daily diary reports for 30 days. Using structural equation modeling, we tested cross-lag longitudinal models for evidence of social-influence/ alternative processes and compared cross-lag effects across retrospective and daily aggregate models to determine the extent to which heuristic recall biases contribute to the norm—behavior association. Results: Perceptions of social norms had a small but reliable effect on changing drinking behavior across years, as indicated by model comparisons. Past drinking behavior also consistently shaped changing perceptions of drinking norms. These effects were not attributable to, nor inflated by, heuristic biases during retrospective reporting of personal and peer behavior. Conclusions: These results suggest that social influence and not heuristic biases contribute to the long-term norm—drinking association but that alternative processes, whereby past drinking behavior shapes norm perceptions, contribute more to the norm—drinking association. Implications for interventions designed to reduce college drinking are discussed. PMID:20731984

  12. Associations of daily mortality and air pollution in Los Angeles County

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, P.L.; Ozkaynak, H. )

    1991-04-01

    We report results of a multiple regression analysis examining associations between aggregate daily mortality counts and environmental variables in Los Angeles County, California for the period 1970 to 1979. Mortality variable included total deaths not due to accidents and violence (M), deaths due to cardiovascular causes (CV), and deaths due to respiratory causes (Resp). The environmental variables included five pollutants averaged over Los Angeles County--total oxidants (Ox), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and KM (a measure of particulate optical reflectance). Also included were three metereological variables measured at the Los Angeles International Airport--temperature (Temp), relative humidity (RH), and extinction coefficient (Bext), the latter estimated from noontime visual range. To reduce the possibility of spurious correlations arising from the shared seasonal cycles of mortality and environmental variables, seasonal cycles were removed from the data by applying a high-pass filter. Cross-correlation functions were examined to determine the lag structure of the data prior to specifying and fitting the multiple regression models relating mortality and the environmental variables. The results demonstrated significant associations of M (or CV) with Ox at lag 1, temperature, and NO{sub 2}, CO, or KM. Each of the latter three variables were strongly associated with daily mortality but also were highly correlated with one another in the high-frequency band, making it impossible to uniquely estimate their separate relationships to mortality. The results of this study show that small but significant associations exist in Los Angeles County between daily mortality and three separate environmental factors: temperature, primary motor vehicle-related pollutants (e.g., CO, KM, NO{sub 2}), and photochemical oxidants.

  13. Relationship between vision impairment and ability to perform activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Haymes, Sharon A; Johnston, Alan W; Heyes, Anthony D

    2002-03-01

    To determine the relationship between clinical measures of vision impairment and the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). One hundred and twenty subjects with low vision from a variety of causes participated in the study. Vision impairment was assessed under binocular conditions by measuring distance visual acuity, near word acuity, Melbourne Edge Test contrast sensitivity, Pelli-Robson Chart contrast sensitivity and visual fields. The ADL performance was assessed using the Melbourne Low Vision ADL Index (MLVAI), which is in part an observed performance assessment of instrumental ADLs and in part a self-report assessment of basic self-care ADLs. All vision measures had a high, statistically significant correlation with MLVAI total score. Near word acuity, had the strongest correlation (r(s) = -0.86, p < 0.001), followed by Melbourne Edge Test contrast sensitivity (r(s) = 0.80, p < 0.001). Visual field had the weakest correlation (r(s) = 0.56, p < 0.001). Together, age, near word acuity, Melbourne Edge Test contrast sensitivity and visual field accounted for 82.2% (adjusted R2, p < 0.001) of the variance in MLVAI total score. All correlations obtained were higher for the observed performance assessment of instrumental ADLs than for the self-report assessment of basic self-care ADLs. Clinical vision impairment measures are highly correlated with capacity to perform ADLs, as measured by the MLVAI.

  14. Higher Stimulus Control is Associated with Less Cigarette Intake in Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Stuart G.; Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Schüz, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that environmental stimuli influence smoking in light, and to a lesser degree, heavy smokers. A two-factor model of dependence suggests that the influence of stimulus control is masked among heavier smokers who primarily smoke for nicotine maintenance. The current study aimed to assess the influence of stimulus control across a range of moderate to heavy daily smokers. Furthermore, as local tobacco control policies may change the role of stimulus control, the study aimed to replicate previous US findings on stimulus control in an Australian setting marked by strong tobacco control policies. In two Ecological Momentary Assessment studies, 420 participants monitored antecedents of smoking and non-smoking situations. In a set of idiographic logistic regression analyses, situational antecedents were used to predict smoking occasions within each individual’s data. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the association between stimulus control and smoking rate, and to test for differences between the two samples. Daily smokers’ smoking was under considerable stimulus control, which was weaker at higher smoking rates. Overall, there was greater stimulus control in the Australian sample. Daily smokers also experience a degree of stimulus control, which is less influential in heavier smokers. PMID:26766542

  15. Examining the Associations between Daily Caregiving Discontinuity and Children’s Social-Emotional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2015-01-01

    Many child care centers temporarily move children and teachers in and out of their assigned classrooms throughout the day. Such practices create frequent discontinuity in children’s experiences in child care, including discontinuity in their peer and teacher relationships. This study examined the prevalence and patterns of teacher and child movement between classrooms, the characteristics of teachers and children who were more likely to move between classrooms on a daily basis, and the associations between children’s and teachers’ rate of daily movement between classrooms with children’s social-emotional outcomes. A moderate to high prevalence of child and teacher movement between classrooms was observed (29% and 83%, respectively). Children who were younger, considered solitary, and who had been enrolled in their classroom for shorter periods of time were less likely to transition between classrooms. Children’s rate of movement was a positive predictor of teachers’ perceived conflict with children in their care, and a negative predictor of teachers’ perceived closeness. In addition, the more frequently teachers moved, the less children were inclined to indicate liking their teachers or centers. However, the more frequently children moved, the more likely children were to indicate liking their peers and for their peers to indicate liking them. Results are interpreted in light of additional research avenues that can inform sensible daily teacher continuity practices. PMID:25822893

  16. [Association between temperature and daily mortality in Guangzhou, 2006-2009: a time-series study].

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing-hua; Zhang, Yong-hui; Ma, Wen-jun; Xu, Yan-jun; Xu, Xiao-jun; Cai, Qiu-mao; Pan, Bo; Zeng, Si-qing

    2011-01-01

    To study the association between temperature and daily mortality from June 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009 in Guangzhou. Time series approach was used to estimate the impact of temperature on the rates of total and cause-specific daily mortality. We fitted generalized additive Poisson regression using non-parametric smooth functions to control for the long-term time trend, day of week, air pollution and other weather variables. A slight sloping U-like relationship between the total mortality and temperature was found, with an optimum average temperature (temperature with lowest mortality risk) value of 19.7°C in Guangzhou. For temperature above the optimum value, the relative risk of total mortality increased by 3.0% (RR=1.030, 95%CI: 1.011-1.050) for each increase of degree in Celsius. For average temperature below the optimum value, the relative risk of total mortality and diseases of circulatory system had a 3.3% (RR=0.967, 95%CI: 0.936-0.997) decrease and a 3.6% (RR=0.964, 95%CI: 0.935-0.994) increase, for each degree of Celsius increase, respectively. Our findings showed that the temperature had an impact on the daily mortality in Guangzhou. Countermeasures needed to be taken to reduce the temperature related mortality.

  17. The association between two windchill indices and daily mortality variation in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Kunst, A E; Groenhof, F; Mackenbach, J P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to compare temperature and two windchill indices with respect to the strength of their association with daily variation in mortality in the Netherlands during 1979 to 1987. The two windchill indices were those developed by Siple and Passel and by Steadman. METHODS. Daily numbers of cause-specific deaths were related to the meteorological variables by means of Poisson regression with control for influenza incidence. Lag times were taken into account. RESULTS. Daily variation in mortality, especially mortality from heart disease, was more strongly related to the Steadman windchill index than to temperature or the Siple and Passel index (34.9%, 31.2%, and 31.5%, respectively, of mortality variation explained). The strongest relation was found with daytime values of the Steadman index. CONCLUSIONS. In areas where spells of cold are frequently accompanied by strong wind, the use of the Steadman index probably adds much to the identification of weather conditions involving an increased risk of death. The results of this study provide no justification for the wide-spread use (e.g., in the United States) of the Siple and Passel index. PMID:7977910

  18. Neighborhood of Residence is Associated with Daily Adherence to CPAP Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Alec B.; Field, Samuel H.; Asch, David A.; Chen, Zhen; Patel, Nirav P.; Gupta, Rajesh; Roche, Dominic F.; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Christie, Jason D.; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea is poor. Risk factors for nonadherence are not well understood but may reflect individual or neighborhood socioeconomic factors. We sought to determine the association of socioeconomic status and initial CPAP adherence. Design: Retrospective cohort study, 2005 to 2006. Setting: Philadelphia VA Medical Center. Participants: Of 330 consecutive veterans who met study criteria for initiation of CPAP therapy for newly diagnosed sleep apnea, 266 had complete data for study inclusion. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: Through a multivariable logistic regression model, using an outcome of objectively measured CPAP use ≥ 4 h daily during the first week of treatment, we tested whether patients from higher socioeconomic neighborhoods had higher CPAP adherence. We measured neighborhood socioeconomic status with an index derived from the 2000 U.S. Census at the block group-level composed of median household income, male and female employment, adult high school completion, married households, and minority composition. Results: CPAP adherence ≥ 4 h occurred on 48.9% of 1,805 patient-days observed for the 266 subjects. After adjustment for individual sociodemographic characteristics and medical comorbidity, the probability of daily CPAP use ≥ 4 h ranged from 34.1% (95% CI, 26.4–42.7) for subjects from a low socioeconomic neighborhood (5th percentile) to 62.3% (95% CI, 53.8–70.1) for subjects from a high (95th percentile) neighborhood. Conclusions: In a retrospective cohort of veterans, initial CPAP adherence was closely associated with higher neighborhood socioeconomic factors. Future investigation should target specific impediments to adherence in the home and neighborhood environment. Citation: Platt AB; Field SH; Asch DA; Chen Z; Gupta R; Roche DF; Gurubhagavatula I; Christie JD; Kuna ST. Neighborhood of residence is associated with daily adherence to CPAP

  19. Factors associated with functional limitations in the daily living activities of Japanese hip osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Kyoko; Jingushi, Seiya; Ohfuji, Satoko; Sofue, Muroto; Itoman, Moritoshi; Matsumoto, Tadami; Hamada, Yoshiki; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Takatori, Yoshio; Yamada, Harumoto; Yasunaga, Yuji; Ito, Hiroshi; Mori, Satoshi; Owan, Ichiro; Fujii, Genji; Ohashi, Hirotsugu; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Akiko; Inui, Miki; Takahashi, Shinji; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-12-10

    As society ages, there is a vast number of elderly people with locomotive syndrome. In this study, the factors associated with functional limitations in daily living activities evaluated by female hip osteoarthritis (OA) patients were investigated. This study was a cross-sectional study. The subjects were 353 female patients who were newly diagnosed with hip OA at an orthopedic clinic with no history of hip joint surgery. Outcome indices were functional limitations in two daily living activities obtained from a questionnaire completed by the patients: (i) standing up (standing from a crouched position) and (ii) stair-climbing (climbing and/or descending stairs). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for explanatory variables using the proportional odds model in logistic regression to evaluate their associations with functional limitations. Functional limitations in standing up were associated with heavy weight (third tertile vs. first tertile: 1.91, 1.11-3.27), participation in sports at school (0.62, 0.40-0.98), parity (vs. nullipara: 1.96, 1.08-3.56), old age and OA stage. Associations with functional limitations in stair-climbing were seen with short height (< 151.0 cm vs. ≥ 156.0 cm: 2.05, 1.02-4.12), bilateral involvement (vs. unilateral: 1.71, 1.01-2.88), old age and OA stage. Old age, OA stage, heavy weight, parity, shorter height and bilateral OA were associated with functional limitations in standing up and/or stair-climbing, whereas participation in sports such as club activities in school maintained standing up. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases published by Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Comparison of Powerlifting Performance in Trained Men Using Traditional and Flexible Daily Undulating Periodization.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, Ryan J; Gai, Christopher M; Walters, Jeoffrey; Brannon, Andrew R; Kilpatrick, Marcus W; DʼAgostino, Dominic P; Campbell, William I

    2017-02-01

    Colquhoun, RJ, Gai, CM, Walters, J, Brannon, AR, Kilpatrick, MW, D'Agostino, DP, and Campbell, WI. Comparison of powerlifting performance in trained men using traditional and flexible daily undulating periodization. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 283-291, 2017-Daily undulating periodization (DUP) is a growing trend, both in practice and in the scientific literature. A new form of DUP, flexible daily undulating periodization (FDUP), allows for athletes to have some autonomy by choosing the order of their training. The purpose of this study was to compare an FDUP model to a traditional model of DUP on powerlifting performance in resistance-trained men. Twenty-five resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: FDUP (N = 14) or DUP (N = 11). All participants possessed a minimum of 6 months of resistance training experience and were required to squat, bench press, and deadlift 125, 100, and 150% of their body mass, respectively. Dependent variables assessed at baseline and after the 9-week training program included bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), squat 1RM, deadlift 1RM, powerlifting total, Wilks Coefficient, fat mass, and fat-free mass (FFM). Dependent variables assessed during each individual training session were motivation to train, Session Rating of Perceived Exertion (Session RPE), and satisfaction with training session. After the 9-week training program, no significant differences in intensity or volume were found between groups. Both groups significantly improved bench press 1RM (FDUP: +6.5 kg; DUP: +8.8 kg), squat 1RM (FDUP: +15.6 kg; DUP: +18.0 kg), deadlift 1RM (FDUP: +14.8 kg; DUP: +13.6 kg), powerlifting total (FDUP: +36.8 kg; DUP: +40.4 kg), and Wilks Coefficient (FDUP: +24.8; DUP: +26.0) over the course of study (p = <0.001 for each variable). There was also a significant increase in FFM (FDUP: +0.8 kg; DUP: +0.8 kg) for both groups (p = 0.003). There were no differences in motivation to train, session RPE, or satisfaction with

  1. Momentary Associations Between Reported Craving and Valuing Health in Daily Smokers.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Robert Ross; Martino, Steve; Carroll, Kathleen M; Smyth, Joshua M; Pincus, Aaron L; Wilson, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Research suggests that a blunted response to nondrug rewards, especially under conditions associated with strong cigarette cravings, is associated with reduced abstinence motivation in daily smokers. One limitation of previous studies is that they have largely focused on monetary rewards as broad representative of nondrug rewards. It remains unclear whether craving dampens responses to more abstract nondrug rewards, such as personal values. Personal values often have a positive valence and are frequently assumed to remain stable across time and situations. However, there may be time-varying and contextual influences on smokers' appraisal of values in daily life. Characterizing fluctuations in value importance in relation to relapse precipitants (eg, craving) may inform interventions that leverage personal values as motivation for cessation. Daily smokers (n = 18) completed ecological momentary assessment surveys measuring the importance of specific personal values and smoking-related variables during 8 days of monetarily reinforced cigarette abstinence. We hypothesized that value ratings would demonstrate adequate within-person heterogeneity for multilevel modeling and that within-person fluctuations in craving would be negatively related to valuing personal health. All values demonstrated adequate within-person variability for multilevel modeling. Within-person craving was negatively related to health valuation (p = .012) and a cross-level interaction (p > .0001) suggested this effect is stronger for individuals who report greater overall craving. Greater craving is associated with decreased importance of personal health in the moment, particularly for those with high average levels of craving. Timely interventions that bolster importance of health during moments of elevated craving can potentially improve cessation outcomes. This study builds on research highlighting the positive influence of personal values in motivating behavior change. Values are an often used

  2. Association of depression with sexual and daily activities: a community study of octogenarian men.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Yeap, Bu B; Hankey, Graeme J; Golledge, Jonathan; Flicker, Leon

    2015-03-01

    To determine the association between clinically significant depressive symptoms, routine function, and sexual interest and practice in a community-derived sample of octogenarian men. Cross-sectional study of 1,649 community-dwelling men aged 80 years or over with no history of terminal illnesses or neurodegenerative diseases. Men with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores greater than or equal to 10 were deemed to be clinically depressed. Scores between 5 and 9 were considered indicative of subthreshold depression. We used standard procedures to collect self-reported sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical data, as well as basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and a structured questionnaire to ask men about their 12-month interest in sex, frequency, past experiences, and current sexual problems. 121 men (7.3%) had clinically significant depression and 239 (14.5%) had subthreshold depression. Depressive symptoms were associated with difficulties in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, but not with sexual practice. Decreased interest in sex and anxiety before sex were associated with subthreshold depression. Clinically significant depressive symptoms were independently and positively associated with past history of diabetes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-4.0), depression (OR: 9.0; 95% CI: 4.6-17.3), impaired ability to groom (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.2-11.0), carry out heavy housework duties (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.1), manage finances (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.7), or engage in leisure activities (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 2.0-8.2). Ability to function effectively at home, financial autonomy, and leisure are associated with clinically significant depression in octogenarian men. Maintaining daily function and autonomy may be a suitable target for interventions that aim to reduce the prevalence and incidence of depression in older age. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc

  3. Association between impairment, function, and daily life task management in children and adolescents with autism

    PubMed Central

    KAO, YING-CHIA; KRAMER, JESSICA M; LILJENQUIST, KENDRA; COSTER, WENDY J

    2014-01-01

    AIM This cross-sectional study examined whether impairments or functional skills are associated with the level of responsibility for life tasks for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). METHOD Parents of 263 children and adolescents with ASDs (215 males; 48 females; mean age 12y 6mo [SD 4y 6mo], range 3y to 21y) completed an online survey that included the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test – Autism Spectrum Disorders (PEDI-CAT-ASD) Daily Activities, Social/Cognitive, and Responsibility domains, a demographic questionnaire, and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) Current. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Framework guided the selection of model variables. We used hierarchical multiple regression to examine the relationship between impairment and functional skill predictor variables and the outcome variable, Responsibility. Age was entered in step 1 to control for the impact of development. SCQ Current, IQ, and remaining PEDI-CAT-ASD domains were then entered in step 2. RESULTS After controlling for age, the model showed that step 2 predictor variables representing both impairments and functional skill improved the model (p <0.001). All variables except the SCQ score were significant predictors of Responsibility. The variance explained by the Daily Activities (2.7%) and Social/ Cognitive (4.8%) domain scores was greater than IQ (0.3%). INTERPRETATION The functional skills of Daily Activities and Social/Cognitive domains were more strongly associated with the management of life tasks than impairments after controlling for age. PMID:25312547

  4. Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%). Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females) without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL) were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs) were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001). A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males. PMID:27180933

  5. Quality evaluation of colonoscopy reporting and colonoscopy performance in daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Vincent; Sint Nicolaas, Jerome; Cahen, Djuna L; Moolenaar, Willem; Ouwendijk, Rob J Th; Tang, Thjon J; van Tilburg, Antonie J P; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive monitoring of colonoscopy quality requires complete and accurate colonoscopy reporting. This study aimed to assess the compliance with colonoscopy reporting and to assess the quality of colonoscopy performance. Consecutive colonoscopy reports were reviewed by hand. Four hundred reports were included from each department. Daily clinical practice in 12 Dutch endoscopy departments. Consecutive patients undergoing scheduled colonoscopy procedures. Quality of reporting was assessed by using the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy criteria for colonoscopy reporting. Quality of colonoscopy performance was evaluated by using the cecal intubation rate and adenoma detection rate (ADR). A total of 4800 colonoscopies were performed by 116 endoscopists: 70% by gastroenterologists, 16% by gastroenterology fellows, 10% by internists, 3% by nurse-endoscopists, and 1% by surgeons. The mean age of the patients was 59 years (standard deviation 16), and 47% were male. Reports contained information on indication, sedation practice, and extent of the procedure in more than 90%. Only 62% of the reports mentioned the quality of bowel preparation (range between departments 7%-100%); photographic documentation of the cecal landmarks was present in 71% (range 22%-97%). The adjusted cecal intubation rate was 92% (range 84%-97%). The ADR was 24% (range 13%-32%). Dependent on reports, no intervention in endoscopic practice. No analysis for performance per endoscopist. Colonoscopy reporting varied significantly in clinical practice. Colonoscopy performance met the suggested standards; however, considerable variability between endoscopy departments was found. The results of this study underline the importance of the implementation of quality indicators and guidelines. Moreover, by continuous monitoring of quality parameters, the quality of both colonoscopy reporting and colonoscopy performance can easily be improved. Copyright © 2012 American Society for

  6. Associations between daily musicking and health: Results from a nationwide survey in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ekholm, Ola; Juel, Knud; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2016-08-16

    To examine the associations between singing/playing musical instruments daily and various outcomes such as health-related quality of life and health behaviour. Data originates from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013. The survey was based on a random sample of 25,000 adult Danes (response rate: 57%). Besides standard health-related questions the survey included eight specific music questions, based on a review of the sparse literature on music and health. On the same basis, 'daily musicking' was defined as normally singing/playing musical instruments at least 1 h/day. Both musically active men and women were more likely to report good self-rated health than individuals that were not active musically. However, the results also indicated that musically active women were less likely to report poor physical and mental health than women who were not active musically, while this pattern was not found among men. CONCLUSIONS GENDER SEEMS TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MUSICKING AND HEALTH, BUT MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED TO UNDERSTAND THESE DIFFERENCES AND THE UNDERLYING MECHANISMS IN ADDITION, LONGITUDINAL STUDIES ARE WARRANTED TO EXAMINE THE CAUSAL EFFECTS OF MUSICKING. © Author(s) 2016.

  7. Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Radiation Therapy and Daily Temozolomide Is Associated With Minimal Toxicity in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenburgh, James J.; Desjardins, Annick; Kirkpatrick, John P.; Reardon, David A.; Peters, Katherine B.; Herndon, James E.; Marcello, Jennifer; Bailey, Leighann; Threatt, Stevie; Sampson, John; Friedman, Allan; Friedman, Henry S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled in the study, and received standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide. All patients underwent a craniotomy and were at least 2 weeks postoperative. Radiation therapy was administered in 1.8-Gy fractions, with the clinical target volume for the primary course treated to a dose of 45 to 50.4 Gy, followed by a boost of 9 to 14.4 Gy, to a total dose of 59.4 Gy. Patients received temozolomide at 75 mg/m{sup 2} daily throughout the course of radiation therapy. Bevacizumab was given at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days, beginning a minimum of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results: Of the 125 patients, 120 (96%) completed the protocol-specified radiation therapy. Five patients had to stop the protocol therapy, 2 patients with pulmonary emboli, and 1 patient each with a Grade 2 central nervous system hemorrhage, Grade 4 pancytopenia, and wound dehiscence requiring surgical intervention. All 5 patients ultimately finished the radiation therapy. After radiation therapy, 3 patients had progressive disease, 2 had severe fatigue and decreased performance status, 1 patient had a colonic perforation, and 1 had a rectal fissure; these 7 patients therefore did not proceed with the protocol-specified adjuvant temozolomide, bevacizumab, and irinotecan. However, 113 patients (90%) were able to continue on study. Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide was found to be associated with minimal toxicity in patients newly diagnosed with GBM.

  8. An Exploratory Analysis of the Potential Association Between SCI Secondary Health Conditions and Daily Activities

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, John; Dumont, Frédéric S.; Leblond, Jean; Park, So Eyun; Noonan, Vanessa K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secondary health conditions (SHCs) are common following traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) and are believed to influence a person’s ability to participate in daily activities (DAs). This association should be understood so that health care providers may target interventions with clarity and purpose to manage SHCs and facilitate DAs to maximal effect. Objective: To explore the association between SHCs and DAs expressed as the increased chance of not participating as much as wanted in a DA when an SHC is present. Methods: Community-dwelling persons with tSCI (n = 1,137) responded to the SCI Community Survey. The occurrence and frequency of 21 SHCs were determined. The extent of participation in 26 DAs was measured. The relative risk (RR) of not participating as much as wanted in a DA when a SHC is present was calculated. Results: When some SHC were present, the RR of not participating as much as wanted increased significantly (range, 15%-153%; P < .001). Certain SHCs (light-headedness/dizziness, fatigue, weight problems, constipation, shoulder problems) were associated with a greater chance of not participating in many DAs. No single SHC was associated with every DA and conversely not every DA was associated with an SHC. Conclusions: Maximizing participation in DAs requires minimizing SHCs in every instance. Understanding the association between SHCs and DAs may facilitate targeted care resulting in less severe SHCs, greater participation in DAs, and benefits to both the individual and society. PMID:25477741

  9. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  10. Daily Associations Between Drinking and Sex Among College Students: A Longitudinal Measurement Burst Design.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2015-06-01

    Daily links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors were examined in a longitudinal study of college students. Hierarchical linear models predicted sexual behaviors by characteristics of persons (N=731; Level 3), semesters (N=4,345, Level 2), and days (N=56,372, Level 1). On a given day, consuming more drinks and binge drinking were associated with greater odds of kissing, touching, oral sex, and penetrative sex. Consistent with alcohol myopia and expectancy theories, associations between binge drinking and sexual behaviors were stronger for students not in romantic relationships, for students with stronger alcohol-sex expectancies, and for oral and penetrative sex. Findings suggest that within-day links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors are evident across college, with variations based on individual and relationship factors.

  11. Daily Associations Between Drinking and Sex Among College Students: A Longitudinal Measurement Burst Design

    PubMed Central

    Maggs, Jennifer L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2015-01-01

    Daily links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors were examined in a longitudinal study of college students. Hierarchical linear models predicted sexual behaviors by characteristics of persons (N=731; Level 3), semesters (N=4,345, Level 2), and days (N=56,372, Level 1). On a given day, consuming more drinks and binge drinking were associated with greater odds of kissing, touching, oral sex, and penetrative sex. Consistent with alcohol myopia and expectancy theories, associations between binge drinking and sexual behaviors were stronger for students not in romantic relationships, for students with stronger alcohol-sex expectancies, and for oral and penetrative sex. Findings suggest that within-day links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors are evident across college, with variations based on individual and relationship factors. PMID:26052189

  12. The association of sexual interest and sexual behaviors among adolescent women: A daily diary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Hensel, Devon J.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical linkages of adult women’s sexual interest and sexual behaviors are relatively well-established, but few data address similar issues in adolescent women. This paper reviews data from published reports of associations of adolescent women’s sexual interest and various sexual behaviors. All of the papers reported data collected from a single longitudinal cohort of young women. The primary source of data collection was daily diaries, allowing close temporal pairing of sexual interest with sexual behaviors. Young women’s sexual interest on a given day was consistently and independently associated with sexual activity on that day, whether the behavior was first lifetime coitus, coitus, fellatio, cunnilingus, anal intercourse, or coitus during menses. We also found no evidence of influence of hormonal contraceptives on young women’s sexual interest. Taken together, these data demonstrate the relevance of sexual interest as a key factor in young women’s sexuality and sexual behavior. PMID:21397605

  13. Herpes Simplex epithelial keratitis associated with daily disposable contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Hamroush, Ahmed; Welch, James

    2014-06-01

    To report a case of epithelial Herpes Simplex keratitis in a patient wearing daily disposable contact lenses. Case report. A 30-year-old female contact lens wearer presented to the emergency clinic with a painful, red left eye associated with an acute reduction of vision over 48 h. On examination, confluent dendritic ulcers were present on the cornea. Neither pertinent ocular nor medical history was obtained to explain such a dramatic clinical presentation. Contact lens wear was the only risk factor identified, perhaps resulting in deviation of the immune response at the ocular surface, with consequent extensive dendritic ulceration. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in adolescents: daily associations and hourly patterns123

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Steele, Rebekah M; Prynne, Celia J; Stephen, Alison M; Bamber, Diane J; Dunn, Valerie J; Goodyer, Ian M; Ekelund, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between breakfast consumption and physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. Objective: We aimed to investigate daily associations and hourly patterns of PA and breakfast consumption in British adolescents. Design: Daily PA [accelerometry-derived moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and breakfast consumption (diet diary) were measured simultaneously over 4 d in 860 adolescents (boys: 43.4%; mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 0.5 y). Associations between MVPA and breakfast consumption were assessed by using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression separately by sex and for weekends and weekdays. Hourly patterns of MVPA by breakfast consumption status were displayed graphically, and differences were tested by using ANOVA. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate differences in log MVPA on days when 570 inconsistent breakfast consumers ate or skipped breakfast. Results: On weekends, boys and girls with higher MVPA were more likely to eat breakfast [OR (95% CI): boys, 1.78 (1.30, 2.45) (P < 0.001); girls, 2.30 (1.66, 3.08) (P < 0.001)] when adjusted for socioeconomic status, percentage of body fat, and total energy intake. Peak hourly MVPA differed for breakfast consumers compared with nonconsumers on weekends (P < 0.001). Inconsistent breakfast consumers did more MVPA on days when they ate breakfast [exponentiated β coefficients (95% CIs): 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) on weekdays and 1.4 (1.1, 1.8) on weekends for boys and 1.6 (1.3, 2.1) on weekends for girls; all P < 0.03]. Conclusions: Eating breakfast was associated with higher MVPA on weekends. The time of peak MVPA differed between breakfast consumers and nonconsumers on weekends. Breakfast consumption at weekends is worth additional investigation to potentially inform PA promotion in adolescents. PMID:24284440

  15. Impairment of fine motor dexterity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease dementia: association with activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Jonas J; Albuquerque, Maicon R; Lage, Guilherme M; Bicalho, Maria A; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). Although the cognitive profile of these patients and its association with activities of daily living (ADLs) is well documented, few studies have assessed deficits in fine motor dexterity and their association with ADL performance. The objective of this research paper is to evaluate fine motor dexterity performance among MCI and AD patients and to investigate its association with different aspects of ADLs. We assessed normal aging controls, patients with multiple- and single-domain amnestic MCI (aMCI), and patients with mild AD. Fine motor dexterity was measured with the Nine-Hole Peg Test and cognitive functioning by the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale. We analyzed the data using general linear models. Patients with AD or multiple-domain aMCI had slower motor responses when compared to controls. AD patients were slower than those with single-domain aMCI. We found associations between cognition and instrumental ADLs, and between fine motor dexterity and self-care ADLs. We observed progressive slowing of fine motor dexterity along the normal aging-MCI-AD spectrum, which was associated with autonomy in self-care ADLs.

  16. Executive Functioning in Daily Life in Parkinson's Disease: Initiative, Planning and Multi-Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Koerts, Janneke; Van Beilen, Marije; Tucha, Oliver; Leenders, Klaus L.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in executive functioning are frequently observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, executive functioning needed in daily life is difficult to measure. Considering this difficulty the Cognitive Effort Test (CET) was recently developed. In this multi-task test the goals are specified but participants are free in their approach. This study applies the CET in PD patients and investigates whether initiative, planning and multi-tasking are associated with aspects of executive functions and psychomotor speed. Thirty-six PD patients with a mild to moderate disease severity and thirty-four healthy participants were included in this study. PD patients planned and demonstrated more sequential task execution, which was associated with a decreased psychomotor speed. Furthermore, patients with a moderate PD planned to execute fewer tasks at the same time than patients with a mild PD. No differences were found between these groups for multi-tasking. In conclusion, PD patients planned and executed the tasks of the CET sequentially rather than in parallel presumably reflecting a compensation strategy for a decreased psychomotor speed. Furthermore, patients with moderate PD appeared to take their impairments into consideration when planning how to engage the tasks of the test. This compensation could not be detected in patients with mild PD. PMID:22206004

  17. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men

    PubMed Central

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D’Errico, Marcello M.; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30’ post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline. PMID:26529517

  18. Daily touchscreen use in infants and toddlers is associated with reduced sleep and delayed sleep onset.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Celeste H M; Bedford, Rachael; Saez De Urabain, Irati R; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Smith, Tim J

    2017-04-13

    Traditional screen time (e.g. TV and videogaming) has been linked to sleep problems and poorer developmental outcomes in children. With the advent of portable touchscreen devices, this association may be extending down in age to disrupt the sleep of infants and toddlers, an age when sleep is essential for cognitive development. However, this association has not been demonstrated empirically. This study aims to examine whether frequency of touchscreen use is associated with sleep in infants and toddlers between 6 and 36 months of age. An online survey was administered to 715 parents reporting on child media use (daily exposure to TV and use of touchscreens), sleep patterns (night-time and daytime sleep duration, sleep onset - time to fall asleep, and frequencies of night awakenings). Structural equation models controlling for age, sex, TV exposure and maternal education indicated a significant association between touchscreen use and night-time sleep, daytime sleep and sleep onset. No significant effect was observed for the number of night awakenings. To our knowledge, this is the first report linking the use of touchscreen with sleep problems in infants and toddlers. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of effects and the mechanisms underlying these associations using detailed sleep tracking.

  19. Daily touchscreen use in infants and toddlers is associated with reduced sleep and delayed sleep onset

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Celeste H. M.; Bedford, Rachael; Saez De Urabain, Irati R.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Smith, Tim J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional screen time (e.g. TV and videogaming) has been linked to sleep problems and poorer developmental outcomes in children. With the advent of portable touchscreen devices, this association may be extending down in age to disrupt the sleep of infants and toddlers, an age when sleep is essential for cognitive development. However, this association has not been demonstrated empirically. This study aims to examine whether frequency of touchscreen use is associated with sleep in infants and toddlers between 6 and 36 months of age. An online survey was administered to 715 parents reporting on child media use (daily exposure to TV and use of touchscreens), sleep patterns (night-time and daytime sleep duration, sleep onset - time to fall asleep, and frequencies of night awakenings). Structural equation models controlling for age, sex, TV exposure and maternal education indicated a significant association between touchscreen use and night-time sleep, daytime sleep and sleep onset. No significant effect was observed for the number of night awakenings. To our knowledge, this is the first report linking the use of touchscreen with sleep problems in infants and toddlers. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of effects and the mechanisms underlying these associations using detailed sleep tracking. PMID:28406474

  20. Activity of daily living performance amongst Danish asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Christensen, Robin; Amris, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) ability impairment in newly arrived Danish asylum seekers. It was hypothesized that exposure to trauma and torture would negatively influence ADL performance and that measures of ADL ability would be lower in individuals exposed to torture as compared to the non-tortured. Forty-three newly arrived asylum seekers aged 20-50 years, from Iran, Afghanistan and Syria, were consecutively included in the study. ADL ability was assessed with the observation-based test Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). Interviews were based on questionnaires about torture exposure, WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, Major Depression Inventory and Pain Detect Questionnaire. All participants were interviewed and tested using a linguistic interpreter. Thirty three (77%) participants reported exposure to torture. The tortured did not differ significantly from the nontortured on measures of ADL ability (two-sample t-tests: Motor, p= 0.36; Process, p= 0.82). ADL performance impairment was observed in the overall study sample. Twelve had motor and 15 process ability measures below age norms and 2 below both AMPS motor and process cut-offs for effortless and efficient ADL performance. There were statistically significant - weak to moderate - correlations between self-reported psychological distress, VAS average pain, pain distribution and the AMPS measures. The study results supported significant ADL ability impairment in tortured as well as non-tortured newly arrived asylum seekers. Implementation of performance-based evaluation of ADL ability as part of the initial medical screening of this particular population should be considered.

  1. Chair Rise Peak Power in Daily Life Measured With a Pendant Sensor Associates With Mobility, Limitation in Activities, and Frailty in Old People.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Regterschot, G Ruben H; Geraedts, Hilde; Baldus, Heribert; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical relevance of sensor-based daily life chair rise performance measured in old people. A pendant-sensor was worn during standardized tests and in daily life to detect chair rise transfers and analyze transfer peak power. Linear correlations between mean, median, 25th, and 75th percentile transfer peak powers in daily life and mean peak power in standardized tests were evaluated with Pearson correlation ( r). Associations between transfer peak powers in different experiments and outcomes of a clinical mobility test [timed-up-and-go (TUG)], a test of limitation in activities [Groningen activity restriction scale (GARS)], and a frailty test [Groningen frailty indicator (GFI)] were evaluated with Spearman correlation (ρ). Twenty-five old people (70-85 years) participated in the study. The results showed that chair rise peak powers assessed based upon one-week of daily life activities significantly correlated with peak power measured in standardized tests (r: [0.66, 0.74], p < 0.01). Chair rise peak power in daily life significantly associated with TUG scores (ρ: [-0.71, -0.58], ), GARS (ρ: [-0.62, -0.48], ), and GFI (ρ: [-0.52, -0.43], ). Chair rise peak powers in daily life had stronger associations with clinical measurements than standardized tests. In addition, chair rise peak powers measured in old people using assistive devices was significantly lower compared to those not using assistive devices. These results indicate usefulness of the pendant-sensor-based chair rise performance analysis in continuous monitoring and assessment of mobility, limitations in activities and frailty associated variables in old people's daily life.

  2. Zooming into daily life: within-person associations between physical activity and affect in young adults.

    PubMed

    Haas, Petra; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud; Reuter, Merle; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2017-05-01

    Negative affect in daily life is linked to poorer mental and physical health. Activity could serve as an effective, low-cost intervention to improve affect. However, few prior studies have assessed physical activity and affect in everyday life, limiting the ecological validity of prior findings. This study investigates whether daily activity is associated with negative and positive evening affect in young adults. Young adults (N = 189, Mdn = 23.00) participated in an intensive longitudinal study over 10 consecutive days. Participants wore accelerometers to objectively assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity continuously throughout the day and reported their affect in time-stamped online evening diaries before going to sleep. On days when participants engaged in more activity than usual, they reported not only less depressed and angry evening affect but also more vigour and serenity in the evening. Young adults showed both less negative and more positive affect on days with more activity. Physical activity is a promising health promotion strategy for physical and mental well-being.

  3. Association of Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol in Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Farrell, Debra J.; Albright, Kathie J.; Chiodo, Anthony; Young, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine the diurnal variation of salivary cortisol in adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) and the effect of stressors on cortisol and mood. Method Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture cortisol, stress and mood from 25 persons with SCI and 26 without SCI. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Results There were no systematic differences between groups on missing data. Diurnal variation of cortisol of participants with SCI reflected an expected pattern. No significant group differences for cortisol diurnal pattern, stress or mood; when group interactions were significant, results indicated lower cortisol reactivity to stress in participants with SCI. Stress had a significant impact on positive, negative and agitated moods. Conclusions Stress in daily life and its association with cortisol and mood were largely similar between persons with and without SCI. A key methodological contribution is the demonstration of using EMA to collect biological and behavioral data in the field from participants with SCI. The use of EMA in rehabilitation psychology research has great potential to advance our understanding of the dynamics of daily life with disability. PMID:19702427

  4. Association between sarcopenia and higher-level functional capacity in daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Tsuda, Yuko; Kimura, Motoshi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, and higher-level functional capacity in community-dwelling Japanese elderly people. Subjects were 1158 elderly, community-dwelling Japanese people aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance. Sarcopenia was characterized by low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Subjects without low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and low physical performance were classified as "normal." Examination of higher-level functional capacity was performed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC). The TMIG-IC is a 13-item questionnaire completed by the subject; it contains five questions on self-maintenance and four questions each on intellectual activity and social role. Sarcopenia was identified in 11.3% and 10.7% of men and women, respectively. The percentage of disability for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was 39.0% in men with sarcopenia and 30.6% in women with sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, in men, sarcopenia was significantly associated with IADL disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. In women, sarcopenia was significantly associated with every subscale of the TMIG-IC disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. This study revealed that sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, had a significant association with disability in higher-level functional capacity in elderly Japanese subjects. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia may prevent higher-level functional disability among elderly people. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations of daily sleep duration and dietary macronutrient consumption with obesity and dyslipidemia in Koreans: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Doo, Hyungie; Chun, Hyejin; Doo, Miae

    2016-11-01

    Daily sleep duration is known to be associated with obesity and dyslipidemia.This study was performed to examine the interactions between daily sleep duration and the risks of obesity and dyslipidemia according to dietary macronutrient consumption in 14,680 Korean adults using the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Sleep duration was inversely associated with body mass index (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein -cholesterol (P = 0.001). Participants with short sleep durations consumed less dietary protein (P < 0.001) and fat (P < 0.001), and consumed more dietary carbohydrates (P < 0.001). Among participants with the shortest sleep duration (≤5 hours a day), the odds ratio of obesity was found to increase in the high fat consumption group (1.393, 95% confidence interval 1.083-1.790) and decrease in the high carbohydrate consumption group (0.770, 95% confidence interval 0.604-0.983). High fat and low carbohydrate consumption were confirmed to be associated with the risk of obesity in the shortest sleep duration group (≤5 hours a day).These findings indicate that sleep duration was negatively associated with obesity and dyslipidemia-related indices in Korean adults. Additionally, the association of short sleep duration with the risk of obesity was potentially changed by dietary fat and carbohydrate consumption.

  6. On carrots and curiosity: eating fruit and vegetables is associated with greater flourishing in daily life.

    PubMed

    Conner, Tamlin S; Brookie, Kate L; Richardson, Aimee C; Polak, Maria A

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to determine whether eating fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with other markers of well-being beyond happiness and life satisfaction. Towards this aim, we tested whether FV consumption is associated with greater eudaemonic well-being - a state of flourishing characterized by feelings of engagement, meaning, and purpose in life. We also tested associations with two eudaemonic behaviours - curiosity and creativity. Daily diary study across 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). A sample of 405 young adults (67% women; mean age 19.9 [SD 1.6] years) completed an Internet daily diary for 13 consecutive days. Each day, participants reported on their consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, and chips, as well as their eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, creativity, positive affect (PA), and negative affect. Between-person associations were analysed on aggregated data. Within-person associations were analysed using multilevel models controlling for weekday and weekend patterns. Fruit and vegetables consumption predicted greater eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, and creativity at the between- and within-person levels. Young adults who ate more FV reported higher average eudaemonic well-being, more intense feelings of curiosity, and greater creativity compared with young adults who ate less FV. On days when young adults ate more FV, they reported greater eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, and creativity compared with days when they ate less FV. FV consumption also predicted higher PA, which mostly did not account for the associations between FV and the other well-being variables. Few unhealthy foods (sweets, chips) were related to well-being except that consumption of sweets was associated with greater curiosity and PA at the within-person level. Lagged data analyses showed no carry-over effects of FV consumption onto next-day well-being (or vice versa). Although these patterns are strictly correlational, this study provides the first evidence

  7. Attentional deficits affect activities of daily living in dementia‐associated with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bronnick, K; Ehrt, U; Emre, M; De Deyn, P P; Wesnes, K; Tekin, S; Aarsland, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of attentional deficits on activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PDD). Method 461 patients were assessed neuropsychologically. Factor analyses were used to differentiate attention from other cognitive functions and to differentiate different aspects of ADL functions. The effects of the attentional measure on ADL were examined using sequential multiple regression, controlling for age, sex, education, severity of motor symptoms and other cognitive functions. Results Three cognitive factors were identified, with one factor emerging as a measure of vigilance and focused attention. This factor predicted different aspects of ADL status even after controlling for motor functions and other cognitive factors. The attention factor was the single strongest cognitive predictor of ADL status, matching the strength of the effects of motor functions on ADL status. Conclusion Impaired attention is an important determinant of ADL functions in patients with PDD. PMID:16801351

  8. In a daily time-place learning task, time is only used as a discriminative stimulus if each daily session is associated with a distinct spatial location.

    PubMed

    Deibel, Scott H; Ingram, Matthew L; Lehr, Andrew B; Martin, Hiliary C; Skinner, Darlene M; Martin, Gerard M; Hughes, Isaac M W; Thorpe, Christina M

    2014-09-01

    It is difficult for rats to acquire daily time-place (TP) learning tasks. One theory suggests that rats do not use time of day as a stimulus signaling a specific response. In the present study, we tested rats' ability to use time of day as a discriminative stimulus. A fixed-interval procedure was used in which one lever provided reinforcement on a FI-5-s schedule in morning sessions, and the same lever provided reinforcement on a FI-30-s schedule in afternoon sessions. Because only one place was used in this paradigm, the rats could only use time of day to acquire the task. Mean responses during the first 5 s of the first trial in each session indicated that the rats did not discriminate between the two sessions. In Phase II, a different lever location was used for each of the two daily sessions, which meant that both spatial and temporal information could be used to acquire the task. The rats readily acquired the task in this phase, and probe trials indicated that the rats were using a combination of spatial and temporal information to discriminate between the two different trial types. When the spatial cue was removed in Phase III, rats no longer discriminated the two sessions, suggesting that time can only be used as a discriminative stimulus when each daily session is associated with a distinct spatial location.

  9. Neighborhood of residence is associated with daily adherence to CPAP therapy.

    PubMed

    Platt, Alec B; Field, Samuel H; Asch, David A; Chen, Zhen; Patel, Nirav P; Gupta, Rajesh; Roche, Dominic F; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Christie, Jason D; Kuna, Samuel T

    2009-06-01

    Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea is poor. Risk factors for nonadherence are not well understood but may reflect individual or neighborhood socioeconomic factors. We sought to determine the association of socioeconomic status and initial CPAP adherence. Retrospective cohort study, 2005 to 2006. Philadelphia VA Medical Center. Of 330 consecutive veterans who met study criteria for initiation of CPAP therapy for newly diagnosed sleep apnea, 266 had complete data for study inclusion. N/A. Through a multivariable logistic regression model, using an outcome of objectively measured CPAP use - 4 h daily during the first week of treatment, we tested whether patients from higher socioeconomic neighborhoods had higher CPAP adherence. We measured neighborhood socioeconomic status with an index derived from the 2000 U.S. Census at the block group-level composed of median household income, male and female employment, adult high school completion, married households, and minority composition. CPAP adherence > 4 h occurred on 48.9% of 1,805 patient-days observed for the 266 subjects. After adjustment for individual sociodemographic characteristics and medical comorbidity, the probability of daily CPAP use 4 h ranged from 34.1% (95% CI, 26.4-42.7) for subjects from a low socioeconomic neighborhood (5th percentile) to 62.3% (95% CI, 53.8-70.1) for subjects from a high (95th percentile) neighborhood. In a retrospective cohort of veterans, initial CPAP adherence was closely associated with higher neighborhood socioeconomic factors. Future investigation should target specific impediments to adherence in the home and neighborhood environment.

  10. Fragmentation of daily rhythms associates with obesity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents: The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Konstabel, Kenn; Labayen, Idoia; González-Gross, Marcela; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Dénes; Widhalm, Kurt; Casajús, Jose Antonio; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kafatos, Anthony; Breidenassel, Christina; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A; Madrid, Juan A; Ortega, Francisco B

    2016-11-05

    Chronobiology studies periodic changes in living organisms and it has been proposed as a promising approach to investigate obesity. We analyze the association of the characteristics of the rest-activity rhythms with obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic risk in adolescents from nine European countries. 1044 adolescents (12.5-17.5 y) were studied. Circadian health was evaluated by actigraphy with accelerometers (Actigraph GT1M). Characteristics of the daytime activity such as fragmentation (intradaily variability), estimated acrophase, and 10 h mean daytime activity index were obtained. Body composition was assessed using Bioelectrical-Impedance-Analysis, skinfold thickness, air-displacement-plethysmography and Dual-energy-X-ray-Absorptiometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) and metabolic risk were studied. Highly fragmented activity rhythms were associated with obesity and central adiposity (P < 0.05). Obese adolescents had ∼3 times higher odds of having a high fragmentation of daytime activity compared to normal weight adolescents OR (95% CI) = 2.8 (1.170, 6.443). A highly fragmented rhythm was also related to lower cardiorespiratory fitness and higher metabolic risk (P < 0.05) so those adolescents classified as low fitness showed a significantly higher fragmentation of daytime activity than those included in the high fitness group (P < 0.0001). Other characteristics of the rhythms such as smaller 10 h daytime mean activity index and delayed estimated acrophase were also related to obesity and metabolic risk (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that the daily organization of the rest-activity cycle is more fragmented in obese and less fit adolescents and correlates with higher metabolic risk. This fact reinforces our hypothesis that disturbances in daily rhythms can be considered as sensitive markers of poorer adolescent's health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights

  11. Effects of daily fluctuating temperatures on the Drosophila-Leptopilina boulardi parasitoid association.

    PubMed

    Delava, Emilie; Fleury, Frédéric; Gibert, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoid insects, which maintain intimate and long-term relationships with their arthropod hosts, constitute an association of ectothermic organisms that is particularly sensitive to temperature variations. Because temperature shows pronounced natural daily fluctuations, we examined if experiments based on a constant temperature range can mask the real effects of the thermal regime on host-parasitoid interactions. The effects of two fluctuating thermal regimes on several developmental parameters of the Drosophila larval parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi were analyzed in this study. Regime 1 included a range of 16-23-16°C and regime 2 included a range of 16-21-26-21-16°C (mean temperature 20.1°C) compared to a 20.1°C constant temperature. Under an average temperature of 20.1°C, which corresponds to a cold condition of L. boulardi development, we showed that the success of parasitism is significantly higher under a fluctuating temperature regime than at constant temperature. A fluctuating regime also correlated with a reduced development time of the parasitoids. In contrast, the thermal regime did not affect the ability of Drosophila to resist parasitoid infestation. Finally, we demonstrated that daily temperature fluctuation prevented the entry into diapause for this species, which is normally observed at a constant temperature of 21°C. Overall, the results reveal that constant temperature experiments can produce misleading results, highlighting the need to study the thermal biology of organisms under fluctuating regimes that reflect natural conditions as closely as possible. This is particularly a major issue in host-parasitoid associations, which constitute a good model to understand the effect of climate warming on interacting species.

  12. The Relationship between Older Adults' Risk for a Future Fall and Difficulty Performing Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Mamikonian-Zarpas, Ani; Laganá, Luciana

    2015-12-01

    Functional status is often defined by cumulative scores across indices of independence in performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), but little is known about the unique relationship of each daily activity item with the fall outcome. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the level of relative risk for a future fall associated with difficulty with performing various tasks of normal daily functioning among older adults who had fallen at least once in the past 12 months. The sample was comprised of community-dwelling individuals 70 years and older from the 1984-1990 Longitudinal Study of Aging by Kovar, Fitti, and Chyba (1992). Risk analysis was performed on individual items quantifying 6 ADLs and 7 IADLs, as well as 10 items related to mobility limitations. Within a subsample of 1,675 older adults with a history of at least one fall within the past year, the responses of individuals who reported multiple falls were compared to the responses of participants who had a single fall and reported 1) difficulty with walking and/or balance (FRAIL group, n = 413) vs. 2) no difficulty with walking or dizziness (NDW+ND group, n = 415). The items that had the strongest relationships and highest risk ratios for the FRAIL group (which had the highest probabilities for a future fall) included difficulty with: eating (73%); managing money (70%); biting or chewing food (66%); walking a quarter of a mile (65%); using fingers to grasp (65%); and dressing without help (65%). For the NDW+ND group, the most noteworthy items included difficulty with: bathing or showering (79%); managing money (77%); shopping for personal items (75%); walking up 10 steps without rest (72%); difficulty with walking a quarter of a mile (72%); and stooping/crouching/kneeling (70%). These findings suggest that individual items quantifying specific ADLs and IADLs have substantive relationships with the fall outcome among older adults who have difficulty with walking

  13. Occupational performance and strategies for managing daily life among the elderly with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Eva-Britt; Boman, Kurt; Löfgren, Britta; Brännström, Margareta

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe experiences of limitations in occupational performance and strategies for managing daily activities among the elderly with chronic heart failure (CHF). Ten participants from primary healthcare with a confirmed diagnosis of CHF were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The first theme, "Redefining an active life, aware of one's impaired body", was based on four sub-themes: realizing one's limited activity ability; striving to preserve an active life; focusing on meaningful activities; and changing vs. not changing habits and roles. The second theme, "Planning activities and balancing the degree of effort", was based on three sub-themes: limiting, organizing, and rationalizing activities; adjusting activities to today's ability; and using technology and adapting the environment. Elderly people with CHF are struggling with an ongoing process of occupational adaptation due to periodical physical decline and fluctuating day-to-day ability. This highlights a need for information on strategies from a holistic perspective and client-centred occupational therapy interventions.

  14. Subjective cognitive complaints and objective memory performance influence prompt preference for instrumental activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, Emily J; Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Declines in memory and executive functioning often lead to difficulties completing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Prompting technologies have the potential to help promote aging in place by providing support for the initiation and accurate completion of IADLs. In this study, we evaluate preferences of older adults for different levels of prompting support based on subjective and objective measures of cognitive functioning. Participants were 170 community-dwelling older adults split into two cognitive complaint groups: cognitive complaints and few cognitive complaints. After completing six IADL tasks (e.g., organize a pillbox, cook), each participant was asked to make a specific error (e.g., leave stove on) on three of the tasks. They were then prompted to correct the error with one of three different prompt modes: verbal indirect, verbal direct, multimodal verbal direct and video. The cognitive complaints group reported greater preference for the multimodal prompt compared to the few cognitive complaints group. The indirect prompt was the least preferred by both groups. Furthermore, participants who recalled less on objective memory measures preferred more support in terms of prompt mode. Executive functioning did not appear to be related to prompt preference. Level of subjective cognitive complaints and objective memory performance may influence amount of support preferred in a prompt.

  15. Cognitive Orientation for daily Occupational Performance approach for children with Asperger's Syndrome:a case report.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Sylvia; Springfield, Elizabeth; Polatajko, Helene J

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive Orientation for daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is a client-centred, cognitive approach to acquisition of occupational skills. Children are taught a global problem solving framework and are guided to discover Domain Specific Strategies to enable mastery of their child chosen skills. A major focus of CO-OP is on the generalization and transfer of learned strategies and skills to everyday life. Two case studies are reported that provide preliminary evidence of the effects of CO-OP on the everyday lives of two siblings (aged 9 years and 11 years) with Asperger's Syndrome. The data were drawn from the detailed diary kept by the children's mother from the start of intervention and for two months after intervention ceased. Thematic analysis of the diary entries revealed multiple detailed accounts of the children's spontaneous use of the global problem solving framework to assist with acquisition of new motor skills, to overcome organizational and social-emotional difficulties, as well as numerous examples of generalization and transfer of skills. This case report provides preliminary support for CO-OP as an intervention for children with Asperger's Syndrome that supports both skill acquisition and generalization and transfer of skills and strategies.

  16. An introductory study of common grasps used by adults during performance of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, J L; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Pérez-González, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive survey on human grasps. Sixty-four videos were selected to represent tasks performed in the main areas of activities of daily living (ADL) (personal care, meal preparation, eating, housekeeping, etc.). All the participants were right-handed. Elementary grasps were identified for each hand, and the grasp type (from a 9-type classification), the hands involved, and the duration were registered for each case. The results show that the most commonly used grasps are: pinch, non-prehensile, cylindrical, lateral pinch and lumbrical. The presence of these grasps in the areas of ADL is, however, very different (e.g., pinch is widely used in food preparation and very little in driving). Some grasps were used more frequently with one hand or when both hands were used simultaneously (e.g., special pinch was hardly used by the left hand). Knowing the grasp types most frequently used in ADL is essential to be able to assess grasp rehabilitation processes or hand prostheses development.

  17. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Miriane Lilian; Barbosa, Alan Carlos Brisola; Spina, Giovanna Domingues; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Gagliardi, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo; Romiti, Marcello; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. PMID:27167434

  18. Genome-wide association study for feedlot average daily gain in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Gomes, R C; Garcia, J F; Fukumasu, H; Silva, S L; Leme, P R; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2014-06-01

    The genome-wide association study (GWAS) results are presented for average daily gain (ADG) in Nellore cattle. Phenotype of 720 male Bos indicus animals with information of ADG in feedlots and 354,147 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from a database added by information from Illumina Bovine HD (777,962 SNPs) and Illumina BovineSNP50 (54,609) by imputation were used. After quality control and imputation, 290,620 SNPs remained in the association analysis, using R package Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model and Regression method GRAMMAR-Gamma. A genomic region with six significant SNPs, at Bonferroni-corrected significance, was found on chromosome 3. The most significant SNP (rs42518459, BTA3: 85849977, p = 9.49 × 10(-8)) explained 5.62% of the phenotypic variance and had the allele substitution effect of -0.269 kg/day. Important genes such as PDE4B, LEPR, CYP2J2 and FGGY are located near this region, which is overlapped by 12 quantitative trait locus (QTLs) described for several production traits. Other regions with markers with suggestive effects were identified in BTA6 and BTA10. This study showed regions with major effects on ADG in Bos indicus in feedlots. This information may be useful to increase the efficiency of selecting this trait and to understand the physiological processes involved in its regulation.

  19. Driving with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia: Cognitive Test Performance and Proxy Report of Daily Life Function in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Leslie; Hogan, Patricia E.; Rapp, Stephen R.; Dugan, Elizabeth; Marottoli, Richard A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Shumaker, Sally A.; Sink, Kaycee M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate associations between proxy report of cognitive and functional limitations and cognitive performance and current or former driving status in older women with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and all-cause dementia. DESIGN Cross-sectional data analysis of retrospectively identified older women with adjudicated MCI and all-cause dementia in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study—Epidemiology of Cognitive Health Outcomes (WHIMS-ECHO). SETTING Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS Women (mean age ± standard deviation 83.7 ± 3.5) adjudicated with MCI or dementia during Year 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the WHIMS-ECHO follow-up period (N = 385). MEASUREMENTS The telephone-administered cognitive battery included tests of attention, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, working memory, and global cognitive function plus self-report measures of depressive symptomatology. The Dementia Questionnaire (DQ) was administered to a knowledgeable proxy (family member, friend). RESULTS Sixty percent of women with MCI and 40% of those with dementia are current drivers. Proxy reports of functional limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are associated with current driving status in women with MCI, whereas performance-based cognitive tests are not. In women with dementia, proxy reports of functional limitations in IADLs and performance-based cognitive tests are associated with current driving status, as expected. CONCLUSION These findings have clinical implications for the importance of evaluating driving concurrently with other instrumental functional abilities in MCI and dementia. Additional work is needed to determine whether proxy report of cognitive and functional impairments should help guide referrals for driving assessment and rehabilitation or counseling for driving transition. PMID:26338449

  20. The influence of daily sleep patterns of commercial truck drivers on driving performance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry. PMID:26954762

  1. Memory performance, health literacy, and instrumental activities of daily living of community residing older adults.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham J; Mackert, Michael; Becker, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy is associated with cognitive function across multiple domains in older adults, and these older adults may face special memory and cognitive challenges that can limit their health literacy and, in turn, their ability to live independently. The aim of this study was to evaluate if an association existed among health literacy, memory performance, and performance-based functional ability in community-residing older adults. Forty-five adults participated in this study. Designed to reflect everyday memory, the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) bridges laboratory-based measures of memory and assessments obtained by self-report and observation. The RBMT classifies individuals into four categories of memory performance: normal, poor, mildly impaired, and severely impaired. The participants were recruited in the two categories of normal (≥22) or impaired (≤16) category on the RBMT. The sample consisted of 14 who were in the impaired category and 31 in the normal group. Their average age was 77.11 years, and their average number of years of education was 15.33 years. Health literacy scores measured with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Health literacy scores were high (M = 65.09, SD = 2.80). Thirty-four participants or 76% of the sample scored a 66 out of a possible score of 80. Pearson correlations were calculated for the study variables. Health literacy scores with education and cognition (.30), memory performance groups (normal vs. poor; .25), and performance-based instrumental activities (.50) were associated significantly. The development of a broader assortment of health literacy instruments would improve the ability of researchers to both compare studies and build on the knowledge and results of others.

  2. The influence of daily sleep patterns of commercial truck drivers on driving performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry.

  3. Performance comparison of three predictor selection methods for statistical downscaling of daily precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunli; Wang, Ninglian; Wang, Shijin; Zhou, Liang

    2016-10-01

    Predictor selection is a critical factor affecting the statistical downscaling of daily precipitation. This study provides a general comparison between uncertainties in downscaled results from three commonly used predictor selection methods (correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis, and stepwise regression analysis). Uncertainty is analyzed by comparing statistical indices, including the mean, variance, and the distribution of monthly mean daily precipitation, wet spell length, and the number of wet days. The downscaled results are produced by the artificial neural network (ANN) statistical downscaling model and 50 years (1961-2010) of observed daily precipitation together with reanalysis predictors. Although results show little difference between downscaling methods, stepwise regression analysis is generally the best method for selecting predictors for the ANN statistical downscaling model of daily precipitation, followed by partial correlation analysis and then correlation analysis.

  4. The clinical performance of a silicone hydrogel lens for daily wear in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Long, Bill; McNally, John

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate slitlamp findings, frequency and severity of symptoms, and wearing time with a silicone hydrogel contact lens when used for daily wear by patients of Asian ethnicity. This was a five-site, 88-patient, prospective, open-label study involving 1 month of daily wear of lotrafilcon A lenses (Focus NIGHT & DAY, CIBA Vision, Duluth, GA) among adapted soft lens wearers previously wearing etafilcon A (ACUVUE 2, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Jacksonville, FL) or polymacon (Optima FW, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) lenses. Statistically significant improvements in conjunctival redness, limbal redness, and corneal neovascularization were reported after 1 week and 1 month of wear. Patients reported statistically significant improvements in subjective symptoms of redness, dryness during the day, and dryness at the end of the day. More patients reported increased than reduced average daily wear time and average daily comfortable wear time with the silicone hydrogel lens. Significant improvements in clinical signs and subjective symptoms may occur when some patients of Asian ethnicity wearing conventional hydrogel lenses for daily wear are refitted with silicone hydrogel lenses for daily wear.

  5. Daily Stress Magnifies the Association between Cognitive Decline and Everyday Memory Problems: An Integration of Longitudinal and Diary Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth H.; Almeida, David M.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether long-term fluid cognitive decline was associated with memory problems in everyday life, and whether stress plays a moderating role. We expected that the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems would be magnified in the context of self-reported and physiological stress. Data are from the Boston Longitudinal Study, a subsample of the Midlife in the United States study. Participants in the current study (n=112) completed a battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning at Time 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) over ten years. At T2, participants completed weekly diaries of self-reported daily stressors and everyday memory problems for twelve consecutive weeks. Also at T2, participants provided four saliva samples over the course of one day to assess physiological stress using diurnal cortisol profiles [cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS)]. Self-reported daily stressors and a less healthy DCS were associated with more everyday memory problems, and participants with greater cognitive decline reported more memory problems compared to those with less or no decline. Self-reported daily stressors and CAR moderated the relationship of cognitive decline and memory problems. As expected, more cognitive decline was associated with greater increases in memory problems on weeks when individuals reported more daily stressors and for individuals with a less healthy CAR. The current findings can inform interventions aimed to identify factors, such as daily stress, that contribute to daily functioning in the context of cognitive decline. PMID:25365691

  6. Media exposure and associated stress contribute to eating pathology in women with Anorexia Nervosa: Daily and momentary associations.

    PubMed

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Mitchell, James E; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether media exposure and media-induced stress contributed to eating disorder behaviors immediately and over the course of a day in women with anorexia nervosa (AN). Women with AN (N = 118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they reported on exposure to food, shape, or weight-related media, associated stress, and eating behaviors. Food, weight, or shape-related media exposure alone did not predict more frequent daily eating disorder behaviors. However, stress associated with media exposure was prospectively associated with a greater likelihood of binge eating and vomiting at the next assessment point. In addition, media-induced stress increased the probability of restrictive eating and fluid intake, vomiting, and laxative abuse across the day. Media-induced stress may contribute to increased eating disorder behaviors in women with AN, as women who saw a media image and reported this experience as stressful were more likely to engage in momentary binge eating or vomiting. Reducing stress associated with viewing media images could be a potential target for therapeutic intervention with disordered eating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:617-621). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Number and appraisal of daily hassles and life events in young adulthood: the association with physical activity and screen time: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; Singh, Amika S; Chinapaw, Mai J; Koppes, Lando L J; van Mechelen, Willem; Twisk, Jos W R

    2014-10-13

    Young adults face radical life changes regarding residence, marriage, family and work that may negatively impact their health behaviours. Therefore, we investigated the associations of the number of daily hassles and life events and their subjective appraisal with physical activity and screen time in young adulthood. Data came from participants of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS). Self-reported physical activity (min/wk) was used from wave 6 (1991; mean age 27), wave 7 (1993; mean age 29), wave 8 (1996/1997; mean age 32) and 9 (2000; mean age 36). Self-reported screen time (h/wk) was assessed in waves 8 and 9. The number and the appraisal of daily hassles and major life events were assessed with the Everyday Problem Checklist and Life Events List, respectively (including five life event domains, i.e.: health, work, home/family, personal/social relations, and finances). The final sample included 474 participants for the physical activity analyses and 475 participants for the screen time analyses. To test the longitudinal associations of daily hassles and life events with physical activity and screen time, univariable and multivariable Generalised Estimating Equations were performed. Effect modification by gender was tested. Physical activity levels were higher in those who had experienced more daily hassles. People who reported higher subjective appraisal in the work and finances life event domains also had higher levels of physical activity, although only the subjective appraisal in the finances domain remained significant in the multivariable model. No significant associations between number and subjective appraisal of daily hassles and life events and screen time were observed. The occurrence of specific life events may be more influential for people's physical activity behaviour than their respective sum or emotional tone. Still, the assessment of daily hassles may be a relevant addition in this research field. Finally, we suggest that

  8. Daily precipitation extreme events for the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida LR

    2014-05-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the extended winter months have major socio-economic impacts such as floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. These events are usually associated with low pressure systems with Atlantic origin, although some extreme events in summer/autumn months can be linked to Mediterranean low pressure systems. Quite often these events are evaluated on a casuistic base and making use of data from relatively few stations. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events is presented here based on the extensive use of the most comprehensive database of daily gridded precipitation available for the Iberian Peninsula (IB02) and spanning from 1950 to 2008, with a resolution of 0.2° (approximately 16 x 22 km at latitude 40°N), for a total of 1673 pixels. This database is based on a dense network of rain gauges, combining two national data sets, 'Spain02' for peninsular Spain and Balearic islands, and 'PT02' for mainland Portugal, with a total of more than two thousand stations over Spain and four hundred stations over Portugal, all quality-controlled and homogenized. Through this objective method for ranking daily precipitation events the magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point and taking into account the daily precipitation normalised departure from climatology. Different precipitation rankings are presented considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula. Atmospheric Rivers (AR) are the water vapour (WV) core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. They are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. They are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV

  9. [Formula: see text]Parental ratings of daily behavior and child cognitive test performance after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus; DeWit, Christin

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the degree to which the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) measure overlapping vs. distinct constructs in pediatric patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to examine the demographic and injury correlates of such constructs as well as those of cognitive test performance. A total of 100 parents completed the BRIEF and the CBCL within 1 to 12 months after the injury of their child. Groups were contrasted based on the presence vs. absence of impairment on, respectively, the BRIEF and the CBCL. Exploratory maximum likelihood factor analysis was used to evaluate latent constructs. Correlates of the various factor scores were evaluated through regression analysis and contrasted with those of a test of verbal learning and memory.The results revealed that the BRIEF and the CBCL disagree about the presence vs. absence of impairment in about one quarter of cases. A prior history of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was associated with an increased likelihood of impairment on both the BRIEF and the CBCL, whereas prior outpatient psychiatric treatment was associated with the increased likelihood of selective impairment on the CBCL. Latent constructs manifested themselves along cognitive regulation, emotional adjustment and behavioral regulation factors. Whereas premorbid characteristics were the exclusive correlates of these factors, performance on a test of verbal learning and memory was negatively affected by intracranial lesions on neuroimaging.It is concluded that the BRIEF and the CBCL offer complementary and non-redundant information about daily functioning after pediatric mild TBI. The correlates of cognitive test performance and parental behavior ratings after such injuries are different and reflect a divergence between premorbid and injury-related influences.

  10. Application of Bayes theorem to aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity: comparison of extended-interval dosing, individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring, and multiple-daily dosing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong-Jin; Bertino, Joseph S; Erb, Tara A; Jenkins, Paul L; Nafziger, Anne N

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity related to extended-interval dosing, individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring, and multiple-daily dosing by applying Bayes theorem. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE (1966-2003) and a manual search of references from published meta-analyses and review articles were performed. Studies using extended-interval dosing, individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring, or multiple-daily dosing and reported aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity for patients > or = 16 years of age were included. Quality scores were assigned based on the rigor of definition of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity, duration of therapy, and length of follow-up of renal function after completion of therapy. Inclusion criteria were then based on these quality scores. Quantitative data on the incidence of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity were abstracted. Twelve extended-interval dosing studies (n = 916), 10 individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring studies (n = 2066), and 27 multiple-daily dosing studies (n = 4251) met the inclusion criteria. Prior probabilities of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity were derived from a combination of a review of published studies and expert judgment. The maximum densities for the final posterior probabilities of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity for extended-interval dosing, individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring, and multiple-daily dosing were located at 12% to 13%, 10% to 11%, and 13% to 14%, respectively. Application of Bayes theorem demonstrates that aminoglycoside dosing by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring results in less aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity than extended-interval dosing or multiple-daily dosing.

  11. Changes in Upper-Extremity Functional Capacity and Daily Performance During Outpatient Occupational Therapy for People With Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Doman, Caitlin A.; Waddell, Kimberly J.; Bailey, Ryan R.; Moore, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explored how upper-extremity (UE) functional capacity and daily performance change during the course of outpatient rehabilitation in people with stroke. METHOD. Fifteen participants receiving outpatient occupational therapy services for UE paresis poststroke were enrolled. UE motor capacity was measured with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and UE performance was measured using bilateral, wrist-worn accelerometers. Measurements were taken at or near the start of therapy, at every 10th visit or every 30 days throughout the duration of services, and at discharge. RESULTS. Three patterns were observed: (1) increase in ARAT scores and more normalized accelerometry profiles, (2) increase in ARAT scores but no change in accelerometry profiles, and (3) no change in ARAT scores or in accelerometry profiles. CONCLUSION. UE performance in daily life was highly variable, with inconsistencies between change in UE capacity and change in UE performance. UE capacity and performance are important constructs to assess separately during rehabilitation. PMID:27089298

  12. Intra-individual neurocognitive variability confers risk of dependence in activities of daily living among HIV-seropositive individuals without HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Erin E; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor

    2012-05-01

    Although HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are the strong predictors of everyday functioning difficulties, approximately half of all functionally impaired individuals are labeled "neurocognitively normal" according to the standard neuropsychological measures, suggesting that novel predictors of functional problems in this prevalent subgroup are needed. The present study hypothesized that increased neurocognitive intra-individual variability as indexed by dispersion would be associated with poor daily functioning among 82 persons with HIV infection who did not meet research criteria for HAND. An intra-individual standard deviation was calculated across the demographically adjusted T-scores of 13 standard neuropsychological tests to represent dispersion, and functional outcomes included self-reported declines in basic and instrumental activities of daily functioning (basic activity of daily living [BADL] and instrumental activity of daily living [IADL], respectively) and medication management. Dispersion was a significant predictor of medication adherence and dependence in both BADL and IADL, even when other known predictors of functional status (i.e., age, affective distress, and indices of disease severity) were included in the models. As a significant and unique predictor of a performance on the range of daily functioning activities, neurocognitive dispersion may be indicative of deficient cognitive control expressed as inefficient regulation of neurocognitive resources in the context of competing functional demands. As such, dispersion may have clinical utility in detecting risk for functional problems among HIV-infected individuals without HAND.

  13. Intra-individual Neurocognitive Variability Confers Risk of Dependence in Activities of Daily Living among HIV-Seropositive Individuals without HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Although HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are the strong predictors of everyday functioning difficulties, approximately half of all functionally impaired individuals are labeled “neurocognitively normal” according to the standard neuropsychological measures, suggesting that novel predictors of functional problems in this prevalent subgroup are needed. The present study hypothesized that increased neurocognitive intra-individual variability as indexed by dispersion would be associated with poor daily functioning among 82 persons with HIV infection who did not meet research criteria for HAND. An intra-individual standard deviation was calculated across the demographically adjusted T-scores of 13 standard neuropsychological tests to represent dispersion, and functional outcomes included self-reported declines in basic and instrumental activities of daily functioning (basic activity of daily living [BADL] and instrumental activity of daily living [IADL], respectively) and medication management. Dispersion was a significant predictor of medication adherence and dependence in both BADL and IADL, even when other known predictors of functional status (i.e., age, affective distress, and indices of disease severity) were included in the models. As a significant and unique predictor of a performance on the range of daily functioning activities, neurocognitive dispersion may be indicative of deficient cognitive control expressed as inefficient regulation of neurocognitive resources in the context of competing functional demands. As such, dispersion may have clinical utility in detecting risk for functional problems among HIV-infected individuals without HAND. PMID:22337933

  14. Selective Narrowing of Social Networks Across Adulthood is Associated With Improved Emotional Experience in Daily Life.

    PubMed

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-03-01

    Past research has documented age differences in the size and composition of social networks that suggest that networks grow smaller with age and include an increasingly greater proportion of well-known social partners. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, such changes in social network composition serve an antecedent emotion regulatory function that supports an age-related increase in the priority that people place on emotional well-being. The present study employed a longitudinal design with a sample that spanned the full adult age range to examine whether there is evidence of within-individual (developmental) change in social networks and whether the characteristics of relationships predict emotional experiences in daily life. Using growth curve analyses, social networks were found to increase in size in young adulthood and then decline steadily throughout later life. As postulated by socioemotional selectivity theory, reductions were observed primarily in the number of peripheral partners; the number of close partners was relatively stable over time. In addition, cross-sectional analyses revealed that older adults reported that social network members elicited less negative emotion and more positive emotion. The emotional tone of social networks, particularly when negative emotions were associated with network members, also predicted experienced emotion of participants. Overall, findings were robust after taking into account demographic variables and physical health. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of socioemotional selectivity theory and related theoretical models.

  15. Participation after acquired brain injury: Associations with everyday technology and activities in daily life.

    PubMed

    Fallahpour, Mandana; Kottorp, Anders; Nygård, Louise; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2015-01-01

    The development of the information society has led to increased use of everyday technology and changed the conditions for participation. Enabling participation in everyday life situations is an important rehabilitation goal after acquired brain injury (ABI). Identifying factors associated with individuals' experienced participation and problems therein is therefore essential. This study aimed at exploring the relationship between perceived difficulty in everyday technology use, perceived ability in the activities of daily living (ADL), and perceived participation, and participation problems in persons with ABI. Eighty-one persons with ABI participated in the study and were assessed by the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire, the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire, and the ADL taxonomy. Findings showed that the combined model of difficulty in everyday technology (ET) use, ADL ability, and the interaction between them explained both participation in various domains of everyday life, and also overall level of perceived participation and the perceived problems. The findings underscore the importance of evaluating individuals' ability in both ET use and ADL after ABI to increase the probability of explaining these persons' participation in desired everyday life situations and, also, for rehabilitation design.

  16. Selective Narrowing of Social Networks Across Adulthood is Associated With Improved Emotional Experience in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has documented age differences in the size and composition of social networks that suggest that networks grow smaller with age and include an increasingly greater proportion of well-known social partners. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, such changes in social network composition serve an antecedent emotion regulatory function that supports an age-related increase in the priority that people place on emotional well-being. The present study employed a longitudinal design with a sample that spanned the full adult age range to examine whether there is evidence of within-individual (developmental) change in social networks and whether the characteristics of relationships predict emotional experiences in daily life. Using growth curve analyses, social networks were found to increase in size in young adulthood and then decline steadily throughout later life. As postulated by socioemotional selectivity theory, reductions were observed primarily in the number of peripheral partners; the number of close partners was relatively stable over time. In addition, cross-sectional analyses revealed that older adults reported that social network members elicited less negative emotion and more positive emotion. The emotional tone of social networks, particularly when negative emotions were associated with network members, also predicted experienced emotion of participants. Overall, findings were robust after taking into account demographic variables and physical health. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of socioemotional selectivity theory and related theoretical models. PMID:24910483

  17. Active cervical and lumbar range of motion during performance of activities of daily living in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Cobian, Daniel G; Daehn, Nicole S; Anderson, Paul A; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2013-09-15

    Observational cohort design. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the maximum, cumulative, and average cervical and lumbar spine motion required to perform common activities of daily living (ADLs). Previous studies have measured the maximum cervical and lumbar excursions during ADLs, but none have used a motion capture system to allow for noninvasive continuous motion monitoring. Ten healthy, young adults performed 16 ADLs while 3-dimensional kinematics were recorded. Cervical and lumbar rigid body kinematic models were created and scaled to each subject to calculate angular motion. Cervical and lumbar mean active range of motion (ROM) and total excursion for flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were calculated. The majority of activities used 20% to 40% of maximum available cervical ROM and 40% to 60% of maximum available lumbar ROM. Activities that required concurrent cervical and lumbar spine motion, such as washing in the shower, picking an object up from the floor, and clearing the table, had the greatest motion totals. These activities typically required rates of excursion greater than 10° per second. This is the first investigation to report cumulative spine motion totals associated with the performance of common ADLs. These results provide a preliminary cervical and lumbar spine motion profile in healthy, young adults. The relationship between traditional end ROM measurements and function is not well defined. In agreement with previous research, this investigation concludes that only a small percentage of available ROM is used in performing most activities. Thus, determining the total wear related to common activities may help us to better understand and address spine-related impairments. N/A.

  18. Technology-Aided Verbal Instructions to Help Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Perform Daily Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tatulli, Emanuela; Rigante, Valeria; Zonno, Nadia; Perilli, Viviana; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.

    2010-01-01

    These two studies extended previous research on the use of verbal instructions and support technology for helping persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease perform daily activities. Study I included seven participants who were to carry out one of two previously targeted activities (i.e., either coffee preparation or table setting). Study…

  19. Technology-Aided Verbal Instructions to Help Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Perform Daily Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tatulli, Emanuela; Rigante, Valeria; Zonno, Nadia; Perilli, Viviana; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.

    2010-01-01

    These two studies extended previous research on the use of verbal instructions and support technology for helping persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease perform daily activities. Study I included seven participants who were to carry out one of two previously targeted activities (i.e., either coffee preparation or table setting). Study…

  20. Testing bidirectional associations among emotion regulation strategies and substance use: a daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nicole H; Bold, Krysten W; Sullivan, Tami P; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol and marijuana are widely used among college students. Emotion regulation strategies have been linked to alcohol and marijuana use, but little attention has been devoted to modeling the directionality of these associations. The aims of the current study were to test whether (a) daytime use of emotion regulation strategies influences the likelihood of evening substance use and (b) evening substance use influences the likelihood of next-day use of emotion regulation strategies. Longitudinal daily diary data were collected for 30 days via on-line surveys. Northeastern United States. A total of 1640 college students (mean age = 19.2 years, 54% female, 80% European American) were recruited each semester between Spring 2008 and Spring 2012. Daily diaries assessed emotion regulation strategies (distraction, reappraisal, problem-solving, avoidance) and substance use (any drinking, heavy drinking, marijuana use, co-use of any drinking/heavy drinking and marijuana). Covariates included gender, age, race/ethnicity, fraternity/sorority involvement and baseline depression. Daytime distraction [odds ratio (OR) = 0.95], reappraisal (OR = 0.95) and problem-solving (OR = 0.94) predicted lower odds of evening marijuana use (P-values < 0.02). Evening heavy drinking (OR = 0.90) and marijuana use (OR = 0.89) predicted lower odds of next-day problem-solving, with heavy drinking also predicting higher odds (OR = 1.08) of next-day avoidance and marijuana use also predicting higher odds (OR = 1.08) of next-day reappraisal (P-values < 0.03). There appear to be reciprocal relations among emotion regulation strategies and substance use: greater daytime use of distraction, reappraisal, and problem solving predicts lower evening substance use, while higher evening substance use predicts higher next-day avoidance and reappraisal but lower next-day problem-solving. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. The association between self-reported daily hassles and cortisol levels in depression and anxiety in community living older adults.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, H-M; Forget, H; Préville, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the association, in a naturalistic setting, between daily hassles and diurnal salivary cortisol differs in the presence of depression and anxiety in older adults. Data were assessed in a large representative community sample of older adults (n = 1760). A multinomial analysis was used to study as an outcome variable: no disorder, depression only, anxiety only and depression and anxiety, as a function of daily hassles and cortisol levels controlling for age, gender and time of saliva collection. Multivariate regression analyses were also carried out to test the association between daily hassles and cortisol levels stratified by depression and anxiety status. A significant positive association was observed between the number of daily hassles reported and cortisol levels in participants with no depression and no anxiety and in participants with anxiety. Participants without depression and anxiety, and those with depression only, had significant lower cortisol levels later in the day. This was not observed in respondents with anxiety. Stressors such as daily hassles are associated with cortisol secretion in depression and anxiety in older adults in a large epidemiologic setting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Academic Performance Differences among Ethnic Groups: Do the Daily Use and Management of Time Offer Explanations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2013-01-01

    This explorative study describes time use and time management behaviour of ethnic minority and ethnic majority students as possible explanations for the poorer study results of ethnic minority students compared to those of majority students. We used a diary approach in a small sample to examine students' daily time use in both a lecture week…

  3. Academic Performance Differences among Ethnic Groups: Do the Daily Use and Management of Time Offer Explanations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2013-01-01

    This explorative study describes time use and time management behaviour of ethnic minority and ethnic majority students as possible explanations for the poorer study results of ethnic minority students compared to those of majority students. We used a diary approach in a small sample to examine students' daily time use in both a lecture week…

  4. Does the APACHE II score predict performance of activities of daily living in patients discharged from a weaning center?

    PubMed Central

    Rojek-Jarmuła, Anna; Hombach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data regarding the functional status of patients after prolonged mechanical ventilation are scarce, and little is known about its clinical predictors. Aim To investigate whether the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score on admission may predict performance in activities of daily living on discharge from a weaning center. Material and methods All consecutive patients admitted between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 were enrolled (n = 130). During this period, 15 subjects died, and 115 were successfully discharged (34 women; 81 men). APACHE II was calculated based on the worst values taken during the first 24 hours after admission. On discharge, the Barthel Index (BI) and its extended version, the Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI), were assessed. Results Median BI was 20 points (IQR 5; 40), and ERBI was 20 points (–50; 40). There was no correlation between APACHE II and either BI (R = –0.07; p = 0.47) or ERBI (R = –0.07; p = 0.44). APACHE II predicted the need for assistance with bathing (AUROC = 0.833; p < 0.001), grooming (AUROC = 0.823; p < 0.001), toilet use (AUROC = 0.887; p < 0.001), and urination (AUROC = 0.658; p = 0.04). APACHE II had no impact on any ERBI items associated with ventilator weaning, including the need of further mechanical ventilation (AUROC = 0.534; p = 0.65) or tracheostomy (AUROC = 0.544; p = 0.42). Conclusions Although APACHE II cannot predict the overall functional status in patients discharged from a weaning center, it helps identify subjects who will need support with bathing, grooming, and toilet use. The APACHE II score is inadequate to predict performance in activities associated with further respiratory support. PMID:28096834

  5. Association Between Social Participation and 3-Year Change in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether social participation (SP) in older adults is associated with ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Prospective cohort study. Two local municipalities of Nara, Japan. Individuals aged 65 to 96 (n = 2,774 male, n = 3,586 female) free of IADL disability at baseline. SP and IADLs were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. SP was categorized into five types and assessed using the number and type of social activities. IADLs were evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression analysis stratified according to sex was used to examine change in IADLs according to SP, with nonparticipation as a reference. During the 3-year follow-up, 13.6% of men and 9.0% of women reported IADL decline. After adjusting for age, family structure, body mass index, pension, occupation, medical treatment, self-rated health, drinking, smoking, depression, cognitive function, and activities of daily living, participation in various social activities was inversely associated with change in IADLs in women but not men. Participation in the following types of social activities had significant inverse associations with IADL disability: hobby clubs (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.49-0.94) for men and local events (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.48-0.95), hobby clubs (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.36-0.79), senior citizen clubs (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.56-0.97), and volunteer groups (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.32-0.99) for women. Participation in a variety of different types of social activities was associated with change in IADLs over the 3 years of this study in women, and participation in hobby clubs was associated with change in IADLs in men and women. Recommending that community-dwelling elderly adults participate in social activities appropriate for their sex may promote successful aging. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics

  6. Study on the association between ambient air pollution and daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in an urban district of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengying; Li, Liping; Krafft, Thomas; Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Pei, Desheng

    2011-06-01

    The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003-2006) and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007-2008). Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags) and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0) for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease.

  7. Factors associated with the recovery of activities of daily living after hospitalization for acute medical illness: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Ryohei; Watanabe, Hiroki; Tsutsumi, Madoka; Kanamori, Takeshige; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Yanagi, Hisako

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the factors associated with the recovery rate of activities of daily living of elderly patients hospitalized for acute medical illness. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 238 elderly patients were enrolled in this study. The main outcome measure was the functional independence measure score which was used as an assessment of activities of daily living. The participants were divided into 2 groups based on their activities of daily living before onset: the independent group and the partially dependent group. The participants of each group were further divided into 2 subgroups based on recovery rates of activities of daily living: the high-recovery group (80%) and the low-recovery group (<80%). The factors associated with the recovery rate were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. [Results] The factors associated with the recovery rate were: days of inactivity and cognitive status at the start of rehabilitation for the independent group, and days of inactivity and nutritional status at the start of rehabilitation for the partially dependent group. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the important factors for return to normal activities of daily living are: days of inactivity and cognitive status for the independent group; and days of inactivity and management of nutrition for the partially dependent group. PMID:27821931

  8. Perceived and measurable performance of daily brushing and rinsing with an essential oil mouthrinse

    PubMed Central

    Pilloni, Andrea; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Barlattani, Alberto; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Giannoni, Mario; Guida, Luigi; Levrini, Luca; Majorana, Alessandra; Polimeni, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Summary Aims To determine whether the oral health benefits of recommending twice daily brushing and rinsing with an essential oil mouthrinse (EOM) are perceived and measurable by dentists and also perceived by their patients at a 3-month recall visit. Methods This is a monadic, open label, uncontrolled study involving 766 generally healthy Italian subjects aged 19–66 years, with mild to moderate levels of gingivitis, no pockets of more than 4 mm, and at least 20 scorable teeth. Eight dentists scored subjects for plaque and gingivitis at baseline and at 90 days using simplified 4-point plaque and gingivitis indices. All subjects brushed twice daily, immediately followed by rinsing for 30 sec with 20 ml of an essential oil mouthrinse (Listerine®). Results 735 subjects completed the study (95.9%). Average score reductions were 51.9% and 45.7% for plaque and gingivitis, respectively. About 62% and 70% were judged by the dentists as improved for plaque control and gingival health. 85% of subjects judged the EOM as efficacious. Conclusion The oral health benefits of brushing and rinsing twice daily with an essential oil mouthrinse are perceived by patients and professionals alike and measurable by dentists at a 3-month recall visit. PMID:22238712

  9. Protocol for the CONVERT trial—Concurrent ONce-daily VErsus twice-daily RadioTherapy: an international 2-arm randomised controlled trial of concurrent chemoradiotherapy comparing twice-daily and once-daily radiotherapy schedules in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) and good performance status

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Sally; Ashcroft, Linda; Bewley, Michelle; Lorigan, Paul; Wilson, Elena; Groom, Nicki; Snee, Michael; Fournel, Pierre; Cardenal, Felipe; Bezjak, Andrea; Blackhall, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Concurrent ONce-daily VErsus twice-daily RadioTherapy (CONVERT) is the only multicentre, international, randomised, phase III trial open in Europe and Canada looking at optimisation of chemoradiotherapy (RT) in limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). Following on from the Turrisi trial of once-daily versus twice-daily (BD) concurrent chemoradiotherapy, there is a real need for a new phase III trial using modern conformal RT techniques and investigating higher once-daily radiation dose. This trial has the potential to define a new standard chemo-RT regimen for patients with LS-SCLC and good performance status. Methods and analysis 447 patients with histologically or cytologically proven diagnosis of SCLC were recruited from 74 centres in eight countries between 2008 and 2013. Patients were randomised to receive either concurrent twice-daily RT(45 Gy in 30 twice-daily fractions over 3 weeks) or concurrent once-daily RT(66 Gy in 33 once-daily fractions over 6.5 weeks) both starting on day 22 of cycle 1. Patients are followed up until death. The primary end point of the study is overall survival and secondary end points include local progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival, acute and late toxicity based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events V.3.0, chemotherapy and RTdose intensity. Ethics and dissemination The trial received ethical approval from NRES Committee North West—Greater Manchester Central (07/H1008/229). There is a trial steering committee, including independent members and an independent data monitoring committee. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. Trial registration number ISRCTN91927162; Pre-results. PMID:26792218

  10. Social withdrawal of persons with vascular dementia associated with disturbance of basic daily activities, apathy, and impaired social judgment.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yukiko; Meguro, Kenichi; Meguro, Mitsue; Akanuma, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) are often isolated, withdrawn from society because of negative symptoms and functional disabilities. The aim of this study was to detect factors associated with social withdrawal in patients with VaD. The participants were 36 institutionalized patients with VaD. Social withdrawal was assessed with the social withdrawal of the Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects (MOSES). Possible explanatory variables were the MOSES items depression and self-care, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), apathy evaluation scale (AES), and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Frequency-Weighted Severity Scale (BEHAVE-AD-FW). Multiple regression analyses were conducted for two groups: Analysis 1 was performed in all patients (N = 36) and Analysis 2 was performed in the patients with the ability to move by themselves (i.e., independent walking or independent movement with a cane or a wheelchair; n = 28). In Analysis 1, MOSES item social withdrawal was correlated with AES and MOSES item self-care. In Analysis 2, MOSES item social withdrawal was correlated with AES and CASI domain abstraction and judgment. Decreased social activities of VaD were not related to general cognitive function or depression. Disturbed activities of daily living (ADLs) for self-care may involve decreased frontal lobe function, indicating that comprehensive rehabilitation for both ADL and dementia are needed to improve the social activities of patients with VaD.

  11. Daily stress magnifies the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems: an integration of longitudinal and diary methods.

    PubMed

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Almeida, David M; Seeman, Teresa E; Lachman, Margie E

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether long-term fluid cognitive decline was associated with memory problems in everyday life, and whether stress plays a moderating role. We expected that the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems would be magnified in the context of self-reported and physiological stress. Data are from the Boston Longitudinal Study, a subsample of the Midlife in the United States study. Participants in the current study (n = 112) completed a battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning at Time 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) over 10 years. At T2, participants completed weekly diaries of self-reported daily stressors and everyday memory problems for 12 consecutive weeks. Also at T2, participants provided 4 saliva samples over the course of 1 day to assess physiological stress using diurnal cortisol profiles [cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS)]. Self-reported daily stressors and a less healthy DCS were associated with more everyday memory problems, and participants with greater cognitive decline reported more memory problems compared to those with less or no decline. Self-reported daily stressors and CAR moderated the relationship of cognitive decline and memory problems. As expected, more cognitive decline was associated with greater increases in memory problems on weeks when individuals reported more daily stressors and for individuals with a less healthy CAR. The current findings can inform interventions aimed to identify factors, such as daily stress, that contribute to daily functioning in the context of cognitive decline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: an ambulatory assessment study in daily life.

    PubMed

    von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants' habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 ± 1.7 years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2 h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions

  13. [Association between the change of daily living activities and symptoms of depression in Chinese middle-aged and elderly people].

    PubMed

    Luo, Y N; Wang, Z J; Zheng, X Y

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To explore the association between the change of daily living activities and the suymtoms of depression in Chinese middle-age and elderly people. Methods: People without symptoms on depression, emotional or spiritual diseases or memories related diseases in baseline survey (2011), those who were aged ≥45 years in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) with two waves from 2011 to 2013 were invited to participate in this CHARLS study. Information related to demographic characteristics and health status of the subjects were collected through household-interview. Depression symptom was assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression (CES-D10) scale. Activities of daily living function was assessed by both Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL) and Instrument Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scales. Symptoms of depression was compared and the differences in various BADL/IADL changing groups were analyzed with Log-rank test. Association between the changes of daily living activities and depression symptom was analyzed by Cox regression model. Results: Results from the log-rank test showed that the differences of depression symptom hazard ratio were statistically significant in different BADL/IADL changing groups. Results from the Cox regression analysis showed that the BADL/IADL in the deteriorating groups was associated with the higher hazard ratio of depression symptom (P<0.01), with the HR value (95%CI) for BADL and IADL deteriorate groups as 1.45 (1.20-1.76) and 1.64 (1.36-1.98), respectively, when comparing to the 'stablized' group. This phenomenon appeared an urban-rural difference. Statistical significances on IADL also happened in both urban and rural areas while BADL only occurred in rurals. Conclusion: There appeared an association between the change of daily living activities and depression symptom in Chinese middle-age and elderly people. Difference between IADL and BADL was also noticed between urban

  14. Association of daily coffee and tea consumption and metabolic syndrome: results from the Polish arm of the HAPIEE study.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Stepaniak, Urszula; Micek, Agnieszka; Topor-Mądry, Roman; Pikhart, Hynek; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Pająk, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether daily consumption of coffee and tea was associated with components and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe cohort study. A cross-sectional population-based survey including 8,821 adults (51.4% female) was conducted in Krakow, Poland. Coffee and tea consumption was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation definition. Linear and logistic regression models were performed to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Among high coffee and tea consumers (3 or more cups/day), high prevalence of female gender, young age, medium-high educational and occupational level, high total energy intake, and smoking habit were found. High coffee drinkers had lower BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and higher HDL cholesterol than those drinking less than 1 cup/day. In contrast, high tea consumers had lower BMI, waist circumference, but not diastolic blood pressure, which was higher than low drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, both higher coffee and tea consumption were negatively associated with MetS (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66, 0.86 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67, 0.92, respectively). Among specific components of MetS, high coffee consumption was negatively associated with waist circumference, hypertension, and triglycerides, whereas tea consumption with central obesity and fasting plasma glucose in women, but not in men. Coffee and tea consumption was negatively associated with MetS and some of its components.

  15. Daily Stress and Emotional Well-Being among Asian American Adolescents: Same-Day, Lagged, and Chronic Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; "M" age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when…

  16. Daily Stress and Emotional Well-Being among Asian American Adolescents: Same-Day, Lagged, and Chronic Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; "M" age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when…

  17. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; de Jonge, Ank; Heymans, Martijn W; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011), consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE). Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-15.4), being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7) and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0). Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5). Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions.

  18. Maternal history of child abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2013-11-01

    Previous research on the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy has yielded inconsistent findings. However, past studies have not considered whether stressful experiences in childhood impact maternal cortisol regulation in pregnancy. In this pilot study, we aimed to examine whether the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol differed according to maternal history of child abuse. Forty-one women provided salivary cortisol samples at wake-up, 30 min after wake-up, and bedtime for 3 days at three times over second and third trimesters of pregnancy. On each day of cortisol collection women reported their daily stress. Women reported child abuse experiences prior to age 18 years by completing 15 items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale. Twenty-one percent (N = 9) of women reported a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), 44% (N = 18) reported a history of non-sexual child abuse and 34% (N = 14) reported no history of child abuse. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that stress in the day prior was associated with increases in morning cortisol in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Increases in evening cortisol were associated with increases in daily stress in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Results reveal a dynamic association between daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy and suggest that patterns differ according to maternal child abuse history.

  19. Does life seem better on a sunny day? Examining the association between daily weather conditions and life satisfaction judgments.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Richard E; Lawless, Nicole M

    2013-05-01

    Weather conditions have been shown to affect a broad range of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The current study examines whether these effects extend to life satisfaction judgments. We examine the association between daily weather conditions and life satisfaction in a representative sample of over 1 million Americans from all 50 states who were assessed (in a cross-sectional design) over a 5-year period. Most daily weather conditions were unrelated to life satisfaction judgments, and those effects that were significant reflect very small effects that were only detectable because of the extremely high power of these analyses. These results show that weather does not reliably affect judgments of life satisfaction.

  20. Does Life Seem Better on a Sunny Day? Examining the Association between Daily Weather Conditions and Life Satisfaction Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Richard E.; Lawless, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Weather conditions have been shown to affect a broad range of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The current study examines whether these effects extend to life satisfaction judgments. We examine the association between daily weather conditions and life satisfaction in a representative sample of over 1 million Americans from all 50 states who were assessed (in a cross-sectional design) over a 5-year period. Most daily weather conditions were unrelated to life satisfaction judgments, and those effects that were significant reflect very small effects that were only detectable because of the extremely high power of these analyses. These results show that weather does not reliably affect judgments of life satisfaction. PMID:23607534

  1. ThedaCare's business performance system: sustaining continuous daily improvement through hospital management in a lean environment.

    PubMed

    Barnas, Kim

    2011-09-01

    For 2003-2008, ThedaCare, a community health system in Wisconsin, achieved significant improvements in quality and the elimination of waste through the development of an improvement system, which included Value Stream analysis, rapid improvement events, and projects applied to specific processes. However, to meet its continuous daily improvement goals, particularly the goal of increasing productivity by 10% annually, ThedaCare needed to change the way its managers and leaders (in its hospital division) conduct and manage their daily work. Accordingly, it developed its Business Performance System (BPS) to achieve and sustain continuous daily improvement. BUILDING THE BPS: ThedaCare devised a multipart pilot project, consisting of "learning to see" and then, "problem solving." On completion of the 15-week alpha phase (6 units) in July 2009, the BPS was spread to the beta pilot (12 units; September 2009-January 2010) and then to cohort 3 (10 units; September 2010-January 2011). Each alpha unit improved performance on (1) the key driver metric of increasing productivity from 2008 to year-end 2009 (by 1%-11%) and (2) its respective safety/ quality drivers over the respective 2008 baselines. For 2010, improvements across the alpha, beta, and cohort 3 units were found for 11 of the 14 safety/quality drivers-85% of the 11 customer satisfaction drivers, 83% of 6 people engagement drivers; and 48% of 23 financial stewardship drivers. The tools developed for the BPS have enabled teams to see, prioritize, and pursue continuous daily improvement opportunities. Unit leaders now have a structured management reporting system to reduce variation in their management styles. Leaders all now follow leadership standard work, and their daily work is now consistently aligned with the hospital and system strategy.

  2. Associations between company at dinner and daily diet quality in Dutch men and women from the NQplus study.

    PubMed

    van Lee, L; Geelen, A; Hooft van Huysduynen, E J C; de Vries, J H M; van 't Veer, P; Feskens, E J M

    2016-12-01

    Consuming the evening meal in the company of others has been associated with overall diet quality. Nevertheless, studies on the association between type of company at dinner and diet quality in adults are scarce. Dutch men (n=895) and women (n=845) aged between 20 and 70 years, included in a population-based observational study, were studied. Dietary intake was assessed by multiple 24-h recalls (6013 recalls) to estimate the Dutch Healthy Diet index (0-80 points) representing daily diet quality. Sex-specific linear mixed models adjusting for covariates were calculated. Out-of-home dinners and company at dinner were strongly associated (r=0.66), and hence in additional analyses, out-of-home dinners were excluded to avoid multicollinearity. Among men, daily diet quality was similar when dinners were consumed in company or consumed alone, but higher when dinner was accompanied by family (mean 46.0, s.e. 0.3) than when dinner was accompanied by others (mean 42.3, s.e. 0.7; P=0.001). Adjustment for dinner location attenuated this association, but it remained significant when excluding out-of-home dinners. Among women, daily diet quality was lower when dinner was consumed in company (mean 48.9, s.e. 0.3) than when consumed alone (mean 51.1, s.e. 0.6; P<0.001). Dinners consumed in the company of family were associated with higher daily diet quality (mean 49.3, s.e. 0.4) than dinners consumed with others (mean 45.7, s.e. 0.6; P=0.001). These associations persisted when excluding out-of-home dinners. Only among women, dinners consumed alone as compared with dinners in company were associated with higher diet quality. In both men and women, dinners consumed with family were associated with higher diet quality as compared with dinners with others.

  3. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER COMPONENTS AND DAILY MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY IN PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In evaluating the health risks from particulate matter (PM), the question remains as to which component(s) of PM are most harmful. We investigated this issue using PM mass, PM constituents, mortality, and the elderly hospital admission data in Philadelphia, PA. Daily paired PM...

  4. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER COMPONENTS AND DAILY MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY IN PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In evaluating the health risks from particulate matter (PM), the question remains as to which component(s) of PM are most harmful. We investigated this issue using PM mass, PM constituents, mortality, and the elderly hospital admission data in Philadelphia, PA. Daily paired PM...

  5. Hormonal and metabolic rhythms associated with the daily scheduled nursing in rabbit pups

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Elvira; Gordon, M. Kathleen; del Carmen Miñana-Solis, María; Meza, Enrique; Levine, Seymour; Escobar, Carolina; Caba, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Young rabbits are nursed every 24 h for a period of 3–5 min. As a consequence, pups are synchronized to this nursing event; this synchronization is characterized by increased locomotor activity and a peaking of core temperature and plasma corticosterone in anticipation of the daily meal. Ghrelin is a hormone suggested to play a role in meal initiation and to promote food intake. The present study explored the role of ghrelin in food-entrained conditions. Newborn rabbits were maintained in constant darkness and nursed once daily at 1000 by the lactating dam. On postnatal day 7, rabbits were killed at six different time points to complete a 24-h cycle. All pups developed locomotor rhythms entrained by mealtime and exhibited anticipatory activity. Food-entrained rhythms in plasma corticosterone and free fatty acids were observed even if two meals were omitted. In contrast, daily food-driven rhythms in stomach weight, plasma glucose, liver glycogen, and ghrelin did not persist when two meals were omitted. Peak ghrelin levels were observed at the moment in the cycle when the stomach weight was lowest, i.e., before initiation of anticipation. The present data are in agreement with previous data from rabbit pups maintained in light-dark conditions and provide evidence that 7- to 9-day-old rabbits in constant darkness can exhibit metabolic and hormonal rhythms mainly driven by the restricted daily nursing. PMID:18480239

  6. Hormonal and metabolic rhythms associated with the daily scheduled nursing in rabbit pups.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Elvira; Gordon, M Kathleen; del Carmen Miñana-Solis, María; Meza, Enrique; Levine, Seymour; Escobar, Carolina; Caba, Mario

    2008-08-01

    Young rabbits are nursed every 24 h for a period of 3-5 min. As a consequence, pups are synchronized to this nursing event; this synchronization is characterized by increased locomotor activity and a peaking of core temperature and plasma corticosterone in anticipation of the daily meal. Ghrelin is a hormone suggested to play a role in meal initiation and to promote food intake. The present study explored the role of ghrelin in food-entrained conditions. Newborn rabbits were maintained in constant darkness and nursed once daily at 1000 by the lactating dam. On postnatal day 7, rabbits were killed at six different time points to complete a 24-h cycle. All pups developed locomotor rhythms entrained by mealtime and exhibited anticipatory activity. Food-entrained rhythms in plasma corticosterone and free fatty acids were observed even if two meals were omitted. In contrast, daily food-driven rhythms in stomach weight, plasma glucose, liver glycogen, and ghrelin did not persist when two meals were omitted. Peak ghrelin levels were observed at the moment in the cycle when the stomach weight was lowest, i.e., before initiation of anticipation. The present data are in agreement with previous data from rabbit pups maintained in light-dark conditions and provide evidence that 7- to 9-day-old rabbits in constant darkness can exhibit metabolic and hormonal rhythms mainly driven by the restricted daily nursing.

  7. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  8. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  9. A Daily Process Examination of the Temporal Association Between Alcohol Use and Verbal and Physical Aggression in Community Couples

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration and victimization; however, much of the evidence is based on survey research. Few studies have addressed the proximal effects of drinking episodes on the subsequent occurrence of partner aggression. The current study used daily diary methodology to consider the daily and temporal association between drinking episodes and episodes of partner verbal and physical aggression among a community sample of married and cohabiting couples (N = 118). Male and female partners each provided 56 days of independent daily reports of drinking and partner conflict episodes, including verbal and physical aggression, using interactive voice response technology. Dyadic data analyses, guided by the actor-partner interdependence model, were conducted using hierarchical generalized linear modeling with multivariate outcomes. Daily analyses revealed that alcohol consumption was associated with perpetration of verbal and physical aggression the same day, but not with victimization. Temporal analyses revealed that the likelihood of perpetrating verbal and physical aggression, and the likelihood of being verbally and physically victimized, increased significantly when alcohol was consumed in the previous four hours. Findings did not differ according to gender of perpetrator or victim, and the interaction between perpetrator and victim's alcohol use was not significant in any analysis. The study provides clear evidence that, within a sample of community couples without substance-use disorders or other psychopathology, alcohol consumption by men and women contributes to the occurrence of partner aggression episodes. PMID:24341618

  10. A daily process examination of the temporal association between alcohol use and verbal and physical aggression in community couples.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration and victimization; however, much of the evidence is based on survey research. Few studies have addressed the proximal effects of drinking episodes on the subsequent occurrence of partner aggression. The current study used daily diary methodology to consider the daily and temporal association between drinking episodes and episodes of partner verbal and physical aggression among a community sample of married and cohabiting couples (N = 118). Male and female partners each provided 56 days of independent daily reports of drinking and partner conflict episodes, including verbal and physical aggression, using interactive voice response technology. Dyadic data analyses, guided by the actor-partner interdependence model, were conducted using hierarchical generalized linear modeling with multivariate outcomes. Daily analyses revealed that alcohol consumption was associated with perpetration of verbal and physical aggression the same day, but not with victimization. Temporal analyses revealed that the likelihood of perpetrating verbal and physical aggression, and the likelihood of being verbally and physically victimized, increased significantly when alcohol was consumed in the previous four hours. Findings did not differ according to gender of perpetrator or victim, and the interaction between perpetrator and victim's alcohol use was not significant in any analysis. The study provides clear evidence that, within a sample of community couples without substance-use disorders or other psychopathology, alcohol consumption by men and women contributes to the occurrence of partner aggression episodes.

  11. High lipophilicity and high daily dose of oral medications are associated with significant risk for drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjun; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida

    2013-07-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of drug failure in clinical trials and a major reason for drug withdrawals from the market. Although there is evidence that dosages of ≥100 mg/day are associated with increased risk for hepatotoxicity, many drugs are safe at such dosages. There is an unmet need to predict risk for DILI more reliably, and lipophilicity might be a contributing factor. We analyzed the combined factors of daily dose and lipophilicity for 164 US Food and Drug Administration-approved oral medications and observed high risk for hepatotoxicity (odds ratio [OR], 14.05; P < 0.001) for drugs given at dosages ≥100 mg/day and octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) ≥3. This defined the "rule-of-two." Similar results were obtained for an independent set of 179 oral medications with 85% of the rule-of-two positives being associated with hepatotoxicity (OR, 3.89; P < 0.01). Using the World Health Organization's Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, the rule-of-two performed best in predicting DILI in seven therapeutic categories. Among 15 rule-of-two positives, 14 were withdrawn from hepatotoxic drugs, and one was over-the-counter medication labeled for liver injury. We additionally examined drug pairs that have similar chemical structures and act on the same molecular target but differ in their potential for DILI. Again, the rule-of-two predicted hepatotoxicity reliably. Finally, the rule-of-two was applied to clinical case studies to identify hepatotoxic drugs in complex comedication regimes to further demonstrate its use. Apart from dose, lipophilicity contributes significantly to risk for hepatotoxicity. Applying the rule-of-two is an appropriate means of estimating risk for DILI compared with dose alone. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Neuropsychological and activity of daily living script performance in patients with positive or negative schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Godbout, Lucie; Limoges, Frédérique; Allard, Isabelle; Braun, Claude M J; Stip, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive and psychiatric determinants of impairment of complex activities of daily living (ADLs) were investigated in 33 schizophrenic patients and 16 normal comparison subjects. The schizophrenic patients were cognitively impaired and were deficient in the ADL. However, the impairment of ADL could not be explained specifically by impairment of higher-order executive function or by negative symptoms: memory functions were more related to impairment of ADL and positive symptoms as much as the negative ones. Positive symptoms were significantly related to commissive errors in the ADL, whereas negative symptoms were nonsignificantly related to omissive errors. Negative symptoms were significantly more related to memory impairment than to impairment on measures of higher-order executive function (working memory). This investigation demonstrates that an ecologically oriented approach to test development and measurement of ADL is fruitful in understanding schizophrenia-especially if it is constrained by cognitive constructs compatible with the phenomenology of the disease.

  13. Cognitive structure of executive deficits in frontally lesioned head trauma patients performing activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Sandra; Godbout, Lucie; Braun, Claude M J

    2003-04-01

    Executive functions in activities of daily living (ADL) were investigated in 10 patients with frontal lobe lesions after a mild to severe closed head injury (CHI). The CHI patients were compared to 12 normal controls with a neuropsychological test battery, a script recitation task and a realistic simulation of complex multitask ADL (planning and preparing a meal). Though the CHI patients were significantly slow on one test and subject to interference on an attention test with parametric testing, the groups did not differ on any neuropsychological test with non parametric testing. However, the CHI patients manifested marked anomalies in the meal preparation task. While small sequences of actions were easily produced, large action sets could not be correctly executed. An outstanding deficit in strategic planning and prospective memory appears to be an important underpinning of the impairment of ADL observed in CHI patients with frontal lobe lesions.

  14. Impact of fixed orthodontic appliance or clear-aligner on daily performance, in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie; Bhikoo, Chandradev; Guo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA) or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0), 6 months after bonding (T1), and 12 months after bonding (T2). Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner) and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, only OIDP total score was significantly increased at T1 compared to the baseline in the CA group. OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation were significantly higher in patients wearing FOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Patients wearing clear-aligner have fewer impacts on daily life than those wearing FOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment. PMID:27616881

  15. Discriminative ability of the generic and condition specific Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) among adolescents with and without hypodontia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to (1) investigate to what extent the generic and condition specific (CS) forms of the oral impact of daily performance (OIDP) inventory discriminate between a group of patients with hypodontia and a group of patients having malocclusion, (2) assess the association of the generic and CS OIDP with severity and localisation of hypodontia, whilst adjusting for patients’ age and sex. Methods A total of 163 patients aged 10–17 years were included in a cross-sectional study. Two groups were investigated: 62 patients with non-syndromic hypodontia and 101 non-hypodontia patients. Both groups had a malocclusion of similar treatment need. All patients underwent a clinical and radiographic examination and completed a Norwegian version of the generic and the CS OIDP inventory. CS scores were established for impacts attributed to hypodontia. Results The mean number of missing teeth in the hypodontia group was 6.2. The prevalence of generic and CS oral impacts in the hypodontia group were 64% and 30%, and the corresponding rates in the non-hypodontia group were 62% and 10%. The generic OIDP did not discriminate between the two groups with respect to overall scores. The CS OIDP discriminated strongly between patients with and without hypodontia regarding problems with emotional status, showing teeth, social contact, speaking and carrying out work. Compared to the non-hypodontia group, patients with hypodontia, with severe hypodontia (≥ 6 missing teeth) and upper anterior hypodontia were respectively 3.4, 2.5 and 7.0 times more likely to report any oral impact attributed to small teeth, gaps between teeth and missing teeth. Conclusions Hypodontia and malocclusion patients report a considerable burden of oral impacts. The CS-OIDP measure discriminated most effectively between patients with and without hypodontia and was related to severity and upper anterior localisation of hypodontia. PMID:24884584

  16. Discriminative ability of the generic and condition specific Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) among adolescents with and without hypodontia.

    PubMed

    Hvaring, Christina L; Birkeland, Kari; Åstrøm, Anne N

    2014-05-22

    The aims of this study were to (1) investigate to what extent the generic and condition specific (CS) forms of the oral impact of daily performance (OIDP) inventory discriminate between a group of patients with hypodontia and a group of patients having malocclusion, (2) assess the association of the generic and CS OIDP with severity and localisation of hypodontia, whilst adjusting for patients' age and sex. A total of 163 patients aged 10-17 years were included in a cross-sectional study. Two groups were investigated: 62 patients with non-syndromic hypodontia and 101 non-hypodontia patients. Both groups had a malocclusion of similar treatment need. All patients underwent a clinical and radiographic examination and completed a Norwegian version of the generic and the CS OIDP inventory. CS scores were established for impacts attributed to hypodontia. The mean number of missing teeth in the hypodontia group was 6.2. The prevalence of generic and CS oral impacts in the hypodontia group were 64% and 30%, and the corresponding rates in the non-hypodontia group were 62% and 10%. The generic OIDP did not discriminate between the two groups with respect to overall scores. The CS OIDP discriminated strongly between patients with and without hypodontia regarding problems with emotional status, showing teeth, social contact, speaking and carrying out work. Compared to the non-hypodontia group, patients with hypodontia, with severe hypodontia (≥ 6 missing teeth) and upper anterior hypodontia were respectively 3.4, 2.5 and 7.0 times more likely to report any oral impact attributed to small teeth, gaps between teeth and missing teeth. Hypodontia and malocclusion patients report a considerable burden of oral impacts. The CS-OIDP measure discriminated most effectively between patients with and without hypodontia and was related to severity and upper anterior localisation of hypodontia.

  17. Social stress in early adolescents' daily lives: Associations with affect and loneliness.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Daily patterns of stress and conflict in couples: Associations with marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Adela C; Arbel, Reout; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-02-01

    For many married individuals, the ups and downs of daily life are connected such that stressors impacting one person also impact the other person. For example, stress experienced by one individual may "spill over" to negatively impact marital functioning. This study used both partners' daily diary data to examine same-day and cross-day links between stress and marital conflict and tested several factors that make couples vulnerable to spillover. Assessment of 25 wide-ranging sources of daily stress included both paid and unpaid work, health issues, financial concerns, and having to make difficult decisions. Results showed that both husbands' and wives' experiences of total daily stress were associated with greater same-day marital conflict and that conflict was greater on days both spouses experienced high levels of stress. Evidence of cross-day spillover was found only in those couples with high concurrent marital aggression and in couples where wives reported high family-of-origin aggression. These results highlight both the common, anticipated nature of same-day spillover and the potentially problematic aspects of more prolonged patterns representing failure to recover from stressors that occurred the previous day. The discussion focuses on how reactivity in one life domain puts that individual at risk for generating stress in another life domain and how current marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression are associated with difficulty recovering from stressful events. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Study on the Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in an Urban District of Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Li, Liping; Krafft, Thomas; Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Pei, Desheng

    2011-01-01

    The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003–2006) and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007–2008). Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags) and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0) for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. PMID:21776219

  20. The global deterioration scale: relationships to neuropsychological performance and activities of daily living in patients with vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Paul, Robert H; Cohen, Ronald A; Moser, David J; Zawacki, Tricia; Ott, Brian R; Gordon, Norman; Stone, William

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the relationships between ratings on the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) and activities of daily living and cognitive function in 39 individuals with vascular dementia (VaD). The results of the study revealed significant correlations between GDS rating and performance on cognitive tests, including memory and overall cognitive ability. In addition, the GDS was significantly related to ratings of instrumental activities of daily living. Comparisons between patients with VaD with GDS scores between 4 and 6 (n = 21) and patients with scores between 2 and 3 (n = 18) revealed greater cognitive and functional deficits in the group with higher GDS scores. Further, the GDS score accurately classified 87% of the patients with VaD. These findings provide support for the validity of the GDS in general staging of dementia severity of VaD.

  1. Ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia: how does season modify the association?

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Samoli, Evangelia; Yang, Xin; Kan, Haidong

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies in East Asia have revealed that the short-term associations between tropospheric ozone and daily mortality rate were strongest in winter, which is opposite to the findings in North America and Western Europe. Therefore, we investigated the season-varying association between ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia from 1979 to 2010. Time-series Poisson regression models were used to analyze the association between ozone and daily nonaccidental mortality rate in each city, testing for different temperature lags. The best-fitting model was obtained after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to pool the city-specific estimates. An interquartile-range increase of the moving average concentrations of same-day and previous-day ozone was associated with an increase of 1.44% (95% posterior interval (PI): 1.08%, 1.80%) in daily total mortality rate after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. The corresponding increases were 0.62% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.16%) in winter, 1.46% (95% PI: 0.89%, 2.03%) in spring, 1.60% (95% PI: 1.03%, 2.17%) in summer, and 1.12% (95% PI: 0.73%, 1.51%) in fall. We found significant associations between short-term exposure to ozone and higher mortality rate in East Asia that varied considerably from season to season with a significant trough in winter. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Influence of Daily Variation in Teacher Performance on the Reliability and Validity of Assessment Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Linda; Capie, William

    The influence of day-to-day variation in teacher performance on the reliability and validity of teacher assessment was examined. An attempt was made to identify and quantify sources of score variation attributable to differences in teacher performance, day of observation, observers, and test subscales; and to determine their effects on reliability…

  3. Association between elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake with normal liver enzymes in HIV-HCV infected individuals: results from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, M Patrizia; Lions, Caroline; Sogni, Philippe; Winnock, Maria; Roux, Perrine; Mora, Marion; Bonnard, Philippe; Salmon, Dominique; Dabis, François; Spire, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to investigate whether polyphenol rich food intake through coffee and/or daily chocolate consumption could play a role in reducing liver enzymes levels. Longitudinal data collection included self-administered questionnaires and medical data (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver enzymes). Two analyses were performed to assess the association between coffee (≥3 cups a day) and daily chocolate intake and abnormal values of AST and ALT (AST or ALT >2.5 × upper normal limit (UNL)) (N=990) over time, after adjustment for known correlates. Logistic regression models based on generalized estimating equations were used to take into account the correlations between repeated measures and estimate adjusted odds ratio. After adjustment, patients reporting elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake were less likely to present abnormal ALT (OR=0.65; p=0.04 and OR=0.57; p=0.04, for coffee and chocolate respectively), while only patients reporting elevated coffee consumption were less likely to have abnormal AST values (p=0.05). Nevertheless, the combined indicator of coffee and chocolate intake was most significantly associated with approximately 40% reduced risk of abnormal liver enzymes (p=0.003 for AST; p=0.002 for ALT). Elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake appear to be associated with reduced levels of liver enzymes in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Further experimental and observational research is needed to better understand the role that polyphenol intake or supplementation can play on liver disease and liver injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of wheelchair mass on the physiologic responses, perception of exertion, and performance during various simulated daily tasks.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Watelain, Eric; Lepoutre, François-Xavier; Thevenon, Andre

    2010-08-01

    To verify whether additional manual wheelchair mass above a critical level would produce, during many daily tasks, an increase in physiologic parameters, an increase in the perceived exertion, and a decrease in performance. A repeated-measurement design. Six standardized tests thought to mimic daily activities. Volunteers (N=21), 8 men with spinal cord injuries (SCIs; mean age, 34+/-12y; range, 19-56y) and 13 able-bodied persons (11 men and 2 women; mean, 24+/-5y; range, 18-37y). Random additional masses ("0", 1, 2, 5kg) were placed under the seat of a multisport manual wheelchair (mass approximately 10kg) out of the subject's field of vision. Energy expenditure (EE; total o(2) consumed), heart rate (total number of beats), perceived exertion (visual analog scale), and performance (seconds to execute a sprint test) were measured. For all tests, there was no significant effect of mass found for either group for the EE, heart rate, and performance. In addition, for all tests, no significant effect of mass was found for the SCI group for the visual analog perceived exertion. However, for the able-bodied group, the added mass had a significant effect for the visual analog perceived exertion (F=6.11; P=.02) in the Stop-and-Go test. A post hoc Tukey test showed a significant difference between the 0kg and 5kg mass conditions (P<.01; d=.8), between 1kg and 5kg (P=.02; d=.6), and between 2kg and 5kg (P=.01; d=.6). Based on these findings, it can be concluded that, under the conditions of this study, additional mass (up to 5kg) loaded on a multisport manual wheelchair does not seem have any effect on EE, heart rate, or performance and has a minor effect on the visual analog perceived exertion evaluated in many activities of daily living.

  5. Depressive symptoms and muscular fitness contribute independently to the ability to perform daily life activities in people with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Sienaert, Pascal; Wyckaert, Sabine; De Hert, Marc; Richards, Justin; Kinyanda, Eugene; Probst, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Compared with healthy controls, people with bipolar disorder experience muscle weakness. The extent to which muscle weakness influences the performance of daily life activities such as walking in people with bipolar disorder requiring hospitalization is unclear. The primary aim of the current study was to explore whether depressive symptoms and muscular fitness independently contribute to the walking capacity in people with bipolar disorder. A secondary aim was to identify variables that could explain the variability in muscular fitness. Forty-two inpatients with bipolar disorder performed a standing broad jump test (SBJ), a measure of muscular performance, and the six minute walk test (6MWT) in addition to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (QIDS) and a full-fasting metabolic screening. The correlation between the 6MWT (595.0 ± 127.3m) and SBJ (126.2 ± 48.6m) was high (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). In backward regression analyzes, 82.3% of the variance in 6MWT was explained by SJB, QIDS (7.6 ± 5.1) and the presence of metabolic syndrome (n = 16; 38%), while 83.0% of the variance in SBJ-score was explained by age, and the QIDS and IPAQ (1435.3 ± 1179.8 MET-min/week) scores. Depressive symptoms and muscular fitness contribute independently to daily life functioning in people with bipolar disorder. Thus, muscular rehabilitation strategies might offer a strategy for improving performance of daily life activities in this group.

  6. Time-based prospective memory functioning in mild cognitive impairment associated with Parkinson’s disease: relationship with autonomous management of daily living commitments

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alberto; Zabberoni, Silvia; Peppe, Antonella; Serafini, Francesca; Scalici, Francesco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Prospective memory (PM), that is, the ability to keep in memory and carry out intentions in the future, is reported to be impaired in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). PM failure may be also associated with reduced daily living functioning in these patients. Little is known, however, about the relationship between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and time-based PM functioning in PD patients and the possible impact of PM deficits on patients’ autonomy in daily living. Here we aimed to investigate whether MCI associated with PD affects time-based PM. We also wished to determine whether PM impairment accounts for reduced autonomous management of medication in these patients. Method: The study included 48 PD patients with MCI, 33 PD patients without cognitive disorders (PDN) and 20 healthy controls. The time-based PM procedure required that subjects perform an action after a fixed time. The PM procedure was incorporated in the standard neuropsychological assessment. One score was computed for the ability to retrieve the intention (prospective component) and one for remembering the action to be executed (retrospective component). The Pill Questionnaire was administered to assess the ability to manage medication. Results: PD patients with MCI performed less accurately in the PM procedure than HC and tended to perform poorer than PDN. Moreover, in PD patients with MCI, accuracy on the prospective component of the PM task and performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test significantly predicted the ability to manage medication. Conclusions: Results document that reduced efficiency of time-based PM processes in PD is specifically related to the presence of MCI. The same data indicate that PM weakness may be associated with impaired daily living functioning and decreased autonomy. PMID:26106317

  7. Time-based prospective memory functioning in mild cognitive impairment associated with Parkinson's disease: relationship with autonomous management of daily living commitments.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alberto; Zabberoni, Silvia; Peppe, Antonella; Serafini, Francesca; Scalici, Francesco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM), that is, the ability to keep in memory and carry out intentions in the future, is reported to be impaired in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). PM failure may be also associated with reduced daily living functioning in these patients. Little is known, however, about the relationship between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and time-based PM functioning in PD patients and the possible impact of PM deficits on patients' autonomy in daily living. Here we aimed to investigate whether MCI associated with PD affects time-based PM. We also wished to determine whether PM impairment accounts for reduced autonomous management of medication in these patients. The study included 48 PD patients with MCI, 33 PD patients without cognitive disorders (PDN) and 20 healthy controls. The time-based PM procedure required that subjects perform an action after a fixed time. The PM procedure was incorporated in the standard neuropsychological assessment. One score was computed for the ability to retrieve the intention (prospective component) and one for remembering the action to be executed (retrospective component). The Pill Questionnaire was administered to assess the ability to manage medication. PD patients with MCI performed less accurately in the PM procedure than HC and tended to perform poorer than PDN. Moreover, in PD patients with MCI, accuracy on the prospective component of the PM task and performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test significantly predicted the ability to manage medication. RESULTS document that reduced efficiency of time-based PM processes in PD is specifically related to the presence of MCI. The same data indicate that PM weakness may be associated with impaired daily living functioning and decreased autonomy.

  8. New Daily Persistent Headache Caused by a Multinodular Goiter and Headaches Associated With Thyroid Disease.

    PubMed

    Evans, Randolph W; Timm, Josefine S

    2017-02-01

    A 33-year-old female is presented with the first case to our knowledge of new daily persistent headache (NDPH) with a large right benign non-toxic multinodular goiter causing carotid and vertebral compression with complete resolution of the headache immediately after thyroidectomy. Although this may be quite rare, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism causing NDPH, migraine, or an exacerbation of pre-existing migraine is not. Clinicians should consider routinely obtaining serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 in patients with new onset frequent headaches or an exacerbation of prior primary headaches.

  9. Evaluation of SUNY satellite-to-irradiance model performance using ECMWF GEMS daily aerosol optical depth reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itterly, Kyle F.

    The current version of the State University of New York (SUNY) radiative transfer model (RTM) uses climatological monthly averages derived from a National Renewable Energy Labs (NREL) gridded dataset to parameterize aerosol optical depth (AOD), water vapor and ozone. This is mostly due to the limited availability of high spatially and temporally resolved observations. Several global chemical transport models are analyzed and compared in depth to determine which daily AOD dataset should be implemented into the SUNY Model. After thorough comparison, the chemical transport model chosen was the Global and regional Earth-system Monitoring using satellite and in-situ data (GEMS) model developed by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Using daily AOD values instead of monthly climatological values, the SUNY Model better captures events of extreme aerosol loadings, which greatly improves the accuracy in calculations of direct normal irradiance (DNI) and to a lesser extent, global horizontal irradiance (GHI). In clear-sky conditions with the sun directly overhead, a change in AOD from 0.1 to 0.5 is found to cause a 55% (20%) decrease in DNI (GHI) for Desert Rock, Nevada in January. A calibration scheme is applied to the daily GEMS AOD reanalysis data. For each site, the monthly means of the GEMS daily AOD are corrected by a factor to match the currently used monthly climatological AOD in order to avoid large errors caused by changing the magnitude of the monthly average AOD. The performance of the SUNY model improved significantly for many of the stations analyzed in this work after applying the daily-calibrated GEMS AOD. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) was the most notable statistical improvement, which measures the model’s precision compared to the observed measurements from a ground station, and many other statistical improvements are also evident. All 7 SURFRAD locations showed improvements in DNI RMSE after using the calibrated GEMS

  10. Daily School Peer Victimization Experiences Among Mexican-American Adolescents: Associations with Psychosocial, Physical and School Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    School bullying incidents, particularly experiences with victimization, are a significant social and health concern among adolescents. The current study extended past research by examining the daily peer victimization experiences of Mexican-American adolescents and examining how chronic (mean-level) and episodic (daily-level) victimization incidents at school are associated with psychosocial, physical and school adjustment. Across a two-week span, 428 ninth and tenth grade Mexican-American students (51 % female) completed brief checklists every night before going to bed. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that, at the individual level, Mexican-American adolescents’ who reported more chronic peer victimization incidents across the two-weeks also reported heightened distress and academic problems. After accounting for adolescent’s mean levels of peer victimization, daily victimization incidents were associated with more school adjustment problems (i.e., academic problems, perceived role fulfillment as a good student). Additionally, support was found for the mediation model in which distress accounts for the mean-level association between peer victimization and academic problems. The results from the current study revealed that everyday peer victimization experiences among Mexican-American high school students have negative implications for adolescents’ adjustment, across multiple domains. PMID:23238764

  11. Differential Daily Writing Contingencies and Performance on Major Multiple-Choice Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hautau, Briana; Turner, Haley C.; Carroll, Erin; Jaspers, Kathryn; Parker, Megan; Krohn, Katy; Williams, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    On 4 of 7 days in each unit of an undergraduate human development course, students responded in writing to specific questions related to instructor notes previously made available to them. The study compared the effects of three writing contingencies on the quality of student writing and performance on major multiple-choice exams in the course. …

  12. Mental health of victims of sexual violence in eastern Congo: associations with daily stressors, stigma, and labeling.

    PubMed

    Verelst, An; De Schryver, Maarten; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-09-06

    The conflict-ridden context of eastern Congo has set the scene for grueling human rights violations, with sexual violence as one of the 'weapons of war'. Currently, sexual violence continues, with a considerable increase in civilian perpetrators. However, little is known regarding the particular impact of different experiences of sexual violence on adolescents' mental health. This study therefore investigates the impact of sexual violence on eastern Congolese adolescents' mental health and its differing associations with daily stressors, stigma, and the labeling of sexual violence (as 'rape' or 'non-consensual sexual experience'). A cross-sectional, population-based survey design was implemented in 22 secondary schools, randomly selected from a stratified sample, in Bunia, eastern Congo, a region extensively affected by war. A total of 1,305 school-going adolescent girls aged 11 to 23 participated. Self-report measures of mental health symptoms, war-related traumatic events, experiences of sexual violence, daily stressors, and stigmatization were administered. Differences in sociodemographic characteristics, traumatic experiences and daily and social stressors between types of sexual violence (rape, non-consensual sexual violence, no sexual violence) were explored through statistical analysis. ANCOVA analyses investigated associations between those risk factors and adolescents' mental health. More than one third of eastern Congolese adolescent girls reported experiences of sexual violence. Elevated levels of daily stressors, experiences of stigmatization, and stressful war-related events were found amongst girl victims of sexual violence, with the highest levels for girls who labeled the sexual violence as rape. Daily stressors, stigmatization, and war-related events showed a large impact on the girls' mental health. Last, girls who labeled the sexual violence as non-consensual sexual experiences reported more post-traumatic hyper-arousal and intrusion symptoms

  13. Mental health of victims of sexual violence in eastern Congo: associations with daily stressors, stigma, and labeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The conflict-ridden context of eastern Congo has set the scene for grueling human rights violations, with sexual violence as one of the ‘weapons of war’. Currently, sexual violence continues, with a considerable increase in civilian perpetrators. However, little is known regarding the particular impact of different experiences of sexual violence on adolescents’ mental health. This study therefore investigates the impact of sexual violence on eastern Congolese adolescents’ mental health and its differing associations with daily stressors, stigma, and the labeling of sexual violence (as ‘rape’ or ‘non-consensual sexual experience’). Methods A cross-sectional, population-based survey design was implemented in 22 secondary schools, randomly selected from a stratified sample, in Bunia, eastern Congo, a region extensively affected by war. A total of 1,305 school-going adolescent girls aged 11 to 23 participated. Self-report measures of mental health symptoms, war-related traumatic events, experiences of sexual violence, daily stressors, and stigmatization were administered. Differences in sociodemographic characteristics, traumatic experiences and daily and social stressors between types of sexual violence (rape, non-consensual sexual violence, no sexual violence) were explored through statistical analysis. ANCOVA analyses investigated associations between those risk factors and adolescents’ mental health. Results More than one third of eastern Congolese adolescent girls reported experiences of sexual violence. Elevated levels of daily stressors, experiences of stigmatization, and stressful war-related events were found amongst girl victims of sexual violence, with the highest levels for girls who labeled the sexual violence as rape. Daily stressors, stigmatization, and war-related events showed a large impact on the girls’ mental health. Last, girls who labeled the sexual violence as non-consensual sexual experiences reported more post

  14. Performance of five surface energy balance models for estimating daily evapotranspiration in high biomass sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, Pradeep; Bhattarai, Nishan; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Kakani, Vijaya G.

    2017-06-01

    Robust evapotranspiration (ET) models are required to predict water usage in a variety of terrestrial ecosystems under different geographical and agrometeorological conditions. As a result, several remote sensing-based surface energy balance (SEB) models have been developed to estimate ET over large regions. However, comparison of the performance of several SEB models at the same site is limited. In addition, none of the SEB models have been evaluated for their ability to predict ET in rain-fed high biomass sorghum grown for biofuel production. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of five widely used single-source SEB models, namely Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping ET with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS), Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI), and operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop), for estimating ET over a high biomass sorghum field during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. The predicted ET values were compared against eddy covariance (EC) measured ET (ETEC) for 19 cloud-free Landsat image. In general, S-SEBI, SEBAL, and SEBS performed reasonably well for the study period, while METRIC and SSEBop performed poorly. All SEB models substantially overestimated ET under extremely dry conditions as they underestimated sensible heat (H) and overestimated latent heat (LE) fluxes under dry conditions during the partitioning of available energy. METRIC, SEBAL, and SEBS overestimated LE regardless of wet or dry periods. Consequently, predicted seasonal cumulative ET by METRIC, SEBAL, and SEBS were higher than seasonal cumulative ETEC in both seasons. In contrast, S-SEBI and SSEBop substantially underestimated ET under too wet conditions, and predicted seasonal cumulative ET by S-SEBI and SSEBop were lower than seasonal cumulative ETEC in the relatively wetter 2013 growing season. Our results indicate the necessity of inclusion of soil moisture or plant water stress

  15. Factors favoring a degradation or an improvement in activities of daily living (ADL) performance among nursing home (NH) residents: a survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Bürge, Elisabeth; von Gunten, Armin; Berchtold, André

    2013-01-01

    Different factors influence ADL performance among nursing home (NH) residents in long term care. The aim was to investigate which factors were associated with a significant change of ADL performance in NH residents, and whether or not these factors were gender-specific. The design was a survival analysis. The 10,199 participants resided in ninety Swiss NHs. Their ADL performance had been assessed by the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS) in the period from 1997 to 2007. Relevant change in ADL performance was defined as 2 levels of change on the ADL scale between two successive assessments. The occurrence of either an improvement or a degradation of the ADL status) was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The analysis included a total of 10,199 NH residents. Each resident received between 2 and 23 assessments. Poor balance, incontinence, impaired cognition, a low BMI, impaired vision, no daily contact with proxies, impaired hearing and the presence of depression were, by hierarchical order, significant risk factors for NH residents to experience a degradation of ADL performance. Residents, who were incontinent, cognitively impaired or had a high BMI were significantly less likely to improve their ADL abilities. Male residents with cancer were prone to see their ADL improve. The year of NH entry was significantly associated with either degradation or improvement of ADL performance. Measures aiming at improving balance and continence, promoting physical activity, providing appropriate nourishment and cognitive enhancement are important for ADL performance in NH residents.

  16. Part 2. Association of daily mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high temperature in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengmin; He, Qingci; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kong, Lingli; Zhou, Dunjin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhu, Zhichao; Liao, Duanping; Liu, Wenshan; Bentley, Christy M; Dan, Jijun; Wang, Beiwei; Yang, Niannian; Xu, Shuangqing; Gong, Jie; Wei, Hongming; Sun, Huilin; Qin, Zudian

    2010-11-01

    Fewer studies have been published on the association between daily mortality and ambient air pollution in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This study was undertaken in Wuhan, China, to investigate the acute effects of air pollution on mortality with an emphasis on particulate matter (PM*). There were three primary aims: (1) to examine the associations of daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular [CVD], stroke, cardiac [CARD], respiratory [RD], cardiopulmonary [CP], and non-cardiopulmonary [non-CP] causes) with daily mean concentrations (microg/m3) of PM with an aerodynamic diameter--10 pm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or ozone (O3); (2) to investigate the effect modification of extremely high temperature on the association between air pollution and daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality; and (3) to assess the uncertainty of effect estimates caused by the change in International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding of mortality data from Revision 9 (ICD-9) to Revision 10 (ICD-10) code. Wuhan is called an "oven city" in China because of its extremely hot summers (the average daily temperature in July is 37.2 degrees C and maximum daily temperature often exceeds 40 degrees C). Approximately 4.5 million residents live in the core city area of 201 km2, where air pollution levels are higher and ranges are wider than the levels in most cities studied in the published literature. We obtained daily mean levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentrations from five fixed-site air monitoring stations operated by the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center (WEMC). O3 data were obtained from two stations, and 8-hour averages, from 10:00 to 18:00, were used. Daily mortality data were obtained from the Wuhan Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (WCDC) during the study period of July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004. To achieve the first aim, we used a regression of

  17. Psychological processes underlying the association between childhood trauma and psychosis in daily life: an experience sampling study.

    PubMed

    Reininghaus, U; Gayer-Anderson, C; Valmaggia, L; Kempton, M J; Calem, M; Onyejiaka, A; Hubbard, K; Dazzan, P; Beards, S; Fisher, H L; Mills, J G; McGuire, P; Craig, T K J; Garety, P; van Os, J; Murray, R M; Wykes, T; Myin-Germeys, I; Morgan, C

    2016-10-01

    Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure stress, threat anticipation, negative affect, and psychotic experiences in 50 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, 44 At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) participants, and 52 controls. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations of minor socio-environmental stress in daily life with negative affect and psychotic experiences were modified by sexual abuse and group (all p FWE < 0.05). While there was strong evidence that these associations were greater in FEP exposed to high levels of sexual abuse, and some evidence of greater associations in ARMS exposed to high levels of sexual abuse, controls exposed to high levels of sexual abuse were more resilient and reported less intense negative emotional reactions to socio-environmental stress. A similar pattern was evident for threat anticipation. Elevated sensitivity and lack of resilience to socio-environmental stress and enhanced threat anticipation in daily life may be important psychological processes underlying the association between childhood sexual abuse and psychosis.

  18. Diurnal variation in swim performance remains, irrespective of training once or twice daily.

    PubMed

    Martin, Louise; Nevill, Alan M; Thompson, Kevin G

    2007-06-01

    Fast swim times in morning rounds are essential to ensure qualification in evening finals. A significant time-of-day effect in swimming performance has consistently been observed, although physical activity early in the day has been postulated to reduce this effect. The aim of this study was to compare intradaily variation in race-pace performance of swimmers routinely undertaking morning and evening training (MEG) with those routinely undertaking evening training only (EOG). Each group consisted of 8 swimmers (mean +/- SD: age = 15.2 +/- 1.0 and 15.4 +/- 1.4 y, 200-m freestyle time 132.8 +/- 8.4 and 136.3 +/- 9.1 s) who completed morning and evening trials in a randomized order with 48 h in between on 2 separate occasions. Oral temperature, heart rate, and blood lactate were assessed at rest, after a warm-up, after a 150-m race-pace swim, and after a 100-m time trial. Stroke rate, stroke count, and time were recorded for each length of the 150-m and 100-m swims. Both training groups recorded significantly slower morning 100-m performances (MEG = +1.7 s, EOG = +1.4 s; P < .05) along with persistently lower morning temperatures that on average were -0.47 degrees C and -0.60 degrees C, respectively (P < .05). No differences were found in blood-lactate, heart-rate, and stroke-count responses (P > .05). All results were found to be reproducible (P > .05). The long-term use of morning training does not appear to significantly reduce intradaily variation in race-pace swimming or body temperature.

  19. Discrepancies between parent and adolescent beliefs about daily life topics and performance on an emotion recognition task.

    PubMed

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D; Thomas, Sarah A; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions-particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment-predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents' and children and adolescents' abilities to decode and identify others' emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents' and adolescents' emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54 % African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals).

  20. Discrepancies between Parent and Adolescent Beliefs about Daily Life Topics and Performance on an Emotion Recognition Task

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions—particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment—predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents’ and children and adolescents’ abilities to decode and identify others’ emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents’ and adolescents’ emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54% African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals). PMID:23504303

  1. The role of negative parental attributions in the associations between daily stressors, maltreatment history, and harsh and abusive discipline.

    PubMed

    Beckerman, Marieke; van Berkel, Sheila R; Mesman, Judi; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2017-02-01

    Negative parental attributions are related to parent and family stressors and are thought to be important predictors of subsequent disciplinary actions and, potentially, abusive parenting. We examined if negative parental attributions mediate the relation between daily stressors (i.e., low SES, parenting stress, partner-related stress) parents' own history of child maltreatment, and harsh and abusive parenting. Mothers (n=53) completed a computerized attribution task and reported on daily stressors, their own history of child maltreatment and their discipline strategies. Mothers' negative parental attributions mediated the association between parenting stress (but not the other stressors) and harsh and abusive discipline. These finding implicate that interventions to decrease (the risk of) child abuse should not only focus on reducing abuse-related stressors, but also target negative parental attributions.

  2. Change in daily energy intake associated with pairwise compositional change in carbohydrate, fat and protein intake among US adults, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng; Burd, Nicholas A

    2015-06-01

    To assess the change in daily energy intake associated with pairwise compositional change in carbohydrate, fat and protein intake among US adults stratified by sex, race/ethnicity and weight status. Linear mixture model was performed to estimate the relationship between daily energy intake and macronutrient composition, adjusted for age and alcohol consumption, and accounting for survey design. Study sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2010 waves. A total of 27 589 US adults aged 20 years and older were included in the study. Dietary macronutrient intake was calculated from 24 h dietary recall and BMI from objectively measured weight/height. Across all population subgroups, substituting protein or carbohydrate for fat and substituting protein for carbohydrate were associated with decreased daily energy intake, with the largest effect resulting from substituting protein for fat. A 1 % increase in the percentage of energy from protein substituted for a 1 % decrease in the percentage of energy from fat was associated with a decrease in daily energy intake of 268.2 (95 % CI 169.0, 367.4) kJ, 289.5 (95 % CI 215.9, 363.2) kJ and 293.7 (95 % CI 210.0, 377.4) kJ among normal-weight (18.5≤BMI, kg/m2<25.0), overweight (25.0≤BMI, kg/m2<30.0) and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2) men, and 177.4 (95 % CI 130.5, 224.3) kJ, 188.7 (95 % CI 139.3, 238.1) kJ and 204.2 (95 % CI 158.2, 250.2) kJ among normal-weight, overweight and obese women, respectively. The relationship between macronutrient composition and daily energy intake varied substantially across sex, race/ethnicity and weight status. Policies promoting higher daily protein intake at the expense of lower fat intake could be effective in reducing total energy intake among US adults.

  3. Daily associations between anxiety and alcohol use: variation by sustained attention, set shifting, and gender.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Robert D; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2014-12-01

    Many theories of emotion regulation and alcohol use posit that alcohol is consumed as a way to regulate negative mood. However, the literature has conflicting evidence on mood-alcohol use associations. Understanding how individual differences affect mood-alcohol use associations remains an important area of study. Previous research has suggested that cognitive abilities may affect the relationship between mood and alcohol. The current ecological momentary study examined associations between daytime anxious and positive mood and both (a) the likelihood of alcohol use and (b) the intensity of use on drinking nights as a function of sustained attention, set shifting, and gender. Participants (n = 100) completed assessments of sustained attention and set shifting, then carried palmtop computers for 21 days, reporting mood and alcohol use up to 8 times per day. Results showed that positive mood was consistently associated with both likelihood and intensity of alcohol use, but the association between positive mood and alcohol outcomes was not affected by cognitive abilities. Anxious mood was positively associated with the likelihood of drinking for men with high cognitive abilities. Anxious mood was positively associated with intoxication on drinking nights for men with high sustained attention, but inversely associated with intoxication on drinking nights for women with high sustained attention. Results suggest that variation in mood, executive functioning, and gender interact to contribute to observed differences in drinking behavior. These differences may be the result of gender-specific coping strategies in response to negative emotion.

  4. Differences in daily rhythms of wrist temperature between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features.

    PubMed

    Corbalán-Tutau, M D; Madrid, J A; Ordovás, J M; Smith, C E; Nicolás, F; Garaulet, M

    2011-05-01

    The circadian rhythm of core body temperature is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical temperature measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal temperatures, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated with differences in mean WT values or in its daily rhythmicity patterns. Daily patterns of cortisol, melatonin, and different metabolic syndrome (MetS) features were also analyzed in an attempt to clarify the potential association between chronodisruption and MetS. The study was conducted on 20 normal-weight women (age: 38 ± 11 yrs and BMI: 22 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) and 50 obese women (age: 42 ± 10 yrs and BMI: 33.5 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) (mean ± SEM). Skin temperature was measured over a 3-day period every 10 min with the "Thermochron iButton." Rhythmic parameters were obtained using an integrated package for time-series analysis, "Circadianware." Obese women displayed significantly lower mean WT (34.1°C ± 0.3°C) with a more flattened 24-h pattern, a lower-quality rhythm, and a higher intraday variability (IV). Particularly interesting were the marked differences between obese and normal-weight women in the secondary WT peak in the postprandial period (second-harmonic power [P2]), considered as a marker of chronodisruption and of metabolic alterations. WT rhythmicity characteristics were related to MetS features, obesity-related proteins, and circadian markers, such as melatonin. In summary, obese women displayed a lower-quality WT daily rhythm with a more flattened pattern (particularly in the postprandial period) and increased IV, which suggests a greater fragmentation of the rest/activity rhythm compared to normal-weight women. These 24-h changes were associated with higher MetS risk.

  5. The efficacy of daily chlorhexidine bathing for preventing healthcare-associated infections in adult intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Ping; Chen, Bin; Wang, Hai-Yan; He, Me

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in critically ill patients with prolonged length of hospital stay and increased medical costs. The aim of this study is to assess whether daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing will significantly reduce the rates of HAIs in adult intensive care units (ICUs). PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched until December 31, 2014 to identify relevant studies. Two authors independently reviewed and extracted data from included studies. All data was analyzed by Review Manager version 5.3. Fifteen studies including three randomized controlled trials and 12 quasi-experimental studies were available in this study. The outcomes showed that daily CHG bathing were associated with significant reduction in the rates of primary outcomes: catheter-related bloodstream infection (risk ratio [RR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.63; p < 0.00001), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.88; p = 0.004), ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.93; p = 0.01), acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.91; p = 0.001) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.99; p = 0.05). Our study suggests that the use of daily CHG bathing can significantly prevent HAIs in ICUs. However, more well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Daily Marijuana Use is Associated with Missed Clinic Appointments Among HIV-Infected Persons Engaged in HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Aaron M; Rebeiro, Peter F; Shepherd, Bryan E; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Turner, Megan; Bebawy, Sally; Sterling, Timothy R; Hulgan, Todd

    2017-02-17

    We assessed the association between marijuana use and retention in HIV care through a retrospective cohort study of patients engaged in care at a large HIV clinic in 2011 and 2012. Two different retention outcomes were assessed: not meeting the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) retention definition (≥2 provider visits ≥90 days apart in a calendar year) and no-show visits. Any marijuana use and frequency of marijuana use were obtained from a substance use screening questionnaire administered at each clinic visit. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between marijuana use and retention outcomes. Marijuana use was reported by 17% of 1791 patients and 21% were not retained (IOM definition). Marijuana use was not associated with the IOM retention outcome, but was associated with missing the next scheduled appointment. A non-linear dose-response was observed for frequency of marijuana use and missed visits, with daily users having the highest risk compared to non-users. Daily marijuana use had a negative impact on HIV clinic attendance. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which marijuana use affects this outcome to inform targeted interventions.

  7. An Association between Air Pollution and Daily Outpatient Visits for Respiratory Disease in a Heavy Industry Area

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kuo-Ying; Chau, Tang-Tat

    2013-01-01

    In this work we used daily outpatient data from the Landseed Hospital in a heavily industrial area in northern Taiwan to study the associations between daily outpatient visits and air pollution in the context of a heavily polluted atmospheric environment in Chung-Li area during the period 2007–2011. We test the normality of each data set, control for the confounding factors, and calculate correlation coefficient between the outpatient visits and air pollution and meteorology, and use multiple linear regression analysis to seek significance of these associations. Our results show that temperature and relative humidity tend to be negatively associated with respiratory diseases. NO and are two main air pollutants that are positively associated with respiratory diseases, followed by , , , CO, and . Young outpatients (age 0–15 years) are most sensitive to changing air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by the eldest (age 66 years) and age 16–65 years of outpatients. Outpatients for COPD diseases are most sensitive to air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by allergic rhinitis, asthma, and pneumonia diseases. In the context of sex difference to air pollution and meteorological factors, male outpatients are more sensitive than female outpatients in the 16–65 age groups, while female outpatients are more sensitive than male outpatients in the young 0–15 age groups and in the eldest age groups. In total, female outpatients are more sensitive to air pollution and meteorological factors than male outpatients. PMID:24204573

  8. Association between air pollution and daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis in London, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Hajat, S; Haines, A; Atkinson, R W; Bremner, S A; Anderson, H R; Emberlin, J

    2001-04-01

    Few published studies have looked at the health effects of air pollution in the primary care setting, and most have concentrated on lower rather than upper respiratory diseases. The authors investigated the association of daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis with air pollution in London, United Kingdom. Generalized additive models were used to regress time series of daily numbers of patients consulting for allergic rhinitis against 1992--1994 measures of air pollution, after control for possible confounders and adjustment for overdispersion and serial correlation. In children, a 10th--90th percentile increase in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) levels 4 days prior to consultation (13-31 microg/m(3)) was associated with a 24.5% increase in consultations (95% confidence interval: 14.6, 35.2; p < 0.00001); a 10th--90th percentile increase in averaged ozone (O(3)) concentrations on the day of consultation and the preceding 3 days (6--29 parts per billion) was associated with a 37.6% rise (95% confidence interval: 23.3, 53.5; p < 0.00001). For adults, smaller effect sizes were observed for SO(2) and O(3). The association with SO(2) remained highly significant in the presence of other pollutants. This study suggests that air pollution worsens allergic rhinitis symptoms, leading to substantial increases in consultations. SO(2) and O(3) seem particularly responsible, and both seem to contribute independently.

  9. Uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand on the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arthur Santos; Ghisi, Enedir

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to perform a sensitivity analysis of design variables and an uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand to evaluate the performance of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings. Eight cities in Brazil with different rainfall patterns were analysed. A numeric experiment was performed by means of computer simulation of rainwater harvesting. A sensitivity analysis was performed using variance-based indices for identifying the most important design parameters for rainwater harvesting systems when assessing the potential for potable water savings and underground tank capacity sizing. The uncertainty analysis was performed for different scenarios of potable water demand with stochastic variations in a normal distribution with different coefficients of variation throughout the simulated period. The results have shown that different design variables, such as potable water demand, number of occupants, rainwater demand, and roof area are important for obtaining the ideal underground tank capacity and estimating the potential for potable water savings. The stochastic variations on the potable water demand caused amplitudes of up to 4.8% on the potential for potable water savings and 9.4% on the ideal underground tank capacity. Average amplitudes were quite low for all cities. However, some combinations of parameters resulted in large amplitude of uncertainty and difference from uniform distribution for tank capacities and potential for potable water savings. Stochastic potable water demand generated low uncertainties in the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems; therefore, uniform distribution could be used in computer simulation.

  10. Association between vigor and exhaustion during the workweek: a person-centered approach to daily assessments.

    PubMed

    Mäkikangas, Anne; Kinnunen, Sanna; Rantanen, Johanna; Mauno, Saija; Tolvanen, Asko; Bakker, Arnold B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative diary study was to investigate daily vigor and exhaustion using a person-centered approach. The study also investigated whether and how experiences of vigor and exhaustion relate to a state of being recovered. A total of 256 Finnish employees filled in a diary questionnaire during five consecutive workdays. Vigor and exhaustion showed strong negative interdependence within and between days. However, by applying a person-centered analysis, we were able to differentiate three groups with meaningful variation in vigor and exhaustion. The groups were labeled as Constantly vigorous (n = 179), Concurrently vigorous and exhausted (n = 30) and Constantly exhausted (n = 43). The vigor-exhaustion groups were also characterized by their recovery experiences: The Constantly vigorous employees recovered well from work strain during the workweek whereas the Constantly exhausted group recovered poorly. Overall, while the results indicate that, typically, vigor and exhaustion are exclusive experiences, it is also possible for them to be experienced simultaneously from day to day at the moderate levels. Thus, positive and negative experiences may co-occur.

  11. The Influence of Autonomic Dysfunction Associated with Aging and Type 2 Diabetes on Daily Life Activities

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Al-Nakhli, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and ageing have well documented effects on every organ in the body. In T2D the autonomic nervous system is impaired due to damage to neurons, sensory receptors, synapses and the blood vessels. This paper will concentrate on how autonomic impairment alters normal daily activities. Impairments include the response of the blood vessels to heat, sweating, heat transfer, whole body heating, orthostatic intolerance, balance, and gait. Because diabetes is more prevalent in older individuals, the effects of ageing will be examined. Beginning with endothelial dysfunction, blood vessels have impairment in their ability to vasodilate. With this and synaptic damage, the autonomic nervous system cannot compensate for effectors such as pressure on and heating of the skin. This and reduced ability of the heart to respond to stress, reduces autonomic orthostatic compensation. Diminished sweating causes the skin and core temperature to be high during whole body heating. Impaired orthostatic tolerance, impaired vision and vestibular sensing, causes poor balance and impaired gait. Overall, people with T2D must be made aware and counseled relative to the potential consequence of these impairments. PMID:22566994

  12. Association between estimated total daily energy expenditure and stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihye; Baek, Heejoon; Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Yongsoon

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and nutritional status is one of the major prognostic factors of ALS. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and progression of disease in ALS patients, as well as sex differences in TDEE. Patients with ALS (N = 370) were diagnosed according to El Escorial criteria and categorized into stage 2, 3, or 4 using a clinical staging system. TDEEs were calculated by summing resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity. REE was calculated using equations of Harris-Benedict or Mifflin St. Jeor, and physical activity was calculated using the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised, a physical activity coefficient, or adding 30% of REE. TDEE significantly decreased with progression of ALS stage and did not vary by sex. Actual energy intake was lower than TDEE in patients in all stages and lowest in patients with stage 3 ALS. Comparing TDEEs 1 to 5, TDEE 2 decreased with progression of ALS stage and was similar to the average TDEE. The present study suggests that TDEE decreases with progression of ALS, and patients consume insufficient energy compared with required intake at all stages, particularly at stage 3, suggesting that nutrition support should be started at least before stage 3. Additionally, among the five equations for TDEE, TDEE 2 could be the best for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with ALS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Daily Associations Among Self-control, Heavy Episodic Drinking, and Relationship Functioning: An Examination of Actor and Partner Effects

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi-level Actor Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self-control across partners on outcomes of participant-reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner-specific anger. Greater partner-specific anger was generally reported on days of congruent actor and partner depletion, particularly on days of high partner depletion. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self-control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples-based interventions for partner conflict. PMID:24700558

  14. Daily associations among self-control, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship functioning: an examination of actor and partner effects.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi-level Actor-Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self-control across partners on outcomes of participant-reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner-specific anger. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self-control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples-based interventions for partner conflict.

  15. Daily Bisphenol A Excretion and Associations with Sex Hormone Concentrations: Results from the InCHIANTI Adult Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Tamara; Cipelli, Riccardo; Guralnik, Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Money, Cathryn; McCormack, Paul; Melzer, David

    2010-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical widely used in packaging for food and beverages. Numerous studies have demonstrated that BPA can alter endocrine function in animals, yet human studies remain limited. Objective We estimated daily excretion of BPA among adults and examined hypothesized associations with serum estrogen and testosterone concentrations. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses using data from the InCHIANTI Study, a prospective population-based study of Italian adults. Our study included 715 adults between 20 and 74 years old. BPA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in 24-hr urine samples. The main outcome measures were serum concentrations of total testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Results Geometric mean urinary BPA concentration was 3.59 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.42–3.77 ng/mL], and mean excretion was 5.63 μg/day (5th population percentile, 2.1 μg/day; 95th percentile, 16.4 μg/day). We found higher excretion rates among men, younger respondents, and those with increasing waist circumference (p = 0.013) and weight (p = 0.003). Higher daily BPA excretion was associated with higher total testosterone concentrations in men, in models adjusted for age and study site (p = 0.044), and in models additionally adjusted for smoking, measures of obesity, and urinary creatinine concentrations (β = 0.046; 95% CI, 0.015–0.076; p = 0.004). We found no associations with the other serum measures. We also found no associations with the primary outcomes among women, but we did find an association between BPA and SHBG concentrations in the 60 premenopausal women. Conclusion Higher BPA exposure may be associated with endocrine changes in men. The mechanisms involved in the observed cross-sectional association with total testosterone concentrations need to be clarified. PMID:20797929

  16. Daily Associations Between Alcohol Consumption and Dating Violence Perpetration Among Men and Women: Effects of Self-Regulation.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Gulati, Natasha K; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication has been associated with dating violence perpetration, defined here as psychological and/or physical violence occurring between young adult dating partners. However, little is known about how the individual variability in the level of alcohol intoxication would influence dating violence perpetration and how sex and self-regulation might influence this association. College-aged men and women (N = 146) from a large southwestern U.S. university completed background questionnaires, including the Brief Self-Control Scale, to assess self-regulation and then reported their dating violence perpetration and alcohol consumption using a 90-day Timeline Followback assessment. Their average estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and their daily deviation from this average were calculated for each of the 90 days to examine the between- and within-person effects of alcohol consumption, respectively. Results of a two-level generalized estimating equation suggest that increases in daily eBAC were associated with an increased likelihood of perpetrating dating violence; however, this association was stronger for those who had a low average eBAC compared with those who had a high average eBAC. For those who had a low average eBAC, higher self-regulation was associated with a lower probability of perpetrating dating violence, whereas among those with a high average eBAC, self-regulation was not associated with dating violence perpetration. Sex did not moderate the association between eBAC and dating violence perpetration. Findings highlight the importance of self-regulation in dating violence perpetration-particularly for those with low average eBACs-and the need for varied intervention strategies, depending on one's typical drinking pattern.

  17. Daily Associations Between Alcohol Consumption and Dating Violence Perpetration Among Men and Women: Effects of Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Gulati, Natasha K.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol intoxication has been associated with dating violence perpetration, defined here as psychological and/or physical violence occurring between young adult dating partners. However, little is known about how the individual variability in the level of alcohol intoxication would influence dating violence perpetration and how sex and self-regulation might influence this association. Method: College-aged men and women (N = 146) from a large southwestern U.S. university completed background questionnaires, including the Brief Self-Control Scale, to assess self-regulation and then reported their dating violence perpetration and alcohol consumption using a 90-day Timeline Followback assessment. Their average estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and their daily deviation from this average were calculated for each of the 90 days to examine the between- and within-person effects of alcohol consumption, respectively. Results: Results of a two-level generalized estimating equation suggest that increases in daily eBAC were associated with an increased likelihood of perpetrating dating violence; however, this association was stronger for those who had a low average eBAC compared with those who had a high average eBAC. For those who had a low average eBAC, higher self-regulation was associated with a lower probability of perpetrating dating violence, whereas among those with a high average eBAC, self-regulation was not associated with dating violence perpetration. Sex did not moderate the association between eBAC and dating violence perpetration. Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of self-regulation in dating violence perpetration—particularly for those with low average eBACs—and the need for varied intervention strategies, depending on one’s typical drinking pattern. PMID:26751365

  18. Relationship satisfaction moderates the associations between male partner responses and depression in women with vulvodynia: a dyadic daily experience study.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Glowacka, Maria; Baxter, Mary-Lou; Delisle, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Vulvodynia is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that interferes with women's psychological health. Given the central role of sexuality and relationships in vulvodynia, relationship satisfaction may be an important moderator of daily partner responses to this pain and associated negative sequelae, such as depression. Sixty-nine women (M age=28.12 years, SD=6.68) with vulvodynia and their cohabiting partners (M age=29.67 years, SD=8.10) reported their daily relationship satisfaction, and male partner responses on sexual intercourse days (M=3.74, SD=2.47) over 8 weeks. Women also reported their depressive symptoms. Relationship satisfaction on the preceding day moderated the associations between partner responses and women's depressive symptoms in several significant ways: (1) On days after women reported higher relationship satisfaction than usual, their perception of greater facilitative male partner responses was associated with their decreased depression; (2) on days after women reported lower relationship satisfaction than usual, their perception of greater negative male partner responses was associated with their increased depression; (3) on days after men reported higher relationship satisfaction than usual, their self-reported higher negative responses were associated with decreased women's depression, and higher solicitous responses were associated with increased women's depression, whereas (4) on days after men reported lower relationship satisfaction than usual, their self-reported higher negative responses were related to increased women's depression, and higher solicitous responses were associated with decreased women's depression. Targeting partner responses and relationship satisfaction may enhance the quality of interventions aimed at reducing depression in women with vulvodynia.

  19. Association of weather and air pollution interactions on daily mortality in 12 Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Vanos, J K; Cakmak, S; Kalkstein, L S; Yagouti, Abderrahmane

    It has been well established that both meteorological attributes and air pollution concentrations affect human health outcomes. We examined all cause nonaccident mortality relationships for 28 years (1981-2008) in relation to air pollution and synoptic weather type (encompassing air mass) data in 12 Canadian cities. This study first determines the likelihood of summertime extreme air pollution events within weather types using spatial synoptic classification. Second, it examines the modifying effect of weather types on the relative risk of mortality (RR) due to daily concentrations of air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter <2.5 μm). We assess both single- and two-pollutant interactions to determine dependent and independent pollutant effects using the relatively new time series technique of distributed lag nonlinear modeling (DLNM). Results display dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical plus (MT+) weathers to result in a fourfold and twofold increased likelihood, respectively, of an extreme pollution event (top 5 % of pollution concentrations throughout the 28 years) occurring. We also demonstrate statistically significant effects of single-pollutant exposure on mortality (p < 0.05) to be dependent on summer weather type, where stronger results occur in dry moderate (fair weather) and DT or MT+ weather types. The overall average single-effect RR increases due to pollutant exposure within DT and MT+ weather types are 14.9 and 11.9 %, respectively. Adjusted exposures (two-way pollutant effect estimates) generally results in decreased RR estimates, indicating that the pollutants are not independent. Adjusting for ozone significantly lowers 67 % of the single-pollutant RR estimates and reduces model variability, which demonstrates that ozone significantly controls a portion of the mortality signal from the model. Our findings demonstrate the mortality risks of air pollution exposure to differ by weather type, with

  20. A comprehensive study of the association between drug hepatotoxicity and daily dose, liver metabolism, and lipophilicity using 975 oral medications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibo; Shi, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    It was recently suggested that daily dose, liver metabolism and lipophilicity were associated with an oral drug's potential to cause hepatotoxicity, but this has not been widely accepted. A likely reason is that published data lack comprehensiveness, as they were based on only about one third of all FDA approved single-active-ingredient oral prescription drugs. Here the 975 oral drugs used worldwide which have a Defined Daily Dose (DDD) designated in the World Health Organization's Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system and whose hADRs potential and metabolism data are available in the Micromedex Drugdex® compendium were studied, with their lipophilicity calculated by the partition coefficient LogP. Of the 975 drugs examined, 49% (478) have the potential to induce at least one type of hepatic adverse drug reactions (hADRs) such as fatal hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, significant ALT/AST elevation, hepatitis, and jaundice. By single factor analysis, a higher DDD (≥100 mg) was found to be associated with all types of hADRs, and extensive liver metabolism (≥50%) was associated with a subset of hADRs including fatal hADRs, hepatitis and jaundice, while LogP showed no relation to any types of hADRs. Contrary to previous reports, none of the combination, neither DDD and liver metabolism, nor DDD and LogP, was found to be more predictive of hADRs than using DDD or liver metabolism alone. These data provide convincing evidence that a higher daily dose and extensive liver metabolism, but not lipophilicity, are independent but not synergistic risk factors for oral drugs to induce hepatotoxicity. PMID:26220713

  1. A comprehensive study of the association between drug hepatotoxicity and daily dose, liver metabolism, and lipophilicity using 975 oral medications.

    PubMed

    Weng, Zuquan; Wang, Kejian; Li, Haibo; Shi, Qiang

    2015-07-10

    It was recently suggested that daily dose, liver metabolism and lipophilicity were associated with an oral drug's potential to cause hepatotoxicity, but this has not been widely accepted. A likely reason is that published data lack comprehensiveness, as they were based on only about one third of all FDA approved single-active-ingredient oral prescription drugs. Here the 975 oral drugs used worldwide which have a Defined Daily Dose (DDD) designated in the World Health Organization's Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system and whose hADRs potential and metabolism data are available in the Micromedex Drugdex® compendium were studied, with their lipophilicity calculated by the partition coefficient LogP. Of the 975 drugs examined, 49% (478) have the potential to induce at least one type of hepatic adverse drug reactions (hADRs) such as fatal hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, significant ALT/AST elevation, hepatitis, and jaundice. By single factor analysis, a higher DDD (≥100 mg) was found to be associated with all types of hADRs, and extensive liver metabolism (≥50%) was associated with a subset of hADRs including fatal hADRs, hepatitis and jaundice, while LogP showed no relation to any types of hADRs. Contrary to previous reports, none of the combination, neither DDD and liver metabolism, nor DDD and LogP, was found to be more predictive of hADRs than using DDD or liver metabolism alone. These data provide convincing evidence that a higher daily dose and extensive liver metabolism, but not lipophilicity, are independent but not synergistic risk factors for oral drugs to induce hepatotoxicity.

  2. The newly revised interview for deteriorations in daily living activities in dementia (R-IDDD2): distinguishing initiative from performance at assessment.

    PubMed

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Challis, David; Montaldi, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    Minimal evidence exists on the detailed deficits in complex instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in mild dementia. The aim of this study was twofold, to validate a revised questionnaire focusing measuring the initiative and performance of IADLs in mild dementia and to explore the relationship between individual IADLs and patient and carer well-being. A total of 183 carers of people with mild dementia completed a further modified Revised Interview for Deterioration in Daily Living Activities 2 (R-IDDD2), which comprised new activities such as computer use, as well as sub-activities on the performance scale. Carers also completed questionnaires assessing patient quality of life (QoL-AD), carer quality of life (AC-QoL), and burden (GHQ-12). Persons with dementia were significantly poorer initiating than performing cleaning, doing repair work, and preparing a hot or cold meal, whereas being poorer at performing dressing and following current affairs. Using the computer, preparing a hot meal, finance, and medication management were most impaired, whereas more basic activities of dressing, washing oneself, brushing hair or teeth, and preparing a hot drink were most preserved. Poor initiative and performance on nearly all activities were significantly related to reduced carer and patient well-being. The R-IDDD2 offers a platform to comprehensively assess everyday functioning. Deteriorations in initiative and performance need to be targeted separately in interventions, as the former requires effective triggering and the latter structured training and support. Most activities were significantly associated with well-being, particularly patient quality of life so that improving any activity should improve well-being.

  3. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Performance and Role Satisfaction in People With and Without Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Michael P.; Hershey, Linda A.; Prodan, Calin I.; Holm, Margo B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We investigated differences in observed performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and self-reported satisfaction with social role performance between people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) and age- and gender-matched control participants. METHOD. We measured observed performance of 14 IADLs using the Independence, Safety, and Adequacy domains of the Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) to examine satisfaction with social role performance. RESULTS. Total PASS scores were significantly lower in participants with a-MCI (median = 40.6) than in control participants (median = 44.2; p = .006). Adequacy scores were also significantly lower. No significant differences were found between groups on the PROMIS measures. CONCLUSION. IADL differences between groups were related more to errors in adequacy than to safety and independence. Occupational therapy practitioners can play a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of subtle IADL deficits in people with MCI. PMID:25871600

  4. Neuropsychological performance in mainland china: the effect of urban/rural residence and self-reported daily academic skill use.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh; Vaida, Florin; Riggs, Katie; Jin, Hua; Grant, Igor; Cysique, Lucette; Shi, Chuan; Yu, Xin; Wu, Zunyou; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    Age, education, and gender are the most common covariates used to define normative standards against which neuropsychological (NP) performance is interpreted, but influences of other demographic factors have begun to be appreciated. In developing nations, urban versus rural residence may differentially affect numerous factors that could influence cognitive test performances, including quality of both formal and informal educational experiences and employment opportunities. Such disparities may necessitate corrections for urban/rural (U/R) status in NP norms. Prior investigations of the U/R effect on NP performance typically have been confounded by differences in educational attainment. We addressed in this by comparing the NP performance of large, Chinese urban (Yunnan Province, n = 201) and rural (Anhui Province, n = 141) cohorts of healthy adults, while controlling for other demographic differences. Although the groups did not differ in global NP scores, a more complex pattern was observed within specific NP ability domains and tests. Urban participants showed better performance in select measures of processing speed and executive functions, verbal fluency, and verbal learning. Self-reported daily use of academic skills was predictive of many U/R differences. Controlling for academic skill use abrogated most U/R differences but revealed rural advantages in select measures of visual reasoning and motor dexterity.

  5. Neuropsychological Performance in Mainland China: The Effect of Urban/Rural Residence and Self-Reported Daily Academic Skill Use

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh; Vaida, Florin; Riggs, Katie; Jin, Hua; Grant, Igor; Cysique, Lucette; Shi, Chuan; Yu, Xin; Wu, Zunyou; Heaton, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Age, education, and gender are the most common covariates used to define normative standards against which neuropsychological (NP) performance is interpreted, but influences of other demographic factors have begun to be appreciated. In developing nations, urban versus rural residence may differentially affect numerous factors that could influence cognitive test performances, including quality of both formal and informal educational experiences and employment opportunities. Such disparities may necessitate corrections for urban/rural (U/R) status in NP norms. Prior investigations of the U/R effect on NP performance typically have been confounded by differences in educational attainment. We addressed in this by comparing the NP performance of large, Chinese urban (Yunnan Province, n =201) and rural (Anhui Province, n =141) cohorts of healthy adults, while controlling for other demographic differences. Although the groups did not differ in global NP scores, a more complex pattern was observed within specific NP ability domains and tests. Urban participants showed better performance in select measures of processing speed and executive functions, verbal fluency, and verbal learning. Self-reported daily use of academic skills was predictive of many U/R differences. Controlling for academic skill use abrogated most U/R differences but revealed rural advantages in select measures of visual reasoning and motor dexterity. PMID:21083967

  6. Risk of infection is associated more with drain duration than daily drainage volume in prosthesis-based breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Feng; Lin, Shou-Fong; Hung, Chen-Fang; Chou, Pesus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In prosthesis-based breast reconstruction, drains are used to prevent seroma formation and to reduce the risk of infection. However, prolonged drainage increases the risk of ascending infection. Although the volume often accepted for drain removal is ≤30 mL per day, the optimal timing to remove the drain for best clinical outcome remains controversial. We did a retrospective cohort study of 569 patients of prosthesis-based breast reconstruction with infection rate as the outcome variable; drain duration and last daily drainage volume as the main independent variables. Data on age, smoking history, diabetes mellitus history, body mass index, breast weight, tissue expander size, drain size, number of retrieved lymph nodes, tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, tumor stage, mastectomy type, reconstruction type, submuscular implantation, skin defect, operative time, duration of antibiotics use, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were collected as covariates. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to control for confounding. The total infection rate was 5.1% (29/569). The daily drainage volume ≥30 mL/d at the time of drain removal was not found associated with increased infection rate (P = 0.32). Of the various cutoff values of last daily drainage volume, none was found to be a determinant for drain removal where the risk of infection was concerned. By contrast, drain duration over 21 days significantly increased infection rate (P = 0.001). The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed an increase of 76.2% in the infection rate with each additional week of drain retention (P = 0.001). Breast weight also had a significant influence on risk of infection. Chemotherapy and drain size showed borderline effect on risk of infection whereas the last daily drainage volume was not associated with risk of infection In summary, our study revealed that drain duration, rather than the last daily drainage volume, significantly affects the

  7. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Mediates the Association Between Sexual and Marital Satisfaction: A Daily Diary Study in Newlywed Couples.

    PubMed

    Gadassi, Reuma; Bar-Nahum, Lior Eadan; Newhouse, Sarah; Anderson, Ragnar; Heiman, Julia R; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Janssen, Erick

    2016-01-01

    Sexuality is an integral part of intimate relationships, yet surprisingly little is known about how and for whom sexuality matters. The present research investigated the interplay of sexual and non-sexual factors that contribute to relationship satisfaction. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the association between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction is mediated by a non-sexual factor-namely, perceived partner responsiveness (PPR). Additionally, we tested the role of gender as a possible moderator of this mediated association. Thirty-four newlywed couples completed diaries with each spouse reporting their sexual satisfaction, marital satisfaction, and PPR every day for 30 days. We tested our predictions at both the person level (i.e., the mean level across 30 days) and the daily level. At the person level, we found that sexual satisfaction and PPR separately predicted marital satisfaction. Moreover, the effect of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction was partially mediated by PPR. No gender differences emerged at this level. At the daily level, we found similar support for partial mediation. However, at this level, gender did serve as a moderator. The stronger mediation found for women was driven by a stronger association between sexual satisfaction and PPR for women than for men. This study joins a growing literature highlighting the role of PPR in dyadic relationships.

  8. Exploring the association between volition and participation in daily life activities with older adults living in the community.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Elizabeth K; Brown, G Ted; Barker, Anna L; Haines, Terry P

    2014-11-01

    To explore the association between volition and participation in daily activities with older adults living in the community. Cross-sectional study. Community-dwelling, residing in Victoria (Australia). A total of 244 adults, of 70 years and older, drawn from a convenience sample, living in their own homes. Individuals' participation in daily activities was obtained via phone interviews, from the completion of the Phone-FITT survey. Levels of volition (identified under three items; personal causation, values and interests) were collected using the Volition Scale. Analyses were completed through linear regression. The participants' mean age was 77.5 years (SD 5.7) with 60% being female. Higher levels of participation were associated with higher levels of volition in light housework (n = 225, p = 0.008), shopping (n = 239, p = 0.018), lifting weights to strengthen legs (n = 23, p = 0.031), walking for exercise (n = 163, p < 0.001) and gardening (n = 183, p = 0.001). Increased volition is associated with increased participation in physical activities with community-dwelling older adults. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Concurrent and Subsequent Associations Between Daily Digital Technology Use and High-Risk Adolescents' Mental Health Symptoms.

    PubMed

    George, Madeleine J; Russell, Michael A; Piontak, Joy R; Odgers, Candice L

    2017-05-03

    Adolescents are spending an unprecedented amount of time using digital technologies (especially mobile technologies), and there are concerns that adolescents' constant connectivity is associated with poor mental health, particularly among at-risk adolescents. Participants included 151 adolescents at risk for mental health problems (Mage  = 13.1) who completed a baseline assessment, 30-day ecological momentary assessment, and 18 month follow-up assessment. Results from multilevel regression models showed that daily reports of both time spent using digital technologies and the number of text messages sent were associated with increased same-day attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Adolescents' reported digital technology usage and text messaging across the ecological momentary assessment (EMA) period was also associated with poorer self-regulation and increases in conduct problem symptoms between the baseline and follow-up assessments. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Mastering social and organization goals: strategy use by two children with Asperger syndrome during cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha

    2010-11-01

    Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning daily occupations. This case study explored the pattern of Global Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies (DSS) use, the type of guidance, and dimensions of time on task used by two children with AS (aged 10 and 12 years) in addressing social and organizational goals during the CO-OP intervention. Coding of the videotaped CO-OP sessions suggested that both children (a) utilized all the Global strategies, particularly "understanding the context” and "plan"; (b) used six common DSS, namely transitional supports, affective supports, attending, task-specification, task modification, and supplementing task knowledge, with task-specification being most prominent; (c) required minimal guidance while "doing"; and (d) engaged in considerable time "talking about the task.” The results provide initial insights into strategies that may enable children with AS to achieve social and organizational goals.

  11. No Evidence of Reciprocal Associations between Daily Sleep and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Godbole, Suneeta; Moran, Kevin; Murray, Kate; James, Peter; Laden, Francine; Hipp, J Aaron; Kerr, Jacqueline; Glanz, Karen

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether physical activity patterns are associated with sleep later at night and if nighttime sleep is associated with physical activity patterns the next day among adult women. Women (N = 353) living throughout the United States wore a wrist and a hip accelerometer for 7 d. Total sleep time (TST, hours per night) and sleep efficiency (SE, %) were estimated from the wrist accelerometer, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, >1040 counts per minute, h·d) and sedentary behavior (SB, <100 counts per minute, h·d) were estimated from the hip accelerometer. Mixed-effects models adjusted for age, race, body mass index, education, employment, marital status, health status, and hip accelerometer wear time were used to analyze the data. Follow-up analyses using quantile regression were used to investigate associations among women with below average TST and MVPA and above average SB. The average age of our sample was 55.5 yr (SD = 10.2 yr). The majority of participants were White (79%) and married (72%), and half were employed full time (49%). The participants spent on average 8.9 and 1.1 h·d in SB and MVPA, respectively, and 6.8 h per night asleep. No associations were observed between MVPA and SB with nighttime TST or SE. There were no associations between nighttime TST and SE with MVPA or SB the next day. The findings were the same in the quantile regression analyses. In free-living adult women, accelerometry-estimated nighttime sleep and physical activity patterns were not associated with one another. On the basis of our observational study involving a sample of adult women, higher physical activity will not necessarily improve sleep at night on a day-to-day basis (and vice versa).

  12. Trunk deformity is associated with a reduction in outdoor activities of daily living and life satisfaction in community-dwelling older people.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Ishida, Kenji; Hirose, Daisuke; Nagano, Yasunori; Okumiya, Kiyoto; Nishinaga, Masanori; Matsubayashi, Kozo; Doi, Yoshinori; Tani, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2005-03-01

    We have evaluated the association between trunk deformities of the sagittal plane and functional impairment of daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects. The analysis involved a detailed assessment of indoor and outdoor activities of daily living, satisfaction with life, and mental status. The participants in this study were 236 community-dwelling older adults, aged 65 years and older, living in Kahoku district of Kochi in Japan. The participants were classified based on their posture, which was assessed using photographs of the subjects, and interviewed to assess their basic activities of daily living (BADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and cognitive well-being in the cross-sectional study. The statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The lumbar kyphosis group received significantly lower BADL and IADL scores than the normal group. The trunk deformity group which were defined as kyphosis, flat back, and lumbar lordosis groups exhibited decreases in activities that included going out, shopping, depositing and withdrawing money, and visiting friends in the hospital. These activities require going outdoors; thus, this study showed that the trunk deformity group had limitations in outdoor activities. There was no significant difference between the geriatric depression score (GDS) and the pattern of posture. The abnormal trunk deformity groups tended to score lower than the normal group with regard to subjective healthiness and life satisfaction measures, including subjective health condition, everyday feeling, satisfaction with human relationships, satisfaction with economic condition, and satisfaction with present life.

  13. Association of lubricant use with women's sexual pleasure, sexual satisfaction, and genital symptoms: a prospective daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Herbenick, Debra; Reece, Michael; Hensel, Devon; Sanders, Stephanie; Jozkowski, Kristen; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Although lubricant use is commonly recommended to women for solo and partnered sexual activities, little is known about women's use of lubricant or their relationship to sexual pleasure and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess: (i) how adult women used lubricant during partnered and solo sexual activities; (ii) relations between women's reports of sexual pleasure and satisfaction and their use of a lubricant during a particular sexual event; and (iii) to what extent lubricant use was associated with subsequent genital symptoms. A total of 2,453 women completed a 5-week internet-based, double-blind prospective daily diary study in which they were assigned to use one of six water- or silicone-based lubricants. Baseline data included demographics, contraceptive use, and sexual behavior during the 4 weeks prior to study enrollment. Daily diary data included reports of penile-vaginal sex, penile-anal sex, solo sex, lubricant use, lubricant application, ratings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and genital symptoms. Water-based lubricants were associated with fewer genital symptoms compared with silicone-based lubricants. In addition, the use of a water-based or silicone-based lubricant was associated with higher ratings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction for solo sex and penile-vaginal sex. Water-based lubricant use was associated with higher ratings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction for penile-anal sex as compared with no lubricant use. The water- and silicone-based lubricants used in this study were associated with significantly higher reports of sexual pleasure and satisfaction and rarely associated with genital symptoms. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Typical Infrasonic Daily Changes Associated with Weather Conditions in Southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    The dominant source of infrasonic waves in Korean peninsula is associated with weather changes around 0.1 to several hertz. The microbarom are mainly observed with KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) infrasound station and other activity associated with typhoon in summer. The period of observation was processed during year of 2012. The KMA running two permanent infrasound stations at the middle of Korean peninsula which located DeMilitarized Zone from the 2011. For the special event that recorded from the Northern Korean Peninsula was missle launch 12-Dec 2012 which was clearly recorded. The Korean peninsula is located on Northern Hemisphere that induce the typhoon visit in summer rainy season, so main infrasonic activity was associated this weather changes concentrated general weather activity frequency area. We focused on seasonal changes induced by weather activities and processed infrasonic data related with typhoon report by KMA's weather report. The progressing results was reviewed for the infrasonic noise level changes which associated with typhoon and missle launch record on Dec-2012 for the special event.

  15. Vertical distribution and daily flight periodicity of ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt affected avocado orchards.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado (Persea americana Mill.; Lauraceae) due to their association with fungal pathogens, in particular, the causal agent of laurel wilt disease, Raffaelea lauricola. The objective of this study was to provide insights into the intera...

  16. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  17. Daily Associations of Stress and Eating in Mother-Child Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi; Belcher, Britni R.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; O'Connor, Sydney; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in mother-child dyads to examine the day-level associations of stress and eating. Method. Mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children (N = 167 dyads) completed between three (weekday) and eight (weekend) EMA survey prompts per day at random nonschool times across 8 days.…

  18. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  19. Associations between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…

  20. Associations between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…

  1. The Glittre-ADL test reflects functional performance measured by physical activities of daily living in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Karloh, Manuela; Araujo, Cintia L. P.; Gulart, Aline A.; Reis, Cardine M.; Steidle, Leila J. M.; Mayer, Anamaria F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The Glittre-ADL test (TGlittre) is a valid and reliable test for the evaluation of functional capacity and involves multiple physical activities of daily living (PADL), which are known to be troublesome to patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). However, it is still unknown if this test is also able to reflect the functional performance of patients with COPD. Objective To investigate whether the TGlittre reflects the functional performance of COPD patients and whether the necessary time to complete the TGlittre and the PADL varies according to disease severity. Method Thirty-eight patients with COPD (age 65, SD=7 years; forced expiratory volume in the first second 41.3, SD=15.2% predicted) underwent anthropometric and lung function assessments and were submitted to the TGlittre and PADL measurement. Results TGlittre performance correlated significantly (p<0.05) with PADL variables, such as time sitting (r=0.50), walking (r=-0.46), number of steps taken (r=–0.53), walking movement intensity (r=–0.66), walking energy expenditure (r=-0.50), and total energy expenditure (r=–0.33). TGlittre performance was not significantly different in patients among the Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD) spirometric stages, but walking and sitting time were significantly lower and greater, respectively, in severe and very severe patients compared to those with moderate disease (p<0.05). Conclusion The performance on the TGlittre correlates with walking and sitting time and other real life PADL measurements. The severity of the disease is associated with the differences in the level of physical activity in daily life more than in functional capacity. PMID:27437713

  2. Effects of resistance training on the performance of activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Garuffi, Marcelo; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Hernández, Salma Sthephany Soleman; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; dos Santos, Julimara Gomes; Stella, Florindo

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training in activities of daily living performance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. An exploratory and longitudinal study, lasting for 16 weeks, with the participation of 34 patients divided equally in: the training group (TG), who participated in a resistance training protocol (three sets of 20 repetitions in five exercises); and the social gathering group (SGG), who participated in a social interaction protocol (i.e. group dynamics, writing and reading activities). We observed significant differences between the groups in moving around the house, climbing stairs, standing up from the floor and putting on socks tests. This study showed that resistance training improves agility, lower limb strength, balance and flexibility in AD patients, while SGG protocol is important to improve the agility. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) study.

    PubMed

    Kan, Haidong; Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Qian, Zhengmin

    2010-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity, but only few studies were conducted in Asian countries. Previous studies suggest that SO(2) may have adverse health effects independent of other pollutants. In the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project, the short-term associations between ambient sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and daily mortality were examined in Bangkok, Thailand, and three Chinese cities: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. The impact of alternative model specifications, such as lag structure of pollutants and degree of freedom (df) for time trend, on the estimated effects of SO(2) were also examined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant effects of SO(2) on total non-accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality were observed. An increase of 10 microg/m(3) of 2-day moving average concentrations of SO(2) corresponded to 1.00% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.24], 1.09% (95% CI, 0.71-1.47), and 1.47% (95% CI, 0.85-2.08) increase of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively, in the combined analysis. Sensitivity analyzes suggested that these findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. After adjustment for PM(10) or O(3), the effect of SO(2) remained significant in three Chinese cities. However, adjustment for NO(2) diminished the associations and rendered them statistically insignificant in all four cities. In conclusion, ambient SO(2) concentration was associated with daily mortality in these four Asian cities. These associations may be attributable to SO(2) serving as a surrogate of other substances. Our findings suggest that the role of outdoor exposure to SO(2) should be investigated further in this region. (c) 2010

  4. Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) study

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Haidong; Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Qian, Zhengmin

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity, but few studies were conducted in Asian countries. Previous studies suggest that SO2 may have adverse health effects independent of other pollutants. In the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project, the short-term associations between ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) and daily mortality were examined in Bangkok, Thailand, and three Chinese cities: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. The impact of alternative model specifications, such as lag structure of pollutants and degree of freedom (df) for time trend, on the estimated effects of SO2 were also examined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant effects of SO2 on total non-accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality were observed. An increase of 10 μg/m3 of 2-day moving average concentrations of SO2 corresponded to 1.00% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.24], 1.09% (95% CI, 0.71-1.47), and 1.47% (95% CI, 0.85-2.08) increase of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively, in the combined analysis. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. After adjustment for PM10 or O3, the effect of SO2 remained significant in three Chinese cities. However, adjustment for NO2 diminished the associations and rendered them statistically insignificant in all four cities. In conclusion, ambient SO2 concentration was associated with daily mortality in these four Asian cities. These associations may be attributable to SO2 serving as a surrogate of other substances. Our findings suggest that the role of outdoor exposure to SO2 should be investigated further in this region. PMID:20122685

  5. Motor skills and school performance in children with daily physical education in school--a 9-year intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P < 0.001), 96% of the pupils in the intervention group compared to 89% in the control group (P < 0.05) qualified for upper secondary school. The sum of evaluated marks was higher among boys in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The sum of marks was also higher in pupils with no motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P < 0.01), as was the proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school (97% vs 81%, P < 0.001). Daily PE and adapted motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The performance of matrices in daily clinical practice to predict rapid radiologic progression in patients with early RA.

    PubMed

    De Cock, D; Vanderschueren, G; Meyfroidt, S; Joly, J; Van der Elst, K; Westhovens, R; Verschueren, P

    2014-04-01

    To compare in daily clinical practice the reliability of matrices that forecast rapid radiologic progression (RRP) at year one, at year two, and over 2 years in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Overall, 74 early RA patients with X-rays of hands and feet at baseline, year one, and year two were included. Initial DMARD combination therapy with steroids (ICTS) or DMARD monotherapy (IMT) was initiated according to patients' RA severity, based on rheumatologist opinion. The images were scored via the modified Sharp/van der Heijde (SvH) method. A total Sharp score progression of equal or higher than five per year was considered RRP. Six matrices were tested: ASPIRE CRP/ESR matrices, the BEST matrix, two SWEFOT matrices, and the ESPOIR matrix. Patients were placed in each of them yielding a RRP probability. The performance was tested by Area Under the Curve analysis reflecting the predictive value. Four patients developed RRP in year one, five in year two, and four over 2 years. With regard to face validity, the predicted probability did not correspond to the risk in reality: the one ICTS patient who developed RRP over 2 years was always found in the lowest RRP categories of all matrices. The ASPIRE CRP matrix yielded at least a moderate predicting value for the three time points. The other matrices showed moderate to no predicting value. The performance of all matrices was disappointing and it is impossible to fully rely on the existing matrices in daily clinical practice. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The correlation of independency in activities of daily living performance with cognitive status and the intensity of neurological impairment in right-handed stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Shadi; Ashayeri, Hassan; Fahimi, Malahat Akbar; Kamali, Mohamad; Lyden, Patrick D

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether test performance in neurological and cognitive areas is able to predict daily task performance in stroke patients and if the two selected measures of stroke severity and cognitive function could be used as valid tools to predict functional outcomes after stroke. We assessed 27 stroke patients (hemorrhagic and infarct) through Barthel Index (BI), Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) in the first 6 months after stroke. The correlation of intensity of neurological impairment (NIHSS score) and ADL performance (BI score) was significant (P < 0/05), but we found no relation between general cognitive function (the total score of LOTCA) and individual independence (total score of BI). Although ADL performance areas associated with some cognitive components. The dependency after stroke is more affected by physical symptoms of stroke than by cognitive disorders. Moreover, the intensity of neurological impairment could be a better explanation for a patient's inability to perform basic ADL independently. Low direct relations in total scores of NIHS scale and BI was found, but LOTCA is not appropriate for prediction of independency in basic ADL performance after stroke. Nevertheless, further studies and confirmation are needed.

  8. The association between cognitive fluctuations and activities of daily living and quality of life among institutionalized patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Mainland, Brian J; Ornstein, Tisha J; Mallya, Sasha; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Sin, Gwen Li; Shulman, Kenneth I; Herrmann, Nathan

    2017-09-22

    Cognitive fluctuations (CFs) occur commonly in dementia of all types. While it is generally accepted that CFs can affect the clinical rating of dementia severity and neuropsychological performance, little is known about their impact on patients' activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QOL). Our study aims to explore the impact of CFs on ADLs and QOL among institutionalized patients with dementia. The present study examined the nature and frequency of CFs in 55 institutionalized dementia patients. We used the Dementia Cognitive Fluctuation Scale (DCFS) to assess the presence and severity of CFs. The Alzheimer's Disease Functional Assessment of Change Scale (ADFACS) was used to assess patients' ADLs, and the Quality of Life in Late Stage Dementia scale (QUALID) was used to assess QOL. Linear regression models were used to assess the relationships between CFs, ADLs, and QOL. The mean age of the patients was 90.41 years (SD = 2.84). Their mean Aggressive Behavior Scale score was 1.13 (SD = 1.59), mean Severe Impairment Battery total score was 86.65 (SD = 13.77), and mean DCFS score was 10.07 (SD = 3.04). The mean ADFACS-ADL score was 10.88 (SD = 6.37), mean ADFACS-IADL score was 16.61 (SD = 9.54), and mean QUALID total score was 18.25 (SD = 5.70). DCFS significantly predicted ADFACS-ADL score (R(2)  = 0.39, β = 0.30, P = .011) although the relationship between ADFACS-IADL score and DCFS score was not significant (R(2)  = 0.16, P = .111). DCFS significantly predicted QUALID score (R(2)  = 0.08, β = 0.29, P = .033). More severe CFs in patients with dementia were significantly associated with impaired ability to engage in ADLs and poorer QOL. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Hedonic orientation moderates the association between cognitive control and affect reactivity to daily hassles in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Klipker, Kathrin; Wrzus, Cornelia; Rauers, Antje; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-04-01

    People often seek to regulate their affective reactions when confronted with hassles. Hassle reactivity is lower for people with higher cognitive control, presumably because of better affect regulation. Many adolescents, however, show higher hassle reactivity than children, despite better cognitive control. The present study aims to understand whether motivational differences when seeking to regulate affective experiences moderate the association between cognitive control and hassle reactivity in adolescence. We hypothesized that higher cognitive control is related to lower hassle reactivity only for adolescents with a strong hedonic orientation, that is, for adolescents who seek to maintain or enhance positive or to dampen negative affect. We investigated 149 boys' (age range: 10-20 years) hedonic orientation and affect reactivity toward daily hassles during 2 weeks of experience sampling. Higher cognitive control, assessed with a working memory battery in the laboratory, was associated with stronger hassle reactivity in individuals with low hedonic orientation. The more hedonic-oriented individuals were, the lower was their hassle reactivity, but only in combination with high cognitive control. Our findings illustrate that higher cognitive control is not always related to lower hassle reactivity. Rather, when daily hassles compromise affect balance, hedonic orientation is equally important to understand affect reactivity in adolescent boys. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The role of stress-regulation genes in moderating the association of stress and daily-life psychotic experiences.

    PubMed

    Cristóbal-Narváez, P; Sheinbaum, T; Myin-Germeys, I; Kwapil, T R; de Castro-Catala, M; Domínguez-Martínez, T; Racioppi, A; Monsonet, M; Hinojosa-Marqués, L; van Winkel, R; Rosa, A; Barrantes-Vidal, N

    2017-10-01

    The interaction of single nucleotide polymorphisms with both distal and proximal environmental factors across the extended psychosis phenotype is understudied. This study examined (i) the interaction of relevant SNPs with both early-life adversity and proximal (momentary) stress on psychotic experiences (PEs) in an extended psychosis sample; and (ii) differences between early-psychosis and non-clinical groups for these interactions. Two hundred and forty-two non-clinical and 96 early-psychosis participants were prompted randomly eight times daily for 1 week to complete assessments of current experiences, including PEs and stress. Participants also reported on childhood trauma and were genotyped for 10 SNPs on COMT, RGS4, BDNF, FKBP5, and OXTR genes. Unlike genetic variants, distal and proximal stressors were associated with PEs in both samples and were more strongly associated with PEs in the early-psychosis than in the non-clinical group. The RGS4 TA and FKBP5 CATT haplotypes interacted with distal stress, whereas the A allele of OXTR (rs2254298) interacted with proximal stress, increasing momentary levels of PEs in the early-psychosis group. No interactions emerged with COMT or BDNF variants. Individual differences in relevant stress-regulation systems interact with both distal and proximal psychosocial stressors in shaping the daily-life manifestation of PEs across the psychosis continuum. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Within-person associations between daily motivation and self-efficacy and drinking among problem drinkers in treatment.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis; Houser, Jessica; Muench, Frederick J; Shao, Sijing; Treloar, Hayley

    2016-09-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the change process holds promise to improve alcohol treatment. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) coupled with intensive longitudinal data (ILD) approaches have been proposed as promising methods that can advance change process research but have been used infrequently in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment research. The current study used these approaches to examine the within-person associations of motivation and self-efficacy and drinking among treatment-seeking problem drinkers. Participants (N = 96) received daily EMA surveys before, during, and after treatment for 7 weeks spread over a 9-month period. Multilevel modeling was used to test the within-person relationships between the change processes and drinking, controlling for between-person associations and prior drinking. Results indicated that daily fluctuations in motivation and self-efficacy significantly predicted drinking over the next 24 hours; however, several theory-driven hypotheses regarding factors that might moderate that relationship were not supported. Overall, results support the advantages of EMA and ILD as methods that can advance AUD treatment research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2017-05-01

    To examine the transitions in smoking status among non-daily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as non-daily smokers during a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). United States. Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were non-daily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13 673, or 14.5% of current smokers). Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of non-daily to daily, stable non-daily and non-daily to former smoking transitions among non-daily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Of the adults in our sample, 2.6% were non-daily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained non-daily smokers (stable non-daily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (non-daily to daily smokers) and 11.9% quit smoking (non-daily to former smokers) after 12 months. The non-daily to daily versus stable non-daily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (P = 0.018), male (P < 0.001), Hispanic (P < 0.001), with an income of $25 000-49 999 or ≥$75 000 and current users of SLT (P = 0.003), but more likely among those without a college degree compared with the appropriate reference group. The non-daily to former versus stable non-daily smoking transition was less likely among those aged 25+, male (P = 0.013), non-Hispanic Asian (P = 0.032), without a college degree, widowed/divorced/separated (P = 0.013) or never married (P = 0.011) and current users of cigars (P = 0.003) compared with the appropriate reference group. While more than two-thirds of non-daily smokers in the United States remain as such after 12 months, others become daily smokers or

  13. Physical Activity, Daily Walking, and Lower Limb Lymphedema Associate with Physical Function among Uterine Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Lin, Lilie L.; Segal, Saya; Chu, Christina S.; Haggerty, Ashley E.; Ko, Emily M.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We sought to quantify the proportion of uterine cancer survivors who self-report poor physical function. We then sought to quantify the association of poor physical function with physical activity (PA), walking, and lower limb lymphedema (LLL), among women with a history of uterine cancer. Methods Physical function was quantified using the SF-12 questionnaire. PA, walking, and LLL were measured using self-report questionnaire. PA was calculated using metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-hrs·wk−1), and walking was calculated using blocks per day (blocks·d−1). Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Among the 213 uterine cancer survivors in our survey (43% response rate), 35% self-reported poor physical function. Compared to participants who reported <3.0 MET-hrs·wk−1 of PA, participants who reported ≥18.0 MET-hrs·wk−1 of PA were less likely to have poor physical function (OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01–0.10; Ptrend<0.0001). Compared to participants who reported <4.0 blocks·d−1 of walking, participants who reported ≥12.0 blocks·d−1 of walking were less likely to have poor physical function (OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.03–0.19; Ptrend<0.0001). Compared to participants who did not have LLL, participants with LLL were more likely to have poor physical function (OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 2.41–11.41; P<0.0001). Conclusion Higher levels of PA and walking associate with a lower likelihood of reporting poor physical function. The presence of LLL associates with a higher likelihood of reporting poor physical function. These findings are hypothesis-generating, and should be evaluated in future prospective studies. PMID:24906839

  14. Performance-based assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) ability among women with chronic widespread pain.

    PubMed

    Waehrens, Eva Ejlersen; Amris, Kirstine; Fisher, Anne G

    2010-09-01

    Functional ability, including the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), is considered a core outcome domain in chronic pain clinical trials and is usually assessed through generic or disease-specific self-report questionnaires. Research, however, indicates that self-report and performance-based assessment of ADL offer distinct but complementary information about ability. The present study, therefore, investigated the applicability of a performance-based measure of ADL ability, the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), among 50 women with chronic widespread pain. The investigated psychometric properties of the AMPS included discrimination between a sample of healthy women and those with chronic widespread pain, as well as stability when no intervention was provided and sensitivity to change following intervention. Data were obtained based on a repeated measures design performing AMPS evaluations twice pre- and twice post-rehabilitation. Results indicated that the ADL motor ability measures of the participants were significantly lower than those of healthy women of same age, the ADL motor and ADL process ability measures remained stable when no intervention was provided and the ADL motor ability measures were sensitive to change following a 2-week interdisciplinary rehabilitation program. A weak correlation (r(s)=-0.35) was found between self-reported ADL ability as measured by the physical function subscale of the Functional Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and performance-based ADL motor measures, and no correlation (r(s)=-0.02) was found between FIQ ADL measures and ADL process ability, supporting the need for both performance-based and self-reported assessment of ADL.

  15. Increased daily movement associates with reduced mortality among COPD patients having systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, P D; Walker, J F

    2016-03-01

    Emerging research demonstrates an interrelationship between systemic inflammation, physical activity and premature all-cause mortality among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Less common in this literature is the use of objective measures of physical activity and representative samples of COPD patients. To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and all-cause mortality among a national sample of COPD patients, with stratification by inflammatory status. Data from the 2003 to 2006 NHANES were employed, with follow-up through 2011. Physical activity was objectively measured via accelerometry; COPD was assessed via physician-diagnosis; and inflammation was assessed via C-reactive protein (CRP) levels from a blood sample. Analysis included 385 adults (20+ years) with COPD. The median follow-up period was 78 months (IQR = 64-90), with 82 COPD patients dying during this period. After adjustment, physical activity was not associated with all-cause mortality among the entire sample (HR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.61-1.05) or those with no systemic inflammation (HR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.63-1.24). However, for every 60 min increase in physical activity per day, COPD patients with elevated CRP had a 31% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51-0.93). Physical activity may help to promote survival among COPD patients, particularly those with elevated inflammation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The relationship between physical performance measures and independence in instrumental activities of daily living. The FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injury: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Trials.

    PubMed

    Judge, J O; Schechtman, K; Cress, E

    1996-11-01

    Understanding the relationship between physical capacity and functional status is required to design exercise interventions to maintain independent living. This study assessed the importance of physical performance in maintaining independence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). A pre-planned meta-analysis of cross-sectional data from six sites of the Frailty and Injury: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Trials (FICSIT). Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between physical performance and IADL. 2190 community-dwelling older subjects. IADL was the dependent variable; gait velocity, balance function, grip strength and chair rise time were the predictor variables. Age, gender, education, falls self-efficacy, and cognitive status were covariates. Gait velocity, balance function, and grip strength were independently related to IADL deficits, after correcting for covariates. The linear slopes were relatively steep. For gait, a decrease of 0.1 m s-1 was associated with 0.10 (95% Cl: 0.17, 0.04) increase in IADL deficits, which is equivalent to 1 ADL deficit in 10 subjects. The linear slopes for hand grip and balance were similar or steeper. In the sites where chair stand time was measured, an increase of 1 second in the time to rise was associated with a 0.14 (0.04, 0.24) increase in IADL deficits. The relationships found in the meta-analytic analysis were consistent across sites which enrolled subjects with widely varying levels of physical performance. Simple measures of physical performance were strongly associated with IADL independence after correcting for many previously identified predictors of functional status. The data from this meta-analysis support testing interventions designed to improve physical performance to determine whether improved performance can maintain or improve independence in IADLs.

  17. An association between air pollution and daily outpatient visits for respiratory disease in a heavy industry area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Ying; Chau, Tang-Tat

    2013-01-01

    In this work we used daily outpatient data from the Landseed Hospital in a heavily industrial area in northern Taiwan to study the associations between daily outpatient visits and air pollution in the context of a heavily polluted atmospheric environment in Chung-Li area during the period 2007-2011. We test the normality of each data set, control for the confounding factors, and calculate correlation coefficient between the outpatient visits and air pollution and meteorology, and use multiple linear regression analysis to seek significance of these associations. Our results show that temperature and relative humidity tend to be negatively associated with respiratory diseases. NO and [Formula: see text] are two main air pollutants that are positively associated with respiratory diseases, followed by [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], CO, and [Formula: see text]. Young outpatients (age 0-15 years) are most sensitive to changing air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by the eldest (age [Formula: see text]66 years) and age 16-65 years of outpatients. Outpatients for COPD diseases are most sensitive to air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by allergic rhinitis, asthma, and pneumonia diseases. In the context of sex difference to air pollution and meteorological factors, male outpatients are more sensitive than female outpatients in the 16-65 age groups, while female outpatients are more sensitive than male outpatients in the young 0-15 age groups and in the eldest age groups. In total, female outpatients are more sensitive to air pollution and meteorological factors than male outpatients.

  18. Workaholism and daily energy management at work: associations with self-reported health and emotional exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    SCHULZ, Anika Susanne; BLOOM, Jessica; KINNUNEN, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Adequate energy management during the working day is essential for employees to remain healthy and vital. Research has investigated which energy management strategies are frequently used and which are most beneficial, but the results are inconclusive and research is still scarce. We aim to extend the current knowledge by considering individual differences in terms of working compulsively (as key feature of workaholism) with regard to energy management. Data were collected with an online survey in 1,253 employees from 12 different organizations. Employees’ levels of compulsiveness were expected to relate to 1) employees’ choice of which energy management strategies to use, and 2) the benefits (improved health and alleviated emotional exhaustion) of the chosen strategy. The results partly supported the hypotheses in that compulsiveness was associated with more frequent use of work-related energy management strategies. However, compulsiveness was not related to less frequent use of micro-breaks. Energy management (particularly work-related and physical micro-break strategies) improved health and alleviated emotional exhaustion regardless of compulsiveness levels, whereas private micro-break strategies were only beneficial for employees high in compulsiveness. PMID:28123137

  19. Comparison of Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance and conventional occupational therapy on occupational performance in individuals with stroke: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Si-Nae; Yoo, Eun-Young; Jung, Min-Ye; Park, Hae-Yean; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Yoo-Im

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach based on cognitive strategy in occupational therapy. To investigate the effects of CO-OP approach on occupational performance in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. This study was designed as a 5-week, randomized, single-blind. Forty-three participants who had a diagnosis of first stroke were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 20) or the control group (n = 23). The experimental group conducted CO-OP approach while the control group conducted conventional occupational therapy based on occupational performance components. This study measured Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS). Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and post-intervention. After training, the scores of COPM and PQRS in trained task were significantly higher for the score in the experimental group than the control group. In addition, the non-trained task was significantly higher for the score in the experimental group than the control group in COPM and the PQRS. This study suggests that the CO-OP approach is beneficial effects on the occupational performance to improvement in individuals with hemiparetic stroke, and have positive effects on generalization and transfer of acquired skills.

  20. Performance of Lotrafilcon B silicone hydrogel contact lenses in experienced low-Dk/t daily lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Dillehay, Sally M; Miller, Marian B

    2007-11-01

    The silicone hydrogel lens O2OPTIX with a Dk/t of 138 (at -3.00 diopters [D]) was evaluated and compared with patients' habitual low-Dk/t lenses. This large, multisite (United States and Canada), single-masked study enrolled experienced daily-wear, low-Dk/t, 2-week replacement soft contact lens wearers. Subjects underwent baseline evaluations and were fitted with O2OPTIX lenses for a 2-week period. After 2 weeks, subjects returned for assessment versus their habitual lenses. Data for 760 subjects were analyzed. The overall average habitual contact lens power was -3.13 D, and the average O2OPTIX lens power was -3.22 D. Biomicroscopy evaluations showed improvements in signs related to corneal health with O2OPTIX. Conjunctival and limbal redness, corneal neovascularization, corneal edema, and corneal and conjunctival staining all decreased significantly from baseline. O2OPTIX lenses performed better than habitual lenses in terms of comfort, symptoms, and overall preference. When wearing O2OPTIX lenses, significantly fewer subjects reported problems compared to their habitual lenses, including uncomfortable lens wear (-20.3%), redness (-44.5%), dryness during the day (-40.2%), and dryness at the end of the day (-34.4%); 47.9% reported that they could wear O2OPTIX lenses longer than their habitual lenses. At the end of study, among those with a preference, a significantly greater proportion of patients (60.3%) preferred O2OPTIX lenses to their habitual lenses. Daily wear of O2OPTIX lenses resulted in improvements in corneal signs of health and patient symptoms and provided excellent vision and comfort. O2OPTIX lenses were preferred by subjects over their habitual lenses.

  1. Weight loss associated with a daily intake of three apples or three pears among overweight women.

    PubMed

    Conceição de Oliveira, Maria; Sichieri, Rosely; Sanchez Moura, Anibal

    2003-03-01

    We investigated the effect of fruit intake on body weight change. Hypercholesterolemic, overweight (body mass index > 25 kg/m2), and non-smoking women, 30 to 50 y of age, were randomized to receive, free of charge, one of three dietary supplements: apples, pears, or oat cookies. Women were instructed to eat one supplement three times a day in a total of six meals a day. Participants (411 women) were recruited at a primary care center of the State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fifty-one women had fasting blood cholesterol levels greater than 6.2 mM/L (240 mg/dL) and 49 were randomized. Subjects were instructed by a dietitian to eat a diet (55% of energy from carbohydrate, 15% from protein, and 30% from fat) to encourage weight reduction at the rate of 1 kg/mo. After 12 wk of follow-up, the fruit group lost 1.22 kg (95% confidence interval = 0.44-1.85), whereas the oat group had a non-significant weight loss of 0.88 kg (0.37-2.13). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.004). To explore further the body weight loss associated with fruit intake, we measured the ratio of glucose to insulin. A significantly greater decrease of blood glucose was observed among those who had eaten fruits compared with those who had eaten oat cookies, but the glucose:insulin ratio was not statistically different from baseline to follow-up. Adherence to the diet was high, as indicated by changes in serum triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and reported fruit intake. Fruit intake in the oat group throughout treatment was minimal. Intake of fruits may contribute to weight loss.

  2. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life.

    PubMed

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores and how this association was influenced by mental symptoms. The personality traits neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness; and the mental symptoms depression and anxiety showed significant influence on CAT score when analysed in separate regression models. Identical R-square (R = 0.24) was found for personality traits and mental symptoms, but combining personality traits and mental symptoms in one regression model showed substantially reduced effect estimates of neuroticism, conscientiousness and anxiety, reflecting the strong correlations between personality traits and mental symptoms. We found that the impact of COPD on daily life measured by CAT was related to personality and mental symptoms, which illustrates the necessity of taking individual differences in personality and mental status into account in the management of COPD.

  3. Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of temperature and daily mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Marie S.; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel

    2005-11-01

    We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent temperature (AT) and daily mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0 14 years) and the elderly (ages ≥65 years). Predictors included mean daily AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme temperatures [cold (10 11°C) for both cities and heat (35 36°C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean temperature in each city (15°C in Mexico City, 25°C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.

  4. Association between air pollution and daily mortality and hospital admission due to ischaemic heart diseases in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Wilson Wai San; Wong, Tze Wai; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

    2015-11-01

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The effects of air pollution on IHD mortalities have been widely reported. Fewer studies focus on IHD morbidities and PM2.5, especially in Asia. To explore the associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and morbidities and mortalities from IHD, we conducted a time series study using a generalized additive model that regressed the daily numbers of IHD mortalities and hospital admissions on daily mean concentrations of the following air pollutants: nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The relative risks (RR) of IHD deaths and hospital admissions per 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of each air pollutant were derived in single pollutant models. Multipollutant models were also constructed to estimate their RRs controlling for other pollutants. Significant RRs were observed for all five air pollutants, ranging from 1.008 to 1.032 per 10 μg/m3 increase in air pollutant concentrations for IHD mortality and from 1.006 to 1.021 per 10 μg/m3 for hospital admissions for IHD. In the multipollutant model, only NO2 remained significant for IHD mortality while SO2 and PM2.5 was significantly associated with hospital admissions. This study provides additional evidence that mortalities and hospital admissions for IHD are significantly associated with air pollution. However, we cannot attribute these health effects to a specific air pollutant, owing to high collinearity between some air pollutants.

  5. Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of temperature and daily mortality.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Marie S; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel

    2005-11-01

    We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent temperature (AT) and daily mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0-14 years) and the elderly (ages >or=65 years). Predictors included mean daily AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme temperatures [cold (10-11 degrees C) for both cities and heat (35-36 degrees C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean temperature in each city (15 degrees C in Mexico City, 25 degrees C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.

  6. An evaluation of daily bacteriologic monitoring to identify preventable episodes of catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, R A; Mooney, B R; Epstein, B J; Britt, M R

    1982-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a daily bacteriologic monitoring program for preventing symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) in hospitalized patients with temporary indwelling urethral catheters. We identified 99 instances in which bacteriuria was present at the time of catheter insertion among 1,140 catheterizations. Of those, 62 patients were asymptomatic and 37 patients had fever or symptoms attributable to UTI. Of the 37 symptomatic episodes, only 14 developed symptoms 24 hours or more after the first culture and might be considered potentially preventable. We also identified 76 episodes of acquired bacteriuria among 608 catheterizations that were initially nonbacteriuric in which at least two cultures were available. Of these 76 patients, 51 (67%) remained asymptomatic throughout their period of hospitalization. Of the 25 patients who developed symptomatic infections, only ten were potentially preventable. In all, only 24 symptomatic episodes among 1,140 catheterizations (2%) occurred 24 hours or more after colonization was first detected and might be considered potentially preventable. Our data suggest that routine daily bacteriologic monitoring of urine from all catheterized patients is not an efficient way to decrease the incidence of symptomatic, catheter-associated UTI.

  7. Depressive Symptoms and the Experience of Pleasure in Daily Life: An Exploration of Associations in Early and Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eeske; Bennik, Elise C; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A; Verhagen, Maaike; Ormel, Johan; Engels, Rutger C M E; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-07-01

    Although loss of pleasure (i.e., anhedonia) is one of the two core symptoms of depression, very little research has examined the relation between depressive symptoms and the experience of pleasure in daily life. This exploratory study in two population-based adolescent samples aimed to examine how depressive symptoms and anhedonia specifically were related to (1) the proportion and intensity of positive events, (2) mean and variability of positive affect (PA), (3) reactivity to positive events, and (4) reactivity to PA (i.e., whether PA elicits positive events). We used Experience Sampling to measure positive events and PA several times a day during 6 to 14 days in early (N = 284) and late (N = 74) adolescents. Results showed that depressive symptoms were related to a lower proportion and intensity of positive events, lower mean PA, and higher variability in PA regardless of sex and stage of adolescence. No clear evidence was found for differential reactivity to positive events or to PA. Anhedonia was not associated with most daily life experiences of pleasure. Our findings, though preliminary, suggest that although adolescents with many depressive symptoms experience less positive events and lower PA, they are able to enjoy pleasurable events to the same extent as individuals with fewer depressive symptoms.

  8. Haze Days in North China and the associated atmospheric circulations based on daily visibility data from 1960 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huopo; Wang, Huijun

    2015-06-01

    Haze is a severe hazard that greatly influences traffic and daily life with great economic losses and threats to human health. To enhance understanding of the haze occurrences, this study examined the haze variations over North China and their associated atmospheric circulations for the period of 1960-2012 using daily visibility data. Results indicate that the haze events over this region primarily occur in boreal winter of year and mainly in the morning of day. The results of the analysis of the long-term variations indicate that the annual haze days were relatively few in the 1960s but increased steeply in the 1970s and have remained stable to the present. Some differences are obvious among seasons. A stably increasing trend is discernable in summer and autumn, relatively low in the 1960s and the 1990s-2000s and relatively high in the 1970s-1980s in spring and winter. Haze variations in urban regions are quite similar to haze variations in rural regions but with more haze days in urban regions because of the high aerosol emissions. Further analyses indicate that the occurrences of severe haze events in boreal winter generally correlate with the weakened northerly winds and the development of inversion anomalies in the lower troposphere, the weakened East Asian trough in the midtroposphere, and the northward East Asian jet in the high troposphere. All of these factors provide a favorable atmospheric background for the maintenance and development of haze events in this region.

  9. On the association between daily mortality and air mass types in Athens, Greece during winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Gryparis, Alexandros; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we examined the short-term effects of air mass types on mortality in Athens, Greece. An objective air mass types classification was used, based on meteorological parameters measured at the surface. Mortality data were treated with generalized additive models (GAM) and extending Poisson regression, using a LOESS smoother to control for the confounding effects of seasonal patterns, adjusting also for temperature, long-term trends, day of the week, and ambient particle concentrations. The introduced air mass classification explains the daily variation of mortality to a statistically significant degree. The highest daily mortality was observed on days characterized by southerly flow conditions for both the cold (increase in relative risk for mortality 9%; with a 95% confidence interval: 3-14%), and the warm period (7%; with a 95% confidence interval: 2-13%) of the year. The northeasterly flow is associated with the lowest mortality. Effects on mortality, independent of temperature, are observed mainly for lag 0 during the cold period, but persist longer during the warm period. Not adjusting for temperature and/or ambient particle levels slightly alters the results, which then reflect the known temperature and particle effects, already reported in the literature. In conclusion, we find that air mass types have independent effects on mortality for both the cold and warm season and may be used to predict weather-related adverse health effects.

  10. Effects of daily mild supine exercise on physical performance after 20 days bed rest in young persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kashihara, H.; Takenaka, K.; Kawakubo, K.; Makita, Y.; Goto, S.; Ikawa, S.; Gunji, A.

    To investgate the effects of daily mild supine exercise on physical performance capacity identified as maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO 2max) after 20 days bed-rest, 3 male students performed a supine pedaling at 40 % intensity of VO 2max for one hour every day, while 6 male and 5 female students were control. Before and after the bed-rest, muscle mass and strength of exercising leg and cardio-vascular responses during -40 mmHg lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and moderate upright cycling exercise were measured. Despite the exercise programme VO 2max was similarly decreased to the control subjects after the bed-rest. The delta VO 2max was correlated to delta % left ventricular fractional shortening during LBNP, and also % delta VO 2max to % delta stroke volume of the moderate exercise (both p<0.05). The exercise programme should be too weak to maintain cardiovascular functions and thus to present the decrease in VO 2max against pro-longed bed-rest as well as weightlessness stress.

  11. Prevalence of and factors associated with daily smoking among Inner Mongolia medical students in China: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, no study on smoking behavior of medical students in Inner Mongolia has been reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the 1-month prevalence of and factors associated with daily smoking among medical students in Inner Mongolia of China, to assist interventions designed to reduce the smoking behavior of medical college students in this region. Methods During December 2010 and January 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students at the Inner Mongolia Medical College using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: students’ basic information, attitude on smoking behavior, and smoking status of the student daily smokers. Students who smoked every day in the last 30 days were regarded as daily smokers. Factors associated with smoking were identified using binary logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 6044 valid surveys were returned. The overall prevalence of daily smoking was 9.8% while the prevalence of daily smoking among males and females were 29.4% and 1.7%, respectively. Males in the Faculty of Medicine Information Management had the highest daily smoking rate (48.9%). Logistic regression models found that the main factors associated with daily smoking among male medical students were highest year of study (OR = 3.62; CI: 1.18–11.05); attitude towards smoking behavior Do not care about people smoking around you (OR = 2.75; CI: 2.08–3.64); and Smoking is harmful to their health (OR = 4.40; CI: 2.21–8.75). The main factor associated with daily smoking among female medical students was attitude towards smoking behavior Eliminate smoking on campus (OR = 0.11; CI: 0.06–0.23). Both for male and female medical students, there was no association between ethnicity and cigarette daily smoking. In regard to smoking status, more than 60% of daily smokers began smoking in high school, 61.3% smoked less than 5 cigarettes per day, 62.9% of the

  12. Exercise during training is associated with racing performance in Thoroughbreds.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Kristien L P; Price, Joanna S; Wood, James L N

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exercise on racecourse performance in horses racing on the flat. Daily exercise and race records were obtained over a 2-year period for a cohort of racehorses in training for which injury data were also available. Multivariable regression techniques were used to investigate associations between canter, training gallop and race distances accumulated in the 30 days prior to each race and the odds of winning the race, earning prize money and the amount of prize money won. Higher cumulative high-speed (gallop+race) distances were associated with increased likelihood of winning a race and earning prize money. Having raced in the previous 30 days increased the odds of winning. There was an interactive effect of distance cantered and galloped during training on amount of prize money won, which was also associated with distance raced in the previous 30 days. Taken together with findings from previous injury studies in the same study population, these results indicate that training regimens designed to reduce skeletal injuries are unlikely to adversely affect race performance.

  13. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model.

  14. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541

  15. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa; Choi, Kyungran

    2015-06-01

    Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity.

  16. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Beijing after the 2008 Olympics: A Time Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Li, Runkui; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Meng; Cao, Yang; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Qun

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing during the two years (2009∼2010) after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We used generalized additive model to analyze relationship between daily mortality and air pollution. In single air pollutant model with two-day moving average concentrations of the air pollutants, increase in their interquartile range (IQR) associated with percent increase in nonaccidental mortality, 2.55 percent [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.99, 3.11] for CO, 2.54 percent (95% CI: 2.00, 3.08) for NO2 and 1.80 percent (95% CI: 1.21, 2.40) for PM10, respectively; increases in the IQR of air pollutant concentrations associated with percent increase in cardiovascular mortality, 2.88 percent (95% CI: 2.10,3.65) for CO, 2.63 percent (95% CI: 1.87, 3.39) for NO2 and 1.72 percent (95% CI: 0.88, 2.55) for PM10, respectively; and increase in IQR of air pollutant concentrations associated with respiratory mortality, 2.39 percent (95% CI: 0.68, 4.09) for CO, 1.79 percent (95% CI: 0.11, 3.47) for NO2 and 2.07 percent (95% CI: 0.21, 3.92) for PM10, respectively. We used the principal component analysis to avoid collinearity of varied air pollutants. In addition, the association stratified by sex and age was also examined. Ambient air pollution remained a significant contributor to nonaccidental and cardiopulmonary mortalities in Beijing during 2009∼2010. PMID:24204670

  17. Throwing performance is associated with muscular power.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, M; Rambaud, O; Dorel, S; Lacour, J-R; Moyen, B; Rahmani, A

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that performance in throwing events is associated with muscular characteristics of both upper and lower limbs. Thirty-eight male throwers volunteered to participate. Bench press and half squat tests were conducted on a guided barbell. The barbell displacement signal was recorded using a kinematic system. Maximal power, corresponding optimal velocity and force (P(max)S, V(opt)S, F(opt)S and P(max)BP, V(opt)BP, F(opt)BP for half squat and bench press, respectively) were extrapolated from the power-velocity relationship. Lower limb stiffness (K) was determined during maximal hopping. The results demonstrated that P(max)S and P(max)BP were correlated with each thrower's season's best performance (SBP, R=0.54, P<0.01 and R=0.71, P<0.001, respectively). P(max)S expressed relative to body mass was not correlated with SBP. K was significantly correlated with SBP (R=0.66, P<0.001). The relationship between P (max)BP expressed relative to body mass and SBP remained significant ( R=0.54, P<0.001). The results of the study suggest that high strength and stiffness values for lower limbs and strength and velocity characteristics for upper limbs may be associated with athletic throwing performance.

  18. Organisational characteristics associated with the use of daily interruption of sedation in US hospitals: a national study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melissa A; Krein, Sarah L; Saint, Sanjay; Kahn, Jeremy M; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2012-02-01

    Daily interruption of sedation (DIS) has multiple proven benefits, but implementation is erratic. Past research on sedative interruption utilisation focused on individual clinicians, ignoring the role of organisations in shaping practice. The authors test the hypothesis that specific hospital organisational characteristics are associated with routine use of DIS. National, mailed survey to a stratified random sample of US hospitals in 2009. Respondents were the lead infection control professionals at each institution. Survey items enquired about DIS use, institutional structure, and organisational culture. Multivariable analysis was used to evaluate the independent association of these factors with DIS use. A total of 386 hospitals formed our final analytic sample; the response rate was 69.4%. Hospitals ranged in size from 25 to 1359 beds. 26% of hospitals were associated with a medical school. Almost 80% reported regular use of DIS for ventilated patients. While 75.4% of hospitals reported having leadership focus on safety culture, only 42.7% reported that their staff were receptive to changes in practice. In a multivariable logistic regression model, structural characteristics such as size and academic affiliation were not associated with use of DIS. However, leadership emphasis on safety culture (p=0.04), staff receptivity to change (p=0.02) and involvement in an infection prevention collaborative (p=0.04) were significantly associated with regular DIS use. Several elements of hospital organisational culture were associated with regular use of DIS in US hospitals. These findings emphasise the importance of combining specific administrative approaches with strategies to encourage receptivity to change among bedside clinicians in order to successfully implement complex evidence-based practices in the intensive care setting.

  19. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Holdgate, Matthew R.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Miller, Lance J.; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33) and Asian (n = 23) elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare. PMID:27414411

  20. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    PubMed

    Holdgate, Matthew R; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Lance J; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33) and Asian (n = 23) elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  1. The Association between Dust Storms and Daily Non-Accidental Mortality in the United States, 1993-2005.

    PubMed

    Crooks, James Lewis; Cascio, Wayne E; Percy, Madelyn S; Reyes, Jeanette; Neas, Lucas M; Hilborn, Elizabeth D

    2016-11-01

    The impact of dust storms on human health has been studied in the context of Asian, Saharan, Arabian, and Australian storms, but there has been no recent population-level epidemiological research on the dust storms in North America. The relevance of dust storms to public health is likely to increase as extreme weather events are predicted to become more frequent with anticipated changes in climate through the 21st century. We examined the association between dust storms and county-level non-accidental mortality in the United States from 1993 through 2005. Dust storm incidence data, including date and approximate location, are taken from the U.S. National Weather Service storm database. County-level mortality data for the years 1993-2005 were acquired from the National Center for Health Statistics. Distributed lag conditional logistic regression models under a time-stratified case-crossover design were used to study the relationship between dust storms and daily mortality counts over the whole United States and in Arizona and California specifically. End points included total non-accidental mortality and three mortality subgroups (cardiovascular, respiratory, and other non-accidental). We estimated that for the United States as a whole, total non-accidental mortality increased by 7.4% (95% CI: 1.6, 13.5; p = 0.011) and 6.7% (95% CI: 1.1, 12.6; p = 0.018) at 2- and 3-day lags, respectively, and by an average of 2.7% (95% CI: 0.4, 5.1; p = 0.023) over lags 0-5 compared with referent days. Significant associations with non-accidental mortality were estimated for California (lag 2 and 0-5 day) and Arizona (lag 3), for cardiovascular mortality in the United States (lag 2) and Arizona (lag 3), and for other non-accidental mortality in California (lags 1-3 and 0-5). Dust storms are associated with increases in lagged non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. Citation: Crooks JL, Cascio WE, Percy MS, Reyes J, Neas LM, Hilborn ED. 2016. The association between dust storms

  2. The Association between Dust Storms and Daily Non-Accidental Mortality in the United States, 1993–2005

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, James Lewis; Cascio, Wayne E.; Percy, Madelyn S.; Reyes, Jeanette; Neas, Lucas M.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of dust storms on human health has been studied in the context of Asian, Saharan, Arabian, and Australian storms, but there has been no recent population-level epidemiological research on the dust storms in North America. The relevance of dust storms to public health is likely to increase as extreme weather events are predicted to become more frequent with anticipated changes in climate through the 21st century. Objectives: We examined the association between dust storms and county-level non-accidental mortality in the United States from 1993 through 2005. Methods: Dust storm incidence data, including date and approximate location, are taken from the U.S. National Weather Service storm database. County-level mortality data for the years 1993–2005 were acquired from the National Center for Health Statistics. Distributed lag conditional logistic regression models under a time-stratified case-crossover design were used to study the relationship between dust storms and daily mortality counts over the whole United States and in Arizona and California specifically. End points included total non-accidental mortality and three mortality subgroups (cardiovascular, respiratory, and other non-accidental). Results: We estimated that for the United States as a whole, total non-accidental mortality increased by 7.4% (95% CI: 1.6, 13.5; p = 0.011) and 6.7% (95% CI: 1.1, 12.6; p = 0.018) at 2- and 3-day lags, respectively, and by an average of 2.7% (95% CI: 0.4, 5.1; p = 0.023) over lags 0–5 compared with referent days. Significant associations with non-accidental mortality were estimated for California (lag 2 and 0–5 day) and Arizona (lag 3), for cardiovascular mortality in the United States (lag 2) and Arizona (lag 3), and for other non-accidental mortality in California (lags 1–3 and 0–5). Conclusions: Dust storms are associated with increases in lagged non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. Citation: Crooks JL, Cascio WE, Percy MS, Reyes

  3. Associations between ADHD Symptoms and Smoking Outcome Expectancies in a Non-Clinical Sample of Daily Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Goldenson, Nicholas I.; Pang, Raina D.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Smoking outcome expectancies for positive reinforcement (PR; beliefs that smoking produces desirable outcomes) and negative reinforcement (NR; beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect) are modifiable cognitive manifestations of affect-mediated smoking motivation. Based on prior data and theory, we hypothesized that NR and PR expectancies are associated with ADHD symptom levels in a non-clinical sample of cigarette smokers. Methods Daily cigarette smokers (N=256) completed self-report measures of ADHD symptoms and smoking outcome expectancies. Cross-sectional associations of overall ADHD symptomatology and the ADHD symptom dimensions of inattention (IN; difficulty concentrating and distractibility) and hyperactivity impulsivity (HI; poor inhibitory control and motor activity restlessness) with PR and NR smoking outcome expectancies were examined. Results Higher levels of overall, IN and HI ADHD symptoms were positively associated with NR smoking expectancies after statistically controlling for anxiety, depression, alcohol/drug use problems, nicotine dependence and other smoking expectancies. Although neither HI nor IN symptom dimensions exhibited empirically unique relations to NR expectancies over and above one another, the collective variance across IN and HI was associated with NR expectancies. PR expectancies were not associated with ADHD symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions While PR and NR expectancies may be important etiological influences in the overall population of smokers, NR outcome expectancies appear to be disproportionately expressed in smokers with elevated ADHD symptoms. Cognitive manifestations of NR motivation, which may be modifiable via intervention, are prominent in smokers with elevated ADHD symptoms. Scientific Significance Beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect may underlie ADHD-smoking comorbidity. PMID:26871681

  4. WWC Review of the Report "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps," examined the impact of frequent online testing and immediate feedback on the academic performance of college students. The study was conducted at the University of Texas in the fall of 2008 and 2011. Researchers found…

  5. A health education program for elderly persons with visual impairments and perceived security in the performance of daily occupations: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Dahlin Ivanoff, S; Sonn, U; Svensson, E

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, longitudinal study was to investigate the impact of a health education program on perceived security in the performance of daily occupations 4 months after the intervention period. Two groups of persons with age-related macular degeneration were compared: Those who had followed a newly developed health education program that was based on occupation and those who took part in a standard individual intervention program. Significant differences in the level of perceived security between the groups were found for 13 of 28 occupations. Participants in the health education group maintained or improved their level of perceived security in 22 daily occupations, whereas those in the individual intervention group declined to a lower level in 17 daily occupations. This study provides support for the effectiveness of the health education program to enhance security and hinder a progressive decline in perceived security in daily occupations.

  6. Individual differences and day-to-day fluctuations in perceived self-regulation associated with daily adherence in late adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Berg, Cynthia A; Wiebe, Deborah J; Suchy, Yana; Hughes, Amy E; Anderson, Jessica H; Godbey, Elida I; Butner, Jonathan; Tucker, Christy; Franchow, Emilie I; Pihlaskari, Andrea K; King, Pamela S; Murray, Mary A; White, Perrin C

    2014-10-01

    To examine whether individual differences and intraindividual (within-person day-to-day) fluctuations in late adolescents' self-regulation were associated with daily adherence to the type 1 diabetes regimen.   110 school seniors (M age = 17.78 years) and their mothers assessed adolescents' skills underlying self-regulation (executive function, attention, self-control, behavioral inhibition and activation, emotion regulation) and adherence, with glycosylated hemoglobin from medical records. Teens completed daily diaries reporting self-regulation failures surrounding monitoring blood glucose, adherence, and number of blood glucose checks each day for 14 days.   Hierarchical Linear Models indicated that better daily adherence was associated with teen and mother reports of better self-regulation skills and teens' reports of fewer daily self-regulation failures. Daily adherence was unrelated to temperamental differences in behavioral inhibition and activation.   Results indicate that both individual and intraindividual differences in self-regulation contribute to daily adherence highlighting the importance of daily self-regulatory challenges to adherence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Individual Differences and Day-to-Day Fluctuations in Perceived Self-Regulation Associated With Daily Adherence in Late Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; Suchy, Yana; Hughes, Amy E.; Anderson, Jessica H.; Godbey, Elida I.; Butner, Jonathan; Tucker, Christy; Franchow, Emilie I.; Pihlaskari, Andrea K.; King, Pamela S.; Murray, Mary A.; White, Perrin C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether individual differences and intraindividual (within-person day-to-day) fluctuations in late adolescents’ self-regulation were associated with daily adherence to the type 1 diabetes regimen. Methods 110 school seniors (M age = 17.78 years) and their mothers assessed adolescents’ skills underlying self-regulation (executive function, attention, self-control, behavioral inhibition and activation, emotion regulation) and adherence, with glycosylated hemoglobin from medical records. Teens completed daily diaries reporting self-regulation failures surrounding monitoring blood glucose, adherence, and number of blood glucose checks each day for 14 days. Results Hierarchical Linear Models indicated that better daily adherence was associated with teen and mother reports of better self-regulation skills and teens’ reports of fewer daily self-regulation failures. Daily adherence was unrelated to temperamental differences in behavioral inhibition and activation. Conclusions Results indicate that both individual and intraindividual differences in self-regulation contribute to daily adherence highlighting the importance of daily self-regulatory challenges to adherence. PMID:25064802

  8. Associations between the macronutrient composition of the evening meal and average daily sleep duration in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Diethelm, Katharina; Remer, Thomas; Jilani, Hannah; Kunz, Clemens; Buyken, Anette E

    2011-10-01

    Short sleep duration in early childhood may increase the risk for chronic diseases in later life. Strategies to improve sleep duration are thus of interest. We investigated whether the nutritional composition of the evening meal is associated with children's sleep duration in the 2nd year of life. Multivariable regression models included 594 participants of the DONALD Study with 3-days weighed dietary records and average daily sleep duration at age 1.5 and 2 years. Higher energy intakes with the evening meal were associated with a longer sleep duration (1 min/10 kcal, p = 0,01). With respect to absolute intakes, carbohydrates (0.8 min/g, p < 0.0001), especially from high GI foods (1.3 min/g, p < 0.01), and a higher GL (1.5 min/g GL, p < 0.01) were accompanied by longer sleeping time. A qualitative exchange of energy from protein by energy from carbohydrates from high GI foods was only associated with increased sleep duration in toddlers without (1.9 min/%E, p < 0.05), but not with nightly eating occasions (p > 0.4). The observed associations are in line with suggested sleep-improving effects of carbohydrates. Effect sizes suggest that the clinical relevance of nutritional composition for sleep duration is limited in healthy young toddlers. These observations and their possible importance for more vulnerable groups need to be confirmed in clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiological Requirements to Perform the Glittre Activities of Daily Living Test by Subjects With Mild-to-Severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Souza, Gérson F; Moreira, Graciane L; Tufanin, Andréa; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Castro, Antonio A; Jardim, José R; Nascimento, Oliver A

    2017-08-01

    The Glittre activities of daily living (ADL) test is supposed to evaluate the functional capacity of COPD patients. The physiological requirements of the test and the time taken to perform it by COPD patients in different disease stages are not well known. The objective of this work was to compare the metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac requirements and the time taken to carry out the Glittre ADL test by COPD subjects with mild, moderate, and severe disease. Spirometry, Medical Research Council questionnaire, cardiopulmonary exercise test, and 2 Glittre ADL tests were evaluated in 62 COPD subjects. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2 ), carbon dioxide production, pulmonary ventilation, breathing frequency, heart rate, SpO2 , and dyspnea were analyzed before and at the end of the tests. Maximum voluntary ventilation, Glittre peak V̇O2 /cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) peak V̇O2 , Glittre V̇E/maximum voluntary ventilation, and Glittre peak heart rate/CPET peak heart rate ratios were calculated to analyze their reserves. Subjects carried out the Glittre ADL test with similar absolute metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac requirements. Ventilatory reserve decreased progressively from mild to severe COPD subjects (P < .001 for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] 1 vs GOLD 2, P < .001 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 3, and P < .001 for GOLD 2 vs GOLD 3). Severe subjects with COPD presented a significantly lower metabolic reserve than the mild and moderate subjects (P = .006 and P = .043, respectively) and significantly lower Glittre peak heart rate/CPET peak heart rate than mild subjects (P = .01). Time taken to carry out the Glittre ADL test was similar among the groups (P = .82 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 2, P = .19 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 3, and P = .45 for GOLD 2 vs GOLD 3). As the degree of air-flow obstruction progresses, the COPD subjects present significant lower ventilatory reserve to perform the Glittre ADL test. In addition, metabolic and cardiac reserves may

  10. Feasibility, performance, and acceptability of the Wisebag™ for potential monitoring of daily gel applicator use in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    van der Straten, Ariane; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Pillay, Diantha; Cheng, Helen; Naidoo, Anushka; Cele, Zakhele; Naidoo, Kalendri; Hartmann, Miriam; Piper, Jeanna; Nair, Gonasagrie

    2013-02-01

    The Wisebag™, a lunchbag-style container with an electronic events-monitoring system, was designed as a real-time indirect objective measure of microbicide gel use. Due to cost, alternative functionalities (i.e. use of offline and dummy versions) were explored. We conducted a three-arm, double-blinded pilot study among 50 HIV-negative women in Durban, South Africa to assess participant adherence and Wisebag acceptability and performance. Participants were randomized 2:2:1 to Wisebag with online (events transmitted via cellular signal in real-time), offline (events stored in device memory) or inactive "dummy" devices. Participants were instructed to open the Wisebag daily for 2 weeks, retrieve a study sticker and affix it on a diary card. All participants completed the study. At exit, 94 % did not know which device they had received, nor could they differentiate the Wisebag types when presented with the three options. Five offline devices failed (no data recorded). Per Wisebag events, 26 % of women were perfectly adherent compared to 48 % by self-report and 46 % per diary card. Of reported non-adherence, 92 % did not open the Wisebag (travelling or forgot) and 22 % opened Wisebag >1×/day (curiosity). Participants liked and were comfortable carrying Wisebag. Successful blinding will allow inclusion of offline and/or dummy Wisebags in future study designs. Perfect adherence by opening events was significantly lower than by self-report, highlighting the importance of objective measures of adherence in clinical trials. Additional studies to validate Wisebag data with actual products, with and without SMS and online functionality, in different populations and settings, and in comparison to biomarkers are warranted.

  11. Prevalence of functional disability in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and associated factors, as predictors of morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Millán-Calenti, José C; Tubío, Javier; Pita-Fernández, Salvador; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Fernández-Arruty, Teresa; Maseda, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the existing relationship among variables referred to the person, specifically age and gender, and the functional dependence in basic ADL and in IADL, as well as the possible relationship it has with the increase of morbidity and mortality in a random sample of 598 individuals older than 65 years. Of these individuals, 34.6% were categorized as dependent for at least one ADL, and 53.5% if we refer to IADL. Regarding the ADL, the risk of dependence increases (odds ratio=OR=1.089) per year of age, (OR=2.48) in women's case; while there is an IADL correlation between age and the score (r=-0.527; p<0.001). A relationship exists between dependence and the days of hospitalization (for ADL: r=-0.12, p=0.018 and IADL: r=-0.97, p=0.003), the number of visits to the doctor (ADL: r=-0.27, p<0.001; IADL: r=-0.25, p<0.001) or the presence of concomitant pathologies such as dementia (ADL: p<0.001; IADL: p<0.001). There is a significant association between age, gender and dependence, as well as between dependence and morbidity and mortality, so that dependence could be used as a predictor of both.

  12. Fatigue as a long-term risk factor for limitations in instrumental activities of daily living and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Schotte, Sigrid; Bleijenberg, Nienke; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Decline in the performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mobility may be preceded by symptoms the patient experiences, such as fatigue. The aim of this study is to investigate whether self-reported non-task-specific fatigue is a long-term risk factor for IADL-limitations and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years. Methods A prospective study from two previously conducted cross-sectional studies with 10-year follow-up was conducted among 285 males and 249 females aged 40–79 years at baseline. Fatigue was measured by asking “Did you feel tired within the past 4 weeks?” (males) and “Do you feel tired?” (females). Self-reported IADLs were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Mobility was assessed by the 6-minute walk test. Gender-specific associations between fatigue and IADL-limitations and mobility were estimated by multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Results A total of 18.6% of males and 28.1% of females were fatigued. After adjustment, the odds ratio for fatigued versus non-fatigued males affected by IADL-limitations was 3.3 (P=0.023). In females, the association was weaker and not statistically significant, with odds ratio being 1.7 (P=0.154). Fatigued males walked 39.1 m shorter distance than those non-fatigued (P=0.048). For fatigued females, the distance was 17.5 m shorter compared to those non-fatigued (P=0.479). Conclusion Our data suggest that self-reported fatigue may be a long-term risk factor for IADL-limitations and mobility performance in middle-aged and elderly males but possibly not in females. PMID:27877027

  13. Effects of visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cho, MiLim; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the effects of a visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy as subjects. [Methods] This study was conducted with 56 children who were diagnosed as having cerebral palsy. The visual perceptual intervention was implemented for 8 weeks, 3 times a week, for 30 minutes per session, for a total of 24 sessions. All children were assessed using the VMI and WeeFIM to evaluate visual motor integration and activities of daily living skills, immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. [Results] The VMI and WeeFIM scores of all of the 56 children with CP who participated in the study improved, and the improvements were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Visual perceptual intervention had a positive influence on the visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy.

  14. Effects of visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, MiLim; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the effects of a visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy as subjects. [Methods] This study was conducted with 56 children who were diagnosed as having cerebral palsy. The visual perceptual intervention was implemented for 8 weeks, 3 times a week, for 30 minutes per session, for a total of 24 sessions. All children were assessed using the VMI and WeeFIM to evaluate visual motor integration and activities of daily living skills, immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. [Results] The VMI and WeeFIM scores of all of the 56 children with CP who participated in the study improved, and the improvements were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Visual perceptual intervention had a positive influence on the visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:25729180

  15. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Waninge, Aly

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and physical capacities. However, until recently, the impact of the significantly prevalent visual impairments on the performance of activities of daily living has not yet been revealed within this group. The purpose of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of visual impairment on the performance of activities of daily living for persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. The Barthel Index (BI) and Comfortable Walking Speed (CWS) were used to measure the ability of performing activities of daily living (ADL) in 240 persons with severe/profound ID and having Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II or III; this included 120 persons with visual impairment. The impact of visual impairment on ADL was analyzed with linear regression. The results of the study demonstrated that visual impairment slightly affects the ability of performing activities of daily living (BI) for persons experiencing a severe/profound intellectual disability. GMFCS Levels II or III, profound ID level, and visual impairment each have the effect of lowering BI scores. GMFCS Levels II or III, and profound ID level each have the effect of increasing CWS scores, which indicates a lower walking speed. A main effect of visual impairment is present on CWS, but our results do show a substantive interaction effect between GMFCS level III and visual impairment on Comfortable Walking Speed in persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. Visual impairment has a slight effect on ability to perform ADL in persons experiencing severe/profound ID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) limitations: immigration and other factors associated with institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Chi, Monica

    2012-09-07

    This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203), Korean (n = 131), Japanese (n = 193), Filipino (n = 309), Asian Indian (n = 169), Chinese (n = 404), Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54), and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040) aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8%) (p < 0.001). After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively). When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  17. Are frailty components associated with disability in specific activities of daily living in community-dwelling older adults? A multicenter Canadian study.

    PubMed

    Provencher, Véronique; Béland, François; Demers, Louise; Desrosiers, Johanne; Bier, Nathalie; Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Galand, Claude; Julien, Dominic; Fletcher, John D; Trottier, Lise; Hami, Benyahia

    2017-11-01

    Current studies show the relevance of geriatric prevention and rehabilitation programs to slow down the development of disability in community-dwelling older adults who are becoming frail. This evidence reveals the importance of improving knowledge on how individual components of frailty and specific disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) are related, to offer early, targeted, and tailored interventions. The objective was to examine the association between each of the five frailty phenotype components (weakness, slowness, exhaustion, low physical activity, weight loss) and disability in specific ADL pertaining to physical aspects (bathing, dressing, cutting toe nails, transportation, shopping, housekeeping, food purchasing, food preparation) and cognitive aspects (finances, telephone, medication). A cross-sectional design involving 1643 community-dwelling older adults (65+) from the longitudinal multi-center FRéLE study was used. Disability was defined as needing help or being unable to perform specific ADL. Multiple logistic regressions were adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables, and for 4 other frailty components. Results showed that low physical activity and slowness were significantly linked to disability in all physical and cognitive aspects of ADL (OR: 1.71-9.42; p<0.05), except using the telephone. Notably, all frailty components except weight loss were associated with disability in the physical aspects of instrumental ADL (transportation, shopping, housekeeping, food purchasing, food preparation) (OR: 1.73-9.42; p<0.05). This study helped identify the relevant frailty components as targets in community-based prevention and rehabilitation programs. Easily imbedded interventions in daily routines should be promoted earlier in the frailty process to delay or reduce disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of sitting time associated with media consumption on physical activity patterns and daily energy expenditure of Saudi school students.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effect of daily sitting time during media consumption on physical fitness, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body composition indices of Saudi school children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 180 healthy Saudi school students (8-18 years) were included in this study. Sitting time, total energy expenditure, and levels of physical activity were evaluated with pre-validated internet based questionnaires. Body composition indices were evaluated using anthropometric analysis. [Results] Out of the studied participants, only 22.2% of students were physically inactive. Children with moderate and active physical scores demonstrated less sedentary behavior (TV viewing and computer usage), lower body composition values (BMI, WC, WHtR), and higher TEE than sedentary or mild activity level participants. Boys showed higher fitness scores and less sedentary behavior than girls. Media sitting time among the studied subjects correlated negatively with physical scores and positively with body composition. [Conclusion] The data presented here suggests that poor physical fitness, lower TEE, and longer sitting times differentially influence normal body composition indices among school children which may lead to overweight or obese individuals. Thus, decreasing sitting time during media consumption and enhancing physical activity may play a pivotal role in preventing obesity in young children.

  19. Effects of sitting time associated with media consumption on physical activity patterns and daily energy expenditure of Saudi school students

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effect of daily sitting time during media consumption on physical fitness, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body composition indices of Saudi school children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 180 healthy Saudi school students (8–18 years) were included in this study. Sitting time, total energy expenditure, and levels of physical activity were evaluated with pre-validated internet based questionnaires. Body composition indices were evaluated using anthropometric analysis. [Results] Out of the studied participants, only 22.2% of students were physically inactive. Children with moderate and active physical scores demonstrated less sedentary behavior (TV viewing and computer usage), lower body composition values (BMI, WC, WHtR), and higher TEE than sedentary or mild activity level participants. Boys showed higher fitness scores and less sedentary behavior than girls. Media sitting time among the studied subjects correlated negatively with physical scores and positively with body composition. [Conclusion] The data presented here suggests that poor physical fitness, lower TEE, and longer sitting times differentially influence normal body composition indices among school children which may lead to overweight or obese individuals. Thus, decreasing sitting time during media consumption and enhancing physical activity may play a pivotal role in preventing obesity in young children. PMID:26504298

  20. Validity of using a work habits scale for the daily evaluation of nurse anesthetists' clinical performance while controlling for the leniencies of the rating anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; Ledolter, Johannes; Hindman, Bradley J

    2017-11-01

    Anesthesiologists can provide psychometrically reliable daily evaluations of certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) work habits for purposes of the mandatory ongoing professional practice evaluation (OPPE). Our goal was to evaluate the validity of assessing CRNA work habits. Observational study. Large teaching hospital. N=77 anesthesiologists evaluated work habits of N=67 CRNAs. The non-technical attribute of work habits was measured on a 6-item scale (e.g., 1="Only assumed responsibility when forced to, and failed to follow through consistently" versus 5="Consistently identified tasks and completed them efficiently and thoroughly"). One year of scores were used to assess validity. Each daily evaluation could also be accompanied by a written comment. Content analysis of comments was performed using two years of data. Statistical analyses were performed using mixed effects logistic regression, treating each anesthesiologist as a fixed effect to compensate for the leniency of their ratings. The N=77 anesthesiologists' response rate was 97.3%, obtained at a mean 2.93days after the request. The internal consistency of the scale was large: Cronbach's alpha 0.952. Controlling the false discovery rate at 5.0%, among the 67 CRNAs, 8 were significantly below average (each P≤0.0048) and 6 were above average (each P≤0.0018). During the 6months after CRNAs knew that their work habits scores would be used for OPPE, there were significant increases in the scores compared with the preceding 6months (odds ratio 1.93, P<0.0001). Greater CRNA's qualitative annual evaluation scores made by the chief CRNA, without knowledge of the work habit scores or comments, were associated with greater odds of the CRNA's leniency-adjusted work habit scores equaling 5.00 (odds ratio 1.53, P=0.0004). Comments of negative sentiment made by the anesthesiologists were associated with greater odds of the leniency-adjusted work habit scores being <5.00 (odds ratio 54.5, P<0.0001). Even though

  1. Predicting Student Performance in a College Self-Paced Introductory Psychology Course: The Role of Motivational Orientation, Learning Strategies, Procrastination and Perception of Daily Hassles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Ronald L.

    This study examined the effectiveness of using selected self-report measures assessing motivational orientation, learning strategies, procrastination, and perceptions of daily hassles to facilitate the prediction of student engagement in a self-paced introductory psychology course. Research has shown these factors to be associated with academic…

  2. Anomalous circulation patterns in association with two types of daily precipitation extremes over southeastern China during boreal summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minggang; Guan, Zhaoyong; Jin, Dachao; Han, Jie; Zhang, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Based on the daily rainfall data from China Meteorological Administration, the tropical cyclone (TC) best track data from Japan Meteorological Agency, and the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data from NOAA, regional mean daily precipitation extreme (RDPE) events over southeastern China (specifically, the Fujian-Jiangxi region (FJR)) and the associated circulation anomalies are investigated. For the summers of 1979-2011, a total of 105 RDPE events are identified, among which 35 are TC-influenced (TCIn-RDPE) and 70 are TC-free events (TCFr-RDPE). Distinct differences between these two types of RDPEs are found in both their statistical features and the related circulation patterns. TCFr-RDPEs usually occur in June, while TCIn-RDPEs mainly take place during July-August. When TCFr-RDPEs happen, a center of the anomalous cyclonic circulation is observed over the FJR, with an anomalous anticyclonic circulation to the south of this region. The warm/moist air flows from the South China Sea (SCS) and western Pacific meet with colder air from the north, forming a narrow convergent belt of water vapor over the FJR. Simultaneously, positive diabatic forcing anomalies are observed over the FJR, whereas negative anomalies appear over both its south and north sides, facilitating the formation and maintenance of the cyclonic circulation anomaly, as well as the upward motion of the atmosphere, over the FJR. When TCIn-RDPEs occur, southeastern China is dominated by a TC-related stronger anomalous cyclonic circulation. An anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the mid and high latitudes north of the FJR exists in the mid and upper troposphere, opposite to the situation during TCFr-RDPE events. Abundant warm/wet air is carried into the FJR from both the Indian Ocean and the SCS, leading to a large amount of latent heat release over the FJR and inducing strong ascending motion there. Furthermore, large differences are also found in the manifestation of Rossby wave energy propagation between these

  3. Higher Body Iron Is Associated with Greater Depression Symptoms among Young Adult Men but not Women: Observational Data from the Daily Life Study.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Aimee C; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Haszard, Jillian J; Polak, Maria A; Houghton, Lisa A; Conner, Tamlin S

    2015-07-23

    Studies investigating possible associations between iron status and mood or depressive symptoms have reported inconsistent results. However, they have neither used body iron to measure iron status nor measured mood using daily measures. We investigated whether body iron was associated with depressive symptoms, daily mood, daily tiredness, difficulty concentrating, and stress in young adult women and men. Young adult (17-25 years) women (n = 562) and men (n = 323) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, then reported negative and positive mood, and other states daily for 13 days. Non-fasting venous blood was collected to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (to calculate body iron), C-reactive protein, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration. Regression models tested linear associations between body iron and the outcome variables, controlling for possible confounders. No associations were found between body iron and the outcome variables in women. However, higher body iron was associated with more depressive symptoms in men (3.4% more per body iron mg/kg; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.8%, 5.9%). In young adult women, body iron is unlikely to be associated with significant deficits in mood or depressive symptoms. However, higher body iron may be associated with more depressive symptoms in young adult men.

  4. [Association between activities of daily living and oral diadochokinesis among Japanese elderly individuals in a nursing home].

    PubMed

    Hara, Shuichi; Miura, Hiroko; Yamasaki, Kiyoko; Sumi, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    We studied the association between the activities of daily living (ADL) and oral diadochokinesis (OD) among 84 Japanese elderly individuals residing in a nursing home. We assessed OD in terms of speech and articulation. Each subject repetitively produced the syllables /pa/, /ta/, /ka/ and the sequence /pataka/. We also evaluated comprehensive ADL (basic, BADL; instrumental, IADL; and communicative, CADL) based on the criteria of the ADL-20 and intellectual ability using the revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R). We classified types of OD into a hypokinesia group (less than 3 times per second for OD /pa//ta//ka/ or less than once per second for OD /pataka/) and a repetition exercise maintenance group (more than 3 times per second for OD /pa//ta/ /ka/ or more than once per second for OD /pataka/). After adjusting for age, sex, and HDS-R score, the ADL-20 total score of the hypokinesia group was significantly lower than that of the maintenance group for OD (/pa/ and /pataka/) (p<0.01). The BADL for mobility (BADLm) score in the hypokinesia group for all OD sections was significantly lower than that in the maintenance group (p<0.05). The BADL for self-care score (BADLs) in the hypokinesia group for OD (/pataka/) was lower than that in the maintenance group (p<0.01). The CADL score in the hypokinesia group for OD (/pa/) was lower than that in the maintenance group (p<0.05). A decline in OD may have been associated with a decline in ADL in our subjects, suggesting that the rate of decline in OD may affect overall ADL in elderly individuals.

  5. The association between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia in older, non-obese Korean adults: the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) 2009.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi Hae; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun Jung; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won-Young; Baek, Ki Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Kang, Moo Il; Oh, Ki Won

    2013-01-01

    Recent data suggest that variations in calcium intake may influence body weight and composition; however, the relationship between daily calcium intake and muscle mass has not been well established. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia. We analyzed data for older adults (over 60 years) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted in 2009. A total of 1339 Non-Obese (BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m²), older adults (592 men and 707 women) were enrolled. Dietary variables were assessed using a nutrition survey that used a 24-hour recall method. Daily calcium intake based on the consumption of each food item was calculated. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight less than 2 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. We found that daily calcium intake was negatively correlated with total body fat percentage and positively correlated with appendicular skeletal mass (p<0.001). Participants with sarcopenia appear to have significantly lower daily calcium intakes than participants without sarcopenia (p<0.001). The unadjusted prevalence of sarcopenia according to daily calcium intake tertiles were 6.3%, 4.3%, and 2.7% in tertiles 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, total energy intake, and lifestyle factors, compared with those in the lowest tertile of daily calcium intake, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio for sarcopenia of 0.295 (95% confidence interval, 0.087-0.768; p for trend = 0.014). We found that daily calcium intake, corrected for total energy intake and serum 25(OH)D status, was significantly lower in subjects with sarcopenia than in those without. Our results suggest a strong inverse association between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia in non-obese, older Korean adults.

  6. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on visual perception function and performance capability of activities of daily living in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ko-Un; Kim, Su-Han; An, Tae-Gyu

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on visual perception and performance of activities of daily living in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were assigned equally to a tDCS plus traditional occupational therapy group (experimental group) and a traditional occupational therapy group (control group). The intervention was implemented five times per week, 30 minutes each, for six weeks. In order to assess visual perception function before and after the intervention, the motor-free visual perception test (MVPT) was conducted, and in order to compare the performance of activities of daily living, the Functional Independence Measure scale was employed. [Results] According to the results, both groups improved in visual perception function and in performance of activities of daily living. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups, the experimental group exhibited higher scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of tDCS for the rehabilitation of patients with stroke may positively affect their visual perception and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  7. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on visual perception function and performance capability of activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ko-Un; Kim, Soo-Han; An, Tae-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on visual perception and performance of activities of daily living in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were assigned equally to a tDCS plus traditional occupational therapy group (experimental group) and a traditional occupational therapy group (control group). The intervention was implemented five times per week, 30 minutes each, for six weeks. In order to assess visual perception function before and after the intervention, the motor-free visual perception test (MVPT) was conducted, and in order to compare the performance of activities of daily living, the Functional Independence Measure scale was employed. [Results] According to the results, both groups improved in visual perception function and in performance of activities of daily living. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups, the experimental group exhibited higher scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of tDCS for the rehabilitation of patients with stroke may positively affect their visual perception and ability to perform activities of daily living. PMID:27799697

  8. Evaluation of the truebeam machine performance check (MPC) geometric checks for daily IGRT geometric accuracy quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Michael P; Greer, Peter B

    2017-05-01

    Machine Performance Check (MPC) is an automated and integrated image-based tool for verification of beam and geometric performance of the TrueBeam linac. The aims of the study were to evaluate the performance of the MPC geometric tests relevant to OBI/CBCT IGRT geometric accuracy. This included evaluation of the MPC isocenter and couch tests. Evaluation was performed by comparing MPC to QA tests performed routinely in the department over a 4-month period. The MPC isocenter tests were compared against an in-house developed Winston-Lutz test and the couch compared against routine mechanical QA type procedures. In all cases the results from the routine QA procedure was presented in a form directly comparable to MPC to allow a like-to-like comparison. The sensitivity of MPC was also tested by deliberately miscalibrating the appropriate linac parameter. The MPC isocenter size and MPC kV imager offset were found to agree with Winston-Lutz to within 0.2 mm and 0.22 mm, respectively. The MPC couch tests agreed with routine QA to within 0.12 mm and 0.15°. The MPC isocenter size and kV imager offset parameters were found to be affected by a change in beam focal spot position with the kV imager offset more sensitive. The MPC couch tests were all unaffected by an offset in the couch calibration but the three axes that utilized two point calibrations were sensitive to a miscalibration of the size in the span of the calibration. All MPC tests were unaffected by a deliberate misalignment of the MPC phantom and roll of the order of one degree. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. The Effect of Randomized Homework Contingencies on College Students' Daily Homework and Unit Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galyon, Charles E.; Voils, Kyle L.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in an introductory educational psychology course submitted answers to daily homework questions for which they received credit either for percentage of questions answered in every homework assignment or for the accuracy of their answers to 10% of randomly selected questions. Potential credit was the same under both homework contingencies,…

  10. The Effect of Randomized Homework Contingencies on College Students' Daily Homework and Unit Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galyon, Charles E.; Voils, Kyle L.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in an introductory educational psychology course submitted answers to daily homework questions for which they received credit either for percentage of questions answered in every homework assignment or for the accuracy of their answers to 10% of randomly selected questions. Potential credit was the same under both homework contingencies,…

  11. Impact of minimum daily dissolved oxygen concentration on production performance of hybrid female channel catfish x male blue catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybrid Catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X male Blue Catfish I. furcatus) were reared during two years as single-batch crops under two different dissolved oxygen (DO) regimes each year; a high-DO (control) treatment in which the minimum daily DO was maintained above 3.8 ppm during ...

  12. 12 CFR 563e.26 - Small savings association performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small savings association performance standards... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 563e.26 Small savings association performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small savings associations that are not intermediate small savings...

  13. Vision and hearing impairments and their associations with falling and loss of instrumental activities in daily living in acute hospitalized older persons in five Nordic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Grue, Else Vengnes; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Jensdóttir, Anna Birna; Ljunggren, Gunnar; Bucht, Gösta; Björnson, Leif Jan; Jonsén, Elisabeth; Schroll, Marianne; Jónsson, Palmi V

    2009-12-01

    Many older people believe sensory problems are inevitably, a part of growing old, and avoid assessment and help. Such problems are often also overlooked by health professionals. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of hearing and vision impairment and their associations with loss of instrumental activities in daily living (IADL) and risk of falling in patients aged 75 years or older, admitted to a medical ward in an acute hospital in each of the five Nordic countries. The Minimum Data Set for Acute Care was used for data collection in 770 patients. Premorbid data, admission data and history of falls over 3 months were obtained on admission by interview and observation. Hearing impairment was present if the patient required a quiet setting to be able to hear normal speech. Vision impairment was defined as unable to read regular print in a newspaper. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed. Forty-eight per cent of the patients had a hearing impairment, 32.3% had vision impairment and 20.1% had both. Hearing impairment was associated with falling but not in the logistic regression model. Hearing and vision impairment were associated with loss of IADL but only combined impairment was independently. Hearing and vision impairments were frequent among older patients in the medical wards. Falling was associated with hearing loss and IADL loss with hearing, vision and combined impairments. Sensory loss was also associated with fear of falling. It is recommended routinely to screen sensory functions in older patients in a medical setting. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether improvements in hearing and vision can prevent falls and further loss of function in this patient population.

  14. Associations between Resting, Activity, and Daily Metabolic Rate in Free-Living Endotherms: No Universal Rule in Birds and Mammals.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Steven J; Green, Jonathan A; Halsey, Lewis G; Arnold, Walter; Careau, Vincent; Dann, Peter; Frappell, Peter B; Grémillet, David; Handrich, Yves; Martin, Graham R; Ruf, Thomas; Guillemette, Magella M; Butler, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Energy management models provide theories and predictions for how animals manage their energy budgets within their energetic constraints, in terms of their resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy expenditure (DEE). Thus, uncovering what associations exist between DEE and RMR is key to testing these models. Accordingly, there is considerable interest in the relationship between DEE and RMR at both inter- and intraspecific levels. Interpretation of the evidence for particular energy management models is enhanced by also considering the energy spent specifically on costly activities (activity energy expenditure [AEE] = DEE - RMR). However, to date there have been few intraspecific studies investigating such patterns. Our aim was to determine whether there is a generality of intraspecific relationships among RMR, DEE, and AEE using long-term data sets for bird and mammal species. For mammals, we use minimum heart rate (fH), mean fH, and activity fH as qualitative proxies for RMR, DEE, and AEE, respectively. For the birds, we take advantage of calibration equations to convert fH into rate of oxygen consumption in order to provide quantitative proxies for RMR, DEE, and AEE. For all 11 species, the DEE proxy was significantly positively correlated with the RMR proxy. There was also evidence of a significant positive correlation between AEE and RMR in all four mammal species but only in some of the bird species. Our results indicate there is no universal rule for birds and mammals governing the relationships among RMR, AEE, and DEE. Furthermore, they suggest that birds tend to have a different strategy for managing their energy budgets from those of mammals and that there are also differences in strategy between bird species. Future work in laboratory settings or highly controlled field settings can tease out the environmental and physiological processes contributing to variation in energy management strategies exhibited by different species.

  15. Do self-efficacy and depression predict oral impacts on daily performances across time? A 2-yr follow-up of students in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Åstrøm, Anne N; Lie, Stein A; Mbawalla, Hawa

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the longitudinal validity of the oral impacts on daily performance (OIDP) and to identify psychosocial determinants, in terms of self-efficacy and depressive symptoms, of the OIDP across time. Following conceptual frameworks of oral health, it was hypothesized that sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors predict oral impacts across time at both population- averaged and person-specific levels. Whether the effects of sociodemographic and clinical factors were accounted for, totally or in part, by psychosocial factors were also investigated. Self administered questionnaires and oral clinical examinations at baseline (2009) and follow-up (2011) were completed by 1,714 and 727 secondary school students, respectively. Generalized equalized equations and a random intercept model were used to account for the dependency in repeated observations. Mean OIDP change scores were negative (worsened) among those who reported worsened self-reported oral health. Psychosocial, clinical, and sociodemographic factors were independently associated with oral impacts at the population-averaged and person-specific levels. Mediation of sociodemographic and clinical variables according to psychosocial variables was not observed. Satisfactory longitudinal evaluative properties of the OIDP, and independent effects of psychosocial factors on oral impacts across time, were confirmed among secondary school students in Tanzania.

  16. Daily cytokine fluctuations, driven by leptin, are associated with fatigue severity in chronic fatigue syndrome: evidence of inflammatory pathology.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Elizabeth Ann; Baker, Katharine Susanne; Carroll, Ian R; Montoya, Jose G; Chu, Lily; Maecker, Holden T; Younger, Jarred W

    2013-04-09

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disorder characterized by persistent fatigue that is not alleviated by rest. The lack of a clearly identified underlying mechanism has hindered the development of effective treatments. Studies have demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory factors in patients with CFS, but findings are contradictory across studies and no biomarkers have been consistently supported. Single time-point approaches potentially overlook important features of CFS, such as fluctuations in fatigue severity. We have observed that individuals with CFS demonstrate significant day-to-day variability in their fatigue severity. Therefore, to complement previous studies, we implemented a novel longitudinal study design to investigate the role of cytokines in CFS pathophysiology. Ten women meeting the Fukuda diagnostic criteria for CFS and ten healthy age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched women underwent 25 consecutive days of blood draws and self-reporting of symptom severity. A 51-plex cytokine panel via Luminex was performed for each of the 500 serum samples collected. Our primary hypothesis was that daily fatigue severity would be significantly correlated with the inflammatory adipokine leptin, in the women with CFS and not in the healthy control women. As a post-hoc analysis, a machine learning algorithm using all 51 cytokines was implemented to determine whether immune factors could distinguish high from low fatigue days. Self-reported fatigue severity was significantly correlated with leptin levels in six of the participants with CFS and one healthy control, supporting our primary hypothesis. The machine learning algorithm distinguished high from low fatigue days in the CFS group with 78.3% accuracy. Our results support the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of CFS.

  17. Shallow Encoding and Forgetting Are Associated with Dependence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Older Adults Living with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pariya L.; Doyle, Katie L.; Scott, J. Cobb; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Casaletto, Kaitlin B.; Weber, Erica; Moore, David J.; Morgan, Erin E.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul; Hampton Atkinson, J.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Allen McCutchan, J.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; Sherman, Melanie; Ellis, Ronald J.; Allen McCutchan, J.; Letendre, Scott; Capparelli, Edmund; Schrier, Rachel; Rosario, Debra; LeBlanc, Shannon; Heaton, Robert K.; Woods, Steven Paul; Cherner, Mariana; Moore, David J.; Morgan, Erin E.; Dawson, Matthew; Jernigan, Terry; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah L.; Hesselink, John; Annese, Jacopo; Taylor, Michael J.; Masliah, Eliezer; Achim, Cristian; Everall, Ian; Richman, Douglas; Smith, David M.; Allen McCutchan, J.; Achim, Cristian; Lipton, Stuart; Hampton Atkinson, J.; Gamst, Anthony C.; Cushman, Clint; Abramson, Ian; Vaida, Florin; Deutsch, Reena; Umlauf, Anya

    2014-01-01

    Aging and HIV are both risk factors for memory deficits and declines in real-world functioning. However, we know little about the profile of memory deficits driving instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) declines across the lifespan in HIV. This study examined 145 younger (<50 years) and 119 older (≥50 years) adults with HIV who completed the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III LM), and a modified Lawton and Brody ADL questionnaire. No memory predictors of IADL dependence emerged in the younger cohort. In the older group, IADL dependence was uniquely associated with worse performance on all primary CVLT-II variables, as well as elevated recency effects. Poorer immediate and delayed recall of the WMS-III LM was also associated with IADL dependence, although recognition was intact. Findings suggest older HIV-infected adults with shallow encoding and forgetting are at risk for IADL dependence. PMID:24695591

  18. Shallow encoding and forgetting are associated with dependence in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults living with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Pariya L; Doyle, Katie L; Scott, J Cobb; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Weber, Erica; Moore, David J; Morgan, Erin E; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-05-01

    Aging and HIV are both risk factors for memory deficits and declines in real-world functioning. However, we know little about the profile of memory deficits driving instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) declines across the lifespan in HIV. This study examined 145 younger (<50 years) and 119 older (≥50 years) adults with HIV who completed the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III LM), and a modified Lawton and Brody ADL questionnaire. No memory predictors of IADL dependence emerged in the younger cohort. In the older group, IADL dependence was uniquely associated with worse performance on all primary CVLT-II variables, as well as elevated recency effects. Poorer immediate and delayed recall of the WMS-III LM was also associated with IADL dependence, although recognition was intact. Findings suggest older HIV-infected adults with shallow encoding and forgetting are at risk for IADL dependence.

  19. Brain Amyloid Deposition Is Associated With Lower Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Abilities in Older Adults. Results From the MAPT Study.

    PubMed

    Lilamand, Matthieu; Cesari, Matteo; del Campo, Natalia; Cantet, Christelle; Soto, Maria; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Payoux, Pierre; Andrieu, Sandrine; Vellas, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    Brain amyloid deposition is one of the key pathological hallmarks underlying the cognitive changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Growing interest has been given to the earliest clinical manifestations of amyloid plaques. However, the relationship between amyloid status and activities of everyday function remains largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the relationship between instrumental activities of daily living performance (using the ADL-PI score) and amyloid status in older adults. Cross-sectional analyses of data from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT) were performed. Volunteers underwent a brain 18F-AV45 positron emission tomography examination. Bivariate analysis and regression models were conducted to study the relationships between brain amyloid deposition and the total ADL-PI score. We included 271 participants (women = 60%; age = 76±4 years). Amyloid positron emission tomography was positive (standard uptake value ≥1.17) for 103 participants (38%). The ADL-PI score was lower in amyloid positive participants than in their amyloid negative counterparts (38.8 vs 40.3, p = .007). This association was also confirmed in regression models adjusted for age, gender, and familial history of Alzheimer's disease (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval 0.89-0.99; p = .02). This finding was consistent in cognitively normal individuals and in those with mild cognitive impairment, using the clinical dementia rating scale. This study highlighted an association between early functional limitations and brain amyloid deposition in elderly subjects. These symptoms could be the clinical manifestations of amyloid plaques even in the absence of overt dementia. Further prospective studies are warranted for examining the evolution of ADL-PI score over the course of Alzheimer's disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  20. Associations between energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods and BMI z-score in 2-9-year-old European children.

    PubMed

    Hebestreit, A; Börnhorst, C; Barba, G; Siani, A; Huybrechts, I; Tognon, G; Eiben, G; Moreno, L A; Fernández Alvira, J M; Loit, H M; Kovacs, E; Tornaritis, M; Krogh, V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between proxy-reported energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods and body mass index (BMI) z-score in 2-9-year-old European children. From 16,225 children who participated in the identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) baseline examination, 9,782 children with 24-h proxy dietary information and complete covariate information were included in the analysis. Participating children were classified according to adapted Goldberg cutoffs: underreports, plausible energy reports and overreports. Energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods excluding noncaloric beverages were calculated for all eating occasions. Effect of energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods on BMI z-score was investigated using multilevel regression models in the full sample and subsample of plausible energy reports. Exposure variables were included separately; daily food intake and energy intake were addressed in a combined model to check for interactions. In the group of plausible energy reports (N = 8,544), energy intake and daily food intake were significantly positively associated with BMI z-score. Energy density of foods was not associated with BMI z-score. In the model including energy intake, food intake and an interaction term, only energy intake showed a significantly positive effect on BMI z-score. In the full sample (N = 9,782), only energy intake was significantly but negatively associated with BMI z-score. Proxy-reporters are subject to misreporting, especially for children in the higher BMI levels. Energy intake is a more important predictor of unhealthy weight development in children than daily food intake.

  1. Comprehensive growth performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, gene expressions and cell death morphology responses to a daily corticosterone injection course in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Abdel-Rahman M. M.; Mashaly, Magdi M.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2017-01-01

    The massive meat production of broiler chickens make them continuously exposed to potential stressors that stimulate releasing of stress-related hormones like corticosterone (CORT) which is responsible for specific pathways in biological mechanisms and physiological activities. Therefore, this research was conducted to evaluate a wide range of responses related to broiler performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, related gene expressions and cell death morphology during and after a 7-day course of CORT injection. A total number of 200 one-day-old commercial Cobb broiler chicks were used in this study. From 21 to 28 d of age, broilers were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups with 5 replicates of 20 birds each; the first group received a daily intramuscular injection of 5 mg/kg BW corticosterone dissolved in 0.5 ml ethanol:saline solution (CORT group), while the second group received a daily intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml ethanol:saline only (CONT group). Growth performance, including body weight (BW), daily weight gain (DG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FC), were calculated at 0, 3 and 7 d after the start of the CORT injections. At the same times, blood samples were collected in each group for hematological (TWBC’s and H/L ratio), T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation and plasma biochemical assays (total protein, TP; free triiodothyronine hormone, fT3; aspartate amino transaminase, AST; and alanine amino transaminase, ALT). The liver, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen were dissected and weighed, and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF-1) in liver and cell-death-program gene (caspase-9) in bursa were analyzed for each group and time; while the apoptotic/necrotic cells were morphologically detected in the spleen. From 28 to 35 d of age, broilers were kept for recovery period without CORT injection and the same sampling and parameters were repeated at the end (at 14 d after initiation of the CORT injection). In

  2. Reduction of body fat and improved lipid profile associated with daily consumption of a Puer tea extract in a hyperlipidemic population: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Beaman, Joni L; He, Yi; Guo, Zhixin; Sun, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of Puer tea extract (PTE) on body weight, body-fat composition, and lipid profile in a non-Asian population in the absence of dietary restrictions. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design was used. A total of 59 overweight or mildly obese subjects were enrolled upon screening to confirm fasting cholesterol level at or above 220 mg/dL (5.7 mmol/dL). After giving informed consent, subjects were randomized to consume PTE (3 g/day) or placebo for 20 weeks. At baseline and at 4-week intervals, blood lipids, C-reactive protein, and fasting blood glucose were evaluated. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at baseline and at study exit to evaluate changes to body composition. Appetite and physical and mental energy were scored at each visit using visual analog scales (0-100). Consumption of PTE was associated with statistically significant weight loss when compared to placebo (P<0.05). Fat loss was seen for arms, legs, and the gynoid region (hip/belly), as well as for total fat mass. The fat reduction reached significance on within-group analysis, but did not reach between-group significance. Consumption of PTE was associated with improvements to lipid profile, including a mild reduction in cholesterol and the cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio after only 4 weeks, as well as a reduction in triglycerides and very small-density lipoproteins, where average blood levels reached normal range at 8 weeks and remained within normal range for the duration of the study (P<0.08). No significant changes between the PTE group and the placebo group were seen for fasting glucose or C-reactive protein. A transient reduction in appetite was seen in the PTE group when compared to placebo (P<0.1). The results from this clinical study showed that the daily consumption of PTE was associated with significant weight loss, reduced body mass index, and an improved lipid profile.

  3. Reduction of body fat and improved lipid profile associated with daily consumption of a Puer tea extract in a hyperlipidemic population: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gitte S; Beaman, Joni L; He, Yi; Guo, Zhixin; Sun, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of Puer tea extract (PTE) on body weight, body-fat composition, and lipid profile in a non-Asian population in the absence of dietary restrictions. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design was used. A total of 59 overweight or mildly obese subjects were enrolled upon screening to confirm fasting cholesterol level at or above 220 mg/dL (5.7 mmol/dL). After giving informed consent, subjects were randomized to consume PTE (3 g/day) or placebo for 20 weeks. At baseline and at 4-week intervals, blood lipids, C-reactive protein, and fasting blood glucose were evaluated. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at baseline and at study exit to evaluate changes to body composition. Appetite and physical and mental energy were scored at each visit using visual analog scales (0–100). Results Consumption of PTE was associated with statistically significant weight loss when compared to placebo (P<0.05). Fat loss was seen for arms, legs, and the gynoid region (hip/belly), as well as for total fat mass. The fat reduction reached significance on within-group analysis, but did not reach between-group significance. Consumption of PTE was associated with improvements to lipid profile, including a mild reduction in cholesterol and the cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio after only 4 weeks, as well as a reduction in triglycerides and very small-density lipoproteins, where average blood levels reached normal range at 8 weeks and remained within normal range for the duration of the study (P<0.08). No significant changes between the PTE group and the placebo group were seen for fasting glucose or C-reactive protein. A transient reduction in appetite was seen in the PTE group when compared to placebo (P<0.1). Conclusion The results from this clinical study showed that the daily consumption of PTE was associated with significant weight loss

  4. Study protocol of the multi-site randomised controlled REDALI-DEM trial - The effects of structured Relearning methods on Daily Living task performance of persons with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence from pilot trials suggests that structured learning techniques may have positive effects on the performance of cognitive tasks, movement sequences or skills in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this trial is to evaluate whether the usual method of learning by trial and error or the method of errorless learning demonstrate better effects on the performance of two selected daily living tasks six weeks after the intervention in people with mild to moderate dementia. Methods/Design A seven-centre single-blind, active-controlled design with a 1:1 randomisation for two parallel groups will include 175 persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease or mixed type dementia (MMSE 14-24), living at home, showing at least moderate need for assistance in instrumental activities of daily living; primary carer available and informed consent of patient and primary carer. Patients of both study arms will receive 15 one-hour-sessions at home by trained interventionists practising two daily living tasks individually selected. In one group the trial and error technique and in the other group the errorless learning method will be applied. Primary outcome is the task performance measured with the Task Performance Scale six weeks post treatment. Discussion The trial results will inform us to improve guidelines for instructing individuals with memory impairments. A user-friendly practice guideline will allow an efficient implementation of structured relearning techniques for a wide range of service providers in dementia care. Trial registration DRKS00003117 PMID:21851594

  5. Association of irisin with fat mass, resting energy expenditure, and daily activity in conditions of extreme body mass index.

    PubMed

    Pardo, María; Crujeiras, Ana B; Amil, María; Aguera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; de la Torre, Rafael; Estivill, Xavier; Fagundo, Ana B; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Fernández-García, José C; Fruhbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Roser; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2014-01-01

    FNDC5/irisin has been recently postulated as beneficial in the treatment of obesity and diabetes because it is induced in muscle by exercise, increasing energy expenditure. However, recent reports have shown that WAT also secretes irisin and that circulating irisin is elevated in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate irisin levels in conditions of extreme BMI and its correlation with basal metabolism and daily activity. The study involved 145 female patients, including 96 with extreme BMIs (30 anorexic (AN) and 66 obese (OB)) and 49 healthy normal weight (NW). The plasma irisin levels were significantly elevated in the OB patients compared with the AN and NW patients. Irisin also correlated positively with body weight, BMI, and fat mass. The OB patients exhibited the highest REE and higher daily physical activity compared with the AN patients but lower activity compared with the NW patients. The irisin levels were inversely correlated with daily physical activity and directly correlated with REE. Fat mass contributed to most of the variability of the irisin plasma levels independently of the other studied parameters. Conclusion. Irisin levels are influenced by energy expenditure independently of daily physical activity but fat mass is the main contributing factor.

  6. Caffeine intake is independently associated with neuropsychological performance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Norman, Daniel; Bardwell, Wayne A; Loredo, Jose S; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Heaton, Robert K; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2008-08-01

    In healthy individuals, caffeine intake may improve performance on cognitive tests. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder that has been associated with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we investigated whether increased caffeine intake in untreated patients with OSA is linked to better cognitive performance. Forty-five untreated OSA patients underwent baseline polysomnography after completing a survey of 24-h caffeine intake. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, then demographically corrected T scores and a global deficit score (GDS) were calculated on these tests. Partial correlation analysis was performed to compare daily caffeine intake with GDS, after controlling for body mass index (BMI) and sleep apnea severity. Analysis of covariance was done to examine differences in daily caffeine intake between cognitively impaired (GDS >or= 0.5) and non-impaired (GDS < 0.5) individuals. Seven out of the 45 subjects met the criteria (GDS >or= 0.5) for cognitive impairment. There was a significant inverse association between caffeine intake and the GDS, both when controlling for BMI (r =or -0.331, p = 0.04) and when controlling for BMI and apnea severity (r =or-0.500, p = 0.002); those with less impairment consumed more caffeine. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that cognitively impaired individuals consumed one-sixth as much caffeine as non-impaired individuals (p < 0.05). In patients with moderately severe OSA, higher average daily caffeine intake was associated with less cognitive impairment.

  7. Positive beliefs about rumination are associated with ruminative thinking and affect in daily life: evidence for a metacognitive view on depression.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Thomas; Zahn, Daniela; Siewert, Kerstin; Jonas, Cornelia; Weber, Hannelore

    2014-09-01

    Self-regulatory executive function theory (Wells and Matthews, 1994; Wells, 2008) stresses the role of metacognitions in the development of emotional disorders. Within this metacognitive model, positive beliefs about ruminative thinking are thought to be a risk factor for engaging in rumination and subsequently for depression. However, most of the existing research relies on retrospective self-report trait measures. The aim of the present study was to examine the theory's predictions with an Ecological Momentary Assessment approach capturing rumination as it occurs in daily life. Non-clinical participants (N = 93) were equipped with electronic diaries and completed four signal-contingent momentary self-reports per day for 4 weeks. A multilevel mediation model was computed to examine associations between positive beliefs about rumination and ruminative thinking and negative affect in daily life. Positive beliefs about rumination were significantly associated with ruminative thinking as it occurs in daily life. We further found evidence for a negative association with positive affect that was completely mediated via ruminative thinking in daily life occurring in response to negative emotions. Our results add ecologically valid corroborating evidence for the metacognitive model of emotional disorders within the framework of self-regulatory executive function theory.

  8. Extreme Daily Temperature and Precipitation in a Weather@home Superensemble for the Western United States: Model Performance and Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Rupp, D. E.; Mote, P.; Massey, N.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Making credible projections of future changes in extreme events has been challenging because it requires not only running climate models at high resolution to faithfully reproduce impact-relevant extreme events, but also ensemble sizes on the order of 10³ and greater to obtain reliable statistics on the intensity and frequency of extreme events. Due to sparsity of high-resolution data, most studies have used fitted analytical probability distributions to produce statistics for extreme events, which in itself has limitations and uncertainties. Here we present results of a superensemble of simulations generated by weather@home, a citizen science computing platform, where Western United States climate was simulated for the recent past (1985-2014) and future (2030-2059) using a coupled regional/global model (HadRM3P/HadAM3P) at 25-km resolution. The very large number of simulations permits the detection of robust spatial patterns of anthropogenically forced change, amidst the "noise" of natural variability, in extremes in daily temperature and precipitation. We investigate to what extent extreme events change in frequency and intensity, relative to changes in the means. Also, the physical mechanisms underlying such changes are explored. We also compare projected daily extreme temperature and precipitation from weather@home with those from regional/global coupled model parings from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), whereby statistics (e.g. 20-year, 50-year, etc., return values) are estimated from fitted extreme value distribution.

  9. [Interaction between neuropsychological deficit in execution/ performance and ability to carry out daily activities in Alzheimer type dementia].

    PubMed

    Perea, M V; Ladera, V

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish whether the results obtained in a sample of 54 patients with alzheimer-type dementia, while carrying out different executive-praxia tasks is related to or influences the daily life and habits of these people, as analyzed on the Blessed dementia scale. The diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia was established on the criteria developed by the NINCDS-ADRDA. Physical, neurological, neuropsychological, EEG and tomo-densitometric examinations were done in all cases. Executive-praxia function was analyzed on 5 sub-scales; non-symbolic praxias, bucco-facial praxias, purposeless reflex praxias, reflex praxias with objects/instruments and praxias of ideas. There were significant differences depending on the praxias used. The more difficult tasks were evaluated by execution praxias involving ideational, non-symbolic executive praxias. The changes found on the subscale of activities of daily living were partly due to poor non-symbolic, ideatorial praxic execution and to a lesser extent to the poor results of the purposeless reflexive symbolic praxic execution and bucco-facial praxia. On the sub-scale of changes in habits, the non-symbolic praxias and ideatorial praxias explain the small percentage variation found on this sub-scale.

  10. Molecular characterization of the porcine JHDM1A gene associated with average daily gain: evaluation its role in skeletal muscle development and growth.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong-Bo; Fan, Bin; Han, Xue-Lei; Xu, Xue-Wen; Rothschild, Max F; Yerle, Martine; Liu, Bang

    2011-10-01

    JHDM1A, a member of the JHDM (JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase) family, plays an central role in gene silencing, cell cycle, cell growth and cancer development through histone H3K36 demethylation modification. Here reported the cloning, expression, chromosomal location and association analysis with growth traits of porcine JHDM1A gene. Sequence analysis showed that the porcine JHDM1A gene encodes 1,162 amino acids and contains JmjC, F-box, and CXXC zinc-finger domains, which coding sequence and deduced protein shares 91 and 99% similarity with human JHDM1A, respectively. Spatio-Temporal expression analysis indicated that the mRNA expression of porcine JHDM1A had significantly higher levels in the middle (65 days) and later (90 days) period's embryo skeletal muscle than that of 33 days, and showed a ubiquitously expression but with the highest abundance in kidney, lung and liver of an adult pig. Radiation hybrid mapping and the following linkage mapping data indicate that JHDM1A maps to 2p17 region of pig chromosome 2 (SSC2). Allele frequency differences were detected in different pig breeds and an association study was performed with a SNP within 3'UTR. The results showed that there is a tendency for allele frequencies to differ between the fast growth breeds (Yorkshire) and slow growth pig breeds (Qingping pigs, Yushan Black pigs, Erhualian pigs and Dahuabai pigs). The association analysis using a Berkshire × Yorkshire F(2) population indicated that the C224G polymorphism had a highly significant association with average daily gain on test (P < 0.01), a trend association with average back fat thickness (P < 0.07), and significant associations (P < 0.01) on percent of average drip loss, Fiber Type II Ratio, muscle shear force and average lactate content in μmol/g. This study provides the first evidence that JHDM1A is differentially expressed in porcine embryonic skeletal muscle and associated with meat growth and quality traits.

  11. Effect of therapist-based constraint-induced therapy at home on motor control, motor performance and daily function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-ling; Kang, Lin-ju; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Fei-Chuan; Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Wu, Ching-yi

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effect of therapist-based constraint-induced therapy at home on motor performance, daily function and reaching control for children with cerebral palsy. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Forty-seven children (23 boys; 24 girls) with unilateral cerebral palsy, aged 6-12 years, were randomized to constraint-induced therapy (n = 24) or traditional rehabilitation (n = 23). Constraint-induced therapy involved intensive functional training of the more affected arm while the less affected arm was restrained. Traditional rehabilitation involved functional unilateral and bilateral arm training. Both groups received individualized therapist-based interventions at home for 3.5-4 hours/day, two days a week for four weeks. Motor performance and daily function were measured by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, Second Edition and the Pediatric Motor Activity Log. Reaching control was assessed by the kinematics of reaction time, movement time, movement unit and peak velocity. There were larger effects in favour of constraint-induced therapy on motor performance, daily function, and some aspects of reaching control compared with traditional rehabilitation. Children receiving constraint-induced therapy demonstrated higher scores for Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, Second Edition - Grasping (pretest mean ± SD, 39.9 ± 3.1; posttest, 44.1 ± 2.8; P < 0.001), Pediatric Motor Activity Log (pretest, 1.8 ± 0.3; posttest, 2.5 ± 0.3; P < 0.001) and shorter reaction time, normalized movement time (P < 0.001) and higher peak velocity (P = 0.004) of reaching movement. Constraint-induced therapy induced better grasping performance, daily function, and temporal and spatiotemporal control of reaching in children with unilateral cerebral palsy than traditional rehabilitation.

  12. Design and performance characterization of a hand orthosis prototype to aid activities of daily living in a post-stroke population.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Benjamin W; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a hand orthosis prototype intended to assist persons with hand paresis, as a result of stroke, perform activities of daily living. Among its attributes, the orthosis is characterized by a low mass and small profile, while still offering the power assistance of a robotic exoskeleton. Experimental characterization of the orthosis is presented, including its mass, envelope dimensions, motion bandwidth, and joint torque characteristics.

  13. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

    SciTech Connect

    Ohn, Jung Hun; Kwon, In Ho; Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-08-15

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men.

  14. Difference of performance in response to disease admissions between daily time air quality indices and those derived from average and entropy functions.

    PubMed

    Lai, Li-Wei; Cheng, Wan-Li

    2017-06-01

    Daily time air quality indices, which can reflect air quality in 1 day, are suitable for identifying daily exposure during conditions of poor air quality. The aim of this study is to compare the main effectiveness of four daily time indices in representing variation in the number of disease admissions. These indices include pollution standard index (PSI), air quality index (AQI) and their respective indices derived from mean and entropy functions: MEPSI and MEAQI. The hourly concentrations of fine particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), PM2.5, O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010 were obtained from 14 air quality monitoring stations owned by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in the Kaoping region, Taiwan.Instead of circulatory system disease admissions, the indices were correlative with the number of respiratory disease admissions with correlative coefficients of 0.49 to 0.56 (P < 0.05). The daily time air quality indices derived from mean and entropy functions improved their performance of reactive range and air pollution identification. The reactive range of MEPSI and MEAQI was 1.4-3 times that of the original indices. The MEPSI and MEAQI increased identification from 40 to 180 in index scale and revealed one to two additional categories of public health effect information. In comparison with other indices, MEAQI is more effective for application to pollution events with multiple air pollutants.

  15. Breakfast is associated with the metabolic syndrome and school performance among Taiwanese children.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia-Yi; Huang, Yi-Chen; Lo, Yuan-Ting C; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2015-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with adverse child health profiles including obesity, higher blood pressure, higher serum cholesterol, and poor cognitive function. We aimed to explore the association between breakfast with school performance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Taiwanese children. Participants were enrolled from the representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2001-2002). Diet, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were assessed in 1287 boys and 1114 girls. Their school and social performances were examined using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance questionnaire. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of MetS and also the association between breakfast consumption frequency and school or social performance. When breakfast consumption was regular, overall dietary quality was better. Children who consumed breakfast daily exhibited lower risks of high blood pressure (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.19-0.71) and of MetS (OR=0.22, 95% CI=0.09-0.51) compared with children who consumed breakfast 0-4 times per week. Furthermore, children who consumed breakfast daily exhibited a higher overall competence (OC) score (β=0.71, p<0.05) in a dose-response manner (p for trend=0.02). This association was not dependent on overall diet or MetS. In conclusion, consuming breakfast daily is associated with better school performance, a lower risk of high blood pressure, and MetS independent of overall dietary quality. Thus, breakfast on school days is a factor in school performance and health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is leisure time availability associated with more or less severe daily stressors? An examination using eight-day diary data

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The stress suppressing model proposes that sufficient resources reduce stress. The stress exposure model suggests that certain factors expose individuals to more stress. The current study tested these two models by assessing the within-person lagging effect of leisure time on perceived severity of daily stressors. Analyzing eight-day diary data (N=2,022), we found that having more leisure time than usual on a day reduced perceived severity of daily stressors the next day and that the decrease in severity became larger with further increase in leisure time. Additionally, the effect is much stronger among busy individuals who usually had little leisure time. The findings demonstrated an accelerated suppressing effect that differed between-person, and the lagging effect affords stronger implication for causality than correlational analysis. PMID:24563564

  17. The impact of feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Lovatto, P A; Radünz Neto, J

    2014-09-01

    The impact of moving from conventional to precision feeding systems in growing-finishing pig operations on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition was studied. Fifteen animals per treatment for a total of 60 pigs of 41.2 (SE = 0.5) kg of BW were used in a performance trial (84 d) with 4 treatments: a 3-phase (3P) feeding program obtained by blending fixed proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); a 3-phase commercial (COM) feeding program; and 2 daily-phase feeding programs in which the blended proportions of feeds A and B were adjusted daily to meet the estimated nutritional requirements of the group (multiphase-group feeding, MPG) or of each pig individually (multiphase-individual feeding, MPI). Daily feed intake was recorded each day and pigs were weighed weekly during the trial. Body composition was assessed at the beginning of the trial and every 28 d by dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion was estimated as the difference between retention and intake. Organ, carcass, and primal cut measurements were taken after slaughter. The COM feeding program reduced (P < 0.05) ADFI and improved G:F rate in relation to other treatments. The MPG and MPI programs showed values for ADFI, ADG, G:F, final BW, and nitrogen and phosphorus retention that were similar to those obtained for the 3P feeding program. However, compared with the 3P treatment, the MPI feeding program reduced the standardized ileal digestible lysine intake by 27%, the estimated nitrogen excretion by 22%, and the estimated phosphorus excretion by 27% (P < 0.05). Organs, carcass, and primal cut weights did not differ among treatments. Feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques is an effective approach to reduce nutrient excretion without compromising pig performance or carcass composition.

  18. Drawbacks of Proactivity: Effects of Daily Proactivity on Daily Salivary Cortisol and Subjective Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Fay, Doris; Hüttges, Annett

    2016-05-16

    The benefit of proactive work behaviors for performance-related outcomes has been well established. However, this approach to studying proactivity has not yet acknowledged its potential implications for the actor's well-being. Drawing on the fact that resources at work are limited and that the workplace is a social system characterized by interdependencies, we proposed that daily proactivity could have a negative effect on daily well-being. We furthermore proposed that this effect should be mediated by work overload and negative affect. We conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) to test the potential negative effects of proactivity on daily well-being. Data was collected across 3 consecutive work days. During several daily measurement occasions, participants reported proactivity, work overload, negative affect, and fatigue. They also provided 4 saliva samples per day, from which cortisol was assayed. Based on the 4 samples, a measure of daily cortisol output was produced. Multilevel analyses showed that daily proactivity was positively associated with higher daily cortisol output. The positive association of daily proactivity with bedtime fatigue was marginally significant. There was no support for a mediating effect of work overload and negative affect. Implications for theory-building on the proactivity-well-being link are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The effects of single versus twice daily short term heat acclimation on heat strain and 3000m running performance in hot, humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Willmott, A G B; Gibson, O R; Hayes, M; Maxwell, N S

    2016-02-01

    Endurance performances are impaired under conditions of elevated heat stress. Short term heat acclimation (STHA) over 4-6 days can evoke rapid adaptation, which mitigate decrements in performance and alleviate heat strain. This study investigated the efficacy of twice daily heat acclimation (TDHA) compared to single session per day heat acclimation (SDHA) and normothermic training, at inducing heat acclimation phenotype and its impact upon running performance in hot, humid conditions. Twenty one, moderately trained males were matched and assigned to three groups; SDHA (mean±SD) (peak oxygen consumption [V̇O2peak] 45.8±6.1mLkg(-1)min(-1), body mass 81.3±16.0kg, stature 182±3cm), TDHA (46.1±7.0mLkg(-1)min(-1), 80.1±11.9kg, 178±4cm) or control (CON) (47.1±3.5mLkg(-1)min(-1), 78.6±16.7kg, 178±4cm). Interventions consisted of 45min cycling at 50% V̇O2peak, once daily for 4d (SDHA) and twice daily for 2d (TDHA), in 35°C, 60% relative humidity (RH), and once daily for 4 days (CON) in 21°C, 40% RH. Participants completed a pre- and post-intervention 5km treadmill run trial in 30°C, 60% RH, where the first 2km were fixed at 40% V̇O2peak and the final 3km was self-paced. No statistically significant interaction effects occurred within- or between-groups over the 2-4 days intervention. While within-group differences were found in physiological and perceptual measures during the fixed intensity trial post-intervention, they did not statistically differ between-groups. Similarly, TDHA (-36±34s [+3.5%]) and SDHA (-26±28s [+2.8%]) groups improved 3km performances (p=0.35), but did not differ from CON (-6±44s [+0.6%]). This is the first study to investigate the effects of HA twice daily and compare it with traditional single session per day STHA. These STHA protocols may have the ability to induce partial adaptive responses to heat stress and possibly enhance performance in environmentally challenging conditions, however, future development is warranted to

  20. [A case-crossover study on the association between heat waves and daily deaths caused by acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Liang; Liu, Ling; Chai, Fa-He

    2012-07-01

    To explore the effects of heat wave on daily deaths caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Beijing. A case-crossover design was used to study the impact of 5 heat waves on the daily number of AMI deaths from Jan. 1, 1999 to Jun. 30, 2000. The effect of heat wave on death in different gender or age groups was also compared. The 7th day before and after death occurred was chosen as its own bi-directional self-control. The OR value and its corresponding risk period was used to reflect the impact of heat wave on daily number of AMI deaths, lag days and duration. There were five heat waves during the study period. The first heat wave sustained 9 days and the maximum temperature was 38.8°C with average humidity as 46.7%. The OR value for the AMI death was 1.437 (95%CI: 1.066 - 1.937). The second heat wave lasted 3 days, with the maximum temperature of 36.8°C and average humidity of 61.0%. The OR value for the AMI death was 1.846 (95%CI: 0.671 - 5.076). The third heat wave continued 7 days, with the maximum temperature of 41.5°C with average humidity of 58.5%. The OR value for the daily death counts caused by AMI was 2.427 (95%CI: 1.825 - 3.229). The fourth lasted for 3 days, with the maximum temperature of 39.6°C and average humidity as 31.9%. The OR value for the AMI deaths was 2.857 (95%CI: 1.088 - 7.506). The fifth heat wave lasted for 4 days, with the maximum temperature as 37.4°C, and average humidity as 42.0% during this period. The OR value for daily death counts caused by AMI was 1.500 (95%CI: 0.632 - 3.560). The OR value of the first heat wave for daily death counts of men and women caused by AMI were 1.153 (95%CI: 0.756 - 1.758) and 1.818 (95%CI: 1.185 - 2.790) respectively. The OR value for daily death counts of under 65 age was 1.200 (95%CI: 0.669 - 2.153), with the OR value for the older than 64 age group was 1.534 (95%CI: 1.083 - 2.173). The OR value for daily death counts of older than 64 age women was 1.818 (95%CI: 1.109 - 2.981). The OR

  1. Performance of the Angstrom-Prescott Model (A-P) and SVM and ANN techniques to estimate daily global solar irradiation in Botucatu/SP/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Maurício Bruno Prado; Francisco Escobedo, João; Juliana Rossi, Taiza; dos Santos, Cícero Manoel; da Silva, Sílvia Helena Modenese Gorla

    2017-07-01

    This study describes the comparative study of different methods for estimating daily global solar irradiation (H): Angstrom-Prescott (A-P) model and two Machine Learning techniques (ML) - Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The H database was measured from 1996 to 2011 in Botucatu/SP/Brazil. Different combinations of input variables were adopted. MBE, RMSE, d Willmott, r and r2 statistical indicators obtained in the validation of A-P and SVM and ANN models showed that: SVM technique has better performance in estimating H than A-P and ANN models. A-P model has better performance in estimating H than ANN.

  2. Daily sleep quality affects drug craving, partially through indirect associations with positive affect, in patients in treatment for nonmedical use of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Lydon-Staley, David M; Cleveland, H Harrington; Huhn, Andrew S; Cleveland, Michael J; Harris, Jonathan; Stankoski, Dean; Deneke, Erin; Meyer, Roger E; Bunce, Scott C

    2017-02-01

    Sleep disturbance has been identified as a risk factor for relapse in addiction to a range of substances. The relationship between sleep quality and treatment outcome has received relatively little attention in research on nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). This study examined the within-person association between sleep quality and craving in medically detoxified patients in residence for the treatment of NMUPD. Participants (n=68) provided daily reports of their sleep quality, negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA), and craving for an average of 9.36 (SD=2.99) days. Within-person associations of sleep quality and craving were examined using multilevel modeling. Within-person mediation analyses were used to evaluate the mediating roles of NA and PA in the relationship between sleep quality and craving. Greater cravings were observed on days of lower than usual sleep quality (γ10=-0.10, p=0.003). Thirty-one percent of the overall association between sleep quality and craving was explained by PA, such that poorer sleep quality was associated with lower PA and, in turn, lower PA was associated with greater craving. No evidence emerged for an indirect association between sleep quality and craving through NA. Daily fluctuations in sleep quality were associated with fluctuations in craving, an association partially explained by the association between sleep quality and daily PA. These data encourage further research on the relationship between sleep, affect, and craving in NMUPD patients, as well as in patients with other substance use disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and oral impacts on daily performances: a cross-sectional study of Sudanese adult dental patients.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Elwalid F; Marthinussen, Mihaela C; Åstrøm, Anne N

    2013-08-26

    Few studies have investigated the relationships between HIV-related knowledge, fear of contagion in dental environments and Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) among dental patients. Our objectives were to investigate the associations between HIV-related knowledge and fear of contagion in dental environments and OIDP among dental patients, and to evaluate whether those associations were modified by the frequency of dental service attendance. A total of 1262 patients (mean age 30.7 years, 56.5% females) were recruited from the Khartoum Dental Teaching Hospital and the University of Science and Technology during March-July 2008. The participants underwent a full-mouth oral clinical examination and completed an interview in a face-to-face setting. Of the study participants, 41.4% had visited a dentist at least twice during the last 2 years, 96.2% had caries experience (DT > 0) and 79.1% reported oral impacts (OIDP > 0). The most frequently reported oral impacts were problems eating, sleeping and cleaning teeth. In total, 26.3% of the participants had HIV transmission knowledge, 75.6% knew people with HIV/AIDS and 58.7% perceived a high risk of cross-infection in dental environments. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, frequency of dental service attendance and caries experience, patients who had high HIV-related information exposure, a positive attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS and a high perceived risk of cross-infection were more likely to report oral impacts, whereas patients who knew people with HIV/AIDS were less likely to report oral impacts. The association between OIDP and HIV transmission knowledge was modified by frequency of dental service attendance. Dental patients who were informed about HIV and had a high HIV/AIDS risk perception were more likely to report impaired oral health-related quality of life than their less informed counterparts and those who perceived a low risk of contagion. The effect of HIV transmission knowledge

  4. HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and oral impacts on daily performances: a cross-sectional study of Sudanese adult dental patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the relationships between HIV-related knowledge, fear of contagion in dental environments and Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) among dental patients. Our objectives were to investigate the associations between HIV-related knowledge and fear of contagion in dental environments and OIDP among dental patients, and to evaluate whether those associations were modified by the frequency of dental service attendance. Methods A total of 1262 patients (mean age 30.7 years, 56.5% females) were recruited from the Khartoum Dental Teaching Hospital and the University of Science and Technology during March–July 2008. The participants underwent a full-mouth oral clinical examination and completed an interview in a face-to-face setting. Results Of the study participants, 41.4% had visited a dentist at least twice during the last 2 years, 96.2% had caries experience (DT > 0) and 79.1% reported oral impacts (OIDP > 0). The most frequently reported oral impacts were problems eating, sleeping and cleaning teeth. In total, 26.3% of the participants had HIV transmission knowledge, 75.6% knew people with HIV/AIDS and 58.7% perceived a high risk of cross-infection in dental environments. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, frequency of dental service attendance and caries experience, patients who had high HIV-related information exposure, a positive attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS and a high perceived risk of cross-infection were more likely to report oral impacts, whereas patients who knew people with HIV/AIDS were less likely to report oral impacts. The association between OIDP and HIV transmission knowledge was modified by frequency of dental service attendance. Conclusions Dental patients who were informed about HIV and had a high HIV/AIDS risk perception were more likely to report impaired oral health-related quality of life than their less informed counterparts and those who perceived a low risk of

  5. Daily skin cleansing with chlorhexidine did not reduce the rate of central-line associated bloodstream infection in a surgical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Kyle J; Hota, Bala; Hayes, Robert; Weinstein, Robert A; Hayden, Mary K

    2010-05-01

    Cleansing the skin of intensive care unit (ICU) patients daily with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been associated with beneficial effects, including a reduction in central-line-associated bacteremias (CLABSIs). Most studies have been done in medical ICUs. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine skin cleansing on CLABSI rates in a surgical ICU. In Fall 2005, the 30-bed surgical ICU at Rush University Medical Center discontinued daily soap-and-water bathing of patients and substituted skin cleansing with no-rinse, 2% CHG-impregnated cloths. This change was made without research investigator input or oversight. Using administrative, microbiological and infection control practitioner databases, we compared rates of CLABSIs and blood culture contamination during soap-and-water bathing (September 2004-October 2005) and CHG cleansing (November 2005-October 2006) periods. Rates of other nosocomial infections that were not expected to be affected by CHG bathing (secondary bacteremia, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection) were included as control variables. There was no significant difference in the CLABSI rate between soap-and-water and CHG bathing periods (3.81/1,000 central line days vs. 4.6/1,000 central line days; p = 0.57). Blood culture contamination declined during CHG bathing (5.97/1,000 to 2.41/1,000 patient days; p = 0.003). Rates of other nosocomial infections did not change significantly. In this real-world effectiveness trial, daily cleansing of surgical ICU patients' skin with CHG had no effect on CLABSI rates, but was associated with half the rate of blood culture contamination. Controlled trials in surgical ICUs are needed to determine whether CHG bathing can prevent infections in this setting.

  6. Using everyday technology to compensate for difficulties in task performance in daily life: experiences in persons with acquired brain injury and their significant others.

    PubMed

    Larsson Lund, Maria; Lövgren-Engström, Ann-Louice; Lexell, Jan

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. The purpose of this study is to illuminate how persons with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their significant others experienced individualised occupation-based interventions using commonly available everyday technology (ET) to compensate for perceived difficulties with performance of tasks in daily life. METHOD. Qualitative research interviews were conducted with 10 persons with ABI and with one of their significant others. The data were analysed according to qualitative content analysis. RESULTS. The persons with ABI experienced that they mastered their lives in a better way by the compensatory use of ET. They became capable of doing tasks independently and experienced themselves as being a new person. During the intervention process, persons with ABI became aware of the compensatory potential of familiar ET, and they were supported to use effective compensatory strategies and incorporate them into their habits. Their significant others felt a relief in daily life, and their mood was positively affected as they experienced reduced responsibility and need of control. CONCLUSIONS. This qualitative study has shown that persons with ABI, as well as their significant others, experienced a multitude of benefits from occupation-based interventions using commonly available ET to compensate for their difficulties in the performance of tasks in daily life and that the goals achieved affected their overall contentment with life.

  7. Increasing minimum daily temperatures are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999-2013) from -28.6°C (Minnesota) to -5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977-2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising minimum daily

  8. Factors associated with daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among adult patients at four federally qualified health centers, Bronx, New York, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kristal, Ross B; Blank, Arthur E; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Selwyn, Peter A

    2015-01-08

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study examined the relationships between SSB consumption and demographic, health behavior, health service, and health condition characteristics of adult patients of a network of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in a low-income, urban setting. Validated, standardized self-reported health behavior questions were incorporated into the electronic health record (EHR) and asked of patients yearly, at 4 FQHCs. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of EHR data collected in 2013 from 12,214 adult patients by using logistic regression. Forty percent of adult patients consumed 1 or more SSBs daily. The adjusted odds ratios indicated that patients who consumed more than 1 SSB daily were more likely to be aged 18 to 29 years versus age 70 or older, current smokers versus never smoking, eating no servings of fruits and/or vegetables daily or 1 to 4 servings daily versus 5 or more servings daily, and not walking or biking more than 10 blocks in the past 30 days. Patients consuming 1 or more servings of SSBs daily were less likely to speak Spanish than English, be women than men, be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes versus no diabetes, and be diagnosed with hypertension versus no hypertension. SSB consumption differed by certain demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Recording SSB intake and other health behaviors data in the EHR could help clinicians in identifying and counseling patients to promote health behavior changes. Future studies should investigate how EHR data on patient health behavior can be used to improve the health of patients and communities.

  9. Increasing Minimum Daily Temperatures Are Associated with Enhanced Pesticide Use in Cultivated Soybean along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Mid-Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Ziska, Lewis H.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999–2013) from −28.6°C (Minnesota) to −5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977–2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising

  10. Genes Associated with Honey Bee Behavioral Maturation Affect Clock-Dependent and -Independent Aspects of Daily Rhythmic Activity in Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chen; Whitfield, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Background In the honey bee, the age-related and socially regulated transition of workers from in-hive task performance (e.g., caring for young) to foraging (provisioning the hive) is associated with changes in many behaviors including the 24-hour pattern of rhythmic activity. We have previously shown that the hive-bee to forager transition is associated with extensive changes in brain gene expression. In this study, we test the possible function of a subset of these genes in daily rhythmic activity pattern using neural-targeted RNA interference (RNAi) of an orthologous gene set in Drosophila melanogaster. Principal Findings Of 10 genes tested, knockdown of six affected some aspect of locomotor activity under a 12 h∶12 h light:dark regime (LD). Inos affected anticipatory activity preceding lights-off, suggesting a possible clock-dependent function. BM-40-SPARC, U2af50 and fax affected peak activity at dawn without affecting anticipation or overall inactivity (proportion of 15-min intervals without activity), suggesting that these effects may depend on the day-night light cycle. CAH1 affected overall inactivity. The remaining gene, abl, affected peak activity levels but was not clearly time-of-day-specific. No gene tested affected length of period or strength of rhythmicity in constant dark (DD), suggesting that these genes do not act in the core clock. Significance Taking advantage of Drosophila molecular genetic tools, our study provides an important step in understanding the large set of gene expression changes that occur in the honey bee transition from hive bee to forager. We show that orthologs of many of these genes influence locomotor activity in Drosophila, possibly through both clock-dependent and -independent pathways. Our results support the importance of both circadian clock and direct environmental stimuli (apart from entrainment) in shaping the bee’s 24-hour pattern of activity. Our study also outlines a new approach to dissecting complex behavior

  11. Functional Reserve: Experience Participating in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Gender and Functional Independence in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Berezuk, Courtney; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Ramirez, Joel; Ruocco, Anthony C; Edwards, Jodi D; Callahan, Brandy L; Black, Sandra E

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease may be explained by gender differences in IADL involvement. We introduce a novel theoretical construct, termed functional reserve, and empirically examine gender differences in IADL experience as a proxy of this reserve. We cross-sectionally examined men (n = 502) and women (n = 340) with MCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Demographic factors, depressive symptoms, neuropsychological scores, and IADL experience were included as independent variables and total Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) scores as the dependent variable. Regression analyses were performed on the full cohort and stratified by gender to identify differential predictive relationships for men and women. Gender was associated with total FAQ (p < 0.05) until adjusting for IADL experience. Furthermore, the combination of cognitive measures accounted for the most variance in functional dependence (12% explained, p < 0.001), although IADL experience was the most important single variable (4.8% explained, p < 0.001). Stratification by gender revealed that IADL experience accounted for 6.6% of the variance in FAQ score in men (p < 0.001) but only 2.4% in women (p = 0.001); however, the interaction between gender and experience was not statistically significant. A small effect of men showing greater functional dependence in MCI may be explained by lower IADL experience. Additionally, IADL experience was associated with superior functioning in all analyses, potentially through increased functional reserve. This concept of functional reserve may have implications for identifying individuals at risk for IADL dependence, preventing or delaying decline, and potentially treating functional impairment.

  12. A novel Cerium-141 based flood field uniformity phantom: Assessment of its suitability to perform daily uniformity test in a clinical nuclear medicine department.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Mithun, Sneha; Chauhan, Manoj H; Purandare, Nilendu C; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Saxena, Sanjay Kumar; Dash, Ashutosh; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2017-04-13

    Daily quality control of a gamma camera is of utmost importance to assess the suitability of the camera for clinical use. Aim of our study is to find out the relevance of indigenously developed (141)Ce -flood field phantom in daily quality control of gamma camera. Material & Method: Uniformity tests were performed by using (141)Ce-flood field phantom and commercially available (57)Co -flood field phantom, and results compared. Result: The average percentage integral uniformity obtained by (141)Ce -flood field phantom and (57)Co -flood field phantom were 3.24 and 2.72 for detector one and 3.31 and 2.78 for detector two respectively. Conclusion: Indigenously developed (141)Ce-flood field phantom can be a suitable alternative of commercially available phantom.

  13. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia and provides an effective and reliable clinical database for future improvement of motor performances skills. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly assigned seven children with spastic diplegia to each intervention group including that of a control group, task-oriented training group, and a high-variability practice group. The control group only received neurodevelopmental treatment for 40 minutes, while the other two intervention groups additionally implemented a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program for 8 weeks (twice a week, 60 min per session). To compare intra and inter-relationships of the three intervention groups, this study measured gross motor performance measure (GMPM) and functional independence measure for children (WeeFIM) before and after 8 weeks of training. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the amount of change before and after the training among the three intervention groups for the gross motor performance measure and functional independence measure. [Conclusion] Applying high-variability practice in a task-oriented training course may be considered an efficient intervention method to improve motor performance skills that can tune to movement necessary for daily livelihood through motor experience and learning of new skills as well as change of tasks learned in a complex environment or similar situations to high-variability practice. PMID:27821947

  14. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia and provides an effective and reliable clinical database for future improvement of motor performances skills. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly assigned seven children with spastic diplegia to each intervention group including that of a control group, task-oriented training group, and a high-variability practice group. The control group only received neurodevelopmental treatment for 40 minutes, while the other two intervention groups additionally implemented a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program for 8 weeks (twice a week, 60 min per session). To compare intra and inter-relationships of the three intervention groups, this study measured gross motor performance measure (GMPM) and functional independence measure for children (WeeFIM) before and after 8 weeks of training. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the amount of change before and after the training among the three intervention groups for the gross motor performance measure and functional independence measure. [Conclusion] Applying high-variability practice in a task-oriented training course may be considered an efficient intervention method to improve motor performance skills that can tune to movement necessary for daily livelihood through motor experience and learning of new skills as well as change of tasks learned in a complex environment or similar situations to high-variability practice.

  15. Evidence for internal filtration in the Genius system, performing slow low efficient daily dialysis in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Eloot, Sunny; Van Biesen, Wim; Dhondt, Annemieke; Billiet, Erik; Verdonck, Pascal; Vanholder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Since most intensive care units (ICUs) have no access to high-quality water, the Genius system, using ultrapure water and high-flux dialyzers, might be used during slow low efficient daily dialysis (SLEDD). To get an idea about convective removal, internal filtration (IF) was calculated and compared to other modalities. Validated with in vivo measurements, IF was calculated for 8 h Genius SLEDD and 4 h Genius standard dialysis with high-flux dialyzers, and for 8 h SLEDD and 4 h both with standard dialysis machines and low-flux as well as high-flux dialyzers. In Genius SLEDD (FX80), IF was 2.36 l (hematocrit [Hct] 30%) and 3.37 l (Hct 40%). About the same amount of IF was found for the different dialysis modalities, except when using low-flux dialyzers, where no IF occurred. The Genius system allows the implementation of high-flux dialysis with ultrapure dialysate, and can be run in a SLEDD mode in the ICU. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Physiological performance of the intertidal Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) to long-term daily rhythms of air exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xuwang; Chen, Peng; Chen, Hai; Jin, Wen; Yan, Xiwu

    2017-01-01

    Intertidal organisms, especially the sessile species, often experience long-term periodic air exposure during their lives. Learning the biochemical and physiological responses of intertidal organisms to long-term periodic air exposure and the relationship to duration of air exposure provides insight into adaptation to this variably stressful environment. We studied the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, an important species in world aquaculture, as a model to evaluate survival, growth, lipid composition, oxygen consumption, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity in relation to the duration of air exposure in a long-term (60 days) laboratory study of varying durations of periodic emersion and re-immersion. Our results show: (1) clams undergoing a longer period of air exposure had lower survival and growth compared to those given a shorter exposure, (2) levels of oxidative damage and activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in all air exposure treatments, but did not increase with duration of air exposure, and (3) the content of docosahexaenoic acid increased with duration of air exposure. Our results can largely be interpreted in the context of the energy expenditure by the clams caused by aerobic metabolism during the daily cycle of emersion and re-immersion and the roles of docosahexaenoic acid against oxidative stress. PMID:28128354

  17. Treatment with exenatide once weekly or twice daily for 30 weeks is associated with changes in several cardiovascular risk markers.

    PubMed

    Chiquette, Elaine; Toth, Peter P; Ramirez, Gilbert; Cobble, Michael; Chilton, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes are two of the most significant risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Measurement of lipoprotein subclasses provides important information about derangements in lipid metabolism and helps refine cardiovascular risk assessment. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, improved glycemic control, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes in clinical trials. In the DURATION-1 trial, patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with exenatide once weekly or twice daily for 30 weeks. This post hoc analysis evaluated the impact of exenatide on lipoprotein subclasses in 211 DURATION-1 patients using vertical auto profile methodology and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences general linear model adjusted for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and weight. Baseline lipids and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were normal overall based on the standard lipid panel. Once-weekly exenatide reduced apolipoprotein B and the apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratio (P < 0.05), independent of glycemic improvement and weight loss. A significant shift in lipoprotein pattern away from small, dense low-density lipoprotein-4 cholesterol was also observed (P < 0.05). Exenatide once weekly increased high-density lipoprotein-2 cholesterol, even after adjustment for changes in HbA(1c) and weight (P < 0.05). Triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were reduced with both the once-weekly and twice-daily exenatide regimens (P < 0.05). In this post hoc analysis, exenatide significantly improved a number of cardiovascular risk markers. Continuous exenatide exposure with exenatide once weekly elicited a greater response than did immediate-release exenatide twice daily, generally independent of glycemic improvement and weight loss. Thus, in addition to improving glycemic control, exenatide induced favorable changes in lipid and

  18. Using activity triggered e-diaries to reveal the associations between physical activity and affective states in older adult's daily living.

    PubMed

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2015-09-17

    Evidence suggests that older adults show positive affects after participating in exercise bouts. However, it is less clear, if and how physical activities in daily living enhance affective states, too. This is dissatisfying, as most of older adults' physical activities are part of their daily living. To answer these questions we used activity-triggered e-diaries to investigate the within-subject effects of physical activity on three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness) during everyday life. Older adults (N = 74) between 50 and 70 years took part in the study during three consecutive days. Physical activity in daily living was objectively assessed using accelerometers. Affects were measured 10 min after a study participant surpassed a predefined threshold for activity or inactivity. The participants were prompted by an acoustic signal to assess their momentary affective states on an e-diary. Data were analyzed with hierarchical multilevel analyses. Whenever older individuals were more physically active, they felt more energized (energetic arousal) and agitated (calmness). However, they did not feel better (valence). Interestingly, body mass index (BMI) and valence were associated in a significant cross-level interaction. BMI acts as a moderating variable in the way that lower BMI scores were associated with higher levels of valence scores after being physically active. The innovative ambulatory assessment used here affords an interesting insight to the affective effects of daily activity of older adults. These effects are no simple and no linear ones, i.e. physical activity is not associated with positive affects per se as shown several times in experimental studies with single activity bouts. Rather there is a differentiating association seen as an enhanced feeling of energy and agitation, which is not accompanied by a better feeling. Socio-emotional selectivity theory may support the finding that older individuals are

  19. The effect of daily sedation interruption protocol on early incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia among patients hospitalized in critical care units receiving mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Mehdi; Yousefi, Hojatollah; Yazdannik, Ahmad Reza; Alikiaii, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common side effect in patients who receive intravenous sedation infusion. In routine care, after starting sedation infusion for patients who receive mechanical ventilation, interruption of sedation starts without protocol. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of daily sedation vacation protocol on the incidence of VAP in mechanically ventilated patients. In this clinical trial study, 80 patients with intravenous sedation infusion were selected and randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, daily sedation vacation protocol and in the control group, routine sedation vacation was followed. Modified clinical pulmonary infection score questionnaire was completed before intervention and on the third, fourth, and fifth days after intervention. Data were analyzed by using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square, and independent t-test. The results of this study showed that the incidence rate of VAP in the intervention and control groups was 0% versus 15% on the third day of intervention, 12.5% versus 50% on the fourth day, and 27.5% versus 55.3% on the fifth day of intervention in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The incidence of VAP in the intervention group was significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that in patients with intravenous sedation, infusion of a daily sedation vacation protocol may reduce the incidence of VAP. Therefore, in order to prevent VAP, nurses are recommended to use this daily sedation vacation protocol.

  20. Effects of sequential treatments with eprinomectin on performance and grazing behaviour in dairy cattle under daily-paddock stocking management.

    PubMed

    Gibb, M J; Huckle, C A; Forbes, A B

    2005-10-10

    To evaluate the effect of gastrointestinal parasites on grazing behaviour, herbage intake and milk production in spring calving dairy cows, 12 naturally infected control cows were compared with 12 similar animals treated on three occasions (June, July and September) with eprinomectin. The cows were blocked according to calving date, parity, live weight and milk yield during week 2 after turnout and then allocated to the treatments. The grazing area was sub-divided into two sets of 12 replicated paddocks of equivalent size and topography. Pairs of either control or treated animals were randomly assigned to graze each paddock over the duration of the study. Within each plot, the pair of cows grazed a series of 1-day paddocks, of areas calculated to provide 72 kg of herbage dry matter measured to ground level. Faecal samples were collected from each cow in April, prior to allocation, and every 28 days thereafter. Samples were submitted for counts of nematode eggs (sensitivity 1 epg) and the presence of Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae. Additional faecal samples were taken on each occasion for culture and nematode identification. Pasture samples for direct larval counts were collected at the same time as faecal sampling. Behaviour measurements on all cows were made during three periods, once before the first treatment with eprinomectin and thence after the 2nd and 3rd treatments. During each behaviour measurement period, grazing and ruminating behaviour were recorded over two 24-h periods and measurements of components of short-term intake rate were made during a morning and a late afternoon grazing meal. Milk yield was recorded daily and milk quality was recorded weekly. Live weight and body condition score were recorded on the day of allocation, the day of initial treatment and thereafter at weekly intervals until the end of the trial. The parasitological results showed low levels of faecal egg output throughout the study with group arithmetic means ranging from 0 to 6

  1. Effects of stocking density and daily feed withdrawal periods on the performance of broiler chickens in a semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Rambau, Mashudu Daniel; Mudau, Mulanga Lenticia; Makhanya, Sibusiso David; Benyi, Kow

    2016-12-01

    Unsexed Ross 308 broilers were raised under three stocking densities (30, 35, and 40 kg BW/m(2)) and three daily feed withdrawal periods (0, 8, and 12 h daily) during a 42-day production period. The effects of stocking density and feed withdrawal on growth performance and carcass characteristics were investigated. The feed intake of broilers raised at the stocking density of 30 kg BW/m(2) was higher than those of broilers reared at 35 and 40 kg BW/m(2), but broilers raised under the different stocking densities did not differ significantly in 42-day body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality rate. Forty-two-day body weight, body weight gain, and feed intake were reduced as the duration of feed withdrawal increased, but feeding program affected neither feed conversion ratio nor mortality rate. There was a stocking density effect on thigh percentage while feeding program influenced breast, back, wing, neck, liver, gizzard, and heart percentages. There were stocking density × feed withdrawal interaction effects on feed intake during the starter and grower periods. It is suggested that for profitable broiler production in the tropics stocking density of 40 kg BW/m(2) and daily feed withdrawal for 8 h from 7 to 35 days of age be considered.

  2. Nonparametric temporal downscaling with event-based population generating algorithm for RCM daily precipitation to hourly: Model development and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taesam; Park, Taewoong

    2017-04-01

    It is critical to downscale temporally coarse GCM or RCM outputs (e.g., monthly or daily) to fine time scales, such as sub-daily or hourly. Recently, a temporal downscaling model employing a nonparametric framework (NTD) with k-nearest resampling and a genetic algorithm has been developed to preserve key statistics as well as the diurnal cycle. However, this model's usage can be limited in estimating precipitation for design storms or floods because the key statistics of annual maximum precipitation (AMP), especially for longer hourly durations, present a systematic bias that cannot be preserved due to the discontinuity of multiday consecutive precipitation events in the downscaling procedure. In the current study, we develop an approach to downscale a consecutive daily precipitation at once focusing on the reproduction of AMP totals for different durations instead of day-by-day downscaling. The proposed model has been verified with the precipitation datasets for the 60 stations across South Korea over the period 1979-2005. Additionally, two validation studies were performed with the recent datasets of 2006-2014 and nearest neighbor stations. The verification and the two validation tests conclude that the population-based NTD (PNTD) model proposed in the current study is superior to the existing NTD model in preserving the key statistics of the observed AMP series and suitable for downscaling future climate scenarios.

  3. Self-reported recall and daily diary-recorded measures of weight monitoring adherence: associations with heart failure-related hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christine D; Holmes, George M; DeWalt, Darren A; Erman, Brian; Wu, Jia-Rong; Cene, Crystal W; Baker, David W; Schillinger, Dean; Ruo, Bernice; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Macabasco-O'Connell, Aurelia; Hawk, Victoria; Broucksou, Kimberly; Pignone, Michael

    2014-01-31

    Weight monitoring is an important element of HF self-care, yet the most clinically meaningful way to evaluate weight monitoring adherence is uncertain. We conducted this study to evaluate the association of (1) self-reported recall and (2) daily diary-recorded weight monitoring adherence with heart failure-related (HF-related) hospitalization. We conducted a prospective cohort study among 216 patients within a randomized trial of HF self-care training. All patients had an initial self-care training session followed by 15 calls (median) to reinforce educational material; patients were also given digital scales, instructed to weigh daily, record weights in a diary, and mail diaries back monthly. Weight monitoring adherence was assessed with a self-reported recall question administered at 12 months and dichotomized into at least daily versus less frequent weighing. Diary-recorded weight monitoring was evaluated over 12 months and dichotomized into ≥80% and <80% adherence. HF-related hospitalizations were ascertained through patient report and confirmed through record review. Over 12 months in 216 patients, we identified 50 HF-related hospitalizations. Patients self-reporting daily or more frequent weight monitoring had an incidence rate ratio of 1.34 (95% CI 0.24-7.32) for HF-related hospitalizations compared to those reporting less frequent weight monitoring. Patients who completed ≥80% of weight diaries had an IRR of 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.75) for HF-related hospitalizations compared to patients who completed <80% of weight diaries. Self-reported recall of weight monitoring adherence was not associated with fewer HF hospitalizations. In contrast, diary-recorded adherence ≥80% of days was associated with fewer HF-related hospitalizations. Incorporating diary-based measures of weight monitoring adherence into HF self-care training programs may help to identify patients at risk for HF-related hospitalizations.

  4. Use of and reasons for using multiple other tobacco products in daily and nondaily smokers: Associations with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Michael S; Shadel, William G; Tucker, Joan S; Edelen, Maria O

    2016-11-01

    Use of other tobacco products (OTPs) among smokers is increasing. Little is known about types of OTP used and the reasons for use, and how OTP use and reasons for use correlate with smoking patterns and nicotine dependence in daily and nondaily smokers. This paper addresses these gaps in the literature. 656 daily smokers and 203 nondaily smokers provided information on their use of different OTPs (hookah, e-cigarettes, chew/snuff, snus, cigars, dissolvables), and reasons for using OTPs (e.g., "to cut down on smoking"), as well as their cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models assessed the association of smoking status with OTP use (ever and current) and reasons for use. Within each smoking group, separate logistic regression models examined the associations of OTP use and reasons for use with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Compared to daily smokers, nondaily smokers were more likely to use hookah and cigars, less likely to use dissolvables, and less likely to endorse using OTPs to reduce their smoking. Among non-daily smokers, nicotine dependence was associated with a higher likelihood of current OTP use (OR=1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.07]; p<0.05), whereas cigarette consumption was not. Results suggest OTP use in nondaily smokers does not correlate with less frequent smoking, but may correlate with higher nicotine dependence. Use of combustible OTPs among nondaily smokers may offset any potential benefits achieved through less frequent cigarette consumption. Providers should explicitly address OTP use when discussing cigarette cessation and reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between Anti-Dementia Treatment Persistence and Daily Dosage of the First Prescription: A Retrospective Analysis in Neuropsychiatric Practices in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bohlken, Jens; Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    High adherence and persistence are important for the efficacy of anti-dementia treatments. The goal of this study was to analyze the association between anti-dementia treatment persistence and daily dosage of the first prescription in patients treated in neuropsychiatric practices in Germany. This study included patients aged 60 years or over who were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and received anti-dementia prescriptions (galantamine, donepezil, memantine, and rivastigmine) for the first time between 2005 and 2014. The main outcome measure was the treatment persistence rate within 12 months after the index date as a function of the first dose. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the relation between persistence and daily dosages after adjusting for age, gender, and residence in nursing homes. In this study, 2,442, 5,669, 4,416, 642, and 2,334 patients received galantamine, donepezil, memantine, oral rivastigmine, and patch rivastigmine, respectively. After 12 months of follow-up, continuation rates were similar for individuals using different doses of galantamine, donepezil, oral rivastigmine, and patch rivastigmine, but were significantly different for those taking memantine. Patients using 20 mg of memantine were less likely to discontinue their treatment than patients using 10 mg (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80-0.96). There was no significant association between daily dosages and persistence for the other drugs (HRs ranging from 0.86 to 1.15). There was no significant association between treatment persistence and daily dosages in patients with Alzheimer's disease in Germany who were treated with galantamine, donepezil, or rivastigmine.

  6. Pain Acceptance Decouples the Momentary Associations Between Pain, Pain Interference, and Physical Activity in the Daily Lives of People With Chronic Pain and Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Anna L; Ehde, Dawn M; Bombardier, Charles H; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Hanks, Robin A

    2017-03-01

    Pain acceptance is a robust predictor of adjustment to chronic pain; however, the dynamics of pain acceptance in daily life are largely unexamined. Furthermore, research on pain acceptance in those with pain and physical disability is needed. To examine pain acceptance in daily life, we collected 7 days of ecological momentary assessments of pain intensity and pain interference (5 times per day) with continuous accelerometry (physical activity) in 128 individuals with chronic pain and spinal cord injury. Multilevel modeling revealed that pain acceptance significantly moderated the momentary association between pain intensity and pain interference; those with higher pain acceptance experienced a blunted increase in interference when pain was high. Pain acceptance also moderated the association between pain intensity and physical activity; high pain acceptance was associated with an increase and low pain acceptance with a decrease in physical activity in the context of high pain. The activities engagement component of pain acceptance was a slightly more robust driver of these interaction effects; whereas activities engagement significantly moderated the association between momentary pain and pain interference as well as physical activity, pain willingness exerted a significant moderating effect on the momentary association between pain intensity and pain interference only. These findings suggest that both components contribute to the decoupling effects of pain acceptance. Task persistence did not show the same moderating effects, indicating that pain acceptance may be unique from other types of behavioral pain coping in its ability to decouple expected associations between pain intensity, pain interference, and physical activity. In the daily lives of individuals with chronic pain and spinal cord injury, pain acceptance buffered expected increases in pain interference and decreases in physical activity in the context of high pain. These findings can inform further

  7. Effects of isolated or combined carbohydrate and caffeine supplementation between 2 daily training sessions on soccer performance.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Souza, Victor Amorim; Bertuzzi, Romulo; de Araujo, Gustavo Gomes; Bishop, David; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether isolated or combined carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) supplementation have beneficial effects on performance during soccer-related tests performed after a previous training session. Eleven male, amateur soccer players completed 4 trials in a randomized, double-blind, and crossover design. In the morning, participants performed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). Then, participants ingested (i) 1.2 g·kg(-1) body mass·h(-1) CHO in a 20% CHO solution immediately after and 1, 2, and 3 h after the LIST; (ii) CAF (6 mg·kg(-1) body mass) 3 h after the LIST; (iii) CHO combined with CAF (CHO+CAF); and (iv) placebo. All drinks were taste-matched and flavourless. After this 4-h recovery, participants performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) test, a Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT), and a repeated-sprint test. There were no main effects of supplementation for CMJ, LSPT total time, or best sprint and total sprint time from the repeated-sprint test (p>0.05). There were also no main effects of supplementation for heart rate, plasma lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pleasure-displeasure, and perceived activation (p>0.05). However, there were significant time effects (p<0.05), with heart rate, plasma lactate concentration, RPE, and perceived activation increasing with time, and pleasure-displeasure decreasing with time. In conclusion, isolated and/or combined CHO and CAF supplementation is not able to improve soccer-related performance tests when performed after a previous training session.

  8. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  9. Associations of daily walking and television viewing time with liver cancer mortality: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Shigekazu; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Wakai, Kenji; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2014-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that daily vigorous physical activity reduces the risk of liver cancer, whereas sedentary behavior increases the risk of several cancers. However, the link between liver cancer and low-intensity physical activity (walking) and sedentary behavior is unclear. Therefore, we explored the links between liver cancer mortality and daily walking time/television (TV) viewing time in Japanese adults aged 40-79 years in a large-scale nationwide cohort study. We excluded participants with a history of liver disease, cancer, stroke, or myocardial infarction at baseline (1988-1990) and those who died within the first 5 years of follow-up. A total of 69,752 adults (28,642 men and 41,110 women) were enrolled and followed for a median of 19.4 years. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for liver cancer mortality adjusted for age, sex, and other possible confounding factors. During the study period, 267 participants died of liver cancer. The HRs of participants who walked for >0.5 h/day and watched TV for 2-4 versus <2 h/day were 0.58 (95% CI 0.39-0.89) and 0.58 (95% CI 0.35-0.98), respectively, compared with those who walked for <0.5 h/day and watched TV for >4 h/day. Our findings suggest that longer walking times and shorter TV viewing times may reduce the risk of liver cancer.

  10. Persons with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease use verbal-instruction technology to manage daily activities: effects on performance and mood.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio; Singh, Nirbhay; O'Reilly, Mark; Zonno, Nadia; Flora, Antonio; Cassano, Germana; De Vanna, Floriana; De Bari, Anna Laura; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro

    2009-08-01

    To extend the evaluation of verbal-instruction technology for helping persons with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease recapture daily activities and improve their mood. Two studies targeted two activities (i.e. snack preparation/sharing and shaving) with six and three new participants, respectively. Intervention effects on activity performance were assessed through non-concurrent multiple baseline designs across participants. The impact of intervention (activity) on mood was assessed by recording indices of happiness or indices of unhappiness during activity and non-activity trials. The use of a technology providing verbal instructions helped all participants perform the target activities. Performance was largely accurate with seven of the participants. Eight of the participants also showed mood improvement (i.e. increases in indices of happiness or decreases in indices of happiness) during activity. These results suggest that the approach reported may be a useful strategy for helping persons with Alzheimer's disease enhance their activity and mood.

  11. Reproductive phase dependent daily variation in melatonin receptors (Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)), androgen receptor (AR) and lung associated immunity of Perdicula asiatica.

    PubMed

    Kharwar, R K; Haldar, C

    2011-06-01

    Our knowledge about the involvement of melatonin in the regulation of lung associated immune system (LAIS) is still poor though the melatonin receptor types (Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)) have been localized in lungs of some wild birds. We thought to explore the correlation between daily variation (within a 24h time scale) in peripheral melatonin and testosterone along with expression of melatonin receptors (Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)) and androgen receptor (AR) in lungs during reproductively active and inactive phases. Receptor expression of Mel(1b) was more prominent than Mel(1a) at all the time points during both the reproductive phases. The expression of AR was inversely related to both the melatonin and its receptor expression at the 24h time scale during both the reproductive phases. Results also reflected a parallel relationship of melatonin, melatonin receptors and all the immune parameters (total leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, % stimulation ratio) suggesting that peripheral melatonin might be responsible for daily periodicity of LAIS. The presence of androgen receptors in lung led us to propose that gonadal steroid does influence the LAIS. Therefore melatonin along with testosterone might be acting as a temporal synchronizer for daily rhythms in lung associated immunity in Perdicula asiatica during different reproductive phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical activity in daily life is associated with lower adiposity values than doing weekly sports in Lc65+ cohort at baseline.

    PubMed

    Danon-Hersch, Nadia; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2013-12-13

    Overweight and obesity prevalence is the highest at age 65-75 years in Lausanne (compared with younger classes). We aimed to describe 1) eating habits, daily physical activity (PA), and sports frequency in community-dwelling adults aged 65-70, 2) the links of these behaviors with socio-economic factors, and 3) with adiposity. Cross-sectional analysis of Lc65+ cohort at baseline, including 1260 adults from the general population of Lausanne aged 65-70 years. Eating habits (8 items from MNA) and PA (sports frequency and daily PA: walking and using stairs) were assessed by questionnaires. Body mass index (BMI), supra-iliac (SISF), triceps skin-folds (TSF), waist circumference (WC), and WHR were measured. Prevalence of overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2), and abdominal obesity was 53%, 24%, and 45% in men; 35%, 23%, and 45% in women.Intake of fruits or vegetables (FV) ≥ twice/day was negatively associated with male sex (prevalence 81% versus 90%, chi-square P < 0.001). The proportion avoiding stairs in daily life was higher among women (25%) than among men (20%, chi-square P=0.003).In multivariate analyses among both sexes, eating FV, using stairs in daily life ("stairs"), and doing sports ≥ once/week were significantly negatively associated with financial difficulties (stairs: OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.40-0.72) and positively with educational level (stairs: OR=1.68, 95% CI=1.17-2.43 for high school).For all five log-transformed adiposity indicators in women, and for all indicators except SISF and TSF in men, a gradual decrease in adiposity was observed from category "no stairs, sports < once/week" (reference), to "no stairs, sports ≥ once/week", to "stairs, sports < once/week", and "stairs, sports ≥ once/week" (for example: WC in men, respectively: ß= -0.03, 95% CI= -0.07-0.02; ß= -0.06, 95% CI= -0.09- -0.03; ß= -0.10, 95% CI= -0.12- -0.07). In this population with high overweight and obesity prevalence, eating FV and PA were

  13. Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents: current status and recommendations for the future. Pediatric Committee of the American Association for the Study of Headache.

    PubMed

    Gladstein, J; Holden, E W; Winner, P; Linder, S

    1997-01-01

    The Pediatric Committee of the American Association for the Study of Headache was created in 1994 to develop a plan for comprehensively addressing global issues of headache in childhood. It was the impression of clinicians and researchers with an interest in childhood headaches that a clearer focus was needed to facilitate progress in the study and management of pediatric headache. It was further felt that approaches to treatment and outcomes, as well as assessment and classification schema for pediatric patients needed to be examined separately. The goal of the committee is to integrate anecdotal, clinical, and research expertise into a plan for addressing headaches in the pediatric population in the future. During the last 5 years, substantial attention has been devoted to chronic daily headache, primarily in adult populations. It is the purpose of this paper to review the literature of chronic daily headache in children, and propose areas for further exploration, given the recent emergence of interest in this diagnostic entity.

  14. On the Importance of Knowing Your Partner’s Views: Attitude Familiarity is Associated with Better Interpersonal Functioning and Lower Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Birmingham, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Background Relationships have been linked to significant physical health outcomes. However, little is known about the more specific processes that might be responsible for such links. Purpose The main aim of this study was to examine a previously unexplored and potentially important form of partner knowledge (i.e., attitude familiarity) on relationship processes and cardiovascular function. Methods In this study, 47 married couples completed an attitude familiarity questionnaire and ambulatory assessments of daily spousal interactions and blood pressure. Results Attitude familiarity was associated with better interpersonal functioning between spouses in daily life (e.g., greater partner responsiveness). Importantly, attitude familiarity was also related to lower overall ambulatory systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions These data suggest that familiarity with a spouse’s attitudes may be an important factor linking relationships to better interpersonal and physical health outcomes. PMID:20878291

  15. Developing a service user informed intervention to improve participation and ability to perform daily activities in primary Sjögren's syndrome: a mixed-methods study protocol.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Katie L; Newton, Julia L; Deane, Katherine H O; Rapley, Tim; Deary, Vincent; Kolehmainen, Niina; Lendrem, Dennis; Ng, Wan-Fai

    2014-08-21

    A significant proportion of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) is functionally impaired and experience difficulties participating in various aspects of everyday life. There is currently no evidence of efficacy for non-pharmacological interventions aimed specifically at supporting the patients with PSS to improve their participation and ability to perform daily activities. This paper describes a research protocol for a mixed-methods study to develop an intervention to improve these outcomes. The protocol follows the Medical Research Council framework for complex interventions. We will use group concept mapping with the patients, adults who live with them and healthcare professionals to identify factors which prevent people with PSS from participating in daily life and performing daily activities. The factors will be prioritised by participants for importance and feasibility and will inform an intervention to be delivered within a National Health Service (NHS) setting. Evidence-based intervention techniques will be identified for the prioritised factors and combined into a deliverable intervention package. Key stakeholders will comment on the intervention content and mode of delivery through focus groups, and the data will be used to refine the intervention. The acceptability and feasibility of the refined intervention will be evaluated in a future study. The study has been approved by an NHS Research Ethics Committee, REC Reference: 13/NI/0190. The findings of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and through presentation at national and international conferences. UKCRN Study ID: 15939. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Effects of a daily mixed nutritional supplement on physical performance, body composition, and circulating anabolic hormones during 8 weeks of arduous military training.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Matthew B; Diment, Bethany C; Greeves, Julie P; Casey, Anna; Izard, Rachel; Walsh, Neil P

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of a daily mixed nutritional supplement upon body composition, physical performance, and circulating anabolic hormones in soldiers undergoing arduous training. Thirty males received either a habitual diet alone (CON, n = 15) or with the addition of a daily mixed supplement (SUP, n = 15) of ∼5.1 MJ·d⁻¹ during 8 weeks of training. Body composition (DEXA), maximal dynamic lift strength (MDLS), and vertical jump (VJ) were assessed, and resting blood samples were collected before and after training. Blood analysis included insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1, IGF BP-1, and IGF BP-3), testosterone, and cortisol. There were no group differences at baseline. Body mass loss (mean ± SD) (CON 5.0 ± 2.3, SUP 1.6 ± 1.5 kg), lean mass loss (CON 2.0 ± 1.5, SUP 0.7 ± 1.5 kg), and fat mass loss (CON 3.0 ± 1.6, SUP 0.9 ± 1.8 kg) were significantly blunted by SUP. CON experienced significant decrements in MDLS (14%), VJ (10%), and explosive leg power (11%) that were prevented by SUP. Military training significantly reduced circulating IGF-1 (28%), testosterone (19%), and the testosterone:cortisol ratio (24%) with no effect of SUP. Circulating IGF BP-1 concentration and cortisol remained unchanged throughout, although SUP abolished the significant decrease in circulating IGF BP-3 (20%) on CON. In conclusion, a daily mixed nutritional supplement attenuated decreases in body mass and lean mass and prevented the decrease in physical performance during an arduous military training program.

  17. Plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin are associated with average daily gain and feeding behavior in grow-finish pigs.

    PubMed

    Lents, C A; Brown-Brandl, T M; Rohrer, G A; Oliver, W T; Freking, B A

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of sex, sire line, and litter size on concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and total ghrelin in plasma of grow-finish pigs and to understand the relationship of plasma concentrations of ghrelin with feeding behavior, average daily gain (ADG), and back fat in grow-finish swine. Yorkshire-Landrace crossbred dams were inseminated with semen from Yorkshire, Landrace, or Duroc sires. Within 24 h of birth, pigs were cross-fostered into litter sizes of normal (N; >12 pigs/litter) or small (S; ≤ 9 pigs/litter). At 8 wk of age, pigs (n = 240) were blocked by sire breed, sex, and litter size and assigned to pens (n = 6) containing commercial feeders modified with a system to monitor feeding behavior. Total time eating, number of daily meals, and duration of meals were recorded for each individual pig. Body weight was recorded every 4 wk. Back fat and loin eye area were recorded at the conclusion of the 12-wk feeding study. A blood sample was collected at week 7 of the study to quantify concentrations of acyl- and total ghrelin in plasma. Pigs from small litters weighed more (P < 0.05) and tended (P = 0.07) to be fatter than pigs from normal litters. Postnatal litter size did not affect ADG, feeding behavior, or concentrations of ghrelin in plasma during the grow-finish phase. Barrows spent more time eating (P < 0.001) than gilts, but the number of meals and concentrations of ghrelin did not differ with sex of the pig. Pigs from Duroc and Yorkshire sires had lesser (P < 0.0001) concentrations of acyl-ghrelin than pigs from Landrace sires, but plasma concentrations of total ghrelin were not affected by sire breed. Concentrations of acyl-ghrelin were positively correlated with the number of meals and negatively correlated with meal length and ADG (P < 0.05). A larger number of short-duration meals may indicate that pigs with greater concentrations of acyl-ghrelin consumed less total feed, which likely explains why they were

  18. Differences in daily rhythms of wrist temperature between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The circadian rhythm of core body temperature is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical temperature measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal temperatures, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated w...

  19. Magnesium intake is associated with strength performance in elite basketball, handball and volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana Aguiar; Matias, Catarina Nunes; Monteiro, Cristina Paula; Silva, Analiza Mónica; Rocha, Paulo Manuel; Minderico, Cláudia Sofia; Bettencourt Sardinha, Luís; Laires, Maria José

    2011-12-01

    Magnesium plays significant roles in promoting strength. Surveys of athletes reveal that intake of magnesium is often below recommended levels. We aimed to understand the impact of magnesium intake on strength in elite male basketball, handball, and volleyball players. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed from seven-day diet record. Strength tests included maximal isometric trunk flexion, extension, and rotation, handgrip, squat and countermovement Abalakov jump, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion peak torques. Linear regression models were performed with significance at p<0.1. Mean magnesium intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. Regression analysis indicated that magnesium was directly associated with maximal isometric trunk flexion, rotation, and handgrip, with jumping performance tests, and with all isokinetic strength variables, independent of total energy intake. The observed associations between magnesium intake and muscle strength performance may result from the important role of magnesium in energetic metabolism, transmembrane transport and muscle contraction and relaxation.

  20. Happiness is pleasant, or is it? Implicit representations of affect valence are associated with contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect in daily life.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G

    2014-10-01

    People typically want to feel good. At times, however, they seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect. The prevalence of such contrahedonic motivation has been related to simultaneous experiences of positive and negative (i.e., mixed) affect. We investigated the role that implicit mental representations of affect valence may play in this regard in a study with N = 400 participants aged 11-88 years. Results demonstrated the age-fairness and reliability of the affect-valence Implicit Association Test, a newly developed implicit measure of interindividual differences in mental representations of affect valence. The older participants were, the more distinctively they implicitly associated happiness with pleasantness and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness. Participants furthermore carried mobile phones as assessment instruments with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants on average 54 times to report their momentary affective experience and affect-regulation motivation. Contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect were most prevalent among adolescents and least prevalent among older adults, and thus showed a similar pattern of age differences as the affect-valence Implicit Association Test. Furthermore, the more distinctive participants' implicit associations of happiness with pleasantness, and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness, the less likely participants were to report contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect in their daily lives. These findings contribute to a refined understanding of the mixed-affect perspective on contrahedonic motivation by demonstrating the respective role of implicit affect-valence representations.

  1. The relation between oral impacts on daily performances and perceived clinical oral conditions in primary school children in the Ugu District, Kwazulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, S; Sheiham, A; Tsakos, G

    2013-06-01

    Few studies have related the common oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) impacts in children to perceived causes. To assess the prevalence, extent and intensity of oral impacts in relation to perceived clinical conditions in primary school children in South Africa. Cross-sectional study of a random sample of children attending 26 schools. The Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) index, administered through individual face-to-face interviews, was used. Sixty four per cent of the sample of 2610 children aged 11-13 years participated. 36.2% reported having one or more oral impacts on daily performances, 61.1% having one affected and 63.1% reporting impacts were of "very little" or "little" intensity. Eating was most commonly affected (22.8%) mainly related to decay (40%), followed by cleaning the teeth (17.2%). Toothache impacted on speaking (32.5%), whereas toothache (35.7%) and tooth decay (28.6%) influenced studying. Position of teeth impacted on smiling (19.2%), social (8.5%) and speaking (7.5%). Bleeding gums" and "tooth colour" affected cleaning teeth and smiling respectively. The prevalence of oral impacts on the quality of life in this South African population of schoolchildren was relatively modest, as was the extent and intensity of the impacts, affecting mainly eating, cleaning of teeth and smiling.

  2. Examining the impact of 45 minutes of daily physical education on cognitive ability, fitness performance, and body composition of African American youth.

    PubMed

    Reed, Julian A; Maslow, Andrea L; Long, Savannah; Hughey, Morgan

    2013-02-01

    Increased importance on academic achievement has resulted in many school districts focusing on improved academic performance leading to reductions in physical education time. The purpose was to examine the effects of 45 minutes of daily physical education on the cognitive ability, fitness performance and body composition of African American elementary and middle school youth. Participants completing the informed consent in grades 2nd to 8th were included in the study. A pre/posttest design was used with repeated measures analysis of variance. Experimental and control school participants were pretested on the cognitive measures (ie, Fluid Intelligence and Perceptual Speed) and Fitnessgram® physical fitness test items (eg, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and muscular endurance, body composition) in September 2009 and posttested in May 2010. Experimental elementary and middle school participants observed significantly greater improvements compared with control elementary and middle school participants on 7 of 16 fitness and body composition measures and on 8 of 26 cognitive measures. These fitness, body composition, and cognitive improvement differences were more noticeable among elementary and middle school females. Providing 45 minutes of daily physical education can perhaps increase cognitive ability while increasing fitness and decreasing the prevalence of overweight and obese youth.

  3. Oral Impacts on Daily Performance in Norwegian adults: the influence of age, number of missing teeth, and socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Astrøm, A N; Haugejorden, O; Skaret, E; Trovik, T A; Klock, K S

    2006-04-01

    This study investigates the relationships among socio-demographic factors, dental status, and impaired oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using a translation into Norwegian of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) inventory. Data were collected as part of the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) OMNIBUS survey in Norway. The CBS drew a two-stage proportionate random sample, comprising 2,000 residents aged 16-79 yr, from the national population register. Information was available for 1,309 individuals (response rate 66.0%) who completed telephone interviews in November and December 2003. A total of 18.3% (95% confidence interval: 16.2-20.4) reported that an oral problem had affected at least one daily oral performance during the 6 months preceding the survey. The proportion of adults who confirmed impacts varied from 11.3% (eating) to 2.1% (social contact). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed statistically significant disparities regarding respondents' age, residential area, dental attendance, and number of remaining teeth. The prevalence of OIDP in the Norwegian population was modest, but varied systematically with both socio-demographic and oral health-related factors. The consistently declining OIDP with increasing age after controlling for dental status suggests age-related changes of participants' values and expectations.

  4. Managing Hypertriglyce