Yokokawa, Hirohide; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Moolphate, Saiyud; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Marui, Eiji
This cross-sectional study (February 2012 to March 2013) was conducted to estimate daily salt intake and basic characteristics among 793 community-dwelling participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (Framingham risk score >15%), who had visited diabetes or hypertension clinics at health centres in the Muang district, Chiang Rai, Thailand. We performed descriptive analysis of baseline data and used an automated analyser to estimate the average of 24-hour salt intake estimated from 3 days overnight urine collection. Participants were divided into two groups based on median estimated daily salt intake. Mean age and proportion of males were 65.2 years and 37.6% in the higher salt intake group (>=10.0 g/day, n=362), and 67.5 years and 42.7% in the lower salt intake group (<10.0 g/day, n=431), respectively (p=0.01, p<0.01). The higher salt intake group comprised more patients with a family history of hypertension, antihypertensive drug use, less ideal body mass index (18.5-24.9), higher exercise frequency (>=2 times weekly) and lower awareness of high salt intake. Among higher salt intake participants, those with lower awareness of high salt intake were younger and more often had a family history of hypertension, relative to those with more awareness. Our data indicated that families often share lifestyles involving high salt intake, and discrepancies between actual salt intake and awareness of high salt intake may represent a need for salt reduction intervention aiming at family level. Awareness of actual salt intake should be improved for each family.
Melse-Boonstra, A; Rexwinkel, H; Bulux, J; Solomons, N W; West, C E
To compare methods for estimating discretionary salt intake, that is, salt added during food preparation and consumption in the home. The study was carried out in a rural Guatemalan village. Subjects were selected non-randomly, based on their willingness to cooperate. Nine mother-son dyads participated; the sons were aged 6-9 y. Three approaches for estimating the discretionary salt consumption were used: 24 h recall; collection of duplicate portions of salt; and urinary excretion of lithium during consumption of lithium-labelled household salt. Total salt intake was assessed from the excretion of chloride over 24 h. The mean discretionary salt consumption based on lithium excretion for mothers was 3.9+/-2.0 g/d (mean +/- s.d.) and for children 1.3+/-0.6 g/d. Estimates from the 24 h recalls and from the duplicate portion method were approximately twice and three times those measured with the lithium-marker technique respectively. The salt intake estimated from the recall method was associated with the lithium-marker technique for both mothers and children (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.76 and 0.70 respectively). The mean daily coefficient of variation in consumption of discretionary salt measured by the three methods, for mothers and boys respectively, were: lithium marker, 51.7 and 43.7%; 24 h recall, 65.8 and 50.7%; and duplicate portion, 51.0 and 62.6%. We conclude that an interview method for estimating discretionary salt intake may be a reasonable approach for determining the relative rank-order in a population, especially among female food preparers themselves, but may grossly overestimate the actual intake of salt added during food preparation and consumption.
He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A
Strong evidence indicates that reduction of salt intake lowers blood pressure and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The WHO has set a global target of reducing the population salt intake from the current level of approximately 10 g daily to <5 g daily. This recommendation has been challenged by several studies, including cohort studies, which have suggested a J-shaped relationship between salt intake and CVD risk. However, these studies had severe methodological problems, such as reverse causality and measurement error due to assessment of salt intake by spot urine. Consequently, findings from such studies should not be used to derail vital public health policy. Gradual, stepwise salt reduction as recommended by the WHO remains an achievable, affordable, effective, and important strategy to prevent CVD worldwide. The question now is how to reduce population salt intake. In most developed countries, salt reduction can be achieved by a gradual and sustained reduction in the amount of salt added to food by the food industry. The UK has pioneered a successful salt-reduction programme by setting incremental targets for >85 categories of food; many other developed countries are following the UK's lead. In developing countries where most of the salt is added by consumers, public health campaigns have a major role. Every country should adopt a coherent, workable strategy. Even a modest reduction in salt intake across the whole population can lead to a major improvement in public health and cost savings.
Wu, Yongning; Li, Xiaowei; Chang, Suying; Liu, Liping; Zou, Shurong; Hipgrave, David Barry
Iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in China until the introduction of universal salt iodization in 1995. Concerns have recently arisen about possible excess iodine intake in this context. To document iodine intake and the contribution from iodized salt in China, we surveyed dietary iodine intake during China's nationally representative 2007 total diet study (TDS) and during an additional TDS in 4 coastal provinces and Beijing in 2009. Iodine intake was broken down by age and sex in 2009. Mean daily iodine and salt intake and the contribution from different food and beverage groups (and in 2009, individual items) was measured. The iodine in food cooked with iodized and noniodized salt was also assessed. The mean calculated iodine intake of a standard male in China was 425 μg/d in 2007 and 325 μg/d in coastal areas in 2009, well below the upper limit (UL) in all provinces. In 2009, iodine intake was above the UL in only 1-7% of age-sex groups, except among children (18-19%). A concerning number of individuals consumed less than the WHO-recommended daily allowance, including 31.5% of adult women. Salt contributed 63.5% of food iodine, and 24.6% of salt iodine was lost in cooking. Overall salt consumption declined between the surveys. Salt iodization assures iodine nutrition in China where environmental iodine is widely lacking. The risk of iodine excess is low, but planned decreases in salt iodization levels may increase the existing risk of inadequate intake. Regular monitoring of urinary iodine and more research on the impact of excess iodine intake is recommended.
Temme, Elisabeth H. M.; Hendriksen, Marieke A. H.; Milder, Ivon E. J.; Toxopeus, Ido B.; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A. M.; van der A, Daphne L.
Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015). Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. Conclusion. In the
Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L
High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006-2015). To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. In the Netherlands, the salt content of bread, certain sauces, soups
Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim
Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.
Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468
Zhang, Gen-hong; Li, Su-mei; Zheng, He-ming; Wang, Chuan-gang; Liu, Lie-jun; Li, Xiu-wei; Zhang, Hao-feng; Ke, Geng-yin; Ma, Jian-guo; Yang, Jin; Ma, Ying; Liu, Jin-wen
To investigate the amount of daily iodine intake in the diet of the target population in drinking water with areas of excessive iodine after stopping supply of iodized salt, to provide evidence for developing strategies on control and prevention of excessive iodine. 335 objectives were selected by a two-stage sampling method in 4 administrative villages with different iodine contents in drinking water. The amount of drinking water intake and dietary survey for 335 people were done by a door-to-door survey,while the iodine contents in the drinking water of each selected family, local staple food and vegetable were measured. The median level of iodine in drinking water was 431.5 microg/L while the daily amount of iodine intake among the three groups of waters with different iodine contents were all greater than RNI. The daily iodine intake of local people was all greater than UL in the areas where the water iodine contents were more than 300 microg/L. It was of statistical sense that the iodine mean intake per capita per day of the three groups differed at different water iodine levels (P < 0.01). The iodine mean intake per capita per day of the three groups of different water iodine levels increased along with water iodine and showed a uptrend (P < 0.01). 83.2%-98.7% of the daily iodine intake of the three groups was from drinking water and 1.3%-16.8% came from food. The iodine intake had high-positive correlation relation with the content of water iodine (P < 0.01). It was concluded that drinking water was the main source of iodine intake in areas with iodine excessive water by the percentage of over 80%. It was necessary to adopt measures to improve the quality of water to decrease the iodine content other than just stopping supplies of iodized salt in the areas where the water iodine contents were greater than 300 microg/L, in order to prevent and control excessive intake of iodine.
Petersen, Kristina S; Wu, Jason H Y; Webster, Jacqui; Grimes, Carley; Woodward, Mark; Nowson, Caryl A; Neal, Bruce
Spot urine samples are easier to collect than 24-h urine samples and have been used with estimating equations to derive the mean daily salt intake of a population. Whether equations using data from spot urine samples can also be used to estimate change in mean daily population salt intake over time is unknown. We compared estimates of change in mean daily population salt intake based upon 24-h urine collections with estimates derived using equations based on spot urine samples. Paired and unpaired 24-h urine samples and spot urine samples were collected from individuals in two Australian populations, in 2011 and 2014. Estimates of change in daily mean population salt intake between 2011 and 2014 were obtained directly from the 24-h urine samples and by applying established estimating equations (Kawasaki, Tanaka, Mage, Toft, INTERSALT) to the data from spot urine samples. Differences between 2011 and 2014 were calculated using mixed models. A total of 1000 participants provided a 24-h urine sample and a spot urine sample in 2011, and 1012 did so in 2014 (paired samples n = 870; unpaired samples n = 1142). The participants were community-dwelling individuals living in the State of Victoria or the town of Lithgow in the State of New South Wales, Australia, with a mean age of 55 years in 2011. The mean (95% confidence interval) difference in population salt intake between 2011 and 2014 determined from the 24-h urine samples was -0.48g/day (-0.74 to -0.21; P < 0.001). The corresponding result estimated from the spot urine samples was -0.24 g/day (-0.42 to -0.06; P = 0.01) using the Tanaka equation, -0.42 g/day (-0.70 to -0.13; p = 0.004) using the Kawasaki equation, -0.51 g/day (-1.00 to -0.01; P = 0.046) using the Mage equation, -0.26 g/day (-0.42 to -0.10; P = 0.001) using the Toft equation, -0.20 g/day (-0.32 to -0.09; P = 0.001) using the INTERSALT equation and -0.27 g/day (-0.39 to -0.15; P < 0.001) using the
Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim
Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747
Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens
Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435
Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishii, Yuri; Tsugane, Shoichiro
Reducing dietary salt intake remains a challenging issue in the management of chronic disease. Taste preference is suspected to be an important proxy index of daily sodium consumption. This study examined the difference in daily sodium intake according to self-reported taste preference for miso soup as representative of homemade cooking in middle-aged urban Japanese adults. Among 896 candidates randomly selected from examinees of cancer screening provided by the National Cancer Center, Japan, 143 men and women participated in this cross-sectional study. During the period from May 2007 through April 2008, participants provided a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on taste preference and dietary behaviors, a weighed food record over 4 consecutive days, a simultaneous 24-hour urine collection, and a sample of miso soup as it is usually prepared in the home. Mean 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and daily sodium intake were compared according to the self-reported taste preference for miso soup. Taste preference was significantly associated with both 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (trend P<0.01) and daily sodium intake (trend P=0.01), with a corresponding regression coefficient per 1 rank preference increment of 403 mg and 315 mg/day, respectively. The observed association between preference and urinary excretion was attenuated by further adjustment for discretionary salt-related behaviors. These findings suggest that self-reported taste preference for homemade cooking is a defining feature of daily sodium intake through discretionary salt-related dietary behaviors. A reduction in daily sodium consumption per 1 rank light preference was estimated to equate to approximately 1 g salt/day. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
YASUTAKE, KENICHIRO; SAWANO, KAYOKO; YAMAGUCHI, SHOKO; SAKAI, HIROKO; AMADERA, HATSUMI; TSUCHIHASHI, TAKUYA
This study aimed to examine the usefulness of the self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion for educating individuals about the risk of excessive dietary salt intake. The subjects were 30 volunteers (15 men and 15 women) not consuming anti-hypertensive medication. The subjects measured urinary salt excretion at home for 4 weeks using a self-monitoring device. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric variables and nutritional variables (by a dietary-habits questionnaire) were measured before and after the measurement of urinary salt excretion. Statistical analyses were performed, including paired t-tests, Chi-square test, Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis. In all subjects, the average urinary salt excretion over 4 weeks was 8.05±1.61 g/day and the range (maximum-minimum value) was 5.58±2.15 g/day. Salt excretion decreased significantly in weeks 3 and 4 (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Diastolic BP decreased from 77.7±14.3 (at baseline) to 74.3±13.3 after 4 weeks (P<0.05), while systolic BP and anthropometric variables remained unchanged. Nutrition surveys indicated that energy intake was correlated with salt intake both before and after the measurements; changes in both variables during the observation period were correlated (r=0.40, P<0.05). The percentage of subjects who were aware of the restriction in dietary salt intake increased from 47 to 90%. In conclusion, daily monitoring of the amount of urinary salt excretion using a self-monitoring device appears to be an effective educational tool for improving the quality of life of healthy adults. PMID:22977549
Yasutake, Kenichiro; Sawano, Kayoko; Yamaguchi, Shoko; Sakai, Hiroko; Amadera, Hatsumi; Tsuchihashi, Takuya
This study aimed to examine the usefulness of the self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion for educating individuals about the risk of excessive dietary salt intake. The subjects were 30 volunteers (15 men and 15 women) not consuming anti-hypertensive medication. The subjects measured urinary salt excretion at home for 4 weeks using a self-monitoring device. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric variables and nutritional variables (by a dietary-habits questionnaire) were measured before and after the measurement of urinary salt excretion. Statistical analyses were performed, including paired t-tests, Chi-square test, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis. In all subjects, the average urinary salt excretion over 4 weeks was 8.05±1.61 g/day and the range (maximum-minimum value) was 5.58±2.15 g/day. Salt excretion decreased significantly in weeks 3 and 4 (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Diastolic BP decreased from 77.7±14.3 (at baseline) to 74.3±13.3 after 4 weeks (P<0.05), while systolic BP and anthropometric variables remained unchanged. Nutrition surveys indicated that energy intake was correlated with salt intake both before and after the measurements; changes in both variables during the observation period were correlated (r=0.40, P<0.05). The percentage of subjects who were aware of the restriction in dietary salt intake increased from 47 to 90%. In conclusion, daily monitoring of the amount of urinary salt excretion using a self-monitoring device appears to be an effective educational tool for improving the quality of life of healthy adults.
Rust, Petra; Ekmekcioglu, Cem
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown. Various mechanisms for salt-dependent hypertension have been put forward including volume expansion, modified renal functions and disorders in sodium balance, impaired reaction of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system and the associated receptors, central stimulation of the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, and possibly also inflammatory processes.Not every person reacts to changes in dietary salt intake with alterations in blood pressure, dividing people in salt sensitive and insensitive groups. It is estimated that about 50-60 % of hypertensives are salt sensitive. In addition to genetic polymorphisms, salt sensitivity is increased in aging, in black people, and in persons with metabolic syndrome or obesity. However, although mechanisms of salt-dependent hypertensive effects are increasingly known, more research on measurement, storage and kinetics of sodium, on physiological properties, and genetic determinants of salt sensitivity are necessary to harden the basis for salt reduction recommendations.Currently estimated dietary intake of salt is about 9-12 g per day in most countries of the world. These amounts are significantly above the WHO recommended level of less than 5 g salt per day. According to recent research results a moderate reduction of daily salt intake from current intakes to 5-6 g can reduce
Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A
To measure total daily salt intake using 24 h urinary Na excretion within a sample of Victorian schoolchildren aged 5-13 years and to assess discretionary salt use habits of children and parents. Cross-sectional study. Completed within a convenience sample of independent primary schools (n 9) located in Victoria, Australia. Two hundred and sixty children completed a 24 h urine collection over a school (34%) or non-school day (66%). Samples deemed incomplete (n 18), an over-collection (n 1) or that were incorrectly processed at the laboratory (n 3) were excluded. The sample comprised 120 boys and 118 girls with a mean age of 9.8 (SD 1.7) years. The average 24 h urinary Na excretion (n 238) was 103 (SD 43) mmol/24 h (salt equivalent 6.0 (SD 2.5) g/d). Daily Na excretion did not differ by sex; boys 105 (SD 46) mmol/24 h (salt equivalent 6.1 (SD 2.7) g/d) and girls 100 (SD 41) mmol/24 h (salt equivalent 5.9 (SD 2.4) g/d; P=0.38). Sixty-nine per cent of children (n 164) exceeded the recommended daily Upper Limit for Na. Reported discretionary salt use was common: two-thirds of parents reported adding salt during cooking and almost half of children reported adding salt at the table. The majority of children had salt intakes exceeding the recommended daily Upper Limit. Strategies to lower salt intake in children are urgently required, and should include product reformulation of lower-sodium food products combined with interventions targeting discretionary salt use within the home.
Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Nowson, Caryl A
The objective of this study was to investigate consumers' knowledge of health risks of high salt intake and frequency of use and understanding of labelled salt information. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in shopping centres within Metropolitan Melbourne. A sample of 493 subjects was recruited. The questionnaire assessed salt related shopping behaviours, attitudes to salt intake and health and their ability to interpret labelled sodium information. Four hundred and seventy four valid surveys were collected (65% female, 64% being the main shopper). Most participants knew of the relationship between salt intake and high blood pressure (88%). Sixty five percent of participants were unable to correctly identify the relationship between salt and sodium. Sixty nine percent reported reading the salt content of food products when shopping. Salt label usage was significantly related to shoppers concern about the amount of salt in their diet and the belief that their health could improve by lowering salt intake. Approximately half of the sample was unable to accurately use labelled sodium information to pick low salt options. Raising consumer awareness of the health risks associated with high salt consumption may increase salt label usage and purchases of low salt foods. However, for food labels to be effective in helping consumers select low salt foods a more 'user friendly' labelling format is needed.
Li, Qiang; Cui, Yuanting; Jin, Rongbing; Lang, Hongmei; Yu, Hao; Sun, Fang; He, Chengkang; Ma, Tianyi; Li, Yingsha; Zhou, Xunmei; Liu, Daoyan; Jia, Hongbo; Chen, Xiaowei; Zhu, Zhiming
High salt intake is a major risk factor for hypertension and is associated with cardiovascular events. Most countries exhibit a traditionally high salt intake; thus, identification of an optimal strategy for salt reduction at the population level may have a major impact on public health. In this multicenter, random-order, double-blind observational and interventional study, subjects with a high spice preference had a lower salt intake and blood pressure than subjects who disliked spicy food. The enjoyment of spicy flavor enhanced salt sensitivity and reduced salt preference. Salt intake and salt preference were related to the regional metabolic activity in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of participants. Administration of capsaicin-the major spicy component of chili pepper-enhanced the insula and OFC metabolic activity in response to high-salt stimuli, which reversed the salt intensity-dependent differences in the metabolism of the insula and OFC. In animal study, OFC activity was closely associated with salt preference, and salty-taste information processed in the OFC was affected in the presence of capsaicin. Thus, interventions related to this region may alter the salt preference in mice through fiber fluorometry and optogenetic techniques. In conclusion, enjoyment of spicy foods may significantly reduce individual salt preference, daily salt intake, and blood pressure by modifying the neural processing of salty taste in the brain. Application of spicy flavor may be a promising behavioral intervention for reducing high salt intake and blood pressure. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Satoh, Michihiro; Tanno, Yumi; Hosaka, Miki; Metoki, Hirohito; Obara, Taku; Asayama, Kei; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masakuni; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka
Information regarding salt intake in pregnant women in Japan is limited. An electronic system for the assessment of salt intake using a 24-h dietary recall method has been developed in Japan. The objectives of the present study were to investigate salt intake in pregnant women and to compare the salt intake estimated by the electronic salt intake assessment system with that measured by 24-h urinary salt excretion (24-hUNaCl). Data were collected on 24-hUNaCl and salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system for 35 pregnant Japanese women at approximately 20 weeks of gestation. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl (24-hUNaCl/[the number of urinations during the examination day--the number of missing urine collections] × the number of urinations during the examination day, g/day) was used as a standard. The mean adjusted 24-hUNaCl was 7.7 ± 2.5 g/day, and mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure values were 106.1 ± 8.6/62.8 ± 6.5 mmHg. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl was significantly correlated with the salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant mean difference (adjusted 24-hUNaCl--salt intake estimated by the assessment system = -0.36 g/day, p = 0.4) and no significant proportional bias (p = 0.1). These results suggest that pregnant women in Japan restrict their salt intake, at least when they are being examined for salt intake. They also suggest that repeated use of the described system may be useful in estimating salt intake in pregnant women.
Xu, Yijuan; Wang, Wenzhe; Wang, Minmin; Liu, Xuejiao; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Wang, Mingfu; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Wei
Diet-related factors are thought to modify the risk of cancers, while the influence of high salt intake remains largely uncharacterized. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In the present study, we examined the effect of salt intake on breast cancer by using a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model. Unexpectedly, both the fitness and the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice were improved by high salt intake. Similarly, high salt intake suppressed the primary tumor growth as well as metastasis to lung in mice. Mechanistically, high salt intake greatly reduced food intake and thus might exert antitumor effect through mimicking calorie restriction. Immunoblotting showed the lower proliferation marker Ki-67 and the higher expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53 in tumors of high salt intake mice. Importantly, high salt intake might induce hyperosmotic stress, which sensitized breast cancer cells to p53-dependent anoikis. Collectively, our findings raise the possibility that endogenous salt deposition might act as the first-line defense system against breast cancer progression as well as metastasis.
Millett, Christopher; Laverty, Anthony A; Stylianou, Neophytos; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Pape, Utz J
The UK introduced an ambitious national strategy to reduce population levels of salt intake in 2003. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strategy on salt intake in England, including potential effects on health inequalities. Secondary analysis of data from the Health Survey for England. Our main outcome measure was trends in estimated daily salt intake from 2003-2007, as measured by spot urine. Secondary outcome measures were knowledge of government guidance and voluntary use of salt in food preparation over this time period. There were significant reductions in salt intake between 2003 and 2007 (-0.175 grams per day per year, p<0.001). Intake decreased uniformly across all other groups but remained significantly higher in younger persons, men, ethnic minorities and lower social class groups and those without hypertension in 2007. Awareness of government guidance on salt use was lowest in those groups with the highest intake (semi-skilled manual v professional; 64.9% v 71.0% AOR 0.76 95% CI 0.58-0.99). Self reported use of salt added at the table reduced significantly during the study period (56.5% to 40.2% p<0.001). Respondents from ethnic minority groups remained significantly more likely to add salt during cooking (white 42.8%, black 74.1%, south Asian 88.3%) and those from lower social class groups (unskilled manual 46.6%, professional 35.2%) were more likely to add salt at the table. The introduction a national salt reduction strategy was associated with uniform but modest reductions in salt intake in England, although it is not clear precisely which aspects of the strategy contributed to this. Knowledge of government guidance was lower and voluntary salt use and total salt intake was higher among occupational and ethnic groups at greatest risk of cardiovascular disease.
Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce
The scientific evidence base in support of population-wide salt reduction is strong, but current high-quality data about salt intake levels in India are mostly absent. This project sought to estimate daily salt consumption levels in selected communities of Delhi and Haryana in north India and Andhra Pradesh in south India. In this study, 24-hour urine samples were collected using an age- and sex-stratified sampling strategy in rural, urban, and slum areas. Salt intake estimates were made for the overall population of each region and for major subgroups by weighting the survey data for the populations of Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. Complete 24-hour urine samples were available for 637 participants from Delhi and Haryana and 758 from Andhra Pradesh (65% and 68% response rates, respectively). Weighted mean population 24-hour urine excretion of salt was 8.59 g/day (95% CI 7.68-9.51) in Delhi and Haryana and 9.46 g/day (95% CI 9.06-9.85) in Andhra Pradesh (P=0.097). Estimates inflated to account for the minimum likely nonurinary losses of sodium provided corresponding estimates of daily salt intake of 9.45 g/day (95% CI 8.45-10.46) and 10.41 g/day (95% CI 9.97-10.84), respectively. Salt consumption in India is high, with mean population intake well above the World Health Organization recommended maximum of 5 g/day. A national salt reduction program would likely avert much premature death and disability. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Hashimoto, Tomomi; Takase, Hiroyuki; Okado, Tateo; Sugiura, Tomonori; Yamashita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Genjiro; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki
The close association between dietary salt and hypertension is well established. However, previous studies generally assessed salt intake without adjustment for body weight. Herein, we investigated the significance of body weight-adjusted salt intake in the general population. The present cross-sectional study included 7629 participants from our yearly physical checkup program, and their salt intake was assessed using a spot urine test to estimate 24-hour urinary salt excretion. Total salt intake increased with increasing body weight. Body weight-adjusted salt intake was greater in participants with hypertension than in those without hypertension. Systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin were independently correlated with body weight-adjusted salt intake after adjustment for possible cardiovascular risk factors. Excessive body weight-adjusted salt intake could be related to an increase in blood pressure and hypertensive organ damage. Adjustment for body weight might therefore provide clinically important information when assessing individual salt intake. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
D'Elia, Lanfranco; Galletti, Ferruccio; Strazzullo, Pasquale
Humans began to use large amounts of salt for the main purpose of food preservation approximately 5,000 years ago and, although since then advanced technologies have been developed allowing drastic reduction in the use of salt for food storage, excess dietary salt intake remains very common. Gastric cancer is a common neoplasia, and dietary factors, including salt consumption, are considered relevant to its causation. A number of experimental studies supported the cocarcinogenic effect of salt through synergic action with Helicobacter pylori infection, in addition to some independent effects such as increase in the rate of cell proliferation and of endogenous mutations. Many epidemiological studies analyzed the relationship between excess salt intake and risk of gastric cancer. Both cross-sectional and prospective studies indicated a possibly dose-dependent positive association. In particular, a comprehensive meta-analysis of longitudinal studies detected a strong adverse effect of total salt intake and salt-rich foods on the risk of gastric cancer in the general population. Altogether, the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence supports the possibility of a substantial reduction in the rates of gastric cancer through progressive reduction in population salt intake.
He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A
Raised blood pressure is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, responsible for 62% of stroke and 49% of coronary heart disease. There is overwhelming evidence that dietary salt is the major cause of raised blood pressure and that a reduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure, thereby, reducing blood pressure-related diseases. Several lines of evidence including ecological, population, and prospective cohort studies, as well as outcome trials, demonstrate that a reduction in salt intake is related to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence also suggests that a high salt intake may directly increase the risk of stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy, and renal disease; is associated with obesity through soft drink consumption; is related to renal stones and osteoporosis; is linked to the severity of asthma; and is probably a major cause of stomach cancer. In most developed countries, a reduction in salt intake can be achieved by a gradual and sustained reduction in the amount of salt added to foods by the food industry. In other countries where most of the salt consumed comes from salt added during cooking or from sauces, a public health campaign is needed to encourage consumers to use less salt. Several countries have already reduced salt intake. The challenge now is to spread this out to all other countries. A modest reduction in population salt intake worldwide will result in a major improvement in public health. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yatabe, Midori Sasaki; Watanabe, Ami; Takano, Kozue; Sanada, Hironobu; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Felder, Robin A.; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Kimura, Junko; Yatabe, Junichi
The Na/K ratio is considered to be a useful index, the monitoring of which allows an effective Na reduction and K increase, because practical methods (self-monitoring devices and reliable individual estimates from spot urine) are available for assessing these levels in individuals. An intervention trial for lowering the Na/K ratio has demonstrated that a reduction of the Na/K ratio mainly involved Na reduction, with only a small change in K. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between dietary Na intake and the urinary Na/K molar ratio, using standardized low- and high-salt diets, with an equal dietary K intake, to determine the corresponding Na/K ratio. Fourteen healthy young adult volunteers ingested low-salt (3 g salt per day) and high-salt (20 g salt per day) meals for seven days each. Using a portable urinary Na/K meter, participants measured their spot urine at each voiding, and 24-h urine was collected on the last day of each diet period. On the last day of the unrestricted, low-salt, and high-salt diet periods, the group averages of the 24-h urine Na/K ratio were 4.2, 1.0, and 6.9, while the group averages of the daily mean spot urine Na/K ratio were 4.2, 1.1, and 6.6, respectively. The urinary Na/K ratio tracked changes in dietary salt intake, and reached a plateau approximately three days after each change in diet. Frequent monitoring of the spot urine Na/K ratio may help individuals adhere to an appropriate dietary Na intake. PMID:28850062
Yatabe, Midori Sasaki; Iwahori, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Ami; Takano, Kozue; Sanada, Hironobu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Felder, Robin A; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Kimura, Junko; Yatabe, Junichi
The Na/K ratio is considered to be a useful index, the monitoring of which allows an effective Na reduction and K increase, because practical methods (self-monitoring devices and reliable individual estimates from spot urine) are available for assessing these levels in individuals. An intervention trial for lowering the Na/K ratio has demonstrated that a reduction of the Na/K ratio mainly involved Na reduction, with only a small change in K. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between dietary Na intake and the urinary Na/K molar ratio, using standardized low- and high-salt diets, with an equal dietary K intake, to determine the corresponding Na/K ratio. Fourteen healthy young adult volunteers ingested low-salt (3 g salt per day) and high-salt (20 g salt per day) meals for seven days each. Using a portable urinary Na/K meter, participants measured their spot urine at each voiding, and 24-h urine was collected on the last day of each diet period. On the last day of the unrestricted, low-salt, and high-salt diet periods, the group averages of the 24-h urine Na/K ratio were 4.2, 1.0, and 6.9, while the group averages of the daily mean spot urine Na/K ratio were 4.2, 1.1, and 6.6, respectively. The urinary Na/K ratio tracked changes in dietary salt intake, and reached a plateau approximately three days after each change in diet. Frequent monitoring of the spot urine Na/K ratio may help individuals adhere to an appropriate dietary Na intake.
Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Tewolde, Teclemicael K.; Forte, Camille; Wang, Min; Bayorh, Mohamed A.; Emmett, Nerimiah L.; White, Jolanda; Griffin, Keri
Dahl salt-sensitive rats, but not salt-resistant rats, develop hypertension in response to high salt intake. We have previously shown an inverse relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and blood pressure of Dahl salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake. In this study, we report on the relationship between high salt intake and plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25-(OH)(2)D) concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rats. Rats were fed a high salt diet (8%) and sacrificed at day 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentrations of salt-sensitive rats were reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 2-when blood pressure and plasma 25-OHD concentration were unchanged, but 25-OHD content in the kidney was 81% of that at baseline. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration was reduced further to 10% of that at baseline from day 7 to 14 of high salt intake, a reduction that was prevented in rats switched to a low salt (0.3%) diet at day 7. Exogenous 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (24,25-(OH)(2)D(3)), administered at a level that increased plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration to five times normal, did not attenuate the salt-induced hypertension of salt-sensitive rats. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration of salt-resistant rats was gradually reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 14 and returned to baseline value at day 28 of high salt intake. We conclude that the decrease in plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration in salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake is caused by decreased 25-OHD content in the kidney and also by another unidentified mechanism.
Hasenegger, Verena; Rust, Petra; Purtscher, Anna Elisabeth; Erler, Judith; Ekmekcioglu, Cem
Excessive salt intake is known to increase blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, salt intake exceeds the recommendations in most countries. To face this problem, it is important to identify high consumers as well as the main contributors of salt intake. Overall, data of 2018 adults between 18 and 64 years were analysed to determine the main sources, socio-demographic and anthropometric correlates of salt intake. Dietary intake was assessed from 24-h-recalls, information on socio-demographic characteristics was obtained using a questionnaire and anthropometric data were measured. Salt intake was significantly higher in males than in females. There was a significant positive association between salt intake and body mass index. No significant differences in salt intake were observed for other variables including affluence, educational level, smoking status and physical activity. The main contributor to salt intake were condiments including table salt (32.6%), followed by cereals and cereal products (27.0%), meat and meat products (16.1%) and dairy products (14.0%). These results highlight that specific population groups need to be targeted by public health initiatives and that a reduction in salt intake can only be achieved in tandem with the food producers by the reduction of salt in processed foods. PMID:29509671
Trieu, Kathy; McMahon, Emma; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Bauman, Adrian; Jolly, Kellie-Ann; Bolam, Bruce; Webster, Jacqui
Excess salt intake is a major cause of raised blood pressure-the leading risk factor for death and disability worldwide. Although behaviour change interventions such as awareness campaigns and health education programs are implemented to reduce salt intake, their effectiveness is unclear. This global systematic review investigates the impact of population-level behaviour change interventions that aim to reduce salt intake. A search for published and grey literature was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, Sage, Scopus, OpenGrey, Google Scholar and other relevant organizations' websites. Studies were included if 1) published between 2005 and 2015; 2) the education or awareness-raising interventions were aimed at the population or sub-population and 3) salt intake and/or salt-related behaviours were outcome measures. Study and intervention characteristics were extracted for the descriptive synthesis and study quality was assessed. Twenty two studies involving 41,448 participants were included. Most were conducted in high income countries (n = 16), targeting adults (n = 21) in the general population (n = 16). Behaviour change interventions were categorised as health education interventions (n = 14), public awareness campaigns (n = 4) and multi-component interventions (including both health education and awareness campaigns, n = 4). 19 of the 22 studies demonstrated significant reductions in estimated salt intake and/or improvement in salt-related behaviours. All studies showed high risk of bias in one or more domains. Of the 10 higher quality studies, 5 found a significant effect on salt intake or salt behaviours based on the more objective outcome assessment method. Based on moderate quality of evidence, population-level behaviour change interventions can improve salt-related behaviours and/or reduce salt intake. However, closer analysis of higher quality studies show inconsistent evidence of the effectiveness and
Ji, Chen; Cappuccio, Francesco P
Objectives The impact of the national salt reduction programme in the UK on social inequalities is unknown. We examined spatial and socioeconomic variations in salt intake in the 2008–2011 British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) and compared them with those before the programme in 2000–2001. Setting Cross-sectional survey in Great Britain. Participants 1027 Caucasian males and females, aged 19–64 years. Primary outcome measures Participants’ dietary sodium intake measured with a 4-day food diary. Bayesian geo-additive models used to assess spatial and socioeconomic patterns of sodium intake accounting for sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural confounders. Results Dietary sodium intake varied significantly across socioeconomic groups, even when adjusting for geographical variations. There was higher dietary sodium intake in people with the lowest educational attainment (coefficient: 0.252 (90% credible intervals 0.003, 0.486)) and in low levels of occupation (coefficient: 0.109 (−0.069, 0.288)). Those with no qualification had, on average, a 5.7% (0.1%, 11.1%) higher dietary sodium intake than the reference group. Compared to 2000-2001 the gradient of dietary sodium intake from south to north was attenuated after adjustments for confounders. Estimated dietary sodium consumption from food sources (not accounting for discretionary sources) was reduced by 366 mg of sodium (∼0.9 g of salt) per day during the 10-year period, likely the effect of national salt reduction initiatives. Conclusions Social inequalities in salt intake have not seen a reduction following the national salt reduction programme and still explain more than 5% of salt intake between more and less affluent groups. Understanding the socioeconomic pattern of salt intake is crucial to reduce inequalities. Efforts are needed to minimise the gap between socioeconomic groups for an equitable delivery of cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25161292
Lee, Bong Han; Nam, Tae Gyu; Park, Na Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok
To estimate daily intake of total phenolics and flavonoids from green tea and the contribution of green tea to the antioxidant intake from the Korean diet, 24 commercial brands of green tea were selected and analyzed. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 and 2011 indicate that the green tea consumption in these 2 years was 2.8 g/tea drinker/day and 2.9 g/tea drinker/day, respectively. Based on data derived from direct measurements of green tea phenolics and the dataset of the 2008 KNHANES, we estimated the daily per tea drinker phenolics intake to be 172 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), the total flavonoids to be 43 mg catechin equivalents (CE) and the total antioxidants to be 267 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and 401 mg VCE (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay). In 2011, we estimated the daily per tea drinker total phenolics intake to be 246 mg GAE, the total flavonoids to be 60 mg CE and the antioxidants to be 448 mg VCE (DPPH assay) and 630 mg VCE (ABTS assay). The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants from green tea consumption increased from 2008 to 2011.
Li, Yun; Huang, Zhe; Jin, Cheng; Xing, Aijun; Liu, Yesong; Huangfu, Chunmei; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang
Data for a relationship between salt intake and stroke have been inconsistent. This inconstancy could be because of the majority of studies evaluated salt intake at a single time point, which may be insufficient to accurately characterize salt intake throughout the observation period. Included were 77 605 participants from the Kailuan study. We assessed perceived salt intake via questionnaire in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Salt intake trajectories from 2006 to 2010 were identified using latent mixture models. Incident stroke cases were identified from 2010 to 2015 and confirmed by review of medical records. Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the association between salt intake trajectories and stroke risk after adjusting for possible confounders, including age, sex, lifestyle, social economic status, body mass index, use of medicines, blood pressure, and lipoprotein profiles. Identified were 5 distinct salt intake trajectories: moderate-stable (n=59 241), moderate-decreasing (n=9268), moderate-increasing (n=2975), low-increasing (n=2879), and high-decreasing (n=3242). During the 5-year follow-up period, there were 1564 incident strokes cases. Compared with individuals with the moderate-stable salt intake trajectory, individuals with moderate-decreasing salt intake trajectory had significantly lower cerebral infarction stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.92) but not intracerebral hemorrhage risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.29). Further adjustment for 2006 or 2010 perceived salt intakes generated similar results. When baseline perceived salt intake only was used as the exposure, a significant dose-response relationship between higher perceived salt intake and higher stroke risk was observed ( P trend=0.006). Change in salt intake was associated with the stroke risk. These data support the dietary recommendation to the reduction of salt intake. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason H Y; Woodward, Mark; Barzi, Federica; Land, Mary-Anne; McLean, Rachael; Webster, Jacqui; Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Neal, Bruce
Estimating equations based on spot urine samples have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-h urine collections for determining mean population salt intake. This review compares estimates of mean population salt intake based upon spot and 24-h urine samples. We systematically searched for all studies that reported estimates of daily salt intake based upon both spot and 24-h urine samples for the same population. The associations between the two were quantified and compared overall and in subsets of studies. A total of 538 records were identified, 108 were assessed as full text and 29 were included. The included studies involved 10,414 participants from 34 countries and made 71 comparisons available for the primary analysis. Overall average population salt intake estimated from 24-h urine samples was 9.3 g/day compared with 9.0 g/day estimated from the spot urine samples. Estimates based upon spot urine samples had excellent sensitivity (97%) and specificity (100%) at classifying mean population salt intake as above or below the World Health Organization maximum target of 5 g/day. Compared with the 24-h samples, estimates based upon spot urine overestimated intake at lower levels of consumption and underestimated intake at higher levels of consumption. Estimates of mean population salt intake based upon spot urine samples can provide countries with a good indication of mean population salt intake and whether action on salt consumption is required. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Ji, Chen; Cappuccio, Francesco P
The impact of the national salt reduction programme in the UK on social inequalities is unknown. We examined spatial and socioeconomic variations in salt intake in the 2008-2011 British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) and compared them with those before the programme in 2000-2001. Cross-sectional survey in Great Britain. 1027 Caucasian males and females, aged 19-64 years. Participants' dietary sodium intake measured with a 4-day food diary. Bayesian geo-additive models used to assess spatial and socioeconomic patterns of sodium intake accounting for sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural confounders. Dietary sodium intake varied significantly across socioeconomic groups, even when adjusting for geographical variations. There was higher dietary sodium intake in people with the lowest educational attainment (coefficient: 0.252 (90% credible intervals 0.003, 0.486)) and in low levels of occupation (coefficient: 0.109 (-0.069, 0.288)). Those with no qualification had, on average, a 5.7% (0.1%, 11.1%) higher dietary sodium intake than the reference group. Compared to 2000-2001 the gradient of dietary sodium intake from south to north was attenuated after adjustments for confounders. Estimated dietary sodium consumption from food sources (not accounting for discretionary sources) was reduced by 366 mg of sodium (∼0.9 g of salt) per day during the 10-year period, likely the effect of national salt reduction initiatives. Social inequalities in salt intake have not seen a reduction following the national salt reduction programme and still explain more than 5% of salt intake between more and less affluent groups. Understanding the socioeconomic pattern of salt intake is crucial to reduce inequalities. Efforts are needed to minimise the gap between socioeconomic groups for an equitable delivery of cardiovascular prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
Erdem, Yunus; Akpolat, Tekin; Derici, Ülver; Şengül, Şule; Ertürk, Şehsuvar; Ulusoy, Şükrü; Altun, Bülent; Arıcı, Mustafa
Previous research has shown daily salt intakes in Turkey to be far above the recommended limits. Knowing the sources of dietary salt could form a basis for preventive strategies aimed towards salt reduction. This study aimed to investigate dietary sources of salt in Turkey. A sub-group ( n = 657) was selected from the PatenT2 study population, which represented the urban and rural areas of 4 major cities (Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Konya). A questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, medical histories, detailed histories of diet, and salt consumption was completed. Participants were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample and to record their food intake (dietary recall) on the same day. Of 925 participants selected, 657 (71%) provided accurate 24-h urine collections, based on creatinine excretion data. The mean daily 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 252.0 ± 92.2 mmol/day, equal to daily salt intake of 14.8 ± 5.4 g. Of the 657 participants with accurate 24-h urine collections, 464 (70%) provided fully completed dietary recalls. Among these 464 participants, there was a significant difference between the 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based salt intake estimation (14.5 ± 5.1 g/day) and the dietary recall-based salt intake estimation (12.0 ± 7.0 g/day) ( p < 0.001). On the other hand, a positive correlation was obtained between the dietary recall-based daily salt intake and 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based daily salt intake ( r = 0.277, p < 0.001). Bread was the main source of salt (34%) followed by salt added during cooking and preparing food before serving (30%), salt from various processed foods (21%), and salt added at the table during food consumption (11%). Conclusively, this study confirmed a very high salt intake of the adult population in four major cities in Turkey. The present findings support the emerging salt reduction strategy in Turkey by promoting lower salt content in baked bread, and less salt use in habitual food
Dötsch-Klerk, M; Goossens, W P M M; Meijer, G W; van het Hof, K H
There is an increasing public health concern regarding high salt intake, which is generally between 9 and 12 g per day, and much higher than the 5 g recommended by World Health Organization. Several relevant sectors of the food industry are engaged in salt reduction, but it is a challenge to reduce salt in products without compromising on taste, shelf-life or expense for consumers. The objective was to develop globally applicable salt reduction criteria as guidance for product reformulation. Two sets of product group-specific sodium criteria were developed to reduce salt levels in foods to help consumers reduce their intake towards an interim intake goal of 6 g/day, and—on the longer term—5 g/day. Data modelling using survey data from the United States, United Kingdom and Netherlands was performed to assess the potential impact on population salt intake of cross-industry food product reformulation towards these criteria. Modelling with 6 and 5 g/day criteria resulted in estimated reductions in population salt intake of 25 and 30% for the three countries, respectively, the latter representing an absolute decrease in the median salt intake of 1.8-2.2 g/day. The sodium criteria described in this paper can serve as guidance for salt reduction in foods. However, to enable achieving an intake of 5 g/day, salt reduction should not be limited to product reformulation. A multi-stakeholder approach is needed to make consumers aware of the need to reduce their salt intake. Nevertheless, dietary impact modelling shows that product reformulation by food industry has the potential to contribute substantially to salt-intake reduction.
Ito, Tomoko; Takeda, Miwako; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Kijima, Tsunetaka; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Isomura, Minoru; Yano, Shozo; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Nabika, Toru
Salt intake is recognized as an important risk factor for hypertension in the general population. On the other hand, the availability of various classes of antihypertensive drugs means that it is generally not considered crucial to control the salt intake of hypertensive patients. In this study, we evaluated whether blood pressure (BP) was correlated with 24-hour salt intake in patients receiving antihypertensive therapy. A total of 1496 consecutive participants undergoing health screening examinations were recruited. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their antihypertensive medications checked on prescriptions: 1005 subjects without antihypertensive therapy (untreated subjects) and 491 subjects with antihypertensive therapy (treated subjects). The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24h-uNa), a surrogate marker for daily salt intake, was estimated with the formula proposed by Tanaka et al. in 2002. Univariate analysis indicated that 24h-uNa was positively correlated with the systolic BP of both untreated and treated subjects. This was confirmed by multiple linear regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors (untreated subjects: partial regression coefficient β=1.45 ± 0.26, p<0.001; treated subjects: β=0.75 ± 0.27, p=0.01). Salt intake was also correlated with the pulse pressure in both treated subjects (β=0.55 ± 0.24, p=0.02) and untreated subjects (β=0.93 ± 0.19, p<0.001). These results suggest the importance of reducing salt intake in hypertensive patients on pharmacotherapy, as well as in the general population. Further studies of hypertensive patients employing 24-h urine collection are warranted to confirm the present findings. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens
The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO
Dötsch-Klerk, M; PMM Goossens, W; Meijer, G W; van het Hof, K H
Background/Objectives: There is an increasing public health concern regarding high salt intake, which is generally between 9 and 12 g per day, and much higher than the 5 g recommended by World Health Organization. Several relevant sectors of the food industry are engaged in salt reduction, but it is a challenge to reduce salt in products without compromising on taste, shelf-life or expense for consumers. The objective was to develop globally applicable salt reduction criteria as guidance for product reformulation. Subjects/Methods: Two sets of product group-specific sodium criteria were developed to reduce salt levels in foods to help consumers reduce their intake towards an interim intake goal of 6 g/day, and—on the longer term—5 g/day. Data modelling using survey data from the United States, United Kingdom and Netherlands was performed to assess the potential impact on population salt intake of cross-industry food product reformulation towards these criteria. Results: Modelling with 6 and 5 g/day criteria resulted in estimated reductions in population salt intake of 25 and 30% for the three countries, respectively, the latter representing an absolute decrease in the median salt intake of 1.8–2.2 g/day. Conclusions: The sodium criteria described in this paper can serve as guidance for salt reduction in foods. However, to enable achieving an intake of 5 g/day, salt reduction should not be limited to product reformulation. A multi-stakeholder approach is needed to make consumers aware of the need to reduce their salt intake. Nevertheless, dietary impact modelling shows that product reformulation by food industry has the potential to contribute substantially to salt-intake reduction. PMID:25690867
Nowson, Caryl; Lim, Karen; Land, Mary-Ann; Webster, Jacqui; Shaw, Jonathan E; Chalmers, John; Flood, Victoria; Woodward, Mark; Grimes, Carley
To assess if there is a difference in salt intake (24 h urine collection and dietary recall) and dietary sources of salt (Na) on weekdays and weekend days. A cross-sectional study of adults who provided one 24 h urine collection and one telephone-administered 24 h dietary recall. Community-dwelling adults living in the State of Victoria, Australia. Adults (n 598) who participated in a health survey (53·5 % women; mean age 57·1 (95 % CI 56·2, 58·1) years). Mean (95 % CI) salt intake (dietary recall) was 6·8 (6·6, 7·1) g/d and 24 h urinary salt excretion was 8·1 (7·8, 8·3) g/d. Mean dietary and 24 h urinary salt (age-adjusted) were 0·9 (0·1, 1·6) g/d (P=0·024) and 0·8 (0·3, 1·6) g/d (P=0·0017), respectively, higher at weekends compared with weekdays. There was an indication of a greater energy intake at weekends (+0·6 (0·02, 1·2) MJ/d, P=0·06), but no difference in Na density (weekday: 291 (279, 304) mg/MJ; weekend: 304 (281, 327) mg/MJ; P=0·360). Cereals/cereal products and dishes, meat, poultry, milk products and gravy/sauces accounted for 71 % of dietary Na. Mean salt intake (24 h urine collection) was more than 60 % above the recommended level of 5 g salt/d and 8-14 % more salt was consumed at weekends than on weekdays. Substantial reductions in the Na content of staple foods, processed meat, sauces, mixed dishes (e.g. pasta), convenience and takeaway foods are required to achieve a significant consistent reduction in population salt intake throughout the week.
Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N.; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C.
BACKGROUND. The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. METHODS. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days’ duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. RESULTS. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. CONCLUSION. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. FUNDING. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology
Thomson, Barbara M
The salt content of processed foods is important because of the high intake of Na by most New Zealanders. A database of Na concentrations in fifty-eight processed foods was compiled from existing and new data and combined with 24 h diet recall data from two national nutrition surveys (5771 respondents) to derive salt intakes for seven population groups. Mean salt intakes from processed foods ranged from 6.9 g/d for young males aged 19-24 years to 3.5 g/d for children aged 5-6 years. A total of > or = 50 % of children aged 5-6 years, boys aged 11-14 years and young males aged 19-24 years had salt intakes that exceeded the upper limit for Na, calculated as salt (3.2-5.3 g/d), from processed foods only. Bread accounted for the greatest contribution to salt intake for each population group (35-43 % of total salt intake). Other foods that contributed 2 % or more and common across most age groups were sausage, meat pies, pizza, instant noodles and cheese. The Na concentrations of key foods have changed little over the 16-year period from 1987 to 2003 except for corned beef and whole milk that have decreased by 34 and 50 % respectively. Bread is an obvious target for salt reduction but the implication on iodine intake needs consideration as salt is used as a vehicle for iodine fortification of bread.
Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong
Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake.
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees
Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intensity of tomato soup on ad libitum intake (satiation), while controlling for palatability on an individual basis. Forty-eight subjects consumed both a low-salt (LS) and high-salt (HS) soup ad libitum from a self-refilling bowl. The results showed no difference between LS and HS soup in ad libitum intake, eating rate, changes in appetite ratings, and changes in hedonic ratings after intake. After intake of HS soup, LS soup was perceived as more bland than before intake of HS soup. After intake of LS soup, HS soup was perceived as more salt intense than before intake of LS soup. In conclusion, this study found no effect of salt intensity on satiation of tomato soups that were similar in palatability. During consumption, subjects adapted quickly to the exposed salt intensity as contrasting salt intensities were rated further from the ideal salt intensity and therefore perceived as less pleasant after consumption.
Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Ma, Seung Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ha; Gwack, Jin; Jung, En-Joo; Cho, Lisa Y; Yang, Jae Jeong; Yoo, Keun-Young
We used an ecological approach to determine the correlation between vegetable, fruit and salt intakes, refrigerator use, and gastric cancer mortality in Korean population. Information on fruit and vegetable intakes per capita from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, death certificate data from the National Statistical office, refrigerator per household data from Korean Statistical Information Service, and salt/sodium intake data from a cross-sectional survey were utilized. Correlation coefficients were calculated between vegetable and fruit intakes, refrigerator per household, and gastric cancer mortality and between salt and sodium intakes, and gastric cancer mortality and incidence in the four areas. With 5, 10, and 15 years lag time, refrigerator usage and fruit intake were negatively associated with gastric cancer mortality (p < 0.01), but vegetable intake was not associated with gastric cancer mortality. When estimates of salt/sodium intake evaluated by 24-h urine collection in four areas of Korea were compared to the gastric cancer mortality and incidence in these regions, positive correlation was shown between salt/sodium intake, and gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Negative associations between refrigerator use, fruit intake, and gastric cancer mortality and positive associations between salt/sodium intake and gastric cancer mortality and incidence were suggested.
Reducing salt intake for prevention of cardiovascular diseases in high-risk patients by advanced health education intervention (RESIP-CVD study), Northern Thailand: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial
Background Decreasing salt consumption can prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Practically, it is difficult to promote people’s awareness of daily salt intake and to change their eating habits in terms of reducing salt intake for better cardiovascular health. Health education programs visualizing daily dietary salt content and intake may promote lifestyle changes in patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods/Design This is a cluster randomized trial. A total of 800 high-CVD-risk patients attending diabetes and hypertension clinics at health centers in Muang District, Chiang Rai province, Thailand, will be studied with informed consent. A health center recruiting 100 participants is a cluster, the unit of randomization. Eight clusters will be randomized into intervention and control arms and followed up for 1 year. Within the intervention clusters the following will be undertaken: (1) salt content in the daily diet will be measured and shown to study participants; (2) 24-hour salt intake will be estimated in overnight-collected urine and the results shown to the participants; (3) a dietician will assist small group health education classes in cooking meals with less salt. The primary outcome is blood pressure change at the 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes at the 1-year follow-up are estimated 24-hoursalt intake, incidence of CVD events and CVD death. The intention-to-treat analysis will be followed. Blood pressure and estimated 24-hour salt intake will be compared between intervention and control groups at the cluster and individual level at the 1-year follow-up. Clinical CVD events and deaths will be analyzed by time-event analysis. Retinal blood vessel calibers of CVD-risk patients will be assessed cross-sectionally. Behavioral change to reduce salt intake and the influencing factors will be determined by structured equation model (SEM). Multilevel regression analyses will be applied. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the intervention
Reducing salt intake for prevention of cardiovascular diseases in high-risk patients by advanced health education intervention (RESIP-CVD study), Northern Thailand: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.
Aung, Myo Nyein; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Moolphate, Saiyud; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Yokokawa, Hidehiro; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Ono, Koichi; Kawai, Sachio; Marui, Eiji
Decreasing salt consumption can prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Practically, it is difficult to promote people's awareness of daily salt intake and to change their eating habits in terms of reducing salt intake for better cardiovascular health. Health education programs visualizing daily dietary salt content and intake may promote lifestyle changes in patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. This is a cluster randomized trial. A total of 800 high-CVD-risk patients attending diabetes and hypertension clinics at health centers in Muang District, Chiang Rai province, Thailand, will be studied with informed consent. A health center recruiting 100 participants is a cluster, the unit of randomization. Eight clusters will be randomized into intervention and control arms and followed up for 1 year. Within the intervention clusters the following will be undertaken: (1) salt content in the daily diet will be measured and shown to study participants; (2) 24-hour salt intake will be estimated in overnight-collected urine and the results shown to the participants; (3) a dietician will assist small group health education classes in cooking meals with less salt. The primary outcome is blood pressure change at the 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes at the 1-year follow-up are estimated 24-hoursalt intake, incidence of CVD events and CVD death. The intention-to-treat analysis will be followed.Blood pressure and estimated 24-hour salt intake will be compared between intervention and control groups at the cluster and individual level at the 1-year follow-up. Clinical CVD events and deaths will be analyzed by time-event analysis. Retinal blood vessel calibers of CVD-risk patients will be assessed cross-sectionally. Behavioral change to reduce salt intake and the influencing factors will be determined by structured equation model (SEM). Multilevel regression analyses will be applied. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the intervention will be analyzed. This study is
Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E
The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake <11am) to evening hours (energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p < 0.04). Difference in total daily energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ozkayar, Nihal; Dede, Fatih; Ates, Ihsan; Akyel, Fatma; Yildirim, Tolga; Altun, Bulent
High dietary salt intake was reported to increase blood pressure by numerous studies, but no study has investigated the effect of dietary salt intake on blood pressure variability (BPV). This study aimed to determine if daily salt intake is related to ambulatory BPV. The study included 136 primary hypertensive patients (92 male, 44 female) with a mean age of 50.7±11.1 years. All the patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to determine both the 24-h systolic and 24-h diastolic BPV. 24-h urine sodium was measured. The correlation between BPV and 24-h urinary sodium was investigated. Logarithmic transformation of 24-h urinary sodium [log(24-h urinary sodium)] was positively correlated with the mean 24-h systolic ARV, and nighttime systolic ARV (r=0.371 and p=0.001, r=0.329 and p=0.028, respectively). Similarly, log(24-h urinary sodium) was positively correlated with mean 24-h diastolic ARV and nighttime diastolic ARV (r=0.381 and p=0.001, r=0.320 and p=0.020 respectively). Log(24-h urinary sodium) was an independent predictor of BPV based on multivariate regression analysis. Dietary salt intake might play a role in the pathogenesis of ambulatory BPV. Copyright Â© 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng
Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months.There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior.Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge.Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700.
Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Gallani, Maria-Cecilia
This experimental study was aimed at assessing the potential effect of a theory-driven intervention—implementation intentions—on reducing salt intake among hypertensive Brazilian women. Ninety-eight participants were randomly assigned to participate in an implementation intentions intervention aimed at promoting lower salt intake through decreased addition of salt and salty spices to meals (intervention group, n = 49; group, n = 49). Endpoints were assessed at baseline and at the 2-month follow-up. Primary endpoints were a self-reporting measure of salt intake given by salt addition to meals (discretionary salt + salty spices = total added salt) and the 24 h urinary-sodium excretion. Secondary endpoints included intention, self-efficacy, and habit related to adding salt to meals. Patients in the intervention group showed a significant reduction in salt intake as assessed by 24 h urinary-sodium excretion. A significant reduction in the measure of habit was observed for both groups. No differences were observed for intention and self-efficacy. The results of this pilot study suggest the efficacy of planning strategies to help hypertensive women reduce their salt intake. PMID:25243084
Selmer, R.; Kristiansen, I. S.; Haglerod, A.; Graff-Iversen, S.; Larsen, H.; Meyer, H.; Bonaa, K.; Thelle, D.
STUDY OBJECTIVE—The aim was to estimate health and economic consequences of interventions aimed at reducing the daily intake of salt (sodium chloride) by 6 g per person in the Norwegian population. Health promotion (information campaigns), development of new industry food recipes, declaration of salt content in food and taxes on salty food/subsidies of products with less salt, were possible interventions. DESIGN—The study was a simulation model based on present age and sex specific mortality in Norway and estimated impact of blood pressure reductions on the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke as observed in Norwegian follow up studies. A reduction of 2 mm Hg systolic blood pressure (range 1-4) was assumed through the actual interventions. The cost of the interventions in themselves, welfare losses from taxation of salty food/subsidising of food products with little salt, cost of avoided myocardial infarction and stroke treatment, cost of avoided antihypertensive treatment, hospital costs in additional life years and productivity gains from reduced morbidity and mortality were included. RESULTS—The estimated increase in life expectancy was 1.8 months in men and 1.4 in women. The net discounted (5%) cost of the interventions was minus $118 millions (that is, cost saving) in the base case. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the interventions would be cost saving unless the systolic blood pressure reduction were less than 2 mm Hg, productivity gains were disregarded or the welfare losses from price interventions were high. CONCLUSION—Population interventions to reduce the intake of salt are likely to improve the population's health and save costs to society. Keywords: sodium; hypertension; cost effectiveness PMID:10942450
Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed; Tehrani, Hadi; Gholian-Aval, Mahdi; Gholami, Hasan; Nematy, Mohsen
Reducing salt intake is a factor related to life style which can influence the prevention of blood pressure. This study was conducted to assess the impact of social class on the amount of salt intake in patients with hypertension in Iran. This was an observational on the intake of salt, as estimated by Kawasaki formula in a sample from Iranian population, stratified for social background characteristics. The finding in general was that the estimated salt intake was somewhat higher in subjects from a lower social background, while the opposite was true for lipid levels (LDL and HDL cholesterol). There was also a significant correlation between salt intake and the level of systolic blood pressure, but not the level of diastolic blood pressure. Considering high salt intake (almost double the standard amount in Iran), especially in patients with low-social class and the effects of salt on human health, it is suggested to design and perform suitable educational programs based on theories and models of health education in order to reduce salt intake.
Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiefu
The risk factors mostly strongly associated with gastric cancer are gastric bacteria Helicobacter pylori and diet. By using a case-control study among residents in China, we examined the association between sodium intake, presence of H,pylori, and gastric cancer risk. A population-based case-control study including 235 cases and 410 controls were used. Potential risk factors of gastric cancer were interview for cases and controls by questionnaire, salt taste preference was measured for all subjects, and IgG antibodies to H,pylori was used for H.pylori infection. Risk measures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. H.pylori infection and smoking increased the risk of gastric cancer, with the OR(95%CI) of 1.91(1.32-2.79) and 1.47(1.05- 2.05), respectively. Dietary sodium intake independently increased the risk of gastric cancer. Participants with the highest sodium intake(>5g/day) had a high gastric cancer risk [OR(95%CI)= 3.78(1.74-5.44)]. Participants with the salt taste preference at 7.3g/L and ≥ 14.6g/L showed higher risk of gastric cancer [OR(95%) for 7.3g/L and ≥ 14.6g/L were 5.36(2.72-10.97) and 4.75(2.43-8.85), respectively]. A significantly interaction was found between salt taste preference and H.pylori infection (p=0.037). Salt taste preference was significantly correlated with sodium intake (Correlation coefficient=0.46, p< 0.001). Salt taste preference test could be a simple way to evaluate an inherited characteristic of sodium intake, and our study confirms the gastric cancer is associated with sodium intake and H.pylori.
Wyness, Laura A; Butriss, Judith L; Stanner, Sara A
To describe the UK Food Standards Agency's (FSA) salt reduction programme undertaken between 2003 and 2010 and to discuss its effectiveness. Relevant scientific papers, campaign materials and evaluations and consultation responses to the FSA's salt reduction programme were used. Adult salt intakes, monitored using urinary Na data collected from UK-wide surveys, indicate a statistically significant reduction in the population's average salt intake from 9·5 g/d in 2000-2001 to 8·6 g/d in 2008, which is likely to have health benefits. Reducing salt intake will have an impact on blood pressure; an estimated 6 % of deaths from CHD in the UK can be avoided if the number of people with high blood pressure is reduced by 50 %. Salt levels in food, monitored using commercial label data and information collected through an industry self-reporting framework, indicated that substantial reductions of up to 70 % in some foods had been achieved. The FSA's consumer campaign evaluation showed increased awareness of the benefits of reducing salt intake on health, with 43 % of adults in 2009 claiming to have made a special effort to reduce salt in their diet compared with 34 % of adults in 2004, before the campaign commenced. The UK's salt reduction programme successfully reduced the average salt intake of the population and increased consumers' awareness. Significant challenges remain in achieving the population average salt intake of 6 g/d recommended by the UK's Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. However, the UK has demonstrated the success of its programme and this approach is now being implemented elsewhere in the world.
Okuda, Nagako; Stamler, Jeremiah; Brown, Ian J; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okayama, Akira; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Yoshita, Katsushi; Zhao, Liancheng; Elliott, Paul
Habitual high-salt intake raises blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular diseases. To prevent/control these risks, reduced salt diet (RSD) is recommended in many countries and some people report practicing it; however, little is known about actual achievement. This population-based study assessed level of 24-h dietary sodium intake of participants reporting RSD and others. Participants were 4680 men and women ages 40-59 years randomly selected from 17 populations in People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, UK and USA, for an observational study on diet and blood pressure (INTERMAP). Daily sodium intake was determined by two timed 24-h urine collections. Antihypertensive treatment status and RSD were ascertained by questionnaire. Participants reporting RSD were few; 3.1% (Japan), 1.3% (PRC), 2.5% (UK), 7.2% (USA); 15.1, 7.9, 16.7 and 16.8% of people with treated hypertension. For those reporting RSD, 24-h urinary sodium excretion was significantly, but only modestly lower than for others, by 17.9 mmol/day (Japan), 56.7 (PRC) and 14.7 (USA), but higher by 10.5 in UK. Sodium intakes for participants reporting RSD remained higher than recommended; 181.0 mmol/day (Japan), 171.5 (PRC), 155.2 (UK) and 148.9 (USA). For these people, as for others, main sources of salt were processed foods in Japan, UK and USA; in PRC, salt added in preparation at home. Enhanced sustained efforts are needed to raise general awareness of the harmful effects of salt on health and the benefits of salt reduction. Population approaches are needed to reduce salt content of processed foods and restaurant meals.
Camargo, M C; Toledo, M C; Farah, H G
A survey on the potential intake of caffeine was carried out in Campinas, SP, Brazil, in the summer of 1993. The survey was based on a representative sample of 600 individuals, 9-80 years old, who were asked about their habitual usage of coffee, tea, chocolate products and carbonated beverages. Caffeine levels in the products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with a UV-visible detector at 254 nm. Individual daily intakes (mg/kg b.w.) of caffeine were calculated from the consumption data generated by the survey and the caffeine content of the analysed products. Of all those interviewed, 81% consumed soft drinks regularly, 75% coffee, 65% chocolate products and 37% tea. Of the analysed products, coffee showed the highest amount of caffeine. The average and median potential daily intake of caffeine by the studied population were, respectively, 2.74 and 1.85 mg/kg b.w. Coffee, tea, chocolate products and carbonated beverages accounted for median individual daily intakes of 1.90, 0.32, 0.19, and 0.19 mg/kg b.w., respectively. These data show that coffee is the most important vehicle for caffeine intake within the studied population.
Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A
Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.
Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.
Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843
Geaney, F; Harrington, J; Fitzgerald, Ap; Perry, Ij
Owing to modern lifestyles, individuals are dependent on out-of-home eating. The catering sector can have a pivotal role in influencing our food choices. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of a structured catering initiative on food choices in a public sector workplace setting. A cross-sectional comparison study in two hospitals, one of which had implemented a catering initiative designed to provide nutritious food while reducing sugar, fat and salt intakes. Two public sector hospitals in Cork, Ireland. A total of 100 random participants aged 18-64 years (fifty intervention, fifty non-intervention) who consumed at least one main meal in the hospital staff canteen daily. Each respondent was asked to complete one anonymous 24 h dietary recall and questionnaire. Food and nutrient analysis was conducted using WISP (Weighed Intake Software Program). Reported mean intakes of total sugars (P < 0·001), total fat (P < 0·000), saturated fat (P < 0·000) and salt (P < 0·046) were significantly lower in the intervention hospital when adjusted for age and gender. In the intervention hospital, 72 % of respondents, compared with 42 % in the non-intervention hospital, complied with the recommended under-3 daily servings of food high in fat and sugar (P < 0·005). In the intervention hospital, 43 % of respondents exceeded the recommended salt intake of 4-6 g/d, compared with 57 % in the non-intervention hospital. Structured catering initiatives in the workplace are a potentially important option in the promotion of healthy food choices. Targeted public health programmes and health policy changes are needed to motivate caterers in the public sector and other industries to develop interventions that promote a healthy diet.
Alhamad, Nawal; Almalt, Elsayed; Alamir, Najeeba; Subhakaran, Monica
Globally, morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing steadily and at an alarming rate. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and salt reduction is an effective measure to decrease mortality rates. In the Eastern Mediterranean region, current salt intake is high, with an average intake of >12 g per person per day. Reducing the intake of salt has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce NCDs. Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) are showing a willingness to comply with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and an eagerness to reduce the burden of NCDs. However, they face some challenges, including lack of political commitment, lack of experience, and shortage of qualified human resources. Salt intake reduction efforts vary in the GCC region, from achieving 20% salt reduction in bread, to the very early stages of planning.
Almalt, Elsayed; Alamir, Najeeba; Subhakaran, Monica
Globally, morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing steadily and at an alarming rate. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and salt reduction is an effective measure to decrease mortality rates. In the Eastern Mediterranean region, current salt intake is high, with an average intake of >12 g per person per day. Reducing the intake of salt has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce NCDs. Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) are showing a willingness to comply with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and an eagerness to reduce the burden of NCDs. However, they face some challenges, including lack of political commitment, lack of experience, and shortage of qualified human resources. Salt intake reduction efforts vary in the GCC region, from achieving 20% salt reduction in bread, to the very early stages of planning. PMID:26090327
Beltran, F.; Benton, L.; Cheng, S.; Gieseke, J.; Gillman, J.; Spain, H. N.
When a rodent licks a sweet-tasting solution, taste circuits in the central nervous system that facilitate stimulus identification, motivate intake, and prepare the body for digestion are activated. Here, we asked whether taste also determines daily intake of sugar solutions in C57BL/6 mice. We tested several dilute concentrations of glucose (167, 250, and 333 mM) and fructose (167, 250, and 333 mM). In addition, we tested saccharin (38 mM), alone and in binary mixture with each of the sugar concentrations, to manipulate sweet taste intensity while holding caloric value constant. In experiment 1, we measured taste responsiveness to the sweetener solutions in two ways: chorda tympani nerve responses and short-term lick tests. For both measures, the mice exhibited the following relative magnitude of responsiveness: binary mixtures > saccharin > individual sugars. In experiment 2, we asked whether the taste measures reliably predicted daily intake of the sweetener solutions. No such relationship was observed. The glucose solutions elicited weak taste responses but high daily intakes, whereas the fructose solutions elicited weak taste responses and low daily intakes. On the other hand, the saccharin + glucose solutions elicited strong taste responses and high daily intakes, while the saccharin + fructose solutions elicited strong taste responses but low daily intakes. Overall, we found that 1) daily intake of the sweetener solutions varied independently of the magnitude of the taste responses and 2) the solutions containing glucose stimulated substantially higher daily intakes than did the solutions containing isomolar concentrations of fructose. Given prior work demonstrating greater postoral stimulation of feeding by glucose than fructose, we propose that the magnitude of postoral nutritive stimulation plays a more important role than does taste in determining daily intake of dilute sugar solutions. PMID:20702804
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees
The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, Ian J; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Candeias, Vanessa; Elliott, Paul
High levels of dietary sodium (consumed as common salt, sodium chloride) are associated with raised blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular health. Despite this, public health efforts to reduce sodium consumption remain limited to a few countries. Comprehensive, contemporaneous sodium intake data from around the world are needed to inform national/international public health initiatives to reduce sodium consumption. Use of standardized 24-h sodium excretion estimates for adults from the international INTERSALT (1985-87) and INTERMAP (1996-99) studies, and recent dietary and urinary sodium data from observational or interventional studies--identified by a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature--presented separately for adults and children. Review of methods for the estimation of sodium intake/excretion. Main food sources of sodium are presented for several Asian, European and Northern American countries, including previously unpublished INTERMAP data. Sodium intakes around the world are well in excess of physiological need (i.e. 10-20 mmol/day). Most adult populations have mean sodium intakes >100 mmol/day, and for many (particularly the Asian countries) mean intakes are >200 mmol/day. Possible exceptions include estimates from Cameroon, Ghana, Samoa, Spain, Taiwan, Tanzania, Uganda and Venezuela, though methodologies were sub-optimal and samples were not nationally representative. Sodium intakes were commonly >100 mmol/day in children over 5 years old, and increased with age. In European and Northern American countries, sodium intake is dominated by sodium added in manufactured foods ( approximately 75% of intake). Cereals and baked goods were the single largest contributor to dietary sodium intake in UK and US adults. In Japan and China, salt added at home (in cooking and at the table) and soy sauce were the largest sources. Unfavourably high sodium intakes remain prevalent around the world. Sources of dietary sodium vary largely worldwide
Determination of discretionary salt intake in rural Guatemala and Benin to determine the iodine fortification of salt required to control iodine deficiency disorders: studies using lithium-labeled salt.
Melse-Boonstra, A; Rozendaal, M; Rexwinkel, H; Gerichhausen, M J; van den Briel, T; Bulux, J; Solomons, N W; West, C E
The use of discretionary salt, which is salt added during cooking and at the table, as a suitable vehicle for iodine intake was assessed by measuring salt consumption using the lithium-marker technique in rural areas of Guatemala and Benin. In both countries, we studied boys aged 6-12 y and their mothers. Subjects used lithium-labeled salt after all unlabeled salt was removed from their households. In Guatemala, 24-h urine samples for 9 mother-son pairs were collected at baseline and on days 7, 8, and 9 during the use of lithium-labeled salt. Total maternal salt intake averaged 5.2 +/- 1.7 g/d (mean +/- SD), of which 77 +/- 24% came from discretionary sources, whereas Guatemalan boys consumed 1.8 +/- 0.6 g salt/d, of which 72 +/- 12% came from discretionary sources. In Benin, urine collection from 13 mother-son pairs took place at baseline and on days 5 and 7. Beninese mothers had a total salt intake of 9.0 +/- 2.9 g/d and their sons had an intake of 5.7 +/- 2.8 g/d; discretionary salt contributed 52 +/- 14% and 50 +/- 13%, respectively, of total salt consumed. Therefore, fortification of household salt appears to be an appropriate method of controlling iodine deficiency in both countries, although fortification of other salt sources could be considered in Benin.
Petersen, Kristina S; Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce
To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations. Salt intake data from the 24-h urine collections and spot urine equations were weighted to provide estimates of salt intake for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 957 individuals provided a complete 24-h urine collection and a spot urine sample. Weighted mean salt intake based on the 24-h urine collection, was 8.59 (95% confidence interval 7.73-9.45) and 9.46 g/day (8.95-9.96) in Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on the Tanaka equation [9.04 (8.63-9.45) and 9.79 g/day (9.62-9.96) for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively], the Mage equation [8.80 (7.67-9.94) and 10.19 g/day (95% CI 9.59-10.79)], the INTERSALT equation [7.99 (7.61-8.37) and 8.64 g/day (8.04-9.23)] and the INTERSALT equation with potassium [8.13 (7.74-8.52) and 8.81 g/day (8.16-9.46)] were all within 1 g/day of the estimate based upon 24-h collections. For the Toft equation, estimates were 1-2 g/day higher [9.94 (9.24-10.64) and 10.69 g/day (9.44-11.93)] and for the Kawasaki equation they were 3-4 g/day higher [12.14 (11.30-12.97) and 13.64 g/day (13.15-14.12)]. In urban and rural areas in North and South India, most spot urine-based equations provided reasonable estimates of mean population salt intake. Equations that did not provide good estimates may have failed because specimen collection was not aligned with the original method.
Rivai, Ida Farida; Koyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shosuke
Man ingests cadmium daily from foods and beverages. The major source of cadmium intake is rice for rice eating countries. Cadmium in rice comes from soil via rice plant roots. Rice may thus be the best indicator for the environmental monitoring of cadmium especially in rice eating countries. It is also easy to sample, transport and conserve. Several recent surveys on cadmium content in rice and daily cadmium intake have been reported. However, little data are available on geographical differences in daily cadmium intake from rice. The tolerable weekly intake for cadmium as proposed by FAO/WHO is 400-500 micrograms/person ormore » 57-71 micrograms/day/person weighing 70 kg. Ninety two percent of world rice production is from the Asia-Pacific region, from which samples were obtained for the present study. The following countries were included: India, China, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, and Korea. This study was conducted to determine cadmium content in rice from the above countries and based on the data obtained, daily cadmium intake from rice and the total daily cadmium intake were calculated.« less
Yu, Lianlong; Li, Suyun; Zhao, Jinshan; Zhang, Junli; Wang, Liansen; Wang, Kebo
Salt and soy sauce are the main ways of sodium intake in Chinese dietary. In this study, we used the data of the China Health and Nutrition Surveys to describe the secular trends of salt and soy sauce intake among Chinese adults from 1997 to 2011. Trends were tested by multiple linear regression models. During the past 14 years, the consumption of sodium, salt and soy sauce intake values decreased significantly across the six study periods (p < .0001) among both men and women. Averaged salt values decreased by 4.9 g/d in men and 4.1 g/d in women. Mean soy sauce intake values decreased by 9.0 g/d among men and 7.3 g/d among women. Similar significant trends were observed in all age groups, activity levels and regions (p < .0001).
Fernández-Llama, P; Calero, F
Abundant evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has established a link between salt and blood pressure. However, there is heterogeneity in the blood pressure responses of humans to changes in sodium intake. Those individuals in whom a severe, abrupt change in salt intake causes the least change in arterial pressure and are termed salt-resistant, whereas in those in whom this leads to large changes in blood pressure, are called salt sensitive. Classically, Guyton's theory of the pressure-natriuresis phenomenon has been accepted to explain the pressor effect of salt, as well as the fundamental role played by the different protein sodium transporters of the renal tubules. In recent years, new theories have emerged pointing to the possible role of the immune system and the existence of a third sodium store in the body as aetiopathogenic factors. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Svitok, Pavel; Molcan, Lubos; Vesela, Anna; Kruzliak, Peter; Moravcik, Roman; Zeman, Michal
A direct relationship exists between salt consumption and hypertension. Increased sodium intake does not automatically lead to a rise in blood pressure (BP) because of marked intra-individual variability in salt sensitivity. Wistar rats are a salt-resistant strain and increased salt intake in adults does not induce hypertension. Mechanisms regulating BP develop during early ontogenesis and increased sodium consumption by pregnant females leads to an increase in BP of their offspring, but early postnatal stages have not been sufficiently analyzed in salt-resistant strains of rats. The aim of this work was to study the effects of increased salt during early ontogeny on cardiovascular characteristics of Wistar rats. We used 16 control (C; 8 males + 8 females) rats fed with a standard diet (0.2% sodium) and 16 experimental (S; 8 males + 8 females) rats fed with a diet containing 0.8% sodium. BP was measured weekly and plasma renin activity, aldosterone and testosterone concentrations were assayed by radioimmunoassay after the experiment in 16-week-old animals. In the kidney, AT1 receptors were determined by the western blot. BP was higher in the S as compared with the C rats and did not differ between males and females. The relative left ventricle mass was increased in S as compared with C males and no differences were recorded in females. No significant differences between groups were found in hormonal parameters and AT1 receptors. Results indicate that moderately increased salt intake during postnatal ontogeny results in a BP rise even in salt-resistant rats.
Alves-Rodrigues, E N; Veras, M M; Rosa, K T; de Castro, I; Furukawa, L N S; Oliveira, I B; Souza, R M; Heimann, J C
To evaluate the effects of low or high salt intake during pregnancy on left ventricle of adult male offspring. Low- (LS, 0.15%), normal- (NS, 1.3%) or high-salt (HS, 8% NaCl) diet was given to Wistar rats during pregnancy. During lactation all dams received NS as well as the offspring after weaning. To evaluate cardiac response to salt overload, 50% of each offspring group was fed a high-salt (hs, 4% NaCl) diet from the 21st to the 36th week of age (LShs, NShs, HShs). The remaining 50% was maintained on NS (LSns, NSns and HSns). Echocardiography was done at 20 and 30 weeks of age. Mean blood pressure (MBP), histology and left ventricular angiotensin II content (AII) were analyzed at 36 weeks of age. Interventricular septum, left ventricular posterior wall and relative wall thickness increased from the 20th to the 30th week of age only in HShs, cardiomyocyte mean volume was higher in HShs compared to NShs, LShs and HSns. AII and left ventricular fibrosis were not different among groups. HS during pregnancy programs adult male offspring to a blood pressure and angiotensin II independent concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, with no fibrosis, in response to a chronic high-salt intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ares, Gustavo R.
Consumption of fructose has increased during the last 50 years. Excessive fructose consumption has a detrimental effect on mammalian health but the mechanisms remain unclear. In humans, a direct relationship exists between dietary intake of added sugars and increased risk for cardiovascular disease mortality (52). While the causes for this are unclear, we recently showed that fructose provided in the drinking water induces a salt-dependent increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats in a matter of days (6). However, little is known about the effects of fructose in renal salt handling and whether combined intake of high fructose and salt can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension before the development of metabolic abnormalities. The long-term (more than 4 wk) adverse effects of fructose intake on renal function are not just due to fructose but are also secondary to alterations in metabolism which may have an impact on renal function. This minireview focuses on the acute effect of fructose intake and its effect on salt regulation, as they affect blood pressure. PMID:26447210
Kanzler, Sonja; Hartmann, Christina; Gruber, Anita; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz
To assess the salt content of continental European convenience and ready meals. A multistage study in which, after laboratory analysis of the products' salt contents (n 32), new salt-reduced meals were developed through food reformulation. Additionally, a comprehensive survey of convenience meals from the Austrian market (n 572) was conducted to evaluate the salt contents of a wider product range. Six continental European countries participated. No subjects enrolled. The salt contents of continental European convenience and ready meals mostly exceeded 1·8 g/100 g, which is 30 % of the targeted daily intake level; some contained even more than the recommended daily intake of 6 g. The highest salt contents were found in pizzas and pasta dishes, the lowest ones in sweet meals. Large variations in salt levels were found not only between and within meal type categories, but also between similar meals from different producers. In addition, our approach to develop new salt-reduced meals showed that a stepwise reduction of the ready meals' salt contents is possible without compromising the sensory quality. To address the problem of hypertension and increased risk for CVD through high salt intake, a reduction of the salt levels in continental European convenience and ready meals is urgently needed, since they are providing a major part of the daily salt intake. Successful national-wide salt reduction strategies in the UK or Finland have already demonstrated the public health impact of this setting.
Hildebrandt, Drew A.; Irwin, Eric D.; Cates, Adam W.; Lohmeier, Thomas E.
Chronic electrical activation of the carotid baroreflex produces sustained reductions in sympathetic activity and arterial pressure and is currently being evaluated as antihypertensive therapy for patients with resistant hypertension. However, the influence of variations in salt intake on blood pressure lowering during baroreflex activation has not been determined. As sensitivity of arterial pressure to salt intake is linked to the responsiveness of renin secretion, we determined steady-state levels of arterial pressure and neurohormonal responses in 6 dogs on low, normal, and high salt intakes ( 5, 40, 450 mmol/day, respectively) under control conditions and during a 7-day constant level of baroreflex activation. Under control conditions, there was no difference in mean arterial pressure at low (92±1) and normal (92±2 mmHg) sodium intakes, but pressure increased 9 ±2 mmHg during high salt. Plasma renin activity (2.01±0.23, 0.93±0.20, 0.01±0.01 ng ANGI/mL/hr) and plasma aldosterone (10.3±1.9, 3.5±0.5, 1.7±0.1ng/dL) were inversely related to salt intake, whereas there were no changes in plasma norepinephrine. Although mean arterial pressure (19-22 mmHg) and norepinephrine (20-40%) were lower at all salt intakes during baroreflex activation, neither the changes in pressure nor the absolute values for plasma renin activity or aldosterone in response to salt were different from control conditions. These findings demonstrate that suppression of sympathetic activity by baroreflex activation lowers arterial pressure without increasing renin release and indicate that changes in sympathetic activity are not primary mediators of the effect of salt on renin secretion. Consequently, blood pressure lowering during baroreflex activation is independent of salt intake. PMID:24935941
Akizawa, Yoriko; Koizumi, Sadayuki; Itokawa, Yoshinori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tamura, Tarou; Kusaka, Yukinori
The vitamins and minerals that are deficient in the daily diet of a normal adult remain unknown. To answer this question, we conducted a population survey focusing on the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium level. The subjects were 62 individuals from Fukui Prefecture who participated in the 1998 National Nutrition Survey. The survey investigated the physical status, nutritional status, and dietary data of the subjects. Holidays and special occasions were avoided, and a day when people are most likely to be on an ordinary diet was selected as the survey date. The mean (+/-standard deviation) daily magnesium intake was 322 (+/-132), 323 (+/-163), and 322 (+/-147) mg/day for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The mean (+/-standard deviation) serum magnesium concentration was 20.69 (+/-2.83), 20.69 (+/-2.88), and 20.69 (+/-2.83) ppm for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The distribution of serum magnesium concentration was normal. Dietary magnesium intake showed a log-normal distribution, which was then transformed by logarithmic conversion for examining the regression coefficients. The slope of the regression line between the serum magnesium concentration (Y ppm) and daily magnesium intake (X mg) was determined using the formula Y = 4.93 (log(10)X) + 8.49. The coefficient of correlation (r) was 0.29. A regression line (Y = 14.65X + 19.31) was observed between the daily intake of magnesium (Y mg) and serum magnesium concentration (X ppm). The coefficient of correlation was 0.28. The daily magnesium intake correlated with serum magnesium concentration, and a linear regression model between them was proposed.
Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens
Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Hershco, A.
The factors that influence the amount of salt that a person adds to his food at mealtime, and the part played by the general requirement for salt in the daily diet stemming from the coluntary input of salt are studied. Careful measurements of salt intake and outflow were performed on ten marchers in a high temperature environment who were given individual salt shakers that were weighed before and after each meal. Some marchers were told to add salt to their meals on specific days. No parallelity was found between the voluntary sodium intake and the general sodium intake, the excretion of sodium in the urine or the environmental heat stress. Individual food habit was found to be the most important factor.
Akizawa, Yoriko; Koizumi, Sadayuki; Itokawa, Yoshinori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tamura, Tarou; Kusaka, Yukinori
Background The vitamins and minerals that are deficient in the daily diet of a normal adult remain unknown. To answer this question, we conducted a population survey focusing on the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium level. Methods The subjects were 62 individuals from Fukui Prefecture who participated in the 1998 National Nutrition Survey. The survey investigated the physical status, nutritional status, and dietary data of the subjects. Holidays and special occasions were avoided, and a day when people are most likely to be on an ordinary diet was selected as the survey date. Results The mean (±standard deviation) daily magnesium intake was 322 (±132), 323 (±163), and 322 (±147) mg/day for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The mean (±standard deviation) serum magnesium concentration was 20.69 (±2.83), 20.69 (±2.88), and 20.69 (±2.83) ppm for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The distribution of serum magnesium concentration was normal. Dietary magnesium intake showed a log-normal distribution, which was then transformed by logarithmic conversion for examining the regression coefficients. The slope of the regression line between the serum magnesium concentration (Y ppm) and daily magnesium intake (X mg) was determined using the formula Y = 4.93 (log10X) + 8.49. The coefficient of correlation (r) was 0.29. A regression line (Y = 14.65X + 19.31) was observed between the daily intake of magnesium (Y mg) and serum magnesium concentration (X ppm). The coefficient of correlation was 0.28. Conclusion The daily magnesium intake correlated with serum magnesium concentration, and a linear regression model between them was proposed. PMID:18635902
Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F.; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens
Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed two independent ultra-long-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 grams per day and collected all urine. The subjects’ daily menus consisted of 27,279 individual servings, out of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-gram difference in salt intake. Due to the biological variability in UNaV, only every-other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-gram difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to three consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6–12 grams salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-gram difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials. PMID:26259596
Wakasugi, Minako; James Kazama, Junichiro; Narita, Ichiei
Objective Evidence suggests that the eating rate is positively associated with the body weight and blood pressure. Furthermore, people who are overweight or obese tend to have higher salt intakes than those of normal weight. To investigate whether or not the eating rate is also associated with the salt intake, a cross-sectional study was conducted using health examination survey data collected in 2014 from 7,941 residents of Sado City, Niigata, Japan. Methods The eating rates were evaluated using a questionnaire; 11.7% of participants rated themselves as slow eaters, 65.6% as normal eaters, and 22.7% as fast eaters. The salt intake was estimated from sodium and creatinine spot urine measurements using Tanaka's formula. Associations with eating rate were evaluated using multivariate linear regression analyses, with normal eaters as the reference (set at 0). Results Self-reported eating rates were positively associated with the salt intake after adjustment for age and sex [β coefficient (95% confidence interval) for slow -0.51 (-0.67, -0.35); fast 0.18 (0.05, 0.30) ]. Further adjustment for the body mass index showed that slower eaters had lower salt intakes than normal eaters, but there was no marked difference in the salt intake between normal and fast eaters. The association between slower eating and a lower salt intake persisted after further adjustment for comorbidities [slow -0.33 (-0.49, -0.18) ]. Conclusion Our results suggest that reducing eating rates may be an effective strategy for reducing dietary salt intake as well as preventing obesity.
de Castro, John M
Intake in the morning is associated with a reduction in the total intake for the day, while intake at night is associated with greater overall daily intake. These associations are macronutrient specific, with morning carbohydrate intake associated with reduced daily carbohydrate intake, morning fat intake associated with reduced daily fat intake and morning protein intake associated with reduced daily protein intake. Since different types of foods contain differing proportions of macronutrients, the present study investigated the associations of different types of foods ingested at various times of day with total daily and macronutrient intakes. The intakes of 388 male and 621 female free-living individuals reported in 7 d diet diaries were reanalysed. The intakes of twenty-four different types of foods and seven different drinks occurring during the morning (04.00-10.29 hours), afternoon (10.30-16.59 hours) and evening (17.00-02.00 hours) were identified and related to overall daily intakes. Dairy foods, ice cream, beef, other meats, potatoes, pastry, nuts, chips and snacks, condiments, alcohol and soda were significantly associated with higher total intake over the day, while fruit, soup, breakfast cereal, pasta, pizza, water, coffee/tea and diet soda were either not associated or were associated with lower overall intake. Dietary energy density appeared to mediate the associations between particular foods and beverages and overall energy intake. This suggests that eating low-density foods in the morning and avoiding high-density foods at night might aid in reducing overall intake and may be useful in dietary interventions for overweight and obesity.
Kotliar, Carol; Kempny, Pablo; Gonzalez, Sergio; Castellaro, Carlos; Forcada, Pedro; Obregon, Sebastián; Cavanagh, Elena; Chiabaut Svane, Jorge; Casarini, Maria Jesus; Rojas, Mercedes; Inserra, Felipe
The relationship between salt intake, blood pressure and RAAS activation is still controversial, being that both high- and low-salt intakes are associated with cardiovascular events in a J-shaped curve pattern. We hypothesized that different patterns of RAAS response to dietary salt intake among hypertensives could be identified, while vascular damage would be related to high-salt intake plus absence of expected RAAS inhibition. We aim to assess the relationship between sodium intake, RAAS and vascular stiffness in hypertension. We screened 681 hypertensive patients for urinary/plasma electrolytes, renin, aldosterone and pulse wave velocity (PWV) under their usual salt intake level. After applying exclusion criteria, an inverse relation between urinary sodium and RAAS was observed in the 300 remaining subjects. Additionally, four types of response were identified: 1) Low (L) sodium (S)-Low RAAS, 2) LS-High (H) SRAAS, 3) HS-Low RAAS, 4) HS-High RAAS. We found no differences in age/BP among groups, but type 4 response individuals included more females and a higher pulse wave velocity. We showed a) an inverse salt-RAAS relation, b) an association between HS plus high RAAS with increased PWV that could identify a higher-risk hypertensive condition. © The Author(s) 2014.
Dietary salt reduction of Americans has been a focus of public health initiatives for more than 40 years primarily due to the association between high salt intake and development of hypertension. Despite past efforts, salt intake of Americans has remained at levels well above dietary recommendations, likely due in part to the hedonic appeal of salty taste. As such, in 2010 the Institute of Medicine suggested a strategy of gradual salt reduction of processed foods, the primary source of Americans’ dietary salt intake, via an approach intended to minimize impact on consumer acceptability of lower-sodium foods. This brief review discusses the ontogeny and development of human salt taste preference, the role of experience in shifting salt preference, and sources of dietary salt. Our current understanding of shifting human salt taste preference is discussed within the context of potential opportunities for success in reducing dietary salt, and gaps in the research that both limit our ability to predict effectiveness of gradual salt reduction and that need be addressed before a strategy to shift salt preference can realistically be implemented. PMID:26451233
Yu, Hao; Yang, Tao; Gao, Peng; Wei, Xing; Zhang, Hexuan; Xiong, Shiqiang; Lu, Zongshi; Li, Li; Wei, Xiao; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yu; Arendshorst, William J.; Shang, Qianhui; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming
High salt intake is a major risk factor for hypertension. Although acute caffeine intake produces moderate diuresis and natriuresis, caffeine increases the blood pressure (BP) through activating sympathetic activity. However, the long-term effects of caffeine on urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure are rarely investigated. Here, we investigated whether chronic caffeine administration antagonizes salt sensitive hypertension by promoting urinary sodium excretion. Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats were fed with high salt diet with or without 0.1% caffeine in drinking water for 15 days. The BP, heart rate and locomotor activity of rats was analyzed and urinary sodium excretion was determined. The renal epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) expression and function were measured by in vivo and in vitro experiments. Chronic consumption of caffeine attenuates hypertension induced by high salt without affecting sympathetic nerve activity in Dahl-S rats. The renal α-ENaC expression and ENaC activity of rats decreased after chronic caffeine administration. Caffeine increased phosphorylation of AMPK and decrease α-ENaC expression in cortical collecting duct cells. Inhibiting AMPK abolished the effect of caffeine on α-ENaC. Chronic caffeine intake prevented the development of salt-sensitive hypertension through promoting urinary sodium excretion, which was associated with activation of renal AMPK and inhibition of renal tubular ENaC. PMID:27173481
Peleteiro, B; Lopes, C; Figueiredo, C; Lunet, N
Although salt intake is considered a probable risk factor for gastric cancer, relevant studies have provided heterogeneous results, and the magnitude of the association has not been accurately quantified. To quantify gastric cancer risk in relation to dietary salt exposure according to Helicobacter pylori infection status and virulence, smoking, tumour site, and histological type, we evaluated 422 gastric cancer cases and 649 community controls. Salt exposure was estimated in the year before the onset of symptoms through: sodium intake (estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)); main food items/groups contributing to dietary sodium intake; visual analogical scale for salt intake preference; use of table salt; and duration of refrigerator ownership. Comparing subjects with the highest with those with the lowest salt exposure (3rd vs 1st third), sodium intake (OR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.16-3.46), consumption of food items with high contribution to sodium intake (OR=2.54, 95% CI: 1.56-4.14) and salt intake evaluated by visual analogical scale (OR=1.83, 95% CI: 1.28-2.63) were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk. Subjects owning a refrigerator for >50 years had a lower risk for gastric cancer (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.14-0.57). These associations were observed regardless of H. pylori infection status and virulence, smoking, tumour site or histological type. Our results support the view that salt intake is an important dietary risk factor for gastric cancer, and confirms the evidence of no differences in risk according to H. pylori infection and virulence, smoking, tumour site and histological type.
Kolypetri, P; Randell, E; Van Vliet, B N; Carayanniotis, G
Recent studies have shown that high salt (HS) intake exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and have raised the possibility that a HS diet may comprise a risk factor for autoimmune diseases in general. In this report, we have examined whether a HS diet regimen could exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis, including spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT) in non-obese diabetic (NOD.H2h4) mice, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in C57BL/6J mice challenged with thyroglobulin (Tg) and EAT in CBA/J mice challenged with the Tg peptide (2549–2560). The physiological impact of HS intake was confirmed by enhanced water consumption and suppressed aldosterone levels in all strains. However, the HS treatment failed to significantly affect the incidence and severity of SAT or EAT or Tg-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels, relative to control mice maintained on a normal salt diet. In three experimental models, these data demonstrate that HS intake does not exacerbate autoimmune thyroiditis, indicating that a HS diet is not a risk factor for all autoimmune diseases. PMID:24528002
Sutrisna, Aang; Knowles, Jacky; Basuni, Abas; Menon, Ravi; Sugihantono, Anung
The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of iodine intake from iodised household salt, iodised salt in instant noodles, and iodine in ground water in five regions of Indonesia. Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2013 Primary Health Research Survey, the 2014 Total Diet Study, and data from food industry research. Iodine intake was estimated among 2719 children, 10–12 years of age (SAC), 13,233 women of reproductive age (WRA), and 578 pregnant women (PW). Combined estimated iodine intake from the three stated sources met 78%, 70%, and 41% of iodine requirements for SAC, WRA and PW, respectively. Household salt iodine contributed about half of the iodine requirements for SAC (49%) and WRA (48%) and a quarter for PW (28%). The following variations were found: for population group, the percentage of estimated dietary iodine requirements met by instant noodle consumption was significantly higher among SAC; for region, estimated iodine intake was significantly higher from ground water for WRA in Java, and from household salt for SAC and WRA in Kalimantan and Java; and for household socio-economic status (SES), iodine intake from household salt was significantly higher in the highest SES households. Enforcement of clear implementing regulations for iodisation of household and food industry salt will promote optimal iodine intake among all population groups with different diets. PMID:29517995
Sutrisna, Aang; Knowles, Jacky; Basuni, Abas; Menon, Ravi; Sugihantono, Anung
The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of iodine intake from iodised household salt, iodised salt in instant noodles, and iodine in ground water in five regions of Indonesia. Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2013 Primary Health Research Survey, the 2014 Total Diet Study, and data from food industry research. Iodine intake was estimated among 2719 children, 10-12 years of age (SAC), 13,233 women of reproductive age (WRA), and 578 pregnant women (PW). Combined estimated iodine intake from the three stated sources met 78%, 70%, and 41% of iodine requirements for SAC, WRA and PW, respectively. Household salt iodine contributed about half of the iodine requirements for SAC (49%) and WRA (48%) and a quarter for PW (28%). The following variations were found: for population group, the percentage of estimated dietary iodine requirements met by instant noodle consumption was significantly higher among SAC; for region, estimated iodine intake was significantly higher from ground water for WRA in Java, and from household salt for SAC and WRA in Kalimantan and Java; and for household socio-economic status (SES), iodine intake from household salt was significantly higher in the highest SES households. Enforcement of clear implementing regulations for iodisation of household and food industry salt will promote optimal iodine intake among all population groups with different diets.
Booth, Alison; Khokhar, Durreajam; West, Madeline; Margerison, Claire; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl
Background Salt intake of schoolchildren in the Australian state of Victoria is high. To protect future cardiovascular health, interventions that seek to reduce the amount of salt in children’s diets are required. Objective We sought to develop and pilot test a Web-based program (Digital Education to Limit Salt Intake in the Home [DELISH]) that aims to reduce dietary salt intake among schoolchildren and to improve child and parent knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. This paper presents the DELISH study protocol, along with pilot findings used to inform the development of the program. Methods The DELISH program is a 5-week Web-based intervention that targets schoolchildren aged 7-10 years and their parents. This is a single-arm study with a pretest and posttest design. We will assess change in salt intake through analysis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Children and parents will complete online surveys assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. We will assess feasibility of the program via process measures, which include metrics to describe intervention uptake (eg, number of children who complete Web-based sessions and of parents who view online newsletters) and evaluation surveys and interviews conducted with children, parents, and schoolteachers. The first 2 Web sessions developed for children were pilot tested in 19 children aged 8-12 years. Results Findings from pilot testing indicated that most children (session 1: 18/19, 95%; and session 2: 19/19, 100%) enjoyed completing each session and liked the inclusion of comic strips and interactive games. Commonly reported areas of improvement related to sessions being text and content heavy. Based on these findings, we simplified sessions and developed 3 additional sessions for use in the DELISH program. The DELISH program was implemented during June-December 2016. We expect to have results from this study at the end of 2017. Conclusions To our knowledge, this
Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control and sodium intake in Shandong Province, China: baseline results from Shandong-Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH), 2011.
Bi, Zhenqiang; Liang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Wang, Linghong; Shi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jiyu; Ren, Jie; Yan, Liuxia; Lu, Zilong; Wang, Huicheng; Tang, Junli; Cai, Xiaoning; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Juan; Chu, Jie; Engelgau, Michael; Yang, Quanhe; Hong, Yuling; Wang, Yu
In China, population-based blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension are increasing. Meanwhile, sodium intake, a major risk factor for hypertension, is high. In 2011, to develop intervention priorities for a salt reduction and hypertension control project in Shandong Province (population 96 million), a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on sodium intake and hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Complex, multistage sampling methods were used to select a provincial-representative adult sample. Blood pressure was measured and a survey conducted among all participants; condiments were weighed in the household, a 24-hour dietary recall was conducted, and urine was collected. Hypertension was determined by blood pressure measured on a single occasion and self-reported use of antihypertension medications. Overall, 23.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.9%-26.0%) of adults in Shandong were estimated to have hypertension. Among those classified as having hypertension, approximately one-third (34.5%) reported having hypertension, approximately one-fourth (27.5%) reported taking medications, and one-seventh (14.9%) had their blood pressure controlled (<140/<90 mm Hg). Estimated total average daily dietary sodium intake was 5,745 mg (95% CI, 5,428 mg-6,063 mg). Most dietary sodium (80.8%) came from salt and high-salt condiments added during cooking: a sodium intake of 4,640 mg (95% CI, 4,360 mg-4,920 mg). The average daily urinary sodium excretion was 5,398 mg (95% CI, 5,112 mg-5,683 mg). Hypertension and excessive sodium intake in adults are major public health problems in Shandong Province, China.
Kim, So Mi; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Soon Bae; Chang, Jai Won; Kim, Hyun Woo
Introduction High sodium intake is the main cause of fluid overload in hemodialysis (HD) patients, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. High sodium intake is known to be associated with low salt taste acuity and/or high preference. As the zinc status could influence taste acuity, we analyzed the effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in HD patients. Methods A total of 77 HD patients was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level with below 70 µg/mL. The patients were divided into two groups based on serum zinc level. Salt taste acuity and preference were determined by a sensory test using varying concentrations of NaCl solution, and dietary sodium intake was estimated using 3-day dietary recall surveys. Findings The mean salt recognition threshold and salt taste preference were significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group. And there was significant positive correlation between salt taste preference and dietary sodium intake in zinc deficient group (r = 0.43, P = 0.002). Although, the dietary sodium intake showed a high tendency with no significance (P = 0.052), interdialytic weight gain was significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group (2.68 ± 1.02 kg vs. 3.18 ± 1.02 kg; P = 0.047). Discussion Zinc deficiency may be related to low salt taste acuity and high salt preference, leading to high dietary sodium intake in HD patients. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.
' salt excretion through perspiration. Workers exposed to heat stress consumed as much as 13-38 g salt daily. As salt strongly enhances and promotes chemical gastric carcinogenesis and H. pylori infection in both humans and animals, there is an association between work, salt intake, and development of stomach cancer. Reducing salt intake, especially during pregnancy, also reduces the risk of developing breast cancer and many other diseases, as well as obesity. The risk of most cancers is reduced by losing weight. The geographical data and analyses currently available suggest that road salt (road salting in winter) may be associated with elevated mortality from cancer of the breast, lung, esophagus, throat, larynx, large intestine, rectum and bladder. There is no available literature on the health impacts of road salt. The cause and effect relationships cannot be established without further studies.
Paplović, Ljiljana B Trajković; Popović, Milka B; Bijelović, Sanja V; Velicki, Radmila S; Torović, Ljilja D
Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food to the recommended daily intake of salt for healthy and persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In 1,069 samples of ready-to-eat food, salt (sodium chloride) content was calculated based on chloride ion determined by titrimetric method, while in 54 samples of bottled water sodium content was determined using flame-photometry. Food items in each food group were categorized as low, medium or high salt. Average salt content of each food group was expressed as a percentage of recommended daily intake for healthy and for persons with CVD risk. Average salt content (g/100 g) ranged from 0.36 ± 0.48 (breakfast cereals) to 2.32 ± 1.02 (grilled meat). The vast majority of the samples of sandwiches (91.7%), pizza (80.7%), salami (73.9%), sausages (72.9%), grilled meat (70.0%) and hard cheese (69.6%) had a high salt profile. Average amount of salt contained in 100 g of food participated with levels ranging from 7.2% (breakfast cereals) to 46.4% (grilled meat) and from 9.6% to 61.8% in the recommended daily intake for healthy adult and person with CVD risk, respectively. Average sodium content in 100 ml of bottled spring and mineral water was 0.33 ± 0.30 mg and 33 ± 44 mg, respectively. Ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad has high hidden salt content, which could be considered as an important contributor to relatively high salt consumption of its inhabitants.
Lanaspa, Miguel A; Kuwabara, Masanari; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Li, Nancy; Cicerchi, Christina; Jensen, Thomas; Orlicky, David J; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; MacLean, Paul S; Johnson, Richard J
Dietary guidelines for obesity typically focus on three food groups (carbohydrates, fat, and protein) and caloric restriction. Intake of noncaloric nutrients, such as salt, are rarely discussed. However, recently high salt intake has been reported to predict the development of obesity and insulin resistance. The mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we show that high intake of salt activates the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway in the liver and hypothalamus, leading to endogenous fructose production with the development of leptin resistance and hyperphagia that cause obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver. A high-salt diet was also found to predict the development of diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a healthy population. These studies provide insights into the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes and raise the potential for reduction in salt intake as an additional interventional approach for reducing the risk for developing obesity and metabolic syndrome.
An, Ruopeng; Burd, Nicholas A
To assess the change in daily energy intake associated with pairwise compositional change in carbohydrate, fat and protein intake among US adults stratified by sex, race/ethnicity and weight status. Linear mixture model was performed to estimate the relationship between daily energy intake and macronutrient composition, adjusted for age and alcohol consumption, and accounting for survey design. Study sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2010 waves. A total of 27 589 US adults aged 20 years and older were included in the study. Dietary macronutrient intake was calculated from 24 h dietary recall and BMI from objectively measured weight/height. Across all population subgroups, substituting protein or carbohydrate for fat and substituting protein for carbohydrate were associated with decreased daily energy intake, with the largest effect resulting from substituting protein for fat. A 1 % increase in the percentage of energy from protein substituted for a 1 % decrease in the percentage of energy from fat was associated with a decrease in daily energy intake of 268.2 (95 % CI 169.0, 367.4) kJ, 289.5 (95 % CI 215.9, 363.2) kJ and 293.7 (95 % CI 210.0, 377.4) kJ among normal-weight (18.5≤BMI, kg/m2<25.0), overweight (25.0≤BMI, kg/m2<30.0) and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2) men, and 177.4 (95 % CI 130.5, 224.3) kJ, 188.7 (95 % CI 139.3, 238.1) kJ and 204.2 (95 % CI 158.2, 250.2) kJ among normal-weight, overweight and obese women, respectively. The relationship between macronutrient composition and daily energy intake varied substantially across sex, race/ethnicity and weight status. Policies promoting higher daily protein intake at the expense of lower fat intake could be effective in reducing total energy intake among US adults.
Grimes, Carley Ann; Booth, Alison; Khokhar, Durreajam; West, Madeline; Margerison, Claire; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl
Salt intake of schoolchildren in the Australian state of Victoria is high. To protect future cardiovascular health, interventions that seek to reduce the amount of salt in children's diets are required. We sought to develop and pilot test a Web-based program (Digital Education to Limit Salt Intake in the Home [DELISH]) that aims to reduce dietary salt intake among schoolchildren and to improve child and parent knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. This paper presents the DELISH study protocol, along with pilot findings used to inform the development of the program. The DELISH program is a 5-week Web-based intervention that targets schoolchildren aged 7-10 years and their parents. This is a single-arm study with a pretest and posttest design. We will assess change in salt intake through analysis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Children and parents will complete online surveys assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. We will assess feasibility of the program via process measures, which include metrics to describe intervention uptake (eg, number of children who complete Web-based sessions and of parents who view online newsletters) and evaluation surveys and interviews conducted with children, parents, and schoolteachers. The first 2 Web sessions developed for children were pilot tested in 19 children aged 8-12 years. Findings from pilot testing indicated that most children (session 1: 18/19, 95%; and session 2: 19/19, 100%) enjoyed completing each session and liked the inclusion of comic strips and interactive games. Commonly reported areas of improvement related to sessions being text and content heavy. Based on these findings, we simplified sessions and developed 3 additional sessions for use in the DELISH program. The DELISH program was implemented during June-December 2016. We expect to have results from this study at the end of 2017. To our knowledge, this is the first Australian study to examine the
Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control and Sodium Intake in Shandong Province, China: Baseline Results From Shandong–Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH), 2011
Bi, Zhenqiang; Liang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Wang, Linghong; Shi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jiyu; Ren, Jie; Yan, Liuxia; Lu, Zilong; Wang, Huicheng; Tang, Junli; Cai, Xiaoning; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Juan; Chu, Jie; Engelgau, Michael; Yang, Quanhe; Hong, Yuling
Introduction In China, population-based blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension are increasing. Meanwhile, sodium intake, a major risk factor for hypertension, is high. In 2011, to develop intervention priorities for a salt reduction and hypertension control project in Shandong Province (population 96 million), a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on sodium intake and hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Methods Complex, multistage sampling methods were used to select a provincial-representative adult sample. Blood pressure was measured and a survey conducted among all participants; condiments were weighed in the household, a 24-hour dietary recall was conducted, and urine was collected. Hypertension was determined by blood pressure measured on a single occasion and self-reported use of antihypertension medications. Results Overall, 23.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.9%–26.0%) of adults in Shandong were estimated to have hypertension. Among those classified as having hypertension, approximately one-third (34.5%) reported having hypertension, approximately one-fourth (27.5%) reported taking medications, and one-seventh (14.9%) had their blood pressure controlled (<140/<90 mm Hg). Estimated total average daily dietary sodium intake was 5,745 mg (95% CI, 5,428 mg–6,063 mg). Most dietary sodium (80.8%) came from salt and high-salt condiments added during cooking: a sodium intake of 4,640 mg (95% CI, 4,360 mg–4,920 mg). The average daily urinary sodium excretion was 5,398 mg (95% CI, 5,112 mg–5,683 mg). Conclusion Hypertension and excessive sodium intake in adults are major public health problems in Shandong Province, China. PMID:24854239
Wakasugi, Minako; James Kazama, Junichiro; Narita, Ichiei
In Japan, reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles, both traditional Japanese dishes, is recommended in order to decrease dietary salt intake. With the Westernization of dietary habits, however, these dishes are now consumed less frequently, and thus a reduction in their effect on sodium intake is suspected. This study examined cross-sectional associations between the frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion using data obtained from health examination surveys conducted in 2013 in Sado City, Japan. The level of daily salt intake was estimated based on spot urine sodium and creatinine measurements. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles was determined using a self-reported questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations. Among a total of 8,821 participants (3,956 men; age range, 19-97 years), the mean daily salt intake was 9.4 g/day. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles increased with age and was associated with the level of daily salt intake (p for trend <0.0001). A linear regression model analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and chronic kidney disease revealed that daily salt intake was associated with the frequency of intake of miso soup (p<0.0001) and Japanese pickles (p<0.0001) in all age groups, except those ≥ 80 years of age. These findings suggest that reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles may be an effective approach for decreasing the level of dietary salt intake in the general Japanese population, although not in octogenarians or nonagenarians.
Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro
The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, β = -0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, β = -0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.
Mozaffari, Mahmood S; Patel, Champa; Ballas, Claudia; Schaffer, Stephen W
Important risk factors for cardiovascular disease include excess dietary intake of saturated fat and (or) salt. This study tested the hypothesis that excess intakes of saturated fat (e.g., beef tallow) and salt cause greater myocardial cell death following ischemia-reperfusion injury than each risk factor alone. Male rats were divided into four groups: basal fat diet (4.5% as calories; control), high fat diet (40% as calories; FAT), basal fat diet and high salt (1% NaCl solution; SALT) and high fat diet and high salt (FATSALT). The gain in body weight was significantly higher for FAT and FATSALT groups than those of either the control or the SALT group. Five weeks of exposure to the dietary regimens did not significantly affect the coronary flow rate and except for the salt-fed group, had no effect on the rate-pressure-product of the isolated heart perfused in Langendorff mode. Although infarct size was not affected by the high fat diet, it was reduced by the high salt regimen relative to the high fat diet or the control groups. When rats were fed the FAT and SALT combination, the effect of salt feeding on infarct size was not observed. In addition, the FATSALT group displayed a more marked deterioration in contractile function following ischemia-reperfusion injury than the other groups. In conclusion, short-term intake of a high fat diet, which significantly increases body weight, does not worsen ischemia-reperfusion injury although the treatment prevents the reduction of infarct size associated with high salt feeding.
De Keyzer, Willem; Dofková, Marcela; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; De Maeyer, Mieke; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ruprich, Jirí; Řehůřková, Irena; Geelen, Anouk; van 't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; de Boer, Evelien; Ocké, Marga; Slimani, Nadia; Huybrechts, Inge
High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR). Participants from a subsample of the European Food Consumption Validation study (n 365; countries: Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic), aged 45-65 years, completed two 24 h urine collections and two 24-HDR. Reporting accuracy was calculated as the ratio of reported Na intake to that estimated from the urinary biomarker. A questionnaire on salt use was completed in order to assess the discretionary use of table and cooking salt. The reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was assessed using two scenarios: (1) a salt adjustment procedure using data from the salt questionnaire; (2) without salt adjustment. Overall, reporting accuracy improved when data from the salt questionnaire were included. The mean reporting accuracy was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·72), 0·73 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·79) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·85) for Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic, respectively. Reporting accuracy decreased with increasing BMI among male subjects in all the three countries. For women from Belgium and Norway, reporting accuracy was highest among those classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: 0·73, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·81 and 0·81, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·86, respectively). The findings from the present study showed considerable underestimation of dietary Na intake assessed using two 24-HDR. The questionnaire-based salt adjustment procedure improved reporting accuracy by 7-13 %. Further development of both the questionnaire and EPIC-Soft databases (e.g. inclusion of a facet to describe salt content) is necessary to estimate population dietary Na intakes accurately.
Reale, Marcella; Boscolo, Paolo; Bellante, Veronica; Tarantelli, Chiara; Di Nicola, Marta; Forcella, Laura; Li, Qing; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Muraro, Raffaella
Dietary probiotics supplementation exerts beneficial health effects. Since cigarette smoking reduces natural killer (NK) activity, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) intake on NK cytotoxic activity in male smokers. The double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study was conducted on seventy-two healthy Italian blue-collar male smokers randomly divided for daily intake of LcS powder or placebo. Before and after 3 weeks of intake, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and NK activity and CD16⁺ cells' number were assessed. Daily LcS intake for 3 weeks significantly increased NK activity (P < 0.001). The increase in NK activity was paralleled by an increase in CD16⁺ cells (P < 0.001). Before intake, NK cytotoxic activity inversely correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked (R - 0.064). LcS intake prevented the smoke-dependent expected NK activity reduction. The analysis of the distribution of changes in smoke-adjusted NK activity demonstrated that the positive variations were significantly associated with LcS intake, while the negative variations were associated with placebo intake (median value of distributions of differences, 20.98 lytic unit (LU)/10⁷ cells for LcS v. - 4.38 LU/10⁷ cells for placebo, P = 0.039). In conclusion, 3 weeks of daily LcS intake in Italian male smokers was associated with a higher increase in cytotoxic activity and CD16⁺ cells' number in comparison to the placebo intake group.
Aaron, Kristal J; Sanders, Paul W
The objective of this review was to provide a synthesis of the evidence on the effect of dietary salt and potassium intake on population blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Dietary guidelines and recommendations are outlined, current controversies regarding the evidence are discussed, and recommendations are made on the basis of the evidence. Designed search strategies were used to search various databases for available studies. Randomized trials of the effect of dietary salt intake reduction or increased potassium intake on blood pressure, target organ damage, cardiovascular disease, and mortality were included. Fifty-two publications from January 1, 1990, to January 31, 2013, were identified for inclusion. Consideration was given to variations in the search terms used and the spelling of terms so that studies were not overlooked, and search terms took the following general form: (dietary salt or dietary sodium or [synonyms]) and (dietary potassium or [synonyms]) and (blood pressure or hypertension or vascular disease or heart disease or chronic kidney disease or stroke or mortality or [synonyms]). Evidence from these studies demonstrates that high salt intake not only increases blood pressure but also plays a role in endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular structure and function, albuminuria and kidney disease progression, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Conversely, dietary potassium intake attenuates these effects, showing a linkage to reduction in stroke rates and cardiovascular disease risk. Various subpopulations, such as overweight and obese individuals and aging adults, exhibit greater sensitivity to the effects of reduced salt intake and may gain the most benefits. A diet that includes modest salt restriction while increasing potassium intake serves as a strategy to prevent or control hypertension and decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus, the body of evidence supports population
Background High salt intake is linked to hypertension whereas a restriction of dietary salt lowers blood pressure (BP). Substituting potassium and/or magnesium salts for sodium chloride (NaCl) may enhance the feasibility of salt restriction and lower blood pressure beyond the sodium reduction alone. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effect on blood pressure of replacing NaCl (Regular salt) with a novel mineral salt [50% sodium chloride and rich in potassium chloride (25%), magnesium ammonium potassium chloride, hydrate (25%)] (Smart Salt). Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with an intervention period of 8-weeks in subjects (n = 45) with systolic (S)BP 130-159 mmHg and/or diastolic (D)BP 85-99 mmHg. During the intervention period, subjects consumed processed foods salted with either NaCl or Smart Salt. The primary endpoint was the change in SBP. Secondary endpoints were changes in DBP, daily urine excretion of sodium (24-h dU-Na), potassium (dU-K) and magnesium (dU-Mg). Results 24-h dU-Na decreased significantly in the Smart Salt group (-29.8 mmol; p = 0.012) and remained unchanged in the control group: resulting in a 3.3 g difference in NaCl intake between the groups. Replacement of NaCl with Smart Salt resulted in a significant reduction in SBP over 8 weeks (-7.5 mmHg; p = 0.016). SBP increased (+3.8 mmHg, p = 0.072) slightly in the Regular salt group. The difference in the change of SBP between study groups was significant (p < 0.002). Conclusions The substitution of Smart Salt for Regular salt in subjects with high normal or mildly elevated BP resulted in a significant reduction in their daily sodium intake as well as a reduction in SBP. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN01739816 PMID:21888642
Zorbas, Y. G.; Federenko, Y. F.; Togawa, M. N.
It has been suggested that a daily intake of fluid and salt supplements may be used to prevent bone demineralization in human subjects after prolonged exposure to hypokinesia (diminished muscular activity). Thus, the objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of fluid and salt supplementation in the prevention of development of osteoporosis in 64 Wistar rats with an initial body weight of 339-345 g, after exposure to 90 days of hypokinesia. They divided into 4 equal groups: the first group of rats placed under ordinary vivarium conditions and served as vivarium control; the second group were also placed under ordinary vivarium conditions but received daily fluid and salt supplements; the third group were subjected to pure hypokinesia, i.e. without the use of any preventive measures; and the fourth group were submitted to hypokinesia and received daily fluid and salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect the experimental group of rats were kept in small, individual, wooden cages. Through the experimental period the second and fourth group of rats received 8 ml/100 g body wt water and 5 ml 100 g body wt NaCl daily. By the end of the experimental period the animals were decapitated and the spongy matter of tibia and vertebrae of the rats were examined for changes referable to osteoporosis. It was found that the daily intake of fluid and salt supplements caused an increase in the volume density of primary spongiosa of bones. It was concluded that a daily intake of fluid and salt supplements may be used to prevent the development of osteoporosis in rats subjected to prolonged motor activity restriction.
Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Wenyi; Gao, Jianmei; Lu, Lixin; Liu, Caixia; Gao, Xian
In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the "one-week salt estimation method" by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children) with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2) g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old), 15.2 (9.1) g for adults (18 to 59 years old), and 10.2 (4.8) g for senior citizens (60 years old and over), respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking), while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet.
Kaić-Rak, Antoinette; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Heim, Inge; Skupnjak, Berislav
It is well known that reduction of salt results in lowering blood pressure and cardiovascular incidents. Daily salt is double the recommended daily quantity and mainly comes from processed food. The assessment of daily salt intake for Croatia is 12 g/day (WHO recommendation is <5 g/day). The main source of sodium is processed food and food prepared in restaurants (77%), natural content of sodium in food (12%), added salt at table (6%) and prepared meals at home (5%). Reduction of salt by 50% would save nearly 180,000 lives per year in Europe. It is necessary to establish better collaboration with food manufacturers in order to reduce the content of salt in processed food and to achieve appropriate salt intake per day in accordance with the WHO recommendation. Further, it is necessary to encourage food manufacturers to produce food and meals with low or reduced salt content (shops, catering, changes in recipes, offer salt substitutions). This kind of collaboration is based on bilateral interests that can result in positive health effects. One of the most important public health tasks is to educate consumers and to give them choice when buying food. This can be achieved by effective campaigns and social marketing, by ensuring a declaration of salt content on the product, or specially designed signs for food products with low or reduced salt content.
Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo
Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in salt intake. In contrast, in the 9-12-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations.
Takada, T; Imamoto, M; Fukuma, S; Yamamoto, Y; Sasaki, S; Uchida, M; Miura, Y; Shimizu, S; Nihata, K; Fukuhara, S
Sodium reduction is very important in preventing cardiovascular diseases, especially in regions with high salt intake such as Japan. One strategy for salt reduction is to raise consumer awareness of the need to reduce daily salt intake. We investigated whether cooking classes given to housewives focussing on salt reduction would influence not only their own consumption behaviour but also that of their family members. Single-blinded, cluster randomized trial. We randomly assigned housewives to participate in cooking classes focussing on salt reduction (intervention group) or lectures about a healthy lifestyle (control group). The main outcome measure was the difference in estimated daily salt intake by spot urine sampling of housewives and their family members 2 months after intervention between the groups. A total of 35 housewives and 33 family members were randomized. The mean daily salt intake was 10.00 (standard deviation [SD] 1.75) g/day in the control group (17 housewives and 15 family members) and 9.57 (SD 2.45) g/day in the intervention group (18 housewives and 18 family members) at baseline. Two months after the intervention, the mean salt intake was 10.30 (SD 1.78) g/day in the control group and 8.95 (SD 2.45) g/day in the intervention group. The mean difference was -1.19 g/day (95% confidence interval -2.29, -0.09; P = 0.034). A similar tendency was observed in the subgroups of housewives and family members. Our trial suggested that the effects of cooking classes focussing on salt reduction for housewives could be transferred to family members (UMIN-CTR: 000018870). Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yuyan; Zhang, Biao; Hou, Lei; Han, Wei; Xue, Fang; Wang, Yanhong; Tang, Yong; Liang, Shaohua; Wang, Weizhi; Asaiti, Kuliqian; Wang, Zixing; Hu, Yaoda; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Changchun; Zhang, Mingtao; Jiang, Jingmei
To explore the effect of interaction between ACE genotype and salt intake on hypertension among Chinese Kazakhs, and to compare applications of interactions between logistic model and generalised partially linear tree-based regression (GPLTR) model. Population-based cross-sectional study. Hong Dun, North Xinjiang, China. Non-consanguineous Chinese Kazakh participants (n=916, 342 men and 574 women) aged ≥30 years. Association between ACE genotype and hypertension, association between salt intake and hypertension, and interaction of ACE genotype and salt intake on hypertension in two models. Associations between salt intake and hypertension were different in ACE genotype of II and ID+DD. Under the logistic models, main and interaction effects were not observed for men, but effects were present in opposite directions for women (main effect of ACE: OR=0.20, p=0.003; interaction effect: OR=1.07, p=0.027). Under the GPLTR model, Bayesian information criterion trees included both salt intake and ACE genotype as split variables. Individuals with a salt intake ≥19.5 g/day and ID+DD genotypes had a 3.99-fold (p=0.004) higher risk of hypertension compared with the II genotype for men, whereas salt intake <20.1 g/day and ID+DD genotypes had an OR=0.55 (p=0.014) compared with the II genotype for women. An interaction of ACE genotype and salt intake on hypertension was observed among Chinese Kazakhs but in different ways according to sex. The GPLTR model appears to be more suitable for an exploration of interactions in complex diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Chu, Chao; Mu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Man; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Xie, Bing-Qing; Yang, Fan; Dong, Zhen-Zhen; Yuan, Zu-Yi
The aim of our study was to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium intake on urinary renalase and serum dopamine levels in humans. Forty-two subjects (28–65 years of age) were selected from a rural community of northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for an additional 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and a high-salt diet with potassium supplementation for a final 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl). Urinary renalase excretions were significantly higher during the high-salt diet intervention than during the low-salt diet. During high-potassium intake, urinary renalase excretions were not significantly different from the high-salt diet, whereas they were significantly higher than the low-salt levels. Serum dopamine levels exhibited similar trends across the interventions. Additionally, a significant positive relationship was observed between the urine renalase and serum dopamine among the different dietary interventions. Also, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion positively correlated with urine renalase and serum dopamine in the whole population. The present study indicates that dietary salt intake and potassium supplementation increase urinary renalase and serum dopamine levels in Chinese subjects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel
Cardon-Thomas, Danielle K; Riviere, Timothy; Tieges, Zoë; Greig, Carolyn A
Daily distribution of dietary protein may be important in protecting against sarcopenia, specifically in terms of per meal amounts relative to a proposed threshold for maximal response. The aims of this study were to determine total and per meal protein intake in older adults, as well as identifying associations with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Three-day food diaries recorded protein intake in 38 participants. Protein distribution, coefficient of variation (CV), and per meal amounts were calculated. Accelerometry was used to collect physical activity data as well as volume and patterns of sedentary time. Average intake was 1.14 g·kg -1 ·day -1 . Distribution was uneven (CV = 0.67), and 79% of participants reported <0.4 g·kg -1 protein content in at least 2/3 daily meals. Protein intake was significantly correlated with step count ( r = 0.439, p = 0.007) and negatively correlated with sedentary time ( r = -0.456, p = 0.005) and Gini index G, which describes the pattern of accumulation of sedentary time ( r = -0.421, p = 0.011). Total daily protein intake was sufficient; however, distribution did not align with the current literature; increasing protein intake may help to facilitate optimization of distribution. Associations between protein and other risk factors for sarcopenia may also inform protective strategies.
Brough, Louise; Gunn, Caroline A; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane; Jin, Ying; Thomson, Jasmine S; Mauze, Mathilde; Kruger, Marlena C
Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50-70 years ( n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Three day diet diaries (3DDD) also estimated selenium and iodine (excluding iodised salt) intake. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 57 (41, 78) µg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Estimated median iodine intake based on urine was 138 (100, 172) µg/day, below Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) (150 µg/day) with 25% below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (100 µg/day). Estimated median selenium intake was 50 (36, 71) µg/day based on urine and 45 (36, 68) µg/day using 3DDD, below RDI (60 µg/day) with 49%-55% below EAR (50 µg/day). Median bread intakes were low at 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) serves/day; 25% consumed ≤1 serve/day. Although population iodine intakes improved following mandatory fortification, some had low intakes. Selenium intakes remain low. Further research should investigate thyroid function of low consumers of iodine fortified bread and/or selenium in New Zealand.
Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; El-Desoky, Gaber E; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Habila, Mohamed A; Giesy, John P
Concentrations of selenium (Se) in food from local markets of Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were measured and daily intake calculated based on information from a questionnaire of foods eaten by healthy Saudis. The daily intake of Se was then compared to concentrations of Se in blood serum. Primary sources of Se in the diet of Saudis were as follows: meat and meat products (31%), egg (20.4%), cereals and cereal products (16%), legumes (8.7%), fruits (6.8%), milk and dairy products (2.0%), beverages (2%), sweets (1.8%), pickles (0.2%), and oil (0.02%). Daily intake of Se, estimated to be 93 μg Se/person/day, was slightly greater than that calculated from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) food balance sheet for KSA, which was approximately 90 μg Se/person/day. The daily intake of Se by Saudis in Riyadh was greater than that of Australians or Dutch but less that of Canadians and Americans. There was a statistically significant correlation (R = +0.38, P < 0.05) between daily intake of Se and concentrations of Se in blood serum of Saudis in Riyadh. The mean concentration of Se in serum was 1.0 × 10(2) ± 30.5 μg Se/l. Taken together, the results suggest that the average Se intake and Se serum concentrations are within the known limits and recommendations, making it unlikely that Saudis are on average at risk of deficiency or toxicity.
Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S
Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.
Ahlberg, C M; Allwardt, K; Broocks, A; Bruno, K; McPhillips, L; Taylor, A; Krehbiel, C R; Calvo-Lorenzo, M; Richards, C J; Place, S E; DeSilva, U; VanOverbeke, D L; Mateescu, R G; Kuehn, L A; Weaber, R L; Bormann, J M; Rolf, M M
Water is an essential nutrient, but the effect it has on performance generally receives little attention. There are few systems and guidelines for collection of water intake phenotypes in beef cattle, which makes large-scale research on water intake a challenge. The Beef Improvement Federation has established guidelines for feed intake and average daily gain tests, but no guidelines exist for water intake. The goal of this study was to determine the test duration necessary for collection of accurate water intake phenotypes. To facilitate this goal, individual daily water intake (WI) and feed intake (FI) records were collected on 578 crossbred steers for a total of 70 d using an Insentec system at the Oklahoma State University Willard Sparks Beef Research Unit. Steers were fed in 5 groups and were individually weighed every 14 days. Within each group, steers were blocked by body weight (low and high) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 pens containing approximately 30 steers per pen. Each pen provided 103.0 m2 of shade and included an Insentec system containing 6 feed bunks and 1 water bunk. Steers were fed a constant diet across groups and dry matter intake was calculated using the average of weekly percent dry matter within group. Average feed and water intakes for each animal were computed for increasingly large test durations (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 and 70 d), and ADG was calculated using a regression formed from body weights (BW) taken every14 d (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 d). Intervals for all traits were computed starting from both the beginning (d 0) and the end of the testing period (d 70). Pearson and Spearman correlations were computed for phenotypes from each shortened test period and for the full 70-d test. Minimum test duration was determined when the Pearson correlations were greater than 0.95 for each trait. Our results indicated that minimum test duration for WI, DMI, and ADG were 35, 42, and 70 d, respectively. No comparable studies exist for
Cui, Yufei; Niu, Kaijun; Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Guan, Lei; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guo, Hui; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi
Isoflavones comprise a class of phytoestrogens that resemble human estrogen in chemical structure, and have weak estrogenic effects. Because estrogen modulates sleep duration and quality, we hypothesized that isoflavones would have a beneficial effect on sleep status in a way similar to estrogen. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep status in Japanese subjects. Our study included 1076 Japanese adults aged 20-78 years. Daily isoflavone intake was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, and sleep was evaluated using a self-reported questionnaire. The prevalence of regular sleep duration (7-8 h/day) and sufficient sleep quality were 13.3% and 56.2%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for optimal sleep duration (7-8 h) when higher isoflavone intakes (Q2-Q4) were compared with low isoflavone intake (Q1) were Q2: 0.94 (0.53-1.56); Q3: 1.28 (0.73-2.24); and Q4: 1.84 (1.06-3.18) (p for trend = 0.013). In the final adjusted model, sufficient sleep quality across categories of isoflavone intake was Q1: 1.00 (reference); Q2: 1.30 (0.91-1.84); Q3: 1.48 (1.03-2.12); and Q4: 1.78 (1.22-2.60); (p for trend = 0.002). Higher daily isoflavone intake was positively associated with optimal sleep duration and quality in a Japanese population. This finding suggests that daily isoflavone intake may have a potentially beneficial effect on sleep status.
Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Dan; Mu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Ke-Yu; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Chu, Chao; Wang, Lan; Geng, Li-Ke; Yuan, Zu-Yi
Abstract Renalase, a recently discovered enzyme released by the kidneys, breaks down blood-borne catecholamines and may thus regulate blood pressure (BP). Animal studies have suggested that high levels of dietary salt might reduce blood and kidney renalase levels. We conducted a randomized trial to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium intake on serum renalase levels and the relationship between serum renalase levels and BP in humans. Forty-two subjects (28–65 years of age) were selected from a rural community of northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for additional 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and a high-salt diet with potassium supplementation for final 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl). Serum renalase levels were significantly higher than baseline levels during the low-salt diet intervention period. Renalase levels decreased with the change from the low-salt to high-salt diet, whereas dietary potassium prevented the decrease in serum renalase induced by the high-salt diet. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum renalase level and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. No significant correlation was found between the renalase level and BP among the different dietary interventions. The present study indicates that variations in dietary salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the serum renalase concentration in Chinese subjects. PMID:25058146
Hollborn, Margrit; Kohen, Leon; Wiedemann, Peter
Purpose Systemic hypertension is a risk factor of age-related retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. High intake of dietary salt and low intake of water increase extracellular osmolality resulting in hypertension, in particular in salt-sensitive individuals. This review summarizes the present knowledge regarding the impact of salt and water intake on the regulation of blood pressure, retinal function, and the development of age-related retinal diseases. Methods A literature search of the Medline database and a summary of recent studies that used human RPE cells. Results The salt sensitivity of the blood pressure and plasma osmolality increase with age, and body water deficits are common in older individuals. High plasma osmolality has adverse effects in the retina. In RPE cells, high osmolality induces expression and secretion of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor, and expression of aquaporin-5, a water channel implicated in transepithelial water transport. The transcriptional activities of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5) are critical for the production of VEGF in response to salt-induced osmotic stress. Salt-induced osmotic stress also induces priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome and activates inflammatory enzymes in RPE cells. Conclusions Raised plasma osmolality may aggravate age-related retinal diseases by stimulation of local inflammation and angiogenic factor production in the RPE. Alterations in salt and water consumption, and of minerals that stimulate renal salt excretion, may offer nutritional approaches to prevent age-related retinal disorders, in particular in salt-sensitive individuals and individuals who show signs of body dehydration. PMID:28031693
Bringmann, Andreas; Hollborn, Margrit; Kohen, Leon; Wiedemann, Peter
Systemic hypertension is a risk factor of age-related retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. High intake of dietary salt and low intake of water increase extracellular osmolality resulting in hypertension, in particular in salt-sensitive individuals. This review summarizes the present knowledge regarding the impact of salt and water intake on the regulation of blood pressure, retinal function, and the development of age-related retinal diseases. A literature search of the Medline database and a summary of recent studies that used human RPE cells. The salt sensitivity of the blood pressure and plasma osmolality increase with age, and body water deficits are common in older individuals. High plasma osmolality has adverse effects in the retina. In RPE cells, high osmolality induces expression and secretion of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor, and expression of aquaporin-5, a water channel implicated in transepithelial water transport. The transcriptional activities of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5) are critical for the production of VEGF in response to salt-induced osmotic stress. Salt-induced osmotic stress also induces priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome and activates inflammatory enzymes in RPE cells. Raised plasma osmolality may aggravate age-related retinal diseases by stimulation of local inflammation and angiogenic factor production in the RPE. Alterations in salt and water consumption, and of minerals that stimulate renal salt excretion, may offer nutritional approaches to prevent age-related retinal disorders, in particular in salt-sensitive individuals and individuals who show signs of body dehydration.
Alwasel, Saleh H; Barker, David J P; Ashton, Nick
Sodium retention has been proposed as the cause of hypertension in the LP rat (offspring exposed to a maternal low-protein diet in utero) model of developmental programming because of increased renal NKCC2 (Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter 2) expression. However, we have shown that LP rats excrete more rather than less sodium than controls, leading us to hypothesize that LP rats ingest more salt in order to maintain sodium balance. Rats were fed on either a 9% (low) or 18% (control) protein diet during pregnancy; male and female offspring were studied at 4 weeks of age. LP rats of both sexes held in metabolism cages excreted more sodium and urine than controls. When given water to drink, LP rats drank more and ate more food than controls, hence sodium intake matched excretion. However, when given a choice between saline and water to drink, the total volume of fluid ingested by LP rats fell to control levels, but the volume of saline taken was significantly larger [3.8±0.1 compared with 8.8±1.3 ml/24 h per 100 g of body weight in control and LP rats respectively; P<0.001]. Interestingly food intake also fell to control levels. Total body sodium content and ECF (extracellular fluid) volumes were greater in LP rats. These results show that prenatal programming of renal sodium wasting leads to a compensatory increase in salt appetite in LP rats. We speculate that the need to maintain salt homoeostasis following malnutrition in utero stimulates greater food intake, leading to accelerated growth and raised BP (blood pressure).
Knowles, Jacky; Shehata, Magdy; Gerasimov, Gregory; Bimo, Bimo; Cavenagh, Bettina; Maramag, Cherry C.; Otico, Edward; Izwardy, Doddy; Spohrer, Rebecca; Garrett, Greg S.
The current performance indicator for universal salt iodisation (USI) is the percentage of households using adequately iodised salt. However, the proportion of dietary salt from household salt is decreasing with the increase in consumption of processed foods and condiments globally. This paper reports on case studies supported by the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN)-UNICEF USI Partnership Project to investigate processed food industry use of adequately iodised salt in contrasting national contexts. Studies were conducted in Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. In all cases, the potential iodine intake from iodised salt in selected food products was modelled according to the formula: quantity of salt per unit of food product × minimum regulated iodine level of salt at production × average daily per capita consumption of the product. The percent of adult recommended nutrient intake for iodine potentially provided by the average daily intake of bread and frequently consumed foods and condiments was from 10% to 80% at the individual product level. The potential contribution to iodine intake from the use of iodised salt in the processed food industry is of growing significance. National USI strategies should encourage co-operative industry engagement and include regulatory monitoring of iodised salt use in the food industry in order to achieve optimal population iodine status. PMID:28933750
Jaiswal, Nidhi; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Sharma, Surjeet Kaur; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Zimmermann, Michael B
To compare the iodine status of pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India. A cross-sectional study evaluating demographic characteristics, household salt iodine concentration and salt usage patterns, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in women and children, and maternal thyroid volume (ultrasound). Antenatal clinic of an urban tertiary-care hospital, which serves a low-income population. Healthy pregnant women in all trimesters, aged 18-35 years, who had healthy children aged 3-15 years. Median (range) iodine concentrations of household powdered and crystal salt were 55·9 (17·2-65·9) ppm and 18·9 (2·2-68·2) ppm, respectively. The contribution of iodine-containing supplements and multi-micronutrient powders to iodine intake in the families was negligible. Adequately iodized salt, together with small amounts of iodine in local foods, were providing adequate iodine during pregnancy: (i) the overall median (range) UIC in women was 172 (5-1024) µg/l; (ii) the median UIC was >150 µg/l in all trimesters; and (iii) thyroid size was not significantly different across trimesters. At the same time, the median (range) UIC in children was 220 (10-782) µg/l, indicating more-than-adequate iodine intake at this age. Median UIC was significantly higher in children than in their mothers (P=0·008). In this selected urban population of southern India, the iodized salt programme provides adequate iodine to women throughout pregnancy, at the expense of higher iodine intake in their children. Thus we suggest that the current cut-off for median UIC in children indicating more-than-adequate intake, recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders may, need to be reconsidered.
Uechi, Ken; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi
Salt intake in Japan remains high; therefore, exploring within-country variation in salt intake and its cause is an important step in the establishment of salt reduction strategies. However, no nationwide evaluation of this variation has been conducted by urinalysis. We aimed to clarify whether within-country variation in salt intake exists in Japan after adjusting for individual characteristics. Healthy men (n=1027) and women (n=1046) aged 20-69 years were recruited from all 47 prefectures of Japan. Twenty-four-hour sodium excretion was estimated using three spot urine samples collected on three nonconsecutive days. The study area was categorized into 12 regions defined by the National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan. Within-country variation in sodium excretion was estimated as a population (region)-level variance using a multilevel model with random intercepts, with adjustment for individual biological, socioeconomic and dietary characteristics. Estimated 24 h sodium excretion was 204.8 mmol per day in men and 155.7 mmol per day in women. Sodium excretion was high in the Northeastern region. However, population-level variance was extremely small after adjusting for individual characteristics (0.8 and 2% of overall variance in men and women, respectively) compared with individual-level variance (99.2 and 98% of overall variance in men and women, respectively). Among individual characteristics, greater body mass index, living with a spouse and high miso-soup intake were associated with high sodium excretion in both sexes. Within-country variation in salt intake in Japan was extremely small compared with individual-level variation. Salt reduction strategies for Japan should be comprehensive and should not address the small within-country differences in intake.
Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim
This work examined the effects of age on salt appetite measured in the form of daily saline (i.e., 0.3 M NaCl) drinking in response to administration of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 5 mg/kg body wt) using young (4 mo), “middle-aged” adult (12 mo), and old (30 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Water and sodium intakes, excretions, and balances were determined daily. The salt appetite response was age dependent with “middle-aged” rats ingesting the most saline solution followed in order by young and then old rats. While old rats drank the least saline solution, the amounts of saline ingested still were copious and comprise an unambiguous demonstration of salt appetite in old rats. Middle-aged rats had the highest saline preference ratios of the groups under baseline conditions and throughout testing consistent with an increased avidity for sodium taste. There were age differences in renal handling of water and sodium that were consistent with a renal contribution to the greater saline intakes by middle-aged rats. There was evidence of impaired renal function in old rats, but this did not account for the reduced saline intakes of the oldest rats. PMID:24133100
Nielsen, Lise H; Ovesen, Per; Hansen, Mie R; Brantlov, Steven; Jespersen, Bente; Bie, Peter; Jensen, Boye L
It was hypothesized that primary renal sodium retention blunted the reactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to changes in salt intake in preeclampsia (PE). A randomized, cross-over, double-blinded, dietary intervention design was used to measure the effects of salt tablets or placebo during low-salt diet in PE patients (n = 7), healthy pregnant women (n = 15), and nonpregnant women (n = 13). High-salt intake decreased renin and angiotensin II concentrations significantly in healthy pregnant women (P < .03) and in nonpregnant women (P < .001), but not in PE (P = .58), while decreases in aldosterone and increases in brain natriuretic peptid (BNP) were similar in the groups. In PE patients, uterine and umbilical artery indices were not adversely changed during low-salt diet. Creatinine clearance was significantly lower in PE with no change by salt intake. PE patients displayed alterations of plasma renin and angiotensin II in response to changes in dietary salt intake compatible with a primary increase in renal sodium reabsorption in hypertensive pregnancies. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bielinska, Klaudia; Radkowski, Marek; Grochowska, Marta; Perlejewski, Karol; Huc, Tomasz; Jaworska, Kinga; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ufnal, Marcin
A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk. Blood plasma, urine, and stool samples were analyzed for concentrations of trimethylamine (TMA; a TMAO precursor), TMAO, and indoxyl sulfate (indole metabolite). The gut-blood barrier permeability to TMA and TMA liver clearance were assessed at baseline and after TMA intracolonic challenge test. Gut bacterial flora was analyzed with a 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The isotonic and hypertonic groups showed a significantly higher plasma TMAO and significantly lower 24-hr TMAO urine excretion than the controls. However, the TMA stool level was similar between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in gut-blood barrier permeability and TMA liver clearance. Plasma indoxyl concentration and 24-hr urine indoxyl excretion were similar between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups in gut bacteria composition. High salt intake increases plasma TMAO concentration, which is associated with decreased TMAO urine excretion. Furthermore, high salt intake alters gut bacteria composition. These findings suggest that salt intake affects an interplay between gut bacteria and their host homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Isma’eel, Hussain A.; Sakr, George E.; Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Fathallah, Jihan; Garabedian, Torkom; Eddine, Savo Bou Zein
Background High dietary salt intake is directly linked to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Predicting behaviors regarding salt intake habits is vital to guide interventions and increase their effectiveness. We aim to compare the accuracy of an artificial neural network (ANN) based tool that predicts behavior from key knowledge questions along with clinical data in a high cardiovascular risk cohort relative to the least square models (LSM) method. Methods We collected knowledge, attitude and behavior data on 115 patients. A behavior score was calculated to classify patients’ behavior towards reducing salt intake. Accuracy comparison between ANN and regression analysis was calculated using the bootstrap technique with 200 iterations. Results Starting from a 69-item questionnaire, a reduced model was developed and included eight knowledge items found to result in the highest accuracy of 62% CI (58-67%). The best prediction accuracy in the full and reduced models was attained by ANN at 66% and 62%, respectively, compared to full and reduced LSM at 40% and 34%, respectively. The average relative increase in accuracy over all in the full and reduced models is 82% and 102%, respectively. Conclusions Using ANN modeling, we can predict salt reduction behaviors with 66% accuracy. The statistical model has been implemented in an online calculator and can be used in clinics to estimate the patient’s behavior. This will help implementation in future research to further prove clinical utility of this tool to guide therapeutic salt reduction interventions in high cardiovascular risk individuals. PMID:26090333
Fares, Souha A; Habib, Joseph R; Engoren, Milo C; Badr, Kamal F; Habib, Robert H
Blood pressure exhibits substantial short- and long-term variability (BPV). We assessed the hypothesis that the complexity of beat-to-beat BPV will be differentially altered in salt-sensitive hypertensive Dahl rats (SS) versus rats protected from salt-induced hypertension (SSBN13) maintained on high-salt versus low-salt diet. Beat-to-beat systolic and diastolic BP series from nine SS and six SSBN13 rats (http://www.physionet.org) were analyzed following 9 weeks on low salt and repeated after 2 weeks on high salt. BP complexity was quantified by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), short- and long-range scaling exponents (αS and αL), sample entropy (SampEn), and traditional standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV(%)). Mean systolic and diastolic BP increased on high-salt diet (P < 0.01) particularly for SS rats. SD and CV(%) were similar across groups irrespective of diet. Salt-sensitive and -protected rats exhibited similar complexity indices on low-salt diet. On high salt, (1) SS rats showed increased scaling exponents or smoother, systolic (P = 0.007 [αL]) and diastolic (P = 0.008 [αL]) BP series; (2) salt-protected rats showed lower SampEn (less complex) systolic and diastolic BP (P = 0.046); and (3) compared to protected SSBN13 rats, SS showed higher αL for systolic (P = 0.01) and diastolic (P = 0.005) BP Hypertensive SS rats are more susceptible to high salt with a greater rise in mean BP and reduced complexity. Comparable mean pressures in sensitive and protective rats when on low-salt diet coupled with similar BPV dynamics suggest a protective role of low-salt intake in hypertensive rats. This effect likely reflects better coupling of biologic oscillators. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
Kanno, Hiroko; Kanda, Eiichiro; Sato, Asako; Sakamoto, Kaori; Kanno, Yoshihiko
Determination of daily protein intake in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires precision. Inaccuracies in recording dietary intake occur, and estimation from total urea excretion presents hurdles owing to the difficulty of collecting whole urine for 24 h. Spot urine has been used for measuring daily sodium intake and urinary protein excretion. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in spot urine can be used to predict daily protein intake instead of the 24-h urine collection in 193 Japanese CKD patients (Stages G1-G5). After patient randomization into 2 datasets for the development and validation of models, bootstrapping was used to develop protein intake estimation models. The parameters for the candidate multivariate regression models were male gender, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum albumin level, spot urinary UN and creatinine level, and spot urinary UN/creatinine levels. The final model contained BMI and spot urinary UN level. The final model was selected because of the higher correlation between the predicted and measured protein intakes r = 0.558 (95 % confidence interval 0.400, 0.683), and the smaller distribution of the difference between the measured and predicted protein intakes than those of the other models. The results suggest that UN concentration in spot urine may be used to estimate daily protein intake and that a prediction formula would be useful for nutritional control in CKD patients.
Choe, Katrina Y; Han, Su Y; Gaub, Perrine; Shell, Brent; Voisin, Daniel L; Knapp, Blayne A; Barker, Philip A; Brown, Colin H; Cunningham, J Thomas; Bourque, Charles W
The mechanisms by which dietary salt promotes hypertension are unknown. Previous work established that plasma [Na(+)] and osmolality rise in proportion with salt intake and thus promote release of vasopressin (VP) from the neurohypophysis. Although high levels of circulating VP can increase blood pressure, this effect is normally prevented by a potent GABAergic inhibition of VP neurons by aortic baroreceptors. Here we show that chronic high salt intake impairs baroreceptor inhibition of rat VP neurons through a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent activation of TrkB receptors and downregulation of KCC2 expression, which prevents inhibitory GABAergic signaling. We show that high salt intake increases the spontaneous firing rate of VP neurons in vivo and that circulating VP contributes significantly to the elevation of arterial pressure under these conditions. These results provide the first demonstration that dietary salt can affect blood pressure through neurotrophin-induced plasticity in a central homeostatic circuit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, N C; Gilman, T L; Daws, L C; Toney, G M
Stress contributes to many psychiatric disorders; however, responsivity to stressors can vary depending on previous or current stress exposure. Relatively innocuous heterotypic (differing in type) stressors can summate to result in exaggerated neuronal and behavioral responses. Here we investigated the ability of prior high dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake, a dehydrating osmotic stressor, to enhance neuronal and behavioral responses of mice to an acute psychogenic swim stress (SS). Further, we evaluated the contribution of the osmo-regulatory stress-related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (VP) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), one of only a few brain regions that synthesize VP. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high dietary salt intake on responsivity to heterotypic stress and the potential contribution of VPergic-mediated neuronal activity on high salt-induced stress modulation, thereby providing insight into how dietary (homeostatic) and environmental (psychogenic) stressors might interact to facilitate psychiatric disorder vulnerability. Salt loading (SL) with 4% saline for 7 days was used to dehydrate and osmotically stress mice prior to exposure to an acute SS. Fluid intake and hematological measurements were taken to quantify osmotic dehydration, and serum corticosterone levels were measured to index stress axis activation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to stain for the immediate early gene product c-Fos to quantify effects of SL on SS-induced activation of neurons in the PVN and extended amygdala - brain regions that are synaptically connected and implicated in responding to osmotic stress and in modulation of SS behavior, respectively. Lastly, the role of VPergic PVN neurons and VP type 1 receptor (V1R) activity in the amygdala in mediating effects of SL on SS behavior was evaluated by quantifying c-Fos activation of VPergic PVN neurons and, in functional experiments, by nano-injecting the V1R selective
Anderson, Liam; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P
The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24-hr recalls) of professional soccer players (n = 6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the prematch (<1.5 g·kg -1 body mass) and postmatch (1 g·kg -1 body mass) meals (in recovery from an evening kick-off) were similar (p > .05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for prematch CHO intake and postmatch recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (p < .05 for all comparisons) to protein feeding such that dinner (0.8 g·kg -1 )>lunch (0.6 g·kg -1 )>breakfast (0.3 g·kg -1 )>evening snacks (0.1 g·kg -1 ). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the prematch and postmatch meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.
Kitada, Kento; Daub, Steffen; Zhang, Yahua; Klein, Janet D; Nakano, Daisuke; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Lantier, Louise; LaRocque, Lauren M; Marton, Adriana; Neubert, Patrick; Schröder, Agnes; Rakova, Natalia; Jantsch, Jonathan; Dikalova, Anna E; Dikalov, Sergey I; Harrison, David G; Müller, Dominik N; Nishiyama, Akira; Rauh, Manfred; Harris, Raymond C; Luft, Friedrich C; Wassermann, David H; Sands, Jeff M; Titze, Jens
Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake. We observed that the renal concentration mechanism couples natriuresis with correspondent renal water reabsorption, limits natriuretic osmotic diuresis, and results in concurrent extracellular volume conservation and concentration of salt excreted into urine. This water-conserving mechanism of dietary salt excretion relies on urea transporter-driven urea recycling by the kidneys and on urea production by liver and skeletal muscle. The energy-intense nature of hepatic and extrahepatic urea osmolyte production for renal water conservation requires reprioritization of energy and substrate metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle, resulting in hepatic ketogenesis and glucocorticoid-driven muscle catabolism, which are prevented by increasing food intake. This natriuretic-ureotelic, water-conserving principle relies on metabolism-driven extracellular volume control and is regulated by concerted liver, muscle, and renal actions.
Kitada, Kento; Daub, Steffen; Zhang, Yahua; Klein, Janet D.; Nakano, Daisuke; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Lantier, Louise; LaRocque, Lauren M.; Marton, Adriana; Neubert, Patrick; Schröder, Agnes; Rakova, Natalia; Jantsch, Jonathan; Dikalova, Anna E.; Dikalov, Sergey I.; Harrison, David G.; Müller, Dominik N.; Nishiyama, Akira; Rauh, Manfred; Harris, Raymond C.; Luft, Friedrich C.; Wasserman, David H.; Sands, Jeff M.
Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake. We observed that the renal concentration mechanism couples natriuresis with correspondent renal water reabsorption, limits natriuretic osmotic diuresis, and results in concurrent extracellular volume conservation and concentration of salt excreted into urine. This water-conserving mechanism of dietary salt excretion relies on urea transporter–driven urea recycling by the kidneys and on urea production by liver and skeletal muscle. The energy-intense nature of hepatic and extrahepatic urea osmolyte production for renal water conservation requires reprioritization of energy and substrate metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle, resulting in hepatic ketogenesis and glucocorticoid-driven muscle catabolism, which are prevented by increasing food intake. This natriuretic-ureotelic, water-conserving principle relies on metabolism-driven extracellular volume control and is regulated by concerted liver, muscle, and renal actions. PMID:28414295
Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cephas, S.; Sayavongsa, P.; Clark, T.; Arnaud, S. B.
Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have demonstrated that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) concentrations during hind limb unloading (a space flight model). We report here on the response of the vitamin D endocrine system of S and R rats to hind limb unloading during high salt intake. Dahl female rats (9.7-week-old) were tail-suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a diet containing twice the salt in standard rat chow (2 % sodium chloride). Control rats were fed the same diet, but were not hind limb unloaded. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and radioimmunoassay kits from Diasorin.
Erkoyun, E; Sözmen, K; Bennett, K; Unal, B; Boshuizen, H C
To estimate the impact of three daily salt consumption scenarios on the prevalence and incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease in 2025 in the Turkish population aged ≥30 years using the DYNAMO Health Impact Assessment tool. Statistical disease modelling study. DYNAMO health impact assessment was populated using data from Turkey to estimate the prevalence and incidence of IHD and cerebrovascular disease in 2025. TurkSTAT data were used for demographic data, and national surveys were used for salt consumption and disease-specific burden. Three salt consumption scenarios were modelled: (1) reference scenario: mean salt consumption stays the same from 2012-2013 until 2025; (2) gradual decline: daily salt intake reduces steadily by 0.47 g per year by lowering salt intake from bread by 50% and from table salt by 40% by 2025; and (3) World Health Organization (WHO) advice: daily salt intake of 5 g per day from 2013 until 2025. The gradual decline scenario would lead to a decrease in the prevalence of IHD and cerebrovascular disease by 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively, and a decrease in the incidence by 0.6 and 0.4 per 1000, respectively. Following WHO's advice would lead to a decrease in the prevalence of IHD and cerebrovascular disease by 0.8% and 0.5%, respectively, and a decrease in the incidence by 1.0 and 0.7 per 1000, respectively. This model indicates that Turkey can lower its future cardiovascular disease burden by following the gradual decline scenario. Following WHO's advice would achieve an even greater benefit. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whitrow, M J; Moran, L; Davies, M J; Collins, C E; Burrows, T L; Edwards, S; Moore, V M
The present study aimed to evaluate core food intakes in 9-10-year-old Australian children by considering adequacy of nutrient intakes, comparing servings of core food groups with Australian recommendations and scoring overall diet quality. Children from an established community-based cohort study completed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, micronutrients, servings of core (i.e. nutrient-rich) foods and a diet quality index were calculated and compared with appropriate standards. Sex and socio-economic differences were examined. The 436 children participating were from low to high socio-economic status families. As a group, over half of the children met estimated average requirements for key macro- and micronutrients, with the exception of fibre (inadequate in 41% of boys and 24% of girls). Children obtained 55% of their daily energy from core foods. Most children had fewer than the recommended servings of vegetables (91%) and meat/alternatives (99.8%), whereas boys generally ate fewer servings of grains and cereals than recommended (87%), and girls ate fewer servings of dairy (83%). Diet quality scores indicated room for improvement (median score of 26 for boys and 25 for girls, out of a maximum of 73 points). As a group, a large proportion of children were able to meet their daily nutrient requirements. However, achieving this through noncore foods meant that diets were high in salt, saturated fat and sugar; more servings of core foods and greater dietary diversity would be preferable. These results suggest that families need more support to optimise dietary patterns of children in this age group. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T; Rausch, Joseph R; Patton, Susana R
To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in daily water intake from baseline to the conclusion of treatment ( p ≤ .001), and were four and six times more likely to meet fluid targets in Phases 1 (Weeks 3-4) and 2 (Weeks 5-6) of fluid intervention, respectively (both p ≤ .001). Enhanced education and behavioral strategies were efficacious in increasing children's intake of water and improving fluid adherence. Future research should replicate the findings in a prospective randomized clinical trial to discern their effectiveness.
Corcellas, Cayo; Feo, Maria Luisa; Torres, Joao Paulo; Malm, Olaf; Ocampo-Duque, William; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià
There is an assumption that pyrethroid pesticides are converted to non-toxic metabolites by hydrolysis in mammals. However, some recent works have shown their bioaccumulation in human breast milk collected in areas where pyrethroids have been widely used for agriculture or malaria control. In this work, thirteen pyrethroids have been studied in human breast milk samples coming from areas without pyrethroid use for malaria control, such as Brazil, Colombia and Spain. The concentrations of pyrethroids ranged from 1.45 to 24.2 ng g⁻¹ lw. Cypermethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, permethrin and esfenvalerate/fenvalerate were present in all the studied samples. The composition of pyrethroid mixture depended on the country of origin of the samples, bifenthrin being the most abundant in Brazilian samples, λ-cyhalothrin in Colombian and permethrin in Spanish ones. When the pyrethroid concentrations were confronted against the number of gestations, an exponential decay was observed. Moreover, a time trend study was carried out in Brazil, where additional archived pool samples were analyzed, corresponding to years when pyrethroids were applied for dengue epidemic control. In these cases, total pyrethroid levels reached up to 128 ng g⁻¹ lw, and concentrations decreased when massive use was not allowed. Finally, daily intake estimation of nursing infants was calculated in each country and compared to acceptable WHO levels. The estimated daily intakes for nursing infants were always below the acceptable daily intake levels, nevertheless in certain samples the detected concentrations were very close to the maximum acceptable levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ware, L J; Charlton, K; Schutte, A E; Cockeran, M; Naidoo, N; Kowal, P
In June 2016, South Africa implemented legislation mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of processed foods with a goal of reducing population salt intake and disease burden from hypertension. Our aim was to explore the relationship between salt and blood pressure (BP) in a subsample of the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 2 before implementation of legislation in South Africa. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in triplicate (n = 2722; median age 56 years; 33% male) and 24-h urine collected in a nested subsample (n = 526) for sodium, potassium and creatinine analysis. Hypertension prevalence was 55% in older adults (50-plus years) and 28% in younger adults (18-49 years). Median salt intake (6.8 g/day) was higher in younger than older adults (8.6 g vs 6.1 g/day; p < 0.001), and in urban compared to rural populations (7.0 g vs 6.0 g/day; p = 0.033). Overall, 69% of participants had salt intakes above 5 g/day. Potassium intakes were generally low (median 35 mmol/day) with significantly lower intakes in rural areas and older adults. Overall, 91% of adults failed to meet the daily potassium recommendation of 90 mmol/d. Salt intakes above 5 g/day, and to a greater extent, a dietary sodium-to-potassium (Na:K) ratio above 2 mmol/mmol, were associated with significantly steeper regression slopes of BP with age. These preliminary results indicate that high dietary Na:K ratio may lead to a greater increase in BP and hypertension risk with age. Interventions to increase potassium intakes alongside sodium reduction initiatives may be warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tanenbaum, Molly L; Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R
Daily self-weighing is an effective weight loss strategy. Little is known about "micro" factors influencing nonadherence to self-weighing (e.g., daily overeating). It was hypothesized that increased caloric intake on a given day would increase odds of not self-weighing the following day. Daily self-reports of weight and caloric intake were collected from 74 adults with overweight and obesity (mean BMI = 31.2 ± 4.5 kg/m 2 , age = 50.6 ± 10 years, 69% female, 87% Caucasian) throughout a 12-week Internet-based weight management intervention. Multilevel logistic regression investigated odds of nonadherence to self-weighing on a given day based on the previous day's caloric intake. Self-monitoring adherence was high (weights: 87%; calories: 85%); adherence was associated with greater 12-week weight loss (weighing: r = -0.24, P = 0.04; calories: r = -0.26, P = 0.04). Increased caloric intake on a given day, relative to the individual's average intake, was associated with increased odds of nonadherence to self-weighing the next day (F (1,5106) = 12.66, P = 0.0004, β = 0.001). For example, following a day of eating 300 calories more than usual, odds of not self-weighing increased by 1.33. Odds of nonadherence to self-weighing increased following a day with higher-than-usual caloric intake. Weight management interventions collecting daily self-monitoring data could provide support to participants who report increased caloric intake to prevent self-weighing nonadherence. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Watanabe, Yoko; Saito, Isao; Asada, Yasuhiko; Kishida, Taro; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Yamaizumi, Masamitsu; Kato, Tadahiro
Objectives: The first objective of this study was to classify men aged 40–74 yrs with metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to daily rice intake, and the second was to investigate physical measurements, physiological examinations, blood biochemical assays, intake of food other than rice and lifestyle and environmental factors in the study group. Methods: We analyzed data from 6095 men aged 40–74 yrs who had undergone full medical examinations. The men were classified into 3 age groups: (1) 40–49 yrs, (2) 50–59 yrs, and (3) 60–74 yrs. The men were classified further into 3 groups according to daily rice intake: group 1 (≤300 g), group 2 (300–450 g), and group 3 (≥450 g). The relationship between daily rice intake and the following factors was analyzed in the three age brackets: (1) physical measurements including waist circumference, (2) physiological measurements, (3) serum biochemical indices, (4) whether or not the person was taking medication for hypertension, diabetes mellitus or serum lipid abnormalities, (5) lifestyle, and (6) consumption of foods other than rice. Results: Daily rice intake was related strongly to the occurrence of MetS in all three age brackets. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed (1) a significant increase in the odds ratio for MetS (1.461 times) for group 3 compared with group 1 in men aged 40–49 yrs and (2) a significant increase in the odds ratio for MetS (1.501 times) for group 3 compared with group 1 in men aged 50–59 yrs. However, there was no significant difference in the odds ratio for MetS among rice intake groups in the 60–74 age bracket. Conclusion: In men aged 40–59 yrs, daily rice intake strongly influenced the incidence of MetS, whereas in men aged 60–74 yrs, there was no relationship between daily rice intake and MetS. PMID:25649461
Gutierrez, Laura; Romero, Iris B.; Moyano, Daniela L.; Poggio, Rosana; Calandrelli, Matías; Mores, Nora; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma
The maximum content of sodium in selected processed foods (PF) in Argentina was limited by a law enacted in 2013. Data about intake of these and other foods are necessary for policy planning, implementation, evaluation, and monitoring. We examined data from the CESCAS I population-based cohort study to assess the main dietary sources among PF and frequency of discretionary salt use by sex, age, and education attainment, before full implementation of the regulations in 2015. We used a validated 34-item FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire) to assess PF intake and discretional salt use. Among 2127 adults in two Argentinean cities, aged 35–76 years, mean salt intake from selected PFs was 4.7 g/day, higher among male and low education subgroups. Categories of foods with regulated maximum limits provided near half of the sodium intake from PFs. Use of salt (always/often) at the table and during cooking was reported by 9% and 73% of the population, respectively, with higher proportions among young people. Reducing salt consumption to the target of 5 g/day may require adjustments to the current regulation (reducing targets, including other food categories), as well as reinforcing strategies such as education campaigns, labeling, and voluntary agreement with bakeries. PMID:28858263
Grimes, Carley A; Kelley, Sarah-Jane; Stanley, Sonya; Bolam, Bruce; Webster, Jacqui; Khokhar, Durreajam; Nowson, Caryl A
Information on consumer's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KABs) related to salt can be used to inform awareness and education campaigns and serve as a baseline measure to monitor changes in KABs over time. The aim of this study was to determine KABs related to salt intake among Victorian adults. Cross-sectional survey conducted in Victorian adults aged 18-65 years. Participants were recruited from shopping centres located in Melbourne and Geelong and via online methods (Facebook and Consumer Research Panel) to complete an online survey assessing KABs related to dietary salt. Descriptive statistics (mean (SD) or n (%)) were used to report survey findings. A total of 2398 participants provided a valid survey (mean age 43 years (SD 13), 57% female). The majority (80%) were born in Australia and 63% were the main household grocery shopper. The majority (89%) were aware of the health risks associated with a high salt intake. Eighty three percent believed that Australians eat too much salt. Three quarters (75%) correctly identified salt from processed foods as being the main source of salt in the diet. Less than a third (29%) of participants believed their own individual salt intake exceeded dietary recommendations and only 28% could correctly identify the maximum recommended daily intake for salt. Just under half (46%) of participants were concerned about the amount of salt in food. Almost two thirds (61%) of participants believed that there should be laws which limit the amount of salt added to manufactured foods and 58% agreed that it was difficult to find lower salt options when eating out. The findings of this study serve as a baseline assessment of KABs related to salt intake in Victorian adults and can be used to assess changes in salt related KABs over time. Public concern about salt is low as many people remain unaware of their own salt intake. An increased awareness of the excessive amount of salt consumed and increased availability of lower salt foods
Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Patton, Susana R.
Objective To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Methods Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Results Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in daily water intake from baseline to the conclusion of treatment ( p ≤ .001), and were four and six times more likely to meet fluid targets in Phases 1 (Weeks 3–4) and 2 (Weeks 5–6) of fluid intervention, respectively (both p ≤ .001). Conclusions Enhanced education and behavioral strategies were efficacious in increasing children’s intake of water and improving fluid adherence. Future research should replicate the findings in a prospective randomized clinical trial to discern their effectiveness. PMID:20439348
Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Dan; Mu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Ke-Yu; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Chu, Chao; Wang, Lan; Geng, Li-Ke; Yuan, Zu-Yi
Renalase, a recently discovered enzyme released by the kidneys, breaks down blood-borne catecholamines and may thus regulate blood pressure (BP). Animal studies have suggested that high levels of dietary salt might reduce blood and kidney renalase levels. We conducted a randomized trial to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium intake on serum renalase levels and the relationship between serum renalase levels and BP in humans.Forty-two subjects (28-65 years of age) were selected from a rural community of northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for additional 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and a high-salt diet with potassium supplementation for final 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl).Serum renalase levels were significantly higher than baseline levels during the low-salt diet intervention period. Renalase levels decreased with the change from the low-salt to high-salt diet, whereas dietary potassium prevented the decrease in serum renalase induced by the high-salt diet. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum renalase level and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. No significant correlation was found between the renalase level and BP among the different dietary interventions.The present study indicates that variations in dietary salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the serum renalase concentration in Chinese subjects.
Yao, Zhanxin; Gu, Yeqing; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Bao, Xue; Shi, Hongbin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Wu, Yuntang; Song, Kun; Gao, Weina; Guo, Changjiang; Niu, Kaijun
Quercetin is one of potential antidiabetic substances because of its powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. The purpose of this study is to estimate daily quercetin intake and assess the relationship between dietary quercetin intake and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Chinese population. Dietary intake was investigated by a validated 100-item food frequency questionnaire. Daily intakes of quercetin and nutrients were calculated accordingly. T2DM was diagnosed based on the criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship between the quartiles of quercetin intake and the prevalence of T2DM. The prevalences of T2DM were 8.35% in men and 4.68% in women. The main food sources of quercetin were apple, orange, and green tea. Daily intake of quercetin was 20.9 ± 2.32 mg/day (mean ± SD). After adjusting for potentially confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% CI) for T2DM across the ascending quartiles of quercetin intake were: 1.00 (reference), 0.75 (0.60-0.95), 0.76 (0.59-0.99), and 0.63 (0.51-0.94). The results of the present study showed that quercetin intake was inversely related to the prevalence of T2DM in the Chinese population, suggesting a protective effect of quercetin in the development of T2DM.
Williams, Rachel A; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J
Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 4 weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667 ± 77 kcal/day; 11,166 ± 322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396 ± 44 kcal/day (1658 ± 184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308 ± 41 kcal/day (1290 ± 172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230 ± 35 kcal/day (963 ± 147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thrift, Amanda G; Srikanth, Velandai; Fitzgerald, Sharyn M; Kalyanram, Kartik; Kartik, Kamakshi; Hoppe, Chantal C; Walker, Karen Z; Evans, Roger G
1. It has been argued that all major risk factors for cardiovascular disease have been identified. Yet, epidemiological studies undertaken to identify risk factors have largely focused on populations in developed nations or on the urban or relatively affluent rural populations of developing countries. Poor rural populations are seldom studied. 2. Somewhat different risk factors may operate in poor rural populations. Evidence for this is provided by the finding that, in disadvantaged rural India, the prevalence of hypertension is greater than would be expected based on established risk factors in these populations. One risk factor to be considered is a poor intrauterine environment. 3. In animals, maternal macro- and micronutrient malnutrition can lead to reduced nephron endowment. Nephron deficiency, in turn, can render blood pressure salt sensitive. The combination of nephron deficiency and excessive salt intake will predispose to hypertension. 4. Human malnutrition may have similar effects, particularly in regions of the world where malnutrition is endemic and where women are disadvantaged by existing social practices. 5. Moreover, high salt intake is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Therefore, we propose that maternal malnutrition (leading to reduced nephron endowment), when combined with excessive salt intake postnatally, will account, at least in part, for the unexpectedly high prevalence of hypertension in disadvantaged rural communities in India and elsewhere.
Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko
Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20–92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day−1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945
Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Morgans, Ryland; Abayomi, Julie; Davies, Ian G; Morton, James P; Mahon, Elizabeth
While traditional approaches to dietary analysis in athletes have focused on total daily energy and macronutrient intake, it is now thought that daily distribution of these parameters can also influence training adaptations. Using 7-day food diaries, we quantified the total daily macronutrient intake and distribution in elite youth soccer players from the English Premier League in U18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25) and U13/14 squads (n = 21). Total energy (43.1 ± 10.3, 32.6 ± 7.9, 28.1 ± 6.8 kcal·kg -1 ·day -1 ), CHO (6 ± 1.2, 4.7 ± 1.4, 3.2 ± 1.3 g·kg - 1 ·day -1 ) and fat (1.3 ± 0.5, 0.9 ± 0.3, 0.9 ± 0.3 g·kg- 1 ·day -1 ) intake exhibited hierarchical differences (p < .05) such that U13/14 > U15/16 > U18. In addition, CHO intake in U18s was lower (p < .05) at breakfast, dinner and snacks when compared with both squads but no differences were apparent at lunch. Furthermore, the U15/16s reported lower relative daily protein intake than the U13/14s and U18s (1.6 ± 0.3 vs. 2.2 ± 0.5, 2.0 ± 0.3 g·kg -1 ). A skewed distribution (p < .05) of daily protein intake was observed in all squads, with a hierarchical order of dinner (~0.6 g·kg -1 ) > lunch (~0.5 g·kg -1 ) > breakfast (~0.3 g·kg -1 ). We conclude elite youth soccer players do not meet current CHO guidelines. Although daily protein targets are achieved, we report a skewed daily distribution in all ages such that dinner > lunch > breakfast. Our data suggest that dietary advice for elite youth players should focus on both total daily macronutrient intake and optimal daily distribution patterns.
Daily dietary selenium (Se) intake in Suzhou China was investigated to determine whether residents were susceptible to Se deficiency. Food samples were purchased from local supermarkets, including vegetables, fruits, meats and seafood. Hair samples were collected from 285 people ranging from 20 to ...
Wei, Xiao; Lu, Zongshi; Yang, Tao; Gao, Peng; Chen, Sijiao; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming
High salt consumption is a major risk factor for hypertension, and sodium homeostasis is regulated by both intestinal sodium absorption and urinary sodium excretion. Chronic caffeine intake has been reported to attenuate salt-sensitive hypertension by promoting urinary sodium excretion; however, its exact role in intestinal sodium absorption remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether and how chronic caffeine consumption antagonizes salt-sensitive hypertension by inhibiting intestinal sodium absorption. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed 8% NaCl chow and 0.1% caffeine in their drinking water for 15 days. The blood pressure and fecal sodium content were measured. The effect of caffeine on the movement of Cl- in enterocyte cells was determined with the Ussing chamber assay. Rats that were treated with caffeine displayed significantly lower mean blood pressure and higher fecal sodium content than the controls. Consistent with these findings, caffeine intake decreased fluid absorption by the intestine in the fluid perfusion experiment. Further, the results from the Ussing chamber assay indicated that caffeine promoted Cl- secretion through enterocyte apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and thus inhibited sodium absorption. Moreover, depletion of cAMP or inhibition of CFTR completely abolished the effect of caffeine on Cl- secretion. The results indicate that chronic caffeine consumption reduces sodium absorption by promoting CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion in the intestine, which contributes to the anti-hypertensive effect of caffeine in salt-sensitive rats. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Cullen, Karen Weber; Chen, Tzu-An
In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP) and School Lunch Program (NSLP) meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the contribution of SBP and NSLP meals to the dietary intakes of 5-18 year old children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2007 through 2012. The participants completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Least-square means and standard errors of the mean for energy and food group intakes for the total day and by school meal, and the percent of daily energy and food groups contributed by school meals were computed by analysis of covariance, with BMI, ethnicity, sex, age and poverty level as covariates. Of the 7800 participating children aged 5-18 years in the entire dataset, 448 consumed both SBP-NSLP meals on a weekday. Almost one-half (47%) of the day's energy intake was provided by the two school meals. For the major food groups, the contribution of school meals ranged from between 40.6% for vegetables to 77.1% for milk. Overall, these results provide important information on contribution of the SBP and NSLP meals to low income children's daily dietary intake.
Garza, Kimberly B; Westrick, Salisa C; Teeter, Benjamin S; Stevenson, T Lynn
To evaluate the impact of the Salt Education Program for hypertensive adults on student pharmacists' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes regarding sodium consumption. As part of the introductory pharmacy practice experience program in community pharmacies, student pharmacists assessed patients' sodium intake knowledge and behaviors, taught them how to read nutrition labels, and obtained information about their hypertensive conditions. Students completed pre-and post-intervention questionnaires in April and August 2012, respectively. One hundred thirty student pharmacists (70% female, 78% white) completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Students demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge scores (p<0.001) and perceived benefit of a low-salt diet (p=0.004). Further, there were significant improvements in the self-reported frequency of looking at sodium content of foods when shopping (p<0.001) and purchasing low-salt foods (p=0.004). Changes in students' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes after participating in the Salt Education program suggested that the program was effective in improving student knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes.
Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason Hy; Woodward, Mark; Land, Mary-Anne; McLean, Rachael; Webster, Jacqui; Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Nowson, Caryl A; Elliott, Paul; Cogswell, Mary; Toft, Ulla; Mill, Jose G; Furlanetto, Tania W; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Hong, Yet Hoi; Cohall, Damian; Luzardo, Leonella; Noboa, Oscar; Holm, Ellen; Gerbes, Alexander L; Senousy, Bahaa; Pinar Kara, Sonat; Brewster, Lizzy M; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Subramanian, Srinivas; Teo, Boon Wee; Allen, Norrina; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Polonia, Jorge; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Campbell, Norm Rc; Neal, Bruce; Petersen, Kristina S
Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, health status, and timing of spot urine collection will be explored. The capacity of spot urine samples to measure change in salt intake over time will also be determined. Finally, we aim to develop a novel equation (or equations) that performs better than existing equations to estimate mean population salt intake. A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data will be conducted. A search has been conducted to identify human studies that report salt (or sodium) excretion based upon 24-hour urine samples and spot urine samples. There were no restrictions on language, study sample size, or characteristics of the study population. MEDLINE via OvidSP (1946-present), Premedline via OvidSP, EMBASE, Global Health via OvidSP (1910-present), and the Cochrane Library were searched, and two reviewers identified eligible studies. The authors of these studies will be invited to contribute data according to a standard format. Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations for estimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according to key demographic and clinical characteristics; (2) assess the reliability of using spot urine samples to measure population changes in salt intake overtime; and (3) develop a novel equation that performs better than existing equations
Sang, Zhongna; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Yao, Zhaixiao; Shen, Jun; Halfyard, Beth; Tan, Long; Zhao, Na; Wu, Yuntang; Gao, Shuo; Tan, Jian; Liu, Jiayu; Chen, Zupei; Zhang, Wanqi
The beneficial health effects associated with Universal Salt Iodization are well known. Yet, little is known about the possible adverse health effects in people with high iodine intake and the safe daily intake upper limit in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to explore the safe upper level of total daily iodine intake among adults in China. A 4-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 256 euthyroid adults. Participants were randomly assigned to 12 intervention groups with various iodine supplement doses ranging from 0 to 2000 μg/d. Total iodine intake included iodine from both supplements and diet. Multiple outcome measures were used to evaluate possible adverse effects, including thyroid function, thyroid size, and urinary iodine. The mean iodine intake from the diets and salt intake of the participants were 105 ± 25 and 258 ± 101 μg/d, respectively. In comparison with the placebo group, all iodide-supplemented groups responded with significant increases in median urinary iodine concentrations (P < 0.05) and in thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration (P < 0.05). Thyroid volume decreased after 4 wk in the high-iodine intervention groups (1500-2000 μg). Subclinical hypothyroidism appeared in the groups that received 400 μg I (5%) and 500-2000 μg I (15-47%). This study showed that subclinical hypothyroidism appeared in the participants who took the 400-μg I supplement, which provided a total iodine intake of ∼800 μg/d. Thus, we caution against a total daily iodine intake that exceeds 800 μg/d in China and recommend further research to determine a safe daily upper limit.
Al Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Al-Khamaiseh, Manal
Hypertension is the most important cardiovascular risk factor in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Excessive salt and sodium intake is directly related to hypertension, and its reduction is a priority of WHO. Bread is the leading staple food in the Region; therefore, reducing the amount of salt added to bread could be an effective measure for reducing salt intake. The study sought to determine the levels of sodium and salt in locally produced staple bread from 8 countries in the Region. Bread samples were collected randomly from bakeries located in the capital cities of the selected countries. The samples were analysed for sodium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean salt content of breads varied from 4.28 g/kg in Jordan to 12.41 g/kg in Tunisia. The mean salt and sodium content in bread for all countries was 7.63 (SD 3.12) and 3.0 (SD 1.23) g/kg, respectively. The contribution of bread to daily salt intake varied considerably between countries, ranging from 1.3 g (12.5%) in Jordan to 3.7 g (33.5%) in Tunisia. Interventions to reduce population salt intake should target reduction of salt in bread in all countries. The amount of salt added to bread should be standardized and relevant legislation developed to guide bakers. Setting an upper limit for salt content in flat bread (pita or Arabic bread) at 0.5% is strongly recommended. However, salt levels at ≤ 1% would be appropriate for other kind of breads. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).
Pfaff, G; Georg, T
Iodized salt has a high acceptance in the Potsdam region: 82% of the interviewed people use iodized salt, 13% do not use it, and only 5% of the probands were not able to make any statements. The current average iodine intake for adults is 76 micrograms/day. Only 5% of the adult population has an iodine intake of more than 100 micrograms/day. An efficient elimination of iodine deficiency in Germany requires a broad usage of iodized salt in the food industry.
Fisher, Jennifer O; Arreola, Angeles; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J
Portion size influences children's energy intakes at meals, but effects on daily intake are unknown. Effects of large portions on daily energy intake were tested in 5-y-old Hispanic and African American children from low-income families. Maternal food intake data were collected to evaluate familial susceptibility to portion size. A within-subjects experimental design with reference and large portion sizes was used in a study of 59 low-income Hispanic and African American preschool-aged children and their mothers. The portion size of 3 entrées (lunch, dinner, and breakfast) and an afternoon snack served during a 24-h period were of a reference size in one condition and doubled in the other condition. Portion sizes of other foods and beverages did not vary across conditions. Weighed food intake, anthropometric measures, and self-reported data were obtained. Doubling the portion size of several entrées and a snack served during a 24-h period increased energy intake from those foods by 23% (180 kcal) among children (P < 0.0001) and by 21% (270 kcal) among mothers (P < 0.0001). Child and maternal energy intakes from other foods for which portion size was not altered did not differ across conditions. Consequently, total energy intakes in the large-portion condition were 12% (P < 0.001) and 6% (P < 0.01) higher in children and mothers, respectively, than in the reference condition. Child and maternal intakes of the portion-manipulated foods were not correlated. Large portions may contribute to obesigenic dietary environments by promoting excess daily intakes among Hispanic and African American children.
Nasreddine, Lara; Akl, Christelle; Al-Shaar, Laila; Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Isma’eel, Hussain
Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442). Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East. PMID:25401502
Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L
Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (<0.165 kcal/g), and total energy intake and energy intake from solid food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. © 2013.
Appelhans, Bradley M.; Bleil, Maria E.; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.
Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (<0.165 kcal/g), and total energy intake and energy intake from solid food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women’s daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. PMID:24041722
Pitynski-Miller, Dori; Ross, Micah; Schmill, Margaret; Schambow, Rachel; Fuller, Teresa; Flynn, Francis W.; Skinner, Donal C.
Background/Objectives Processed foods are considered major contributors to the worldwide obesity epidemic. In addition to high sugar and fat contents, processed foods contain large amounts of salt. Due to correlations with rising adiposity, salt has recently been proposed to be obesogenic. This study investigated three hypotheses: i) high salt contributes to weight gain and adiposity in juvenile female rats, ii) puberty onset would be altered because salt is known to affect neuronal systems involved in activating the reproductive system, and iii) enhanced adiposity will act synergistically with salt to drive early puberty onset. Design Female weanling rats (post-natal day 21, n=105) were fed a low fat/low salt diet, low fat/high salt diet, high fat/low salt diet, or a high salt/high fat diet for 24 days. Metabolic measures, including weight gain, food intake, fecal output, activity, and temperature were recorded in subsets of animals. Results Body weight, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pad weight, and adipocyte size were all lower in animals fed high fat/high salt compared to animals fed high fat alone. Leptin levels were reduced in high fat/high salt fed animals compared to high fat/low salt fed animals. Daily calorie intake was higher initially but declined with adjusted food intake and was not different among groups after 5 days. Osmolality and corticosterone were not different among groups. Fecal analysis showed excess fat excretion and a decreased digestive efficiency in animals fed high fat/low salt but not in animals fed high fat/high salt. Although respiratory exchange ratio was reduced by high dietary fat or salt, aerobic resting metabolic rate was not affected by diet. High salt delayed puberty onset, regardless of dietary fat content. Conclusions Salt delays puberty and prevents the obesogenic effect of a high fat diet. The reduced weight gain evident in high salt fed animals is not due to differences in food intake or digestive efficiency. PMID
Zhong, Chen; Li, Kai-Nan; Bi, Jing-Wang; Wang, Bao-Cheng
The risk factors mostly strongly associated with gastric cancer are gastric bacteria Helicobacter pylori and diet. Using a case-control study among residents in Jinan, we examined the association between the salt taste and gastric cancer according to H. pylori infection, smoking and histological type as well as tumor site. This population-based case-control study included 207 cases and 410 controls. Data on potential risk factors of gastric cancer were obtained by interview of cases and controls with a questionnaire, salt taste preference was measured for all subjects, and IgG antibodies to H. pylori were applied to assess infection. Risk measures were determined using unconditional logistic regression. The proportions of salt taste at intervals of 1.8-7.2 g/L and ≥ 7.2 g/L were significantly higher in cases than controls, with ORs of 1.56 (1.23-3.64) and 2.03 (2.12- 4.11), respectively, subjects with high salt intake having an elevated risk for gastric cancer when infected with H. pylori. Significant modification by smoking and tumor site was observed across the different measures of salt intake, the highest salt taste showed higher cancer risk in ever smokers or with non-cardia cancers. Our study supports the view that high intake of sodium is an important dietary risk factor for gastric cancer, with a synergistic effect found between salt and H.pylori and smoking, dependent on the tumor site.
Zhou, Bo; Webster, Jacqui; Fu, Ling-Yu; Wang, Hai-Long; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Wen-Li; Shi, Jing-Pu
Lowering salt intake is one of the successful and cost-effective methods to reduce blood pressure (BP). In this randomized controlled study, we investigated the effects of a 3-year substitution of table salt with a low-sodium salt substitute in a rural population of North China. Subjects from 200 families residing in five villages in Liaoning, North China were registered in this study and randomly divided into two groups: normal salt (100% sodium chloride) and low salt substitute (65% NaCl, 25% KCl, 10% MgSO4). We compared the effects of the low-sodium salt substitute and normal salt on differences in BP from baseline to various follow-up time points during this 3-year study period. We also examined several factors that may affect the long-term changes in BP. Hypertension was defined per World Health Organization guidelines as BP≥140/90mmHg. The low sodium substitute significantly reduced the increase in both systolic and diastolic BP compared with the regular salt (P=0.000). Also, the population aged 40-70years showed most beneficial response to the salt substitute compared with those aged <40 or >70years. The low salt substitute had similar beneficial effects in both males and females. In addition, the salt type consumed and body mass index significantly affected the change in BP. Use of the salt substitute significantly reduces the increase in BP over a long term, and thus, the salt substitute can be used as a replacement for regular salt in the daily diet to prevent/diminish the incidence of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pysz, Katarzyna; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Kopeć, Aneta
The aim of this study has been to measure the level of lead, cadmium, nitrates, and nitrites in the daily diets of children and adolescents from orphanages located in Krakow (Poland). Diets were collected over four seasons of 2009. The content of cadmium and lead was measured with flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Nitrates and nitrites in diets were measured using the Griess colorimetric method. In all orphanages, the average intake of lead with daily diets, regardless of the season, ranged from 1.11 ± 0.15 to 22.59 ± 0.07 μg/kg bw/week. The average cadmium intake by children and adolescents ranged between 3.09 ± 0.21 and 20.36 ± 2.21 μg/kg bw/week and, for all orphanages, exceeded the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) level. Daily intake of nitrates and nitrites ranged respectively from 27 to 289 % and from 9 to 99 % of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The youngest children, with lower body mass, were particularly sensitive to the excessive intakes of cadmium and nitrates.
Calorie intake and diet quality are influenced by the source of food and the place of consumption. This study examines the impacts of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on daily energy and nutrient intakes in US adults. Nationally representative data of 18,098 adults 18 years of age and above from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 waves were analyzed. Outcomes included daily intake of total calories and 24 nutrients of public health concern. The key predictors were any food/beverage consumption in a day from fast-food or full-service restaurant, differentiated by consumption at home versus away from home. First-difference estimator addressed confounding bias from time-invariant unobservables such as personal food/beverage preferences by using within-individual variations in diet and restaurant consumption status between two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, were associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 190.29 and 186.74 kcal, total fat of 10.61 and 9.58 g, saturated fat of 3.49 and 2.46 g, cholesterol of 10.34 and 57.90 mg, and sodium of 297.47 and 411.92 mg. The impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on energy and nutrient intakes differed by sex, race/ethnicity, education, income and weight status. Increased total energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intake were substantially larger when full-service restaurant food was consumed away from home than at home. A holistic policy intervention is warranted to target the American's overall dining-out behavior rather than fast-food consumption alone.
Adi Riyanto, Rachmad; Eko Caraka, Rezzy
Bread contributes to the high salt daily intake of human which can cause increased blood pressure and cardiovascular health problems. Salt in bread has some important functions that affect the bread quality. However, some government organization regulated to reduce salt in bread production. Hence, this study aims to explain the salt content in commercial white bread and wholemeal bread by Mohr titration and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Based on statistical analysis by using F test and t-test can be concluded there is no significant difference of salt content in both types of bread (p>0.05), however the result by Mohr titration was significantly higher than by AAS (p<0.05).
Majid, Dewan S.A.; Prieto, Minolfa C.; Navar, L Gabriel
Salt sensitive hypertension is characterized by increases in blood pressure in response to increases in dietary salt intake and is associated with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular and renal morbidity. Although researchers have sought for decades to understand how salt sensitivity develops in humans, the mechanisms responsible for the increases in blood pressure in response to high salt intake are complex and only partially understood. Until now, scientists have been unable to explain why some individuals are salt sensitive and others are salt resistant. Although a central role for the kidneys in the development of salt sensitivity and hypertension has been generally accepted, it is also recognized that hypertension is of multifactorial origin and a variety of factors can induce, or prevent, blood pressure responsiveness to the manipulation of salt intake. Excess salt intake in susceptible persons may also induce inappropriate central and sympathetic nervous system responses and increase the production of intrarenal angiotensin II, catecholamines and other factors such as oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. One key factor is the concomitant inappropriate or paradoxical activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, by high salt intake. This is reflected by the increases in urinary angiotensinogen during high salt intake in salt sensitive models. A complex interaction between neuroendocrine factors and the kidney may underlie the propensity for some individuals to retain salt and develop salt-dependent hypertension. In this review, we focus mainly on the renal contributions that provide the mechanistic link between chronic salt intake and the development of hypertension. PMID:26028244
The objective of this research was to develop and test an automated supplement intake measurement system (SmartFeed, SF) in grazing trials. The SF was developed by C-lock Inc., (Rapid City, SD), and was designed using a stainless steel feed bin with load cells and an radio frequency identification ...
Suseela, B; Bhalke, S; Kumar, A V; Tripathi, R M; Sastry, V N
The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with those reported for green coffe beans (Arabica and Robusta variety) reported worldwide with the exception of Sr and Zn, which were on the lower side of the reported values. Concentrations of these metals have been converted into intake figures based on coffee consumption. The daily intakes of the above metals through ingestion of coffee are 1.4 mg, 1.58 microg, 124 microg, 41.5 mg, 4.9 mg, 17.9 microg, 2.9 microg, 3.8 microg, 12.5 microg, 0.2 microg, 0.03 microg and 15.5 microg, respectively. The values, which were compared with the total dietary, intake of metals through ingestion by the Mumbai population, indicate that the contribution from coffee is less than or around 1% for most of the elements except for Cr and Ni which are around 3%.
Seo, S; Kim, O Y; Ahn, J
This study reported on an exploratory program to help the low income elderly improve healthy eating behavior, specifically by reducing salt intake. We conducted an exploratory program for 4 weeks for this study. The exploratory program involved offering menus with reduced salt and providing education on healthy eating. After the exploratory program, a survey of the elderly and in-depth interviews allowed us to evaluate the program for foodservice providers (dietitian, social workers, and volunteer workers). This study included both foodservice workers and elderly who actually used the foodservice in a congregate meal service system. This is a unique approach. A congregate meal service center in Seoul, Korea. Seventy four elderly in a congregate meal service center. Demographics were collected, and the healthy eating program and healthy eating education for elderly respondents were evaluated. The elderly showed high satisfaction with the exploratory program for healthy eating. We found no significant differences in satisfaction with the program between the elderly who attended education sessions and those who did not, but more of the elderly from the education sessions showed positive behavioral change intentions. The exploratory program influenced to reduce the salt intake of the elderly in congregate meal service. This study suggests cooperation of foodservice providers and the support of administrators is critical to the success of such programs.
Effects of salt supplementation on the albuminuric response to telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes are modulated by habitual dietary salt intake.
Ekinci, Elif I; Thomas, Georgina; Thomas, David; Johnson, Cameron; Macisaac, Richard J; Houlihan, Christine A; Finch, Sue; Panagiotopoulos, Sianna; O'Callaghan, Chris; Jerums, George
OBJECTIVE This prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study examined the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation on the antialbuminuric action of telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, increased albumin excretion rate (AER), and habitual low dietary salt intake (LDS; <100 mmol sodium/24 h on two of three consecutive occasions) or high dietary salt intake (HDS; >200 mmol sodium/24 h on two of three consecutive occasions). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Following a washout period, subjects (n = 32) received 40 mg/day telmisartan for 4 weeks followed by 40 mg telmisartan plus 12.5 mg/day HCT for 4 weeks. For the last 2 weeks of each treatment period, patients received either 100 mmol/day NaCl or placebo capsules. After a second washout, the regimen was repeated with supplements in reverse order. AER and ambulatory blood pressure were measured at weeks 0, 4, 8, 14, 18, and 22. RESULTS In LDS, NaCl supplementation reduced the anti-albuminuric effect of telmisartan with or without HCT from 42.3% (placebo) to 9.5% (P = 0.004). By contrast, in HDS, NaCl supplementation did not reduce the AER response to telmisartan with or without HCT (placebo 30.9%, NaCl 28.1%, P = 0.7). Changes in AER were independent of changes in blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The AER response to telmisartan with or without HCT under habitual low salt intake can be blunted by NaCl supplementation. By contrast, when there is already a suppressed renin angiotensin aldosterone system under habitual high dietary salt intake, the additional NaCl does not alter the AER response.
Effects of Salt Supplementation on the Albuminuric Response to Telmisartan With or Without Hydrochlorothiazide Therapy in Hypertensive Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Are Modulated by Habitual Dietary Salt Intake
Ekinci, Elif I.; Thomas, Georgina; Thomas, David; Johnson, Cameron; MacIsaac, Richard J.; Houlihan, Christine A.; Finch, Sue; Panagiotopoulos, Sianna; O'Callaghan, Chris; Jerums, George
OBJECTIVE This prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study examined the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation on the antialbuminuric action of telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, increased albumin excretion rate (AER), and habitual low dietary salt intake (LDS; <100 mmol sodium/24 h on two of three consecutive occasions) or high dietary salt intake (HDS; >200 mmol sodium/24 h on two of three consecutive occasions). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Following a washout period, subjects (n = 32) received 40 mg/day telmisartan for 4 weeks followed by 40 mg telmisartan plus 12.5 mg/day HCT for 4 weeks. For the last 2 weeks of each treatment period, patients received either 100 mmol/day NaCl or placebo capsules. After a second washout, the regimen was repeated with supplements in reverse order. AER and ambulatory blood pressure were measured at weeks 0, 4, 8, 14, 18, and 22. RESULTS In LDS, NaCl supplementation reduced the anti-albuminuric effect of telmisartan with or without HCT from 42.3% (placebo) to 9.5% (P = 0.004). By contrast, in HDS, NaCl supplementation did not reduce the AER response to telmisartan with or without HCT (placebo 30.9%, NaCl 28.1%, P = 0.7). Changes in AER were independent of changes in blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The AER response to telmisartan with or without HCT under habitual low salt intake can be blunted by NaCl supplementation. By contrast, when there is already a suppressed renin angiotensin aldosterone system under habitual high dietary salt intake, the additional NaCl does not alter the AER response. PMID:19549737
Starbuck, E M; Fitts, D A
Water intake was elevated in sodium-depleted rats during a daytime salt appetite test, but other rats drank a similar amount of water when saline was not available for drinking during the test. This water intake stimulated by sodium depletion was blocked by an inhibition of angiotensin (ANG) II synthesis with a high dose of captopril (100 mg/kg, sc). Captopril did not reduce water intake by causing hypotensive shock or uremia, because water and saline intakes were increased rather than decreased after a low dose of captopril (5 mg/kg) that also reduced blood pressure and elevated blood urea nitrogen. The water intake, but not salt appetite, induced by sodium depletion was greatly reduced by a lesion of the subfornical organ (SFO) in one-bottle tests, and this was not clearly related to any effects of the lesion on blood pressure. A physiological role for ANG II in water intake induced by sodium depletion has recently been disputed, but the simplest explanation for the data remains that elevated levels of circulating ANG II bind to receptors in the SFO to generate daytime water drinking during sodium depletion.
Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during
DuPont, Jennifer J.; Greaney, Jody L.; Wenner, Megan M.; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon L.; Sanders, Paul W.; Farquhar, William B.; Edwards, David G.
Excess dietary sodium has been linked to the development of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. In humans, the effects of sodium consumption on endothelial function have not been separated from the effects on blood pressure. The present study was designed to determine if dietary sodium intake affected endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) independently of changes in blood pressure. Fourteen healthy salt resistant adults were studied (9M, 5F; age 33 ± 2.4 years) in a controlled feeding study. After a baseline run-in diet, participants were randomized to a 7 day high sodium (HS) (300-350 mmol/day) and 7 day low sodium (LS) (20 mmol/day) diet. Salt resistance, defined as a ≤ 5 mm Hg change in a 24-hour mean arterial pressure, was individually assessed while on the low sodium and high sodium diets and confirmed in the subjects undergoing study (LS: 85±1 mm Hg; HS: 85±2 mmHg). EDD was determined in each subject via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation on the last day of each diet. Sodium excretion increased during the high sodium diet (p < 0.01). EDD was reduced on the high sodium diet (Low: 10.3±0.9%, High: 7.3±0.7%, p < 0.05). The HS diet significantly suppressed plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma angiotensin II, and aldosterone (p < 0.05). These data demonstrate that excess salt intake in humans impairs endothelium-dependent dilation independently of changes in blood pressure. PMID:23263240
Gebara, Karimi Sater; Gasparotto-Junior, Arquimedes; Santiago, Patricia Gonçalves; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Morand, Christine; Costa, Telma Aparecida; Cardozo-Junior, Euclides Lara
The main objective of this study was to investigate the daily intake of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and methylxanthines by consumers of maté traditional beverages (MTBs), terere and chimarrão (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hill). In the studied population (450 citizens from Toledo, PR, Brazil), 63% consume the chimarrão and 37% terere, with weighted mean daily intakes estimated at 648-2160 and 244-746 mL, respectively. For every 100 mL of beverage consumed, the average amount of total phenol compounds extracted was 673.6 mg for chimarrão and 1184.9 mg for terere. Regarding CGAs composition, caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) constitute about 38.4% for chimarrão and 55.3% for terere, and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs) represent 61.6 and 44.7% of the extracted compounds, respectively. The daily intake of phenolic compounds by MTB consumers was estimated for chimarrão (512.5-1708.5 mg/day) and terere (583.0-1779.7 mg/day). These results allow us to conclude that MTBs are important dietary sources of CGAs, mainly CQAs and di-CQAs.
An, Ruopeng; Liu, Junyi
Healthy diet is an essential component in cancer survivorship care planning. Cancer survivors should be particularly prudent regarding their daily food choices, with an aim of ensuring safe consumption, reducing risk of recurrence or other comorbidity, and improving quality of life. We aimed to examine the impacts of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on daily energy and nutrient intakes among US adult cancer survivors. Nationally representative data of 1308 adult cancer survivors came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012 waves. First-difference estimator was adopted to address confounding bias from time-invariant unobservables like personal food/beverage preferences by using within-individual variations in diet and restaurant consumption status between two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with an increase in daily total energy intake by 125.97 and 152.26 kcal and sodium intake by 312.47 and 373.75 mg. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with a decrease in daily vitamin A intake by 119.88 µg and vitamin K intake by 30.48 µg, whereas full-service restaurant consumption was associated with an increase in daily fat intake by 8.99 g and omega-6 fatty acid intake by 3.85 g, and a decrease in vitamin D intake by 0.93 µg. Compared with fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption at home, consumption away from home led to further reduced diet quality. Individualized nutrition counseling and food assistance programs should address cancer survivors' overall dining-out behavior rather than fast-food consumption alone. © The Author(s) 2015.
Grimes, Carley Ann; Booth, Alison; Khokhar, Durreajam; West, Madeline; Margerison, Claire; Campbell, Karen Jane; Nowson, Caryl Anne
To determine the efficacy of a Web-based salt reduction program on children's salt-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KABs), self-efficacy, and intake of dietary salt. Pretest and posttest. An online survey determined KABs and self-efficacy and a 24-hour urine collection revealed salt intake. Victoria, Australia. Child-parent dyads (n = 102) recruited from 5 government schools. A 5-week behavior-based education program delivered via weekly online interactive education sessions. Change in KABs, self-efficacy, and daily salt intake. Changes in outcomes were assessed using McNemar test, paired t test, and Cohen's δ (CD). A total of 83 children participated (mean age, 9.2 years [SD, 0.8 years]; 59% girls); 35% to 76% of children viewed weekly education session. Children with complete survey data (n = 75) had improved scores for salt-related knowledge (+3.6 ± 0.4 points; P < .001; CD: 1.16), behaviors (+1.3 ± 0.1 points; P < .001; CD: 1.08), and self-efficacy (+0.9 ± 0.2 points; P < .001; CD: 0.64), but not attitude. Children with valid urine collections (n = 51) showed no change in salt intake. Participation resulted in improvement of salt related knowledge, self-efficacy and behavior. Further research is required to confirm these results using a more robust study design which includes a control group. In addition, the long term impact on children's salt intakes of comparable education programs needs to be assessed. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna; Brader, Lea; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Kally Magnusdottir, Ola; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Risérus, Ulf; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Helgegren, Hannah; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Hukkanen, Janne; Poutanen, Kaisa; Uusitupa, Matti; Hermansen, Kjeld; Thorsdottir, Inga
The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) subgroup. Individuals with MetS are a large part of the adult Nordic population and their diet's nutritional quality is of great importance as it can affect the progression of MetS. To evaluate nutritional intake in a cohort of Nordic adults with MetS or MetS risk factors and their adherence to the NNR. A multi-centre study was carried out in six centres in four Nordic countries (SYSDIET CoE). Participants (n=175) were 30-65 years of age, with BMI 27-38 kg/m(2) and had at least two criteria for MetS. The NNR was used to evaluate the baseline nutrient intake calculated from the participants' 4-day food diaries using national nutrient databases. Less than 20% of participants consumed ≤10 E% from saturated fat as recommended in the NNR. Recommended intake (RI) of polyunsaturated fat was met by approximately one-third of participants. Only 20% of men and 26% of women met the RI of dietary fibre. Intake below the defined lower intake level of 2.5 µg/day for vitamin D was observed in nearly 20% of participants. The daily median intake of salt was 8.8 g for men and 6.7 g for women. Dietary quality of this Nordic population with Mets or MetS risk factors is unsatisfactory and characterised by high intakes of SFA and sodium and low intakes of PUFA and dietary fibre. Vitamin D intake was below RI level in a large part of the population. Authorities in the Nordic countries are encouraged to develop intervention programmes for high-risk groups.
Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Nowson, Caryl; Jolly, Kellie-Ann; Greenland, Rohan; Reimers, Jenny; Bolam, Bruce
Background As part of its endorsement of the World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan to prevent non-communicable diseases, the Federal Government of Australia has committed to a 30% reduction in average population salt intake by 2025. Currently, mean daily salt intake levels are 8-9 g, varying by sex, region and population group. A number of salt reduction initiatives have been established over the last decade, but key elements for a co-ordinated population-level strategy are still missing. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing population-level salt reduction activities in Australia and identify opportunities for further action. Methods A review of the published literature and stakeholder activities was undertaken to identify and document current activities. The activities were then assessed against a pre-defined framework for salt reduction strategies. Results A range of initiatives were identified from the review. The Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) was established in 2005 and in 2007 launched its Drop the Salt! Campaign. This united non-governmental organisations (NGOs), health and medical and food industry organisations in a co-ordinated advocacy effort to encourage government to develop a national strategy to reduce salt. Subsequently, in 2010 the Federal Government launched its Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) with a remit to improve the health of the food supply in Australia through voluntary partnerships with food industry, government and non-government public health organisations. The focus of the FHD to date has been on voluntary reformulation of foods, primarily through salt reduction targets. More recently, in December 2014, the government’s Health Star Rating system was launched. This front of pack labelling scheme uses stars to highlight the nutritional profile of packaged foods. Both government initiatives have clear targets or criteria for industry to meet, however
Gillespie, Duncan O S; Allen, Kirk; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Bandosz, Piotr; Moreira, Patricia; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Diggle, Peter J; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin
Public health action to reduce dietary salt intake has driven substantial reductions in coronary heart disease (CHD) over the past decade, but avoidable socio-economic differentials remain. We therefore forecast how further intervention to reduce dietary salt intake might affect the overall level and inequality of CHD mortality. We considered English adults, with socio-economic circumstances (SEC) stratified by quintiles of the Index of Multiple Deprivation. We used IMPACTSEC, a validated CHD policy model, to link policy implementation to salt intake, systolic blood pressure and CHD mortality. We forecast the effects of mandatory and voluntary product reformulation, nutrition labelling and social marketing (e.g., health promotion, education). To inform our forecasts, we elicited experts' predictions on further policy implementation up to 2020. We then modelled the effects on CHD mortality up to 2025 and simultaneously assessed the socio-economic differentials of effect. Mandatory reformulation might prevent or postpone 4,500 (2,900-6,100) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 500 (300-700) deaths or 85% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further voluntary reformulation was predicted to be less effective and inequality-reducing, preventing or postponing 1,500 (200-5,000) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 100 (-100-600) deaths or 49% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further social marketing and improvements to labelling might each prevent or postpone 400-500 CHD deaths, but minimally affect inequality. Mandatory engagement with industry to limit salt in processed-foods appears a promising and inequality-reducing option. For other policy options, our expert-driven forecast warns that future policy implementation might reach more deprived individuals less well, limiting inequality reduction. We therefore encourage planners to prioritise equity.
Gillespie, Duncan O. S.; Allen, Kirk; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Bandosz, Piotr; Moreira, Patricia; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Diggle, Peter J.; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin
Background Public health action to reduce dietary salt intake has driven substantial reductions in coronary heart disease (CHD) over the past decade, but avoidable socio-economic differentials remain. We therefore forecast how further intervention to reduce dietary salt intake might affect the overall level and inequality of CHD mortality. Methods We considered English adults, with socio-economic circumstances (SEC) stratified by quintiles of the Index of Multiple Deprivation. We used IMPACTSEC, a validated CHD policy model, to link policy implementation to salt intake, systolic blood pressure and CHD mortality. We forecast the effects of mandatory and voluntary product reformulation, nutrition labelling and social marketing (e.g., health promotion, education). To inform our forecasts, we elicited experts’ predictions on further policy implementation up to 2020. We then modelled the effects on CHD mortality up to 2025 and simultaneously assessed the socio-economic differentials of effect. Results Mandatory reformulation might prevent or postpone 4,500 (2,900–6,100) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 500 (300–700) deaths or 85% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further voluntary reformulation was predicted to be less effective and inequality-reducing, preventing or postponing 1,500 (200–5,000) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 100 (−100–600) deaths or 49% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further social marketing and improvements to labelling might each prevent or postpone 400–500 CHD deaths, but minimally affect inequality. Conclusions Mandatory engagement with industry to limit salt in processed-foods appears a promising and inequality-reducing option. For other policy options, our expert-driven forecast warns that future policy implementation might reach more deprived individuals less well, limiting inequality reduction. We therefore encourage planners to prioritise equity. PMID:26131981
Kashian, S; Fathivand, A A
This paper presents the findings of study undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) through common cereals in Tehran, Iran. 100 samples of rice, wheat and barley were collected from various brands between August and October 2013. The samples were analyzed performing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The dietary intake for adults was estimated by a total cereal study. Calculations were carried out on the basis of the reported adults' average food consumption rate data. The total daily intake estimated in mgd(-1) for Tehran population were 3.6 (Fe), 10.2 (Zn), 0.3 (Cu) and 234.5 (Ca). Wheat showed the highest contribution to Zn, Cu and Ca intakes. Furthermore, intakes were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Zn total intake (10.2mgd(-1)) was comparable with RDA values for males (11mgd(-1)) and was higher than recommended value for females (8mgd(-1)). The intakes of other studied elements were below the respective RDAs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zalilah, M S; Mirnalini, K; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Hasyami, S Mohd; Normah, H; Fatimah, A Siti
Meal and snack patterns are associated with energy and nutrient intakes and consequently health and nutritional status. The aim of this paper is to describe the percentage of daily energy intake from meals and afternoon snack among Malaysian adults. The study included a representative sample of adults aged 18-59 years (n=7349) from a nationwide Food Consumption Survey conducted by the Ministry of Health. Information on dietary intake was obtained using a one day 24-hour diet recall (24-HDR). Dietary data on 6886 adults were analysed using Nutritionist ProTM and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS 13.0. The median percentage of daily energy intake is reported only for adults consuming meals and afternoon tea and by socio-demographic characteristics as well as body mass index (BMI) status. More than 80% of Malaysian adults consumed morning meals, lunch and dinner and 54% reported having afternoon tea. The median percentage of energy intake from morning meals, lunch, dinner and afternoon tea was 29.9%, 30.5%, 32.4% and 17%, respectively. There were variations in the median percentage of energy from meals and snacks according to the socio-demographic variables and BMI status. It is important to understand the eating patterns of Malaysians as the information can assist in efforts to address obesity and diet-related chronic diseases among adults.
Taguchi, Chie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Usuda, Mika; Wang, Wei; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kondo, Kazuo
Eggs, an important source of high-quality protein, contain a variety of key nutrients and antioxidants. Here we conducted an intervention study to evaluate whether the additional consumption of one egg per day would affect the daily nutritional intakes and blood antioxidant status in Japanese woman university students. For 4 weeks, the 14 subjects were provided a nutritious breakfast including one boiled egg, and they were asked to keep a daily dietary record. The subjects' daily energy intake during the intervention did not differ compared to the baseline, whereas the protein energy ratio and cholesterol intake were significantly increased. The subjects' consumption of confectionery during the intervention was significantly decreased compared to the pre-trial period. The total score of adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines for a healthy diet during the intervention was higher than that at baseline. The analysis of fasting blood samples showed that the subjects' serum lipids levels were not altered, whereas their malondialdehyde modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) levels and the oxidative susceptibility of LDL were significantly reduced after the intervention. More importantly, serum folic acid levels were significantly increased. Our results suggest that regular egg consumption at breakfast can help improve the daily nutritional status and dietary habits and also ameliorate certain indices of antioxidant status in young women.
Goffe, Louis; Rushton, Stephen; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley; Adams, Jean
Out-of-home meals have been characterised as delivering excessively large portions that can lead to high energy intake. Regular consumption is linked to weight gain and diet related diseases. Consumption of out-of-home meals is associated with socio-demographic and anthropometric factors, but the relationship between habitual consumption of such meals and mean daily energy intake has not been studied in both adults and children in the UK. We analysed adult and child data from waves 1-4 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey using generalized linear modelling. We investigated whether individuals who report a higher habitual consumption of meals out in a restaurant or café, or takeaway meals at home had a higher mean daily energy intake, as estimated by a four-day food diary, whilst adjusting for key socio-demographic and anthropometric variables. Adults who ate meals out at least weekly had a higher mean daily energy intake consuming 75-104 kcal more per day than those who ate these meals rarely. The equivalent figures for takeaway meals at home were 63-87 kcal. There was no association between energy intake and frequency of consumption of meals out in children. Children who ate takeaway meals at home at least weekly consumed 55-168 kcal more per day than those who ate these meals rarely. Additionally, in children, there was an interaction with socio-economic position, where greater frequency of consumption of takeaway meals was associated with higher mean daily energy intake in those from less affluent households than those from more affluent households. Higher habitual consumption of out-of-home meals is associated with greater mean daily energy intake in the UK. More frequent takeaway meal consumption in adults and children is associated with greater daily energy intake and this effect is greater in children from less affluent households. Interventions seeking to reduce energy content through reformulation or reduction of portion sizes in restaurants
Inaba, Naoko; Sato, Toshiro; Yamashita, Takatoshi
Vitamin K is essential for bone health, but the effects of low-dose vitamin K intake in Japanese subjects remain unclear. We investigated the effective minimum daily menaquinone-7 dose for improving osteocalcin γ-carboxylation. Study 1 was a double-blind, randomized controlled dose-finding trial; 60 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 y were allocated to one of four dosage group and consumed 0, 50, 100, or 200 μg menaquinone-7 daily for 4 wk, respectively, with a controlled diet in accordance with recommended daily intakes for 2010 in Japan. Study 2 was a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial based on the results of Study 1; 120 subjects aged 20-69 y were allocated to the placebo or MK-7 group and consumed 0 or 100 μg menaquinone-7 daily for 12 wk, respectively. In both studies, circulating carboxylated osteocalcin and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured. The carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio decreased significantly from baseline in the 0 μg menaquinone-7 group, in which subjects consumed the recommended daily intake of vitamin K with vitamin K1 and menaquinone-4 (Study 1). Menaquinone-7 increased the carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio dose dependently, and significant effects were observed in both the 100 and 200 μg groups compared with the 0 μg group. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentrations decreased significantly, and the carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio increased significantly in the 100 μg menaquinone-7 group compared with the placebo group (Study 2). Daily menaquinone-7 intake ≥100 μg was suggested to improve osteocalcin γ-carboxylation.
Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Godin, Gaston; Rodrigues, Roberta; Agondi, Rúbia; Spana, Thaís; Gallani, Maria-Cecilia
Despite strong evidence for a relationship between high salt intake and hypertension, plus the widespread recommendations for dietary salt restriction among hypertensive subjects, there are no nursing studies describing effective theory-based interventions. To describe a systematic process for development of a theory-based nursing intervention that is aimed at reducing salt intake among hypertensive women, by applying the 'intervention mapping' protocol. We developed our intervention following the six steps of the 'intervention mapping' protocol: assessing needs, creating a matrix of change objectives, selecting theoretical methods and practical applications, defining the intervention programme, organizing the adoption and implementation plan, and defining the evaluation plan. Addition of salt during cooking is identified as the main source for salt consumption, plus women are identified as the people responsible for cooking meals at home. In our study, the motivational predictors of this behaviour were self-efficacy and habit. Guided practice, verbal persuasion, coping barriers, consciousness-raising and counter-conditioning were the theoretical methods we selected for enhancing self-efficacy and promoting habit change, respectively. Brainstorming, role-playing, cookbook use, measuring spoon use, label reading, hands-on skill-building activities and reinforcement phone calls were the chosen practical applications. We designed our intervention programme, and then organized the adoption and implementation plans. Finally, we generated a plan to evaluate our intervention. 'Intervention mapping' was a feasible methodological framework to guide the development of a theory-based nursing intervention for dietary salt reduction among hypertensive women.
Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.
Cribb, V L; Warren, J M; Emmett, P M
Complementary feeding is a critical developmental time for establishing variety, and appropriate feeding practices are important. These include recommendations for a maximum intake of sodium (salt), because of the potential harmful effect of excessive intake on the developing kidneys and blood pressure in later life. Sodium intakes were examined to establish, if inappropriate complementary feeding practices were contributing to high intakes. Data were collected from a cohort of 1178 8-month-old infants born in 1991/92, participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, using a 3-day dietary records completed by their mothers. Sodium and energy intakes were calculated and infants were categorised into quartiles of sodium intake. Majority of infants were first introduced to solids around 3-4 months, with plain baby rice, rusks and other cereals being the first foods consumed during complementary feeding. In the whole sample, 70% consumed in excess, of 400 mg sodium per day, the maximum UK recommendation for children up to age 12 months. The mean sodium intake for the highest quartile was 1060 mg per day. Infants in this quartile were often consuming cows' milk as a main drink; eating three times the amount of bread compared with the lowest quartile and used salty flavourings such as yeast extract and gravy. Sodium intakes in this cohort of infants were higher than recommendations. Clear and practical education is needed on complementary feeding practice for mothers highlighting what foods to introduce and when. Manufacturers have a responsibility to reduce the sodium content of food products.
Eickhoff, Martin; Meyer-Grünefeldt, Mirko; Keller, Lothar
Nowadays molten salt is efficiently used in point concentrating solar thermal power plants. Line focusing systems still have the disadvantage of elevated heat losses at night because of active freeze protection of the solar field piping system. In order to achieve an efficient operation of line focusing solar power plants using molten salt, a new plant design and a novel operating strategy is developed for Linear Fresnel- and Parabolic Trough power plants. Daily vespertine drainage of the solar field piping and daily matutinal refilling of the solar preheated absorber tubes eliminate the need of nocturnal heating of the solar field and reduce nocturnal heat losses to a minimum. The feasibility of this new operating strategy with all its sub-steps has been demonstrated experimentally.
Kelishadi, Roya; Gheisari, Alaleh; Zare, Narges; Farajian, Sanam; Shariatinejad, Keyvan
Background: This study aimed to assess the salt intake of Iranian children, and to assess the correlation of urinary electrolytes excretion with blood pressure. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 3-10-year-old children, selected by multi-stage cluster sampling from urban and rural areas of Isfahan, Iran. The sodium (Na), potassium (K), and creatinine (Cr) were measured in a random sample of the children's first morning fasting urine. Three-day averages of dietary intakes were analyzed by the Nutritionist-4 software. Results: The mean (SD) of urinary Na was 177.17 (28.68) mEq/day without significant difference according to gender and living area. The mean (SD) dietary intakes of Na and K were 2017.76 (117.94) and 1119.06 (76.03) mg/day, respectively. Children of urban and rural areas consumed similar sources of salty foods (bread, cheese, and snacks) and had low intake of vegetables. No significant association was documented between urinary electrolytes excretions and blood pressure. Conclusions: This study, which to the best of our knowledge is the first of its kind in the Middle East and North Africa region, revealed that Iranian young children consume a large amount of sodium and small amount of potassium. The non-significant associations of electrolyte excretions with blood pressure may be because of the very young age group of participants. Given the development of preference to salt taste from early childhood, and the tracking of risk factors of chronic diseases from this age, reducing salt intake of young children should be emphasized. PMID:23671781
Kim, Jin Hyo; Lee, Jin Hwan; Kim, So-Young
Phthalate contamination in sundried salt has recently garnered interest in Korea. Phthalate concentrations were investigated in Korean sundried salts, source waters, and aqueous extracts from polyvinyl chloride materials used in salt ponds. Preliminary screening results for phthalates in Korean sundried salts revealed that only di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was over the limit of detection, with an 8.6% detection rate, and the concentration ranged from below the limit of detection to 0.189 mg/kg. The tolerable daily intake contribution ratio of the salt was calculated to be only 0.001%. Residual phthalates were below 0.026 mg/liter in source water, and the aqueous extracted di-n-butylphthalate, benzylbutylphthalate, and DEHP, which are considered endocrine disruptors, were below 0.029 mg/kg as derived from the polyvinyl chloride materials in salt ponds. The transfer ratios of the six phthalates from seawater to sundried salts were investigated; transfer ratio was correlated with vapor pressure (r(2) = 0.9875). Thus, di-n-butylphthalate, benzylbutylphthalate, DEHP, and di-n-octylphthalate can be considered highly likely residual pollutants in some consumer salts.
Reynolds, Clare M.; Vickers, Mark H.; Harrison, Claudia J.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Gray, Clint
Abstract A high intake of fat or salt during pregnancy perturbs placental function, alters fetal development, and predisposes offspring to metabolic disease in adult life. Despite its relevance to modern dietary habits, the developmental programming effects of excessive maternal fat and salt, fed in combination, have not been examined. We investigated the effects of moderately high maternal fat and/or salt intake on maternal metainflammation and its consequences on fetal and weanling growth and metabolic profile. Female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a standard control diet (CD), 4% salt diet (SD), 45% fat diet (HF) or 4% salt/45% fat combined diet (HFSD) 3 weeks prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Plasma and tissue samples were collected at day 18 of pregnancy from mother and fetus, and at postnatal day 24 in weanlings. Markers of adipose tissue inflammation, macrophage infiltration, lipogenesis, nutrient transport, and storage were altered in pregnant dams receiving high‐fat and/or ‐salt diets. This was accompanied by increased fat mass in high‐fat groups and differential hepatic lipid and glucose homeostasis. Offspring of high fat‐fed mothers had reduced fetal weight, displayed catch‐up growth, increased fat mass, and altered metabolic profiles at weaning. Maternal diets high in fat and/or salt affect maternal metabolic parameters, fetal growth and development, metabolic status, and adipoinsular axis in the weanling. Results presented here highlight the importance of diet in expectant mothers or women considering pregnancy. Furthermore, the potential for maternal nutritional intervention strategies may be employed to modify the metabolic disease risk in adult offspring during later life. PMID:25096554
Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K
Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p < 0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kresić, Greta; Simundić, Borislav; Mandić, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavicić
The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences.
Gray, Clint; Al-Dujaili, Emad A; Sparrow, Alexander J; Gardiner, Sheila M; Craigon, Jim; Welham, Simon J M; Gardner, David S
Hypertension is common and contributes, via cardiovascular disease, towards a large proportion of adult deaths in the Western World. High salt intake leads to high blood pressure, even when occurring prior to birth - a mechanism purported to reside in altered kidney development and later function. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches we tested whether increased maternal salt intake influences fetal kidney development to render the adult individual more susceptible to salt retention and hypertension. We found that salt-loaded pregnant rat dams were hypernatraemic at day 20 gestation (147±5 vs. 128±5 mmoles/L). Increased extracellular salt impeded murine kidney development in vitro, but had little effect in vivo. Kidneys of the adult offspring had few structural or functional abnormalities, but male and female offspring were hypernatraemic (166±4 vs. 149±2 mmoles/L), with a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (e.g. male offspring; 11.9 [9.3-14.8] vs. 2.8 [2.0-8.3] nmol/L median [IQR]). Furthermore, adult male, but not female, offspring had higher mean arterial blood pressure (effect size, +16 [9-21] mm Hg; mean [95% C.I.]. With no clear indication that the kidneys of salt-exposed offspring retained more sodium per se, we conducted a preliminary investigation of their gastrointestinal electrolyte handling and found increased expression of proximal colon solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 3 (SLC9A3) together with altered faecal characteristics and electrolyte handling, relative to control offspring. On the basis of these data we suggest that excess salt exposure, via maternal diet, at a vulnerable period of brain and gut development in the rat neonate lays the foundation for sustained increases in blood pressure later in life. Hence, our evidence further supports the argument that excess dietary salt should be avoided per se, particularly in the range of foods consumed by physiologically immature young.
Gray, Clint; Al-Dujaili, Emad A.; Sparrow, Alexander J.; Gardiner, Sheila M.; Craigon, Jim; Welham, Simon J.M.; Gardner, David S.
Hypertension is common and contributes, via cardiovascular disease, towards a large proportion of adult deaths in the Western World. High salt intake leads to high blood pressure, even when occurring prior to birth – a mechanism purported to reside in altered kidney development and later function. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches we tested whether increased maternal salt intake influences fetal kidney development to render the adult individual more susceptible to salt retention and hypertension. We found that salt-loaded pregnant rat dams were hypernatraemic at day 20 gestation (147±5 vs. 128±5 mmoles/L). Increased extracellular salt impeded murine kidney development in vitro, but had little effect in vivo. Kidneys of the adult offspring had few structural or functional abnormalities, but male and female offspring were hypernatraemic (166±4 vs. 149±2 mmoles/L), with a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (e.g. male offspring; 11.9 [9.3–14.8] vs. 2.8 [2.0–8.3] nmol/L median [IQR]). Furthermore, adult male, but not female, offspring had higher mean arterial blood pressure (effect size, +16 [9–21] mm Hg; mean [95% C.I.]. With no clear indication that the kidneys of salt-exposed offspring retained more sodium per se, we conducted a preliminary investigation of their gastrointestinal electrolyte handling and found increased expression of proximal colon solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 3 (SLC9A3) together with altered faecal characteristics and electrolyte handling, relative to control offspring. On the basis of these data we suggest that excess salt exposure, via maternal diet, at a vulnerable period of brain and gut development in the rat neonate lays the foundation for sustained increases in blood pressure later in life. Hence, our evidence further supports the argument that excess dietary salt should be avoided per se, particularly in the range of foods consumed by physiologically immature young. PMID
Dukas, L; Staehelin, H B; Schacht, E; Bischoff, H A
The influence of calcitropic hormones on functional mobility has been studied in vitamin D (calcidiol) deficient elderly or elderly with a history of falls, however, data in community-dwelling independent vitamin D replete elderly are missing. We therefore assessed in an observational survey the association of calcidiol (25(OH)D3) and calcitriol (D-hormone / 1,25(OH)2D3) status as well as of daily calcium intake on functional mobility in older subjects We evaluated 192 women and 188 men, aged superior 70 years and living independently. Average Timed-up and go test (TUG-test) in seconds was taken as measure of functional mobility. Calcidiol and D-hormone serum concentrations and daily calcium intake were studied in multivariate controlled linear regression models with TUG-test performance as the dependent variable and/or as dichotomous variables (deficient vs. non-deficient, above vs. below the median, respectively). Subjects with low D-hormone serum concentrations took significantly more time to perform the TUG-test (low = 7.70s +/- 2.52 SD ; high = 6.70s +/- 1.29 SD; p = 0.004). In the linear multivariate controlled regression model increased D-hormone serum concentrations predicted better TUG-test performance (estimate -0.0007, p = 0.044). Participants with a calcium intake of > or =512 mg/day were significantly faster to perform the TUG-test than participants with a daily calcium intake of <512 mg/day (estimate:-0.43, p = 0.007). Other significant predictors of better TUG-test performance in both models were: male gender, less comorbid conditions, younger age, lower BMI, iPTH serum levels and creatinine clearance. Calcidiol serum levels were not associated with TUG-test performance. Higher D-hormone status and a calcium intake of > or =512 mg/day in community-dwelling independent older persons are significant determinants of better functional mobility. Therefore, to ensure optimal functional mobility, the care of older persons should address correction of D
Piccirillo, G; Bucca, C; Durante, M; Santagada, E; Munizzi, M R; Cacciafesta, M; Marigliano, V
In salt-sensitive hypertension, a high sodium intake causes plasma catecholamines to rise and pulmonary baroreceptor plasticity to fall. In salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertensive subjects during low and high sodium intakes, we studied autonomic nervous system activity by power spectral analysis of heart rate and arterial pressure variabilities and baroreceptor sensitivity. In all subjects, high sodium intake significantly enhanced the low-frequency power of heart rate and arterial pressures at rest and after sympathetic stress. It also increased heart rate and arterial pressure variabilities. During high sodium intake, salt-sensitive hypertensive subjects had significantly higher low-frequency powers of systolic arterial pressure (7.5 mm Hg2, P < .05) and of heart rate at rest (59.2 +/- 2.4 normalized units [NU], P < .001) than salt-resistant subjects (6.6 +/- 0.3 mm Hg2, 55.0 +/- 3.2 NU) and normotensive control subjects (5.1 +/- 0.5 mm Hg2, 41.6 +/- 2.9 NU). In salt-sensitive subjects, low sodium intake significantly reduced low-frequency normalized units (P < .001) and the ratio of low- to high-power frequency (P < .001). High-sodium intake significantly increased baroreflex sensitivity in control subjects (from 10.0 +/- 0.7 to 17.5 +/- 0.7 ms/mm Hg, P < .001) and salt-resistant subjects (from 6.9 +/- 0.7 to 13.9 +/- 0.9, P < .05) but not in salt-sensitive subjects (7.4 +/- 0.3 to 7.9 +/- 0.4). In conclusion, a high sodium intake markedly enhances cardiac sympathetic activity in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertension. In contrast, although reduced sodium intake lowers arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, it does so only in salt-sensitive subjects. Hence, in salt-resistant subjects, neither arterial pressure nor sympathetic activity depends on salt intake. During a high sodium intake in normotensive subjects and salt-resistant hypertensive subjects, increased sympathetic activity is probably compensated by enhanced baroreflex sensitivity.
Alawwa, Izzat; Dagash, Rajaa; Saleh, Akram; Ahmad, Abdelaziz
High dietary sodium is recognized as a silent killer responsible for 2.3 million deaths worldwide in 2010 predominantly secondary to hypertension and its complications. Although high salt consumption is considered a worldwide public health problem, its magnitude is highly variable among different communities; therefore, it is important to study locally. This study aimed to evaluate habitual salt consumption, its important correlations, as well as the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of healthy Jordanian citizens. As potassium consumption is highly correlated and important we aimed to study both jointly. In this descriptive cross-sectional study we enrolled 103 healthy adult Jordanian citizens. All participants were interviewed for questionnaire filling, physical examination, and instructed on proper 24-hour urine collection procedure. We measured sodium and potassium concentration in the provided controlled 24-hour urine collection samples, as it is presently considered the gold standard for evaluating daily intake. The results showed an average sodium intake of 179 mmol (4.1 g) per day [higher in males at 186 mmol (4.3 g) vs. 173 mmol (4.0 g) for females], significantly above the current WHO recommendations, though only 8% regularly add salt to food. Ironically, most participants (82%) believe their salt consumption was appropriate and only 29% thought they may benefit from reducing salt intake. On the other hand, potassium intake is far below the current WHO recommendations. High sodium and low potassium intake have synergistic adverse effects on public health that is not currently addressed in Jordan. We conclude that Jordanian citizens currently consume high sodium and low potassium diet and are mostly unaware of its negative impact on their health. Hence, it is crucial for healthcare providers to intervene and adopt long-term strategies to control salt intake to reduce its negative effects in Jordan and elsewhere.
Mitek, Marta; Anyzewska, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Agata
Vegetarian diets, by definition, are rich in vegetables and so may have high levels of nitrates, that can elicit both positive or negative effects on the human body. Exposure to nitrates can thus be potentially higher for this population group. To estimate dietary nitrates intakes in Polish vegetarians and compare these with the Polish average. A sample of 86 vegetarians were surveyed via a questionnaire to determine nitrate intake for those adopting a vegetarian diet. Nitrate intakes for the average Pole were obtained from the Central Statistical Office. The domestic intake of nitrate, per average person, during 2000-2009, ranged from 115.5 to 133.7 mg NaNO3 with a mean of 125 mg NaNO3 of which 35.4% constituted the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). For vegetarians, the corresponding levels ranged from 37.3 to 2054.3 mg NaNO3 with a mean intake of 340.1 mg NaNO3 of which 95.8% represented the ADI. This was almost twice more than values obtained from calculating nitrate intakes of a typical 7-day vegetarian menu; 104.5 to 277.6 mg NaNO3, with a mean 175.9 mg NaNO3 with the 49.1% making up the ADI. The nitrate intakes in the tested vegetarians were 140 to 270% higher than ones for the average Pole, however in both cases the ADI was not exceeded. Nevertheless, the higher intake of nitrates so observed in vegetarians can be hazardous to some from this population group.
Sharma, Kaustubh; Haque, Masudul; Guidry, Richard; Ueta, Yoichi; Teruyama, Ryoichi
A growing body of evidence suggests that epithelial Na + channels (ENaCs) in the brain play a significant role in the regulation of blood pressure; however, the brain structures that mediate the effect are not well understood. Because vasopressin (VP) neurons play a pivotal role in coordinating neuroendocrine and autonomic responses to maintain cardiovascular homeostasis, a basic understanding of the regulation and activity of ENaC in VP neurons is of great interest. We show that high dietary salt intake caused an increase in the expression and activity of ENaC which resulted in the steady state depolarization of VP neurons. The results help us understand one of the mechanisms underlying how dietary salt intake affects the activity of VP neurons via ENaC activity. All three epithelial Na + channel (ENaC) subunits (α, β and γ) are located in vasopressin (VP) magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei. Our previous study demonstrated that ENaC mediates a Na + leak current that affects the steady state membrane potential in VP neurons. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of dietary salt intake on ENaC regulation and activity in VP neurons. High dietary salt intake for 7 days caused an increase in expression of β- and γENaC subunits in the SON and the translocation of αENaC immunoreactivity towards the plasma membrane. Patch clamp experiments on hypothalamic slices showed that the mean amplitude of the putative ENaC currents was significantly greater in VP neurons from animals that were fed a high salt diet compared with controls. The enhanced ENaC current contributed to the more depolarized basal membrane potential observed in VP neurons in the high salt diet group. These findings indicate that high dietary NaCl intake enhances the expression and activity of ENaCs, which augments synaptic drive by depolarizing the basal membrane potential close to the action potential threshold during hormonal demand. However
Sugiyama, Shinichi; Okuda, Masayuki; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Hobara, Tatsuya
To investigate breakfast eating habits on daily energy and fish, vegetable, and fruit intake in Japanese adolescents. This study was completed as part of the Shunan Child Health Cohort Study. Two types of questionnaires, one on lifestyle habits and the other a brief-type, self-administered questionnaire on diet history, were administered to second-year junior high school students (1,876 boys and 1,759 girls) in Shunan City, Yamaguchi, Japan. The different breakfast habits were compared using the general linear model and the estimated means and P value for trend were calculated, with energy-adjusted food intake as the dependent variable and body mass index, gender, age, residential areas, and living status as covariates. In both males and females, the proportion of those who ate breakfast irregularly was about 10%. The daily intake of fish, vegetables, and fruit was significantly higher in those who ate breakfast with their guardians than in those who ate breakfast alone (P for trend <0.01). The daily intake of fish, seafood, and vegetables was significantly higher in those who less frequently ate cooked foods for breakfast (P for trend <0.01). Those who ate rice more frequently than bread at breakfast had a higher daily intake of fish, seafood, and vegetables (P for trend <0.01). Eating breakfast with the family, reducing the intake of cooked foods at breakfast, and eating breakfast with rice as a main staple food are suggested to contribute to an improved quality of diet in adolescents.
Cho, Hyungjin; Kim, So Mi; Jeong, Seong Su; Kim, Soon Bae
Excessive oral salt intake can induce hypertension. According to previous studies, the prevalence of hypertension is higher in Myanmar than in Korea. We postulated that Myanmar adults had higher salt taste thresholds and eat much saltier food. This study aimed to compare salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviour scores between adults in Myanmar and Korea. This cross-sectional study enrolled patients who visited volunteer medical service clinics at Ansung in Korea and Hlegu and Bago in Myanmar in August 2014. We measured the vital signs, heights, and weights of each patient and evaluated detection thresholds, recognition thresholds, and salt preferences. All patients underwent urinalysis and spot urine Na tests. Additionally, they each completed a salt usage behaviour questionnaire. A total of 131 patients were enrolled, including 64 Myanmarese patients and 67 Korean patients. Blood pressure was significantly higher in the Myanmarese than in the Koreans. Detection and recognition thresholds, salt preferences, and spot urine sodium and salt usage behaviour scores were also higher in the Myanmarese than in the Korean subjects. We calculated correlation coefficients between systolic blood pressure and parameters that were related to salt intake. The detection and recognition thresholds were significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. All parameters related to salt intake, including detection and recognition thresholds, salt preference, salt usage behaviour scores and spot urine sodium concentrations, are significantly higher in Myanmarese than in Korean individuals.
Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Bi, Xiaoyu; Scrafford, Carolyn
A refined exposure assessment was undertaken to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the seven FD&C straight-colour additives and five FD&C colour lakes ('synthetic' food colours) approved in the United States. The EDIs were calculated for the US population as a whole and specific age groups, including children aged 2-5 and 6-12 years, adolescents aged 13-18 years, and adults aged 19 or more y. Actual use data were collected from an industry survey of companies that are users of these colour additives in a variety of products, with additional input from food colour manufacturers. Food-consumption data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The assessment was further refined by adjusting the intake to more realistic scenarios based on the fraction of products containing colour within specific food categories using data provided by the Mintel International Group Ltd. The results of the analysis indicate that (1) the use levels reported by the industry are consistent with the concentrations measured analytically by the US Food and Drug Administration; and (2) exposure to food-colour additives in the United States by average and high-intake consumers is well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each colour additive as published by the Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and allows wide margins of safety. It is concluded that food colour use as currently practised in the United States is safe and does not result in excessive exposure to the population, even at conservative ranges of food consumption and levels of use.
Wang, Y; Mu, J J; Liu, F Q; Ren, K Y; Xiao, H Y; Yang, Z; Yuan, Z Y
Dietary salt intake has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has indicated that salt-sensitive individuals on high salt intake are more likely to develop renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the development and progression of renal fibrosis in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a high-salt diet on EMT in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Twenty-four male SS and consomic SS-13(BN) rats were randomized to a normal diet or a high-salt diet. After 4 weeks, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria were analyzed, and renal fibrosis was histopathologically evaluated. Tubular EMT was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR with E-cadherin and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). After 4 weeks, SBP and albuminuria were significantly increased in the SS high-salt group compared with the normal diet group. Dietary salt intake induced renal fibrosis and tubular EMT as identified by reduced expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of α-SMA in SS rats. Both blood pressure and renal interstitial fibrosis were negatively correlated with E-cadherin but positively correlated with α-SMA. Salt intake induced tubular EMT and renal injury in SS rats, and this relationship might depend on the increase in blood pressure.
Seravalli, Priscila; de Oliveira, Ivone Braga; Zago, Breno Calazans; de Castro, Isac; Veras, Mariana Matera; Alves-Rodrigues, Edson Nogueira; Heimann, Joel C
Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that dietary salt overload and salt restriction during pregnancy were associated with cardiac and renal structural and/or functional alterations in adult offspring. The present study evaluated renal and cardiac structure and the local renin-angiotensin system in newborns from dams fed high-, normal- or low-salt diets during pregnancy. Female Wistar rats were fed low- (LS, 0.15% NaCl), normal- (NS, 1.3% NaCl) or high- (HS, 8% NaCl) salt diets during pregnancy. Kidneys and hearts were collected from newborns (n = 6-8/group) during the first 24 hours after birth to evaluate possible changes in structure using stereology. Protein expression of renin-angiotensin system components was evaluated using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No differences between groups were observed in total renal volume, volume of renal compartments or number of glomeruli. The transverse diameter of the nuclei of cardiomyocytes was greater in HS than NS males in the left and right ventricles. Protein expression of the AT1 receptor was lower in the kidneys of the LS than in those of the NS and HS males but not females. Protein expression of the AT2 receptor was lower in the kidneys of the LS males and females than in those of the NS males and females. High salt intake during pregnancy induced left and right ventricular hypertrophy in male newborns. Salt restriction during pregnancy reduced the expression of renal angiotensin II receptors in newborns.
Newson, R S; Elmadfa, I; Biro, Gy; Cheng, Y; Prakash, V; Rust, P; Barna, M; Lion, R; Meijer, G W; Neufingerl, N; Szabolcs, I; van Zweden, R; Yang, Y; Feunekes, G I J
Salt reduction is important for reducing hypertension and the risk of cardiovascular events, nevertheless worldwide salt intakes are above recommendations. Consequently strategies to reduce intake are required, however these require an understanding of salt intake behaviours to be effective. As limited information is available on this, an international study was conducted to derive knowledge on salt intake and associated behaviours in the general population. An online cohort was recruited consisting of a representative sample from Germany, Austria, United States of America, Hungary, India, China, South Africa, and Brazil (n=6987; aged 18-65 years; age and gender stratified). Participants completed a comprehensive web-based questionnaire on salt intake and associated behaviours. While salt reduction was seen to be healthy and important, over one third of participants were not interested in salt reduction and the majority were unaware of recommendations. Salt intake was largely underestimated and people were unaware of the main dietary sources of salt. Participants saw themselves as mainly responsible for their salt intake, but also acknowledged the roles of others. Additionally, they wanted to learn more about why salt was bad for health and what the main sources in the diet were. As such, strategies to reduce salt intake must raise interest in engaging in salt reduction through improving understanding of intake levels and dietary sources of salt. Moreover, while some aspects of salt reduction can be globally implemented, local tailoring is required to match level of interest in salt reduction. These findings provide unique insights into issues surrounding salt reduction and should be used to develop effective salt reduction strategies and/or policies. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Arakawa, Kimika; Sakaki, Minako; Sakata, Satoko; Oniki, Hideyuki; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchihashi, Takuya
Among the several methods used to assess salt intake, estimating 24 h urinary salt excretion by spot urine seems appropriate for clinical practice. In this study, we investigated variability in urinary salt excretion using spot urine in hypertensive outpatients. Participants included 200 hypertensive patients who underwent spot urinary salt excretion at least three times during the observation period. Mean urinary salt excretion and the coefficient of the variation were 8.62 ± 1.96 g/day and 19.0 ± 10.2%, respectively. In the analysis of participants who underwent assessment of urinary salt excretion at least eight times (n = 54), a significant reduction in mean urinary salt excretion was found at the 5th measurement. On the contrary, the coefficient of the variation of urinary salt excretion continued to increase until the 5th measurement, and became stable thereafter. Mean urinary salt excretion was positively correlated with mean clinic diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.27, p < 0.05). Clinic diastolic blood pressure in the high urinary salt excretion group (≥ 10 g/day) was significantly higher than that of the low group (76.2 ± 7.5 vs 73.4 ± 8.3 mmHg, p < 0.05). Mean urinary salt excretion in summer was significantly lower than that of the other seasons (7.75 ± 1.94 vs 9.09 ± 2.68 (spring), 8.72 ± 2.12 (autumn), 8.92 ± 2.17 (winter) g/day, p < 0.01). In conclusion, repeated measurements of urinary salt excretion using spot urine are required to assess daily salt intake of hypertensive patients.
Mervaala, E. M.; Paakkari, I.; Laakso, J.; Nevala, R.; Teräväinen, T. M.; Fyhrquist, F.; Vapaatalo, H.; Karppanen, H.
1. The influence of salt (sodium chloride; NaCl) (an additional 6% in the diet) and that of a novel sodium-reduced, potassium-, magnesium-, and L-lysine-enriched salt alternative on the cardiovascular effects of ramipril was studied in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats in a 6-week study. The intake of sodium chloride was adjusted to the same level by adding the salt alternative at a 1.75 times higher amount than regular salt. 2. Salt produced a marked rise in blood pressure and induced cardiac hypertrophy and significant mortality, while the salt alternative neither increased blood pressure nor caused any mortality and produced less cardiac hypertrophy than salt. 3. Ramipril treatment at a daily dose of 3 mg kg-1 normalized blood pressure and prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy of rats on control diet. These effects of ramipril were blocked by the addition of salt but were only slightly attenuated by the addition of the salt alternative. The mortality in the salt group was prevented by ramipril. 4. Responses of mesenteric arterial rings in vitro were examined at the end of the study. Salt, but not the salt alternative, increased vascular contractile responses to noradrenaline. Ramipril treatment improved the arterial relaxation responses to acetylcholine and to sodium nitroprusside. The vascular relaxation enhancing effect of ramipril was blocked by salt but only slightly attenuated by the salt alternative. 5. Ramipril treatment did not significantly increase plasma renin activity in the presence or in the absence of salt supplementation. The salt alternative did not cause hyperkalaemia, either alone or in combination with ramipril treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8032605
Blatt, Alexandria D.; Roe, Liane S.
High-protein preloads have been shown to enhance satiety, but little is known about the satiating effects of protein in more typical situations when meals are consumed ad libitum. In order to investigate the effects of protein in amounts commonly consumed over a day, a crossover study was conducted in 2008. In this experiment, 18 normal-weight women consumed ad libitumlunch and dinner entrées one day a week that were covertly varied in protein content (10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% energy). Entrées were manipulated by substituting animal protein for starchy ingredients and were matched for energy density, fat content, palatability, and appearance. Un-manipulated breakfasts and evening snacks were consumed ad libitum. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals as well as the taste and appearance of entrées. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear model. Results showed that mean 24-hour protein intake increased significantly across conditions, from 44±2 g/d in the 10% protein condition to 82±6 g/d in the 30% condition. Daily energy intake, however, did not differ significantly across the 10% to 30% protein conditions (means 1870±93, 1887±93, 1848±111, 1876±100, and 1807±98 kcal). There were no significant differences in hunger and fullness ratings across conditions or in taste and appearance ratings of the manipulated entrées. This study showed that varying the protein content of several entrées consumed ad libitum did not differentially influence daily energy intake or affect ratings of satiety. PMID:21272705
Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah
To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M
The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil.
Kim, Yunmi; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Jung Hwan
Osteoporosis is prevalent among postmenopausal women, and increasing evidence has linked salt intake with this disease. In this article, we explored the association between dietary sodium intake and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. We analyzed data for 3635 postmenopausal women extracted from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We found that 1542 participants (42.4%) have osteoporosis. The adjusted prevalence rates of osteoporosis at the lumbar spine were significantly higher in participants who consumed ≥4001 mg of salt than those who consumed ≤2000 mg. At the femoral neck, rates were significantly higher for those who consumed ≥5001 mg compared with those who consumed ≤4000 mg. Participants with a higher sodium intake showed a significantly higher odds ratio of developing lumbar and femoral neck osteoporosis, compared with those with a lower intake. Our results suggest that excessive daily sodium intake is associated with a higher osteoporosis prevalence in Korean postmenopausal women.
Koleganova, Nadezda; Piecha, Grzegorz; Ritz, Eberhard; Becker, Luis Eduardo; Müller, Annett; Weckbach, Monika; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Schirmacher, Peter; Gross-Weissmann, Marie-Luise
In humans, low glomerular numbers are related to hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal disease in adult life. The present study was designed 1) to explore whether above- or below-normal dietary salt intake during pregnancy influences nephron number and blood pressure in the offspring and 2) to identify potential mechanisms in kidney development modified by maternal sodium intake. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low (0.07%)-, intermediate (0.51%)-, or high (3.0%)-sodium diets during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were weaned at 4 wk and subsequently kept on a 0.51% sodium diet. The kidney structure was assessed at postnatal weeks 1 and 12 and the expression of proteins of interest at term and at week 1. Blood pressure was measured in male offspring by telemetry from postnatal month 2 to postnatal month 9. The numbers of glomeruli at weeks 1 and 12 were significantly lower and, in males, telemetrically measured mean arterial blood pressure after month 5 was higher in offspring of dams on a high- or low- compared with intermediate-sodium diet. A high-salt diet was paralleled by higher concentrations of marinobufagenin in the amniotic fluid and an increase in the expression of both sprouty-1 and glial cell-derived neutrophic factor in the offspring's kidney. The expression of FGF-10 was lower in offspring of dams on a low-sodium diet, and the expression of Pax-2 and FGF-2 was lower in offspring of dams on a high-sodium diet. Both excessively high and excessively low sodium intakes during pregnancy modify protein expression in offspring kidneys and reduce the final number of glomeruli, predisposing the risk of hypertension later in life.
WASEEM, Amir; NAFEES, Muhammad; MURTAZA, Ghulam; SAJJAD, Ashif; MEHMOOD, Zahid; SIDDIQI, Abdul Rauf
Abstract Background Excess sodium intake can lead to hypertension, the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the sodium and potassium contents of foodstuff used by infants and children of Pakistan. Methods We analyzed the sodium and potassium contents of infant milk formula (<6 months), follow up milk formula (>6 months), baby food (cereals), biscuits, fruit juices, potato chips (crisps), cheese puffs, roasted cereals (salty), ice cream cones (kulfi) all of which are the processed food extensively used by the children. The amount of sodium and potassium contents in drinking water of few cities of Pakistan were also considered to assess the additional sodium/potassium in the preparation of milk using infant milk formula. Results Na to K ratio (Na:K) was determined 0.3-1.23, 0.3-1.16, 0.33-0.82, 0.54-2.68, 0.51-0.85, 2.86 and 1.02 for infant milk formula (<6 months), follow up milk formula (>6 months), baby food (cereals), biscuits, fruit juices, potato chips (crisps, cheese puffs, roasted cereals), ice cream cones (kulfi), respectively. Conclusion The higher sodium content is present than most of the quoted values; whereas lower potassium is present than the recommended values. The higher Na:K ratio indicates the severity of the situation where it is commonly stated that “higher an individual’s salt intake, the higher an individual’s blood pressure". Present study indicates that nearly all Pakistani children consume substantially more salt than they need which will affect health status in later life. PMID:26175974
Burger, Kyle S
Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response. Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli. Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments. Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage ( r = -0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation ( r = -0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage ( r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control ( r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage ( P < 0.001). Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed
Jereb, Gregor; Poljšak, Borut; Eržen, Ivan
The cumulative phosphate intake in a typical daily diet is high and, according to several studies, already exceeds recommended values. The exposure of the general population to phosphorus via drinking water is generally not known. One of the hidden sources of phosphorus in a daily diet is sodium polyphosphate, commonly used as a drinking water softener. In Slovenia, softening of drinking water is carried out exclusively within the internal (household) drinking water supply systems to prevent the accumulation of limescale. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sodium phosphates in the drinking water in Slovenia in different types of buildings, to determine residents’ awareness of the presence of chemical softeners in their drinking water, and to provide an exposure assessment on the phosphorus intake from drinking water. In the current study, the presence of phosphates in the samples of drinking water was determined using a spectrophotometric method with ammonium molybdate. In nearly half of the samples, the presence of phosphates as water softeners was confirmed. The measured concentrations varied substantially from 0.2 mg PO4/L to 24.6 mg PO4/L. Nearly 70% of the respondents were not familiar with the exact data on water softening in their buildings. It follows that concentrations of added phosphates should be controlled and the consumers should be informed of the added chemicals in their drinking water. The health risks of using sodium polyphosphate as a drinking water softener have not been sufficiently investigated and assessed. It is highly recommended that proper guidelines and regulations are developed and introduced to protect human health from adverse effects of chemicals in water intended for human consumption. PMID:28984825
Jereb, Gregor; Poljšak, Borut; Eržen, Ivan
The cumulative phosphate intake in a typical daily diet is high and, according to several studies, already exceeds recommended values. The exposure of the general population to phosphorus via drinking water is generally not known. One of the hidden sources of phosphorus in a daily diet is sodium polyphosphate, commonly used as a drinking water softener. In Slovenia, softening of drinking water is carried out exclusively within the internal (household) drinking water supply systems to prevent the accumulation of limescale. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sodium phosphates in the drinking water in Slovenia in different types of buildings, to determine residents' awareness of the presence of chemical softeners in their drinking water, and to provide an exposure assessment on the phosphorus intake from drinking water. In the current study, the presence of phosphates in the samples of drinking water was determined using a spectrophotometric method with ammonium molybdate. In nearly half of the samples, the presence of phosphates as water softeners was confirmed. The measured concentrations varied substantially from 0.2 mg PO4/L to 24.6 mg PO4/L. Nearly 70% of the respondents were not familiar with the exact data on water softening in their buildings. It follows that concentrations of added phosphates should be controlled and the consumers should be informed of the added chemicals in their drinking water. The health risks of using sodium polyphosphate as a drinking water softener have not been sufficiently investigated and assessed. It is highly recommended that proper guidelines and regulations are developed and introduced to protect human health from adverse effects of chemicals in water intended for human consumption.
Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.
BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (<1.8 mg/100 g), IC was more reliable than CE. The mean daily intake of oxalate by the five individuals tested was 152 +/- 83 mg, ranging from 44 to 352 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: CE appears to be the method of choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.
Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541
Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Ranches, J; Vasconcelos, J L M
Two experiments evaluated milk production, serum progesterone and insulin, and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows receiving or not receiving Ca salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or receiving Ca salts of PUFA at different daily frequencies. In experiment 1, 1,125 cows randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns were enrolled. Barns were assigned randomly to receive a high-concentrate diet containing (PF) or not containing (control, CON) 1.1% (dry matter basis) Ca salts of PUFA. Diets were offered 6 times daily, whereas the Ca salts of PUFA were included in the PF treatment in the first feeding of the day. In experiment 2, 1,572 cows were randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns, which were assigned randomly to receive a diet similar to PF, but with Ca salts of PUFA included only in the first feeding of the day (PF1X), or equally distributed across all 6 feedings (PF6X). During both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated 12 h after the onset of estrus. Once per month, cows that did not conceive to artificial insemination were assigned to a fixed-time embryo transfer protocol. Pregnancy was determined via transrectal ultrasonography 28 and 60 d after expected ovulation. Pregnancy loss was considered in cows that were pregnant on d 28 but nonpregnant on d 60. During both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected concurrently with embryo transfer. During experiment 1, feed intake was similar between treatments. Compared with CON, PF cows had greater milk yield (37.8 vs. 35.3 kg/d), and reduced milk fat content (3.41 vs. 3.55%). However, PF cows had reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with CON (12.6 vs. 18.3%). Serum progesterone was greater and serum insulin tended to be greater in primiparous cows receiving PF compared with CON cohorts (4.50 vs. 3.67 ng of progesterone/mL, and 10.4 vs. 7.5 µUI of insulin/mL). During experiment 2, no treatment
Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J
High-protein preloads have been shown to enhance satiety, but little is known about the satiating effects of protein in more typical situations when meals are consumed ad libitum. To investigate the effects of protein in amounts commonly consumed over a day, a crossover study was conducted in 2008. In this experiment, 18 normal-weight women consumed ad libitum lunch and dinner entrées 1 day a week that were covertly varied in protein content (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, or 30% energy). Entrées were manipulated by substituting animal protein for starchy ingredients and were matched for energy density, fat content, palatability, and appearance. Unmanipulated breakfasts and evening snacks were consumed ad libitum. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals as well as the taste and appearance of entrées. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear model. Results showed that mean 24-hour protein intake increased significantly across conditions, from 44±2 g/day in the 10% protein condition to 82±6 g/day in the 30% condition. Daily energy intake did not differ significantly across the 10% to 30% protein conditions (means 1,870±93, 1,887±93, 1,848±111, 1,876±100, and 1,807±98 kcal in the 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% energy groups, respectively). There were no significant differences in hunger and fullness ratings across conditions or in taste and appearance ratings of the manipulated entrées. This study showed that varying the protein content of several entrées consumed ad libitum did not differentially influence daily energy intake or affect ratings of satiety. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola
Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter ingredient (EBI) with a core of bitter Gentiana lutea root extract and a coating of ethylcellulose-stearate was developed and included in a vanilla microencapsulated bitter ingredient-enriched pudding (EBIP). The coating masked bitterness in the mouth, allowing the release of bitter secoiridoids in the gastrointestinal tract. A cross-over randomised study was performed: twenty healthy subjects consumed at breakfast EBIP (providing 100 mg of secoiridoids) or the control pudding (CP) on two different occasions. Blood samples, glycaemia and appetite ratings were collected at baseline and 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after breakfast. Gastrointestinal peptides, endocannabinoids (EC) and N-acylethanolamines (NAE) were measured in plasma samples. Energy intakes were measured at an ad libitum lunch 3 h after breakfast and over the rest of the day (post lunch) through food diaries. No significant difference in postprandial plasma responses of gastrointestinal hormones, glucose, EC and NAE and of appetite between EBIP and CP was found. However, a trend for a higher response of glucagon-like peptide-1 after EBIP than after CP was observed. EBIP determined a significant 30 % lower energy intake over the post-lunch period compared with CP. These findings were consistent with the tailored release of bitter-tasting compounds from EBIP along the gastrointestinal tract. This study demonstrated that microencapsulated bitter secoiridoids were effective in reducing daily energy intake in humans.
Background Table salt is the most commonly used food additive. Since most of the salt consumed in Iran comes from mines, contamination with heavy metals is a health concern. The commonest salt purification method in Iran is washing with water. But recently, some industries have turned to recrystallization method. The present study aimed to determine the level of essential and non-essential heavy metals in the table salt refined with recrystallization and washing methods. Methods Thirty eight pre-packed salt samples were directly collected from retail market in Shiraz (22 samples refined with recrystallization method and 16 with washing method). The level of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt was determined using Voltammetric method. Daily intakes of lead and cadmium as well as their weekly intakes were calculated. Results The levels of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt in recrystallized samples were 0. 30 ± 0.26, 0.02 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.34 ± 0.22, 0.15 ± 0.19 and 0.008 ± 0.007 μg/g, respectively, and also 0.37 ± 0.27, 0.017 ± 0.021, 0.19 ± 0.18, 0.37 ± 0.20, 0.13 ± 0.23 and 0.037 ± 0.06 μg/g in washed salt samples. The calculated weekly intake of lead and cadmium was 0.216 and 0.014 μg/kg, respectively for the recrystallized and 0.2653 and 0.0119 μg/kg for the washed salts. Conclusion All values for toxic metals were lower than the permitted maximum for human consumption as prescribed by Codex and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Only 0.8652-1.0612% of lead and 0.17-0.2% of cadmium PTWIs are received via salt consumption weekly. PMID:24398299
Pi, Romina Antonella; Vidal, Paula Daniela; Brassesco, Bárbara Romina; Viola, Lorena; Aballay, Laura Rosana
There is increasing scientific evidence that nutrition influence positive and negative on health along life. Many studies have reported that the student population is a particularly vulnerable group from the nutritional point of view, due to it is characterized by meal skipping frequently and nibble between eating occasions. to establish the relationship between the number of daily dietary intakes and nutritional status in male students aged 23 to 33 years of the National Technological University, in the city of Córdoba, in 2013. in order to achieve this aim, a prospective, cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design was used. Descriptive and inferential analysis were applied by using multiple logistic regression models. Almost 50% of the sample analyzed presented overweight (OW) and 40% high body fat (BF). In relation to the intakes numbers, the students that take less than 4 and more than 6 had 2 times more chance of presenting overweight and high body fat. It was found that as age increases it also does the Body Fat Storage, whereas diminished physical activity increases the chance of having high Body Mass Index and Body Fat. Moreover, high ingestion of carbohydrates increases the chance of high Body Fat and Overweight, and a high intake of protein and lipids increases the risk of high Body Fat. it is recognized that high or low number of daily intakes than recommended, low level of physical activity, high consumption of carbohydrates and having more than 29 years is related to high overweight and body fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Paul N; Bao, Tran Quoc; Huong, Tran Thi Thanh; Heckbert, Susan R; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; LoGerfo, James P; Ngoc, Truong Le Van; Mokdad, Ali H
To evaluate the association of salt consumption with blood pressure in Viet Nam, a developing country with a high level of salt consumption. Analysis of a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese adults 25-65 years of age who were surveyed using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to Surveillance protocol. Participants who reported acute illness, pregnancy, or current use of antihypertensive medications were excluded. Daily salt consumption was estimated from fasting mid-morning spot urine samples. Associations of salt consumption with systolic blood pressure and prevalent hypertension were assessed using adjusted linear and generalized linear models. Interaction terms were tested to assess differences by age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and rural/urban status. The analysis included 2,333 participants (mean age: 37 years, 46% male, 33% urban). The average estimated salt consumption was 10g/day. No associations of salt consumption with blood pressure or prevalent hypertension were observed at a national scale in men or women. The associations did not differ in subgroups defined by age, smoking, or alcohol consumption; however, associations differed between urban and rural participants (p-value for interaction of urban/rural status with salt consumption, p = 0.02), suggesting that higher salt consumption may be associated with higher systolic blood pressure in urban residents but lower systolic blood pressure in rural residents. Although there was no evidence of an association at a national level, associations of salt consumption with blood pressure differed between urban and rural residents in Viet Nam. The reasons for this differential association are not clear, and given the large rate of rural to urban migration experienced in Viet Nam, this topic warrants further investigation.
In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP) and School Lunch Program (NSLP) meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the c...
Rasheed, Sabrina; Siddique, A. K.; Sharmin, Tamanna; Hasan, A. M. R.; Hanifi, S. M. A.; Iqbal, M.; Bhuiya, Abbas
Background High salt consumption is an important risk factor of elevated blood pressure. In Bangladesh about 20 million people are at high risk of hypertension due to climate change induced saline intrusion in water. The objective of this study is to assess beliefs, perceptions, and practices associated with salt consumption in coastal Bangladesh. Methods The study was conducted in Chakaria, Bangladesh between April-June 2011. It was a cross sectional mixed method study. For the qualitative study 6 focus group discussions, 8 key informant interviews, 60 free listing exercises, 20 ranking exercises and 10 observations were conducted. 400 adults were randomly selected for quantitative survey. For analysis we used SPSS for quantitative data, and Anthropac and Nvivo for qualitative data. Results Salt was described as an essential component of food with strong cultural and religious roots. People described both health benefits and risks related to salt intake. The overall risk perception regarding excessive salt consumption was low and respondents believed that the cooking process can render the salt harmless. Respondents were aware that salt is added in many foods even if they do not taste salty but did not recognize that salt can occur naturally in both foods and water. Conclusions In the study community people had low awareness of the risks associated with excess salt consumption and salt reduction strategies were not high in their agenda. The easy access to and low cost of salt as well as unrecognised presence of salt in drinking water has created an environment conducive to excess salt consumption. It is important to design general messages related to salt reduction and test tailored strategies especially for those at high risk of hypertension. PMID:27044049
Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin
With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093
Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin
With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.
Okati, Narjes; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas
The objectives of this study were to understand the mercury daily intake and hair-to-blood mercury ratio in fishermen and non-fishermen families in the coast of the Persian Gulf in Iran. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of fishermen and non-fishermen families was 5.76 and 2.27 μg/g, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations of RBCs were obtained for fishermen families and non-fishermen families: 35.96 and 17.18 μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury concentrations in 17% of people were higher than 10 μg/g, the No Observed Adverse Effects Level set by the World Health Organization. 78% of people had a blood mercury value > 5.8 μg/L, the standard level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant correlation (r = 0.94, p = 0.000) was seen between log hair and RBCs mercury concentrations. The mean mercury daily intake for fishermen and non-fishermen families was 0.42 and 0.20 µg/kg BW per day, respectively. The mean mercury daily intake of fishermen families was higher than the provisional tolerable daily intake (0.23 µg/kg BW per day) suggested by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Mercury daily intake significantly correlated with fish consumption (r = 0.50, p = 0.000) and log hair mercury (r = 0.88, p = 0.000). The total mean of hair-to-blood mercury concentration ratio was 306. We conclude that the use of mercury concentrations in the hair and RBCs could have been suitable biomarkers for predicting mercury exposure of people with a high rate of fish consumption.
Hu, Yaoda; Wang, Zixing; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Lei; Han, Wei; Tang, Yong; Xue, Fang; Hou, Lei; Liang, Shaohua; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Weizhi; Asaiti, Kuliqian; Pang, Haiyu; Zhang, Mingtao; Jiang, Jingmei
Hypertension is a leading cause of death worldwide; data on hypertension among ethnic minorities in China are sparse. This study aimed to estimate hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in a Kazakh population, and to assess the association between salt intake and the above measures. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Kazakh adults (≥30 years old) in the town of Hongdun, Altay, Xinjiang. Survey procedures included a questionnaire, physical measurement, and laboratory tests. Of 1805 eligible individuals, 1668 (92.4%) were included in the analysis. After adjustment for gender, age, and occupation, prevalence of hypertension was 45.5%. The proportions with awareness, treatment, control, or medication-control were 61.0%, 28.8%, 2.9% and 10.1%, respectively. Higher prevalence was seen among nomads and farmers (50.7% and 44.6%, respectively). However, the proportions with treatment or control were lower than seen among urban citizens. Hypertension prevalence was higher in those with higher salt intake (p = 0.0008). In contrast, the proportions with awareness (p = 0.0389), treatment (p = 0.0010), control (p = 0.0503), and medication-control (p = 0.2012) reduced as salt intake increased. In conclusion, hypertension prevalence is high in this population, but the proportions with awareness, treatment, or control are sub-optimal. Public health interventions that improve hypertension prevention and control, particularly among nomads, is needed. PMID:28358015
Shankar, Bhavani; Brambila-Macias, Jose; Traill, Bruce; Mazzocchi, Mario; Capacci, Sara
Excessive salt intake is linked to cardiovascular disease and several other health problems around the world. The UK Food Standards Agency initiated a campaign at the end of 2004 to reduce salt intake in the population. There is disagreement over whether the campaign was effective in curbing salt intake or not. We provide fresh evidence on the impact of the campaign, by using data on spot urinary sodium readings and socio-demographic variables from the Health Survey for England over 2003-2007 and combining it with food price information from the Expenditure and Food Survey. Aggregating the data into a pseudo-panel, we estimate fixed effects models to examine the trend in salt intake over the period and to deduce the heterogeneous effects of the policy on the intake of socio-demographic groups. Our results are consistent with a previous hypothesis that the campaign reduced salt intakes by approximately 10%. The impact is shown to be stronger among women than among men. Older cohorts of men show a larger response to the salt campaign compared to younger cohorts, while among women, younger cohorts respond more strongly than older cohorts. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zou, Shurong; Wu, Fan; Guo, Changyi; Song, Jun; Huang, Cuihua; Zhu, Zhenni; Yu, Huiting; Guo, Yanfei; Lu, Xi; Ruan, Ye
Background Both insufficient and excess iodine may produce thyroid disease. After salt iodization in China, the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of children aged 8–10 years appeared adequate. However, it is unknown whether dietary changes due to rapid economic development in Shanghai have affected whole population iodine nutrition. Objective To assess dietary iodine intake, UIC and the prevalence of thyroid disease in the general population of Shanghai. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted with general participants aged 5–69 years (n = 7,904) plus pregnant and lactating women (n = 380 each) selected by stratified multistage sampling. The iodine concentrations in their salt, drinking water and urine were measured. Daily iodine intake was estimated using the total diet study approach. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations and thyroid-related antibodies were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Results The median iodine concentration in salt was 29.5 mg/kg, and 12.8 µg/L in drinking water. Iodized salt, used by 95.3% of participants, contributed 63.5% of total dietary iodine. Estimated daily iodine intake was 225.96 µg. The median UIC of general participants was 146.7 µg/L; UIC <100 µg/L (iodine insufficiency) was seen in 28.6%; UIC >300 µg/L (iodine excess) in 10.1%. Pregnant women had a median UIC of 135.9 µg/L, with UIC <150 µg/L in 55.4%. Thyroid nodules and subclinical hypothyroidism were found in 27.44% and 9.17%, respectively. Conclusions According to published criteria, the current dietary iodine intake in Shanghai was generally sufficient and safe, but insufficient in pregnant women. Thyroid nodules and subclinical hypothyroidism were the commonest thyroid diseases identified. PMID:22911705
Campanozzi, Angelo; Avallone, Sonia; Barbato, Antonio; Iacone, Roberto; Russo, Ornella; De Filippo, Gianpaolo; D'Angelo, Giuseppina; Pensabene, Licia; Malamisura, Basilio; Cecere, Gaetano; Micillo, Maria; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Tetro, Anna; Lombardi, Giuliano; Tonelli, Lisa; Castellucci, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Luigi; Di Biase, Rita; Lezo, Antonella; Salvatore, Silvia; Paoletti, Silvia; Siani, Alfonso; Galeone, Daniela; Strazzullo, Pasquale
Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure. To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health. The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures. The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population. The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.
Bao, Tran Quoc; Huong, Tran Thi Thanh; Heckbert, Susan R.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; LoGerfo, James P.; Ngoc, Truong Le Van; Mokdad, Ali H.
Objective To evaluate the association of salt consumption with blood pressure in Viet Nam, a developing country with a high level of salt consumption. Design and setting Analysis of a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese adults 25–65 years of age who were surveyed using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to Surveillance protocol. Participants who reported acute illness, pregnancy, or current use of antihypertensive medications were excluded. Daily salt consumption was estimated from fasting mid-morning spot urine samples. Associations of salt consumption with systolic blood pressure and prevalent hypertension were assessed using adjusted linear and generalized linear models. Interaction terms were tested to assess differences by age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and rural/urban status. Results The analysis included 2,333 participants (mean age: 37 years, 46% male, 33% urban). The average estimated salt consumption was 10g/day. No associations of salt consumption with blood pressure or prevalent hypertension were observed at a national scale in men or women. The associations did not differ in subgroups defined by age, smoking, or alcohol consumption; however, associations differed between urban and rural participants (p-value for interaction of urban/rural status with salt consumption, p = 0.02), suggesting that higher salt consumption may be associated with higher systolic blood pressure in urban residents but lower systolic blood pressure in rural residents. Conclusions Although there was no evidence of an association at a national level, associations of salt consumption with blood pressure differed between urban and rural residents in Viet Nam. The reasons for this differential association are not clear, and given the large rate of rural to urban migration experienced in Viet Nam, this topic warrants further investigation. PMID:29346423
Possamai, Ana Paula Silva; Alcalde, Claudete Regina; de Souza, Rodrigo; Gomes, Ludmila Couto; de Macedo, Francisco de Assis Fonseca; Martins, Elias Nunes
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Saanen goat kids with calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) in diet, on intake, performance, digestibility of nutrients, and blood parameters. Twenty-eight uncastrated male goat kids, with round average age to 112.86 ± 4.81 days and an average body weight (BW) of 19.54 ± 2.76 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design distributed into four groups with seven animals per group: one control group fed a diet containing 2.5 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg dry matter (DM) and three groups fed a diet containing 2.6, 2.7, or 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM, with CSFA added to increase the energy levels. The animals were fed the diets until they reached an average BW of 28 kg. There was hardly any apparent effect of dietary CSFA on intake of DM and organic matter (OM). The digestibility of DM and OM showed an improvement with 2.64 and 2.65 Mcal ME/kg DM in the diet. The diets containing CSFA improved average daily gain and reduced the time on the feedlot to 30 days fed diet with 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM. However, lipid supplementation increased serum cholesterol levels. Thus, CSFA can be used to increase the energy density of the diet in finisher Saanen goat kids and improve performance by reducing days on feedlot.
Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo
The authors investigated the relationship between the awareness of dietary salt and genetics and the intent to maintain a low-salt diet. In particular, they assessed whether hypothetical genetic information regarding salt-sensitive hypertension motivates the intent to reduce dietary salt for communicating the health benefits of lower salt consumption to citizens. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with 2500 randomly sampled residents aged 30 to 69 years living in Nagahama, Japan. Genetic information regarding higher salt sensitivity increased motivation to reduce salt intake for both those who agreed that genes cause hypertension and those who did not. Less than 50% of those who agreed that genes cause hypertension lost their intention to lower their salt consumption when they found they did not possess the susceptibility gene. Communicating genetic information positively affected motivation to reduce salt intake. The present study clarifies the difficulty in changing the behavioral intent of those who have significantly less incentive to reduce salt intake. Therefore, a multidimensional approach is crucial to reduce salt consumption. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Marshall, Anikó; Santollo, Jessica; Corteville, Caroline; Lutz, Thomas A; Daniels, Derek
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for severe obesity, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common approach in the United States and worldwide. Many studies have documented the changes in body weight, food intake, and glycemic control associated with the procedure. Although dehydration is commonly listed as a postoperative complication, little focus has been directed to testing the response to dipsogenic treatments after RYGB. Accordingly, we used a rat model of RYGB to test for procedure-induced changes in daily water intake and in the response to three dipsogenic treatments: central administration of ANG II, peripheral injection of hypertonic saline, and overnight water deprivation. We did not find any systematic differences in daily water intake of sham-operated and RYGB rats, nor did we find any differences in the response to the dipsogenic treatments. The results of these experiments suggest that RYGB does not impair thirst responses and does not enhance any satiating effect of water intake. Furthermore, these data support the current view that feedback from the stomach is unnecessary for the termination of drinking behavior and are consistent with a role of orosensory or postgastric feedback.
Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response. Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli. Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments. Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage (r = −0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation (r = −0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage (r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control (r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed
Rosenlund, Mats; Berglind, Niklas; Hallqvist, Johan; Bellander, Tom; Bluhm, Gösta
A decreased risk for cardiovascular disease has been related to the hardness of drinking water, particularly high levels of magnesium. However, the evidence is still uncertain, especially in relation to individual intake from water. We used data from the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a population-based case-control study conducted during 1992-1994, to study the association between myocardial infarction and the daily intake of drinking water magnesium and calcium. Our analyses are based on 497 cases age 45-70 years, and 677 controls matched on age, sex, and hospital catchment area. Individual data on magnesium, calcium, and hardness of the domestic drinking water were assessed from waterwork registers or analyses of well water. After adjustment for the matching variables and smoking, hypertension, socioeconomic status, job strain, body mass index, diabetes, and physical inactivity, the odds ratio for myocardial infarction was 1.09 (95% confidence interval = 0.81-1.46) associated with a tap water hardness above the median (>4.4 German hardness degrees) and 0.88 (0.67-1.15) associated with a water magnesium intake above the median (>1.86 mg/d). There was no apparent sign of any exposure-response pattern related to water intake of magnesium or calcium. This study does not support previous reports of a protective effect on myocardial infarction associated with consumption of drinking water with higher levels of hardness, magnesium, or calcium.
Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P
Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.
Mushoriwa, Fadzai; Townsend, Nick; Srinivas, Sunitha
Dietary salt reduction has been identified as a cost effective way of addressing the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly cardiovascular diseases. The World Health Organization has recommended three main strategies for achieving population-wide salt reduction in all member states: food reformulation, policies and consumer awareness campaigns. In 2013, the South African Ministry of Health announced the mandatory salt reduction legislation for the food manufacturing sector. These were set to come into effect on 30 June 2016. This decision was influenced by the need to reduce the incidence of NCDs and the fact that processed food is the source of 54% of the salt consumed in the South African diet. However, with discretionary salt also being a significant contributor, there is need for consumer awareness campaigns. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of guardians and cooks at two non-governmental organisations based in Grahamstown, South Africa, towards dietary salt reduction. Data was collected through observation and explorative, voice-recorded semi-structured interviews and transcribed data was analysed using NVivo®. At both centres, salt shakers were not placed on the tables during mealtimes. Only 14% the participants perceived their personal salt intake to be a little. No participants were aware of the recommended daily salt intake limit or the relationship between salt and sodium. Only five out of the 19 participants had previously received information on dietary salt reduction from sources such as healthcare professionals and the media. The results from the first phase of this study highlighted gaps in the participants' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards dietary salt reduction. The aim of the second phase of the research is to design and implement a context specific and culturally appropriate educational intervention on dietary salt reduction.
Bulkley, Alison M; Badawy, Rebecca L; Krause, Nicole; McCann, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H
Background: Food reinforcement, ie, motivation to obtain food, is associated with energy intake and obesity. Finding ways to decrease the reinforcing value of unhealthy foods may help with adherence to diets and maintenance of weight loss. Our previous study in nonobese adults showed that daily consumption of the same snack food (food consumed apart from meals) for 14 d significantly decreased its reinforcing value. Objectives: The aims of this study were to replicate and extend these findings to obese individuals and to examine the effects of different portion sizes of snack foods on food reinforcement. Design: Food reinforcement and liking were tested in 31 obese and 27 nonobese women at baseline and after 2 wk of daily consumption of 0, 100, or 300 kcal/d of the same snack food. Results: We found a significant interaction of phase, portion size, and body mass index on the pattern of operant responding for food. Obese women had a significant increase in food reinforcement after consuming the 300-kcal portion of food for 2 wk, whereas nonobese women had the opposite response. No significant differences were found on the reinforcing value with the 0- and 100-kcal portion-size conditions. Women in the 300-kcal group (obese and nonobese) reported a significant decrease in snack food liking from baseline to after daily intake. Conclusions: These findings suggest that obese and nonobese women respond differently to the daily intake of a snack food and that this may not be a viable mechanism for reducing food reinforcement in obese women. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00837694. PMID:19458018
Tay, S H; Blache, D; Gregg, K; Revell, D K
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy can affect kidney development in the foetus, which may lead to adverse consequences in the mature kidney. It was expected that high-salt intake by pregnant ewes would lead to a reduction in foetal glomerular number but that the ovine kidney would adapt to maintain homoeostasis, in part by increasing the size of each glomerulus. Merino ewes that were fed either a control (1.5% NaCl) or high-salt (10.5% NaCl) diet during pregnancy, as well as their 5-month-old offspring, were subjected to a dietary salt challenge, and glomerular number and size and sodium excretion were measured. The high-salt offspring had 20% fewer glomeruli compared with the control offspring (P < 0.001), but they also had larger glomerular radii compared with the control offspring (P < 0.001). Consequently, the cross-sectional area of glomeruli was 18% larger in the high-salt offspring than in the control offspring (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the daily urinary sodium excretion between the two offspring groups (P > 0.05), although the high-salt offspring produced urine with a higher concentration of sodium. Our results demonstrated that maternal high-salt intake during pregnancy affected foetal nephrogenesis, altering glomerular number at birth. However, the ability to concentrate and excrete salt was not compromised, which indicates that the kidney was able to adapt to the reduction in the number of glomeruli.
Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi
The role of school lunches in diet quality has not been well studied. Here, we aimed to determine the contribution of school lunches to overall nutrient intake in Japanese schoolchildren. The study was conducted nationwide under a cross-sectional design. A non-consecutive, three-day diet record was performed on two school days and a non-school day separately. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake was estimated for intakes on one of the school days and the non-school day, and for daily habitual intake estimated by the best-power method. The relationship between food intake and nutrient intake adequacy was examined. Fourteen elementary and thirteen junior high schools in Japan. Elementary-school children (n 629) and junior high-school children (n 281). Intakes between the school and non-school days were significantly different for ≥60 % of nutrients. Almost all inadequacies were more prevalent on the non-school day. Regarding habitual intake, a high prevalence of inadequacy was observed for fat (29·9-47·7 %), dietary fibre (18·1-76·1 %) and salt (97·0-100 %). Inadequate habitual intake of vitamins and minerals (except Na) was infrequent in elementary-school children, but was observed in junior high-school children, particularly boys. School lunches appear to improve total diet quality, particularly intake of most vitamins and minerals in Japanese children. However, excess intakes of fat and salt and insufficient intake of dietary fibre were major problems in this population. The contribution of school lunches to improving the intakes of these three nutrients was considered insufficient.
Binia, Aristea; Jaeger, Jonathan; Hu, Youyou; Singh, Anurag; Zimmermann, Diane
To evaluate the efficacy of daily potassium intake on decreasing blood pressure in non-medicated normotensive or hypertensive patients, and to determine the relationship between potassium intake, sodium-to-potassium ratio and reduction in blood pressure. Mixed-effect meta-analyses and meta-regression models. Medline and the references of previous meta-analyses. Randomized controlled trials with potassium supplementation, with blood pressure as the primary outcome, in non-medicated patients. Fifteen randomized controlled trials of potassium supplementation in patients without antihypertensive medication were selected for the meta-analyses (917 patients). Potassium supplementation resulted in reduction of SBP by 4.7 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-7.0] and DBP by 3.5 mmHg (95% CI 1.3-5.7) in all patients. The effect was found to be greater in hypertensive patients, with a reduction of SBP by 6.8 mmHg (95% CI 4.3-9.3) and DBP by 4.6 mmHg (95% CI 1.8-7.5). Meta-regression analysis showed that both increased daily potassium excretion and decreased sodium-to-potassium ratio were associated with blood pressure reduction (P < 0.05). Increased total daily potassium urinary excretion from 60 to 100 mmol/day and decrease of sodium-to-potassium ratio were shown to be necessary to explain the estimated effect. Potassium supplementation is associated with reduction of blood pressure in patients who are not on antihypertensive medication, and the effect is significant in hypertensive patients. The reduction in blood pressure significantly correlates with decreased daily urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio and increased urinary potassium. Patients with elevated blood pressure may benefit from increased potassium intake along with controlled or decreased sodium intake.
Martínez-Mota, Rodolfo; Righini, Nicoletta; Palme, Rupert
Animals may face periods of nutritional stress due to short-term food shortage and/or low energy consumption associated with seasonal fluctuations in resource availability. We tested the hypothesis that periods of restricted macronutrient and energy intake result in energy deficits and physiological stress in wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting seasonal tropical semi-deciduous forests. We conducted full-day follows of focal animals recording feeding rates, time spent feeding, and total amount of food ingested. We carried out nutritional analysis of foods collected from feeding trees and calculated the daily nutrient and energy intake of each focal individual. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) of focal animals were used as an indicator of physiological stress. We found that fluctuations in daily energy intake across seasons did not have significant effects on fGCM of individuals. However, protein intake was negatively associated with fGCM, highlighting the interplay among macronutrients, metabolism, and the endocrine system. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were also positively related to fruit availability, but this relationship was most likely due to social stress associated with intergroup encounters and resource defense that occurred when preferred trees were fruiting. Behavioral strategies such as dietary shifts and nutrient mixing, and metabolic adaptations such as low energy expenditure allowed individuals to fulfill their minimum energy requirements even during periods of decreased resource availability and intake. The present study suggests that seasonal variations in food, macronutrient, and energy acquisition may have limited physiological costs for animals that exploit different types of plant resources such as howler monkeys.
Kang, Shin Sook; Kang, Eun Hee; Kim, Seon Ok; Lee, Moo Song; Hong, Changgi D; Kim, Soon Bae
Sodium intake is an important issue for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The two most widely used methods to measure sodium are 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa), which can be difficult to perform routinely, and sodium intake by dietary recall, which can be inaccurate. This study evaluated use of the mean value of three spot urinary sodium (UNa) concentrations to estimate daily sodium intake in patients with CKD. This cross-sectional study enrolled 305 patients with CKD, none of whom were on dialysis, who visited the nephrology clinic at the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea). We performed three spot UNa tests, three calculations of the UNa/creatinine (UCr) ratio, one measurement of 24HUNa, and one measurement of sodium intake by dietary recall. The 24HUNa and mean spot UNa values were significantly lower in patients with more advanced CKD (P = 0.006 and P < 0.001, respectively). One-time spot UNa was significantly higher in the evening than in the morning for patients with stage III, IV, or V CKD. Total sodium intake, but not sodium nutrient density (milligrams of sodium per 1000 kcal), was significantly different for patients with different stages of CKD (P = 0.001). The correlation coefficient between 24HUNa and mean spot UNa was 0.477 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.384-0.562, P < 0.001), slightly higher than that between 24HUNa excretion and mean spot UNa/UCr (r = 0.313, 95% CI 0.207-0.465, P < 0.001). There was a linear relation between spot UNa and 24HUNa: mean spot UNa = 0.27 × 24HUNa + 60. Therefore, a 24HUNa excretion of 87 mEq (sodium intake 2 g/d) corresponded to a mean spot UNa level of 83 mEq/L. The correlation coefficient between sodium intake and mean spot UNa was 0.435 (95% CI 0.336-0.524, P < 0.001), significantly higher than that between sodium intake and mean spot UNa/UCr (r = 0.197, 95% CI 0.091-0.301, P = 0.001). Mean spot UNa tended to be better correlated with 24HUNa than with sodium intake. Mean spot UNa is a simple and
Pombo-Rodrigues, Sonia; Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A
To study the salt and sugars content of breakfast cereals sold in the UK between 1992 and 2015. Cross-sectional surveys on salt and sugars content collected from the nutrition information panel of breakfast cereals in 1992, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015. All major UK retailers operating at that moment in time (approximately ten). The salt and sugars content was collected from product packaging and the nutrition information panels. Cereals consistently surveyed across all five years (n22) showed a significant reduction in salt content of 47 % (P<0·001). Sugars content of breakfast cereals (n 15), however, did not show a significant change; 25·65 g/100 g in 1992 and 22·45 g/100 g in 2015 (P=0·170). There was a large variation in salt and sugars content between different categories and within the same type of category. The study shows the progressive reduction in salt content of breakfast cereals in the UK since 2004 as a result of the successful salt reduction programme, particularly the setting of incremental salt targets. Further reductions in salt content need to be made as cereals remain a major contributor to salt intake. Sugars content, however, has been consistently high due to the lack of a sugar reduction strategy. The research demonstrates that the sugars content of breakfast cereals in the UK is of concern, particularly in children's breakfast cereals, with a typical serving (30 g) containing a third of a 4-6-year-old's maximum daily recommendation (19 g/d) for free sugars intake in the UK. More can and should be done to reformulate, with an urgent need to set incremental sugar reduction targets.
Wang, Yanjun; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Zhengjun
High salt induced renal disease is a condition resulting from the interactions of genetic and dietary factors causing multiple complications. To understand the metabolic alterations associated with renal disease, we comprehensively analyzed the metabonomic changes induced by high salt intake in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats using GC-MS technology and biochemical analyses. Physiological features, serum chemistry, and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information. Our results showed that high salt (HS) intake for 16 weeks caused significant metabolic alterations in both the renal medulla and cortex involving a variety pathways involved in the metabolism of organic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, and purines. In addition, HS enhanced glycolysis (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) and amino acid metabolism and suppressed the TCA (citrate synthase and aconitase) cycle. Finally, HS intake caused up-regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase), the ratio of NADPH/NADP + , NADPH oxidase activity and ROS production, suggesting that increased oxidative stress was associated with an altered PPP pathway. The metabolic pathways identified may serve as potential targets for the treatment of renal damage. Our findings provide comprehensive biochemical details about the metabolic responses to a high salt diet, which may contribute to the understanding of renal disease and salt-induced hypertension in SS rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; Beckford, Kelsey; Baxter, Janet R; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A
To examine sodium and potassium urinary excretion by socioeconomic status (SES), discretionary salt use habits and dietary sources of sodium and potassium in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools located in Victoria, Australia. 666 of 780 children aged 4-12 years who participated in the Salt and Other Nutrients in Children study returned a complete 24-hour urine collection. 24-hour urine collection for the measurement of sodium and potassium excretion and 24-hour dietary recall for the assessment of food sources. Parent and child reported use of discretionary salt. SES defined by parental highest level of education. Participants were 9.3 years (95% CI 9.0 to 9.6) of age and 55% were boys. Mean urinary sodium and potassium excretion was 103 (95% CI 99 to 108) mmol/day (salt equivalent 6.1 g/day) and 47 (95% CI 45 to 49) mmol/day, respectively. Mean molar Na:K ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.5). 72% of children exceeded the age-specific upper level for sodium intake. After adjustment for age, sex and day of urine collection, children from a low socioeconomic background excreted 10.0 (95% CI 17.8 to 2.1) mmol/day more sodium than those of high socioeconomic background (p=0.04). The major sources of sodium were bread (14.8%), mixed cereal-based dishes (9.9%) and processed meat (8.5%). The major sources of potassium were dairy milk (11.5%), potatoes (7.1%) and fruit/vegetable juice (5.4%). Core foods provided 55.3% of dietary sodium and 75.5% of potassium while discretionary foods provided 44.7% and 24.5%, respectively. For most children, sodium intake exceeds dietary recommendations and there is some indication that children of lower socioeconomic background have the highest intakes. Children are consuming about two times more sodium than potassium. To improve sodium and potassium intakes in schoolchildren, product reformulation of lower salt core foods combined with strategies that seek to reduce the consumption of
Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; Beckford, Kelsey; Baxter, Janet R; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A
Objectives To examine sodium and potassium urinary excretion by socioeconomic status (SES), discretionary salt use habits and dietary sources of sodium and potassium in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary schools located in Victoria, Australia. Participants 666 of 780 children aged 4–12 years who participated in the Salt and Other Nutrients in Children study returned a complete 24-hour urine collection. Primary and secondary outcome measures 24-hour urine collection for the measurement of sodium and potassium excretion and 24-hour dietary recall for the assessment of food sources. Parent and child reported use of discretionary salt. SES defined by parental highest level of education. Results Participants were 9.3 years (95% CI 9.0 to 9.6) of age and 55% were boys. Mean urinary sodium and potassium excretion was 103 (95% CI 99 to 108) mmol/day (salt equivalent 6.1 g/day) and 47 (95% CI 45 to 49) mmol/day, respectively. Mean molar Na:K ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.5). 72% of children exceeded the age-specific upper level for sodium intake. After adjustment for age, sex and day of urine collection, children from a low socioeconomic background excreted 10.0 (95% CI 17.8 to 2.1) mmol/day more sodium than those of high socioeconomic background (p=0.04). The major sources of sodium were bread (14.8%), mixed cereal-based dishes (9.9%) and processed meat (8.5%). The major sources of potassium were dairy milk (11.5%), potatoes (7.1%) and fruit/vegetable juice (5.4%). Core foods provided 55.3% of dietary sodium and 75.5% of potassium while discretionary foods provided 44.7% and 24.5%, respectively. Conclusions For most children, sodium intake exceeds dietary recommendations and there is some indication that children of lower socioeconomic background have the highest intakes. Children are consuming about two times more sodium than potassium. To improve sodium and potassium intakes in schoolchildren, product reformulation
Akhavan, Giti; Dobaradaran, Sina; Borazjani, Jaleh Mohajeri
In the present data article, fluoride concentration levels of drinking water (with spring or groundwater sources) in 10 villages of Asara area located in Alborz province were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (DR/2000 Spectrophotometer, USA). Daily fluoride intakes were also calculated based on daily drinking water consumption. The fluoride content were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.
Pan, Wen-Harn; Lai, Ying-Ho; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Chen, Jiunn-Rong; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Chang, Ku-Chou; Lin, Huey-Juan; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Chern, Chang-Ming; Lien, Li-Ming; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Chen, Wei-Hung; Chang, Anna
Background: Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and neurologic deficits. Management measures to improve neurologic outcomes are in great need. Our previous intervention trial in elderly subjects successfully used salt as a carrier for potassium, demonstrating a 41% reduction in cardiovascular mortality by switching to potassium-enriched salt. Dietary magnesium has been associated with lowered diabetes and/or stroke risk in humans and with neuroprotection in animals. Objective: Because a large proportion of Taiwanese individuals are in marginal deficiency states for potassium and for magnesium and salt is a good carrier for minerals, it is justifiable to study whether further enriching salt with magnesium at an amount near the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) amount may provide additional benefit for stroke recovery. Design: This was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comprising 291 discharged stroke patients with modified Rankin scale (mRS) ≤4. There were 3 arms: 1 ) regular salt (Na salt) ( n = 99), 2 ) potassium-enriched salt (K salt) ( n = 97), and 3 ) potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt (K/Mg salt) ( n = 95). The NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI), and mRS were evaluated at discharge, at 3 mo, and at 6 mo. A good neurologic performance was defined by NIHSS = 0, BI = 100, and mRS ≤1. Results: After the 6-mo intervention, the proportion of patients with good neurologic performance increased in a greater magnitude in the K/Mg salt group than in the K salt group and the Na salt group, in that order. The K/Mg salt group had a significantly increased OR (2.25; 95% CI: 1.09, 4.67) of achieving good neurologic performance compared with the Na salt group. But the effect of K salt alone (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 0.77, 3.22) was not significant. Conclusions: This study suggests that providing the DRI amount of magnesium and potassium together long term is beneficial for stroke patient recovery from neurologic deficits. This trial was
Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.
Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…
Hendriksen, Marieke A. H.; van Raaij, Joop M. A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Breda, Joao; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.
Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The population health modeling tool DYNAMO-HIA including country-specific disease data was used to predict the changes in prevalence of ischemic heart disease and stroke for each country estimating the effect of salt reduction through its effect on blood pressure levels. A 30% salt reduction would reduce the prevalence of stroke by 6.4% in Finland to 13.5% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would be decreased by 4.1% in Finland to 8.9% in Poland. When salt intake is reduced to the WHO population nutrient goal, it would reduce the prevalence of stroke from 10.1% in Finland to 23.1% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would decrease by 6.6% in Finland to 15.5% in Poland. The number of postponed deaths would be 102,100 (0.9%) in France, and 191,300 (2.3%) in Poland. A reduction of salt intake to 5 grams per day is expected to substantially reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality in several European countries. PMID:25826317
Martos, Eva; Bakacs, Márta; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Ráczkevy, Tímea; Zentai, Andrea; Baldauf, Zsolt; Illés, Eva; Lugasi, Andrea
The adequate intake of minerals is basically important for healthy nutrition. The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - joining to the European Health Interview Survey - studied the dietary habits of the Hungarian population. The present publication describes the macroelement intake. The salt intake is unusually high (17.2 g in men and 12.0 g in women), the potassium intake remains well below the recommendation. These factors substantially increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases including high blood-pressure. The calcium intake stays below the recommendation except in the youngest males, the oldest men and women are at risk from this point of view. While magnesium intake suited the recommendation, the intake of phosphorus exceeded it twice. Focusing on marcroelements, high sodium/salt intake represents the highest public health risk. The implementation of STOP SALT! National Salt Reducing Programme, i.e. decrease the salt content of processed food and provide proper information to the population about excessive salt consumption, should result in a beneficial change of salt intake and ameliorate the public health conditions.
Wang, Yuan-Yuan; He, Wen-Wen; Liu, Yan-Chun; Lin, Yi-Feng; Hong, Lu-Fei
Excess dietary salt is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality. Conversely, potassium likely elicits favorable effects against cardiovascular disorders. Gastrin, which is produced by the G-cells of the stomach and duodenum, can increase renal sodium excretion and regulate blood pressure by acting on the cholecystokinin B receptor. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium supplementation on serum gastrin levels in humans. A total of 44 subjects (38–65 years old) were selected from a rural community in northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a relatively low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and then a high-salt diet supplemented with potassium for another 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl). The high-salt intake significantly increased serum gastrin levels (15.3 ± 0.3 vs. 17.6 ± 0.3 pmol/L). This phenomenon was alleviated through potassium supplementation (17.6 ± 0.3 vs. 16.5 ± 0.4 pmol/L). Further analyses revealed that serum gastrin was positively correlated with 24 h urinary sodium excretion (r = 0.476, p < 0.001). By contrast, gastrin level was negatively correlated with blood pressure in all dietary interventions (r = −0.188, p = 0.031). The present study indicated that variations in dietary salt and potassium supplementation affected the serum gastrin concentrations in the Chinese subjects. PMID:28420122
Zhang, Na; Du, Songming; Tang, Zhenchuang; Zheng, Mengqi; Yan, Ruixia; Zhu, Yitang; Ma, Guansheng
The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18-25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG), pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume ( r = 0.76; p < 0.0001) and osmolality ( r = 0.76; p < 0.0001). The percentage of the variances in daily total fluid intake ( R ²) explained by PLS (partial least squares) model with seven urinary biomarkers was 68.9%; two urine biomarkers-24-h urine volume and osmolality-were identified as possible key predictors. The daily total fluid intake for assessing optimal hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status.
Levitsky, David A; Raea Limb, Ji Eun; Wilkinson, Lua; Sewall, Anna; Zhong, Yingyi; Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean
According to most theories, the amount of food consumed on one day should be negatively related to intake on subsequent days. Several studies have observed such a negative correlation between the amount consumed on one day and the amount consumed two to four days later. The present study attempted to replicate this observation by re-examining data from a previous study where all food ingested over a 30-day observation period was measured. Nine male and seven female participants received a vegan diet prepared, dispensed, and measured in a metabolic unit. Autocorrelations were performed on total food intake consume on one day and that consumed one to five days later. A significant positive correlation was detected between the weight of food eaten on one day and on the amount consumed on the following day (r = 0.29, 95% CI [0.37, 0.20]). No correlation was found between weights of food consumed on one day and up to twelve days later (r = 0.09, 95% CI [0.24, -0.06]), (r = 0.11, 95% CI [0.26, -0.0.26]) (r = 0.02, 95% CI [0.15, -0.7]) (r = -0.08, 95% CI [0.11, -0.09]). The same positive correlation with the previous day's intake was observed at the succeeding breakfast but not at either lunch or dinner. However, the participants underestimated their daily energy need resulting in a small, but statistically significant weight loss. Daily food intake increased slightly (13 g/day), but significantly, across the 30-day period. An analysis of the previous studies revealed that the negative correlations observed by others was caused by a statistical artifact resulting from normalizing data before testing for the correlations. These results, when combined with the published literature, indicate that there is little evidence that humans precisely compensate for the previous day's intake by altering the amount consumed on subsequent days. Moreover, the small but persistent increase in food intake suggests that physiological mechanisms that affect food intake
Kmicikewycz, A D; da Silva, D N L; Linn, J G; Litherland, N B
The aims of this study were to determine if feeding frequency (FF) of milk replacer (MR; meals/d) alters starter intake, growth, and efficiency of growth in nursery calves fed a conventional or accelerated MR. We hypothesized that smaller and more frequent MR meals would increase starter intake and growth when greater amounts of MR nutrients are fed to nursery calves. Forty-eight Holstein and Holstein-cross heifer and bull calves were assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of MR and FF. Treatments included (1) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of body weight (BW; 2 meals/d; STD2), (2) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of BW (4 meals/d; STD4), (3) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (2 meals/d; MOD2), and (4) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (4 meals/d; MOD4; n=12). All calves were fed at 0600 and 1700 h and STD4 and MOD4 calves were fed 2 additional meals at 1100 and 1400 h, resulting in the same amount of MR offered for the 2 × and 4 × treatments. Treatments were fed from d 2 to 42 of age and all MR feeding rates were adjusted weekly to maintain MR solids intakes at 1.5 or 2.0% of BW for STD and MOD diets, respectively, and were reconstituted to 15% total solids. Milk replacer FF was reduced by 50% on d 36 and calves were weaned on d 42. Calves were housed in hutches bedded with straw and offered water and a texturized 18% CP starter ad libitum. Calf body weight and body structure were measured weekly and starter intake and fecal scores were measured daily. Through both 42 and 56 d, calves fed MOD had greater CP and fat intake, resulting in increased average daily gain, heart girth, circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and muscle total lipid compared with calves fed STD diets. Calves fed MOD diets consumed less starter grain than STD calves but total dry matter intake was similar among treatments. Increased FF for STD calves resulted in greater starter intake at weaning but increasing FF
Hurley, Seth W.; Johnson, Alan Kim
Sodium is a necessary dietary macromineral that tended to be sparsely distributed in mankind’s environment in the past. Evolutionary selection pressure shaped physiological mechanisms including hormonal systems and neural circuits that serve to promote sodium ingestion. Sodium deficiency triggers the activation of these hormonal systems and neural circuits to engage motivational processes that elicit a craving for salty substances and a state of reward when salty foods are consumed. Sodium deficiency also appears to be associated with aversive psychological states including anhedonia, impaired cognition, and fatigue. Under certain circumstances the psychological processes that promote salt intake can become powerful enough to cause “salt gluttony,” or salt intake far in excess of physiological need. The present review discusses three aspects of the biopsychology of salt hunger and sodium deficiency: 1) the psychological processes that promote salt intake during sodium deficiency, 2) the effects of sodium deficiency on mood and cognition, and 3) the sensitization of sodium appetite as a possible cause of salt gluttony. PMID:25572931
Sandhu, Eleanor C.; Fernando, Anushka B. P.; Tossell, Kyoko; Kokkinou, Michelle; Glegola, Justyna; Howes, Oliver D.
Abstract Salt intake is an essential dietary requirement, but excessive consumption is implicated in hypertension and associated conditions. Little is known about the neural circuit mechanisms that control motivation to consume salt, although the midbrain dopamine system, which plays a key role in other reward-related behaviors, has been implicated. We, therefore, examined the effects on salt consumption of either optogenetic excitation or chemogenetic inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in male mice. Strikingly, optogenetic excitation of dopamine neurons decreased salt intake in a rapid and reversible manner, despite a strong salt appetite. Importantly, optogenetic excitation was not aversive, did not induce hyperactivity, and did not alter salt concentration preferences in a need-free state. In addition, we found that chemogenetic inhibition of dopamine neurons had no effect on salt intake. Lastly, optogenetic excitation of dopamine neurons reduced consumption of sucrose following an overnight fast, suggesting a more general role of VTA dopamine neuron excitation in organizing motivated behaviors. PMID:29766048
The role of salt intake for blood pressure control has been discussed for a long time. A brief review is given of some pertinent physiological facts to explain this relationship and evolutionary aspects of renal function are emphasized. Salt intake is very high in the modern society, often as high as 15 g sodium chloride per 24 hours while 3-6 g may be more than enough to maintain an adequate salt balance. If the kidneys cannot cope with this severe sodium overload, blood pressure will rise. Therefore, the kidneys' ability to excrete sodium is a key factor and the salt excretion capacity is the kidneys' major barostatic function. As barostats, the kidneys control the blood pressure by ultimately determining the sodium excretion. Reducing sodium intake is, however, difficult as more than 50% of the intake is contained in the food we buy such as bread, sausages, canned food, chips and fast-food. Food products should therefore be "salt declared", but information on this aspect is generally lacking. If the population's salt intake could be reduced by 50%, the prevalence of hypertension will be much reduced, perhaps also by as much as 50%. The cost to society for treating hypertension would be reduced accordingly. Salt intake is also an important aspect of the overweight problem among today's youth. Salt and overweight impose great health risks later in life. Preventive measures in this area must be given high priority in future health care work.
Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; Miranda-Alatriste, Paola Vanessa; Tovar-Villegas, Verónica Ivette; Arcand, JoAnne; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo
Excessive dietary sodium intake increases blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. In Western diets, the majority of dietary sodium comes from packaged and prepared foods (≈75%); however, in Mexico there is no available data on the main food sources of dietary sodium. The main objective of this study was to identify and characterize the major food sources of dietary sodium in a sample of the Mexican Salt and Mexico (SALMEX) cohort. Adult male and female participants of the SALMEX study who provided a complete and valid three-day food record during the baseline visit were included. Overall, 950 participants (mean age 38.6 ± 10.7 years) were analyzed to determine the total sodium contributed by the main food sources of sodium identified. Mean daily sodium intake estimated by three-day food records and 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 2647.2 ± 976.9 mg/day and 3497.2 ± 1393.0, in the overall population, respectively. Processed meat was the main contributor to daily sodium intake, representing 8% of total sodium intake per capita as measured by three-day food records. When savory bread (8%) and sweet bakery goods (8%) were considered together as bread products, these were the major contributor to daily sodium intake, accounting for the 16% of total sodium intake, followed by processed meat (8%), natural cheeses (5%), and tacos (5%). These results highlight the need for public health policies focused on reducing the sodium content of processed food in Mexico. PMID:28749449
Wang, Zhu; Xiang, Xuesong; Li, Xiaoqin; He, Yuna; Yang, Yuexin
To assess dietary intake of customers from out-home eating, and evaluate their energy and main nutrition closely related with chronic disease consumption in one dinner. On dinner time (lunch or supper), 2204 customers randomly selected in six middle-level table-service restaurants in Beijing, were investigated their food consumption by single-blind recording their ordered dishes weight before and after eating. According to the dish recipes, cooking way, and food composition database or measured data, food consumption and energy, protein, fat and sodium intake were evaluated. The mean intake of foods for a standardized man per dinner included 76 g cereals, 162 g vegetables, 11 g fruits, 128g meat, 50g fishery products, 10g eggs, 12 g legumes, 15 g pure energy food, 28 g oil, 7 g salt, 68. 1 g juice, and 7. 3 g alcohol, with 4648 kJ energy, 54. 6 g protein, 62. 3 g fat, 88. 0 g carbohydrate, 10. 7 g cholesterol and 2920 mg sodium. The percentage for energy suppliers were respectively protein 20. 7%, fat 52. 7%, carbohydrate 29. 4%. Contrast to 4180 kJ/1000 kcal energy intake, the food density for oil and salt was 2 times, and meat 3 times over that suggested by Chinese Dietary Pagoda. Out-home eating per dinner supplies nearly daily-need fat and sodium, that partially contributes to high intake of animal foods.
Layton, D.W.; Mallon, B.J.; Rosenblatt, D.H.
The lack of human toxicological data for most chemical compounds makes it difficult to quickly assess health risks associated with exposure to contaminants at hazardous waste sites. It would therefore be advantageous to have a technique for estimating acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) of potentially toxic substances based on more widely available animal toxicity data. This article focuses on the use of LD50 data to derive provisional ADIs, and it suggests multiplying oral LD50 values (expressed in mg/kg of body wt) by a factor in the range of 5 X 10(-6) to 1 X 10(-5) day-1 to convert them to suchmore » ADIs. It is emphasized that these interim ADI values are no substitute for toxicity testing, but that such testing would most likely result in higher ADI estimates.« less
Vieira, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Kozior, Marta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Bastos, M Lourdes
A survey of the presence of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers was conducted to understand the variability between different styles of lager beer packaged in glass or cans and to estimate daily intake of total Cr and hexavalent chromium from beer. Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy using validated methodologies was applied. Selective extraction of hexavalent chromium was performed using a Chromabond NH2/500 mg column and elution with nitric acid. The detection limits were 0.26 and 0.68 μg L(-1) for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The mean content of total Cr ranged between 1.13 μg L(-1) in canned pale lager and 4.32 μg L(-1) in low-alcohol beers, whereas the mean content of Cr(VI) was <2.51 μg L(-1). Considering an intake of 500 mL of beer, beer consumption can contribute approximately 2.28-8.64 and 1.6-6.17% of the recommended daily intake of chromium for women and men, respectively.
Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that
Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I
A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L(-1)) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L(-1)). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg(-1) (range 26 -518 mg kg(-1)). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg(-1) (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.
Background A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Methods Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Results Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L-1) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L-1). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg-1 (range 26 -518 mg kg-1). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg-1 (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity. PMID:21299859
In seeking the determinants of high salt intake, studies in rat have shown that sodium depletion in utero, neonatally, or in maturity, permanently enhances salt appetite. In humans too, salt appetite is permanently enhanced after perinatal sodium loss, but it is not known if sodium loss in adults also enhances salt intake. If it does, it might contribute to high sodium intake and its associated pathologies. Therefore, using methods that revealed the perinatal determinants of sodium appetite, here we evaluated whether salt appetite is enhanced in adults with a varied history of sodium loss. We find that putative sodium loss due to hyperhidrosis, hemorrhage, dehydration, or breastfeeding, does not increase salt appetite significantly. The findings contrast with the many studies showing enduring enhancement of salt appetite by perinatal sodium loss in humans, and suggest that lifelong salt appetite is established very early in development. In turn this counsels very early intervention to prevent lifelong excess sodium intake.
Uchiyama, Kiyotaka; Yanai, Akane; Ishibashi, Yoshitaka
Dietary salt restriction is important in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to reduce hypertension, cardiovascular events, progression of CKD, and mortality. However, recommending salt reduction for patients is difficult without knowing their actual sodium intake. This study evaluated the effectiveness of spot urine-guided salt reduction in CKD outpatients. A prospective cohort study was used. This study included a total of 127 adult outpatients (aged 60 ± 18 years, 80 males) with CKD. Their baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 51.4 ± 25.1 (mL/minute/1.73 m 2 ), and 64 (50%) of them were with CKD stage 3a or 3b (both 32 [25%]). We informed the patients of their individual spot urine-estimated salt intake every time they visited the outpatient clinic. Based on the data, the nephrologist encouraged the patients to achieve their salt restriction goal. The primary outcome was the estimated salt excretion, and the secondary outcome was the urinary protein-to-Cr ratio (UPCR). Multiple regression analyses were performed to clarify the contributing factors of changes in both outcomes. Over a follow-up of 12 months, the median number of patients' visits was 7 (5-8). The estimated salt intake was significantly reduced from 7.98 ± 2.49 g/day to 6.77 ± 1.77 g/day (P < .0001). The median UPCR was also reduced from 0.20 (0.10-0.80) to 0.10 (0.10-0.48) (P < .0001). On multiple regression analysis, a reduction in UPCR was positively associated with the baseline UPCR and a reduction in systolic blood pressure significantly (P < .0001 and P < .01, respectively) as well as positively correlated with a reduction in the estimated salt intake, with borderline significance (P = .08). Providing spot urine-estimated salt intake feedback effectively motivated CKD patients to reduce their salt intake. Spot urine-guided salt reduction may slow CKD progression through decreased urinary protein excretion. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney
Goffe, Louis; Wrieden, Wendy; Penn, Linda; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Lake, Amelia A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J.
Objectives To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving. Design Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes), amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty), time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s), and individual serving. Setting Controlled, laboratory, conditions. Participants A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women) aged 18–59 years. Main Outcome Measures Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers. Results Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD) of 7.86g (4.54) per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22). The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001). This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (ps = 0.001). Conclusions Five holed salt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers’ salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake. PMID:27668747
Hanley, James A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A
It is widely believed that young children are able to adjust their energy intake across successive meals to compensate for higher or lower intakes at a given meal. This conclusion is based on past observations that although children's intake at individual meals is highly variable, total daily intakes are relatively constant. We investigated how much of this reduction in variability could be explained by the statistical phenomenon of the variability of individual components (each meal) always being relatively larger than the variability of their sum (total daily intake), independent of any physiological compensatory mechanism. We calculated, theoretically and by simulation, how variable a child's daily intake would be if there was no correlation between intakes at individual meals. We simulated groups of children with meal/snack intakes and variability in meal/snack intakes based on previously published values. Most importantly, we assumed that there was no correlation between intakes on successive meals. In both approaches, the coefficient of variation of the daily intakes was roughly 15%, considerably less than the 34% for individual meals. Thus, most of the reduction in variability found in past studies was explained without positing strong 'compensation'. Although children's daily energy intakes are indeed considerably less variable than their individual components, this phenomenon was observed even when intakes at each meal were simulated to be totally independent. We conclude that the commonly held belief that young children have a strong physiological compensatory mechanism to adjust intake at one meal based on intake at prior meals is likely to be based on flawed statistical reasoning.
Radzeviciene, Lina; Ostrauskas, Rytas
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is thought to arise from the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors that may help to reduce the risk of diabetes. Data on salt intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between adding salt to prepared meals and the risk of type 2 diabetes. In a case-control study, we included 234 cases, all of whom were patients aged 35-86 years with a newly confirmed diagnosis of T2DM, and 468 controls that were free of the disease. Cases and controls (ratio 1:2) were matched by gender and age (±5 years). A questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors for diabetes. Adding salt to prepared meals was assessed according to: Never, when there was not enough, or almost every time without tasting. The odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for type 2 diabetes was calculated using a conditional logistic regression. The cases had a higher body mass index and a significantly lower education level compared to the controls. Variables such as waist circumference, body mass index, eating speed, smoking, family history of diabetes, arterial hypertension, plasma triglycerides, educational level, occupational status, morning exercise, marital status, daily urine sodium excretion, and daily energy intake were retained in the models as confounders. After adjusting for possible confounders, an approximately two-fold increased risk of type 2 diabetes was determined in subjects who add salt to prepared meals when "it is not enough" or "almost every time without tasting" (1.82; 95% CI 1.19-2.78; p = 0.006) compared with never adding salt. Presented data suggest the possible relationship between additional adding of salt to prepared meals and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Lin, Yan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xianzhong; Liu, Ya; Geng, Xia; Zhao, Lijie; Li, Fasong; Kannan, Kurunthachalam
Despite the growing public interest in perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), very few studies have reported the sources and pathways of human exposure to these compounds in China. In this study, concentrations of 10 PFCs were measured in human blood, water (tap water and surface water), freshwater fish, and seafood samples collected from China. On the basis of the data, we calculated daily intakes of PFCs, regional differences in human exposures, and potential risks associated with ingestion of PFCs from diet, drinking water, and indoor dust for the Chinese population. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most predominant PFC found with a mean concentration of 12.5 ng/mL in human blood from Tianjin and 0.92 ng/g wet wt in freshwater fish and seafood; perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the major PFC found in drinking water at a concentration range of 0.10 to 0.92 ng/L. The estimated daily intake of PFOS and PFOA via fish and seafood consumption (EDI(fish&seafood)) ranged from 0.10 to 2.51 and 0.13 to 0.38 ng/kg bw/day, respectively, for different age groups (i.e., toddlers, adolescents and children, and adults) from selected locations (i.e., Tianjin, Nanchang, Wuhan, and Shenyang). The EDI(fish&seafood) of PFCs decreased (p < 0.05) with age. The estimated daily intake of PFOS and PFOA via drinking water consumption (EDI(drinking water)) ranged from 0.006 to 0.014 and 0.010 to 0.159 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. Comparison of EDI(fish&seafood) and EDI(drinking water) values with those of the modeled total dietary intake (TDI) of PFCs by adults from Tianjin, Nanchang, Wuhan, and Shenyang showed that contributions of fish and seafood to TDI of PFOS varied depending on the location. Fish and seafood accounted for 7%, 24%, 80%, and 84% of PFOS intake in Nanchang, Shenyang, Wuhan, and Tianjin, respectively, suggesting regional differences in human exposure to PFOS. Drinking water was a minor source of PFOS (<1%) exposure in adults from all the study locations.
Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Reimer, Raylene A
To determine the nutritional intake of Canadian high-performance athletes. Prospective survey study. Canadian sport center athletes. Three hundred twenty-four high-performance athletes (114 males and 201 females; mean age 21.3 +/- 13 years) from 8 Canadian sport centers participated in the study. Subjects prospectively completed 3-day dietary records, reporting all food, fluid, and supplement consumption. Dietary records were analyzed for total calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients for food alone and food plus supplements for all subjects collectively and according to gender and competitive event. Average daily energy intake was 2533 +/- 843 Kcal/day with males consuming more calories than females (2918 +/- 927 and 2304 +/- 713 Kcal/day, respectively; P < 0.05). Both genders consumed below recommended levels. Carbohydrate, protein, and fat accounted for 53%, 19%, and 28% of daily calorie intake, respectively. Average daily carbohydrate and protein intake was 5.1 +/- 1.8 and 1.8 +/- 0.6 g/kg body weight, respectively. Protein intake, but not carbohydrate intake, met recommendations. Supplementation significantly increased athletes' energy, total carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake. Of 17 micronutrients assessed, intake ranged between 120% and 366% of recommended daily intake with food alone and between 134% to 680% of recommended daily intake with supplements. Canadian high-performance athletes do not consume adequate energy or carbohydrates. However, their intake of micronutrients exceed current recommended daily intakes, even when supplements are not considered, indicating that athletes make high-quality food choices. Supplementation significantly increased energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake.
Shao, Shuai; Hua, Yechu; Yang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojuan; Fan, Jingruo; Zhang, An; Xiang, Jingling; Li, Mingjing; Yan, Lijing L
Objective This study aimed to reveal the latest evidence on salt reduction initiatives in China in order to identify the contextual cost-effective interventions, as well as the barriers encountered during China’s long march to reach its population salt reduction goal. Background Population-based salt reduction has been considered as one of the most cost-effective strategies in the world for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. China, along with its sustained economic growth, faces increasing burdens from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and kidney diseases. With policy support and cross-sector collaboration, various salt reduction initiatives have been adopted in China in order to reduce such dietary risk, especially since the beginning of this millennium. Methods This study conducted structured literature reviews in both English and Chinese databases and synthesized the latest evidence on the association of salt intake and health, as well as salt intake among Chinese and population-based salt reduction strategies in China and around the world. Findings Dietary salt restriction has been found to contribute to the reduction of blood pressure among both the normotensives and hypertensives bringing associated reduced disease burdens and great public health benefits. With gender, ethnic, and regional variations, salt intake levels in the population in China are well above the recommended threshold and physiological need. Admittedly, excessive salt intake precipitates the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease among the Chinese. Considering that the majority of the dietary salt is added during cooking in China, salt substitutes, salt restriction tools, and health education are the most common salt reduction initiatives with varying levels of effectiveness and acceptability among the Chinese population. Implication Overwhelming evidence is in support of a well-coordinated nationwide salt restriction initiative as a key
Muñoz, Ociel; Zamorano, Pedro; Garcia, Olga; Bastías, José Miguel
This study was designed to estimate the dietary intake of total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, cadmium, mercury, sodium, and potassium by the general adult population (aged 18-65) of Valdivia, Chile. Calculations were based on a 24-h dietary recall survey. The highest dietary intake of t-As (73.0 μg/day), i-As (20.0 μg/day), Cd (18.0 μg/day), Hg (5.8 μg/day), Na + (3112.8 mg/day), and K + (2077.5 mg/day) were for 70-kg adults. Estimating carcinogenic risk (CR > 4 × 10 -4 ) due to exposure to i-As indicated that consumers remain at low risk for cancer. The cumulative health risk was evaluated by summing the target hazard quotient of cadmium (0.26) mercury (0.27) and inorganic arsenic (0.96); this calculation allows us to express the total target hazard quotient as 1.50 where a value > 1 indicates that there is a potential health risk for the population. Total intake of Cd and Hg were therefore within the limits estimated as being safe whereas Na + and K + intake for the Valdivia population did not follow the recommended values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). The Na + intake exceeded the daily recommended intake while K + intake was lower than the daily recommended intake. This indicates a health risk for the Valdivia population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang
Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.
Carrieri, M Patrizia; Lions, Caroline; Sogni, Philippe; Winnock, Maria; Roux, Perrine; Mora, Marion; Bonnard, Philippe; Salmon, Dominique; Dabis, François; Spire, Bruno
We used longitudinal data from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to investigate whether polyphenol rich food intake through coffee and/or daily chocolate consumption could play a role in reducing liver enzymes levels. Longitudinal data collection included self-administered questionnaires and medical data (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver enzymes). Two analyses were performed to assess the association between coffee (≥3 cups a day) and daily chocolate intake and abnormal values of AST and ALT (AST or ALT >2.5 × upper normal limit (UNL)) (N=990) over time, after adjustment for known correlates. Logistic regression models based on generalized estimating equations were used to take into account the correlations between repeated measures and estimate adjusted odds ratio. After adjustment, patients reporting elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake were less likely to present abnormal ALT (OR=0.65; p=0.04 and OR=0.57; p=0.04, for coffee and chocolate respectively), while only patients reporting elevated coffee consumption were less likely to have abnormal AST values (p=0.05). Nevertheless, the combined indicator of coffee and chocolate intake was most significantly associated with approximately 40% reduced risk of abnormal liver enzymes (p=0.003 for AST; p=0.002 for ALT). Elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake appear to be associated with reduced levels of liver enzymes in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Further experimental and observational research is needed to better understand the role that polyphenol intake or supplementation can play on liver disease and liver injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna
Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods—the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target. PMID:25195640
Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna
Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods-the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.
Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean
Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775
Ying, Wei-Zhong; Aaron, Kristal; Wang, Pei-Xuan; Sanders, Paul W.
Human and animal studies demonstrate an untoward effect of excess dietary NaCl (salt) intake on cardiovascular function and life span. The endothelium in particular augments the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, a fibrogenic growth factor, in response to excess dietary salt intake. This study explored the initiating mechanism that regulates salt-induced endothelial cell production of TGF-β. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing different amounts of NaCl and potassium for 4 days. A bioassay for TGF-β demonstrated increased (35.2%) amounts of active TGF-β in the medium of aortic ring segments from rats on the high-salt diet compared with rats maintained on a 0.3% NaCl diet. Inhibition of the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel inhibited dietary salt-induced vascular production of TGF-β but did not affect production of TGF-β by ring segments from rats on the low-salt diet. Immunohistochemical and Western analyses demonstrated the α subunit of the calcium-activated potassium channel in endothelial cells. Increasing medium [K+] inhibited production of dietary salt-induced vascular production levels of total and active TGF-β but did not alter TGF-β production by aortic rings from rats on the 0.3% NaCl diet. Increasing dietary potassium content decreased urinary active TGF-β in animals receiving the high-salt diet but did not change urinary active TGF-β in animals receiving the low-salt diet. The findings demonstrated an interesting interaction between the dietary intake of potassium and excess NaCl and further showed the fundamental role of the endothelial calcium-activated potassium channel in the vascular response to excess salt intake. PMID:19738156
Beckford, Kelsey; Margerison, Claire; Skeaff, Sheila A.
Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day) has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR). This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L) and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day) as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD) age 9.3 (1.8) years (n = 359 boys). The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48) and 111 (57) μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR) UIC was 124 (83,172) μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey. PMID:28867787
Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi
Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496
van Dijken, Jan W V; Koistinen, S; Ramberg, Per
The aim of this study is to evaluate, in a randomized controlled cross-over study, the effect of daily intake of the alga Ascophyllum nodosum on supragingival calculus, plaque formation, and gingival health over a 6-month period. Sixty-one adults with moderate to heavy calculus formation since their last yearly recall visit participated. In a randomized order over two 6-month periods, they swallowed two capsules daily, comprising a total of 500 mg dried marine alga powder (Ascophyllum nodosum, ProDen PlaqueOff®) or two negative control tablets. During the study, the participants maintained their regular oral habits. Their teeth were professionally cleaned at the start of each period and after the 6-month registrations. A wash out period of 1 month separated the two 6-month periods. Supragingival calculus (Volpe Manhold), gingivitis (Löe and Silness), gingival bleeding (Ainamo and Bay), and plaque (Quigley-Hein) were registered at screening and at the end of the two periods. Differences in oral health between the test and control periods were analyzed using a paired t test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Fifty-five participants completed the study. After the alga intake, the mean calculus reduction was 52% compared to the control (p < 0.0001). Fifty-two participants showed less calculus formation in the alga group than in the control group. Plaque (p = 0.008) and gingival bleeding (p = 0.02) were also significantly less in the alga group. However, no significant difference was found between the groups for gingivitis (p = 0.13). The alga intake significantly reduced the formation of supragingival calculus and plaque and occurrence of gingival bleeding. The alga has a systemic effect on oral health. Daily intake of the alga Ascophyllum nodosum as an adjunct to customary oral hygiene showed a major reduction of supragingival calculus formation and reduced plaque formation. In addition, the calculus in the alga group was characterized by a more porous
Gennari-Moser, Carine; Escher, Geneviève; Kramer, Simea; Dick, Bernhard; Eisele, Nicole; Baumann, Marc; Raio, Luigi; Frey, Felix J; Surbek, Daniel; Mohaupt, Markus G
A successful pregnancy requires an accommodating environment. Salt and water availability are critical for plasma volume expansion. Any changes in sodium intake would alter aldosterone, a hormone previously described beneficial in pregnancy. To date, it remains ambiguous whether high aldosterone or high salt intake is preferable. We hypothesized that increased aldosterone is a rescue mechanism and appropriate salt availability is equally effective in maintaining a normotensive blood pressure (BP) phenotype in pregnancy. We compared normotensive pregnant women (n=31) throughout pregnancy with young healthy female individuals (n=31-62) and performed salt sensitivity testing within the first trimester. Suppression of urinary tetrahydro-aldosterone levels by salt intake as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and urinary sodium excretion corrected for creatinine, respectively, was shifted toward a higher salt intake in pregnancy (P<0.0001). In pregnancy, neither high urinary tetrahydro-aldosterone nor sodium excretion was correlated with higher BP. In contrast, in nonpregnant women, systolic BP rose with aldosterone (P<0.05). Testing the impact of salt on BP, we performed salt sensitivity testing in a final cohort of 19 pregnant and 24 nonpregnant women. On salt loading, 24-hour mean arterial pressure rose by 3.6±1.5 and dropped by -2.8±1.5 mm Hg favoring pregnant women (P<0.01; χ(2)=6.04; P<0.02). Our data suggest first that salt responsiveness of aldosterone is alleviated in conditions of pregnancy without causing aldosterone-induced hypertension. Second, salt seems to aid in BP lowering in pregnancy for reasons incompletely elucidated, yet involving renin suppression and potentially placental sensing mechanisms. Further research should identify susceptible individuals and clarify effector mechanisms.
Wilson, Nick; Nghiem, Nhung; Foster, Rachel H.
Objective Given the importance of high sodium diets as a risk factor for disease burden (ranked 11th in importance in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010), we aimed to determine the feasibility of low-sodium diets that were also low-cost, nutritious and (for some scenarios) included familiar meals. Methods The mathematical technique of “linear programming” was used to model eight optimized daily diets (some with uncertainty), including some diets that contained “familiar meals” for New Zealanders or were Mediterranean-, Asian- and Pacific-style diets. Data inputs included nutrients in foods, food prices and food wastage. Findings Using nutrient recommendations for men and a cost constraint of
Wilson, Nick; Nghiem, Nhung; Foster, Rachel H
Given the importance of high sodium diets as a risk factor for disease burden (ranked 11(th) in importance in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010), we aimed to determine the feasibility of low-sodium diets that were also low-cost, nutritious and (for some scenarios) included familiar meals. The mathematical technique of "linear programming" was used to model eight optimized daily diets (some with uncertainty), including some diets that contained "familiar meals" for New Zealanders or were Mediterranean-, Asian- and Pacific-style diets. Data inputs included nutrients in foods, food prices and food wastage. Using nutrient recommendations for men and a cost constraint of
Earnshaw, Stephanie R; McDade, Cheryl L; Chu, YiFang; Fleige, Lisa E; Sievenpiper, John L
Oat β-glucan reduces cholesterol levels and thus reduces the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, its economic impact has not been well studied. We examined the economic impact of daily intake of ≥3 g of oat β-glucan in primary prevention of CHD in patients receiving statins or no pharmacologic treatment. A decision model was developed to compare costs and outcomes associated with lowering cholesterol levels with no pharmacologic treatment and normal diet, no pharmacologic treatment plus ≥3 g/d of oat β-glucan, and statin therapy plus ≥3 g/d of oat β-glucan. The population comprised men 45, 55, or 65 years of age with no history of cardiovascular disease and a 10-year risk for CHD of 5%, 7.5%, or 10%. Clinical efficacy data were gathered from meta-analyses; safety data, costs, and utilities were gathered from published literature. Cost per quality-adjusted life years and number of first events were reported. Maintaining ≥3 g/d of β-glucan may be cost-effective in men aged 45, 55, and 65 years with 10-year CHD risks of 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10.0% taking no pharmacologic treatment or on statins. It may also reduce first events of myocardial infarction and CHD death. Results are sensitive to oat β-glucan cost but insensitive to changes in other parameters. Maintaining ≥3 g of oat β-glucan daily remains cost-effective within plausible range of values. β-glucan may be cost-effective for preventing CHD events in middle-aged men with no history of cardiovascular events whose 10-year CHD risk is ≥5%. Maintaining daily β-glucan intake may have considerable impact on first events. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jarvandi, Soghra; Schootman, Mario; Racette, Susan B.
Objective To assess the association between breakfast energy and total daily energy intake among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design Cross-sectional study. Daily energy intake was computed from a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association between daily energy intake (dependent variable) and quartiles of energy intake at breakfast (independent variable) expressed as either absolute or relative (% of total daily energy intake) terms. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to test for linear and quadratic trends. Models were controlled for sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, physical activity and smoking. In addition, we used separate multiple regression models to test the effect of quartiles of absolute and relative breakfast energy on intake at lunch, dinner, and snacks. Setting The 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Subjects Participants aged ≥ 30 years with self-reported history of diabetes (N = 1,146). Results Daily energy intake increased as absolute breakfast energy intake increased (linear trend, P < 0.0001; quadratic trend, P = 0.02), but decreased as relative breakfast energy intake increased (linear trend, P < 0.0001). In addition, while higher quartiles of absolute breakfast intake had no associations with energy intake at subsequent meals, higher quartiles of relative breakfast intake were associated with lower energy intake during all subsequent meals and snacks (P < 0.05). Conclusions Consuming a breakfast that provided less energy or comprised a greater proportion of daily energy intake was associated with lower total daily energy intake in adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25529061
Janssen, Anke M; Kremer, Stefanie; van Stipriaan, Willeke L; Noort, Martijn W J; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Temme, Elisabeth H M
Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of consuming reduced-sodium lunches on 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. A single-blind randomized controlled pretest-posttest design with two parallel treatment groups was used. Participants chose foods in an experimental real-life canteen setting at the Restaurant of the Future in Wageningen, the Netherlands, from May 16 until July 1, 2011. After a run-in period with regular foods for both groups, the intervention group (n=36) consumed foods with 29% to 61% sodium reduction (some were partially flavor compensated). The control group (n=38) continued consuming regular foods. Outcomes for assessment of acceptance were the amount of foods consumed, energy and sodium intake, remembered food liking, and intensity of sensory aspects. Influence on daily dietary sodium intake was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Between and within-subject comparisons were assessed by analysis of covariance. Energy intake and amount consumed of each food category per lunch remained similar for both groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group's sodium intake per lunch was significantly reduced by -1,093 mg (adjusted difference) (95% CI -1,285 to -901), equivalent to 43 mmol sodium. Remembered food liking, taste intensity, and saltiness were scored similarly for almost all of the reduced-sodium foods compared with the regular foods. After consuming reduced-sodium lunches, compared with the control group, intervention participants' 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was significantly lower by -40 mEq (adjusted difference) (95% CI -63 to -16) than after consuming regular lunches, and this reflects a decreased daily sodium intake of 1 g. Comparing the two treatment groups, consumption of reduced
Taormina, Peter J
Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of sodium chloride against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in a variety of food systems. Notable examples of the utility and necessity of sodium chloride include the inhibition of growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in processed meats and cheeses. Other sodium salts contributing to the overall sodium consumption are also very important in the prevention of spoilage and/or growth of microorganisms in foods. For example, sodium lactate and sodium diacetate are widely used in conjunction with sodium chloride to prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in ready-to-eat meats. These and other examples underscore the necessity of sodium salts, particularly sodium chloride, for the production of safe, wholesome foods. Key literature on the antimicrobial properties of sodium chloride in foods is reviewed here to address the impact of salt and sodium reduction or replacement on microbiological food safety and quality.
Schmidt, Rebecca J.; Beierwaltes, William H.; Baylis, Chris
Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) deficiency is linked to salt-sensitive hypertension and that NO activity decreases during normal aging. This study investigates the impact of increasing age and manipulations in dietary salt intake on biochemical indices of the NO system in healthy humans. We measured NO2 + NO3 (NOX; stable oxidation products of NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP; major second messenger) in plasma and urine of 30 healthy subjects aged 22 to 77 years. Subjects were maintained on controlled low NOX and low-, normal-, or high-salt diets for 3 days. Salt sensitivity of blood pressure was seen only in the oldest subjects. Plasma renin activity was suppressed by a high salt intake in all age groups, and baseline values declined with advancing age. Neither age nor salt intake correlated with indices of NO activity over the third 24-hour period of controlled salt intake. In a subgroup of subjects aged 33 ± 4 years challenged with ultrahigh sodium intake (400 mEq/24 h), again there was no increase in NO2 + NO3 or cGMP measures. In contrast to animal studies, there is no correlation in humans between either salt intake or age and total NO production and activity, indicated by NO2 + NO3 and cGMP measures. This does not preclude undetected alterations occurring in NO production and/or activity in strategic locations in the kidney and cardiovascular system. Limitations of blood and urine measurements of NO2 + NO3 and cGMP as indices of NO activity are discussed. PMID:11325670
Akers, Jeremy D.; Cornett, Rachel A.; Savla, Jyoti S.; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.
Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals, thus practical and effective weight loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group (WEV versus WEV+) 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted (June 2007–February 2010) to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of weight loss maintenance intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced (mean weight lost = 6.7 ± 0.6 kg; BMI 29.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2) individuals aged 63 ± 1 yrs, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight (Weight), step count (Exercise), and fruit/vegetable intake (Vegetable). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 floz of water before each main meal (i.e., three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. Over 12 months, there was a linear decline in weight (β = −0.32, P < 0.001) and a quadratic trend (β = 0.02, P < 0.01) over time, but no group difference (β = −0.23, P = 0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in WEV+ than WEV, corresponding to weight changes of −0.67 kg and 1.00 kg respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β = −0.01, P < 0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76 ± 5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and fruit/vegetable consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772
Wilck, Nicola; Matus, Mariana G; Kearney, Sean M; Olesen, Scott W; Forslund, Kristoffer; Bartolomaeus, Hendrik; Haase, Stefanie; Mähler, Anja; Balogh, András; Markó, Lajos; Vvedenskaya, Olga; Kleiner, Friedrich H; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Klug, Lars; Costea, Paul I; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Maier, Lisa; Rakova, Natalia; Schatz, Valentin; Neubert, Patrick; Frätzer, Christian; Krannich, Alexander; Gollasch, Maik; Grohme, Diana A; Côrte-Real, Beatriz F; Gerlach, Roman G; Basic, Marijana; Typas, Athanasios; Wu, Chuan; Titze, Jens M; Jantsch, Jonathan; Boschmann, Michael; Dechend, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Kempa, Stefan; Bork, Peer; Linker, Ralf A; Alm, Eric J; Müller, Dominik N
A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (T H 17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of T H 17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating T H 17 cells. In line with these findings, a moderate high-salt challenge in a pilot study in humans reduced intestinal survival of Lactobacillus spp., increased T H 17 cells and increased blood pressure. Our results connect high salt intake to the gut-immune axis and highlight the gut microbiome as a potential therapeutic target to counteract salt-sensitive conditions.
Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Teh, Ai-Ling; Henry, C Jeya K
Low glycemic index (GI) foods have been suggested to minimize large fluctuations in blood glucose levels and reduce food intake. However, the majority of studies have been conducted on Caucasian populations with limited data on Asians. The objective of this study was to investigate how the provision of a low GI breakfast and afternoon snack affected daily blood glucose profiles and food intake. In a randomized, controlled crossover non blind design, 11 healthy Chinese male adults (body mass index 22.4 ± 1.3 kg m -2 ) attended two sessions where they consumed either a high or low GI breakfast and afternoon snack, and a standardized buffet lunch. Daily changes in glycemic response (GR) were measured using the Medtronic MiniMed (Northridge, CA) iPro™2 continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). The GR was further calculated to obtain the incremental area under the curve (IAUC). Glycemic variability was calculated as mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and energy intake (kcal) was measured quantitatively at the buffet lunch. Compared to the high GI intervention, the low GI intervention significantly reduced the GR following breakfast ( p = 0.02), lunch ( p = 0.02) and dinner ( p = 0.05). The low GI treatment showed a reduction in daily AUC ( p = 0.03). There was a significant reduction in IAUC after a low GI breakfast compared to the high GI breakfast ( p = 0.03). The low GI breakfast resulted in a significantly lower food intake at lunch and a resulting decreased energy intake of 285 kcal ( p = 0.02). The MAGE was significantly lower during the entire low GI treatment ( p = 0.03). Consumption of a low GI breakfast and afternoon snack was capable of attenuating 24-h blood glucose profiles, minimize glycemic excursions and reduce food intake in healthy Asian males. This simple dietary intervention may be an acceptable approach in improving overall glycemia and energy balance in Asians. NCT02340507.
Claro, Rafael Moreira; Linders, Hubert; Ricardo, Camila Zancheta; Legetic, Branka; Campbell, Norm R C
To describe individual attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding salt intake, its dietary sources, and current food-labeling practices related to salt and sodium in five sentinel countries of the Americas. A convenience sample of 1 992 adults (≥ 18 years old) from Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador (approximately 400 from each country) was obtained between September 2010 and February 2011. Data collection was conducted in shopping malls or major commercial areas using a questionnaire containing 33 questions. Descriptive estimates are presented for the total sample and stratified by country and sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. Almost 90% of participants associated excess intake of salt with the occurrence of adverse health conditions, more than 60% indicated they were trying to reduce their current intake of salt, and more than 30% believed reducing dietary salt to be of high importance. Only 26% of participants claimed to know the existence of a recommended maximum value of salt or sodium intake and 47% of them stated they knew the content of salt in food items. More than 80% of participants said that they would like food labeling to indicate high, medium, and low levels of salt or sodium and would like to see a clear warning label on packages of foods high in salt. Additional effort is required to increase consumers' knowledge about the existence of a maximum limit for intake and to improve their capacity to accurately monitor and reduce their personal salt consumption.
Radonić, Jelena R; Kocić Tanackov, Sunčica D; Mihajlović, Ivana J; Grujić, Zorica S; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana B; Škrinjar, Marija M; Turk Sekulić, Maja M
The objectives of the study were to determine the aflatoxin M1 content in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia, and to assess the risk of infants' exposure to aflatoxins food contamination. The growth of Aspergillus flavus and production of aflatoxin B1 in corn samples resulted in higher concentrations of AFM1 in milk and dairy products in 2013, indicating higher concentrations of AFM1 in human milk samples in 2013 and 2014 in Serbia. A total number of 60 samples of human milk (colostrum and breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery) were analyzed for the presence of AFM1 using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. The estimated daily intake of AFM1 through breastfeeding was calculated for the colostrum samples using an average intake of 60 mL/kg body weight (b.w.)/day on the third day of lactation. All breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery and 36.4% of colostrum samples were contaminated with AFM1. The greatest percentage of contaminated colostrum (85%) and all samples of breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery had AFM1 concentration above maximum allowable concentration according to the Regulation on health safety of dietetic products. The mean daily intake of AFM1 in colostrum was 2.65 ng/kg bw/day. Results of our study indicate the high risk of infants' exposure, who are at the early stage of development and vulnerable to toxic contaminants.
Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce
Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants' physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87-9.69) g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake-less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p < 0.003). Mean salt intake was comparable in more-educated (9.21, 8.55-9.87 g/day) versus less-educated (9.34, 8.57-10.12 g/day) individuals ( p = 0.82). There was no substantively different pattern of knowledge and behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt.
Schellenberg, François; Schwan, Raymund; Mennetrey, Louise; Loiseaux, Marie-Nadia; Pagès, Jean Christophe; Reynaud, Michel
To evaluate the ability to infer alcohol consumption using the %CDT (carbohydrate deficient transferrin) immunoassay (Axis Shield). One hundred and eighty-three healthy subjects (143 men, 40 women) undergoing a routine medical check-up at their workplace declared frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption covering the last 4 weeks. Seven sub-groups were made up from this population, according to daily ethanol intake and by increments of 10 g from 0 to 70 g/day. A reference group that consisted of 133 healthy teetotallers (74 men, 59 women) was recruited by occupational medicine in the same conditions as the 183 subjects of the study. Percentage CDT and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were assayed on a fasting blood sample. There was a proportional dose-response effect of daily ethanol intake on %CDT values in the range of 0-70 g per day. A threshold effect on %CDT values for patients having an alcohol intake of over 40 g per day was found, an effect which was not observed for GGT activity. The kit has clinical usefulness, and the value of 2.6% proposed by the manufacturer for the cut-off for hazardous drinking in both sexes has been validated.
Bouhlal, Sofia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Chabanet, Claire; Nicklaus, Sophie
Children's vegetable intake is below the recommended amounts. No studies to date have tested the relevance of using salt or spices to increase children's vegetable acceptance. Our objective was to compare the effect of repeated exposure (RE) and of flavor-flavor learning (FFL) on toddlers' acceptance of a non-familiar vegetable. Two unconditioned stimuli were used: salt and a salt-associated spice. Toddlers attending six nurseries were assigned to 3 groups in a between subject design. Groups were exposed 8 times to a basic salsify puree (0.2% salt w/w; RE group; n = 47), a salty salsify puree (0.5% salt w/w; FFL-Salt group; n = 54) or a spiced salsify puree (0.2% salt and 0.02% nutmeg w/w; FFL-Nutmeg group; n = 50). Acceptance (intake and liking) of the target vegetable (basic salsify puree) and of a control vegetable (carrot puree) was evaluated at pre-exposure, at each exposure of the learning period, at post-exposure, and at 1, 3 and 6 months after exposure. In all groups, intake of the target vegetable increased from pre- to post-exposure. This increase was significantly higher in the RE group (64 ± 11 g) than in the FFL-Salt group (23 ± 11 g) and marginally higher than in the FFL-Nutmeg group (36 ± 11 g). No difference between groups was observed on the increase in liking of the target vegetable from pre- to post-exposure. The increase of the target vegetable intake was still observed after 6 months for all groups. Thus, repeated exposure appears to be the simplest choice to increase vegetable intake on the short and long term in toddlers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yılmaz, Zehra Vural; Akkaş, Elif; Türkmen, Gülenay Gençosmanoğlu; Kara, Özgür; Yücel, Aykan; Uygur, Dilek
In this study, we hypothesized that dietary salt and potassium intake may be related with blood pressure, kidney damage and perinatal outcome in pregnants with preeclampsia (PE). In total, 200 women (50 control women with healthy pregnancy, 150 women with PE) were recruited for the study. Daily salt and potassium intake was estimated based on calculation of 24-hour urinary sodium U[Na+] and potassium U[K+] excretion. U[Na+]/[K+] was calculated by dividing U[Na+] by U[K+]. At the end of the measurements, the pregnant women with PE (n=150) were divided into tertiles according to U[Na+]/[K+]: low Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 1,04±0,32), medium Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 2,49± 0,54), high Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 6,62±3,41). The mean SBP and DBP levels were significantly lower in low Na/K group compared with medium or high Na/K groups (p=0.024, p=0.0002; respectively). Serum creatinine was significantly lower in low Na/K group than high Na/K group (p=0.025). Frequency of severe preeclampsia is lower in low Na/K group than medium or high Na/K groups (p=0.002, p=0.0001; respectively). Birth weight and gestational age at birth were higher in low Na/K group compared with high Na/K group (p=0.045, p=0.0002; respectively). After adjusting for covariates, SBP and DBP and creatinine levels were independently associated with 24 hours urinary [Na+]/[K+] Conclusion: These findings suggest that pregnant with PE with high dietary salt and low potassium intake may have greater maternal and neonatal morbidity risk than pregnant with PE under low dietary salt and high potassium intake.
Lipchock, Sarah V.; Spielman, Andrew I.; Mennella, Julie A.; Mansfield, Corrine J.; Hwang, Liang-Dar; Douglas, Jennifer E.; Reed, Danielle R.
We investigated whether the abundance of bitter receptor mRNA expression from human taste papillae is related to an individual’s perceptual ratings of bitter intensity and habitual intake of bitter drinks. Ratings of the bitterness of caffeine and quinine and three other bitter stimuli (urea, propylthiouracil, and denatonium benzoate) were compared with relative taste papilla mRNA abundance of bitter receptors that respond to the corresponding bitter stimuli in cell-based assays (TAS2R4, TAS2R10, TAS2R38, TAS2R43, and TAS2R46). We calculated caffeine and quinine intake from a food frequency questionnaire. The bitterness of caffeine was related to the abundance of the combined mRNA expression of these known receptors, r = 0.47, p = .05, and self-reported daily caffeine intake, t(18) = 2.78, p = .012. The results of linear modeling indicated that 47% of the variance among subjects in the rating of caffeine bitterness was accounted for by these two factors (habitual caffeine intake and taste receptor mRNA abundance). We observed no such relationships for quinine but consumption of its primary dietary form (tonic water) was uncommon. Overall, diet and TAS2R gene expression in taste papillae are related to individual differences in caffeine perception. PMID:28118781
Background Cigarette smoking has been shown to be one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about cumulative effects of daily tar and nicotine intake on the risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI) so far. To bridge this gap, we conducted an analysis in a large prospective study from Southern Germany investigating associations of daily tar and nicotine intake with an incident MI event. Methods The study was based on 4,099 men and 4,197 women participating in two population-based MONICA Augsburg surveys between 1984 and 1990 and followed up within the KORA framework until 2002. During a mean follow-up of 13.3 years, a number of 307 men and 80 women developed an incident MI event. Relative risks were calculated as hazard ratios (HRs) estimated by Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Results In the present study, male regular smokers consumed on average more cigarettes per day than female regular smokers (20 versus 15) and had a higher tar and nicotine intake per day. In men, the MI risk compared to never-smokers increased with higher tar intake: HRs were 2.24 (95% CI 1.40-3.56) for 1-129 mg/day, 2.12 (95% CI 1.37-3.29) for 130-259 mg/day and 3.01 (95% CI 2.08-4.36) for ≥ 260 mg/day. In women, the corresponding associations were comparable but more pronounced for high tar intake (HR 4.67, 95% CI 1.76-12.40). Similar associations were observed for nicotine intake. Conclusions The present study based on a large population-based sample adds important evidence of cumulative effects of tar and nicotine intake on the risk of incident MI. Even low or medium tar and nicotine intake revealed substantial risk increases as compared to never-smokers. Therefore, reduction of tar and nicotine contents in cigarettes cannot be seen as a suitable public health policy in preventing myocardial infarction. PMID:21542909
Edwards, James A.
Zeaxanthin is a nutritional carotenoid with a considerable amount of safety data based on regulatory studies, which form the basis of its safety evaluation. Subchronic OECD guideline studies with mice and rats receiving beadlet formulations of high purity synthetic zeaxanthin in the diet at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, and in dogs at over 400 mg/kg bw/day, produced no adverse effects or histopathological changes. In developmental toxicity studies, there was no evidence of fetal toxicity or teratogenicity in rats or rabbits at dosages up to 1000 or 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Formulated zeaxanthin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a series of in vitro and in vivo tests for genotoxicity. A 52-week chronic oral study in Cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 0.2 and 20 mg/kg bw/day, mainly designed to assess accumulation and effects in primate eyes, showed no adverse effects. In a rat two-generation study, the NOAEL was 150 mg/kg bw/day. In 2012, this dosage was used by EFSA (NDA Panel), in association with a 200-fold safety factor, to propose an Acceptable Daily Intake equivalent to 53 mg/day for a 70 kg adult. The requested use level of 2 mg/day was ratified by the EU Commission. PMID:26885380
Bankir, Lise; Perucca, Julie; Norsk, Peter; Bouby, Nadine; Damgaard, Morten
Generally, eating salty food items increases thirst. Thirst is also stimulated by the experimental infusion of hypertonic saline. But, in steady state, does the kidney need a higher amount of water to excrete sodium on a high than on a low sodium intake? This issue is still controversial. The purpose of this review is to provide examples of how the kidney handles water in relation to salt intake/output. It is based on re-analysis of previously published studies in which salt intake was adjusted to several different levels in the same subjects, and in databases of epidemiologic studies in populations on an ad libitum diet. Summary and Key Messages: These re-analyses allow us to draw the following conclusions: (1) In a steady state situation, the urine volume (and thus the fluid intake) remains unchanged over a large range of sodium intakes. The adaptation to a higher sodium excretion rests only on changes in urinary sodium concentration. However, above a certain limit, this concentration cannot increase further and the urine volume may then increase. (2) In population studies, it is not legitimate to assume that sodium is responsible for changes in urine volume, since people who eat more sodium also eat more of other nutrients leading to an increase in the excretion of potassium, urea and other solutes, besides sodium. (3) After an abrupt increase in sodium intake, fluid intake is increased in the first few days, but urine volume does not change. The extra fluid drunk is responsible for an increase in body weight. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A
Objective To investigate the salt (sodium chloride) content in cheese sold in UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2012, including 612 cheeses available in UK supermarkets. Methods The salt content (g/100 g) was collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of cheeses available in the top seven retailers. Results Salt content in cheese was high with a mean (±SD) of 1.7±0.58 g/100 g. There was a large variation in salt content between different types of cheeses and within the same type of cheese. On average, halloumi (2.71±0.34 g/100 g) and imported blue cheese (2.71±0.83 g/100 g) contained the highest amounts of salt and cottage cheese (0.55±0.14 g/100 g) contained the lowest amount of salt. Overall, among the 394 cheeses that had salt reduction targets, 84.5% have already met their respective Department of Health 2012 salt targets. Cheddar and cheddar-style cheese is the most popular/biggest selling cheese in the UK and has the highest number of products in the analysis (N=250). On average, salt level was higher in branded compared with supermarket own brand cheddar and cheddar-style products (1.78±0.13 vs 1.72±0.14 g/100 g, p<0.01). Ninety per cent of supermarket own brand products met the 2012 target for cheddar and cheddar-style cheese compared with 73% of branded products (p=0.001). Conclusions Salt content in cheese in the UK is high. There is a wide variation in the salt content of different types of cheeses and even within the same type of cheese. Despite this, 84.5% of cheeses have already met their respective 2012 targets. These findings demonstrate that much larger reductions in the amount of salt added to cheese could be made and more challenging targets need to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction. PMID:25099933
Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A
To investigate the salt (sodium chloride) content in cheese sold in UK supermarkets. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2012, including 612 cheeses available in UK supermarkets. The salt content (g/100 g) was collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of cheeses available in the top seven retailers. Salt content in cheese was high with a mean (±SD) of 1.7±0.58 g/100 g. There was a large variation in salt content between different types of cheeses and within the same type of cheese. On average, halloumi (2.71±0.34 g/100 g) and imported blue cheese (2.71±0.83 g/100 g) contained the highest amounts of salt and cottage cheese (0.55±0.14 g/100 g) contained the lowest amount of salt. Overall, among the 394 cheeses that had salt reduction targets, 84.5% have already met their respective Department of Health 2012 salt targets. Cheddar and cheddar-style cheese is the most popular/biggest selling cheese in the UK and has the highest number of products in the analysis (N=250). On average, salt level was higher in branded compared with supermarket own brand cheddar and cheddar-style products (1.78±0.13 vs 1.72±0.14 g/100 g, p<0.01). Ninety per cent of supermarket own brand products met the 2012 target for cheddar and cheddar-style cheese compared with 73% of branded products (p=0.001). Salt content in cheese in the UK is high. There is a wide variation in the salt content of different types of cheeses and even within the same type of cheese. Despite this, 84.5% of cheeses have already met their respective 2012 targets. These findings demonstrate that much larger reductions in the amount of salt added to cheese could be made and more challenging targets need to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Ferri, C; Bellini, C; Carlomagno, A; Desideri, G; Santucci, A
To evaluate the behavior of active kallikrein excretion in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertensive patients during changes in sodium-chloride (NaCl) intake, 61 male, nonobese, nondiabetic outpatients affected by uncomplicated essential hypertension were given a diet that contained 140 mmol NaCl per day for 2 wk. Patients then received either a low- (20 mmol NaCl/day) or a high- (320 mmol NaCl/day) sodium diet for 2 wk, according to a randomized, double-blind, cross-over protocol. Hypertensive patients were classified as salt sensitive when their diastolic blood pressure rose by at least 10 mm Hg after the high-sodium diet, and decreased by at least 10 mm Hg after the low-sodium diet, considering as baseline blood pressure values those that were taken at the end of the 140 mmol NaCl/day intake period. The remaining patients were classified as salt resistant or, when diastolic blood pressure increased by 10 mm Hg or more after low-sodium intake, as counter-regulating. Twenty-three patients were therefore classified as salt sensitive, 28 as salt resistant, and 10 as counter-regulating. The baseline active kallikrein excretion was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in salt-sensitive (0.62 +/- 0.31 U/24 h) patients than in salt-resistant (1.39 +/- 0.44 U/24 h) and counter-regulating patients (1.27 +/- 0.38 U/24 h). Surprisingly, the kallikrein response to changes in sodium intake was similar in all subgroups, although enzyme excretion was always at the lowest level in salt-sensitive hypertensive patients. This latter group also showed the highest plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels (28.2 +/- 8.5 fmol/mL, P < 0.0001 versus salt-resistant and counter-regulating patients), and the greatest peptide increment with sodium load (P < 0.0001 versus salt-resistant and counter-regulating patients). Counter-regulating patients showed the steepest increase in plasma renin activity (from 0.24 +/- 0.18 to 0.83 +/- 0.21 ng/L per s, P < 0.001) and decrease of plasma atrial
Watanabe, Syunsuke; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Baba, Hayato; Morimoto, Yuki; Tsuneyama, Koichi
Metabolic syndrome is one of the most important health issues worldwide. Obesity causes insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and various diseases throughout the body. The liver phenotype, which is called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), frequently progresses to hepatocellular carcinoma. We recently established a new animal model, Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, which spontaneously exhibit obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and NASH with liver nodules. We examined the effects of coffee intake on various conditions of the metabolic syndrome using TSOD mice. The daily volume of coffee administered was limited so that it reflected the appropriate quantities consumed in humans. To clarify the effects of the specific components, animals were divided into two coffee-intake groups that included with and without caffeine. Coffee intake did not significantly affect obesity and hyperlipidemia in TSOD mice. In contrast, coffee intake caused various degrees of improvement in the pancreatic beta cell damage and steatohepatitis with liver carcinogenesis. Most of the effects were believed to be caused by a synergistic effect of caffeine with other components such as polyphenols. However, the antifibrotic effects of coffee appeared to be due to the polyphenols rather than the caffeine. A daily habit of drinking coffee could possibly play a role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome.
Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J
The overconsumption of energy-dense foods leads to excessive energy intakes. The substitution of low-energy-dense vegetables for foods higher in energy density can help decrease energy intakes but may be difficult to implement if individuals dislike the taste of vegetables. We investigated whether incorporating puréed vegetables to decrease the energy density of entrées at multiple meals reduced daily energy intakes and increased daily vegetable intakes. In this crossover study, 20 men and 21 women ate ad libitum breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 3 wk. Across conditions, entrées at meals varied in energy density from standard versions (100% condition) to reduced versions (85% and 75% conditions) by the covert incorporation of 3 or 4.5 times the amount of puréed vegetables. Entrées were accompanied by unmanipulated side dishes. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals. Subjects consumed a consistent weight of foods across conditions of energy density; thus, the daily energy intake significantly decreased by 202 ± 60 kcal in the 85% condition (P < 0.001) and by 357 ± 47 kcal in the 75% condition (P < 0.0001). Daily vegetable consumption significantly increased from 270 ± 17 g of vegetables in the 100% condition to 487 ± 25 g of vegetables in the 75% condition (P < 0.0001). Despite the decreased energy intake, ratings of hunger and fullness did not significantly differ across conditions. Entrées were rated as similar in palatability across conditions. Large amounts of puréed vegetables can be incorporated into various foods to decrease the energy density. This strategy can lead to substantial reductions in energy intakes and increases in vegetable intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01165086.
Prager-Khoutorsky, Masha; Choe, Katrina Y; Levi, David I; Bourque, Charles W
Dietary salt intake increases both plasma sodium and osmolality and therefore increases vasopressin (VP) release from the neurohypophysis. Although this effect could increase blood pressure by inducing fluid reabsorption and vasoconstriction, acute activation of arterial baroreceptors inhibits VP neurons via GABA A receptors to oppose high blood pressure. Here we review recent findings demonstrating that this protective mechanism fails during chronic high salt intake in rats. Two recent studies showed that chronic high sodium intake causes an increase in intracellular chloride concentration in VP neurons. This effect causes GABA A receptors to become excitatory and leads to the emergence of VP-dependent hypertension. One study showed that the increase in intracellular chloride was provoked by a decrease in the expression of the chloride exporter KCC2 mediated by local secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and activation of TrkB receptors. Prolonged high dietary salt intake can cause pathological plasticity in a central homeostatic circuit that controls VP secretion and thereby contribute to peripheral vasoconstriction and hypertension.
Alhadrami, G A; Al-Shorepy, S A; Yousef, A M
Twenty-eight indigenous ewe lambs (6 months of age and 14.4 kg body weight (BW)) were used to evaluate the effect of feeding Sporobolus grass hay (SGH) as the only source of forage on growth, and feed and water intakes. The ewe lambs were randomly and equally allocated to two treatment groups (14 lambs/group). The ewe lambs in group 1 (treatment 1) received SGH, while lambs in group 2 (treatment 2) received Rhodes grass hay (RGH) as the only source of forage. Water was available at all times for both treatment groups. Sporobolus grass was irrigated with brackish water of high salt content (20,000 ppm) and grown in saline desert lands (sabkha) in the United Arab Emirates. The average daily dry matter intake was significantly (P < .05) higher for the animals fed SGH than those fed RGH at all stages. Both water intakes per unit body gain and water intake per unit feed intake were significant (P < .05) between the two treatments group at all stages. Average daily gain did not differ significantly (P > .05) between the two groups at all stages. From these data, we conclude that SGH can replace Rhodes hay in sheep diet without significant effect on sheep performance.
Choi, Hoon Young; Park, Hyeong Cheon
Hypertension is a complex trait determined by both genetic and environmental factors and is a major public health problem due to its high prevalence and concomitant increase in the risk for cardiovascular disease. With the recent large increase of dietary salt intake in most developed countries, the prevalence of hypertension increases tremendously which is about 30% of the world population. There is substantial evidence that suggests some people can effectively excrete high dietary salt intake without an increase in arterial BP, and another people cannot excrete effectively without an increase in arterial BP. Salt sensitivity of BP refers to the BP responses for changes in dietary salt intake to produce meaningful BP increases or decreases. The underlying mechanisms that promote salt sensitivity are complex and range from genetic to environmental influences. The phenotype of salt sensitivity is therefore heterogeneous with multiple mechanisms that potentially link high salt intake to increases in blood pressure. Moreover, excess salt intake has functional and pathological effects on the vasculature that are independent of blood pressure. Epidemiologic data demonstrate the role of high dietary salt intake in mediating cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. Almost five decades ago, Guyton and Coleman proposed that whenever arterial pressure is elevated, pressure natriuresis enhances the excretion of sodium and water until blood volume is reduced sufficiently to return arterial pressure to control values. According to this hypothesis, hypertension can develop only when something impairs the excretory ability of sodium in the kidney. However, recent studies suggest that nonosmotic salt accumulation in the skin interstitium and the endothelial dysfunction which might be caused by the deterioration of vascular endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) and the epithelial sodium channel on the endothelial luminal surface (EnNaC) also play an important role in
Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M
Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (β=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (β=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%±5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. Copyright © 2012
Pérez-Ramírez, E; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R
In pasture-based dairy systems, daily time at pasture is restricted during several periods of the year. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of restricting time at pasture on milk yield, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, and grazing behavior of dairy cows according to pasture allowance (PA), which partly defines pasture availability. The experiment was carried out in spring on strip-grazed perennial ryegrass pastures. The 6 treatments consisted of 3 durations of daily time at pasture [U: unrestricted day and night grazing (22 h at pasture); R9: 1 grazing session restricted to 9 h between the 2 milkings; R5: 2 grazing sessions of 2.75 h after each milking) compared at low and high PA (13 and 24 kg of DM/d per cow >5 cm, respectively). Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were used according to a 6 x 4 incomplete Latin square design replicated 3 times with four 14-d periods. Pasture DM intake was measured by the ytterbium-fecal index method and grazing behavior from portable devices. On average, restricting time at pasture from U to R (mean of R5 + R9) decreased pasture intake by 2.9 kg of DM, milk yield by 1.3 kg, and milk protein concentration by 0.11%, and increased milk fat concentration by 0.20%. Pasture intake and milk yield did not differ significantly between R9 and R5. The reduction of pasture intake and milk yield with decreasing time at pasture was greater at high compared with low PA. Grazing times were 536, 414, and 305 min, representing proportions of time spent grazing of 0.40, 0.77, and 0.93 for treatments U, R9, and R5, respectively. The reduction of grazing time with decreasing time at pasture was greater at high compared with low PA. Pasture intake rate greatly increased with decreasing time at pasture, but mainly on R5 (29.8, 31.6, and 42.1 g of DM/min for U, R9, and R5, respectively). The effect of time at pasture on pasture intake rate was unaffected by PA. In conclusion, the effect of restriction of time at pasture on
Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S
Background: The overconsumption of energy-dense foods leads to excessive energy intakes. The substitution of low-energy-dense vegetables for foods higher in energy density can help decrease energy intakes but may be difficult to implement if individuals dislike the taste of vegetables. Objective: We investigated whether incorporating puréed vegetables to decrease the energy density of entrées at multiple meals reduced daily energy intakes and increased daily vegetable intakes. Design: In this crossover study, 20 men and 21 women ate ad libitum breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 3 wk. Across conditions, entrées at meals varied in energy density from standard versions (100% condition) to reduced versions (85% and 75% conditions) by the covert incorporation of 3 or 4.5 times the amount of puréed vegetables. Entrées were accompanied by unmanipulated side dishes. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals. Results: Subjects consumed a consistent weight of foods across conditions of energy density; thus, the daily energy intake significantly decreased by 202 ± 60 kcal in the 85% condition (P < 0.001) and by 357 ± 47 kcal in the 75% condition (P < 0.0001). Daily vegetable consumption significantly increased from 270 ± 17 g of vegetables in the 100% condition to 487 ± 25 g of vegetables in the 75% condition (P < 0.0001). Despite the decreased energy intake, ratings of hunger and fullness did not significantly differ across conditions. Entrées were rated as similar in palatability across conditions. Conclusions: Large amounts of puréed vegetables can be incorporated into various foods to decrease the energy density. This strategy can lead to substantial reductions in energy intakes and increases in vegetable intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01165086. PMID:21289225
LeCheminant, James D; Christenson, Ed; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A
Few experimental data are available to support the notion that reducing night-time eating changes total daily energy intake (EI) or body weight in healthy adults. The present study primarily examined the short-term effect of night eating restriction (NER) on daily EI in healthy young men. It secondarily examined body weight and moods associated with NER. Using a cross-over design, twenty-nine men (20·9 (sd 2·5) years; 24·4 (sd 2·5) kg/m²) initiated a 2-week NER intervention (elimination of EI from 19.00 to 06.00 hours) and a 2-week control condition, counterbalanced and separated by a 1-week washout period. EI and macronutrient intake were assessed using computerised, multiple-pass 24 h food recalls, body weight via a digital scale and mood using the Profile of Mood States survey. Of the twenty-nine participants, twenty-seven (93 %) completed all aspects of the study. During the NER condition, the participants consumed less total energy per d than during the control condition (10 125 v. 11 146 kJ/d; F= 6·41; P= 0·018). During the NER condition, no energy was reported consumed between 19.00 and 06.00 hours; however, during the control condition, the energy intake of participants was 2920 (sd 1347) kJ/d between 19.00 and 06.00 hours. There was a significant difference in weight change between the NER (-0·4 (sd 1·1) kg) and control (+0·6 (sd 0·9) kg) conditions (F= 22·68; P< 0·001). Differences in total mood score or mood subscales between the NER and control conditions were not apparent (P>0·05). These findings provide support for NER decreasing short-term EI in healthy young men.
De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E
This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harima-Mizusawa, Naomi; Kamachi, Keiko; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Nozaki, Daisuke; Uetake, Tatsuo; Yokomizo, Yuji; Nagino, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Miyazaki, Kouji; Nakamura, Shinichiro
This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP.
HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; KAMACHI, Keiko; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; NOZAKI, Daisuke; UETAKE, Tatsuo; YOKOMIZO, Yuji; NAGINO, Takayuki; TANAKA, Akira; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; NAKAMURA, Shinichiro
This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928
Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O
Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings
Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.
Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings
Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L
Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake (DFI) stability in rabbit males could be useful to ensure successful coverage of their nutritional requirements and for continued production of quality semen. To evaluate two feeding systems designed to reduce DFI variability, 115 rabbit males at age 1.2 years were randomly assigned to three different treatments for 294 days: CS, animals fed ad libitum with a control diet (127-g starch and 281-g total soluble fiber [hemicellulose + soluble fiber] kg(-1) dry matter); SF, males fed ad libitum with diet enriched in soluble fiber (86-g starch and 330-g total soluble fiber kg(-1) dry matter); and R, animals fed with CS diet but daily restricted to maintenance requirements. Feed intake, body weight, body condition, and variability of DFI were controlled every 42 days, and individual semen volume and sperm motility, concentration, acrosome status, and abnormalities every 15 days. In six commercial farms, the number of females inseminated, pregnant and kindling, as well as the number of kits born alive, was registered for 15,893 inseminations with pooled semen from each treatment. DFI was significantly lower for R males than for the other treatments (on average, -12 ± 4 g/day; P < 0.001). Daily weight gain of R males was close to zero and significantly lower than in the other groups (-1.42 g/day; P < 0.001). Variability of DFI was significantly (P < 0.01) lower for R males (7%) than for males of dietary treatments CS (13%), with SF males showing intermediate values (11%). Semen from R males presented lower sperm abnormalities (-5.9%; P < 0.05) and higher percentages of normal and motile spermatozoa (-3.4% than SF males; P < 0.05). Dietary treatments formulated to reduce DFI variability (SF and R) led to an improvement of kindling to pregnant and kindling to insemination ratio (+0.039 and + 0.060 ± 0.015, respectively; P < 0.05) compared with CS treatment. In conclusion, a moderate restriction of rabbit
Murphy, J; Holmes, J; Brooks, C
To estimate daily total energy expenditure (TEE) using a physical activity monitor, combined with dietary assessment of energy intake to assess the relationship between daily energy expenditure and patterns of activity with energy intake in people with dementia living in care homes. A cross-sectional study in care homes in the UK. Twenty residents with confirmed dementia diagnosis were recruited from two care homes that specialised in dementia care. A physical activity monitor (SensewearTM Armband, Body Media, Pittsburgh, PA) was employed to objectively determine total energy expenditure, sleep duration and physical activity. The armband was placed around the left upper triceps for up to 7 days. Energy intake was determined by weighing all food and drink items over 4 days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) including measurements of food wastage. The mean age was 78.7 (SD ± 11.8) years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.0 (SD ± 4.2) kg/m2; 50% were women. Energy intake (mean 7.4; SD ± 2.6) MJ/d) was correlated with TEE (mean 7.6; SD ± 1.8 MJ/d; r=0.49, p<0.05). Duration of sleeping ranged from 0.4-12.5 (mean 6.1) hrs/d and time spent lying down was 1.3-16.0 (8.3) hrs/d. On average residents spent 17.9 (6.3-23.4) hrs/d undertaking sedentary activity. TEE was correlated with BMI (r=0.52, p<0.05) and body weight (r=0.81, p<0.001) but inversely related to sleep duration (r=-0.59, p<0.01) and time lying down (r=-0.62, p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after taking BMI, sleep duration and time spent lying down into account, TEE was no longer correlated with energy intake. The results show the extent to which body mass, variable activity and sleep patterns may be contributing to TEE and together with reduced energy intake, energy requirements were not satisfied. Thus wearable technology has the potential to offer real-time monitoring to provide appropriate nutrition management that is more person-centred to prevent weight loss in dementia.
Donnelly, Joseph E; Herrmann, Stephen D; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N; Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A
The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. TO ADDRESS THE QUESTION: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18-64 years). Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or employed adequate assessment methods for energy and macronutrient intake. We found no consistent evidence that increased physical activity or
Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Stevenson, Leonard; Davies, Ian G
High sodium intake is associated with negative health outcomes, including an independent correlation with high blood pressure which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A high proportion of sodium intake in the UK is from processed and out of the home food; this includes takeaway food which is increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate salt levels in popular hot takeaway meals. A total of 411 samples of 23 different types of takeaway meals were analysed. Obtained results show the salt content in these kinds of foods is alarmingly high. Comparing medians (interquartile range) for different meal categories, Pizzas contained the highest salt content per portion (9.45 g (6.97-12.83)), followed by Chinese meals (8.07 g (5.47-10.99 g)), Kebabs (6.21 g (4.01-8.35)) and Indian meals (4.73 g (3.61-6.10)). In addition, significant differences in the salt content between meals within the same category were reported. To enable the consumer to meet the UK's target salt intake, a significant reduction in the salt content of hot takeaway meals should be considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khokhar, Durreajam; Nowson, Caryl Anne; Margerison, Claire; Bolam, Bruce; Grimes, Carley Ann
Salt intake in adults and children exceeds recommended levels. Salt-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours (KABs) may influence the amount of salt consumed. The aims of this study were to assess salt-related KABs among parents, and investigate whether salt-related knowledge and attitudes are associated with salt-specific behaviours. Parents with children.
Chen, Angela X; Jerums, George; Baqar, Sara; Lambert, Elisabeth; Somarajah, Goji; Thomas, Georgina; O'Callaghan, Christopher; MacIsaac, Richard J; Ekinci, Elif I
Current guidelines recommend low dietary salt intake (LDS) in patients with diabetes to reduce blood pressure (BP). However, low salt intake has been associated with higher mortality rates in people with diabetes. Our aim is to examine the effect of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), telmisartan, with and without dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation, on BP [mean arterial pressure (MAP)], plasma renin activity (PRA), serum aldosterone level and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (RCT), 28 patients with type 2 diabetes, treated with telmisartan (40 mg daily), received 2 weeks of placebo or NaCl capsules (100 mmol/24 h). Following a 6-week washout, the protocol was repeated in reverse. Twenty-four-hour urinary sodium excretion (24hUNa), ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring and blood tests were performed before and after each study phase. The telmisartan-associated increase in PRA was blunted by approximately 50% during salt supplementation compared with placebo; median PRA was 2.3 μg/l/h with placebo compared with 1.7 μg/l/h with salt (P<0.001). A trend towards blunting of ARB induced increases in serum aldosterone was also demonstrated. Salt supplementation significantly reduced the MAP lowering effects of telmisartan (P<0.05). The present study demonstrates that salt supplementation blunts the telmisartan induced increase in PRA in patients with type 2 diabetes. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.
Ryan, Philip J; Ross, Silvano I; Campos, Carlos A; Derkach, Victor A; Palmiter, Richard D
Brain regions that regulate fluid satiation are not well characterized, yet are essential for understanding fluid homeostasis. We found that oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus of mice (Oxtr PBN neurons) are key regulators of fluid satiation. Chemogenetic activation of Oxtr PBN neurons robustly suppressed noncaloric fluid intake, but did not decrease food intake after fasting or salt intake following salt depletion; inactivation increased saline intake after dehydration and hypertonic saline injection. Under physiological conditions, Oxtr PBN neurons were activated by fluid satiation and hypertonic saline injection. Oxtr PBN neurons were directly innervated by oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus (Oxt PVH neurons), which mildly attenuated fluid intake. Activation of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract substantially suppressed fluid intake and activated Oxtr PBN neurons. Our results suggest that Oxtr PBN neurons act as a key node in the fluid satiation neurocircuitry, which acts to decrease water and/or saline intake to prevent or attenuate hypervolemia and hypernatremia.
Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong
This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic
Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How
This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic
Conkle, Joel; van der Haar, Frits
In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) called for joint surveillance of population salt and iodine intakes using urinary analysis. 24-h urine collection is considered the gold standard for salt intake assessment, but there is an emerging consensus that casual urine sampling can provide comparable information for population-level surveillance. Our review covers the use of the urinary sodium concentration (UNaC) and the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from casual urine samples to estimate salt intakes and to partition the sources of iodine intakes. We reviewed literature on 24-h urinary sodium excretion (UNaE) and UNaC and documented the use of UNaC for national salt intake monitoring. We combined information from our review of urinary sodium with evidence on urinary iodine to assess the appropriateness of partitioning methods currently being adapted for cross-sectional survey analyses. At least nine countries are using casual urine collection for surveillance of population salt intakes; all these countries used single samples. Time trend analyses indicate that single UNaC can be used for monitoring changes in mean salt intakes. However; single UNaC suffers the same limitation as single UNaE; i.e., an estimate of the proportion excess salt intake can be biased due to high individual variability. There is evidence, albeit limited, that repeat UNaC sampling has good agreement at the population level with repeat UNaE collections; thus permitting an unbiased estimate of the proportion of excess salt intake. High variability of UIC and UNaC in single urine samples may also bias the estimates of dietary iodine intake sources. Our review concludes that repeated collection, in a sub-sample of individuals, of casual UNaC data would provide an immediate practical approach for routine monitoring of salt intake, because it overcomes the bias in estimates of excess salt intake. Thus we recommend more survey research to expand the evidence-base on predicted-UNaE from
Shimbo, S; Hatai, I; Saito, T; Yokota, M; Imai, Y; Watanabe, T; Moon, C S; Zhang, Z W; Ikeda, M
Twenty four-hr total food duplicate samples were collected from nonsmoking house-wives (aged mostly 30 to 60 years) twice at a 10-year interval in winter seasons, once in around 1980 and then in around 1990 in 11 prefectures in Japan. In practice, 342 and 472 samples were obtained in the 1980 and 1990 studies, respectively. Sodium chloride (NaCl) intake via each food item was estimated from the weight of the item in the duplicate. The comparison of 1990 results with 1980 results showed that the total NaCl intake (i.e., NaCl intake via all food items) decreased after a 10-year campaign to lower salt intake. The NaCl/energy ratio however stayed essentially unchanged. Whereas NaCl intake via pickles decreased remarkably and that via miso paste [a fermentation product of soy bean, rice (or wheat) and salt] slightly, the decreases were counteracted by a substantial increase in NaCl intake via soy bean sauce. Meaning of this unexpected counteraction was discussed in relation to the difficulties in the campaign to lower salt intake.
Kwon, Yong-Suk; Kim, Yangsuk
This study analyzed the intake of fruits and vegetables by cooking location and daily meals for Korean children and adolescents. For this study, 2,538 Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who participated in the 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary intake survey (24-hour recall methods), were sampled. The total unsalted fruit and vegetable intake for all subjects was 300 g (aged 7-12 years, 280 g; aged 13-18 years, 316 g). Regarding meal serving location, the combined unsalted fruit and vegetable intake was 159 g at home, 206 g at commercial locations, and 104 g at institutions. The combined unsalted fruit and vegetable intake in snack form was 128 g, which was higher than that during daily meals. In total, 24.9% of subjects satisfied the recommended fruit and vegetable intake (>=400 g), according to the guidelines created by the World Health Organization/World Cancer Research Fund. Logistic regression analysis results revealed that the fruit and vegetable intake of girls was 1.4 times higher than that of boys, and the number of people who ate more than 400 g of fruits and vegetables was 1.7 times higher in the group with higher education. Based on the above results, in-depth measures to continuously increase intake of fruits and vegetables in children and adolescents are needed. This study can be used as basic data for the development of educational programs for dietary improvements.
Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Viola, Antonella; Leo, Alessandra; Carlomagno, Giusy; Monteburini, Tania; Cenerelli, Stefano; Santarelli, Stefano; Boggi, Rolando; Miggiano, Giacinto; Vulpio, Carlo; Mele, Cristina; Tazza, Luigi
We aimed to estimate dietary intakes of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins in hemodialysis patients (HDP) of three centers in one metropolitan and two urban areas of Italy. Daily dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day diet diary in 128 HDP. Mean daily intakes of trace elements were as follows: zinc, 7.6 ± 5.4 mg; copper, 14.3 ± 11.8 mg; selenium, 28.3 ± 18.1 μg; and iron, 7.2 ± 4.1 mg (7.8 ± 2.6 mg in women, 6.9 ± 2.4 mg in men). The distribution of patients by daily intakes of trace elements showed most were under the recommended values, with the exception of copper intake, which was much higher. Mean daily intakes of minerals were as follows: magnesium, 174.4 ± 94.3 mg; phosphorus, 842.6 ± 576.8 mg; calcium, 371.8 ± 363.7 mg; potassium, 1,616.2 ± 897.3 mg; and sodium, 1,350 ± 1,281 mg. Mean daily intakes of vitamins were as follows: vitamin A, 486.1 ± 544.6 μg; vitamin B1, 0.86 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B2, 1.1 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B3, 13.3 ± 8.1 mg; vitamin C, 47.8 ± 50.3 mg; and vitamin E, 9.5 ± 3.6 mg. The distribution of patients by daily intakes of vitamins showed most were under the recommended values. Daily intakes of trace elements and vitamins were similar among the three centers and did not differ between dialysis and non-dialysis days. Many HDP have daily dietary intakes of trace elements and vitamins below the recommended values, whereas the intake of copper is much higher.
Jiang, Hong; Lin, Zhenkun; Wu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiangping; Hu, Yabing; Li, Yanyan; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang
This study was designed to estimate the human risk to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure via two main exposure routes (dust and diet) in an e-waste recycling area in southern China. A total of 134 dust samples and 129 food samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The mean concentration of ΣPBDE in in-house dust (38,685ng/g dw) was higher than that in out-house dust (24,595ng/g). For food samples, the highest concentration of ΣPBDE was found in fish and shellfish (2755ng/kg ww), followed in descending order by eggs (2423ng/kg), cereals (2239ng/kg) and meat (1799ng/kg). The estimated total daily dietary intake of PBDEs was 1671ng/day for adults and 952ng/day for children. The present study indicated that dust intake was the dominant PBDE exposure route for children, and the dietary intake was the dominant PBDE exposure route for adults. Our findings revealed high PBDE concentrations in dust and food samples collected at the center of e-waste recycling area, raising significant health concerns for residents in this particular region, especially for children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sonia A.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Scanlon, Kelley S.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of timing of introduction and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake during infancy with frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at age 6 years in a cohort of US children. METHODS: We analyzed data on fruit and vegetable intake during late infancy, age of fruit and vegetable introduction, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) Study. We determined the percent of 6-year-old children consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per day and examined associations with infant fruit and vegetable intake using logistic regression modeling, controlling for multiple covariates (n = 1078). RESULTS: Based on maternal report, 31.9% of 6-year-old children consumed fruit less than once daily and 19.0% consumed vegetables less than once daily. In adjusted analyses, children who consumed fruits and vegetables less than once daily during late infancy had increased odds of eating fruits and vegetables less than once daily at age 6 years (fruit, adjusted odds ratio: 2.48; vegetables, adjusted odds ratio: 2.40). Age of introduction of fruits and vegetables was not associated with intake at age 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables during late infancy is associated with infrequent intake of these foods at 6 years of age. These findings highlight the importance of infant feeding guidance that encourages intake of fruits and vegetables and the need to examine barriers to fruit and vegetable intake during infancy. PMID:25183758
Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi
Heavy metal and metalloid contamination in food resulting from mining is of major concern due to the potential risk involved. Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. This study was therefore to assess metals in different organs and different animal species near gold mines used for human consumption (free-range chicken, goat and sheep) in Tarkwa, Ghana, and to estimate the daily intake and health risk. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and Hg analysis was done using the mercury analyzer. Principal component analysis of the results showed a clear separation between chicken, grouped on one side, and the ruminants clustered on another side in both offal and muscle. Interestingly, As, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb made one cluster in the offal of chicken. Chicken muscle also showed similar distribution with As, Hg and Pb clustered together. The daily intake of metals (μg/kg body weight/day) were in the following ranges; As [0.002 (kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.19 (chicken gizzard)], Cd [0.003 (chicken muscle)-0.55 (chicken liver)], Hg [0.002 (goat muscle)-0.29 (chicken liver)], Pb [0.01 (muscles and kidneys of goat and sheep)-0.96 (chicken gizzard)] and Mn [0.13 (goat kidney)-8.92 (sheep liver)]. From the results, daily intakes of As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Mn in these food animals were low compared to the provisional tolerable daily intake guidelines. The THQs although less than one, indicated that contributions of chicken gizzard and liver to toxic metal exposure in adults and especially children could be significant. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Beer-Borst, Sigrid; Luta, Xhyljeta; Hayoz, Stefanie; Sommerhalder, Kathrin; Krause, Corinna Gréa; Eisenblätter, Julia; Jent, Sandra; Siegenthaler, Stefan; Aubert, Rafael; Haldimann, Max; Strazzullo, Pasquale
Blood pressure is a primary cardiovascular disease risk factor. Population-wide governmental strategies aim to reduce lifestyle and dietary risk factors for hypertension, one of which is an unbalanced diet with high sodium and low potassium intakes. Nutrition interventions in the workplace are considered a promising approach in encouraging health-promoting behaviors. We developed and conducted the health promoting sodium reduction trial "Healthful & Tasty: Sure!" in worksites in the German-speaking part of Switzerland from May 2015 to Nov 2016, for which we present the study protocol and baseline characteristics. Healthful & Tasty, a cluster nonrandomized single-arm trial with calibration arm, aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined educational and environmental intervention in the workplace in reducing employees' average daily sodium/salt intake by 15%. To this end, health and food literacy of employees and guideline compliance among the catering facility team needed to be improved. The primary outcome measure was sodium/salt intake estimated from sodium excretion in a 24-h urine sample. Secondary outcome measures included changes in the overall qualitative diet composition, blood pressure, anthropometric indices, and health and food literacy. Of eight organizations with catering facilities, seven organizations took part in the nutrition education and catering salt reduction interventions, and one organization participated as a control. Overall, 145 consenting employees were included in the staggered, one-year four-phase trial, of which 132 participated in the intervention group. In addition to catering surveys and food sampling, the trial included five follow-up health assessments including questionnaires, blood pressure measurements, anthropometrics, and sodium, potassium, and iodine intake measurements obtained from 24-h and spot urine samples, and a food record checklist. Exploratory and hypothesis generating baseline statistical analysis included
Doleman, Joanne F; Grisar, Katrijn; Van Liedekerke, Lena; Saha, Shikha; Roe, Mark; Tapp, Henri S; Mithen, Richard F
Despite its importance in many areas of human metabolism, there are no recommended daily intake guide lines for sulphur. It is generally assumed that most dietary sulphur originates from intake of methionine and cysteine. We estimated sulphur intake from food diaries, and validated the results with the use of a duplicate diet analyses. Sulphur intake estimations were highly correlated with that obtain through an elemental analysis of duplicate diets, with a mean±sd daily intakes of 956±327.9mg estimated from diet diary analyses and 935±329.9mg estimated by a duplicate diet analyses. Sulphur intake from alliaceous and cruciferous vegetables contributed up to 42% of total sulphur intake. Daily intake estimation comparisons through diet diary analyses and duplicate diet for other elements showed good agreement, except for sodium and zinc, in which analyses of 24h diet dairies overestimated intake by 35% and 52%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.
Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure
Kim, Chang-Yeon; Ye, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Young Soo
The salt-taste threshold can influence the salt appetite, and is thought to be another marker of sodium intake. Many studies have mentioned the relationship between the sodium intake and blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the salt-taste threshold and urinary sodium excretion in normotensive and hypertensive groups. We analyzed 199 patients (mean age 52 years, male 47.3%) who underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Hypertension was diagnosed as an average daytime systolic BP of ≥135 mmHg or diastolic BP of ≥85 mmHg by the ABPM. We assessed the salt-taste threshold using graded saline solutions. The salt-taste threshold, 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion, and echocardiographic data were compared between the control and hypertensive groups. The detection and recognition threshold of the salt taste did not significantly differ between the control and hypertensive groups. The 24-h urinary sodium excretion of hypertensive patients was significantly higher than that of the control group (140.9 ± 59.8 vs. 117.9 ± 57.2 mEq/day, respectively, p = 0.011). Also, the urinary sodium-potassium ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensive patients. There was no correlation between the salt-taste threshold and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The salt-taste threshold might not be related to the BP status as well as the 24-h urinary sodium excretion.
Astbury, Nerys M; Taylor, Moira A; French, Stephen J; Macdonald, Ian A
The manipulation of the composition of foods consumed as between-meal snacks may aid daily energy restriction. We compared the effects of the consumption of 2 energy-matched snack bars on appetite, energy intake (EI), and metabolic and endocrine responses. In addition, we investigated whether the acute effects of the consumption of snacks were maintained under free-living conditions and whether the habitual daily consumption of the snack over 14 d influenced these effects. Ten lean men [mean ± SD age: 30.7 ± 9.7 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 23.2 ± 2.8] consumed a whey protein and polydextrose (PPX) snack bar or an isoenergetic control snack bar as a midmorning, between-meal snack for 14 consecutive days in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. The two 14-d intervention phases were separated by a 14-d washout period. On the first (day 1) and last (day 15) days of each intervention phase, appetite, food intake, and blood metabolite and endocrine responses were assessed under laboratory conditions. Free-living EI was recorded on days 4, 8, and 12 of interventions. Total daily EI was significantly lower when the PPX snack was consumed during experimental days (10,149 ± 831 compared with 11,931 ± 896 kJ; P < 0.01), and daily EI remained lower when the PPX snack was consumed during the free-living part of the intervention (7904 ± 610 compared with 9041 ± 928 kJ; P < 0.05). The PPX snack was associated with lower glucose and ghrelin and higher glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine responses. The manipulation of the composition of foods consumed as snacks is an effective way to limit subsequent EI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01927926.
Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.; Han, Euna
Background Eating food away from home and restaurant consumption have increased over the past few decades. Purpose To examine recent changes in calories from fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and to assess characteristics associated with consumption. Methods Analyses of 24-hour dietary recalls from children, adolescents, and adults using nationally representative data from the 2003–2004 through 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, including analysis by gender, ethnicity, income and location of consumption. Multivariate regression analyses of associations between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food and full-service restaurants. Results In 2007–2008, 33%, 41% and 36% of children, adolescents and adults, respectively, consumed foods and/or beverages from fast-food restaurant sources and 12%, 18% and 27% consumed from full-service restaurants. Their respective mean caloric intake from fast food was 191 kcal, 404 kcal, and 315 kcal, down by 25% (p≤0.05), 3% and 9% from 2003–2004; and among consumers, intake was 576 kcal, 988 kcal, and 877 kcal, respectively, down by 12% (p≤0.05), 2% and 7%. There were no changes in daily calories consumed from full-service restaurants. Consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food (adults only) and full-service restaurants (all age groups) were higher when consumed away from home versus at home. There were some demographic and socioeconomic associations with the likelihood of fast-food consumption, but characteristics were generally not associated with the extent of caloric intake among those who consumed from fast-food or from full-service restaurants. Conclusions In 2007–2008, fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption remained prevalent and a source of substantial energy intake. PMID:23079172
Riek, A; Gerken, M; Moors, E
The objective of the study was to estimate daily milk intake in llama crias and relate nutrient intakes at peak lactation to growth data. Milk intake in 11 suckling llamas was estimated from water kinetics using deuterium oxide (D2O) at d 17, 66, and 128 postpartum. Daily milk intakes averaged 2.6, 2.3, and 2.0 kg at 17, 66, and 128 d postpartum, respectively. Milk intake decreased with age when expressed as daily amount, percentage of body weight (BW), or per kilogram of metabolic size, but the influence of age was eliminated when expressed per gram of daily gain. Because llamas only have one young per parturition, milk intake was equivalent to the daily milk output of the dam, which ranged from 27.6 to 96.9 g/kg of maternal BW(0.75). Compared with different ruminant species, milk production in llamas appears to lie between wild and domestic ruminants used for meat production. Nutrients (dry matter, fat, protein, and lactose) and energy intakes from the milk calculated by combining milk intake and milk composition data decreased with age when expressed as daily amount or per 100 g of BW, but when expressed per gram of daily gain, no clear trend was observed. Maintenance requirement for suckling llamas at peak lactation (17 d postpartum) was 312 kJ of ME/kg of BW(0.83). Combined with milk composition data, the present milk intake estimations at different stages of the lactation can be used to establish recommendations for nutrient and energy requirements of suckling llamas.
Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Colombari, Debora S. A.; Beltz, Terry G.; Thunhorst, Robert L.; Johnson, Alan Kim
Methysergide injected into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) increases the salt appetite of rats depleted of sodium by furosemide (FURO). The present study investigated the effects of angiotensin 2 (ANG 2) receptor blockade in the subfornical organ (SFO) on this increased salt appetite. The intake of 0.3 M NaCl and water was induced by combined administration of the diuretic, FURO, and the angiotensin-convertina, enzyme inhibitor, captopril (CAP). Pretreatment of the SFO with the anciotensin Type 1 (AT,) receptor antagonist, losartan (1 microgram/200 nl), reduced water intake but not 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by subcutaneous FURO+ CAP. Methysergide (4 microgram/200 nl) injected bilaterally into the LPBN increased 0.3 M NaCl intake after FURO + CAP. Losartan injected into the SFO prevented additional 0.3 M NaCl intake caused by methysergide injections into the LPBN. These results indicate that AT, receptors located in the SFO may have a role in mediatina the intake of sodium and water induced by sodium depletion. They also suggest that after treatment with FURO + CAP an LPBN-associated scrotonergic mechanism inhibits increased sodium intake.
Grimm, Kirsten A; Kim, Sonia A; Yaroch, Amy L; Scanlon, Kelley S
To examine the association of timing of introduction and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake during infancy with frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at age 6 years in a cohort of US children. We analyzed data on fruit and vegetable intake during late infancy, age of fruit and vegetable introduction, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) Study. We determined the percent of 6-year-old children consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per day and examined associations with infant fruit and vegetable intake using logistic regression modeling, controlling for multiple covariates (n = 1078). Based on maternal report, 31.9% of 6-year-old children consumed fruit less than once daily and 19.0% consumed vegetables less than once daily. In adjusted analyses, children who consumed fruits and vegetables less than once daily during late infancy had increased odds of eating fruits and vegetables less than once daily at age 6 years (fruit, adjusted odds ratio: 2.48; vegetables, adjusted odds ratio: 2.40). Age of introduction of fruits and vegetables was not associated with intake at age 6 years. Our study suggests that infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables during late infancy is associated with infrequent intake of these foods at 6 years of age. These findings highlight the importance of infant feeding guidance that encourages intake of fruits and vegetables and the need to examine barriers to fruit and vegetable intake during infancy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Kishcha, P.; Starobinets, B.; Bozzano, R.; Pensieri, S.; Canepa, E.; Nickovie, S.; di Sarra, A.; Udisti, R.; Becagli, S.; Alpert, P.
Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) could influence the Earth's climate acting as cloud condensation nuclei. However, there were no regular measurements of SSA in the open sea. At Tel-Aviv University, the DREAM-Salt prediction system has been producing daily forecasts of 3-D distribution of sea-salt aerosol concentrations over the Mediterranean Sea (http://wind.tau.ac.il/saltina/ salt.html). In order to evaluate the model performance in the open sea, daily modeled concentrations were compared directly with SSA measurements taken at the tiny island of Lampedusa, in the Central Mediterranean. In order to further test the robustness of the model, the model performance over the open sea was indirectly verified by comparing modeled SSA concentrations with wave height measurements collected by the ODAS Italia 1 buoy and the Llobregat buoy. Model-vs.-measurement comparisons show that the model is capable of producing realistic SSA concentrations and their day-today variations over the open sea, in accordance with observed wave height and wind speed.
Bray, George A; Flatt, Jean-Pierre; Volaufova, Julia; DeLany, James P; Champagne, Catherine M
Background We tested the hypothesis that ad libitum food intake shows corrective responses over periods of 1–5 d. Design This was a prospective study of food intake in women. Methods Two methods, a weighed food intake and a measured food intake, were used to determine daily nutrient intake during 2 wk in 20 women. Energy expenditure with the use of doubly labeled water was done contemporaneously with the weighed food-intake record. The daily deviations in macronutrient and energy intake from the average 7-d values were compared with the deviations observed 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 d later to estimate the corrective responses. Results Both methods of recording food intake gave similar patterns of macronutrient and total energy intakes and for deviations from average intakes. The intraindividual CVs for energy intake ranged from ±12% to ±47% with an average of ±25%. Reported energy intake was 85.5–95.0% of total energy expenditure determined by doubly labeled water. Significant corrective responses were observed in food intakes with a 3- to 4-d lag that disappeared when data were randomized within each subject. Conclusions Human beings show corrective responses to deviations from average energy and macronutrient intakes with a lag time of 3–4 d, but not 1–2 d. This suggests that short-term studies may fail to recognize important signals of food-intake regulation that operate over several days. These corrective responses probably play a crucial role in bringing about weight stability. PMID:19064509
Gylling, Helena; Hallikainen, Maarit; Nissinen, Markku J; Miettinen, Tatu A
Intake of 2-3 g/d of plant stanols as esters lowers LDL cholesterol level, but there is no information about the efficacy and safety of a respective very high daily intake. We studied the effects of 8.8 g/d of plant stanols as esters on serum lipids and safety variables in subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study the intervention (n=25) and control (n=24) groups consumed spread and drink enriched or not with plant stanol esters for 10 weeks. Plant stanols reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations by 12.8 and 17.3% from baseline and by 12.0 and 17.1% from controls (P<0.01 for all). Liver enzymes, markers of hemolysis, and blood cells were unchanged. Serum vitamins A, D, and gamma-tocopherol concentrations, and the ratios of alpha-tocopherol to cholesterol were unchanged. Serum beta-carotene concentrations decreased significantly from baseline and were different from controls even when adjusted for cholesterol. Serum alpha-carotene concentration and alpha-carotene/cholesterol ratio were not different from controls. High intake of plant stanols reduced LDL cholesterol values without any other side effects than reduction of serum beta-carotene concentration. However, the end product, serum vitamin A levels, were unchanged. The results suggest that plant stanol ester intake can be increased to induce a greater cholesterol lowering effect. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Ai; Xue, Yong; Zhang, Yumei; Li, Wenjun; Yu, Kai; Wang, Peiyu
Objective Objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the mineral intake by Chinese lactating women, 2) to explore the dietary source of minerals, and 3) the ratios between different dietary minerals. Methods A total of 468 lactating women in 5–240 days post-partum participated in this study. Food intakes by participants were measured using one time of 24-hour dietary recall, and minerals from food were calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition Table, second edition. Results In post-partum, women had inadequate food intake. 81.0% of women’s daily intake of dairy products was lower than 300g, and 97.1% of women’s daily intake of salt over 6g. For mineral intake, there were 81.8%, 59.0%, 47.6%, 45.7% and 66.8% of women’s calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and selenium intake lower than the estimated average requirement, respectively, and 91.7% of women’s excessive intake of sodium. The calcium/phosphorus and sodium/potassium ratios were 0.41±0.26/1 and 3.13±2.89/1, respectively. Considering the dietary sources of minerals, 27.3%, 25.3% and 30.1% of iron, zinc and calcium were from animal-based food, respectively, and 60.3%, 66.1% and 58.0% of iron, zinc and calcium were from plant-based food, respectively. The phosphorus-protein ratio was 0.014±0.003/1. Lactation stage was associated with nutrient intake. Women within 30 days post-partum and the ones who live in Guangzhou had a significantly lower intake of certain minerals, while women with a high education experience had a high intake of calcium, potassium, iron and zinc. Productive age, whether obese or not, and delivery ways were not associated with mineral intakes (P all >0.05). Conclusion Chinese women in three studied cities had an inappropriate food intake and resulted in both insufficient and excessive intakes of certain minerals. PMID:26730592
Zhao, Ai; Xue, Yong; Zhang, Yumei; Li, Wenjun; Yu, Kai; Wang, Peiyu
Objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the mineral intake by Chinese lactating women, 2) to explore the dietary source of minerals, and 3) the ratios between different dietary minerals. A total of 468 lactating women in 5-240 days post-partum participated in this study. Food intakes by participants were measured using one time of 24-hour dietary recall, and minerals from food were calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition Table, second edition. In post-partum, women had inadequate food intake. 81.0% of women's daily intake of dairy products was lower than 300g, and 97.1% of women's daily intake of salt over 6g. For mineral intake, there were 81.8%, 59.0%, 47.6%, 45.7% and 66.8% of women's calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and selenium intake lower than the estimated average requirement, respectively, and 91.7% of women's excessive intake of sodium. The calcium/phosphorus and sodium/potassium ratios were 0.41±0.26/1 and 3.13±2.89/1, respectively. Considering the dietary sources of minerals, 27.3%, 25.3% and 30.1% of iron, zinc and calcium were from animal-based food, respectively, and 60.3%, 66.1% and 58.0% of iron, zinc and calcium were from plant-based food, respectively. The phosphorus-protein ratio was 0.014±0.003/1. Lactation stage was associated with nutrient intake. Women within 30 days post-partum and the ones who live in Guangzhou had a significantly lower intake of certain minerals, while women with a high education experience had a high intake of calcium, potassium, iron and zinc. Productive age, whether obese or not, and delivery ways were not associated with mineral intakes (P all >0.05). Chinese women in three studied cities had an inappropriate food intake and resulted in both insufficient and excessive intakes of certain minerals.
Verster, Joris C; Koenig, Juergen
Aim of this review is to summarize current daily caffeine intake of children, adolescents, and adults, and trends in caffeine intake over the past decade. A literature search was conducted (1997-2015) which yielded 18 reports on nationally representative studies, describing caffeine consumption of over 275,000 children, adolescents and adults. The data revealed that mean total daily caffeine intake in children, adolescents, and adults is below caffeine intake recommendations such as those stated by Health Canada (2.5 mg/kg bw/day for children and adolescents, and 400 mg/day for adults) and the European Food Safety Authority, EFSA (3 mg/kg bw/day for children and adolescents, and 400 mg/day for adults). Total daily caffeine intake has remained stable in the last 10-15 years, and coffee, tea and soft drinks are the most important caffeine sources. Across all age groups, energy drinks contribute little to total caffeine intake. The highest potential for reducing daily caffeine intake is by limiting coffee consumption, and in some countries and age groups, by reducing tea and soft drink consumption.
Ellison, David H; Terker, Andrew S
Low potassium intake, common in western diets, increases blood pressure and enhances salt-sensitivity. Most humans in "Westernized" countries also consume excess salt. In studies using mice, we found that a high-salt, low-potassium diet activates the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter in the kidney. This effect led to sodium retention and increased blood pressure, and was dependent on plasma potassium. We postulated that this effect was mediated by changes in intracellular chloride caused by changes in membrane voltage. We developed a model in cultured cells permitting us to confirm this hypothesis. We then confirmed, using urinary exosomes, that dietary changes in normal humans, affect the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter in the same way. These data show that dietary potassium deficiency increases blood pressure largely by stimulating salt reabsorption along the distal nephron. They suggest that global efforts should focus on increasing potassium intake, which will attenuate the effects of high-salt diets.
High sodium intake can increase blood pressure and the risk for heart disease and stroke. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, persons in the United States aged ≥2 years should limit daily sodium intake to <2,300 mg. Subpopulations that would benefit from further reducing sodium intake to 1,500 mg daily include 1) persons aged ≥51 years, 2) blacks, and 3) persons with hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease. To estimate the proportion of the U.S. population for whom the 1,500 mg recommendation applies and to assess the usual sodium intake for those persons, CDC and the National Institutes of Health used data for 2005-2008 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which determined that, although 47.6% of persons aged ≥2 years meet the criteria to limit their daily sodium intake to 1,500 mg, the usual daily sodium intake for 98.6% of those persons was >1,500 mg. Moreover, for 88.2% of the remaining U.S. population, daily sodium intake was greater than the recommended <2,300 mg. New population-based strategies and increased public health and private efforts will be needed to meet the Dietary Guidelines recommendations.
Lewis, Erin D; Subhan, Fatheema B; Bell, Rhonda C; McCargar, Linda J; Curtis, Jonathan M; Jacobs, René L; Field, Catherine J
Despite recommendations for higher choline intakes during pregnancy and lactation, there is limited research regarding maternal intake during these important periods. In the present study, we estimated dietary choline intake during pregnancy and lactation in a population of Albertan women and the contribution of egg and milk consumption to intake. Dietary intake data were collected from the first 600 women enrolled in a prospective cohort study carried out in Alberta, Canada. During the first and/or second trimester, the third trimester and 3 months postpartum, 24 h dietary intake recall data were collected. A database was constructed including foods consumed by the cohort and used to estimate dietary choline intake. The mean total choline intake value during pregnancy was 347 (SD 149) mg/d, with 23% of the participants meeting the adequate intake (AI) recommendation. During lactation, the mean total choline intake value was 346 (SD 151) mg/d, with 10% of the participants meeting the AI recommendation. Phosphatidylcholine was the form of choline consumed in the highest proportion and the main dietary sources of choline were dairy products, eggs and meat. Women who consumed at least one egg in a 24 h period had higher (P< 0·001) total choline intake and were eight times more likely (95% CI 5·2, 12·6) to meet choline intake recommendations compared with those who did not consume eggs during pregnancy. Women who reported consuming ≥ 500 ml of milk in a 24 h period were 2·8 times more likely (95 % CI 1·7, 4·8) to meet daily choline intake recommendations compared with those consuming < 250 ml of milk/d during pregnancy. Choline intake is below the recommendation levels in this population and the promotion of both egg and milk consumption may assist in meeting the daily choline intake recommendations.
Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J.; MacGregor, Graham A.; Webster, Jacqui; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce
Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants’ physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87–9.69) g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake—less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p < 0.003). Mean salt intake was comparable in more-educated (9.21, 8.55–9.87 g/day) versus less-educated (9.34, 8.57–10.12 g/day) individuals (p = 0.82). There was no substantively different pattern of knowledge and behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt. PMID:28212309
Moos, Rebecca K; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M
In recent years, exposure to parabens has become more of a concern because of evidence of ubiquitous exposure in the general population, combined with evidence of their potency as endocrine disruptors. New human metabolism data from oral exposure experiments enable us to back calculate daily paraben intakes from urinary paraben levels. We report daily intakes (DIs) for six parabens based on 660 24 h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank collected between 1995 and 2012. Median DI values ranged between 1.1 μg/kg bw/day for iso-butyl paraben and 47.5 μg/kg bw/day for methyl paraben. The calculated DIs were compared with acceptable levels of exposure to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) that indicate that acceptable exposure is exceeded for values of >1. Approximately 5% of our study population exceeded this threshold for individual paraben exposure. The hazard index (HI) that takes into account the cumulative risk of adverse estrogenic effects was 1.3 at the 95th percentile and 4.4 at maximum intakes, mainly driven by n-propyl paraben exposure. HI values of >1 indicate some level of concern. However, we have to point out that we applied most conservative assumptions in the HQ/HI calculations. Also, major exposure reduction measures were enacted in the European Union after 2012.
Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Chong; Chen, Yongxing; Shi, Rongguang; Cheng, Zhenhua; Dong, Hongmin
We evaluated the effects of mineral salt supplement on enteric methane emissions, ruminal fermentation and methanogen community of dairy cows over a whole lactation period. Ten Holstein cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR) diet were randomly allocated into two groups, one supplied with mineral salts as the treatment group and the other as the control group. The methane measurement showed that the ingestion of mineral salts lowered enteric methane emissions significantly (P < 0.05), with an average of 10.5% reduction over the whole lactation period. Ruminal fermentation analysis showed the mineral salt intake could significantly decrease the acetate : propionate ratio (P < 0.05). Real-time PCR assay showed that rumen methanogen abundance significantly reduced in the treatment group (P < 0.05) but was not significantly influenced by mineral salt intake over the whole lactation period. Intergroup methanogen community composition was influenced slightly by mineral salt intake; however, significantly different intragroup profiles were apparent throughout the whole lactation period, according to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. In conclusion, these results suggested that the effective mitigation of enteric methane emissions by mineral salt intake could be attributed to decreased density of methanogenic archaea and that fluctuations in methane emission over the lactation period might be related to Methanobrevibacter diversity. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Grimes, Carley A; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Nowson, Caryl A
Objective To assess the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and dietary sodium intake, and to identify if the major dietary sources of sodium differ by socioeconomic group in a nationally representative sample of Australian children. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Participants A total of 4487 children aged 2–16 years completed all components of the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Sodium intake was determined via one 24 h dietary recall. The population proportion formula was used to identify the major sources of dietary salt. SES was defined by the level of education attained by the primary carer. In addition, parental income was used as a secondary indicator of SES. Results Dietary sodium intake of children of low SES background was 2576 (SEM 42) mg/day (salt equivalent 6.6 (0.1) g/day), which was greater than that of children of high SES background 2370 (35) mg/day (salt 6.1 (0.1) g/day; p<0.001). After adjustment for age, gender, energy intake and body mass index, low SES children consumed 195 mg/day (salt 0.5 g/day) more sodium than high SES children (p<0.001). Low SES children had a greater intake of sodium from processed meat, gravies/sauces, pastries, breakfast cereals, potatoes and potato snacks (all p<0.05). Conclusions Australian children from a low SES background have on average a 9% greater intake of sodium from food sources compared with those from a high SES background. Understanding the socioeconomic patterning of salt intake during childhood should be considered in interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease. PMID:23396559
Miura, Shoko; Nakamori, Masayo; Yagi, Masumi; Saavedra, Ophelia L; Ikemoto, Shinji; Yamamoto, Shigeru
Low calcium intake and physical inactivity are modifiable risk factors of osteoporosis; however, little information is available about the prevalence of these risk factors among urban Filipino women living on low-incomes. The present study, therefore, investigated daily calcium intake, main calcium sources, and physical activity status in this population. The study group comprised healthy women aged in their 30 s who had participated in our previous survey using heel speed of sound (SOS) measurement in Davao, Philippines. The women were stratified into three groups based on SOS score and 20 were randomly selected from each, giving 60 in total. Calcium intake was measured by direct analysis of the food samples collected from 3-days 24 hour-food duplicate method. Physical activity was estimated based on pedometer determined walking steps over 5 days. The median [25%, 75%] calcium intake per day was 289 [225, 434] mg. Traditional foods derived from local small fish and plants were the main calcium sources. The median walking steps per day was 8750 [6920, 10836]. Although three groups did not show significantly different calcium intakes and walking steps, consumption of low-cost small fish and plant foods could be encouraged along with walking in urban Filipino women living on low-incomes.
Hawking, Frank; Marques, Ruy João
In small-scale pilot trials, filarial infection can usually be reduced to low levels by oral administration of diethylcarbamazine to all the persons concerned; but in mass campaigns it is often difficult to persuade large numbers of people to swallow the tablets. In order to overcome this difficulty the authors propose that the compound be incorporated into cooking salt, as has been done with chloroquine to control malaria. There are many reasons why this method of medication should be more effective against filariasis than it has often been against malaria. Laboratory trials showed that cooking the compound in food did not make it toxic for rats or diminish its antifilarial activity. A pilot trial was carried out at Recife, Brazil, in which 1000 adults received salt containing 0.4% diethylcarbamazine (corresponding to a daily intake of 100 mg/day) for 40 days, and then salt containing 0.1% compound for a year. This medication was simple to administer; it was quite acceptable to the subjects; it caused no untoward effects; and it removed almost all the microfilariae from the blood. Administration of medicated salt (0.3%) for 18 days to another group of 1300 adults was well tolerated and produced a considerable reduction of the microfilarial load; but this short period was insufficient to remove all the microfilariae. The authors recommend that this method of administering diethylcarbamazine to large numbers of people should be investigated further to see if it could be used for mass campaigns to control filariasis. PMID:5301383
Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro
Dietary salt intake is the most important factor contributing to hypertension, but the salt susceptibility of blood pressure (BP) is different in individual subjects. Although the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension is heterogeneous, it is mainly attributable to an impaired renal capacity to excrete sodium (Na(+) ). We recently identified two novel mechanisms that impair renal Na(+) -excreting function and result in an increase in BP. First, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation in the kidney, which facilitates distal Na(+) reabsorption through epithelial Na(+) channel activation, causes salt-sensitive hypertension. This mechanism exists not only in models of high-aldosterone hypertension as seen in conditions of obesity or metabolic syndrome, but also in normal- or low-aldosterone type of salt-sensitive hypertension. In the latter, Rac1 activation by salt excess causes MR stimulation. Second, renospecific sympathoactivation may cause an increase in BP under conditions of salt excess. Renal beta2 adrenoceptor stimulation in the kidney leads to decreased transcription of the gene encoding WNK4, a negative regulator of Na(+) reabsorption through Na(+) -Cl (-) cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubules, resulting in salt-dependent hypertension. Abnormalities identified in these two pathways of Na(+) reabsorption in the distal nephron may present therapeutic targets for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.
Do, Ha Thi Phuong; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Trieu, Kathy; Petersen, Kristina; Le, Mai Bach; Lai, Duc Truong; Bauman, Adrian; Webster, Jacqui
This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Communication for Behavioral Impact (COMBI)-Eat Less Salt intervention conducted in Viet Tri, Vietnam. The behavior change intervention was implemented in four wards and four communes for one year, which included mass media communication, school interventions, community programs, and focus on high-risk groups. Mean sodium excretion was estimated from spot urine samples using different equations. A subsample provided 24-hour urine to validate estimates from spot urine. Information about salt-related knowledge and behaviors was also collected. There were 513 participants at both baseline and follow-up. Mean sodium excretion estimated from spot urines fell significantly from 8.48 g/d at baseline to 8.05 g/d at follow-up (P=.001). All spot equations demonstrated a significant reduction in sodium levels; however, the change was smaller than the measured 24-hour urine. Participants showed improved knowledge and behaviors following the intervention. The COMBI intervention was effective in lowering average population salt intake and improving knowledge and behaviors. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lei, Bingli; Chen, Liang; Hao, Ying; Cao, Tiehua; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin; Fu, Jiamo
The concentrations of four human essential trace elements [iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr)] and non-essential elements [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)] in eighteen animal-based foods including meat, fish, and shellfish collected from markets in Shanghai, China, were analyzed, and the associated human daily intake and uptake considering bioaccessibility were estimated. The mean concentration ranges for eight trace elements measured in the foods were 3.98-131µgg(-1) for Fe, 0.437-18.5µgg(-1) for Mn, 5.47-53.8µgg(-1) for Zn, none detected-0.101µgg(-1) for Cr, 2.88×10(-4)-2.48×10(-2)µgg(-1) for Cd, 1.18×10(-3)-0.747µgg(-1) for Pb, none detected-0.498µgg(-1) for As, and 8.98×10(-4)-6.52×10(-2)µgg(-1) for Hg. The highest mean concentrations of four human essential elements were all found in shellfish. For all the trace elements, the observed mean concentrations are mostly in agreement with the reported values around the world. The total daily intake of trace elements via ingestion of animal-based food via an average Shanghai resident was estimated as 7371µgd(-1) for the human essential elements and 13.0µgd(-1) for the human non-essential elements, but the uptake decreased to 4826µgd(-1) and 6.90µgd(-1), respectively, after trace element bioaccessibility was considered. Livestock and fish for human essential and non-essential elements, respectively, were the main contributor, no matter whether the bioaccessibility was considered or not. Risk estimations showed that the intake and uptake of a signal trace element for an average Shanghai resident via ingestion animal-based foods from Shanghai markets do not exceed the recommended dietary allowance values; consequently, a health risk situation is not indicated. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Galea, Leanne M; Beck, Eleanor J; Probst, Yasmine C; Cashman, Chris J
The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend Australians choose mostly whole-grain and/or high-fibre varieties within the grains (cereal) foods category, with other groups specifying a whole grain Daily Target Intake of 48 g for Australians aged 9 years or above. The USA and UK report estimates of whole grain intake that are low and declining, and no comprehensive studies on whole grain intake in the Australian population are available. The present study aimed to determine national estimates of whole grain intake, compared with current recommendations. A recently updated whole grain database was applied to the most current population dietary intake data. Single 24 h dietary recall intake data were reviewed against age group, sex, relative to energy intake and whole grain recommendations. Australia. Australians (2-85 years) participating in the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey (n 12 153). The median daily whole grain intake was 21 g for adults (19-85 years) and 17 g for children/adolescents (2-18 years), or 28 and 23 g/10 MJ per d, respectively. Approximately 30 % of children/adolescents consumed no whole grains on the day of the survey. Whole grain intake was lowest for the age group 14-18 years (8·7 g/d). Of all participants aged ≥9 years, 73 % did not reach the recommended Daily Target Intake of 48 g. Whole grain intake in Australia is below recommendations in all age groups. Adolescents may be a key target for campaigns to increase whole grain consumption. This study provides the first quantification of absolute whole grain intake from all food sources in a national sample of Australians.
Knowles, Jacky; Bukania, Zipporah; Camara, Boubacar; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Mwai, John Maina; Toure, Ndeye Khady; Yadav, Kapil
Progress of national Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategies is typically assessed by household coverage of adequately iodized salt and median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in spot urine collections. However, household coverage does not inform on the iodized salt used in preparation of processed foods outside homes, nor does the total UIC reflect the portion of population iodine intake attributable to the USI strategy. This study used data from three population-representative surveys of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kenya, Senegal and India to develop and illustrate a new approach to apportion the population UIC levels by the principal dietary sources of iodine intake, namely native iodine, iodine in processed food salt and iodine in household salt. The technique requires measurement of urinary sodium concentrations (UNaC) in the same spot urine samples collected for iodine status assessment. Taking into account the different complex survey designs of each survey, generalized linear regression (GLR) analyses were performed in which the UIC data of WRA was set as the outcome variable that depends on their UNaC and household salt iodine (SI) data as explanatory variables. Estimates of the UIC portions that correspond to iodine intake sources were calculated with use of the intercept and regression coefficients for the UNaC and SI variables in each country’s regression equation. GLR coefficients for UNaC and SI were significant in all country-specific models. Rural