Bensadoun, René-Jean; Humbert, Phillipe; Krutman, Jean; Luger, Thomas; Triller, Raoul; Rougier, André; Seite, Sophie; Dreno, Brigitte
Skin reactions due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy are a significant problem for an important number of cancer patients. While effective for treating cancer, they disturb cutaneous barrier function, causing a reaction soon after initiation of treatment that impacts patient quality of life. Managing these symptoms with cosmetics and nonpharmaceutical skin care products for camouflage or personal hygiene may be important for increasing patient self-esteem. However, inappropriate product choice or use could worsen side effects. Although recommendations exist for the pharmaceutical treatment of skin reactions, there are no recommendations for the choice or use of dermatologic skin care products for oncology patients. The present guidelines were developed by a board of European experts in dermatology and oncology to provide cancer care professionals with guidance for the appropriate use of non-pharmaceutical, dermocosmetic skin care management of cutaneous toxicities associated with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, including epidermal growth factor inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. The experts hope that these recommendations will improve the management of cutaneous side effects and hence quality of life for oncology patients. PMID:24353440
... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...
... the correct size opening, so urine does not leak Taking good care of the skin around your stoma To care for you skin in this area: Wash your skin with warm water and dry it well before you attach the ...
... a brain or spinal cord injury. People with multiple sclerosis also have problems with their bowels. Those with ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 18. Read More Multiple sclerosis Recovering after stroke Patient Instructions Constipation - self-care ...
... Free flap - self-care; Skin autografting - self-care; Pressure ulcer skin flap self-care; Burns skin flap self- ... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that DO NOT heal After ...
AlGhamdi, Khalid M.; AlHomoudi, Fahad A.; Khurram, Huma
Primary prevention, specifically skin care, is an important principle in Islamic theology just as it is emphasized in contemporary medicine. Many skin diseases can be prevented by a proactive approach to skin care, such as proper hygiene and routine inspections, principles that are constantly highlighted in the Islamic literature. Islam promotes primary prevention of disease, including recommendations for skin care practices. The recommendations for skin care practices in Islamic teachings are analogous to current medical guidelines. Sun avoidance, which is recommended by Islam, is mandatory for diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, melasma and skin cancers. Skin care and hygiene practices are recommended in Islam and it is considered an important mechanism for reducing the transmission of infections in modern medicine. The body creases and hair are ideal sites for malicious infestations to grow. The practice of “Wudu” includes washing the hands, feet, and hair with clean water. It is an indispensible part of daily prayers which is mandatory for every Muslim. Oral hygiene is also an integral part of both preventive medicine and Islamic teachings. Genital hygiene, particularly after urination and defecation, is recommended in Islamic teachings and is known to prevent urinary and vaginal infections in contemporary medicine. Male circumcision is an Islamic practice. Recently, it was proven that circumcised men are less likely to have sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. This paper reviews skin care from an Islamic perspective and its relevance to contemporary medicine by translating the simple self care principles into practical guidelines in everyday use. PMID:25061400
... or showers frequently Washing your hands often Some soaps and detergents Skin conditions, such as eczema and ... apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. ...
... care you need. Solving Skin Problems Bug bites , bee stings, and poison ivy are all common skin ... Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes ...
... skin problems such as redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast infections likely. Bedsores ( pressure sores ) may also develop ... drying the skin. Incontinence problems can cause a yeast infection on the skin. This is an itchy, ...
Nist, Marliese Dion; Rodgers, Elizabeth A; Ruth, Brenda M; Bertoni, C Briana; Bartman, Thomas; Keller, Leah A; Dail, James W; Gardikes-Gingery, Renee; Shepherd, Edward G
Skin injuries are common among neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients and may lead to significant complications. Standardized methods of preventing, detecting, and treating skin injuries are needed. The aim of this project was to standardize the assessment, documentation, and tracking of skin injuries among hospitalized neonatal patients and to determine the incidence of pressure ulcers in this patient population. (1) Creation of an interdisciplinary skin team to identify skin injuries through weekly skin rounds. (2) Assessment of all patients at least twice daily for the presence of skin injuries. Interventions were implemented upon identification of a skin injury. Pressure ulcers of Stage II or more were further assessed by wound/ostomy nurses. A total of 2299 NICU patients were hospitalized and assessed between July 2011 and December 2015. After the initiation of skin rounds, the baseline incidence of pressure ulcers increased from 0.49 per 1000 patient days to 4.6 per 1000 patient days, reflecting an improvement in detection and reporting. The most common skin injuries detected included erythema, skin tears, and ecchymosis; the most common cause of injuries was medical devices. A dedicated skin team can improve the detection and reporting of skin injuries among NICU patients. Determination of the incidence of pressure ulcers in this population is critical to develop targeted interventions. Further research is needed to determine the most effective interventions to prevent and treat skin injuries among hospitalized neonates.
Mizukoshi, Koji; Akamatsu, Hisashi
Various studies have examined the properties of male skin. However, because these studies mostly involved simple measurement with non-invasive devices, a lack of understanding of the properties of male skin remains. In this study, we focused and investigated not only on simple instrumental measurements but also on gender differences and men's subjective perceptions of skin and daily skin care habits. Barrier function depends on corneocyte maturation level as well as sebum amount. Irrespective of the skin type, a high percentage of male subjects perceived a 'tacky feeling'. However, the percentage of men perceiving a 'shiny feeling' differed by skin type. Furthermore, there was a relationship between skin care habits and skin function. Men who did not perform a daily skincare regimen demonstrated a significantly higher sebum amount and transepidermal water loss value than those who did perform a daily skincare regimen. The results of this study indicate that male skin has two specific characteristics: impaired barrier function because of the excess amount of sebum and a lack of an appropriate skin care regimen because of the 'tacky feeling' caused by excess sebum. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kirkland-Kyhn, Holly; Zaratkiewicz, Sunniva; Teleten, Oleg; Young, Heather M
: This article is part of a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups, conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project, supported evidence that family caregivers aren't given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's health care at home.The articles in this new installment of the series provide simple and useful instructions that nurses should reinforce with family caregivers who perform wound care tasks. Each article also includes an informational tear sheet-Information for Family Caregivers-that contains links to instructional videos. To use this series, nurses should read the article first, so they understand how best to help family caregivers, and then encourage caregivers to watch the videos and ask questions. For additional information, see Resources for Nurses.
Surber, C; Brandt, S; Cozzio, A; Kottner, J
With aging, skin undergoes progressive structural and functional degeneration that leaves it prone to a wide variety of bothersome and even serious conditions and diseases. As skin conditions and diseases may affect all ages from cradle to grave, a disproportionate burden will clearly fall on the elderly and may significantly impact on quality of life (QoL). With a reduced ability of the skin to regenerate, the elderly are at an increased risk of skin breakdowns from even the simplest insults. It is therefore vital that skin care in the late adulthood is seen as a priority among both clinicians and caregivers. The scientific literature on diagnosing and assessing age-related skin conditions and diseases is vast; however, when it comes to preventive care and treatment, the scientific data available is less profound, and the recommendations are often based on personal experience, opinions or at best on consensus documents rather than on scientific data retrieved from controlled clinical trials. In addition to the absence of the scientific data, the imprecise terminology to describe the topical products, as well as the lack of understanding the essence of the vehicle, contributes to vague and often unhelpfully product recommendations. This paper aims to elucidate some basic principles of skincare, the choice of skincare products and their regulatory status. The paper discusses adherence to topical therapies, percutaneous absorption in the elderly, and skin surface pH and skin care. Lastly, it also discusses skin care principles in selected age related skin conditions and diseases.
Draelos, Z D
Male skin care needs are heavily influenced by the need to remove facial hair on a regular basis. Facial skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common and include razor burn and irritation. This paper evaluates current research on shaving technology and how careful ingredient selection can contribute to male skin health. The importance of maintaining hair softness during the shave and restoring facial hydration post-shave is discussed. Data are presented on how post-shave moisturizers containing glycerine and emollients can create an environment for improved barrier function which can be further improved by incorporating specific ingredients such as niacinamide. © 2012 The Author. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.
Estee Lauder uses digital image analyzer and software based on NASA lunar research in evaluation of cosmetic products for skincare. Digital image processing brings out subtleties otherwise undetectable, and allows better determination of product's effectiveness. Technique allows Estee Lauder to quantify changes in skin surface form and structure caused by application of cosmetic preparations.
Visscher, Marty O; Adam, Ralf; Brink, Susanna; Odio, Mauricio
Infant skin is critical to the newborn child's transition from the womb environment to the journey to self-sufficiency. This review provides an integrative perspective on the skin development in full term and premature infants. There is a particular focus on the role of vernix caseosa and on the implications of skin development for epidermal penetration of exogenous compounds. Healthy full-term newborn skin is well-developed and functional at birth, with a thick epidermis and well-formed stratum corneum (SC) layers. Transepidermal water loss is very low at birth, equal to, or lower than adults, indicating a highly effective skin barrier. Vernix facilitates SC development in full-term infants through a variety of mechanisms including physical protection from amniotic fluid and enzymes, antimicrobial effects, skin surface pH lowering, provision of lipids, and hydration. Premature infants, particularly those of very low birth weight, have a poor skin barrier with few cornified layers and deficient dermal proteins. They are at increased risk for skin damage, increased permeability to exogenous agents and infection. The SC barrier develops rapidly after birth but complete maturation requires weeks to months. The best methods for caring for infant skin, particularly in the diaper region, are described and related to these developmental changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A; Mitra, Soma R; Stephen, Ian D
Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants' skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin.
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Deeren, Dries; Dewulf, Evelyne; Verfaillie, Lydie
A recent multicenter study demonstrated that bathing with chlorhexidine reduces the transmission of resistant organisms and the risk of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in ICUs. We wanted to confirm the feasibility of this strategy in a cohort of patients in a typical intensive haematology unit. Patients treated with remission induction chemotherapy, autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation received daily chlorhexidine bathing. To avoid deshydratation of skin, we used prophylactic application of hydrating lotion, replaced by corticosteroid cream in case of skin toxicity of chemotherapy or conditioning. We studied 15 consecutive admissions of 12 patients. Daily chlorhexidine bathing never needed to be interrupted, even though 53% of patients were treated with intravenous cytarabine. Patients were satisfied with the skin treatment and reported few unwanted effects. Daily chlorhexidine bathing was feasible in our intensive haematology unit in all patients and did not increase skin toxicity, even when treated with IV cytarabine.
Tanaka, Akane; Jung, Kyungsook; Matsuda, Akira; Jang, Hyosun; Kajiwara, Naoki; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Ahn, Ginnae; Ohmori, Keitaro; Kang, Kyung-goo; Matsuda, Hiroshi
Drinking water is an important nutrient for human health. The mineral ingredients included in drinking water may affect the physical condition of people. Various kinds of natural water are in circulation as bottled water in developed countries; however, its influence on clinical conditions of patients with certain diseases has not been fully evaluated. In this study, effects of the natural groundwater from Jeju Island on clinical symptoms and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis (AD) were evaluated. NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, with moderate to severe dermatitis were used. Mice were given different natural groundwater or tap water for 8 weeks from 4 weeks of age. Clinical skin severity scores were recorded every week. Scratching analysis and measurement of transepidermal water loss were performed every other week. The pathological condition of the dorsal skin was evaluated histologically. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for cytokine expression in the affected skin. The epidermal hyperplasia and allergic inflammation were reduced in atopic mice supplied with Jeju groundwater when compared to those supplied with tap water or other kinds of natural groundwater. The increase in scratching behavior with the aggravation of clinical severity of dermatitis was favorably controlled. Moreover, transepidermal water loss that reflects skin barrier function was recovered. The early inflammation and hypersensitivity in the atopic skin was alleviated in mice supplied with Jeju groundwater, suggesting its profitable potential on the daily care of patients with skin troubles including AD. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Hensley, David; Meckfessel, Matthew H
The epidemiology and demographic profile of acne vulgaris has evolved over the past several decades, with a noted earlier onset occurring in patients as young as 7 years of age. The combination of a foaming facial wash and a facial moisturizer with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 is an over-the-counter cleansing and moisturizing regimen for acne-prone skin that has been shown to be safe and tolerable in subjects 12 years of age and older. To assess the tolerability of this skin care regimen in children ages 7 to 11 years with acne-prone skin. This was an open-label, single-center study that investigated the safety and tolerability of these products in subjects 7 to 11 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01909713). Subjects used the foaming wash twice daily and the SPF 30 moisturizer once daily. Subjects were assessed for cutaneous tolerability, and satisfaction at baseline and weeks 1 and 3. Thirty-five subjects enrolled and completed the study. The cutaneous tolerability score of most subjects was none when assessed by the investigator and subject or legally authorized representative at weeks 1 and 3. The products were well tolerated and a positive impression for cosmetic acceptability was reported for both products by the study population on the questionnaire. This study supports the use of a skin care regimen comprising a wash and a moisturizer in acne-prone patients as young as 7 years old since these products were safe, well tolerated, and liked by subjects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A.; Mitra, Soma R.; Stephen, Ian D.
Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants’ skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin. PMID:26186449
Kelechi, Teresa J; Mueller, Martina; King, Dana E; Madisetti, Mohan; Prentice, Margie
People with chronic venous disease are at high risk for developing venous leg ulcers. Inflammation is posited as a pathological factor for this chronic condition as evidenced by persistently elevated skin temperature. As part of a larger trial to test the effects of a cooling regimen on leg ulcer prevention, the objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the first 30 days of intense daily cooling. Compared to a placebo control cuff, a gel cuff applied to the most severely affected lower leg skin for 30 min daily showed no statistically significant differences between temperatures taken in the home at baseline compared to those measured at the 1 month follow up visit. There were also no differences in temperatures noted between the two groups, although the temperatures in the treatment group were lower 30 min after treatment, an indication of adherence. There was no discernable decrease or increase in temperature at a given time point during the 30 day treatment period compared to the control group. It may be better to have patients monitor skin temperature on a daily basis and then apply the cuff as necessary, rather than requiring daily cooling based on baseline measurement. This "prn" approach may provide a sufficient cooling milieu to prevent escalation of inflammation and thwart ulcer occurrence or recurrence. Clinical trials registration #NCT01509599. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qiu, Huixia; Flament, Frederic; Long, Xiaohui; Wu, Jun; Xu, Mengzhi; Leger, Didier Saint; Meaudre, Helene; Senee, Jerome; Piot, Bertrand; Bazin, Roland
The facial skin tone of two groups of Chinese women from Shanghai was compared using standard colorimetric space techniques during a 6-month interval between January and July 2011. During the study period, one group of women (n = 40) applied a potent sun-protective cosmetic product daily, while the other group (n = 40) did not use any sun protection. The results, based on images taken using a standardized digital camera coupled to a spectroradiometer, showed that sun protection largely mitigated changes in the components of skin tone, ie, lightness, melanization, and individual typology angle parameters. The skin darkening process appeared to be reduced or prevented in the sun-protected group when compared with the control group. The sun-protected women had participated in an earlier study in 2008, which confirmed that seasonal skin darkening occurs from winter through summer in Shanghaiese women. Comparing the data obtained in the winters of 2008 and 2011, we were able to identify better the impact of 3 years of aging on the components of skin tone. Comparing data between seasons on the same women with (2011 study) and without (2008 study) sun protection highlights the role of the test product in preventing skin darkening.
Williams, Julia; Gwillam, Brandon; Sutherland, Norma; Matten, Jane; Hemmingway, Julie; Ilsey, Helen; Somerville, Mary; Vujnovich, Angela; Day, Stephanie; Redmond, Caroline; Cowin, Caroline; Fox, Kathy; Parker, Theresa
This study aimed to identify actual and potential peristomal skin problems in relation to the use of different types of stoma appliances and accessories. It also compared ostomists' perceptions of their peristomal skin condition with those of stoma care nurse specialists. Maintaining skin integrity is a basic skill that ensures good stoma management. It is widely accepted that from time to time a patient with a stoma will seek clinical advice about a peristomal skin problem. Little is known about how often patients present with these problems, the clinical course of peristomal skin problems, and how patients manage them. A multi-centred descriptive study was conducted among 80 ostomists. Fieldwork took place over 13 months. The sample was drawn from a UK home care delivery database. Using structured questionnaires, ostomists were interviewed by a stoma care nurse specialist. A digital photograph was taken of their peristomal skin and their answers compared with nurse assessment using the Stoma Care Ostomy Research index scoring system. Of the interviewees 32% had healthy peristomal skin both via questionnaire and at observation. At observation, 68% were observed to have peristomal skin problems, of whom 44% had irritated skin, 12% had ulcerated skin, 9% had an apparent allergy and 3% had macerated/eroded skin. In addition, 21% had an ill-fitting appliance at observation. Half (50%) were observed to have a parastomal hernia, although only 24% reported having one. These findings demonstrate significant differences between the perception of skin problems among ostomists and actual skin problems observed by stoma care nurse specialists. Peristomal skin problems are common among ostomists. The difference between ostomists' and nurses' perceptions of peristomal skin condition led to the identification of educational needs for the new ostomist. Education and regular follow-up by the stoma care nurse specialist is imperative.
Kuller, Joanne McManus
Infant skin is susceptible to dryness and irritation from external factors, including topical skin care products not formulated for the infant's skin. This may increase the risk of contact dermatitis. Parents frequently express concern regarding potential harm from ingredients in skin care products and seek information. This is complicated by several skin care myths. The purpose of this literature review was to provide evidence-based information to educate parents on the use of products for preterm and term infants. Multiple searches using PubMed were conducted including the search terms "infant skin care," "infant products," "infant bath," "emollients," "diaper skin care," and "diaper wipes." Reference lists of comprehensive reviews were also scanned. Google searches were used to assess consumer information, product information, and regulatory guidelines. There is little scientific evidence to support safety of natural/organic products on infant skin. Raw materials originate from different sources, complicating testing and comparisons of ingredients. Research shows that cleansers formulated for infant skin do not weaken the skin barrier the way harsher soaps and detergents can. Oils with the lowest oleic acid content provide a lower risk of irritant contact dermatitis. Nurses must be informed about natural and organic products, preservatives, and fragrances and know the definition of commonly used marketing terms. Decisions regarding the use of infant products in preterm and term infants should be evidence based. More research is needed to support claims regarding the safety of products used on infant skin.
Johnston, Celeste; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Fernandes, Ananda; Inglis, Darlene; Streiner, David; Zee, Rebekah
Skin-to-skin care (SSC), otherwise known as Kangaroo Care (KC) due to its similarity with marsupial behaviour of ventral maternal-infant contact, is one non-pharmacological intervention for pain control in infants. The primary objectives were to determine the effect of SSC alone on pain from medical or nursing procedures in neonates undergoing painful procedures compared to no intervention, sucrose or other analgesics, or additions to simple SSC such as rocking; and the effects of the amount of SSC (duration in minutes) and the method of administration (who provided the SSC, positioning of caregiver and neonate pair).The secondary objectives were to determine the incidence of untoward effects of SSC and to compare the SSC effect in different postmenstrual age subgroups of infants. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Collaborative Review Group were used. Databases searched in August 2011: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library); Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews; MEDLINE (1950 onwards); PubMed (1975 onwards); EMBASE (1974 onwards); CINAHL (1982 onwards); Web of Science (1980 onwards); LILACS database (1982 onwards); SCIELO database (1982 onwards); PsycInfo (1980 onwards); AMED (1985 onwards); Dissertation-Abstracts International (1980 onwards). Searches were conducted throughout September 2012. Studies with randomisation or quasi-randomisation, double or single-blinded, involving term infants (> 37 completed weeks postmenstrual age (PMA)) to a maximum of 44 weeks PMA and preterm infants (< 37 completed weeks PMA) receiving SSC for painful procedures conducted by doctors, nurses, or other healthcare professionals. The main outcome measures were physiological or behavioural pain indicators and composite pain scores. A weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using a fixed-effect model was reported for continuous outcome measures. We included variations on type of tissue-damaging procedure
Johnston, Celeste; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Disher, Timothy; Benoit, Britney; Fernandes, Ananda; Streiner, David; Inglis, Darlene; Zee, Rebekah
Skin-to-skin care (SSC), often referred to as 'kangaroo care' (KC) due to its similarity with marsupial behaviour of ventral maternal-infant contact, is one non-pharmacological intervention for pain control in infants. The primary objectives were to determine the effect of SSC alone on pain from medical or nursing procedures in neonates compared to no intervention, sucrose or other analgesics, or additions to simple SSC such as rocking; and to determine the effects of the amount of SSC (duration in minutes), method of administration (e.g. who provided the SSC) of SSC in reducing pain from medical or nursing procedures in neonatesThe secondary objectives were to determine the safety of SSC care for relieving procedural pain in infants; and to compare the SSC effect in different postmenstrual age subgroups of infants. For this update, we used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1); MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 25 February 2016); Embase (1980 to 25 February 2016); and CINAHL (1982 to 25 February 2016). We also searched clinical trials' databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. Studies with randomisation or quasi-randomisation, double- or single-blinded, involving term infants (≥ 37 completed weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) to a maximum of 44 weeks' PMA and preterm infants (< 37 completed weeks PMA) receiving SSC for painful procedures conducted by healthcare professionals. The main outcome measures were physiological or behavioural pain indicators and composite pain scores. A mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using a fixed-effect model was reported for continuous outcome measures. We included variations on type of tissue-damaging procedure, provider of care, and duration of SSC. Twenty-five studies (n = 2001 infants) were included
Skin health is essential for well being in older people. Personal hygiene is fundamental to skin health, but a lack of evidence exists about effective practices. An evidence base, disseminated through nursing education and patient health promotion, must be developed.
Zander, A; Boniface, D
To gather accurate data on the daily mouth care provided in care homes including tooth brushing, oral health assessment, and recording of care provided. Direct observation and notes review. Both nursing and 'regular' care homes. 365 Residents living in 16 care homes and their carers underwent observation, notes review or data collection in some form. Provision of mouth morning care. Of 161 residents observed, most (93, 58%) did not have their teeth/dentures brushed. If performed, brushing was often carried out by the resident themselves (36 cases, 53%), rather than by a carer (32 cases, 44%). Carers used a toothbrush to clean inside a resident's mouth in just 7 cases (4.3% of all personal care routines observed). Smaller care homes were no more likely to brush residents teeth than larger care homes, and nursing homes were no more likely to brush teeth than other care homes. Of the 309 sets of notes available for review, 41 (13%) contained a dedicated oral health needs assessment, and 109 (35%) contained a daily oral care chart in some form. Mouth care was often recorded inaccurately (15% of cases). This is the first observational study in the UK to assess oral care actually provided to residents by carers in care homes. The findings reveal a substantially different picture of daily mouth care than was previously understood and suggest that many of the nation's care home residents may not be receiving adequate, or any, oral health care. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd
Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Shiga, Toshikazu; Hata, Yutaka
Health is quite important to be realized in our daily life. However, its idea covers wide area and has individual dependency. Activities in health care have been widely developed by medical, drag, insurance, food, and other types of industries mainly centering diseases. In this article, systems approach named Systems Health Care is introduced and discussed to generate new and precious values based on measurements in daily life to change lifestyle habits for realizing each health. Firstly, issues related to health such as its definitions are introduced and discussed by centering health rather than disease. In response to the discussions on health, Home and Medical Care is continuously introduced to point out the important role causality between life style and vital signal such as exercise and blood pressure based on detailed sampling time. Systems approaches of Systems Health Care are discussed from various points of views. Real applications of devices and services are used to make the studies and discussions deeper on the subjects of the article.
Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J
Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Suddaby, Elizabeth C; Barnett, Scott D; Facteau, Lorna
The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, single-page measurement tool that evaluates risk of skin breakdown in the peadiatric population and apply it to the acutely hospitalized child. Data were collected over a 15-month period from 347 patients on four in-patient units (PICU, medical-surgical, oncology, and adolescents) on skin breakdown using the AHCPR staging guidelines and compared to the total score on the Starkid SkinScale in order to determine its ability to predict skin breakdown. The inter-rater reliability of the Starkid Skin Scale was r2 = 0.85 with an internal reliablity of 0.71. The sensitivity of the total score was low (17.5%) but highly specific (98.5%). The prevalence of skin breakdown in the acutely hospitalized child was 23%, the majority (77.5%) occurring as erythema of the skin. Buttocks, perineum, and occiput were the most common locations of breakdown. Occiput breakdown was more common in critically ill (PICU) patients while diaper dermatitis was more common in the general medical-surgical population.
Almarzoky Abuhussain, S S; Goodlet, K J; Nailor, M D; Nicolau, D P
Skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) refer to a collection of clinical infectious syndromes involving layers of skin and associated soft tissues. Although associated with less morbidity and mortality than other common skin infections, SSSIs represent a significant increasing source of healthcare expense, with a prevalence of 500 episodes per 10,000 patient-years in the United States resulting in burdening health care systems, of approximately $6 billion annually. Areas covered: Opportunities to reduce costs of care associated with SSSI are highlighted, including transitions of care and avoiding unnecessary hospital admissions. Moreover, we reviewed new antibiotics (e.g. single dose glycopeptides), and the impact of consulting specialists in the emergency department on SSSI treatment outcomes. Expert commentary: New healthcare models and payment strategies combined with new therapeutics are challenging norms of care. Newer drugs to treat skin infections can move a substantive percent of patients previously admitted to hospital care to the outpatient setting. Additionally, patients can be managed with oral or one time intravenous regimens, improving the likelihood of patient adherence and satisfaction. These variables need to be weighed against added acquisition costs and the development of thoughtful algorithms is needed to direct care and optimize treatment, cost, and patient satisfaction.
Meulenbelt, Henk E J; Geertzen, Jan H B; Jonkman, Marcel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U
The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of stump skin problems on functioning in daily life in lower-limb amputees. A cross-sectional study was performed by means of a questionnaire containing 9 questions assessing functioning in daily life. Question scores were added to give a total score (range 0 (no influence) to 27 (maximum negative influence)). Two thousand and thirty-nine people were invited to participate, with 805 participants completing a questionnaire. Of these, 507 reported one or more skin problems. Skin problems had a negative influence on ability to perform household tasks, prosthesis use, social functioning, and participation in sports. The mean total score was 5.5 ± 4.1. This correlated significantly with the number of skin complaints (r = 0.483; p = 0.01). In linear regression analyses, gender (β = -0.15) and number of skin problems (β = 0.25) accounted for 23% of the total score. This study confirms the influence of skin problems on functioning in daily life.
Yoshino, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Yokono, Koichi
The causes of decreased activity of daily life (ADL) in elderly patients include cerebrovascular diseases, bone fracture by falls, and dementia. The present study was conducted among elderly patients with decreased ADL who were hospitalized in nursing wards in order to investigate the causes of becoming early bedridden and to determine precautionary measures against decreased ADL. The study subjects were 224 elderly patients with decreased ADL (mean age: 83.3 ± 8.0 years) and 49 outpatients without decreased ADL (mean age: 76.8 ± 5.3 years). Current age, age at the start of ADL decrease, medical history and history of smoking were investigated. In the groups with decreased ADL, current age and the age of becoming bedridden in non-diabetic versus diabetic groups were 84.7 ± 7.9 versus 80.3 ± 7.5 and 82.7 ± 8.3 versus 77.6 ± 8.0 years, respectively, both showing significantly lower values in the diabetic group (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed that sex difference and diabetes were the factors determining the age of becoming early bedridden. Diabetic patients with smoking habit were significantly younger than diabetic and non-diabetic patients without smoking habit. Sex difference, smoking habit and presence of diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors of becoming early bedridden. Therefore, the major targets of medical care among elderly should be diabetic men with a smoking habit to lower the risks of decreased ADL. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Kidwell, D A; Kidwell, J D; Shinohara, F; Harper, C; Roarty, K; Bernadt, K; McCaulley, R A; Smith, F P
This study (1) compares urine, skin swabs, and PharmChek sweat patches for monitoring drug use; (2) measures possible environmental contamination in recent cocaine (COC) users; and (3) evaluates various immunoassays (IA) for screening COC in diverse matrices. Unique aspects include daily urine monitoring of 10 participants for 4 weeks, multiple monitoring methods, analysis for all specimens by IA and gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS), and the potential for continued illicit drug use by participants. Urine served as the "gold standard" specimen for determining drug use. Only cocaine and related substances were detected. Trace amounts of drugs were found on the skin (<50 ng per swab) of urine-negative participants' hands or forehead. In contrast, larger quantities of COC were found on the skin of individuals with BE-positive urines or individuals living with drug users (up to 20 microg per swab). Patch COC amounts among the three regular users (250-9000, 0-240, 160-22,000 ng per patch) exceeded BE (50-950, none, 30-2200 ng per patch). Pre-swabs, valuable for interpreting the source or time frame of positive patch results, contained substantial COC (38-1160, 0-152, 34-762 ng per swab) prior to patch application; therefore, patch results may represent current use, prior use, contamination, or a combination. In three individuals with no indication of cocaine use, false positives (defined as sweat patch positive when urine specimens were <300ng BE/ml) occurred at a 7% rate. Proposed cut-off concentrations of 75 ng cocaine per patch and 300 ng BE/ml urine curtail the incidence of false positives in this limited population. Three immunoassays were compared to screen specimens for cocaine: a modified, manual Microgenics CEDIA; a Cozart ELISA; and an OraSure ELISA. CEDIA's limit of detection (LOD) was 81ng/ml, compared with LODs of 4 ng/ml for the Cozart ELISA and 1.5 ng/ml for the OraSure ELISA. Cozart correlated with OraSure results for COC concentrations
Chow, A T; Chen, A; Lattime, H; Morgan, N; Wong, F; Fowler, C; Williams, R R
To probe the pharmacokinetic basis for the use of levofloxacin for complicated skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs) at a once-daily dosage of 750 mg by investigating its penetration into skin tissue. Ten healthy volunteers were administered three oral, once-daily 750 mg doses of levofloxacin, and levofloxacin concentrations were subsequently measured over time (0.5-24 h) in skin-punch biopsy tissue and plasma. Skin tissue concentrations consistently exceeded those in plasma at every time point, with tissue/plasma ratios of 1.37 +/- 0.81 for peak concentration and 1.97 +/- 0.35 for area under the concentration versus time curve. Three of the ten subjects reported treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) that were considered unrelated to treatment. An 11th subject who had enrolled in the study withdrew after AEs of mild severity that were possibly related to the study drug. The results support the clinical usage of levofloxacin 750 mg once-daily for complicated SSSIs.
Bandeira, Luciana Alves; Santos, Maxuel Cruz Dos; Duarte, Êrica Rosalba Mallmann; Bandeira, Andrea Gonçalves; Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Vieira, Letícia Becker
To describe the social networks of patients with chronic skin damages. A qualitative study conducted through semi-structured interviews with nine subjects with chronic skin lesions from June 2016 to March 2017; we used the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola's Social Network. The analysis of the relational maps revealed that the primary network was formed mainly by relatives and neighbors; its characteristics, such as: reduced size, low density and few exchanges/relationships, configures fragility in these links. The secondary network was essentially described by health services, and the nurse was cited as a linker in the therapeutic process. Faced with the fragility of the links and social isolation, the primary health care professionals are fundamental foundations for the construction of networks of social support and care for patients with chronic skin lesions.
Rochet, Jean-Michel; Zaoui, Affif
Burn rehabilitation main goal is to minimize the consequences of hypertrophic scars and concomitant contractures. The treatment principles rely on the association of joint posture, continuous pressure completed with range of motion to prevent joint fusion (which happens to adults but not to children). Throughout the different treatment phases and wound evolution, reassessment is necessary to review rehabilitation goals and activities. During the acute phase the alternance of positioning is prioritized in order to keep the affected extremities in antideformity position using splint or other devices. At the rehabilitation phase, treatment is focussed on active/passive range of motion (skin posture) strengthening exercises and use of dynamic splint is introduced to correct contractures. After their discharge home, patients benefit from outpatient rehab until scar maturation (approximately 18 months). The treatment consists mainly on active/passive range of motion, scar massage, strengthening exercise and endurance retraining. Also modalities (such as thermal bath and high pressure water spray) are used to address itching problems and for scar softening. Finally, reconstructive surgery can be performed to correct excessive scarring or joint contracture for better functional or cosmetic outcome.
Everett, Janine S.; Budescu, Mia; Sommers, Marilyn S.
The background of this article is that assessment and quantification of skin color is important to health care; color is one indicator of overall health and is linked to oxygenation, tissue perfusion, nutritional status, and injury. The purpose is to describe how skin color varies across racial/ethnic groups so that the information can be applied to clinical practice. The method used is cross-sectional, descriptive design (n = 257). We recorded self-defined race/ethnicity and used a spectrophotometer to measure skin color at two anatomic sites. Skin color variables included L* (light/dark), a* (red/green), and b* (yellow/blue). As regards results, we found significant differences in L*, a*, and b* values by site and race/ethnicity in White, Asian, and Biracial participants. L*: F(3, 233) = 139.04, p < .01 and F(3, 233) = 118.47, p < .01. Black participants had significantly lower mean L* values and wider ranges of L*, a*, and b* as compared with other groups. In regard to application, these findings suggest that clinicians and researchers should plan and provide care based on skin color, rather than race/ethnicity. PMID:22645403
Schlichte, Megan J.
Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as “gentle,” “sensitive,” “organic,” or “hypoallergenic” often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children. PMID:25342949
Schlichte, Megan J; Katta, Rajani
Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as "gentle," "sensitive," "organic," or "hypoallergenic" often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children.
Dan Carter carefully layered the sheets of tracing paper on the light box. On each sheet were renderings of the atomic components of an essential human protein, one whose structure had long been a mystery. With each layer Carter laid down, a never-before-seen image became clearer. Carter joined NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center in 1985 and began exploring processes of protein crystal growth in space. By bouncing intense X-rays off the crystals, researchers can determine the electron densities around the thousands of atoms forming the protein molecules, unveiling their atomic structures. Cultivating crystals of sufficient quality on Earth was problematic; the microgravity conditions of space were far more accommodating. At the time, only a few hundred protein structures had been mapped, and the methods were time consuming and tedious. Carter hoped his work would help reveal the structure of human serum albumin, a major protein in the human circulatory system responsible for ferrying numerous small molecules in the blood. More was at stake than scientific curiosity. Albumin has a high affinity for most of the world s pharmaceuticals, Carter explains, and its interaction with drugs can change their safety and efficacy. When a medication enters the bloodstream a cancer chemotherapy drug, for example a majority of it can bind with albumin, leaving only a small percentage active for treatment. How a drug interacts with albumin can influence considerations like the necessary effective dosage, playing a significant role in the design and application of therapeutic measures. In spite of numerous difficulties, including having no access to microgravity following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, the image Carter had hoped to see was finally clarifying. In 1988, his lab had acquired specialized X-ray and detection equipment a tipping point. Carter and his colleagues began to piece together albumin s portrait, the formation of its electron densities coalescing on
Kottner, Jan; Rahn, Yasmin; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Lahmann, Nils
Due to anatomical and physiological changes in the course of aging and due to increased vulnerability, there are special skin care needs in elderly and care-dependent persons. Little is known about skin care practice in German long-term care facilities. The aim of the study was to gather epidemiological data about skin care practice in German nursing homes. In spring 2012 a German-wide cross sectional study was conducted in 47 nursing homes. Based on standardized data collection sheets. demographics and variables about methods and frequencies of skin cleansing and application of skin care products for 3 552 nursing home residents were collected and analyzed. The variables age, gender and level of care dependency was representative for the group of all German nursing home residents. More than 90% of investigated nursing home residents required skin care assistance. Washing body parts or the whole body were conducted most frequently (89.1%, 95% CI 88.0- 90.1). Skin care leave-on products were used in 91.7% (95% CI 90.7-92.6), whereas there were large variations between individuals. In total, more than 100 brands were used. Skin care practice in multimorbid care dependent persons shows large variations. How skin care products meet the special requirements of aged skin and whether they enhance the skin barrier function and prevent cuteneous skin damage is unknown. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.
Amare, Yared; Shamba, Donat D; Manzi, Fatuma; Bee, Margaret H; Omotara, Babatunji A; Iganus, Ruth B; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa A; Odebiyi, Adetanwa L; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Hill, Zelee E
Data for this study on skin care practices and emollient use in four African sites were collected using in-depth interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. Respondents were mothers, grandmothers, fathers, health workers, birth attendants and people selling skin-care products. Analysis included content and framework analyses.Emollient use was a normative practice in all sites, with frequent application from an early age in most sites. There were variations in the type of emollients used, but reasons for use were similar and included improving the skin, keeping the baby warm, softening/strengthening the joints/bones, shaping the baby, ensuring flexibility and encouraging growth and weight gain. Factors that influenced emollient choice varied and included social pressure, cost, availability and deep-rooted traditional norms. Massage associated with application was strong and potentially damaging to the skin in some sites.Given the widespread use of emollients, the repeated exposure of newborns in the first month of life and the potential impact of emollients on mortality, trials such as those that have been conducted in Asia are needed in a range of African settings. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Naldi, Luigi; Cazzaniga, Simone; Gonçalo, Margarida; Diepgen, Thomas; Bruze, Magnus; Elsner, Peter; Coenraads, Peter J; Svensson, Åke; Bertuccio, Paola; Ofenloch, Robert
IMPORTANCE Skin disorders are common in the general population, and they may be associated with significant disability. The use of daily skin products may affect the appearance and severity of skin conditions. OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of reported itchy rash lasting longer than 3 days among the general population and to evaluate lifetime avoidance of different types of consumer products because of skin problems. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study comprised a large descriptive epidemiological survey of the general population conducted in 6 European regions from August 20, 2008, to October 10, 2011. Participants were a random sample of individuals aged 18 to 74 years, based on electoral precincts. The participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. EXPOSURES Lifetime exposure to products of common use was considered, including toiletry items that remained on the skin or were rinsed off and household and functional items. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The 1-month, 1-year, and lifetime age-standardized prevalence rates of itchy rash that lasted longer than 3 days. RESULTS In total, 12 377 individuals (53.9% female; median age, 43 years) were interviewed. The overall prevalences of itchy rash were 19.3% (95% CI, 18.6%-20.0%) during the month preceding the interview, 31.8% (95% CI, 31.0%-32.6%) during the preceding year, and 51.7% (95% CI, 50.8%-52.6%) over a lifetime. In addition, the percentage of individuals who reported avoidance of any product varied from 37.0% for products intended to be left on the skin to 17.7% for household or functional products. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our findings confirmed the magnitude of skin problems among the general population reported in other surveys. Although itchy rash is a nonspecific manifestation, it may be considered in epidemiological surveys to reflect a constellation of skin conditions and to summarize the burden of these conditions
Skin problems can be hard to diagnose, leaving clinicians frustrated and patients incorrectly treated, but rashes and lesions can be markers of systemic disease and infections. However, by using simple history-taking and mnemonics, safety and correct diagnoses can be achieved. This article will consider some common problems encountered in primary and community care, issues that need to be excluded, resources that will help with diagnosis and some management guidelines. This is not an exhaustive guide, and advice should be sought from learned colleagues in specific cases. Pressure area care and the use of compression bandaging will not be discussed unless it is of relevance to the subject of rashes and lesions.
Irani, Sarosh; Turani, Zahra; Fotouhi, Audrey; Daveluy, Steven; Mehregan, Darius; Chen, Wei; Gelovani, Juri; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza
In this study, we assess the applicability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for non-invasive imaging of skin morphology for the assessment of efficacy of cosmetic skin wrinkle-reduction products in humans. Evaluation of skin care products for reduction of facial wrinkles is largely limited to photographic (non-quantitative) comparison of skin surface texture before and after either single or prolonged application of skin care product. OCT could be a technique for monitoring changes in cross-sectional skin morphology. An optical attenuation coefficient analysis is also carried out to quantitatively study the changes in different layers of the skin.
Müller, Veronika; Tamási, Lilla; Gálffy, Gabriella; Losonczy, György
Active oncotherapy, combination chemotherapy of lung cancer is accompanied with many side effects which may impair patients' quality of life and compromise the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Most side effects of chemotherapy are preventable or treatable with optimal supportive care which enhances success in patient care and treatment. The aim of this review is to summarize the most important conditions that may be associated with combined chemotherapy of lung cancer from the practical point of view.
Martínez Cuervo, Fernando; Soldevilla Agreda, J Javier; Verdú Soriano, José; Segovia Gómez, Teresa; García Fernández, Francisco Pedro; Pancorbo Hidalgo, Pedro Luís
The aging process and environmental aggressions will leave their imprints on the state of a person's skin, possibly compromising some of its functions. Age is a risk factor for the development of bed sores, but not the only factor nor the most important one; therefore, we need to develop prevention programs directed to all patients who spend long periods of time sedentary or bedridden. Prevention programs for bed sores must be based on the best evidence available and include a risk evaluation on these factors: suffering a lesion due to pressure, specific skin treatment, incontinence control, excessive humidity posture changes and the use of special surfaces to manage pressure during an increase in mobility or activity by the patient, local pressure reducing devices as well as paying attention to special situations. All of these care measures have to be developed based on a continuity of treatment among the institutions and caretakers involved with treating each patient.
Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A
Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908
Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A
The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry ) and skin roughness (Ra ) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects.
Kottner, Jan; Surber, Christian
Skin (self-)care is part of human life from birth until death. Today many different skin care practices, preferences, traditions and routines exist in parallel. In addition, preventive and therapeutic skin care is delivered in nursing and healthcare by formal and informal caregivers. The aim of this contribution is a critical discussion about skin care in the context of professional nursing practice. An explicit skin assessment using accurate diagnostic statements is needed for clinical decision making. Special attention should be paid on high risk skin areas, which may be either too dry or too moist. From a safety perspective the protection and maintenance of skin integrity should have the highest priority. Skin cleansing is the removal of unwanted substances from the skin surface. Despite cleansing efficacy soap, other surfactants and water will inevitably always result in the destruction of the skin barrier. Thousands of products are available to hydrate, moisturize, protect and restore skin properties dependent upon their formulation and the concentration of ingredients. These products intended to left in contact with skin exhibit several actions on and in the skin interfering with skin biology. Unwanted side effects include hyper-hydration and disorganization of lipid bilayers in the stratum corneum, a dysfunctional barrier, increased susceptibility to irritants and allergies, and increases of skin surface pH. Where the skin barrier is impaired appropriate interventions, e.g. apply lipophilic products in sufficient quantity to treat dry skin or protect the skin from exposure to irritants should be provided. A key statement of this contribution is: every skin care activity matters. Every time something is placed on the skin, a functional and structural response is provoked. This response can be either desired or undesired, beneficial or harmful. The choice of all skin care interventions in nursing and healthcare practice must be based on an accurate assessment
Ayello, Elizabeth A
The purpose of this learning activity is to provide information about the updates to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) MDS 3.0 Section M, Skin Conditions documentation in long-term care. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Explain the use of the CMS MDS 3.0 tool for documenting skin problems in long-term care.2. Demonstrate examples of proper documentation for specific skin problems. This manuscript reviews some of the key parts of the October 2016 revised Long-term Care Resident Assessment Instrument manual for Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 Section M Skin Conditions. It also reports the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid's publicly reported frequency data in long-term care for selected items on the MDS 3.0 Section M Skin Conditions. Percentages and trends of pressure ulcers/injuries, skin tears, and moisture-associated skin damage are assessed.
Johnson, Deanna E
The skin of extremely preterm infants is underdeveloped and has poor barrier function. Skin maintenance interventions initiated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have immediate and lifelong implications when the potential for infection, allergen sensitization, and altered aesthetic outcomes are considered. In addition, the high-level medical needs of extremely preterm infants demand skin-level medical interventions that too often result in unintended skin harm. We describe the use of a harm prevention, or consequence-centered, approach to skin care, which facilitates safer practice for extremely premature infants. Neonatal and pediatric Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRN) came together for monthly meetings to review the evidence around best skin care practices for extremely preterm infants, with an emphasis on reduction of skin harm. Findings were focused on the population of interest and clinical implementation strategies. Skin care for extremely preterm infants remains overlooked by current literature. However, clinical practice pearls were extracted and applied in a manner that promotes safer skin care practices in the NICU. Gentle adhesives, such as silicone tapes and hydrogel-backed electrodes, can help to reduce medical adhesive-related skin injuries. Diaper wipes are not appropriate for use among extremely preterm infants, as many ingredients may contain potential allergens. Skin cleansers should be pH neutral to the skin and the prophylactic use of petrolatum-based emollients should be avoided. Further exploration and understanding of skin care practices that examine issues of true risk versus hypothetical risk of harm.
Surber, Christian; Kottner, Jan
The industry offers a vast armamentarium of skin care products to clean, soothe, restore, reinforce, protect and to treat our skin and hence to keep it in "good condition". Skin care products are readily available and their promotions with fanciful claims are omnipresent. The promotions are based on effects, evoked by actives that are delivered through vehicles that rely on specific technologies. Due to the fact, that these products are in direct contact to the target tissue, their vehicle and ingredients are able to profoundly modulate the characteristics of the skin and some of its functions. This makes products for the skin absolute unique and versatile delivery systems. This paper discusses the concept of skin care and skin protection, the choice of skin care products, their vehicles, their functionality and their regulatory status. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kumar, Ajay; Shrestha, Prashanna Raj; Pun, Jenny; Thapa, Pratichya; Manandhar, Merina; Sathian, Brijesh
Skin biopsy is the method to assist clinicians to make definite dermatological diagnosis which further helps in holistic management. Skin cancers are relatively rare clinical diagnosis in developing countries like Nepal, but the prevalence is on rise. To investigate the profile of skin biopsies and frequencies and pattern of skin cancers in a tertiary care centre of Western Nepal. The materials consisted of 434 biopsies (1.37%) out of 31,450 OPD visits performed in the Department of Dermatology, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, during the period of Dec 2011-Nov 2014. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS-16 with reference to incidence, age, sex, race and clinical and histopathological features. The commonest disorders observed in biopsies were papulosquamous lesions, skin tuberculosis of different types, benign skin tumors, leprosy, collagen and fungal diseases. Viral diseases were rarely seen, probably due to straight forward clinical diagnosis. Dermatological malignancies accounted for 55/434 (12.67%) of biopsies. Skin disorders in general were commoner in females 280/434 (64%), including malignancies 32/55(58.2%). Mean age of patients with skin cancer was 54.5 years. Facilities for proper laboratory investigation of dermatological disorders will improve the quality of life. The most prevalent lesion in skin biopsies was papulosquamous disorders followed by skin tuberculosis of different types. Dermatological malignancy constituted 55/434 (12.67%) cases. The prevalence of skin malignancy is on rise in Nepalese society probably due to increase in life expectancy and better diagnostic services.
Klein, G; Grubauer, G; Fritsch, P
The effects of regular dish-washing on the stratum corneum barrier function, as determined by transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and objective and subjective skin parameters, were investigated in a 'use test' performed by 18 healthy volunteers. Hands were soaked in a 0.05% solution of a commercial dish-washing product (three times/day, for 15 min, at 37 degrees C) over a period of 3 weeks; one hand was unprotected and the other was protected with a commercial rubber glove. TEWL increased in 13/18 volunteers by more than 25% above baseline on exposed hands within the first 2 weeks of the study. Objective skin signs (erythema, scaling, fissures) and subjective symptoms (itching, dryness, smarting) occurred almost exclusively in subjects with substantial TEWL increases and were most prominent 1-2 weeks following peak TEWL values. There was a highly significant correlation between cumulative relative symptom scores and TEWL changes. TEWL increase and symptom scores were not correlated with a history of inhalant allergy and/or elevated serum IgE levels. Three volunteers, who had shown the highest increase of TEWL values and the most intense clinical reactions to the detergent were subjected to a control experiment in which one hand was soaked in warm tap-water following the same experimental protocol. No significant effects on TEWL values or skin symptoms were observed. We conclude that regular exposure to low concentrations of detergents as used for dish-washing is capable of inducing skin lesions in a substantial proportion of individuals.
Salonen, Eija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Sevón, Eija
The paper aims at understanding the processes related to young children's belonging during daily arrivals at day and night care. Two aspects of a child's belonging are considered: membership and sense of belonging. Data were gathered by ethnographic observation of 8 children aged from 20 to 36 months in two Finnish day care centres offering day…
Donnelly, Lane F; Basta, Kathryne C; Dykes, Anne M; Zhang, Wei; Shook, Joan E
At a pediatric health system, the Daily Operational Brief (DOB) was updated in 2015 after three years of operation. Quality and safety metrics, the patient volume and staffing assessment, and the readiness assessment are all presented. In addition, in the problem-solving accountability system, problematic issues are categorized as Quick Hits or Complex Issues. Walk-the-Wall, a biweekly meeting attended by hospital senior administrative leadership and quality and safety leaders, is conducted to chart current progress on Complex Issues. The DOB provides a daily standardized approach to evaluate readiness to provide care to current patients and improvement in the care to be provided for future patients. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Song, Yuting; Scales, Kezia; Anderson, Ruth A; Wu, Bei; Corazzini, Kirsten N
As traditional family-based care in China declines, the demand for residential care increases. Knowledge of residents' experiences with long-term care (LTC) facilities is essential to improving quality of care. This pilot study aimed to describe residents' experiences in LTC facilities, particularly as it related to physical function. Semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducted in two facilities with residents stratified by three functional levels (n = 5). Directed content analysis was guided by the Adaptive Leadership Framework. A two-cycle coding approach was used with a first-cycle descriptive coding and second-cycle dramaturgical coding. Interviews provided examples of challenges faced by residents in meeting their daily care needs. Five themes emerged: staff care, care from family members, physical environment, other residents in the facility, and personal strategies. Findings demonstrate the significance of organizational context for care quality and reveal foci for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ektare, V; Khachatryan, A; Xue, M; Dunne, M; Johnson, K; Stephens, J
To estimate, from a US payer perspective, the cost offsets of treating gram positive acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSI) with varied hospital length of stay (LOS) followed by outpatient care, as well as the cost implications of avoiding hospital admission. Economic drivers of care were estimated using a literature-based economic model incorporating inpatient and outpatient components. The model incorporated equal efficacy, adverse events (AE), resource use, and costs from literature. Costs of once- and twice-daily outpatient infusions to achieve a 14-day treatment were analyzed. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Costs were adjusted to 2015 US$. Total non-drug medical cost for treatment of ABSSSI entirely in the outpatient setting to avoid hospital admission was the lowest among all scenarios and ranged from $4039-$4924. Total non-drug cost for ABSSSI treated in the inpatient setting ranged from $9813 (3 days LOS) to $18,014 (7 days LOS). Inpatient vs outpatient cost breakdown was: 3 days inpatient ($6657)/11 days outpatient ($3156-$3877); 7 days inpatient ($15,017)/7 days outpatient ($2495-$2997). Sensitivity analyses revealed a key outpatient cost driver to be peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) costs (average per patient cost of $873 for placement and $205 for complications). Drug and indirect costs were excluded and resource use was not differentiated by ABSSSI type. It was assumed that successful ABSSSI treatment takes up to 14 days per the product labels, and that once-daily and twice-daily antibiotics have equal efficacy. Shifting ABSSSI care to outpatient settings may result in medical cost savings greater than 53%. Typical outpatient scenarios represent 14-37% of total medical cost, with PICC accounting for 28-43% of the outpatient burden. The value of new ABSSSI therapies will be driven by eliminating the need for PICC line, reducing length of stay and the ability to completely avoid a hospital stay.
Feldman, Steven R.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Quandt, Sara A.; Fleischer, Alan B., Jr.; Schulz, Mark R.; Verma, Amit; Arcury, Thomas A.
Context: Skin diseases are common occupational illnesses for migrant farmworkers. Farmworkers face many barriers in accessing health care resources. Purpose: Framed by the Health Behavior Model, the purpose of this study was to assess health care utilization for skin disease by migrant Latino farmworkers. Methods: Three hundred and four migrant…
Boundy, Ellen O; Perrine, Cria G; Barrera, Chloe M; Li, Ruowei; Hamner, Heather C
Mother-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) immediately after birth helps transition infants to the post-uterine environment and increases the likelihood of breastfeeding initiation and duration. This study examines trends in U.S. maternity practices related to SSC, and variations by facility demographics. Data were from the Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) surveys (2007-2015), a biennial assessment of all U.S. maternity facilities. Facilities reported how often patients were encouraged to practice mother-infant SSC for ≥30 minutes within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth and 2 hours of uncomplicated cesarean birth, and how often routine infant procedures are performed while in SSC. We calculated the percentage of maternity facilities reporting these indicators for ≥90% of patients across the United States for each survey year. Estimates by facility characteristics (size, type, and state) were calculated for 2015 only. The percentage of facilities reporting "Most (≥90%)" women, which were encouraged to practice early SSC, increased from 2007 to 2015 following both vaginal (40.4% to 83.0%) and cesarean (29.3% to 69.9%) births. The percentage of facilities reporting routine infant procedures were performed "Almost always (≥90%)," while mother and infant were SSC increased from 16.6% to 49.5% (2007 to 2015) for vaginal births and from 2.2% to 10.7% (2009 to 2015) for cesarean births. Variations in SSC practice by facility type, size, and state were noted. Significant progress has been made in increasing hospital encouragement of early SSC for both vaginal and cesarean births. Continued efforts to support evidence-based maternity practices are needed.
Redaelli, Sara; Zanella, Alberto; Milan, Manuela; Isgrò, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Pesenti, Antonio; Patroniti, Nicolò
Daily nursing in critical care patients may alter vital parameters, especially in the most critically ill patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of daily nursing on patients undergoing venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO) for severe respiratory failure. Daily nursing was performed following defined phases (sponge bath, elevation with scooping stretcher, change position of endotracheal tube, dressing replacement). We recorded physiological and ECMO parameters before and during daily nursing in 5 patients for several days (total: 25 daily nursing) and adverse events: desaturation, hypertension, reduction of mixed venous oxygen saturation, arterial oxygen saturation or ECMO blood flow and elevation in minute ventilation. Sedative drug dosage and additional bolus were recorded. Daily nursing was performed in 92 % of cases (23/25), with a minimum of two adverse events per daily nursing. Hypertension and tachycardia were mostly recorded at the beginning, while desaturation, reduction in mixed venous oxygen saturation and blood flow were recorded during elevation with scooping stretcher. Increase in minute ventilation was frequent in spontaneous breathing patients. Additional bolus of sedation was required before and/or during nursing. Daily nursing significantly alters physiologic parameters; thus, it should be performed only when physicians are readily available to treat adverse events.
George, Jason; Abdulla, Rami Khoury; Yeow, Raymond; Aggarwal, Anshul; Boura, Judith; Wegner, James; Franklin, Barry A
Our increasingly sedentary lifestyle is associated with a heightened risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and cardiovascular mortality. Using the recently developed heart rate index formula in 843 patients (mean ± SD age 62.3 ± 15.7 years) who underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring, we estimated average and peak daily energy expenditure, expressed as metabolic equivalents (METs), and related these data to subsequent hospital encounters and health care costs. In this cohort, estimated daily average and peak METs were 1.7 ± 0.7 and 5.5 ± 2.1, respectively. Patients who achieved daily bouts of peak energy expenditure ≥5 METs had fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.006) and median health care costs that were nearly 50% lower (p <0.001) than their counterparts who attained <5 METs. In patients whose body mass index was ≥30 kg/m 2 , there were significant differences in health care costs depending on whether they achieved <5 or ≥5 METs estimated by ambulatory ECG monitoring (p = 0.005). Interestingly, patients who achieved ≥5 METs had lower and no significant difference in their health care costs, regardless of their body mass index (p = 0.46). Patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention who achieved ≥5 METs had lower health care costs (p = 0.044) and fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.004) than those who achieved <5 METs. In conclusion, average and peak daily energy expenditures estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring may provide useful information regarding health care utilization in patients with and without previous percutaneous coronary intervention, irrespective of body habitus. Our findings are the first to link lower intensities of peak daily energy expenditure, estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring, with increased health care utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, A J; Yates, C; Williams, K; Hall, R W
Kangaroo care (KC) has possible benefits for promoting physiological stability and positive developmental outcomes in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to compare bradycardia and oxygen desaturation events in preterm infants in standard incubator care versus KC. Thirty-eight infants 27 to 30 weeks gestational age were randomly assigned to 2 hours of KC daily between days of life 5 to 10 or to standard incubator care. Infants were monitored for bradycardia (heart rate <80) or oxygen desaturation (<80%). Analysis of hourly events was based on three sets of data: standard care group 24 hours daily, KC group during incubator time 22 hours daily, and KC group during holding time 2 hours daily. The KC group had fewer bradycardia events per hour while being held compared to time spent in an incubator (p = 0.048). The KC group also had significantly fewer oxygen desaturation events while being held than while in the incubator (p = 0.017) and significantly fewer desaturation events than infants in standard care (p = 0.02). KC reduces bradycardia and oxygen desaturation events in preterm infants, providing physiological stability and possible benefits for neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Campanaro, Maria; Huebner, Colleen E; Davis, Beth Ellen
The oral hygiene routines of preschool-age children with special health care needs (CSHCN) were examined to identify caregiver behaviors and beliefs associated with twice daily tooth brushing. Ninety caregivers of CSHCN, ages 23 to 62 months, were interviewed to determine supports or barriers to tooth brushing. Ninety-eight percent of caregivers had begun brushing their child's teeth and half reported brushing twice daily. Caregivers' brushing skills and the availability of child-friendly supplies were associated with twice daily versus less frequent brushing (p = .02). This study adds insight into the challenges of establishing daily oral health care for children who must rely on others for their care. The facilitators and barriers to tooth brushing by caregivers of CSHCN are similar to those noted previously among parents of typically developing children. Efforts to improve all caregivers' oral hygiene skills are needed. For caregivers of CSHCN, oral health teaching opportunities may exist among professionals who provide ongoing medical care, special services and therapies. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, G R; Lawson, E E; Lehmann, C U
The reuse of transactional data for clinical documentation requires navigation of computational, institutional and adaptive barriers. We describe organizational and technical issues in developing and deploying a daily progress note tool in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit that reuses and aggregates data from a commercial integrated clinical information system.
Campanaro, Maria; Huebner, Colleen E.; Davis, Beth Ellen
Purpose The oral hygiene routines of preschool-age children with special health care needs (CSHCN) were examined to identify caregiver behaviors and beliefs associated with twice daily tooth brushing. Methods Ninety caregivers of CSHCN, ages 23 to 62 months, were interviewed to determine supports or barriers to tooth brushing. Results Ninety-eight percent of caregivers had begun brushing their child’s teeth and half reported brushing twice daily. Caregivers’ brushing skills and the availability of child-friendly supplies were associated with twice daily versus less frequent brushing (p = .02). Conclusions This study adds insight into the challenges of establishing daily oral health care for children who must rely on others for their care. The facilitators and barriers to tooth brushing by caregivers of CSHCN are similar to those noted previously among parents of typically developing children. Efforts to improve all caregivers’ oral hygiene skills are needed. For caregivers of CSHCN, oral health teaching opportunities may exist among professionals who provide ongoing medical care, special services and therapies. PMID:24252060
Phipps, Lorri M; Thomas, Neal J
To assess the impact of the implementation of a daily goals sheet upon nursing perception of communication in an academic, tertiary care paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Prospective, longitudinal, before-and-after intervention surveys. University affiliated 12-bed PICU. Bedside nurses. A questionnaire was administered to PICU nurses addressing their perception of communication. Following this questionnaire, the use of a daily goals sheet was instituted. A second questionnaire was administered one year later. Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test was used to compare differences of the graded outcome variables. The primary outcome was the perception of communication taken from a nursing perspective. Eighty-five percent of nurses felt the daily goals sheet led to improved communication between physicians and nurses in the PICU. All questions related to communication demonstrated a positive influence of the goals sheet, with the perception of the PICU staff working as a team reaching statistical significance (p=0.05). The perception of the care of one surgical service being attending physician directed also significantly improved after the institution of the goals sheet (p=0.04). The institution of a daily goals sheet led to an improvement in nursing perception of communication. Future studies are required to determine if this change in process has a demonstrable effect on health care outcomes of critically ill children, or whether this tool can have the same beneficial effects in other academic and non-academic PICUs.
van der Heide, Astrid; Werth, Esther; Donjacour, Claire E.H.M.; Reijntjes, Robert H.A.M.; Lammers, Gert Jan; Van Someren, Eus J.W.; Baumann, Christian R.; Fronczek, Rolf
Study Objectives: Previous laboratory studies in narcolepsy patients showed altered core body and skin temperatures, which are hypothesised to be related to a disturbed sleep wake regulation. In this ambulatory study we assessed temperature profiles in normal daily life, and whether sleep attacks are heralded by changes in skin temperature. Furthermore, the effects of three months of treatment with sodium oxybate (SXB) were investigated. Methods: Twenty-five narcolepsy patients and 15 healthy controls were included. Core body, proximal and distal skin temperatures, and sleep-wake state were measured simultaneously for 24 hours in ambulatory patients. This procedure was repeated in 16 narcolepsy patients after at least 3 months of stable treatment with SXB. Results: Increases in distal skin temperature and distal-to-proximal temperature gradient (DPG) strongly predicted daytime sleep attacks (P < 0.001). As compared to controls, patients had a higher proximal and distal skin temperature in the morning, and a lower distal skin temperature during the night (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, they had a higher core body temperature during the first part of the night (P < 0.05), which SXB decreased (F = 4.99, df = 1, P = 0.03) to a level similar to controls. SXB did not affect skin temperature. Conclusions: This ambulatory study demonstrates that daytime sleep attacks were preceded by clear changes in distal skin temperature and DPG. Furthermore, changes in core body and skin temperature in narcolepsy, previously only studied in laboratory settings, were partially confirmed. Treatment with SXB resulted in a normalisation of the core body temperature profile. Future studies should explore whether predictive temperature changes can be used to signal or even prevent sleep attacks. Citation: van der Heide A, Werth E, Donjacour CE, Reijntjes RH, Lammers GJ, Van Someren EJ, Baumann CR, Fronczek R. Core body and skin temperature in type 1 narcolepsy in daily life; effects of sodium
Stuebing, Elizabeth A; Miner, Thomas J
To determine whether simply being made continually aware of the hospital costs of daily phlebotomy would reduce the amount of phlebotomy ordered for nonintensive care unit surgical patients. Prospective observational study. Tertiary care hospital in an urban setting. All nonintensive care unit patients on 3 general surgical services. A weekly announcement to surgical house staff and attending physicians of the dollar amount charged to nonintensive care unit patients for laboratory services during the previous week. Dollars charged per patient per day for routine blood work. At baseline, the charges for daily phlebotomy were $147.73/patient/d. After 11 weeks of residents being made aware of the daily charges for phlebotomy, the charges dropped as low as $108.11/patient/d. This had a correlation coefficient of -0.76 and significance of P = .002. Over 11 weeks of intervention, the dollar amount saved was $54,967. Health care providers being made aware of the cost of phlebotomy can decrease the amount of these tests ordered and result in significant savings for the hospital.
... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...
Cortez, Edwin A
Facial plastic surgeons seeking information about establishing and maintaining a first-rate skin care program and practice in their office will learn practice management tips and business advice. This content begins with presenting steps in patient evaluation and continues through development of a care plan. Discussion includes approach to skin care products, sunscreen, and related preventive and restorative methods. Detailed discussion is included of developing a personalized skin care plan. The content concludes with essential business tips and marketing advice for the facial plastic surgeon to include skin care in the surgical practice, including the way in which these are handled in the author's practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Widgerow, Alan D; Fabi, Sabrina G; Palestine, Roberta F; Rivkin, Alexander; Ortiz, Arisa; Bucay, Vivian W; Chiu, Annie; Naga, Lina; Emer, Jason; Chasan, Paul E
Normal aging and photoaging of the skin are chronic processes that progress gradually. The extracellular matrix (ECM), constituting over 70% of the skin, is the central hub for repair and regeneration of the skin. As such, the ECM is the area where changes related to photodamage are most evident. Degradation of the ECM with fragmentation of proteins significantly affects cross talk and signaling between cells, the matrix, and its constituents. The accumulation of collagen fragments, amorphous elastin agglutinations, and abnormal cross-linkages between the collagen fragments impedes the ECM from its normal repair and regenerative capacity, which manifests as wrinkled, non-elastic skin. Similar to how the chronic wound healing process requires wound bed preparation before therapeutic intervention, treatment of chronic aging of the skin would likely benefit from a "skin bed preparation" to optimize the outcome of rejuvenation procedures and skin maintenance programs. This involves introducing agents that can combat stress-induced oxidation, proteasome dysfunction, and non-enzymatic cross linkages involved in glycation end products, to collectively modulate this damaged ECM, and upregulate neocollagenesis and elastin production. Agents of particular interest are matrikines, peptides originating from the fragmentation of matrix proteins that exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Peptides of this type (tripeptide and hexapeptide) are incorporated in ALASTIN™ Skin Nectar with TriHex™ technology (ALASTIN Skincare, Inc., Carlsbad, CA), which is designed to target ECM modulation with a goal of optimizing results following invasive and non-invasive dermal rejuvenating procedures.
Török, Eva; Somogyi, Tihamér; Rutkai, Krisztina; Iglesias, Luis; Bielsa, Isabel
This multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study aimed to compare a new regimen of fusidic acid suspension against a standard regimen in children with skin and soft tissue infections. Treatment groups were given either a new regimen of fusidic acid suspension (20 mg/kg divided b.i.d.) or a standard regimen (50 mg/kg divided t.i.d.), which were administered for 5 days in both groups and for a further 5 days if evidence of infection persisted. Assessment of those cured was carried out 14 days. Both regimens were effective. Cure was achieved in 194 (91.1%) of the 213 children given the new b.i.d. dosage and for 194 (89.4%) of the 217 children given the standard t.i.d. dosage (intention-to-treat population; p=0.72). Cure was maintained at the follow-up assessment for 94.8% (181 of 191) and 95.7% (180 of 188), respectively, of the children. Bacteriological cure of infections due to fusidic acid susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and/or group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, with elimination of pathogens, was achieved in all 121 (100%) children treated with the new b.i.d. regimen and in 123 (99.2%) of the 124 children treated with the standard TID regimen. The new twice-daily regimen had significantly better tolerance (p=0.025).
Duncan, Christine N; Riley, Thomas V; Carson, Kerry C; Budgeon, Charley A; Siffleet, Joanne
To test the effects of two different cleansing regimens on skin surface pH and micro-flora, in adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Forty-three patients were recruited from a 23-bed tertiary medical/surgical ICU. The nineteen patients in Group One were washed using soap for daily hygiene care over a four week period. In Group 2, 24 patients were washing daily using an acidic liquid cleanser (pH 5.5) over a second four week period. Skin pH measurements and bacterial swabs were sampled daily from each for a maximum of ten days or until discharged from the ICU. Skin surface pH and quantitative skin cultures (colony forming units). Skin pH measurements were lower in patients washed with pH 5.5 cleanser than those washed with soap. This was statistically significant for both the forearm (p = 0.0068) and leg (p = 0.0015). The bacterial count was not statistically significantly different between the two groups. Both groups demonstrated that bacterial counts were significantly affected by the length of stay in ICU (p = 0.0032). This study demonstrated that the product used in routine skin care significantly affects the skin pH of ICU patients, but not the bacterial colonisation. Bacterial colonisation of the skin increases with length of stay. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feldman, Steven R.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Quandt, Sara A.; Fleischer, Alan B.; Schulz, Mark R.; Verma, Amit; Arcury, Thomas A.
Context Skin diseases are common occupational illnesses for migrant farmworkers. Farmworkers face many barriers in accessing healthcare resources. Purpose Framed by the Health Behavior Model, the purpose of this study was to assess health care utilization for skin disease by migrant Latino farmworkers. Methods 304 migrant and seasonal Latino farmworkers in North Carolina were enrolled in a longitudinal study of skin disease and healthcare utilization over a single agricultural season. Self-reported and dermatologist-diagnosed skin condition data were collected at baseline and at up to four follow-up assessments. Medical visit rates were compared to national norms. Findings Self-reported skin problems and diagnosed skin disease were common among farmworkers. However, only 34 health care visits were reported across the entire agricultural season, and none of the visits were for skin diseases. Nevertheless, self-treatment for skin conditions was common, including use of non-prescription preparations (63%), prescription products (9%), and home remedies (6%). General medical office visits were reported in 3.2% of the assessments, corresponding to 1.6 office visits per person year. Conclusions The migrant farmworker population consists largely of young men who make little use of clinic services. Skin conditions are very common among these workers, but use of medical services for these conditions is not common. Instead, farmworkers rely primarily on self-treatment. Clinic-based studies of farmworker skin conditions will not account for most injury or disease in this population and have the potential for biased estimates. PMID:19166568
Mitchell, A J; Yates, C C; Williams, D K; Chang, J Y; Hall, R Whit
1. Determine whether stress in preterm infants, measured with salivary cortisol, decreases after five days of Kangaroo Care (KC) compared to five days of Standard Care (SC). 2. To determine whether kangaroo care provides sustainable pain relief beyond the period of skin-to-skin holding. Preterm infants (n = 38) born at 27-30 weeks gestational age were randomized to either the KC or the SC group and received the allocated intervention starting on day of life (DOL) five and continuing for five days. Salivary cortisol was collected on DOL five and again on DOL ten. Differences were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and t tests. Pain during nasal suctioning over five days was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). 1. Adequate saliva samples for salivary cortisol were collected for 13 KC infants and 11 SC infants. There was no main effect of group (p = 0.49), but there was a significant main effect of age (DOL five versus DOL ten), with salivary cortisol levels decreasing in both groups (p = 0.02). 2. Pain scores for both groups (n = 38) indicted mild to moderate pain during suctioning, with no significant difference in pain scores between groups. 1. KC did not affect salivary cortisol levels in preterm neonates, but levels in both the KC and SC groups decreased over time from DOL five to ten. Salivary cortisol may vary with age of infant. 2. Infants experience pain during routine suctioning and may require pain management.
Lee, Yu-San; Kao, Yu-Hsiu
The skin reaction rate is 60-95% in cancer patients that receive radiation therapy. This therapy is likely to cause physical and mental discomfort and prolong treatment for patients. The current emphasis on lectures rather than practice to help nurses learn proper skin care practices likely imposes difficulties for nurses to handle various clinical situations. To investigate the learning effectiveness of a simulated radiation therapy skin care workshop for nurses. A total of 34 nurses at a hospital in one health system in northern Taiwan who had never used radiation therapy to provide care to patients were enrolled in this quasi-experimental study. A single group pretest, posttest and post-posttest (6 weeks after intervention) approach was used. At the simulated radiation therapy skin care workshop, we used teaching strategies including Ausubel's direct instruction teaching method and practice on simulated wounds on pig skins. Outcomes were evaluated using "the questionnaire of radiation therapy skin care" and "direct observation of procedural skills checklist". The results from the simulated radiation therapy skin care workshop were analyzed using GEE (generalized estimating equation). The post-posttest and posttest scores increased significantly; knowledge mean score 3.14 (< .001) vs 2.64 (< .001), attitude mean score 2.06 (p < .05) vs 2.24 (p < .001), and skill mean score 2.79 (p < .001) vs 1.68 (p < .001). The simulated radiation therapy skin care workshop demonstrated significant and positive effects on learning outcomes. Therefore, we recommend incorporating this workshop into clinical nursing education and training strategies in the future.
Grimes, Pearl; Watson, JoAnne
We sought to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of treating melasma using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system, including a proprietary cleanser, toner, 4% hydroquinone, exfoliation enhancer, and sunscreen, plus tretinoin cream 0.025%. Together these products offer not only treatment of melasma but also a complete skin care regimen. Twenty participants with mild or moderate epidermal melasma with Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI were instructed to use the hydroquinone skin care system and tretinoin cream for 12 weeks. Melasma severity, melasma pigmentation intensity, and melasma area and severity index (MASI) score were significantly reduced from week 4 onward relative to baseline (P < or = .01). The proportion of participants who felt embarrassed or self-conscious about their skin very much or a lot declined from 80% (16/20) to 20% (4/20) between baseline and week 12. Similarly, the proportion of those who made very much or a lot of effort to hide their skin discoloration declined from 90% (18/20) to 37% (7/19). In total, 85% (17/20) of participants were satisfied with the overall effectiveness of the study treatment. Three participants had adverse events probably related to treatment (dryness, erythema, peeling, and stinging sensation). The 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin cream 0.025% is effective and well-tolerated in the treatment of melasma.
Rodriguez, Georgette L; Ma, Fangchao; Federman, Daniel G; Rouhani, Panta; Chimento, Stacy; Multach, Mark; Kirsner, Robert S
Physician visits provide invaluable opportunities to screen patients for skin cancer, yielding earlier detection and improved survival. We sought to assess frequency of skin cancer screening by full body skin examinations (FBSE) by primary care physicians, patient attitudes toward FBSE, and risk factors for cutaneous malignancy. Questionnaires were distributed to patients at primary care and dermatology clinics. A total of 426 participants were surveyed. Overall, 20% of patients reported having undergone regular FBSE by their primary care physician. Sex, race, personal skin cancer history, and Fitzpatrick skin type were predictive of whether a FBSE was performed by a patient's primary care physician. Men were more likely to report having undergone a FBSE (22% vs 19%; P < .01); women were more likely to report feeling embarrassed by a FBSE (15% vs 4%; P < .01). This study was conducted at a single site academic center. Although low rates of skin cancer screening are reported by patients, those at higher risk are being screened more frequently. Sex disparity exists, and as both male and female patients have a strong preference to undergo FBSE, unmet opportunities for skin cancer prevention should be maximized.
Yao, Ruiqing; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Saito, Marie; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi
Estrogen deficiencies associated with menopause accelerate spontaneous skin aging and stimulate the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced photoaging of skin. However, food compositions with the potential to ameliorate the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging with menopause have not yet been investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the ability of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel to prevent the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging in ovariectomized mice. Skin transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was significantly higher in the ovariectomy group than in the sham operation group following UVB irradiation, whereas skin elasticity was significantly lower. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced greater reductions in skin hyaluronic acid levels and more severe collagen fiber damage in the derims in the ovariectomy group than in the sham group. The intake of AVGP significantly ameliorated this acceleration in skin aging by reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and increasing that of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) in the skin. These results indicate that AVGP supplementation prevents skin damage induced by UVB irradiation and ovariectomy in part by inhibiting damage to the extracellular matrix. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.
van der Heide, Astrid; Werth, Esther; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Lammers, Gert Jan; Van Someren, Eus J W; Baumann, Christian R; Fronczek, Rolf
Previous laboratory studies in narcolepsy patients showed altered core body and skin temperatures, which are hypothesised to be related to a disturbed sleep wake regulation. In this ambulatory study we assessed temperature profiles in normal daily life, and whether sleep attacks are heralded by changes in skin temperature. Furthermore, the effects of three months of treatment with sodium oxybate (SXB) were investigated. Twenty-five narcolepsy patients and 15 healthy controls were included. Core body, proximal and distal skin temperatures, and sleep-wake state were measured simultaneously for 24 hours in ambulatory patients. This procedure was repeated in 16 narcolepsy patients after at least 3 months of stable treatment with SXB. Increases in distal skin temperature and distal-to-proximal temperature gradient (DPG) strongly predicted daytime sleep attacks (P < 0.001). As compared to controls, patients had a higher proximal and distal skin temperature in the morning, and a lower distal skin temperature during the night (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, they had a higher core body temperature during the first part of the night (P < 0.05), which SXB decreased (F = 4.99, df = 1, P = 0.03) to a level similar to controls. SXB did not affect skin temperature. This ambulatory study demonstrates that daytime sleep attacks were preceded by clear changes in distal skin temperature and DPG. Furthermore, changes in core body and skin temperature in narcolepsy, previously only studied in laboratory settings, were partially confirmed. Treatment with SXB resulted in a normalisation of the core body temperature profile. Future studies should explore whether predictive temperature changes can be used to signal or even prevent sleep attacks. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Li, Xi; Galzote, Carlos; Yan, Xiuyuan; Li, Li; Wang, Xi
The varying influence of multiple factors (e.g., aging, sex, season, skin care habits) on skin structure and function necessitates study within ethnic groups to fully characterize their skin. Men and women aged 40-50 years (n = 43) and their consanguineous same-sex children, aged 18-25 years (n = 43), living in Chengdu, China were enrolled in this single center, non-interventional study. Volunteers attended two study visits (summer, 2010 and winter, 2011) at which dermatologists measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, sebum secretion, fine lines/roughness, melanin/erythema, temperature, and color, and clinically graded participants' skin. Participants answered a questionnaire, indicating their perceived skin type/condition. Data were analyzed using t-test/anova or Friedman/Wilcoxon test. Objective measurements demonstrated statistically significant inter-generational differences in skin condition, with aged skin more wrinkled at most sites, having reduced oil/colder facial and décolletage skin, darker/more erythematous skin in exposed areas, and less hydrated/rougher heel skin; similarities were detected in skin melanin, erythema, and TEWL. There were also statistically significant differences between seasons and sexes. The intersection between instrument measurements and subjective perceptions of skin revealed notable differences. Objective measurements and their intersection with subjective perceptions demonstrate the influences of inter-generation, season, sex, and living habits on Chinese body skin. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Datta, Hema Sharma; Paramesh, Rangesh
The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used. PMID:21836797
Powell, Roy J; Hayward, Christopher J; Snelgrove, Caroline L; Polverino, Kathleen; Park, Linda; Chauhan, Rohan; Evans, Philip H; Byford, Rachel; Charman, Carolyn; Foy, Christopher J W; Pritchard, Colin; Kingsley, Andrew
Skin tears are common in older adults and those taking steroids and warfarin. They are traumatic, often blunt injuries caused by oblique knocks to the extremities. The epidermis may separate from the dermis or both layers from underlying tissues leaving a skin flap or total loss of tissue, which is painful and prone to infection. 'Dermatuff™' knee-length socks containing Kevlar fibres (used in stab-proof vests and motorcyclists' clothing) aim to prevent skin tears. The acceptability of the socks and the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) had not been explored. In this pilot parallel group RCT, 90 people at risk of skin-tear injury from Devon care homes and primary care were randomised to receive the socks or treatment as usual (TAU). The pilot aimed to estimate parameters to inform the design of a substantive trial and record professionals' views and participants' acceptability of the intervention and of study participation. Participants were randomised from July 2013 and followed up until February 2015. Community participants were easier to recruit than care homes residents but were 10 years younger on average and more active. To recruit 90 participants, 395 had to be approached overall as 77% were excluded or declined. Seventy-nine participants (88%) completed the trial and 27/44 (61%) wore the socks for 16 weeks. There were 31 skin tear injuries affecting 18 (20%) of the 90 participants. The TAU group received more injuries, more repeated episodes, and larger tears with greater severity. Common daily diary reasons for not wearing the socks included perceived warmth in hot weather or not being available (holiday, in hospital, bed rest). Resource use data were obtainable and indicated that sock wearing gave a reduction in treatment costs whilst well-completed questionnaires showed improvements in secondary outcomes. This pilot trial has successfully informed the design and conduct of a future definitive cost-effectiveness RCT. It would need to
... preventive strategy. Clothing and Laundry Wear all-white cotton underwear. Do not wear pantyhose (wear thigh high ... least 8 glasses of water daily. Use 100% cotton menstrual pads and tampons. Sexual intercourse Use a ...
Roberto, Karen A; Gigliotti, Christina M; Husser, Erica K
Guided by life-course theory and a trajectory model of chronic illness, we examined the health care practices and management strategies used by 17 older women with multiple chronic conditions. Qualitative analyses revealed that the women played an active role in shaping the course of their illness within their everyday lives. Pain and a decline in energy frequently interfered with completion of daily activities. To compensate, many women reduced and slowed down the pace of activities they performed while emphasizing the importance of maintaining independence and autonomy. Appreciative of support from family members, at times the women received more help and advice than they preferred.
Park, Seungmi; Lee, Yun Jin; Oh, Doo Nam; Kim, Jiyun
This study was performed to compare the effects of standardized peristomal skin care (SPSC) and crusting technique (CT) on the peristomal skin of ostomates. SPSC was developed by a consensus among the expert group based on a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and hospital protocols. A randomized controlled pilot trial with 2 parallel arms was used. A total of 81 ostomates, who were recruited from a tertiary hospital, completed the baseline, 1-month, 2-month, and 3-month follow-up (SPSC group, n=45; CT group, n=36). SPSC consisted of water cleansing and direct application of ostomy appliances. CT involved crusting hydrocolloid powder and patting with water sponge or protective barrier liquid film. The outcomes of the study were assessed by skin problems, such as discoloration, erosion and tissue overgrowth; the domains of the evaluation tool used in examining the peristomal skin. A generalized estimating equation model was used to examine the effects according to time and group. In both SPSC and CT groups, the likelihood of occurrence of discoloration (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.61-2.46), erosion (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.55-2.25) and tissue enlargement (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.36-2.77) increased with time. There was no significant difference in discoloration between the groups, whereas the probability of erosion (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.89) and tissue overgrowth (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.02-0.55) was lower in the SPSC group than in CT group. SPSC was sufficient in preventing peristomal skin problems of ostomates compared to the CT.
Anderson, Alyce; Ferris, Laura K; Click, Benjamin; Ramos-Rivers, Claudia; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Hashash, Jana G; Dunn, Michael; Barrie, Arthur; Schwartz, Marc; Regueiro, Miguel; Binion, David G
Dermatologic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are common, and certain IBD medications increase the risk of skin cancer. To define the rates of care and factors associated with dermatologic utilization with a focus on skin cancer screening. We utilized a prospective, natural history IBD research registry to evaluate all outpatient healthcare encounters from 2010 to 2016. Gastrointestinal, dermatologic and primary care visits per individual were identified. We calculated the proportion of patients obtaining care, categorized primary indications for dermatologic visits, determined the incidence of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers, and used logistic regression to determine factors associated with dermatology utilization. Of the 2127 IBD patients included, 452 (21.3%) utilized dermatology over the study period, and 55 (2.6%) had a total body skin examination at least once. The 452 patients incurred 1633 dermatology clinic visits, 278 dermatologic procedures, and 1108 dermatology telephone encounters. The most frequent indication was contact dermatitis or dermatitis. Factors associated with dermatology use were family history of skin cancer, employment, systemic steroids, longer disease duration, emergency room use, and the number of IBD-related clinic visits. Between 8.3 and 11% of IBD patients recommended for skin cancer screening visited dermatology each year, and the resulting incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer was 35.4/10,000 [95% CI 23.3-51.5] and melanoma was 6.56/10,000 [95% CI 2.1-15.3]. Less than one in ten IBD patients obtain dermatologic care. Given the increased risk of skin cancers among IBD patients, an emphasis on education, prevention, and screening merits attention.
Cela, Eliana M; Friedrich, Adrian; Paz, Mariela L; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Leoni, Juliana; González Maglio, Daniel H
The modulatory effects of solar UV radiation on the immune system have been widely studied. As the skin is the main target of UV radiation, our purpose was to compare the impact on skin innate immunity of two contrasting ways to be exposed to sunlight. Hairless mice were UV irradiated with a single high UV dose simulating a harmful exposure, or with repetitive low UV doses simulating short occasional daily exposures. Skin samples were taken at different times after UV irradiation to evaluate skin histology, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal T-cell population and the mitochondrial function of epidermal cells. The transcriptional profiles of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and Toll-like receptors were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA in tissue homogenates. Finally, a lymphangiography was performed to assess modification in the lymphatic vessel system. A single high UV dose produces a deep inflammatory state characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that, in turn, induces the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the irradiated area. On the other hand, repetitive low UV doses drive the skin to a photo-induced alert state in which there is no sign of inflammation, but the epithelium undergoes changes in thickness, the lymphatic circulation increases, and the transcription of antimicrobial peptides is induced. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Matzka, Martin; Stöhr, Doreen; Colditz, Alexandra; Köck-Hódi, Sabine; Koller, Martina; Mayer, Hanna
Background: Targeted therapies, such as the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) inhibitor therapy, are being used to treat patients with various solid and metastatic tumours. Skin toxicities are a common side effect of this therapy. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of skin toxicities on quality of life of patients with cancer undergoing EGFR inhibitor therapy, as well as their unmet supportive care needs. Method: Embedded design. A standardised quantitative survey was administered and analysed. In addition, memos and audiotaped material of insightful conversations with the patients after survey administration were included in the analyses. Results: Among the three domains of the effects of skin toxicities on quality of life, physical symptoms (e. g. itching skin, rash) were most frequently reported to impair quality of life, while associated emotional and functional impairments were less frequently reported. Patients don’t consider the management of skin toxicities to be a priority during their treatment, skin toxicities are rather perceived in context of the total symptom burden. Yet, we observed significant correlations between the assessed quality of life and unmet supportive care need domains, especially concerning physical and psychological needs. Conclusions: Although no clinically significant impairment of quality of life of patients undergoing EGFR inhibitor therapy was found, skin changes should be addressed in supportive interventions embedded in routine symptom management.
Kymre, Ingjerd Gåre; Bondas, Terese
The aim of this article is to articulate the essence and constituents of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses' experiences in enacting skin-to-skin care (SSC) for preterm newborns and their parents. SSC is commonly employed in high-tech NICUs, which entails a movement from maternal-infant separation. Parents' opportunities for performing the practice have been addressed to NICU staff, with attitude and environment having crucial influence. The study was carried out with a reflective lifeworld research approach. Data were collected in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by open-dialogue interviews with a purposive sample of 18 NICU nurses to achieve the essence of and variation within the phenomenon. NICU nurses experience balancing what they consider preterm newborns' current and developmental needs, with readiness in both parents for SSC. They share an experience of a change in the history of NICU care to increased focus on the meaning of proximity and touch for the infants' development. The phenomenon of enacting SSC is characterized by a double focus with steady attention to signals from both parents and newborns. Thereby, a challenge emerges from the threshold of getting started as the catalyst to SSC.
Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; Eriksson, Mats
Aim To describe parental experiences of providing skin-to-skin care (SSC) to their newborn infants. Background SSC care for newborn infants has been reported to have positive physiological and psychological benefits to the infants and their parents. No systematic review regarding parental experiences has been identified. Design In this first part of a meta-study, the findings of a systematic literature review on parental experience of SSC care are presented. Data sources Four databases were searched, without year or language limitations, up until December 2013. Manual searches were performed in reference lists and in a bibliography of the topic. Review methods After a quality-appraisal process, data from the original articles were extracted and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The systematic and manual searches led to the inclusion of 29 original qualitative papers from nine countries, reporting experiences from 401 mothers and 94 fathers. Two themes that characterized the provision of SSC emerged: a restoring experience and an energy-draining experience. Conclusion This review has added scientific and systematic knowledge about parental experiences of providing SSC. Further research about fathers’ experiences is recommended. PMID:25319746
Roh, So Young; Kim, Kye Ha
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aroma massage on pruritus, skin pH, skin hydration and sleep in elders in long-term care hospitals. The participants were elders over 65 years old admitted to long-term care. They were assigned to the experimental group (26) or control group (28). Data were collected from May to August, 2012. Visual Analogue Scale and Verran and Snyder-Halpern Sleep scale were used to identify levels of pruritus and sleep. A skin-pH meter and moisture checker were used to measure skin pH and skin hydration. Aroma massage was performed three times a week for 4 weeks for elders in the experimental group. The data were analyzed using the SPSS Win 17.0 program. There were significant differences in pruritus, skin pH and skin hydration between the two groups. However there was no significant difference in sleep. The results indicate that aroma massage is effective in reducing pruritus, skin pH and increasing skin hydration in elders. Therefore, this intervention can be utilized in clinical practice as an effective nursing intervention to reduce pruritus in elders in long-term care hospitals.
Young, Daniel L; Chakravarthy, Debashish; Drower, Edward; Reyna, Roxana
Cleansing, moisturizing, and protecting neonatal skin is important, but literature evaluating specific product lines is limited. The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of a skin care product line on overall skin condition, perineal erythema, and pain when applied to neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This was an open label, descriptive study. Comparisons were made between measurements taken at the beginning of the study to those at the end, on the same subjects. The study was conducted in a 41-bed NICU at Driscoll Children's Hospital in Corpus Christi, Texas, that serves 31 counties in the region. This NICU treats children needing level 2 and 3 care, with a 1:1 or 2:1 nurse staffing ratio. This is not a birthing center; patients come from other community hospitals. Twenty-nine neonates participated in the study; their average body weight was 1.39 kg (3.06 lb) and their average gestation was 31.7 weeks. A skin care product line was introduced into a neonatal intensive care unit for 14 days. The products included 2 cleansers, 2 moisturizers, and a skin protectant with zinc oxide. Three outcome measures were tracked: Neonatal Skin Condition Score (NSCS), Skin Erythema Scale (SES), and pain. Nurses were also given a product evaluation survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report percentages and trends. Paired t tests were used to compare the mean NSCS, SES, and pain scores from the first 2 days a subject was in the study to the mean of the scores from the last 2 days they were in the study. Subjects experienced approximately 1774 exposures to individual products during data collection. No differences were found in pain scores (P = .132), SES score (P = .059), or NSCS (P = .603) when mean values were compared at the beginning and end of the study. Analysis of the product evaluation survey for questions on cleaning, moisturizing, and reducing discomfort found that more than 90% of nurses ranked the new products as better than or
Neill, Ushma S.
I recently had the opportunity to visit a very relaxing and beautiful day spa during the middle-of-the-day break from the sessions at a Keystone meeting. I was having a very tranquil and restorative day, when I went in for my final treatment — a facial. The very chipper and cheerful esthetician began examining my skin and applying various creams, when I then heard her say something that nearly ruined my experience: she claimed that the topical treatment she was about to apply would, in her words, “cleanse my liver.” PMID:22293186
Khalifian, S; Golden, W C; Cohen, B A
Skin provides several important homeostatic functions to the developing neonate. However, no consensus guidelines exist in the United States for skin care in the healthy term newborn. We performed a study of skin and umbilical cord care (including bathing practices, vernix removal and antiseptic cord application) in newborn nurseries and mother-baby units throughout the state of Maryland to determine practices in a variety of clinical settings and assess if uniformity in skin care exists. These data were then assessed in the context of a review of the current literature. We received responses from over 90% of nurseries across the state. In our cohort, practices varied widely between institutions and specific populations, and often were not evidence-based or were contrary to best practices discussed in the scientific literature. The frequent departures from evidence that occur regarding the aforementioned practices are likely due to a lack of consensus on these issues as well as limited data on such practices, further highlighting the need for data-driven guidelines on newborn skin care.
Duffy, Elizabeth A; Rodgers, Cheryl C; Shever, Leah L; Hockenberry, Marilyn J
Eliminating central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is a national priority. Central venous catheter (CVC) care bundles are composed of a series of interventions that, when used together, are effective in preventing CLABSI. A CVC daily maintenance care bundle includes procedural guidelines for hygiene, dressing changes, and access as well as specific timeframes. Failure to complete one of the components of the care bundle predisposes the patient to a bloodstream infection. A nurse-led multidisciplinary team implemented and, for six months, sustained a daily maintenance care bundle for pediatric oncology patients. This quality improvement project focused on nursing staffs' implementation of the daily maintenance care bundle and the sustainment of the intervention. The project used a pre-post program design to evaluate outcomes of CVC daily maintenance care bundle compliancy and CLABSI. A statistically significant increase between the pre- and post-assessments of the compliance was noted with the CVC daily maintenance care bundle. CLABSI infection rates decreased during the intervention. Strategies to implement practice change and promote sustainability are discussed. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.
Wu, Yu-Ling; Kao, Yu-Hsiu
Skin care is an important responsibility of nurse aides in long-term care facilities, and the nursing knowledge, attitudes, and skills of these aides significantly affects quality of care. However, the work schedule of nurse aides often limits their ability to obtain further education and training. Therefore, developing appropriate and effective training programs for nurse aides is critical to maintaining and improving quality of care in long-term care facilities. This study investigates the effects of multimedia assisted instruction on the skin care learning of nurse aides working in long-term care facilities. A quasi-experimental design and convenient sampling were adopted in this study. Participants included 96 nurse aides recruited from 5 long-term care facilities in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. The experimental group received 3 weeks of multimedia assisted instruction. The control group did not receive this instruction. The Skin Care Questionnaire for Nurse Aides in Long-term Care Facilities and the Skin Care Behavior Checklist were used for assessment before and after the intervention. (1) Posttest scores for skin care knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and the skin care checklist were significantly higher than pretest scores for the intervention group. There was no significant difference between pretest and posttest scores for the control group. (2) A covariance analysis of pretest scores for the two groups showed that the experimental group earned significantly higher average scores than their control group peers for skin care knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and the skin care checklist. The multimedia assisted instruction demonstrated significant and positive effects on the skin care leaning of nurse aides in long-term care facilities. This finding supports the use of multimedia assisted instruction in the education and training of nurse aides in long-term care facilities in the future.
Del Rosso, James Q.; Gold, Michael; Rueda, Maria José; Brandt, Staci; Winkelman, Warren J.
Optimal management of acne vulgaris requires incorporation of several components including patient education, selection of a rational therapeutic regimen, dedicated adherence with the program by the patient, and integration of proper skin care. Unfortunately, the latter component is often overlooked or not emphasized strongly enough to the patient. Proper skin care may reduce potential irritation that can be associated with topical acne medications and prevents the patient from unknowingly using skin care products that can actually sabotage their treatment. This article reviews the effectiveness, skin tolerability, safety, and patient satisfaction of an open label study in which a specified skin care regimen is used in combination with topical therapy. The study was designed to mirror “real world” management of facial acne vulgaris clinical practice. The skin care regimen used in this study included a brand foam wash and a brand moisturizer with SPF 30 photoprotection, both of which contain ingredients that are included to provide benefits for acne-prone and acne-affected skin. PMID:25610521
Gerbert, Barbara; Bronstone, Amy; Wolff, Mimi; Maurer, Toby; Berger, Timothy; Pantilat, Steven; McPhee, Stephen J
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a brief, multicomponent intervention could improve the skin cancer diagnosis and evaluation planning performance of primary care residents to a level equivalent to that of dermatologists. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-two primary care residents (26 in the control group and 26 in the intervention group) and 13 dermatologists completed a pretest and posttest. DESIGN A randomized, controlled trial with pretest and posttest measurements of residents' ability to diagnose and make evaluation plans for lesions indicative of skin cancer. INTERVENTION The intervention included face-to-face feedback sessions focusing on residents' performance deficiencies; an interactive seminar including slide presentations, case examples, and live demonstrations; and the Melanoma Prevention Kit including a booklet, magnifying tool, measuring tool, and skin color guide. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS We compared the abilities of a control and an intervention group of primary care residents, and a group of dermatologists to diagnose and make evaluation plans for six categories of skin lesions including three types of skin cancer—malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. At posttest, both the intervention and control group demonstrated improved performance, with the intervention group revealing significantly larger gains. The intervention group showed greater improvement than the control group across all six diagnostic categories (a gain of 13 percentage points vs 5, p < .05), and in evaluation planning for malignant melanoma (a gain of 46 percentage points vs 36, p < .05) and squamous cell carcinoma (a gain of 42 percentage points vs 21, p < .01). The intervention group performed as well as the dermatologists on five of the six skin cancer diagnosis and evaluation planning scores with the exception of the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS Primary care residents can diagnose and make evaluation plans for cancerous skin lesions
da Rosa Silva, Carleara Ferreira; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; de Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista; do Carmo, Thalita Gomes
Skin changes caused by aging increase the risk of skin damages, such as pressure ulcers, during hospitalization of elderly patients. There is few information about the cost of wound treatment in Brazil. Conversely, skin and wound problems are highly reported among hospitalized elderly patients and caregivers. The purpose is to analyze the socio-demographic and clinical profile associated with skin and wound care in hospitalized elderly. This is a prospective observational study. The sample consisted of 75 patients, aged 60 years or more, randomly selected in three hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data extraction from nursing records of the sample, using cross mapping with Nursing Interventions Classification. Data Synthesis supported by SAS 6.11 (SAS Institute, Inc. Cary North Carolina) in association with SPSS version 14.0 and statistics analysis. The findings were: age standard deviation 7.8, with minimum as 60, and maximum as 91 years old. Prevalence of women and married seniors. High prevalence of long-term hospitalization. There were 21 Nursing Interventions in the nursing records and seventeen of them related to skin and wound care. They were described in 57 nursing activities, present during 376 evaluations and repeated 1756 times. A significant difference was obtained between age and the presence of the nursing interventions "Positioning" (p-0.004), Eye Care/Hygiene (p- < 0.0001) and Oral Health Maintenance (p-0.0003). The skin care to prevention and treatment of skin damages represented the major demand of nursing interventions in different clinical conditions of hospitalized elderly.
Campion, K M
Occupational skin disease is a common problem among health care workers (HCWs). The prevalence of occupational skin disease in HCWs has been reported in several international studies, but not in the UK. To estimate the prevalence of occupational skin disease in a population of UK HCWs and to explore possible causative factors. Clinical and non-clinical HCWs attending for an influenza vaccine during October and November 2013 were invited to complete a brief skin questionnaire. Data from staff who stated their skin had suffered as a result of work were compared with data from staff who did not, to explore differences in potential causative factors. A total of 2762 questionnaires were analysed. The estimated prevalence of occupational skin disease was 20% for clinical and 7% for non-clinical staff. In total, 424 clinical staff stated their skin had been made worse by work. There were statistically significant differences between clinical staff with and without reported skin symptoms regarding a history of eczema, frequent hand washing and moisturizer use but no statistically significant difference in the relative proportions of soap and alcohol hand gel use. Non-clinical staff reported significantly more use of soap relative to alcohol gel than clinical staff. This study demonstrated the prevalence of occupational skin disease in a population of UK HCWs. More work is indicated to explore if the ratio of soap and alcohol gel reported in this study are typical and whether this has any impact on the development of occupational skin disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Barnes, Stephen L; Robinson, Bryce R H; Richards, J Taliesin; Zimmerman, Cindy E; Pritts, Tim A; Tsuei, Betty J; Butler, Karyn L; Muskat, Peter C; Davis, Kenneth; Johannigman, Jay A
Falling reimbursement rates for trauma care demand a concerted effort of charge capture for the fiscal survival of trauma surgeons. We compared current procedure terminology code distribution and billing patterns for Subsequent Hospital Care (SHC) before and after the institution of standardized documentation. Standardized SHC progress notes were created. The note was formulated with an emphasis on efficiency and accuracy. Documentation was completed by residents in conjunction with attendings following standard guidelines of linkage. Year-to-year patient volume, length of stay (LOS), injury severity, bills submitted, coding of service, work relative value units (wRVUs), revenue stream, and collection rate were compared with and without standardized documentation. A 394% average revenue increase was observed with the standardization of SHC documentation. Submitted charges more than doubled in the first year despite a 14% reduction in admissions and no change in length of stay. Significant increases in level II and level III billing and billing volume (P < .05) were sustainable year to year and resulted in an average per patient admission SHC income increase from $91.85 to $362.31. Use of a standardized daily progress note dramatically increases the accuracy of coding and associated billing of subsequent hospital care for trauma services.
Wilkinson, Mark; Kupfer, Alexander; Marques-Porto, Rafael; Jeffkins, Hilary; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Carlos
Maternal dermatophagy, the eating of maternal skin by offspring, is an unusual form of parental investment involving co-evolved specializations of both maternal skin and offspring dentition, which has been recently discovered in an African caecilian amphibian. Here we report the discovery of this form of parental care in a second, distantly related Neotropical species Siphonops annulatus, where it is characterized by the same syndrome of maternal and offspring specializations. The detailed similarities of skin feeding in different caecilian species provide strong evidence of its homology, implying its presence in the last common ancestor of these species. Biogeographic considerations, the separation of Africa and South American land masses and inferred timescales of amphibian diversification all suggest that skin feeding is an ancient form of parental care in caecilians, which has probably persisted in multiple lineages for more than 100 Myr. These inferences support the hypotheses that (i) maternal dermatophagy is widespread in oviparous direct-developing caecilians, and (ii) that viviparous caecilians that feed on the hypertrophied maternal oviduct evolved from skin-feeding ancestors. In addition to skin-feeding, young S. annulatus were observed to congregate around, and imbibe liquid exuded from, the maternal cloacal opening.
Bleijenberg, Nienke; Drubbel, Irene; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Dam, Hester Ten; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Numans, Mattijs E; de Wit, Niek J
To determine the effectiveness of a proactive primary care program on the daily functioning of older people in primary care. Single-blind, three-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Primary care setting, 39 general practices in the Netherlands. Community-dwelling people aged 60 and older (N = 3,092). A frailty screening intervention using routine electronic medical record data to identify older people at risk of adverse events followed by usual care from a general practitioner; after the screening intervention, a nurse-led care program consisting of a comprehensive geriatric assessment, evidence-based care planning, care coordination, and follow-up; usual care. Primary outcome was daily functioning measured using the Katz-15 (6 activities of daily living (ADLs), 8 instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), one mobility item (range 0-15)); higher scores indicate greater dependence. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, primary care consultations, hospital admissions, emergency department visits, nursing home admissions, and mortality. The participants in both intervention arms had less decline in daily functioning than those in the usual care arm at 12 months (mean Katz-15 score: screening arm, 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.77-1.97; screening and nurse-led care arm, 1.88, 95% CI = 1.80-1.96; control group, 2.03, 95% CI = 1.92-2.13; P = .03). No differences in quality of life were observed. Participants in both intervention groups had less decline than those in the control group at 1-year follow-up. Despite the statistically significant effect, the clinical relevance is uncertain at this point because of the small differences. Greater customizing of the intervention combined with prolonged follow-up may lead to more-robust results. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Myers, Sharon L.; Yang, Chun Z.; Bittner, George D.; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.; Baird, Donna D.
Use of personal care products is widespread in the United States but tends to be greater among African Americans than whites. Of special concern is the possible hazard of absorption of chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) in these products. Such exposure may have adverse health effects, especially when it occurs during developmental windows (e.g., prepubertally) when estrogen levels are low. We assessed the ethanol extracts of eight commonly used hair and skin products popular among African Americans for EA and AEA using a cell proliferation assay with the estrogen sensitive MCF-7:WS8 cell line derived from a human breast cancer. Four of the eight personal care products tested (Oil Hair Lotion, Extra-dry Skin Lotion, Intensive Skin Lotion, Petroleum Jelly) demonstrated detectable EA, whereas three (Placenta Hair Conditioner, Tea-Tree Hair Conditioner, Cocoa Butter Skin Cream) exhibited AEA. Our data indicate that hair and skin care products can have EA or AEA, and suggest that laboratory studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo activity of such products under chronic exposure conditions as well as epidemiologic studies to investigate potential adverse health effects that might be associated with use of such products. PMID:24849798
Myers, Sharon L; Yang, Chun Z; Bittner, George D; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R; Baird, Donna D
Use of personal care products is widespread in the United States but tends to be greater among African Americans than whites. Of special concern is the possible hazard of absorption of chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) in these products. Such exposure may have adverse health effects, especially when it occurs during developmental windows (e.g., prepubertally) when estrogen levels are low. We assessed the ethanol extracts of eight commonly used hair and skin products popular among African Americans for EA and AEA using a cell proliferation assay with the estrogen sensitive MCF-7:WS8 cell line derived from a human breast cancer. Four of the eight personal care products tested (Oil Hair Lotion, Extra-dry Skin Lotion, Intensive Skin Lotion, Petroleum Jelly) demonstrated detectable EA, whereas three (Placenta Hair Conditioner, Tea-Tree Hair Conditioner, Cocoa Butter Skin Cream) exhibited AEA. Our data indicate that hair and skin care products can have EA or AEA, and suggest that laboratory studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo activity of such products under chronic exposure conditions as well as epidemiologic studies to investigate potential adverse health effects that might be associated with use of such products.
Förster, Kati; Pannach, Sven; Ebertz, Franziska; Gelbricht, Vera; Thieme, Christoph; Michalski, Franziska; Köhler, Christina; Werth, Sebastian; Sahin, Kurtulus; Tittl, Luise; Hänsel, Ulrike; Weiss, Norbert
Worldwide, rivaroxaban is increasingly used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and treatment of venous thromboembolism, but little is known about rivaroxaban-related bleeding complications in daily care. Using data from a prospective, noninterventional oral anticoagulation registry of daily care patients (Dresden NOAC registry), we analyzed rates, management, and outcome of rivaroxaban-related bleeding. Between October 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1776 rivaroxaban patients were enrolled. So far, 762 patients (42.9%) reported 1082 bleeding events during/within 3 days after last intake of rivaroxaban (58.9% minor, 35.0% of nonmajor clinically relevant, and 6.1% major bleeding according to International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis definition). In case of major bleeding, surgical or interventional treatment was needed in 37.8% and prothrombin complex concentrate in 9.1%. In the time-to-first-event analysis, 100-patient-year rates of major bleeding were 3.1 (95% confidence interval 2.2-4.3) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.5-6.4) for venous thromboembolism patients, respectively. In the as-treated analysis, case fatality rates of bleeding leading to hospitalizations were 5.1% and 6.3% at days 30 and 90 after bleeding, respectively. Our data indicate that, in real life, rates of rivaroxaban-related major bleeding may be lower and that the outcome may at least not be worse than that of major vitamin K antagonist bleeding, and probably better. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as identifier #NCT01588119. PMID:24859362
Hughes Driscoll, Colleen; El Metwally, Dina
To improve hospital access for expectant women and newborns in the state of Maryland, a quality improvement team reviewed the patient flow characteristics of our neonatal intensive care unit. We identified inefficiencies in patient discharges, including delays in patient transports. Several patient transport delays were caused by late preparation and delivery of the patient transfer summary. Baseline data collection revealed that transfer summaries were prepared on-time by the resident or nurse practitioner only 41% of the time on average, while the same transfer summaries were signed on-time by the neonatologist 5% of the time on average. Our aim was to improve the rate of on-time transfer summaries to 50% over a four month time period. We performed two PDSA cycles based on feedback from our quality improvement team. In the first cycle, we instituted a daily huddle to increase opportunities for communication about patient transports. In the second cycle, we increased computer access for residents and nurse practitioners preparing the transfer summaries. The on-time summary preparation by residents/nurse practitioners improved to an average of 72% over a nine month period. The same summaries were signed on-time by a neonatologist 26% of the time on average over a nine month period. In conclusion, institution of a daily huddle combined with augmented computer resources significantly increased the percentage of on-time transfer summaries. Current data show a trend toward improved ability to accept patient referrals. Further data collection and analysis is needed to determine the impact of these interventions on access to hospital care for expectant women and newborns in our state. PMID:26734275
Ridout, Kathryn K; Kole, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Kelly L; Ridout, Samuel J; Donaldson, Abigail A; Alverson, Brian
This study investigates how the clinical practice guideline-recommended laboratory monitoring for refeeding syndrome impacts management and outcomes of adolescents with eating disorders hospitalized for acute medical stabilization and examines the value of laboratory monitoring (defined as the patient health outcomes achieved per dollar spent). A retrospective chart review of medical admissions in a children's hospital between October 2010 and February 2014 was performed. Encounters were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes of eating disorders as primary or secondary diagnoses. Exclusion criteria included systemic diseases associated with significant electrolyte abnormalities. Chart abstraction was performed using a predetermined form. Costs were estimated by converting hospital-fixed Medicaid charges using a statewide cost-to-charge ratio. Of the 196 patient encounters, there were no cases of refeeding syndrome. A total of 3,960 key recommended laboratories were obtained; 1.9% were below normal range and .05% were critical values. Of these, .28% resulted in supplementation; none were associated with a change in inpatient management. Total laboratory costs were $269,250.85; the calculated health care value of this monitoring is 1.04 × 10(-8) differential outcomes per dollar spent. This study provides evidence to suggest that daily laboratory monitoring for refeeding syndrome is a poor health care value in the management of adolescents hospitalized for acute medical stabilization with eating disorders. This initial analysis suggests that starting at a relatively low caloric level and advancing nutrition slowly may negate the need for daily laboratory assessment, which may have important implications for current guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matsumoto, Martha; Secrest, Aaron; Anderson, Alyce; Saul, Melissa I; Ho, Jonhan; Kirkwood, John M; Ferris, Laura K
Data on the cost and efficiency of skin cancer detection through total body skin examination are scarce. To determine the number needed to screen (NNS) and biopsy (NNB) and cost per skin cancer diagnosed in a large dermatology practice in patients undergoing total body skin examination. This is a retrospective observational study. During 2011-2015, a total of 20,270 patients underwent 33,647 visits for total body skin examination; 9956 lesion biopsies were performed yielding 2763 skin cancers, including 155 melanomas. The NNS to detect 1 skin cancer was 12.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.7-12.6) and 1 melanoma was 215 (95% CI 185-252). The NNB to detect 1 skin cancer was 3.0 (95% CI 2.9-3.1) and 1 melanoma was 27.8 (95% CI 23.3-33.3). In a multivariable model for NNS, age and personal history of melanoma were significant factors. Age switched from a protective factor to a risk factor at 51 years of age. The estimated cost per melanoma detected was $32,594 (95% CI $27,326-$37,475). Data are from a single health care system and based on physician coding. Melanoma detection through total body skin examination is most efficient in patients ≥50 years of age and those with a personal history of melanoma. Our findings will be helpful in modeling the cost effectiveness of melanoma screening by dermatologists. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vasquez-Pinto, L M C; Maldonado, E P; Raele, M P; Amaral, M M; de Freitas, A Z
When evaluating skin care products for human skin, quantitative test methods need to be simple, precise and reliable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), provides high-resolution sectional images of translucent materials to a depth of a few millimeters, a technique usually applied to medical measurements in ophthalmology and dermatology. This study aimed to demonstrate the application of OCT as the main technique for monitoring changes in skin topography during tests of a wrinkle-reduction product in humans. We used a commercial OCT apparatus to perform clinical examinations of skin roughness in treated and non-treated sites in the periorbital region of thirty human voluntaries who were using an anti-aging product commercially available: Natura Chronos® Flavonóides de Passiflora 45+ FPS15, from Natura Cosméticos, Brazil. Measurements were performed days 0, 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. Equipment and software allowed real-time recording of skin roughness parameters and wrinkle depths. The OCT measurements have allowed the monitoring of changes in skin roughness, which have shown reduction in treated sites around 10%. The obtained depth distributions also indicate reduction in the occurrence of wrinkles deeper than 170 μm. The verified results are consistent with those typically obtained after successful treatment with modern anti-aging products. By using the OCT technique, it was possible to quantify changes in skin roughness and in the distribution of depths of skin wrinkles, with adequate sensitivity. OCT imaging allows the direct visualization of the skin topography with resolution of micrometers, a reliable and interactive tool for clinical use. Therefore, for the first time, we demonstrated the use of OCT technique to verify the efficacy of cosmetic products in real time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lall, Namrita; Kishore, Navneet
South Africa is an important focal point of botanical diversity, and although many plant species have been used since ancient times in ethnomedicine, only a few species have hitherto been fully investigated scientifically. A large proportion of the South African population use traditional medicines for their physical and psychological health needs. Many medicinal plants have recently gained popularity as ingredient in cosmetic formulations based on their ethnomedicinal values and many cosmetic products sold in stores are of natural origin. The present review discusses the ethnopharmacological values, pharmacological and toxicological evidence of 117 plant species grown in South Africa, which are used traditionally for skin care purposes. Special focus was on their traditional use for many skin disorders in order to identify their therapeutic potential, the state of ethnopharmacological knowledge and special emphasis has been on areas which require further research. The information regarding all 117 plant species mentioned was extracted from Sci-Finder, Science direct, Medline and Google Scholar. All the available relevant data for medicinal plants was collated from literature review articles from the 19th century to early 2013. The extracts from different parts of plants exhibited significant pharmacological properties, proving significant skin care potentials. Special emphasis was on those plant species which still need further exploration and these have been documented separately. Despite the immense use of plants in ethnomedicine for skin care, limited research has been done on the activity of the crude extracts and very little on the active constituents. Consequently, almost 35 out of the 117 species are totally unexplored in the area of skin care. This investigation would be of interest to a broad readership including those researchers working in this field. The plant species namely: Greyia flanaganii, Sideroxylon inerme, Sclerocarya birrea, Calodendrum
McRee, Annie-Laurie; Mays, Darren; Kornides, Melanie L; Gilkey, Melissa B
Adolescence is a high-risk period for ultraviolet radiation exposure, a primary cause of skin cancer later in life. We sought to characterize receipt of health care provider-delivered counseling about skin cancer prevention (SCP) among parents of adolescents. In 2016, we conducted an online survey with a national sample of parents of adolescents aged 11-17 years (n = 1,253). Multivariable logistic regression assessed correlates of receiving counseling from a health care provider about any of the six skin cancer prevention (SCP) topics. Only half (49%) of parents recalled discussing any SCP topic with their child's provider; the prevalence was highest for sunscreen (39%) and lowest for indoor tanning (3%). Parents had greater odds of receiving counseling if they had a child with more sun-reactive skin (odds ratio [OR] = 1.53); a family history of skin cancer (OR = 1.38); or a higher quality relationship with the provider (OR = 1.47; all p < .05). Greater attention to SCP counseling is needed, especially for exposures such as indoor tanning that remain prevalent among adolescents but are rarely addressed in clinical encounters. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gonya, Jenn; Ray, William C; Rumpf, R Wolfgang; Brock, Guy
The primary objective of the study was to investigate how patterns of skin-to-skin care might impact infant early cognitive and communication performance. This was a retrospective cohort study. This study took place in a level-IV all-referral neonatal intensive care unit in the Midwest USA specialising in the care of extremely preterm infants. Data were collected from the electronic medical records of all extremely preterm infants (gestational age <27 weeks) admitted to the unit during 2010-2011 and who completed 6-month and 12-month developmental assessments in the follow-up clinic (n=97). Outcome measures included the cognitive and communication subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III); and skin-to-skin patterns including: total hours of maternal and paternal participation throughout hospitalisation, total duration in weeks and frequency (hours per week). Extracted data were analysed through a multistep process of logistic regressions, t-tests, χ 2 tests and Fisher's exact tests followed with exploratory network analysis using novel visual analytic software. Infants who received above the sample median in total hours, weekly frequency and total hours from mothers and fathers of skin-to-skin care were more likely to score ≥80 on the cognitive and communication scales of the Bayley-III. However, the results were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Mothers provided the majority of skin-to-skin care with a sharp decline at 30 weeks corrected age, regardless of when extremely preterm infants were admitted. Additional exploratory network analysis suggests that medical and skin-to-skin factors play a parallel, non-synergistic role in contributing to early cognitive and communication performance as assessed through the Bayley-III. This study suggests an association between early and frequent skin-to-skin care with extremely preterm infants and early cognitive and communication performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing
Milani-Nejad, Nima; Zhang, Myron; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H
The value of inpatient dermatology consultations has traditionally been demonstrated with frequency in changes of diagnosis and management; however, the impact of dermatology consultations on metrics such as hospital length of stay and readmission rates remains unknown. To determine the association of dermatology consultations with patient care in hospitalized patients using objective values. We retrospectively queried the deidentified database of patients hospitalized between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, at a single university medical center. A total of 413 patients with a primary inflammatory skin condition discharge diagnosis and 647 patients with primary inflammatory skin condition admission diagnosis were selected. Hospital length of stay and 1-year readmission with inflammatory skin conditions. The 413 patients with a primary inflammatory skin condition discharge diagnosis were 61.0% female and had a mean (SD) age of 55.1 (16.4) years. The 647 patients with primary inflammatory skin condition admission diagnosis were 50.8% female and had a mean (SD) age of 57.8 (15.9) years. Multivariable modeling showed that dermatology consultations were associated with a reduction of 1-year inflammatory skin condition readmissions among patients who were discharged primarily with an inflammatory skin condition (readmission probability, 0.0025; 95% CI, 0.00020-0.030 with dermatology consult vs 0.026; 95% CI, 0.0065-0.10 without; odds ratio, 0.093; 95% CI, 0.010-0.840; P = .03). No other confounding variable was associated with reduction in readmissions. Multivariable modeling also showed that dermatology consultations were associated with a reduction in the adjusted hospital length of stay by 2.64 days (95% CI, 1.75-3.53 days; P < .001). Dermatology consultations were associated with improvements of outcomes among hospitalized patients. The expansion of the role of dermatology consultation services may improve patient care in a cost-effective manner.
Rodan, Katie; Fields, Kathy; Falla, Timothy J
More men are beginning to take advantage of opportunities to improve the health and appearance of their skin; however, the effectiveness of men's skincare regimens has not been well studied. The authors investigated the efficacy and tolerance of a twice-daily, three-step men's skincare regimen in improving skin appearance and reducing shave-related issues. Twenty-nine men who used a wet-shaving method completed a specific, three-step, twice-daily facial regimen-a Shave Cleanser, a Post-Shave Treatment, and Day Protection-in place of their usual routine for 4 weeks. This skincare regimen produced significant improvements in tactile smoothness, clarity, radiance, and pore size at weeks 2 and 4 and in fine lines, razor burn, and photodamage at week 4 ( P <.05). Significant improvements were seen in the appearance of nicks/cuts and folliculitis of the face and neck after weeks 2 and 4 ( P <.05). Mean change in the moisture content of the stratum corneum was significant at week 4 ( P <.05). The majority of men provided positive self-assessments and indicated an interest in continuing this regimen.
Benci, Joseph L; Minn, Andy J; Vachani, Carolyn C; Bach, Christina; Arnold-Korzeniowski, Karen; Hampshire, Margaret K; Metz, James M; Hill-Kayser, Christine E
Nearly 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer, and as a result, survivors of skin cancer compose one of the largest groups of cancer survivors. Survivorship care plans (SCPs) are an important tool for improving patient outcomes and provide critical information to both survivors and health care professionals. Recent efforts have been made to expand SCP utilization; however, which patients currently receive SCPs is poorly understood. This study used 596 individuals with a diagnosis of melanoma (n = 391) or nonmelanoma skin cancer (n = 205) who had used an Internet-based SCP tool from May 2010 to December 2016 to model the patient and provider characteristics that determine SCP utilization. Survivors were predominantly white (95.3%) and female (56.5%). Survivors who received a treatment summary were more likely to also receive an SCP. University and nonuniversity cancer centers used SCPs at a higher rate than other care settings. Survivors whose care was managed by a team rather than just an individual physician were also more likely to receive an SCP. Survivors older than 70 years at diagnosis were almost twice as likely to receive a plan as survivors who were diagnosed at a younger age. With a convenience sample of skin cancer survivors, it is possible to model factors that predict the receipt of SCPs. Important variables include the diagnosis age, treatment setting, physician type, and treatment-summary utilization. A closer examination of these variables identified several disparities in care-plan use and, therefore, opportunities to improve the distribution of SCPs. Further validation in additional cohorts of survivors is necessary to confirm these conclusions. Cancer 2018;124:183-91. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Carey, Nicola; Courtenay, Molly; Stenner, Karen
To explore the practice of nurses who prescribe medication for patients with skin conditions. Nurses have lead roles in dermatology services. In the United Kingdom, nurses in primary care frequently prescribe medicines for skin conditions, but there are concerns about role preparation and access to continuing professional development. The prescribing practices of nurse independent supplementary prescribers who care for patients with skin conditions are under-researched. Cross-sectional survey. An online questionnaire was used to survey 186 nurses who prescribed for skin conditions from May-July 2010. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests. The majority worked in primary care (78%) and general practice (111, 59.7%). Twenty (10.8%) had specialist modules (at diploma, degree or master's level), 104 (55.9%) had dermatology training (e.g. study days), 44 (23.7%) had no training, and a further 18 (9.6%) did not respond. Oral antibiotics, topical antifungal and antibacterial drugs were frequently prescribed. Nurses with specialist dermatology training used their qualification in a greater number of ways, prescribed the broadest range of products and prescribed more items per week. Over 70% reporting on continuing professional development had been able to access it. A large number of nurses in primary care prescribe medicines for skin conditions and are involved in medicines management activities. Lack of specialist dermatology training is a concern and associated with lower prescribing-related activities. Access to dermatology training and continuing professional development are required to support nurse development in this area of practice and maximise benefits. Nurse prescribers' involvement in medicines management activities has important implications in terms of improving access to services, efficiency and cost savings. To maximise their contribution, improved provision of specialist dermatology training is required. This will be of
Graat, Marleen E; Choi, Goda; Wolthuis, Esther K; Korevaar, Johanna C; Spronk, Peter E; Stoker, Jaap; Vroom, Margreeth B; Schultz, Marcus J
The clinical value of daily routine chest radiographs (CXRs) in critically ill patients is unknown. We conducted this study to evaluate how frequently unexpected predefined major abnormalities are identified with daily routine CXRs, and how often these findings lead to a change in care for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This was a prospective observational study conducted in a 28-bed, mixed medical-surgical ICU of a university hospital. Over a 5-month period, 2,457 daily routine CXRs were done in 754 consecutive ICU patients. The majority of these CXRs did not reveal any new predefined major finding. In only 5.8% of daily routine CXRs (14.3% of patients) was one or more new and unexpected abnormality encountered, including large atelectases (24 times in 20 patients), large infiltrates (23 in 22), severe pulmonary congestion (29 in 25), severe pleural effusion (13 in 13), pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum (14 in 13), and malposition of the orotracheal tube (32 in 26). Fewer than half of the CXRs with a new and unexpected finding were ultimately clinically relevant; in only 2.2% of all daily routine CXRs (6.4% of patients) did these radiologic abnormalities result in a change to therapy. Subgroup analysis revealed no differences between medical and surgical patients with regard to the incidence of new and unexpected findings on daily routine CXRs and the effect of new and unexpected CXR findings on daily care. In the ICU, daily routine CXRs seldom reveal unexpected, clinically relevant abnormalities, and they rarely prompt action. We propose that this diagnostic examination be abandoned in ICU patients.
Giansanti, Daniele; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Brocco, Monica
When designing a complete system of daily-telerehabilitation it should be borne in mind that properly designed methodologies should be furnished for patients to execute specific motion tasks and for care givers to assess the relevant parameters. Whether in hospital or at home, the system should feature two basic elements: (a) instrumented and walking aids or supports, (b) equipment for the assessment of parameters. Being gait the focus, the idea was to design, construct and validate - as an alternative to the complex and expensive instruments currently used - a simple, portable kit that may be easily interfaced/integrated with the most common mechanical tools used in motion rehabilitation (instrumented walkways, aids, supports), with feedback to both patient for self-monitoring and trainer/therapist (present or remote) for clinical reporting. The proposed system consists of: one step-counter, three couples of photo-emitter detectors, one central unit for collecting and processing the telemetrically transmitted data; a software interface on a dedicated PC and a network adapter. The system has been successfully validated in a clinical application on two groups of 16 subjects at the 1st and 2nd level of the Tinetti test. The degree of acceptance by subjects and care-givers was high. The system was also successfully compared with an Inertial Measurement Unit, a de facto standard. The portable kit can be used with different rehabilitation tools and different ground rugosity. The advantages are: (a) very low costs when compared with optoelectronic solutions and other portable solutions; (b) very high accuracy, also for subjects with imbalance problems; (c) good compatibility with any rehabilitative tool. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jerajani, Hemangi R; Mizoguchi, Haruko; Li, James; Whittenbarger, Debora J; Marmor, Michael J
The B vitamins niacinamide and panthenol have been shown to reduce many signs of skin aging, including hyperpigmentation and redness. To measure the facial skin effects in Indian women of the daily use of a lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopherol acetate using quantitative image analysis. Adult women 30-60 years of age with epidermal hyperpigmentation were recruited in Mumbai and randomly assigned to apply a test or control lotion to the face daily for 10 weeks. Effects on skin tone were measured using an image capturing system and associated software. Skin texture was assessed by expert graders. Barrier function was evaluated by transepithelial water loss measurements. Subjects and evaluators were blinded to the product assignment. Of 246 women randomized to treatment, 207 (84%) completed the study. Women who used the test lotion experienced significantly reduced appearance of hyperpigmentation, improved skin tone evenness, appearance of lightening of skin, and positive effects on skin texture. Improvements versus control were seen as early as 6 weeks. The test lotion was well tolerated. The most common adverse event was a transient, mild burning sensation. Daily use of a facial lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate improved skin tone and texture and was well tolerated in Indian women with facial signs of aging.
Bradford, Porcia T.
Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228
Argenziano, Giuseppe; Puig, Susana; Zalaudek, Iris; Sera, Francesco; Corona, Rosamaria; Alsina, Mercè; Barbato, Filomena; Carrera, Cristina; Ferrara, Gerardo; Guilabert, Antonio; Massi, Daniela; Moreno-Romero, Juan A; Muñoz-Santos, Carlos; Petrillo, Gianluca; Segura, Sonia; Soyer, H Peter; Zanchini, Renato; Malvehy, Josep
Primary care physicians (PCPs) constitute an appropriate target for new interventions and educational campaigns designed to increase skin cancer screening and prevention. The aim of this randomized study was to determine whether the adjunct of dermoscopy to the standard clinical examination improves the accuracy of PCPs to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer. PCPs in Barcelona, Spain, and Naples, Italy, were given a 1-day training course in skin cancer detection and dermoscopic evaluation, and were randomly assigned to the dermoscopy evaluation arm or naked-eye evaluation arm. During a 16-month period, 73 physicians evaluated 2,522 patients with skin lesions who attended their clinics and scored individual lesions as benign or suggestive of skin cancer. All patients were re-evaluated by expert dermatologists at clinics for pigmented lesions. Referral accuracy of both PCP groups was calculated by their scores, which were compared to those tabulated for dermatologists. Referral sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 54.1%, 71.3%, 11.3%, and 95.8%, respectively, in the naked-eye arm, and 79.2%, 71.8%, 16.1%, and 98.1%, respectively, in the dermoscopy arm. Significant differences were found in terms of sensitivity and negative predictive value (P = .002 and P = .004, respectively). Histopathologic examination of equivocal lesions revealed 23 malignant skin tumors missed by PCPs performing naked-eye observation and only six by PCPs using dermoscopy (P = .002). The use of dermoscopy improves the ability of PCPs to triage lesions suggestive of skin cancer without increasing the number of unnecessary expert consultations.
Ng, Angie T; Chang, Anne Lynn S; Cockburn, Myles; Peng, David H
(i) To assess the baseline knowledge of non-medical skin care professionals (estheticians, cosmetologists, massage therapists) on tanning bed use and its association with melanoma; and (ii) to provide preliminary evidence of the potential impact of a fast and simple educational intervention on tanning beds and melanoma on the awareness of non-medical skin care professionals towards skin cancer prevention. A pre-intervention survey was administered to non-medical skin care professional at salons or spas in Southern California to assess baseline knowledge on tanning and skin cancer. This was followed immediately by a 10-minute oral presentation on tanning bed use and its association with melanoma. One month later, a post-intervention survey was distributed to individuals who attended the initial oral presentation. Significant changes pre- and post-intervention were found in non-medical skin care professionals' answer responses to the following: (i) increased speaking to clients about cancer risk with tanning bed use 42-66% (OR 2.44; 95% CI 1.39, 4.30)]; (ii) decreased personal tanning bed use (23-15% [OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.37, 1.00]); and (iii) decreased belief that tanning beds are an excellent cosmetic tool (29-20% [OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.38, 0.96]). This study provides preliminary evidence that non-medical skin care professionals could be an important source of primary prevention information for reducing the burden of melanoma. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.
Opara, Kingsley O; Jiburum, Bernard C
Albinism is a genetic disorder characterized by lack of skin pigmentation. It has a worldwide distribution but is commoner in areas close to the equator like Nigeria. Skin cancers are a major risk associated with albinism and are thought to be a major cause of death in African albinos. Challenges faced in the care of these patients need to be highlighted in order to develop a holistic management approach with a significant public health impact. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of skin cancers seen in Albinos, and to highlight problems encountered in their management. Case records of albinos managed in Imo state University teaching Hospital from June 2007 to May 2009 were reviewed. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics. In the period under review, albinos accounted for 67% of patients managed for primary skin cancers. There were twenty patients with thirty eight (38) lesions. Sixty one percent of the patients were below 40 years. Average duration of symptoms at presentation was 26 months. The commonest reason for late presentation was the lack of funds. Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest histologic variant. Most patients were unable to complete treatment due to lack of funds. Albinism appears to be the most important risk factor in the development of skin cancers in our environment. Late presentation and poor rate of completion of treatment due to poverty are major challenges.
Infiltration and extravasation account for 23-78 % of the complications stemming from peripheral venous perfusions in neonatal intensive care units. Their consequences, sometimes dramatic, can be pain, infections, or even loss of skin, which can lead to nerve and/or muscle damage, particularly severe for preterm neonates. Today there are no recommendations on the care of these lesions, which can lead to an erroneous choice or to a delay in the possible treatments. This review of the literature aims to explore and propose elements of therapeutic care collected in the scientific literature. It focuses on skin lesions due to extravasation of peripheral venous perfusions in neonatal intensive care units. The PubMed database and the publishers' platform ScienceDirect were used. The bibliographies of the selected articles were also run. All types of studies examining one or several treatments for the care of postextravasation skin lesions in neonatal intensive care units were included in the search, without any limit on the date, except for case reports. To estimate the quality of the studies, the tool proposed by the French National Authority for Health, which classifies the various types of studies according to their proof level, was used. Thirteen publications were analyzed, including four case series, five retrospective studies, and four interventional studies. The vast majority of these studies have been published since 2005. No comparative, controlled, and randomized trials appear in the literature. Chronologically, we observed a growing interest in the premature infant population, in parallel with the increasing number of publications. Among the significant number of treatments proposed, five main categories were identified: topical treatment, surgery, the Gault method, no specific treatment, and others. All the skin lesions of the babies studied healed, without important aftereffects. These publications also show that most of the time a combination of different
Lee, Seok Bum; Park, Jeong Ran; Yoo, Jeong-Hwa; Park, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Jung Jae; Yoon, Jong Chul; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Lee, Dong Young; Woo, Jong Inn; Han, Ji Won; Huh, Yoonseok; Kim, Tae Hui
Objective We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IADL measure included in the Dementia Care Assessment Packet (DCAP-IADL) in dementia patients. Methods The study involved 112 dementia patients and 546 controls. The DCAP-IADL was scored in two ways: observed score (OS) and predicted score (PS). The reliability of the DCAP-IADL was evaluated by testing its internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the mean OS and PS between dementia patients and controls by ANCOVA. Pearson or Spearman correlation analysis was performed with other instruments to assess concurrent validity. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was performed to examine diagnostic accuracy. Results Chronbach's α coefficients of the DCAP-IADL were above 0.7. The values in dementia patients were much higher (OS=0.917, PS=0.927), indicating excellent degrees of internal consistency. Inter-rater reliabilities and test-retest reliabilities were statistically significant (p<0.05). PS exhibited higher reliabilities than OS. The mean OS and PS of dementia patients were significantly higher than those of the non-demented group after controlling for age, sex and education level. The DCAP-IADL was significantly correlated with other IADL instruments and MMSE-KC (p<0.001). Areas under the curves of the DCAP-IADL were above 0.9. Conclusion The DCAP-IADL is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating instrumental ability of daily living for the elderly, and may also be useful for screening dementia. Moreover, administering PS may enable the DCAP-IADL to overcome the differences in gender, culture and life style that hinders accurate evaluation of the elderly in previous IADL instruments. PMID:24302946
Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Ueno, Kimiko; Yamamoto, Masaharu
To date, no study has investigated the nutritional status of vitamin D in frail elderly people living at home. The purposes of this study were to assess serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and associated factors in noninstitutionalized elderly people who had various levels of physical disability, and to propose an adequate vitamin D nutritional status for the elderly by interpreting the serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in this population. Health examinations were conducted in the winter and summer of 2003. The subjects were 143 elderly people in the winter, and 120 elderly people in the summer, who all used the long-term care insurance system at home. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were determined with a chemiluminescence protein-binding assay, and serum intact PTH concentrations were determined with an immunoradiometric assay. The subjects' disease histories and lifestyle information were obtained through an interview. Activities of daily living (ADL) levels were evaluated using the Barthel index, and grip strength was measured with a digital hand dynamometer. Average serum 25(OH)D levels in the winter and summer were 54.2 nmol/l (SD 29.0) and 53.3 nmol/l (SD 32.3), respectively, and intact PTH concentrations in the winter and summer were 4.2 pmol/l (SD 1.8) and 4.3 pmol/l (SD 1.8), respectively. The proportion of people who had a low 25(OH)D (<30 nmol/l) and high intact PTH levels (>6.9 pmol/l) were 15%-20% and 8%, respectively. Significant predictors of low serum 25(OH)D concentrations were low ADL levels, female sex, and low fish consumption in both seasons. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of less than 50 nmol/l were associated with elevated serum intact PTH concentrations. In conclusion, elderly people requiring care at home are at high risk of hypovitaminosis D, and their low serum 25(OH)D levels are mainly associated with low ADL levels. In addition, maintenance of serum 25(OH)D concentrations above 50 nmol/l may
Arshad, Atif I; Khan, Shoaib H M; Akhtar, Naveed; Mahmood, Asif; Sarfraz, Rai Muhammad
The present investigation was conducted to evaluate non-invasively, various functional skin parameters i.e., irritation potential, melasma and sebum contents following long term application of topical cream (w/o) loaded with 2% methanolic extract of Ananas comosus L. versus placebo control (base) in healthy adults. Healthy human volunteers (n = 11, aged 20-30 years) were recruited for investigation and written informed consent was taken from each volunteer. In this single blinded study every volunteer applied formulation on one side of face and placebo on the other side of face twice daily for a period of 12 weeks (three months). Different skin parameters i.e., skin irritancy, melasma, and sebum contents were measured on both sides of face at baseline and after two weeks interval, using photometric device Mexameter and Sebumeter in a draught free room with modulated conditions of temperature (22-25°C) and humidity (55-60%). It was evident from the results that no primary skin irritancy was observed with patch test. Besides, statistical interpretation indicates that treatment with formulation is superior to placebo because it significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the skin irritancy, melasma and sebum secretions throughout the study and reaching maximum -20.76 ± 0.89, -54.2 ± 0.37 and -40.71 ± 0.75%, respectively, at the end of study period. Antioxidant activity of extract was 92% compared to standard antioxidant. Conclusively, active cream loaded with fruit extract was well tolerated by all the volunteers and suitable to treat contact dermatitis, greasy skin, acne and seborrheic dermatitis and augmenting beauty and attraction by depigmentation of human skin. So, in the future, there is need to clinically evaluate these formulations in patients with compromised skin functions i.e., contact dermatitis, melasma, and acne vulgaris in order to explore the actual potential of this fruit.
Cowdell, Fiona; Radley, Kathy
This article presents a discussion of the current state of knowledge about bariatric skin-hygiene care and whether this is sufficient to underpin evidence-based nursing practice. The challenges of providing bariatric skin-hygiene care are highlighted and include managing specific skin changes with associated risk of skin breakdown and practical management needs. The risk of skin breakdown is high and can have a devastating impact on well-being and increased treatment costs. A four-stage search strategy included: (i) literature search using electronic databases from inception-May 2013; (ii) hand search of selected journals; (iii) review of internet-based guidelines, policies or protocols and (iv) contact with clinical experts. There is a dearth of robust evidence on bariatric skin-hygiene care. Whilst a range of information and guidelines exist, these are generally based on expert opinion and often used only in a local context. Nurses are increasingly faced with the challenge of providing skin-hygiene care for patients with bariatric needs. At present, care is largely based on custom and practice or clinical opinion; this limits capacity to provide optimum evidence-based nursing care. As the prevalence of people needing bariatric skin-hygiene care continues to increase, there is a lack of evidence to inform interventions and hence a growing need for further research in this challenging clinical area to help nurses and patients select the best possible interventions that will meet individual personal-hygiene needs and preserve skin integrity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Milani-Nejad, Nima; Zhang, Myron
Importance The value of inpatient dermatology consultations has traditionally been demonstrated with frequency in changes of diagnosis and management; however, the impact of dermatology consultations on metrics such as hospital length of stay and readmission rates remains unknown. Objective To determine the association of dermatology consultations with patient care in hospitalized patients using objective values. Design, Setting, and Participants We retrospectively queried the deidentified database of patients hospitalized between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, at a single university medical center. A total of 413 patients with a primary inflammatory skin condition discharge diagnosis and 647 patients with primary inflammatory skin condition admission diagnosis were selected. Main Outcomes and Measures Hospital length of stay and 1-year readmission with inflammatory skin conditions. Results The 413 patients with a primary inflammatory skin condition discharge diagnosis were 61.0% female and had a mean (SD) age of 55.1 (16.4) years. The 647 patients with primary inflammatory skin condition admission diagnosis were 50.8% female and had a mean (SD) age of 57.8 (15.9) years. Multivariable modeling showed that dermatology consultations were associated with a reduction of 1-year inflammatory skin condition readmissions among patients who were discharged primarily with an inflammatory skin condition (readmission probability, 0.0025; 95% CI, 0.00020-0.030 with dermatology consult vs 0.026; 95% CI, 0.0065-0.10 without; odds ratio, 0.093; 95% CI, 0.010-0.840; P = .03). No other confounding variable was associated with reduction in readmissions. Multivariable modeling also showed that dermatology consultations were associated with a reduction in the adjusted hospital length of stay by 2.64 days (95% CI, 1.75-3.53 days; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance Dermatology consultations were associated with improvements of outcomes among hospitalized patients. The
Sheng, Xiaoyue; Fan, Linpeng; He, Chuanglong; Zhang, Kuihua; Mo, Xiumei; Wang, Hongsheng
In the present study, we reported fabrication and skin benefit of a novel vitamin E (VE)-loaded silk fibroin (SF) nanofibrous mats. RRR-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (VE TPGS), a water-soluble derivative of VE, was incorporated into SF nanofiber successfully by aqua solution electrospinning for the first time. Morphology of the composite nanofibers changed with the different amount of VE TPGS: a ribbon-like shape for lower loading dose of VE TPGS, while a round shape for higher loading dose (more than 4% (wt/wt) based on the weight of SF). After treated with 75% (v/v) ethanol vapor, the composite nanofibrous mats showed an excellent water-resistant ability. In vitro study disclosed a sustained release behavior of VE TPGS disassociated from the nanofibrous mats. The mouse skin fibroblasts (L929 cells) cultured on the VE-loaded SF nanofibrous mats spread and proliferated much better than on cover slips. Moreover, the incorporation of VE TPGS was found strengthening the ability of SF nanofibrous mats on protecting the cells against oxidation stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Our data presented impressive skin benefits of this VE-loaded SF nanofibrous mats, suggesting a promising applicative potential of this novel product on personal skin care, tissue regeneration and other related area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vahora, Roshni; Thakkar, Sejal; Marfatia, Yogesh
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common of the endocrine disorders. Mucocutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are many and vary from trivial to life-threatening. Sometimes, mucocutaneous disorders may herald the onset of diabetes. To study the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in diabetics and role of it in diagnosing diabetes mellitus and its complications. It was a longitudinal observational study of patients having diabetes with skin complaints attending skin outdoor department or admitted in wards for any reason in a tertiary care hospital. Total 300 patients were included in the study. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations were done to diagnose the mucocutaneous disorders, diabetes, and diabetic complications. The data was analyzed by using Epi info software. Demographic profile shown majority of cases (78.66%) in more than 40 years of age with almost equal male and female preponderance. Mucocutaneous manifestations as presenting feature of diabetes were observed in 21.67% cases. Infections were most common in 119 (39.66%) cases, followed by acanthosis nigricans in 46 (15.33%) cases. Various associated complications like hypertension, retinopathy, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, and diabetic ketoacidosis were observed in 160 (53.3%). Skin is the mirror, which reflects internal diseases; this aptly applies to skin and diabetes mellitus. Through awareness about cutaneous manifestations of DM, dermatologist can not only take credit for detecting DM but also facilitate early diagnosis of systemic complications of DM. This is immensely beneficial to patients in long run.
Andersson, Ingegerd; Pettersson, Elisabet; Sidenvall, Birgitta
To describe older people's experiences of daily life at the care home after admittance with respect to their perceptions of participation in the decision to move. Furthermore, the aim was to study the experiences of their relatives and contact persons with respect to the daily life of the same residents. When older persons move into a care home, the whole family often play an important part. Thus, it is interesting to study how newly admitted older people, their relatives and staff members experience daily life in a modern care home. Qualitative design. The participants comprised a purposive sample of 13 residents, recently admitted to a care home, 69-90 years old, both single living and married, both moving from their own homes and from different institutions. Interviews were carried out with the older people (n = 13), their relatives (n = 10) and contact persons (n = 11). The majority of the residents reported satisfaction with care home living. The relatives were also satisfied, secure and appreciated the privacy and homely atmosphere of the flat. The disadvantage of one-room flats was that the residents might have felt lonely. The relatives felt that the residents were bored, but few residents desired more activities, even if some of them longed for people to socialize with. For many older people, perhaps talking is the most important 'activity' at care homes. Concerning self-determination, some residents did not find it satisfactory. Staff members must pay attention to residents' need to talk with people. For many older people, talking is perhaps the most important 'activity' at care homes. Nurses must safeguard residents' self-determination. When residents are in control of their lives, they may become satisfied with time.
Galzote, Carlos; Thomas, Mini; Sachdev, Mukta
Ethnic differences in skin sensitivity suggest that greater emphasis be focused on understanding a product's effect in diverse populations. The irritation and/or sensitization potential of 8 baby skin care products in Indian adults were evaluated using cumulative irritation tests (CIT) and human repeat insult patch testing (HRIPT) protocols. Healthy males or females aged 18 to 65 years of Indian ethnicity were treated with each of 6 products (cream, hair oil, lotion, body wash, shampoo, and baby soap) using CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 200). Baby powder and baby oil were evaluated by CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 107) in separate studies. CITs were conducted over 14 days; HRIPTs were conducted over 10 weeks. In both CIT and HRIPT, most products were considered mild, with no irritation. Baby soap and powder elicited reactions in the HRIPT induction phase, with positive challenge phase reactions (3 subjects), but were affirmed to be nonallergenic in the rechallenge phase. In these studies, 8 baby skin care products were evaluated by both CIT and HRIPT in Indian adults. The results of the studies indicated that all of the tested products were nonallergenic and nonirritating.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1244-1248.
Isoda, Kenichi; Seki, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Koji; Nishizaka, Takahiro; Tanabe, Hisateru; Takagi, Yutaka; Ishida, Koichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi
Acne is a common skin disease that involves the seborrheic area of the face and results from the obstruction of hair follicles followed by inflammation. Careful face washing helps to improve and prevent acne; however, intensive washing has a risk of inducing skin barrier impairment and dry skin, especially in sensitive skin. We hypothesized that skin care combining mild skin cleansing and intensive moisturizing ("combination skin care") may be effective in the care of acne in subjects with dry skin and/or sensitive skin. We developed a combination skin care with a weakly acidic foaming facial skin cleanser based on a mild detergent, an aqueous lotion with eucalyptus extract and a moisturizing gel containing pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract. To optimize an ideal facial skin care system for mild acne on sensitive skin, we performed a 4-week clinical trial with 29 post-adolescent Japanese women with mild acne with dry and sensitive skin. The acne significantly decreased after this trial accompanied by the improvement of dry skin, a significantly increased endogenous ceramide level in the stratum corneum and an elongated alkyl chain length of the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type ceramide. No adverse events due to the test samples were observed. Based on diagnosis by a dermatologist, 97% of the subjects found the combination skin care to be "useful" or "slightly useful". Based on these findings, the combined use of a facial skin cleanser and moisturizers is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent Japanese women with sensitive skin. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Okamoto, Naoko; Umehara, Kaori; Sonoda, Junko; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Mizushima, Hiroki; Takagi, Yutaka; Matsuo, Keiko; Baba, Naoko
Objective Despite the application of skin care treatments, many infants have skin problems such as dryness and erythema. We proposed a new combination skin care for infants which consisted of a foaming cleanser with lower surfactant activity and moisturizers that contained pseudo-ceramide. Subjects and methods A total of 50 infants (age: 3–24 months) with insignificant levels of dry skin were enrolled in this usage trial. The parents washed the infants with the test cleanser while bathing and then applied the moisturizer (lotion or cream) containing pseudo-ceramide. Prior to and following the 4-week usage period, visual evaluation of the skin condition was conducted by a dermatologist, in addition to instrumental analysis. Results Erythema and papule, accompanied by dryness, were commonly observed at week 0. However, by week 4, these symptoms significantly improved; the condition of none of the subjects deteriorated. The number of infants with lower cutaneous barrier function and higher skin pH decreased. The parents of the infants recognized improvements in the skin symptoms and were appreciative of the test materials. Conclusion The combined usage of the foaming cleanser with lower surfactant activity and a moisturizer containing pseudo-ceramide may be effective in maintaining healthy infant skin and ameliorating the skin symptoms. PMID:29042805
Alam, Ashraful; Ali, Nabeel Ashraf; Sultana, Nighat; Mullany, Luke C.; Teela, Katherine C.; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Arifeen, Shams El; Mannan, Ishtiaq; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Winch, Peter J.
Background Newborn cord care practices may directly contribute to infections, which account for a large proportion of the 4 million annual global neonatal deaths. This formative research study assessed current umbilical and skin care knowledge and practices for neonates in Sylhet, Bangladesh in preparation for a cluster-randomised trial of the impact of topical chlorhexidine cord cleansing on neonatal mortality and omphalitis. Methodology Unstructured interviews (n=60), structured observations (n=20), rating and ranking exercises (n=40), and household surveys (n=400) were conducted to elicit specific behaviours regarding newborn cord and skin care practices. These included hand-washing, skin and cord care at the time of birth, persons engaged in cord care, cord cutting practices, topical applications to the cord at the time of birth, wrapping/dressing of the cord stump, and use of skin-to-skin care. Results Ninety percent of deliveries occurred at home. The umbilical cord was almost always (98%) cut after delivery of the placenta, and cut by mothers in more than half the cases (57%). Substances were commonly (52%) applied to the stump after cord cutting; turmeric was the most common application (83%). Umbilical stump care revolved around bathing, skin massage with mustard oil, and heat massage on the umbilical stump. Forty-two percent of newborns were bathed on the day of birth. Mothers were the principal provider for skin and cord care during the neonatal period and 9% reported umbilical infections in their infants. Discussion Unhygienic cord care practices are prevalent in the study area. Efforts to promote hand washing, cord cutting with clean instruments, and avoiding unclean home applications to the cord may reduce exposure and improve neonatal outcomes. Such efforts should broadly target a range of caregivers, including mothers and other female household members. PMID:19057570
For 2003-2008, ThedaCare, a community health system in Wisconsin, achieved significant improvements in quality and the elimination of waste through the development of an improvement system, which included Value Stream analysis, rapid improvement events, and projects applied to specific processes. However, to meet its continuous daily improvement goals, particularly the goal of increasing productivity by 10% annually, ThedaCare needed to change the way its managers and leaders (in its hospital division) conduct and manage their daily work. Accordingly, it developed its Business Performance System (BPS) to achieve and sustain continuous daily improvement. BUILDING THE BPS: ThedaCare devised a multipart pilot project, consisting of "learning to see" and then, "problem solving." On completion of the 15-week alpha phase (6 units) in July 2009, the BPS was spread to the beta pilot (12 units; September 2009-January 2010) and then to cohort 3 (10 units; September 2010-January 2011). Each alpha unit improved performance on (1) the key driver metric of increasing productivity from 2008 to year-end 2009 (by 1%-11%) and (2) its respective safety/ quality drivers over the respective 2008 baselines. For 2010, improvements across the alpha, beta, and cohort 3 units were found for 11 of the 14 safety/quality drivers-85% of the 11 customer satisfaction drivers, 83% of 6 people engagement drivers; and 48% of 23 financial stewardship drivers. The tools developed for the BPS have enabled teams to see, prioritize, and pursue continuous daily improvement opportunities. Unit leaders now have a structured management reporting system to reduce variation in their management styles. Leaders all now follow leadership standard work, and their daily work is now consistently aligned with the hospital and system strategy.
A Paired, Double-Blind, Randomized Comparison of a Moisturizing Durable Barrier Cream to 10% Glycerine Cream in the Prophylactic Management of Postmastectomy Irradiation Skin Care: Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 04.01
Graham, Peter H., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Plant, Natalie; Graham, Jennifer L.
Purpose: A previous, unblinded study demonstrated that an alcohol-free barrier film containing an acrylate terpolymer (ATP) was effective in reducing skin reactions compared with a 10% glycerine cream (sorbolene). The different appearances of these products precluded a blinded comparison. To test the acrylate terpolymer principle in a double-blinded manner required the use of an alternative cream formulation, a moisturizing durable barrier cream (MDBC); the study was conducted by the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) as protocol 04.01. Methods and Materials: A total of 333 patients were randomized; 1 patient was ineligible and 14 patients withdrew or had less thanmore » 7 weeks' observations, leaving 318 for analysis. The chest wall was divided into medial and lateral compartments, and patients were randomized to have MDBC applied daily to the medial or lateral compartment and sorbolene to the other compartment. Weekly observations, photographs, and symptom scores (pain and pruritus) were collected to week 12 or resolution of skin reactions if earlier. Skin dose was confirmed by centrally calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: Rates of medial and lateral compartment Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), version 3, greater than or equal to grade 3 skin reactions were 23% and 41%, but rates by skin care product were identical at 32%. There was no significant difference between MDBC and sorbolene in the primary endpoint of peak skin reactions or secondary endpoints of area-under-the-curve skin reaction scores. Conclusions: The MDBC did not reduce the peak skin reaction compared to sorbolene. It is possible that this is related to the difference in the formulation of the cream compared with the film formulation. Skin dosimetry verification and double blinding are essential for radiation skin care comparative studies.« less
González-DelCastillo, J; Núñez-Orantos, M J; Candel, F J; Martín-Sánchez, F J
Antibiotic treatment inadequacy is common in these sites of infection and may have implications for the patient's prognosis. In acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, the document states that for the establishment of an adequate treatment it must be assessed the severity, the patient comorbidity and the risk factors for multidrug-resistant microorganism. The concept of health care-associated pneumonia is discussed and leads to errors in the etiologic diagnosis and therefore in the selection of antibiotic treatment. This paper discusses how to perform this approach to the possible etiology to guide empirical treatment.
Gao, Su-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ling-Ling
To prepare the aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care and research the inhibition effect on the different bacteria and pathogenic fungus which cause dermatophytosis. It was prepared by using Sophoraflavescens and Dictamnus dasycarpus as materials with the addition of Aloe extract, essential oil, surfactant, etc. The antifungal and antibacterial activity was researched by the levitation liquid quantitative method. The foot wash smelled faintly scent. The use of this product can produce a rich foam. The inhibitory rate were all more than 90%. The preparation process of the foot wash was simple. It has obviously bacteriostatic and fungistatic effect.
van der Heijden, J P; de Keizer, N F; Bos, J D; Spuls, P I; Witkamp, L
Teledermatology, the application of telemedicine in the field of dermatology, has similar accuracy and reliability as physical dermatology. Teledermatology has been widely used in daily practice in the Netherlands since 2005 and is fully reimbursed. This study prospectively investigated the effect of teledermatology on efficiency, quality and costs of care when integrated in daily practice and applied following patient selection by the general practitioner (GP). Teledermatology consultations between GP and regional dermatologist were performed in daily GP practice in the Netherlands. Efficiency of care was measured by the decrease in the number of physical referrals to the dermatologist. Quality of care was measured by the percentage of teleconsultations for second opinion, physical referrals resulting from these teleconsultations, the response time of the dermatologists and educational effect experienced by the GP. Costs of conventional healthcare without teledermatology were compared with costs with teledermatology. One thousand, eight hundred and twenty GPs and 166 dermatologists performed teledermatology, and 37,207 teleconsultations performed from March 2007 to September 2010 were included. In the group of patients where the GP used teleconsultation to prevent a referral (n =26,596), 74% of physical referrals were prevented. In the group of patients where the GP used teleconsultation for a second opinion (n =10,611), 16% were physically referred after teleconsultation. The prevented referral rate in the total population was 68%. The mean response time of dermatologists was 4·6 h (median 2·0). GPs indicated that there was a beneficial educational effect in 85% of the teleconsultations. The estimated cost reduction was 18%. Teledermatology can lead to efficient care probably at lower cost. We are therefore of the opinion that teledermatology following GP selection should be considered as a possible pathway of referral to secondary care. © 2011 The Authors
Lee, Tae Wha; Cho, Eunhee; Yim, Eun Shil; Lee, Hye Sun; Ko, Yu Kyung; Kim, Bok Nam; Kim, Sinhye
Korea introduced universal long-term care insurance (LTCI) for physically dependent older adults in 2008. Older adults, their family members, and policy makers in Korea want to know patient outcomes in different care modalities because older adults who have a similar functional status and LTC needs can choose either nursing home care or home care. The aim of this study was to compare activities of daily living (ADLs) in nursing home care and home care settings for physically dependent older adults in Korea. A retrospective 1-year cohort study using national LTCI data. This study used the LTCI dataset from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea. Participants were identified from among those in the LTCI dataset who enrolled from July 2008 to June 2010. We extracted a sample consisting of 22,557 older adults who consistently received either nursing home care (n = 11,678) or home care (n = 10,879) for 1 year. The outcome variable was change in ADLs after 1 year. Covariates were an older adult's home geographical region, LTC level, age, sex, primary caregiver, Medicaid beneficiary status, bedridden status, medical diagnosis, baseline ADLs, cognitive function, behavioral problems, nursing and special treatment, and rehabilitation needs. Multiple regression analysis of all participants unmatched and a paired t-test with a propensity-score-matched cohort were performed to explain the association of changes in ADLs with the types of LTC. Multiple regression analysis with all participants (n = 22,557) unmatched showed that compared with older adults who received home care, those who received nursing home care had deteriorated further in terms of ADLs after 1 year (β = 0.44108, P < .0001). After propensity-score matching, paired t-test analysis also found that the ADLs of older adults had deteriorated less in the home care group compared with the nursing home group after 1 year (P < .0001). The ADLs of older adults who received home care showed significantly less
van Mol, Margo Mc; Boeter, Trudi Gw; Verharen, Lisbeth; Kompanje, Erwin Jo; Bakker, Jan; Nijkamp, Marjan D
To evaluate the impact of supportive interventions perceived by both the intensive care unit patients' relatives and the healthcare providers, such as deferred intake interviews for providing information and discussing the emotional impacts, encouragement to keep a diary, and the introduction of weekly psychosocial rounds, on the perceptions of relatives of patients in the intensive care unit. Patient- and family-centred care is gaining interest, with a shift from provider-centric norms to care arranged around patients' and relatives individual beliefs and needs. This is expected to have a positive influence on the quality of care. Communication is one of the most important factors impacting the perceived quality of care in the intensive care unit from the perspective of patients' relatives. New interventions have been introduced to help the patients' relatives to meet their communication needs. A time-trend quantitative design. Two convenience samples of relatives were included (in 2012 and 2013) in four different intensive care units from a large university medical centre in the Netherlands. Survey data from 211 relatives (75% net response rate in 2012) and 123 relatives (66% net response rate in 2013) were used for the analysis. The second measurement showed significant improvements regarding informational aspects of care, clarification of roles in participatory caretaking and shared decision-making. The results suggest that the additional support offered to patients' relatives increased perceived quality of care, particularly with respect to informational needs. However, patient- and family-centred care still requires a change in the mindset of healthcare professionals. This new point of view should overcome perceived barriers and foster a culture of partnership with patients' relatives in the intensive care unit. Training in providing psychosocial support for the needs of relatives leads to a stronger perception of patient-centredness. © 2016 John Wiley
Vellinga, A; van Melle-Baaijens, E A H
Nowadays, reflecting on ethics, which we choose to call moral case deliberation, is occurring more and more frequently in psychiatric institutions. We have personal experience of organising and supervising moral case deliberation in a large psychiatric institute and we can confirm the positive effects of moral case deliberation which have been reported in the literature. To describe a structured method for moral case deliberation which enables care-givers in health care and/or addiction care to reflect on moral dilemmas. We refer to the main findings in relevant literature and describe how we developed a structured method for implementing moral case deliberation. Our studies of the literature indicate that systematic reflection about ethical dilemmas can improve the quality of care and make care-givers more satisfied with their work. This is why we have developed our own method which is applicable particularly to psychiatric and/or addition care and which can be used systematically in discussions of moral dilemmas. Our method for discussing ethical issues works well in clinical practice, particularly when it is embedded in a multidisciplinary context. Of course, to ensure the continuity of the system, deliberation about moral and ethical issues needs to be financially safeguarded and embedded in the organisation. Discussion of moral issues improves the quality of care and increases care-givers' satisfaction with their work.
Li, Dan; Lin, Shi-Bin; Cheng, Biao
Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has been used for facial rejuvenation for the last 20 years. Posttreatment care after LSR is essential to decrease the risk of complications. Currently, no unified standards or criteria exist for invasive LSR posttreatment care. We aimed to identify the optimal wound care timing and choice of specific local, systemic, and general medical measures required to decrease complications. We performed a systematic search of the PubMed/MEDLINE electronic databases and included only articles written and published in the English language, with no restrictions on the publication time (year). The search yielded 316 potentially relevant articles, 133 of which met our review criteria. Most of the studies on this topic have focused on wound care during the early stage, typically the first 2 weeks. Closed dressings may offer a more ideal, moist wound environment. The use of medications must be judicious. The ongoing emergence of new methods and products warrants evaluation in future large clinical trials. Familiarity with the complications following invasive LSR and the provision of optimal, effective, and timely posttreatment care may substantially decrease the risks associated with the treatment modality.
Helmert, Sindy; Marten, Sandra; Mizera, Heike; Reitter, Antje; Sahin, Kurtulus; Tittl, Luise; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan
The effectiveness and safety of apixaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (SPAF) demonstrated in ARISTOTLE needs to be confirmed in daily care. To evaluate effectiveness and safety of apixaban therapy in SPAF patients in daily care, we used data from an ongoing, prospective, non-interventional registry of more than 3000 patients on novel oral anticoagulants in daily care. Between 1 December 2012 and 31 August 2015, 514 patients receiving apixaban were enrolled. During a mean follow-up of 803.5 ± 228.9 days, the combined endpoint of stroke/transient ischaemic attack/systemic embolism occurred at a rate of 2.4/100 patient-years in the intention-to-treat analysis (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.5) and at 1.8/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.0-2.8) in the on-treatment analysis (events within 3 days after last intake). On-treatment rates were numerically lower for patients selected for 5 mg apixaban (n = 404) twice daily [BID] compared with the 110 patients selected for 2.5 mg BID [1.6 (95% CI 0.8 to 2.7) vs. 2.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.8-6.1)]. On treatment, major bleeding occurred at a rate of 2.8/100 patient-years and significantly more often in patients receiving the 2.5 mg BID dose compared with the 5 mg BID dose (5.3 vs. 2.2/100 patient-years). Apixaban treatment discontinuation occurred in a total of 122 patients during follow-up (12.5/100 patient-years in Kaplan-Meier analysis). Our data contribute to the confirmation of effectiveness and relative safety of apixaban in daily-care patients. Furthermore, apixaban discontinuation rates were considerably lower than those reported for vitamin K antagonists.
Brewster, Liz; Cox, Andrew M
Interest in the connection between involvement in digital communities and well-being has increased as these communities become more commonplace. Specific models of interaction that affect well-being have emerged; here, we examine one of those models, termed 'digital daily practice'. Digital daily practices involve a commitment to doing one thing - exercise, photography and writing - every day and sharing it online. Participants in these practices agree that they provide an unexpected benefit of improving well-being. This article makes an in-depth examination of one digital daily practice, photo-a-day, using a practice theory framework to understand the affordances it offers for well-being. We engage with the literature on well-being and self-care, critiquing its presentation of well-being as an individual trait. We present data from an ethnographic study including interviews and observations to highlight how photo-a-day as a practice functions as self-care and how communities are formed around it. Photo-a-day is not a simple and uncomplicated practice; rather it is the complex affordances and variance within the practice that relate it to well-being. We conclude that this practice has multi-faceted benefits for improving well-being.
Charlston, Samuel; Siller, Gregory
To conduct an audit of teledermatologist expert skin advice, a store and forward tele-dermatological service, to determine its effectiveness and user satisfaction in managing cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients with hepatitis C, and to demonstrate a unique collaborative model of care for patients receiving specialised drug therapy. A retrospective analysis of data on teledermatologist expert skin advice referrals from January 2014 to December 2015 was performed. The primary outcomes assessed included number of referrals, referral locations, diagnoses, response times, quality of clinical information provided and user satisfaction ratings. Altogether 43 consultations from 29 referring sites were received from Australian metropolitan and rural settings. Of the patients, 43 were diagnosed with an adverse drug reaction related to the use of either telaprevir or simeprevir. The average time taken for the dermatologist to reply electronically with a final diagnosis and management plan was 1 h 57 min. As many as 26% of referrals required additional photos to establish a diagnosis due to poor-quality images or insufficient detail. Altogether 18 clinicians completed the customer satisfaction survey, all of whom rated teledermatologist expert skin advice nine or above on a scale of one to 10. Teledermatologist expert skin advice was regarded by clinicians as a valuable patient care service. The platform is a novel modality that supports patients undergoing specialised treatments at risk of cutaneous adverse drug reaction. © 2018 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kawai, Toshihiro; Komeda, Takashi
Taking care for dementia persons with BPSD is burdening on caregivers. To reduce caregivers' burdens and improve dementia persons' quality of life, monitoring and communication intervention system has been proposed. A part of the system, wandering and falling down detection system has been developed. It is designed based on the requirement of the caregivers working in the care facility. Functional test was carried out and had positive impressions from the caregivers.
Stelton, Susan; Zulkowski, Karen; Ayello, Elizabeth A
All persons with an ostomy are at risk for development of peristomal skin problems. This is true regardless of the person's nation of residence, type of stoma, or supplies available for stoma care. There are measures that can be taken to lessen the potential for peristomal skin problems. These measures include preoperative stoma site marking, preoperative education, appropriate pouch/barrier fitting, and pouch maintenance. The 2014 World Council of Enterostomal Therapists International Ostomy Guideline includes recommendations that can be implemented to prevent situations that may lead to peristomal skin complications.
Örmon, Karin; Hörberg, Ulrica
The aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with health care professionals affect life. A further aim is to highlight abused women's vulnerability with a caring science perspective. Experience of abuse has consequences for the mental health of women and girls. Abused women may experience health care as unsupportive, and as a result, often chose not to disclose their experiences of abuse. The results of two qualitative empirical studies were analysed along with a phenomenological meaning analysis in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. Living one's life with experiences of abuse implies vulnerability, which can prevent abused women from achieving good health. This vulnerability results from insecurity regarding identity, along with the sense that one could have been a different individual if it were not for the abuse and thereby have a more fair chance in life. Being cared for within general psychiatric care could further increase this vulnerability. The healthcare professional's ability to care for the women who have experienced abuse leads to either an encounter of trust or else further suffering for the women. A lifeworld-oriented caring science perspective as a foundation for care can contribute to care for abused women which reaches the existential dimensions of their vulnerability and vulnerable life situation. It is evident that healthcare professionals should deepen their understanding of how abused women live, within a general psychiatric context. This study enables a deeper understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with healthcare professionals affect life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1 years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2 cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4 kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10 m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the "Locomo 25", a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10 m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly.
Pannucci, Christopher J; Reavey, Patrick L; Kaweski, Susan; Hamill, Jennifer B; Hume, Keith M; Wilkins, Edwin G; Pusic, Andrea L
The Skin Products Assessment Research Committee was created by the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation in 2006. The Skin Products Assessment Research study aims were to (1) develop an infrastructure for Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation-conducted, industry-sponsored research in facial aesthetic surgery and (2) test the research process by comparing outcomes of the Obagi Nu-Derm System versus conventional therapy as treatment adjuncts for facial resurfacing procedures. The Skin Products Assessment Research study was designed as a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. The study was conducted in women with Fitzpatrick type I to IV skin, moderate to severe facial photodamage, and periocular and/or perioral fine wrinkles. Patients underwent chemical peel or laser facial resurfacing and were randomized to the Obagi Nu-Derm System or a standard care regimen. The study endpoints were time to reepithelialization, erythema, and pigmentation changes. Fifty-six women were enrolled and 82 percent were followed beyond reepithelialization. There were no significant differences in mean time to reepithelialization between Obagi Nu-Derm System and control groups. The Obagi Nu-Derm System group had a significantly higher median erythema score on the day of surgery (after 4 weeks of product use) that did not persist after surgery. Test-retest photographic evaluations demonstrated that both interrater and intrarater reliability were adequate for primary study outcomes. The authors demonstrated no significant difference in time to reepithelialization between patients who used the Obagi Nu-Derm System or a standard care regimen as an adjunct to facial resurfacing procedures. The Skin Products Assessment Research team has also provided a discussion of future challenges for Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation-sponsored clinical research for readers of this article.
Matthews, B. Alex; Rhee, John S.; Neuburg, Marcy; Burzynski, Mary L.; Nattinger, Ann B.
BACKGROUND Existing health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) tools do not appear to capture patients' specific skin cancer concerns. OBJECTIVE To describe the conceptual foundation, item generation, reduction process, and reliability testing for the Facial Skin Cancer Index (FSCI), a HRQOL outcomes tool for skin cancer researchers and clinicians. METHODS Participants in Phases I to III consisted of adult patients (N = 134) diagnosed with biopsy-proven nonmelanoma cervicofacial skin cancer. Data were collected via self-report surveys and clinical records. RESULTS Seventy-one distinct items were generated in Phase I and rated for their importance by an independent sample during Phase II; 36 items representing six theoretical HRQOL domains were retained. Test–retest I results indicated that four subscales showed adequate reliability coefficients (α = 0.60 to 0.91). Twenty-six items remained for test–retest II. Results indicated excellent internal consistency for emotional, social, appearance, and modified financial/work subscales (range 0.79 to 0.95); test–retest correlation coefficients were consistent across time (range 0.81 to 0.97; lifestyle omitted). CONCLUSION Pretesting afforded the opportunity to select items that optimally met our a priori conceptual and psychometric criteria for high data quality. Phase IV testing (validity and sensitivity before surgery and 4 months after Mohs micrographic surgery) for the 20-item FSCI is under way. PMID:16875475
Krupashankar, D S
Resurfacing is a treatment to remove acne and chicken pox scars, and changes in the skin due to ageing. MACHINES: Both ablative and nonablative lasers are available for use. CO 2 laser is the gold standard in ablative lasers. Detailed knowledge of the machines is essential. INDICATIONS FOR CO 2 LASER: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses. CO 2 laser is not recommended for the removal of tattoos. AESTHETIC INDICATIONS: Resurfacing for acne, chicken pox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photo ageing changes, facial resurfacing. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Any qualified dermatologist (DVD or MD) may practice CO 2 laser. The dermatologist should possess postgraduate qualification in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist/plastic surgeon, who has experience and training in using lasers. For the use of CO 2 lasers for benign growths, a full day workshop is adequate. As parameters may vary in different machines, specific training with the available machine at either the manufacturer's facility or at another centre using the machine is recommended. CO 2 lasers can be used in the dermatologist's minor procedure room for the above indications. However, when used for full-face resurfacing, the hospital operation theatre or day care facility with immediate access to emergency medical care is essential. Smoke evacuator is mandatory. Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, possible postoperative complications, should be discussed with the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and
Wit, Mirjam A M; Bos-Schaap, Annet J C M; Umans, Victor A W M
The percentage of cardiac patients aged ≥75 has increased considerably over the past decades. To optimize multidisciplinary care for these frail elderly, a program of intensive medical and nursing care was started at Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep department of cardiology. Patients over 70 years of age, admitted to the department of cardiology, were included and treated by the advanced practice nurse according to a redesigned care process that focused on expedite mobilization and care by an advanced practice nurse-headed team including the first outpatient visit. A total of 951 patients over 70 years were included in the frail elderly project. The average length of stay of the frail elderly was 6 days (SD 5). In the first 30 days, after discharge, 12% of these patients were readmitted with heart failure and 2% with dehydration. Mortality during admission was 3%, and 11% died within 3 months after discharge. This observational study shows, during a 4-year period, the vulnerability of aged cardiac patients. They were mainly admitted for (diastolic) heart failure, usually in combination with atrial fibrillation and hypertension. Their length of stay was on average 6 days with 11% mortality at 90 days follow-up.
This study aim is the nurses perceptions inside the mental health daily attention centre and the interdisciplinary aspect their work. This study has emerged from the necessity of understanding the work and participation of the nurses who act in those new places together with a interdisciplinary group, taking into consideration that graduation does not educate nurses for this kind of work. The interdisciplinary work has been seen as a sine qua non condition for optimising care for people who suffer from serious psychological illness as it is in the II National Conference of Mental Health, the Caracas Conference and the Health Ministry 224 Edict. Quantitative study has been used in order to value each nurse experience as well as his/her professional history in Mental Care Exercise.
Kamo, Tomohiko; Nishida, Yuusuke
To identify the direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function, and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care. In total, 179 participants aged ≥ 65 years who were eligible for long-term care insurance (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) were recruited for this study. Nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, Short Form) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) were examined. Activities of daily living, cognitive function and frailty were assessed using the Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Frailty Scale, respectively. Path analysis was used to determine relationships between these factors and the activities of daily living. For Japanese older adults requiring long-term care, pathways were modeled for nutritional status, physical function and the activities of daily living. The total effect of nutritional status was 0.516 (P<0.001). The indirect effect of nutritional status through physical function on the activities of daily living was 0.458 (P<0.001). Finally, no significant direct effect of nutritional status on activities of daily living was observed (b=0.058, P=0.258). The present study identified the complex pathway from nutritional status to the activities of daily living through physical function in aged Japanese people requiring long-term care. These findings suggest that maintaining good nutritional status and nutritional support might delay physical function decline, and prolong the activities of daily living. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Shen, Jeannie; Ellenhorn, Joshua; Qian, Dajun; Kulber, David; Aronowitz, Joel
Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) followed by immediate reconstruction has been advocated as an effective treatment option for patients with early-stage breast carcinoma. It markedly improves the quality of breast reconstruction through preservation of the natural skin envelope and a smaller incision. The purpose of this study was to investigate general surgeons' attitudes towards SSM. A postal questionnaire survey of California general surgeons was conducted regarding SSM. Of 370 respondents who stated they performed breast cancer surgery, 331 perform mastectomy for cancer with planned immediate reconstruction. Ninety per cent of respondents did not feel that SSM resulted in higher rates of local recurrence. In addition, 70 per cent felt that the cosmetic results of immediate breast reconstruction after SSM were better than those after a standard mastectomy. Despite this, only 61 per cent perform SSM in most cases when immediate breast reconstruction is planned. The majority of general surgeons perform SSM and therefore it should be considered standard of care. Despite a growing body of literature demonstrating high rates of patient satisfaction and long-term oncologic safety with SSM, there remains significant variation in practice patterns among general surgeons. Additional effort in general surgery education regarding the feasibility and safety of SSM is needed.
This article considers the anatomy and physiology of the skin,wound healing, excoriation, maceration, peristomal skin and the importance of periwound protection. The results of a 54-patient study of the use of barrier film forming skin protection in periwound skin are presented and a 10-patient healthy volunteer experimental evaluation. The results confirm the effectiveness of barrier protection in healthy skin in an experimental evaluation and a 54-patient study requiring periwound protection.
Paul, Christine L; Hall, Alix E; Carey, Mariko L; Cameron, Emilie C; Clinton-McHarg, Tara
Little is known about access to care for hematological cancer patients. This study explored patient experiences of barriers to accessing care and associated financial and social impacts of the disease. Metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan experiences were compared. A state-based Australian cancer registry identified adult survivors of hematological cancers (including lymphoma, leukemia and myeloma) diagnosed in the previous 3 years. Survivors were mailed a self-report pen and paper survey. Of the 732 eligible survivors, 268 (37%) completed a survey. Forty percent of participants reported at least one locational barrier which limited access to care. Only 2% reported cancer-related expenses had restricted their treatment choices. Almost two-thirds (64%) reported at least one financial or social impact on their daily lives related to cancer. The most frequently reported impacts were the need to take time off work (44%) and difficulty paying bills (21%). Survivors living in a nonmetropolitan location had 17 times the odds of reporting locational or financial barriers compared with those in metropolitan areas. Preferred potential solutions to alleviate the financial and social impacts of the disease were: free parking for tests or treatment (37%), free medications or treatments (29%), and being able to get treatment in their local region (20%). Providing more equitable access to care for hematological cancer patients in Australia requires addressing distances traveled to attend treatment and their associated financial and social impacts on nonmetropolitan patients. Greater flexibility in service delivery is also needed for patients still in the workforce. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.
Forriez, O; Masseline, J; Coadic, D; David, V; Trouiller, P; Sztrymf, B
To test the effect of a new coverlet device, allowing air circulation at the body/underlying surface interface, on skin microclimate management. This prospective observational pilot study took place in a 15-bed university-affiliated intensive care unit. Overall, 34 mechanically ventilated patients were included. Skin humidity and temperature were monitored before and after the implementation of the tested device at the occiput, scapulas, buttocks and sacrum. Humidity and temperature were evaluated through surface skin impedance and an infra-red thermometer, respectively. Health professionals were asked to evaluate the device. After implementation of the coverlet device, there was a rapid, sustained and significant decrease in skin humidity at all sites ranging from 6 % to 15 %, excluding the occiput. Skin temperature also significantly decreased from 1 % at both scapulas, but not at the other studied body sites. No side effects were observed. Health professionals reported that the device was easy and quick to install. Although they did not report a subjective improvement in skin moisture or temperature, they considered the device to be efficient. Although limited by its design, this pilot study suggests a good efficacy of the studied device on skin microclimate management. Further data are warranted to test the clinical implications of our findings.
Paternotte, Emma; Scheele, Fedde; Seeleman, Conny M; Bank, Lindsay; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Dulmen, Sandra
Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical consultations. Doctor-patient consultations of Dutch doctors with non-Dutch patients were videotaped in a multi-ethnic hospital in the Netherlands. The consultations were analyzed using the validated MAAS-Global assessment list in combination with factors influencing ICC, as described in the literature. In total, 39 videotaped consultations were analyzed. The doctors proved to be capable of practising many communication skills, such as listening and empathic communication behaviour. Other skills were not practised, such as being culturally aware and checking the patient's language ability. We showed that doctors did practice some but not all the relevant ICC skills and that the ICC style of the doctors was mainly biomedically centred. Furthermore, we discussed the possible overlap between intercultural and patient-centred communication. Implications for practice could be to implement the relevant ICC skills in the existing communication training or develop a communication training with a patient-centred approach including ICC skills.
Bataller-Sifre, R; Bataller-Alberola, A
Integrative medicine is an ambitious and noble-minded attempt to address the shortcomings of the current public health systems in our Western societies, which is restricted by the limited time available, especially in outpatient clinics. Integrative medicine also does not limit the possibilities of useful therapies that have been tested over the centuries (from China, India, etc.) or of certain resources that do not achieve the level of desired scientific credibility but that present certain therapeutic support in specific cases (homeopathy, acupuncture, etc.) but still require a scientific approach. Finally, the resource of botanical products (phytotherapy) constitutes a wide range of possibilities that universities can (and do) make progress on by providing drug brands for these products through the use of the scientific method and evidence-based medical criteria. This approach will help avoid the irrationality of the daily struggle between conventional scientific medicine (which we apply to the immense majority of patients) and the other diagnostic-therapeutic «guidelines» (natural medicine, alternative medicine, complementary medicine, patient-focused medicine and others). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Al Shobaili, Hani A
Epidemiological studies to determine the burden of skin diseases are important for proper health care planning. The purpose of this study was to find the pattern of skin diseases in our patients attending university-affiliated dermatologic clinics in the Qassim region. We conducted a prospective study of all Saudi patients attending the Qassim University Medical College-affiliated dermatology clinics of the Ministry of Health for a period of 12 months from 1 March 2008 to 28 February 2009. The study included 3051 patients comprising 1786 (58.5%) males and 1265 (41.5%) females. Males outnumbered females (P<.05) (male-to-female ratio, 1.4:1). The mean age (standard error of the mean) of the patients was 25.3 (0.27) years. About 71% of the patients were between 5 and 34 years of age. The top five skin diseases were eczema/ dermatitis (19.5%), viral infections (16.6%), pilosebaceous disorders (14.4%), pigmentary lesions (11.2%) and hair disorders (7.6%). The major disorder in males was viral skin infections (20.0%), while eczema/dermatitis (20.7%) constituted the most prevalent skin disease in females. Seasonal variations were recorded in cases of pigmentary lesions, papulosquamous disorders and protozoal infections. Infectious skin diseases, eczema/dermatitis, pilosebaceous disorders, pigmentary lesions and hair disorders ranked as the top five skin diseases. Appropriate training programs for diagnosing and managing common skin diseases should be initiated for primary health care physicians and other general practitioners so as to decrease referrals to dermatology clinics.
Colwell, Janice C; McNichol, Laurie; Boarini, Joy
The purpose of this study was to describe the practice of 796 ostomy nurses in North America in 2014 related to peristomal skin issues. Descriptive study. Participants were 796 wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) and enterostomal therapy (ET) nurses currently practicing in the United States or Canada and caring for patients with ostomies. The collection of data occurred in conjunction with an educational program on peristomal skin complications and practice issues and solicited the participant's perception on the incidence and frequency of peristomal skin issues as well as on practice patterns. Participants attended an educational program. They were also asked to anonymously respond to multiple-choice questions on ostomy care management via an audience response system followed by discussion of each item and their responses. This descriptive study reports on the answers to the questions as well as the pertinent discussion points. Participants estimated that approximately 77.70% of their patients developed peristomal skin issues. The most commonly encountered problem was irritant contact dermatitis (peristomal moisture-associated skin damage). Contributing factors were inappropriate use of a pouching system owing to lack of follow-up after hospital discharge. Reported interventions for the prevention and management of peristomal skin issues included preoperative stoma site marking, use of a convex pouching system, and barrier rings. However, subsequent discussion revealed that the frequency of use of these products varied considerably. Participants identified shortened hospital stays, absence of preoperative stoma marking, and limited outpatient follow-up as contributing to development of peristomal skin problems. WOC and ET nurses estimate that more than three-quarters of persons living with an ostomy develop peristomal skin problems. Multiple interventions for managing these problems were identified, but some variability in management approaches emerged.
McNichol, Laurie; Boarini, Joy
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the practice of 796 ostomy nurses in North America in 2014 related to peristomal skin issues. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Participants were 796 wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) and enterostomal therapy (ET) nurses currently practicing in the United States or Canada and caring for patients with ostomies. The collection of data occurred in conjunction with an educational program on peristomal skin complications and practice issues and solicited the participant's perception on the incidence and frequency of peristomal skin issues as well as on practice patterns. METHODS: Participants attended an educational program. They were also asked to anonymously respond to multiple-choice questions on ostomy care management via an audience response system followed by discussion of each item and their responses. This descriptive study reports on the answers to the questions as well as the pertinent discussion points. RESULTS: Participants estimated that approximately 77.70% of their patients developed peristomal skin issues. The most commonly encountered problem was irritant contact dermatitis (peristomal moisture-associated skin damage). Contributing factors were inappropriate use of a pouching system owing to lack of follow-up after hospital discharge. Reported interventions for the prevention and management of peristomal skin issues included preoperative stoma site marking, use of a convex pouching system, and barrier rings. However, subsequent discussion revealed that the frequency of use of these products varied considerably. Participants identified shortened hospital stays, absence of preoperative stoma marking, and limited outpatient follow-up as contributing to development of peristomal skin problems. CONCLUSION: WOC and ET nurses estimate that more than three-quarters of persons living with an ostomy develop peristomal skin problems. Multiple interventions for managing these problems were
Feldman, Ruth; Weller, Aron; Sirota, Lea; Eidelman, Arthur I
The provision of maternal-infant body contact during a period of maternal separation was examined for its effects on parent-infant and triadic interactions. Participants were 146 three-month-old preterm infants and their parents, half of whom received skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo care (KC), in the neonatal nursery. Global relational style and micro-patterns of proximity and touch were coded. Following KC, mothers and fathers were more sensitive and less intrusive, infants showed less negative affect, and family style was more cohesive. Among KC families, maternal and paternal affectionate touch of infant and spouse was more frequent, spouses remained in closer proximity, and infant proximity position was conducive to mutual gaze and touch during triadic play. The role of touch as a constituent of the co-regulatory parent-infant and triadic systems and the effects of maternal contact on mothering, co-parenting, and family processes are discussed.
Schad, Friedemann; Thronicke, Anja; Merkle, Antje; Steele, Megan L; Kröz, Matthias; Herbstreit, Cornelia; Matthes, Harald
In recent decades the concept of integrative medicine has attracted growing interest in patients and professionals. At the Gemeinschaftskrankenhaus Havelhöhe (GKH), a hospital specialized in anthroposophical medicine, a breast cancer center (BCC) has been successfully certified for more than 5 years. The objective of the present study was to analyze how integrative strategies were implemented in the daily care of primary breast cancer patients. Clinical, demographic, and follow-up data as well as information on non-pharmacological interventions were analyzed. In addition, BCC quality measures were compared with data of the National Breast Cancer Benchmarking Report 2016. Between 2011 and 2016, 741 primary breast cancer patients (median age 57.4 years) were treated at the GKH BCC. 91.5% of the patients showed Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage 0, I, II, or III and 8.2% were in UICC stage IV. 97% of the patients underwent surgery, 53% radiation, 38% had hormone therapy, and 25% received cytostatic drugs. 96% of the patients received non-pharmacological interventions and 32% received Viscum album L. Follow-up was performed in up to 93% of the patients 2 years after first diagnosis. Compared to nationwide benchmarking BCCs, the GKH BCC met the requirements in central items. The results of the present study show that integrative therapies offered by the concept of anthroposophical medicine can be implemented in the daily care and treatment of a certified BCC. However, as national guidelines on integrative concepts in oncology are missing, further studies are needed for a systematic evaluation of integrative treatment and care concepts in this field. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Akagi, Junji
Background Little is known about the association between malnutrition and the chances of returning home from post-acute facilities in older adult patients. This study aimed to understand whether malnutrition and malnutrition-related factors would be determinants for returning home and activities of daily living (ADL) at discharge after post-acute care. Methods Patients aged ≥65 years living at home before the onset of an acute disease and admitted to a post-acute ward were enrolled (n=207) in this prospective observational study. Malnutrition was defined based on the criteria of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Nutritional parameters included the nutritional intake at the time of admission and oral conditions evaluated by the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT). The Barthel Index was used to assess daily activities. A Cox regression analysis of the length of stay was performed. Multivariable linear regression analyses to determine associations between malnutrition, returning home, and ADL at discharge were performed, after adjusting the variables of acute care setting. Results The mean patient age was 84.7±6.7 years; 38% were men. European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition was observed in 129 (62.3%) patients, and 118 (57.0%) of all patients returned home. Multivariable regression analyses showed that malnutrition was a negative predictor of returning home (hazard ratio: 0.517 [0.351–0.761], p=0.001), and an increase in the nutritional intake (kcal/kg/d) was a positive predictor of the Barthel Index at discharge (coefficient: 0.34±0.15, p=0.021). The OHAT was not associated with returning home and ADL. Conclusion Malnutrition and nutritional intake are associated with returning home and ADL at discharge, respectively, after post-acute care. Further studies investigating the effects of a nutritional intervention for post-acute patients would be necessary. PMID:29416323
Tarrago, Rod; Nowak, Jeffrey E; Leonard, Christopher S; Payne, Nathaniel R
In the critical care unit, complexity of care can contribute to both medical errors and increased costs, particularly when clinicians are forced to rely on memory. Checklists can be used to improve safety and reduce cost. A number of omission-related adverse events in 2010 prompted the development of a checklist to reduce the possibility of similar future events. The PICU Safety Checklist was implemented in the pediatric ICU (PICU) at Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota. During a 21-month period, the checklist was used to prompt the care team to address quality and safety items during rounds. The initial checklist was paper, with two subsequent versions being incorporated into the electronic medical record (EMR). The daily safety checklist was successfully implemented in the PICU. Work-flow improvements based on regular multidisciplinary feedback led to more consistent use of the checklist. Improvements on all quality and safety metrics were identified, including invasive device use, medication costs, antibiotic and laboratory test use, and compliance with standards of care. Staff satisfaction rates were > 80% for safety, communication, and collaboration. By using a daily safety checklist in the pediatric critical care unit, we improved quality and safety, as well as the collaborative culture among all clinicians. Incorporating the checklist into the EMR improved compliance and accountability, ensuring its application to all patients. Clinicians now often individually address many checklist items outside the formal rounding process, indicating that the checklist content has become part of their usual practice. A successful implementation showing tangible clinical improvements can lead to interest and adoption in other clinical areas within the institution.
Background Surgical hand rub and healthy skin are basic requirements to prevent surgical site infections. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about the current practice of skin protection and/or skin care products (SP/SC) using among surgeons as well as a lack of data pertaining to the influence of SP/SC on the antimicrobial efficacy of surgical hand rub. Methods A 10 weeks-survey among German surgeons as well as an experimental crossover study involving 26 participants were conducted. The immediate and sustainable efficacy (IE/SE) of surgical hand rub and participants’ hand moisture were measured after an 8-day usage of SP/SC, as well as the influence on micro-perforations on surgical gloves. Results The questionnaire was available to 16,000 German surgeons. Thereof, 1,771 surgeons accessed the questionnaire, representing a total participation rate of 11%. As 19% (n = 338) of questionnaires were incomplete, a total of 1,433 completed questionnaires were available for further analysis. More than 75% of the participants stated not to use any SP/SC, yet, almost 50% suffered from skin irritation or discomfort. Only 5% used SP/SC at the beginning of their shift. 10% refused to use SP/SC because of concerns that SP/SC may reduce the antimicrobial efficacy of surgical hand rub. After usage of SP/SC over 8-days, skin moisture was significantly higher (P < 0.001), whereas no significant influence on the antimicrobial efficacy of surgical hand rub was observed (IE: P = 0.135; SP: P = 0.681). Micro-perforations were detected in 8/52 surgical gloves (15%), with no statistical significant difference between SP/SC users (n = 2/26; 8%) and non-users (n = 6/26; 23%; P = 0.249). Conclusions Following the results of this largest questionnaire base survey among German surgeons on skin care, there is a need to educate and inform surgeons on the correct application and the concept of SP/SC strategies. In the present study, the combination of selected
DiMillo, J.; Brosseau, D. C.; Gomez-Garibello, C.; Hall, N. C.; Ezer, H.; Wang, B.; Körner, A.
The objective of this study was to examine the role of interpersonal variables on melanoma survivors' self-efficacy for performing skin self-examinations (SSEs) during melanoma follow-up care. Specifically, the impact of comfort with partner assistance for SSE, SSE support received from one's partner, general partner support, relationship…
... addition to talking to your doctor, continue taking good care of yourself: Eating right, getting exercise, and moisturizing your skin daily can help you look and feel good. *Names have been changed to protect user privacy. ...
Visser, Jacqueline J W; Bloo, J K C; Grobbe, F A; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R
In telemedicine, technology is used to deliver services. Because of this, it is expected that various actors other than those involved in traditional care are involved in and need to cooperate, to deliver these services. The aim of this study was to establish a clear understanding of these actors and their roles and interrelationships in the delivery of telemedicine. A video teleconsultation service is used as a study case. A business modeling approach as described in the Freeband Business Blueprint Method was used. The method brings together the four domains that make up a business model, that is, service, technology, organization, and finance, and covers the integration of these domains. The method uses several multidisciplinary workshops, addressing each of the four domains. Results of the four domains addressed showed that (1) the video teleconsultation service is a store and put-forward video teleconsult for healthcare providers. The service is accepted and has added value for the quality of care. However, the market is small; (2) the technology consists of a secured Internet Web-based application, standard personal computer, broadband Internet connection, and a digital camera; (3) a new role and probably entity, responsible for delivering the integrated service to the healthcare professionals, was identified; and finally (4) financial reimbursement for the service delivery is expected to be most successful when set up through healthcare insurance companies. Pricing needs to account for the fee of healthcare professionals as well as for technical aspects, education, and future innovation. Implementation of the video teleconsult service requires multidisciplinary cooperation and integration. Challenging aspects are the small market size and the slow implementation speed, among others. This supports the argument that accumulation of several telemedicine applications is necessary to make it financially feasible for at least some of the actors.
Application of protease technology in dermatology: rationale for incorporation into skin care with initial observations on formulations designed for skin cleansing, maintenance of hydration, and restoration of the epidermal permeability barrier.
Del Rosso, James Q
This article reviews background on proteases and their functions, their physiological significance in skin, and the potential implications of incorporating specific proteases and protease blends into dermatological products, including skin care formulations. The history of protease blend formulations used in wound model studies and for other disorders is reviewed. In vitro data with use of a specific 3-protease blend with evaluation of the impact on various skin proteins and peptides is also discussed in this article.
Histoplasmosis skin test ... health care provider cleans an area of your skin, usually the forearm. An allergen is injected just below the cleaned skin surface. An allergen is a substance that causes ...
Bauer, Carole; Magnan, Morris; Laszewski, Pamela
Radiation therapy is a key treatment modality for cancer patients, but it is associated with adverse side effects such as radiation dermatitis. To mitigate the adverse effects of radiation on the skin, patients must participate in skin-related self-care. However, even with self-care instruction, adherence can be poor. This quality improvement project used best available evidence for skin care in patients undergoing radiation therapy and a theoretical framework, 4MATing, to provide a structured approach to patient education designed to enhance adherence to skin care recommendations. Implementation of this approach resulted in increased adherence to a topical skin care protocol in our facility. Patients were highly satisfied with their education. While there was a 4-day delay in the onset of radiation dermatitis, this difference was not statistically significant.
Gedanken, Aharon; Perkas, Nina; Perelshtein, Ilana; Lipovsky, Anat
The review, reports on the functionalization of textiles for the treatment of wounds and skin diseases such as acne. In view of the growing demand for high-quality textiles, much research is focused on the creation of antimicrobial finishings for fabrics, in order to protect customers from pathogenic or odor-generating microorganisms. We present coatings from inorganic, organic and biochemical nanoparticles (NPs) on surfaces that impart the ability to kill bacteria, avoid biofilm formation and speed up the recovery of wounds. In all three cases, sonochemistry is used for immobilizing the nanoparticles on the surfaces. The Introduction broadly covers the progress of nanotechnology in the fields of wound and skin care. The first section of this review outlines the mechanism of the ultrasound-assisted deposition of nanoparticles on textiles. The coating can be performed by an in-situ process in which the nanoparticles are formed and subsequently thrown onto the surface of the fabrics at a very high speed. This approach was used in depositing metal-oxide NPs such as ZnO, CuO and Zn-CuO or the organic NPs of tannic acid, chitosan, etc. on textiles. In addition, the sonochemical process can be used as a "throwing stone" technique, namely, previously synthesized or commercially purchased NPs can be placed in the sonication bath and sonicated in the presence of the fabric. This section will also outline why sonochemical deposition on textiles is considered the best coating technique. The second section will discuss new applications of the sonochemically-coated textiles in killing bacteria, avoiding biofilm formation and more. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Hurley, Hermione J.; Knepper, Bryan C.; Price, Connie S.; Mehler, Philip S.; Burman, William J.; Jenkins, Timothy C.
Background Uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections are among the most frequent indications for outpatient antibiotics. A detailed understanding of current prescribing practices is necessary to optimize antibiotic use for these conditions. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of children and adults treated in the ambulatory care setting for uncomplicated cellulitis, wound infection, or cutaneous abscess between March 1, 2010 and February 28, 2011. We assessed the frequency of avoidable antibiotic exposure, defined as: use of antibiotics with broad gram-negative activity, combination antibiotic therapy, or treatment for 10 or more days. Total antibiotic-days prescribed for the cohort were compared to antibiotic-days in four hypothetical short-course (5 – 7 days), single-antibiotic treatment models consistent with national guidelines. Results 364 cases were included for analysis (155 cellulitis, 41 wound infection, and 168 abscess). Antibiotics active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were prescribed in 61% of cases of cellulitis. Of 139 cases of abscess where drainage was performed, antibiotics were prescribed in 80% for a median of 10 (interquartile range 7 – 10) days. Of 292 total cases where complete prescribing data were available, avoidable antibiotic exposure occurred in 46%. This included use of antibiotics with broad gram-negative activity in 4%, combination therapy in 12%, and treatment for 10 or more days in 42%. Use of the short-course, single-antibiotic treatment strategies would have reduced prescribed antibiotic-days by 19 – 55%. Conclusions Nearly half of uncomplicated skin infections involved avoidable antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic use could be reduced through treatment approaches utilizing short courses of a single antibiotic. PMID:24262724
Storz, Maximilian Andreas
With Earth Overshoot Day having recently passed, there is no space for complacency regarding taking care of our planet. On August 2, 2017, humanity used nature's resource budget for the entire year. For decades, we have lived far beyond our means by overexploiting natural resources and spewing pollution, such as microplastics and industrial chemicals, into our environment. On the other hand, public awareness of human-induced climate change has also increased since the 1980s. The frequent media coverage about extreme weather conditions and natural disasters, such as Hurricane Irma in 2017, serves as an important reminder that anthropogenic climate change is happening now.Adverse health conditions associated with climate change include an increased prevalence of diseases and disorders. Although we all contribute to this development, as physicians we also have the privileged duty to protect global human health. Therefore, we should make every effort to cut down our own carbon footprint and adapt a more sustainable lifestyle.The aim of this commentary is to provide feasible tips and strategies to effectively reduce one's individual carbon footprint, with a special focus on daily clinical and hospital work. Not only are these strategies easy to implement in daily clinical routine, but most of them are associated with important health benefits.
Storz, Maximilian Andreas
With Earth Overshoot Day having recently passed, there is no space for complacency regarding taking care of our planet. On August 2, 2017, humanity used nature’s resource budget for the entire year. For decades, we have lived far beyond our means by overexploiting natural resources and spewing pollution, such as microplastics and industrial chemicals, into our environment. On the other hand, public awareness of human-induced climate change has also increased since the 1980s. The frequent media coverage about extreme weather conditions and natural disasters, such as Hurricane Irma in 2017, serves as an important reminder that anthropogenic climate change is happening now. Adverse health conditions associated with climate change include an increased prevalence of diseases and disorders. Although we all contribute to this development, as physicians we also have the privileged duty to protect global human health. Therefore, we should make every effort to cut down our own carbon footprint and adapt a more sustainable lifestyle. The aim of this commentary is to provide feasible tips and strategies to effectively reduce one’s individual carbon footprint, with a special focus on daily clinical and hospital work. Not only are these strategies easy to implement in daily clinical routine, but most of them are associated with important health benefits. PMID:29616907
Frost, Yael; Weingarden, Harold; Zeilig, Gabi; Nota, Ayala; Rand, Debbie
(1) To characterize the self-care self-efficacy (SCSE) of community dwelling individuals with chronic stroke and (2) to determine the contribution of SCSE to the independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL) and the participation of individuals with chronic stroke. SCSE is the confidence in one's own ability to perform self-care activities. This cross-sectional study included fifty community-dwelling individuals mean (SD) age 59.8 (9.3) years, mean (SD) 3.1 (1.7) years post-stroke who were able to walk at least 10 meters. SCSE was assessed using the Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ), BADL was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) (interview), the IADL questionnaire assessed IADL and the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) assessed participation. Correlation and regression analyses were performed after controlling for grip strength, executive functions and gait speed, factors known to influence independence in daily living. The mean SCSE level was moderate-high (70%). Significant moderate correlations were found between SCSE to independence in BADL (r = .596, P < .001), IADL (r = .567, P < .001) and participation (r = .340, P < .005). SCSE of our cohort explained 7.4% of the variance of the individual's independence in BADL after controlling for executive functions and gait speed, but did not contribute to their independence in IADL and participation. Higher SCSE of individuals with chronic stroke contributes to more independence in BADL. Additional questionnaires regarding self efficacy for IADL should be developed and investigated. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Machiels, Mariska; Metzelthin, Silke F; Hamers, Jan P H; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G
To provide adequate nursing care it is important for nursing staff to communicate effectively with people with dementia. Due to their limited communication skills, people with dementia have difficulties in understanding communication and expressing themselves verbally. Nursing staff members often report communication difficulties with people with dementia, which emphasises the urgent need for interventions to improve their communication with people in this specific target group. To provide an up-to-date overview of communication interventions that are applicable during daily nursing care activities, irrespective of care setting, and to describe the effects on communication outcomes in people with dementia and nursing staff. Systematic literature review DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Pubmed databases were searched for all articles published until the 23rd of February 2016. Papers were included, if: (1) interventions focused on communication between nursing staff and people with dementia and were applicable during daily nursing care; (2) studies were (randomised) controlled trials; (3) papers were written in English, Dutch, or German. Data were extracted on content and communication outcomes of interventions, and on methodological quality of the studies. The data extraction form and methodological quality checklist were based on the Method Guidelines for Systematic Reviews for the Cochrane Back Review Group. Six studies on communication interventions were included. All of the studies incorporated a communication skills training for nursing staff with a broad range in frequency, duration and content. In addition, there was wide variation in the communication outcome measures used. Four studies measured non-verbal communication, all found positive effects on at least some of the communication outcomes. Four studies measured verbal communication, of which three found positive effects on at least one of the measured outcomes. Methodological
Stamatas, Georgios N.
Pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries are concerned with treating skin disease, as well as maintaining and promoting skin health. They are dealing with a unique tissue that defines our body in space. As such, skin provides not only the natural boundary with the environment inhibiting body dehydration as well as penetration of exogenous aggressors to the body, it is also ideally situated for optical measurements. A plurality of spectroscopic and imaging methods is being used to understand skin physiology and pathology and document the effects of topically applied products on the skin. The obvious advantage of such methods over traditional biopsy techniques is the ability to measure the cutaneous tissue in vivo and non-invasively. In this work, we will review such applications of various spectroscopy and imaging methods in skin research that is of interest the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Examples will be given on the importance of optical techniques in acquiring new insights about acne pathogenesis and infant skin development.
Gillis, Katrin; Tency, Inge; Roelant, Ella; Laureys, Sarina; Devriendt, Hendrik; Lips, Dirk
The objective of this study was to evaluate a new way for applying bed baths and reducing the risk for dry skin by comparing the effect of two washing methods on skin hydration. A cluster randomized trial was conducted. Skin hydration was measured before and after implementation of disposable wash gloves, using a MoistureMeter SC at three skin sites. Total skin hydration did not differ between residents at the start of the study in both groups. After implementation, the post minus pre hydration scores were higher for the intervention group than the control group at all skin sites. However, the difference was only significant at cheek site. The use of disposable wash gloves does not increase the risk for dry skin in comparison with traditional washing methods. These results may encourage the introduction of disposable wash gloves as an innovation in daily skin care practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nanomaterials have diversified applications based on the unique properties. These nanoparticles and functionalized nanocomposites have been studied in the health care filed. Nanoparticles are mostly used in sunscreens which are a part of human life. These sunscreens consist of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. Due to the higher band crevices, they help the skin to protect from ultraviolet rays, for instance, ultraviolet B and ultraviolet A. A series of nanostructured zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by cost-effective chemical and bioinspired methods and variables were optimized. Highly stable and spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles were formulated by aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis) plant extract and avocado (Persea americana Mill) fruit extract. The state-of-the-art instrumentation was used to characterize the morphology, elemental composition, and particle size distribution. X-ray diffraction data indicated highly crystalline and ultrafine nanoparticles were obtained from the colloidal methods. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed the chemical state of zinc, carbon, and oxygen atoms were well-indexed and are used as fingerprint identification of the elements. Transmission electron microscopy images show the shape of particles were cubic and fiber shape contingent upon the protecting operators and heat treatment conditions. The toxicity studies of zinc oxide nanoparticles were found to cause an increase in nitric oxide, which is protecting against further oxidative stress and appears to be nontoxic.
Technician Shawn Warren carefully smoothes out the composite skin of an instrument fairing atop the upper fuselage of the Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., facility at Adelanto, Calif. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator to validate a variety of command and control technologies for UAVs, as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Eleven-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 86 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.
Britt, Sylvia E; Coles, Karen M; Polson, Shannon S
The potential for skin damage from adhesive products is documented in the literature. Nevertheless, health care providers continue to lack understanding of the impact and seriousness of skin injury associated with use of tapes or other adhesive devices when applied to a patient with a history or hypersensitivity or allergy to adhesives. A 67-year-old woman with a history of tape allergy underwent emergency appendectomy. Initial removal of an adhesive bandage placed over the surgical incision revealed medical adhesive-related skin injury (MARSI). The largest of the 3 wounds was a Class III skin tear based on the Payne-Martin Classification System. It measured (L) 4.4 cm × (W) 1.8 cm × (D) 0.3 cm and required 3 months to heal. Experiences with this case revealed the need for evidence-based practice innovations to prevent physical, emotional, and economic cost resulting from MARSI. We recommend early identification and careful documentation of susceptibility to MARSI prior to surgery and implementation of consensus-based recommendations for prevention of MARSI as advocated by the MARSI consensus group when preparing patients for surgery and treating wounds.
Lane, Suzanne; Johnston, Karissa; Sulham, Katherine A; Syed, Iqra; Pollack, Charles V; Holland, Thomas; Nathwani, Dilip
Rates of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) have sharply increased since 2000. Treatment may be administered in the inpatient or outpatient setting; clinical decision-making regarding hospitalization is inconsistent, often leading to hospitalization of some patients with ABSSSI who qualify for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy, which leads to increased overall care costs. New antibiotics such as oritavancin are hypothesized to be a cost-effective option improving accessibility to ambulatory treatment of ABSSSI. The goal of this study was to understand the patient attributes that affect clinical decision-making regarding the setting of care for ABSSSI treatment. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted that surveyed clinicians of various specialties from the United States and the United Kingdom. The survey collected quantitative responses and used a series of choice-based experimental designs to evaluate patient attributes influencing clinical treatment decisions. Infection severity, severe comorbidities, and age ≥ 75 years were observed to have the greatest impact on treatment location decisions (odds ratio [OR], 0.000-0.004 [95% CI, 0.000-0.011], vs mild ABSSSI; OR, 0.246-0.484 [95% CI, 0.154-0.788], vs no active comorbidities; OR, 0.136-0.523 [95% CI, 0.070-0.888], vs ≤ 18 years, respectively). The majority of respondents indicated they would consider oritavancin to avoid postdischarge outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy or oral therapy, regardless of the pathogen (63.5%-83.5%). Key factors influencing ABSSSI treatment setting were severity of infection, severity of comorbidities, and age. Clinicians surveyed identified patient profiles in which single-dose oritavancin might enable wholly outpatient or shortened inpatient management. Additional studies to elucidate the ABSSSI care pathways that include oritavancin and other novel antibiotics are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All
... pdf . Accessed on June 27, 2016. Budson AE, Solomon PR. Life adjustments for memory loss, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia. In: Budson AE, Solomon PR, eds. Memory Loss, Alzheimer's Disease, and Dementia: ...
Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean
Photoprotection of human skin by means of sunscreens or daily skin-care products is traditionally centered around the prevention of acute (e.g. sunburn) and chronic (e.g. skin cancer and photoaging) skin damage that may result from exposure to ultraviolet rays (UVB and UVA). Within the last decade, however, it has been appreciated that wavelengths beyond the ultraviolet spectrum, in particular visible light and infrared radiation, contribute to skin damage in general and photoaging of human skin in particular. As a consequence, attempts have been made to develop skin care/sunscreen products that not only protect against UVB or UVA radiation but provide photoprotection against visible light and infrared radiation as well. In this article, we will briefly review the current knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for visible light/infrared radiation-induced skin damage and then, based on this information, discuss strategies that have been successfully used or may be employed in the future to achieve photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation. In this regard we will particularly focus on the use of topical antioxidants and the challenges that result from the task of showing their efficacy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Anderson, Alyce M; Matsumoto, Martha; Saul, Melissa I; Secrest, Aaron M; Ferris, Laura K
Physician assistants (PAs) are increasingly used in dermatology practices to diagnose skin cancers, although, to date, their diagnostic accuracy compared with board-certified dermatologists has not been well studied. To compare diagnostic accuracy for skin cancer of PAs with that of dermatologists. Medical record review of 33 647 skin cancer screening examinations in 20 270 unique patients who underwent screening at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center-affiliated dermatology offices from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code V76.43 and International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision code Z12.83 were used to identify pathology reports from skin cancer screening examinations by dermatologists and PAs. Examination performed by a PA or dermatologist. Number needed to biopsy (NNB) to diagnose skin cancer (nonmelanoma, invasive melanoma, or in situ melanoma). Of 20 270 unique patients, 12 722 (62.8%) were female, mean (SD) age at the first visit was 52.7 (17.4) years, and 19 515 patients (96.3%) self-reported their race/ethnicity as non-Hispanic white. To diagnose 1 case of skin cancer, the NNB was 3.9 for PAs and 3.3 for dermatologists (P < .001). Per diagnosed melanoma, the NNB was 39.4 for PAs and 25.4 for dermatologists (P = .007). Patients screened by a PA were significantly less likely than those screened by a dermatologist to be diagnosed with melanoma in situ (1.1% vs 1.8% of visits, P = .02), but differences were not significant for invasive melanoma (0.7% vs 0.8% of visits, P = .83) or nonmelanoma skin cancer (6.1% vs 6.1% of visits, P = .98). Compared with dermatologists, PAs performed more skin biopsies per case of skin cancer diagnosed and diagnosed fewer melanomas in situ, suggesting that the diagnostic accuracy of PAs may be lower than that of dermatologists. Although the availability of PAs may help increase access to care and reduce
Ellis, Ellyn M.; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla S.; Glenn, Sigrid S.; Rosales-Ruiz, Jesus; Greenspoon, Joel
Children with autism may display unusual or fearful responses to common stimuli, such as skin care products. Parents of children with autism have often reported that their children will not allow the application of these types of substances to their skin and if the parent persists, the children become extremely upset and anxious. Such responding…
de Blok, Carolien; Meijboom, Bert; Luijkx, Katrien; Schols, Jos
Practical implementation of notions such as patient-orientation, client-centredness, and demand-driven care is far from straightforward in care and service supply to elderly clients living independently. This paper aims to provide preliminary insights into how it is possible to bridge the gap between policy intent, which reflects an increasing client orientation, and actual practice of care and service provision. Differences in personal objectives and characteristics generate different sets of needs among elderly clients that must have an appropriate response in the daily routines of care and service providers. From a study of the available literature and by conceptual reasoning, we identify several important operational implications of client-oriented care and service provision. To deal with these implications the authors turn to the field of operations management. This field has deepened the understanding of translating an organisation's policy into daily activities and working methods. More specifically, we elaborate on the concept of modularity, which stems from the field of operations management. With respect to elderly people who live independently, this concept, among others, seems to be particularly useful in providing options and variation in individual care and service packages. Based on our line of reasoning, we propose that modularity provides possibilities to enhance the provision of demand-based care and services. Furthermore, our findings offer direction on how organisations in housing, welfare and care can be guided in translating demand-based care to their operational processes.
Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Micol, Vicente
The skin is the body’s largest organ, it participates in sensitivity and offers protection against microorganisms, chemicals and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Consequently, the skin may suffer alterations such as photo-ageing, immune dysfunction and inflammation which may significantly affect human health. Nutraceuticals represent a promising strategy for preventing, delaying, or minimising premature ageing of the skin and also to alleviate certain skin disorders. Among them, bioactive peptides and oligosaccharides, plant polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids are the most widely used ingredients. Supplementation with these products has shown evidence of having an effect on the signs of ageing and protection against UV radiation ageing in several human trials. In this review, the most relevant human studies on skin nutraceuticals are evaluated and the statistical resolution, biological relevance of their results, and, the trial protocols are discussed. In conclusion, quality and rigorousness of the trials must be improved to build credible scientific evidence for skin nutraceuticals and to establish a cause-effect relationship between the ingredients the beneficial effects for the skin. PMID:29587342
Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Herranz-López, María; Micol, Vicente
The skin is the body's largest organ, it participates in sensitivity and offers protection against microorganisms, chemicals and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Consequently, the skin may suffer alterations such as photo-ageing, immune dysfunction and inflammation which may significantly affect human health. Nutraceuticals represent a promising strategy for preventing, delaying, or minimising premature ageing of the skin and also to alleviate certain skin disorders. Among them, bioactive peptides and oligosaccharides, plant polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids are the most widely used ingredients. Supplementation with these products has shown evidence of having an effect on the signs of ageing and protection against UV radiation ageing in several human trials. In this review, the most relevant human studies on skin nutraceuticals are evaluated and the statistical resolution, biological relevance of their results, and, the trial protocols are discussed. In conclusion, quality and rigorousness of the trials must be improved to build credible scientific evidence for skin nutraceuticals and to establish a cause-effect relationship between the ingredients the beneficial effects for the skin.
Östman, Malin; Ung, Eva Jakobsson; Falk, Kristin
Living with chronic heart failure (CHF) often involves lifelong contact with health care, more or less frequently, depending on fluctuating health-generating disruptions in everyday life. To reduce the influence on continuity in life, health-care professionals should preferably focus on supporting patients in managing their daily lives, based on their perspective. The aim of this study was to describe how the interaction in health-care encounters contributes to either continuity or discontinuity in the daily life for persons with CHF. Interviews with 18 participants were carried out, using the grounded theory method, through data collection and analysis. Two core concepts were constructed from data which reveal a model that illuminates the characteristics of the encounters, the actions of health-care professionals and the normative discourse. Patient-centred agenda consists of the categories: "Experiencing a subordinate approach," "Objectifying during the encounter" and "Expected to be compliant." This describes how health-care professionals enhance discontinuity in daily life by using a paternalistic approach in the encounter. Person-centred agenda consists of the categories: "Experiencing an empowering approach," "Person-centredness during the encounter" and "Expected to be capable." It describes how participants perceive that health-care professionals enable them to deal with everyday life which enhances continuity. The findings highlight the importance of health-care professionals' attitudes and communication in encounters with patients. Health care must be designed to support and promote patients' own strategic thinking by strengthening their self-image to enhance continuity in everyday life. The experience of discontinuity is based on the prevailing health-care culture which focuses on disease and medical treatment and regards it as superior to the illness experience in an everyday life context. We therefore strongly suggest a paradigm shift in the health-care
Baade, Peter D; Youl, Philippa H; Janda, Monika; Whiteman, David C; Del Mar, Christopher B; Aitken, Joanne F
To assess physician, patient, and skin lesion characteristics that affect the number of benign skin lesions excised by primary care physicians for each skin cancer. Prospective study collecting clinical, patient, and histopathologic details of excisions or biopsies of skin lesions by random samples of primary care physicians. Southeast Queensland involving traditional family medicine physicians (n = 104; response rate, 53.9%) and family medicine physicians working in 27 primary care skin cancer clinics (n = 50; response rate, 75.0%). Of 28 755 skin examinations recorded during the study, 11 403 skin lesions were excised or biopsied; 97.5% of the excised lesions had clinical and histologic diagnoses recorded. Number of lesions needed to excise or biopsy (NNE) for 1 melanoma (pigmented lesions only) and NNE for 1 nonmelanoma skin cancer (nonpigmented lesions only). The NNE for nonpigmented lesions (n = 8139) was 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-1.6) and for pigmented lesions (n = 2977) was 19.6 (16.2-22.9). The NNE estimates were up to 8 times lower if the physician thought the lesion was likely to be malignant and up to 2.5 times higher if there was strong patient pressure to excise. The NNE estimates varied by other physician-, patient-, and lesion-related variables. Clinical impressions of excised skin lesions were strongly associated with NNE estimates. By focusing on pigmented skin lesions and by addressing the physician- and patient-specific factors identified, the effectiveness of future training for primary care physicians in the clinical management of skin cancer could be improved.
Gupta, Prerna; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singhi, Sunit; Kumar, Praveen; Honnavar, Prasanna; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M
Malassezia, a skin colonizer, is associated with multiple skin disorders in adults, and cephalic pustulosis and folliculitis in children. It can cause fungemia in infants and neonates. The time and pattern of colonization, risk factors associated with colonization and causing fungemia in children, are not well understood. The prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the rate of Malassezia species colonization and associated factors in hospitalized neonates and infants. Consecutive 50 neonates and infants admitted in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units were studied. The skin swabs were collected on the day of admission and every fifth day, thereafter, till the patient was discharged or died. Putative risk factors for the colonization of Malassezia species were recorded. Isolates were identified by phenotypic methods and sequencing of the D1 and D2 region of rDNA. Neonates were not colonized at the time of entry in neonatal ICU or at birth. Nineteen (38 %) neonates were colonized with Malassezia species during their hospital stay. Among the infants, three (6 %) came to ICU with Malassezia colonization and 26 (52 %) acquired Malassezia during ICU stay. Mechanical ventilation, duration of hospital stay, central venous catheterization, and antifungal therapy were the significantly associated factors for colonization. Malassezia furfur was the most common species isolated from the skin of infants and neonates. Colonization by Malassezia species in infants and neonates in a hospital is not uncommon and can be a potential source of nosocomial infection.
Thomas, K A; Burr, R
Incubator thermal environments produced by skin versus air servo-control were compared. Infant abdominal skin and incubator air temperatures were recorded from 18 infants in skin servo-control and 14 infants in air servo-control (26- to 29-week gestational age, 14 +/- 2 days postnatal age) for 24 hours. Differences in incubator and infant temperature, neutral thermal environment (NTE) maintenance, and infant and incubator circadian rhythm were examined using analysis of variance and scatterplots. Skin servo-control resulted in more variable air temperature, yet more stable infant temperature, and more time within the NTE. Circadian rhythm of both infant and incubator temperature differed by control mode and the relationship between incubator and infant temperature rhythms was a function of control mode. The differences between incubator control modes extend beyond temperature stability and maintenance of NTE. Circadian rhythm of incubator and infant temperatures is influenced by incubator control.
Rippon, Mark; Perrin, Angie; Darwood, Richard; Ousey, Karen
Individuals living with an ostomy may suffer from a variety of peri-stomal skin complications related to the use of their stoma appliance or accessories. These conditions can be serious enough to significantly impact on a patient's quality of life and may result in severe clinical complications (such as infection). This article is a review of the literature with the objective of investigating and presenting evidence for the well-documented use of aloe vera in the prevention of skin conditions similar to those seen in peri-stomal skin complications. An exploration for the potential use of aloe vera directly or indirectly (as an adjunct to medical devices such as wafers) in stoma patients is presented with the view that this use may be beneficial in the prevention of such peri-stomal skin complications.
Gurjar, R. S.; Seetamraju, M.; Zhang, J.; Feinberg, S. E.; Wolf, D. E.
We have developed the necessary theoretical framework and the basic instrumental design parameters to enable mapping of subsurface blood dynamics and tissue oxygenation for patients undergoing skin graft procedures. This analysis forms the basis for developing a simple patch geometry, which can be used to map by diffuse optical techniques blood flow velocity and tissue oxygenation as a function of depth in subsurface tissue.skin graft, diffuse correlation analysis, oxygen saturation.
Grigalavicius, Mantas; Moan, Johan; Dahlback, Arne; Juzeniene, Asta
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation varies with latitude, time of day, and season. Both spectral UV composition and ambient UV dose lead to different health outcomes at different latitudes. Finding the optimal time for sun exposure, whereby the positive effects of UV exposure (vitamin D) are facilitated and the negative effects (skin cancer, photoimmunosuppression) avoided are the most important consideration in modern skin cancer prevention programs. This paper focuses on the latitude dependency of UVB, UVA, vitamin D production, and skin cancer risk in Caucasians. Biologically effective UVB (280-315 nm) and UVA (315-400 nm) doses were calculated using radiative transfer models with appropriate climatologic data for selected locations. Incidences of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and cutaneous melanoma (CM) were retrieved from cancer registries and published articles. Annual doses of UVA radiation decrease much less with increasing latitude than annual doses of UVB. Incidences of CM also decrease less steeply with increasing latitude than incidences of SCC. As SCC is caused mainly by UVB, these observations support the assumption that UVA plays an important role in the development of CM. The variations in UVA (relevant to CM) and UVB (relevant to vitamin D production) over 1 day differ: the UVB : UVA ratio is maximal at noon. The best way to obtain a given dose of vitamin D with minimal carcinogenic risk is through a non-burning exposure in the middle of the day, rather than in the afternoon or morning. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.
Optimization of health-care organization and perceived improvement of patient comfort by switching from intra-venous BU four-times-daily infusions to a once-daily administration scheme in adult hematopoietic stem cell recipients.
Xhaard, A; Rzepecki, P; Valcarcel, D; Santarone, S; Fürst, S; Serrano, D; De Angelis, G; Krüger, W; Scheid, C
Previous studies have shown an equivalent pharmacokinetic profile between four-times-daily (4QD) and once-daily (QD) administration of intra-venous (IV) BU, without increased toxicity. We assess the impact of a switch in IV BU from a 4QD to a QD schedule, in terms of health-care organization, staff working conditions, quality of care dispensed and perceived patient comfort. Clinicians, nurses and pharmacists from nine allogeneic transplantation units in five European countries were interviewed face to face. Overall perception of QD versus 4QD BU was very positive. Both administration schemes were evaluated to be equally efficaciousZ. QD BU was perceived to be safer and more convenient. Clinicians and nurses perceived that patient comfort was improved, due to fewer complications associated with repeated infusions, and avoiding night infusions associated with stress, anxiety and decreased quality of sleep. Switching from 4QD to QD BU had a significant impact on health-care organization, with a better integration in the overall management and usual timelines in the pharmacies and transplantation units. Time spent to prepare and administer BU was significantly reduced, leading to potential financial savings that merit further assessment and would be of particular interest in the current economic climate.
Pérez-Gandía, Carmen; García-Sáez, Gema; Subías, David; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Gómez, Enrique J; Rigla, Mercedes; Hernando, M Elena
In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), patients play an active role in their own care and need to have the knowledge to adapt decisions to their daily living conditions. Artificial intelligence applications can help people with type 1 diabetes in decision making and allow them to react at time scales shorter than the scheduled face-to-face visits. This work presents a decision support system (DSS), based on glucose prediction, to assist patients in a mobile environment. The system's impact on therapeutic corrective actions has been evaluated in a randomized crossover pilot study focused on interprandial periods. Twelve people with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin pump participated in two phases: In the experimental phase (EP) patients used the DSS to modify initial corrective decisions in presence of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia events. In the control phase (CP) patients were asked to follow decisions without knowing the glucose prediction. A telemedicine platform allowed participants to register monitoring data and decisions and allowed endocrinologists to supervise data at the hospital. The study period was defined as a postprediction (PP) time window. After knowing the glucose prediction, participants modified the initial decision in 20% of the situations. No statistically significant differences were found in the PP Kovatchev's risk index change (-1.23 ± 11.85 in EP vs -0.56 ± 6.06 in CP). Participants had a positive opinion about the DSS with an average score higher than 7 in a usability questionnaire. The DSS had a relevant impact in the participants' decision making while dealing with T1DM and showed a high confidence of patients in the use of glucose prediction.
Ulrich, C; Salavastru, C; Agner, T; Bauer, A; Brans, R; Crepy, M N; Ettler, K; Gobba, F; Goncalo, M; Imko-Walczuk, B; Lear, J; Macan, J; Modenese, A; Paoli, J; Sartorelli, P; Stageland, K; Weinert, P; Wroblewski, N; Wulf, H C; John, S M
Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in Caucasian populations worldwide and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known for being the number one carcinogen. As, especially in outdoor workers, UVR is an inevitable carcinogen, the prevention and management of UVR-related skin cancers in these at-risk populations represent a collective challenge for dermatologists and healthcare policymakers likewise. To provide an overview on the current regulations on the acknowledgement and management of work-related skin cancer in 11 European countries. Dermatologists from 11 countries networking within the EU Horizon 2020 COST Action TD1206 'StanDerm' contributed to a standardized survey regarding current national regulations, implemented for the recognition, prevention and management as well as possible compensation regulations in their individual country of residence. Ten of 11 participating countries in this survey reported the existence of an established programme available on certain occupational diseases; work-related skin diseases were only specifically recognized in eight countries. Seven of 11 countries recognize cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in outdoor workers as 'occupational skin cancer'. Basal cell carcinoma (6 of 11), actinic keratosis (5 of 11), Bowen's disease (5 of 11) and malignant melanoma (5 of 11) are not as regularly approved as potentially 'work-induced'. Only a few of the countries included into this survey established a general documentation system (national registry) on occupational skin diseases. So far, representatives of only three countries of this survey referred to a specific established national programme for the prevention, management or compensation of occupational skin cancers acquired during work-related UVR exposure. This survey highlights the need for mandatory regulations on the prevention, management and potential compensation of work-related UV-induced skin cancer across Europe. Against the background of a joint European domestic market
Manriquez, Sonia; Loperfido, Bonnie; Smith, Graham
To evaluate performance of a new silicone tape among clinicians caring for patients with fragile skin. An international, multisite, 2-week-use evaluation. Caregivers (n = 217) from acute care hospitals in the United States, United Kingdom, and France who regularly use tapes on patients with fragile skin. The silicone tape was substituted for current-use gentle tapes for a 2-week trial period. Preuse and postuse questionnaires were collected. The main outcome measure was tape preference. Secondary outcomes included (1) satisfaction with current-use tapes, (2) willingness to replace current-use tapes with silicone tape, (3) performance comparisons between tapes, (4) clinician-reported problems with the silicone tape, and (5) case study information. The sample group consisted of nurses (98.1%), assistants (1.4%), and physicians (0.5%). Hospital units (n = 100) included oncology (31%), medical-surgical (14%), dialysis (12%), infusion/intravenous therapy (16%), critical care (10%), wound care (10%), and other units (7%). Overall preference was 92.0% for the silicone tape, 7.5% for current-use tapes, and 0.5% no preference. Dissatisfaction was 61.2% for current-use tapes, and most clinicians (90.2%) would change to the silicone tape. Evaluators favored (≥71.5%) the silicone tape on 10 performance attributes and on overall performance (91.6%). Most evaluators (75.1%) did not experience problems with the silicone tape, and those who did found problems related to adhesion (77.8%), gentleness (16.0%), and residue (6.2%). These results indicate that the silicone tape fills a performance-expectation gap of current acrylic tapes among users of tapes on patients with fragile or at-risk skin.
Emery, Jon D; Hunter, Judith; Hall, Per N; Watson, Anthony J; Moncrieff, Marc; Walter, Fiona M
Diagnosing pigmented skin lesions in general practice is challenging. SIAscopy has been shown to increase diagnostic accuracy for melanoma in referred populations. We aimed to develop and validate a scoring system for SIAscopic diagnosis of pigmented lesions in primary care. This study was conducted in two consecutive settings in the UK and Australia, and occurred in three stages: 1) Development of the primary care scoring algorithm (PCSA) on a sub-set of lesions from the UK sample; 2) Validation of the PCSA on a different sub-set of lesions from the same UK sample; 3) Validation of the PCSA on a new set of lesions from an Australian primary care population. Patients presenting with a pigmented lesion were recruited from 6 general practices in the UK and 2 primary care skin cancer clinics in Australia. The following data were obtained for each lesion: clinical history; SIAscan; digital photograph; and digital dermoscopy. SIAscans were interpreted by an expert and validated against histopathology where possible, or expert clinical review of all available data for each lesion. A total of 858 patients with 1,211 lesions were recruited. Most lesions were benign naevi (64.8%) or seborrhoeic keratoses (22.1%); 1.2% were melanoma. The original SIAscopic diagnostic algorithm did not perform well because of the higher prevalence of seborrhoeic keratoses and haemangiomas seen in primary care. A primary care scoring algorithm (PCSA) was developed to account for this. In the UK sample the PCSA had the following characteristics for the diagnosis of 'suspicious': sensitivity 0.50 (0.18-0.81); specificity 0.84 (0.78-0.88); PPV 0.09 (0.03-0.22); NPV 0.98 (0.95-0.99). In the Australian sample the PCSA had the following characteristics for the diagnosis of 'suspicious': sensitivity 0.44 (0.32-0.58); specificity 0.95 (0.93-0.97); PPV 0.52 (0.38-0.66); NPV 0.95 (0.92-0.96). In an analysis of lesions for which histological diagnosis was available (n = 111), the PCSA had a significantly
Christopher, Devasahayam J; Shankar, Deepa; Datey, Ashima; Zwerling, Alice; Pai, Madhukar
Health care workers (HCW) in low and middle income countries are at high risk of nosocomial tuberculosis infection. Periodic screening of health workers for both TB disease and infection can play a critical role in TB infection control. Occupational health programs that implement serial tuberculin skin testing (TST) are advised to use a two-step baseline TST. This helps to ensure that boosting of waned immune response is not mistaken as new TB infection (i.e. conversion). However, there are no data on safety of the two-step TST in the Indian context where HCWs are repeatedly exposed. Nursing students were recruited from 2007 to 2009 at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India. Consenting nursing students were screened with a baseline two-step TST at the time of recruitment. From 2007 to 2008 adverse events were recorded when reported during the TST reading (Cohort A). Nurses recruited in the final study year (2009) answered an investigator administered questionnaire assessing all likely side-effects Cohort B). This information was extracted from the case report forms and analysed. Between 2007 and 09, 800 trainees consented to participate in the annual TB screening study and 779 did not have a past history of TB or recall a positive TST and were selected to administer TST. Of these, 755 returned for reading the result and had complete data and were included for the final analysis - 623 subjects in (cohort A) and 132 in (cohort B). These were included for the final analysis. In cohort A only 1.3% reported adverse events. In cohort B, as per the investigator administered questionnaire; 25% reported minor side effects. Itching and local pain were the most common side effects encountered. There were no major adverse events reported. In particular, the adverse events were similar in the second step of the test and not more severe. Screening of HCWs with two-step TST for LTBI is simple and safe, and hence suitable for wide scale implementation in high
Memon, Khalida Naz; Soomro, Rafique Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Shahid
The morbidity associated with skin diseases makes them an important public health problem. Very scanty literature is found on the problem which is either disease-based, community based or a specified population group-based. Objective of this study was to assess the pattern of skin diseases in patients and to determine their relation with demographic characteristics. This descriptive study was conducted at Dermatology Out-patient Department of Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Pakistan for the period from 10th January to 10th February 2008. Four hundred and eleven patients were enrolled during the study period. The study population comprised of newly diagnosed cases as well as relapsing cases presenting at the facility. The criterion for registering the patients was clinical diagnosis although few cases were supported by investigations, too. The data was collected through a pre-designed questionnaire and analysed through SPSS-12. Skin problems are fairly common among children and women. In children of less than 10 years age, 82.5% visiting the facility suffer from infectious skin diseases. Among the infectious diseases, scabies is highly prevalent disease (45.5%). The majority of the patients belong to rural or slum areas (77.2%), low socio-economic strata (68.9%), and living in overcrowded families (82%). A strong association between skin infections and water inadequacy (p = 0.016) was found, and scabies shows a strong statistical association with overcrowding (p = 0.025). The skin diseases involve every age strata of our population but it is fairly common in younger age group, women, and people who do not practice hygiene. Out-reach services for the rural and slum communities and health education will give good results on prevention of skin diseases.
Palma, Jonathan P.; Keller, Heather; Godin, Margie; Wayman, Karen; Cohen, Ronald S.; Rhine, William D.; Longhurst, Christopher A.
Summary Objective To evaluate the impact of using electronic medical record (EMR) data in the form of a daily patient update letter on communication and parent engagement in a level II neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Study Design Parents of babies in a level II NICU were surveyed before and after the introduction of an EMR-generated daily patient update letter, Your Baby’s Daily Update (YBDU). Results Following the introduction of the EMR-generated daily patient update letter, 89% of families reported using YBDU as an information source; 83% of these families found it “very useful”, and 96% of them responded that they “always” liked receiving it. Rates of receiving information from the attending physician were not statistically significantly different pre- and post-implementation, 81% and 78%, respectively (p = 1). Though there was no statistically significant improvement in parents’ knowledge of individual items regarding the care of their babies, a trend towards statistical significance existed for several items (p <.1), and parents reported feeling more competent to manage information related to the health status of their babies (p =.039). Conclusion Implementation of an EMR-generated daily patient update letter is feasible, resulted in a trend towards improved communication, and improved at least one aspect of parent engagement—perceived competence to manage information in the NICU. PMID:23730532
Isitt, Catherine E; McCloskey, Kayleigh A; Caballo, Alvaro; Sharma, Pranev; Williams, Andrew; Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Vizcaychipi, Marcela P
Skin graft failure is a recognised complication in the treatment of major burns. Little research to date has analysed the impact of the complex physiological management of burns patients on the success of skin grafting. We analysed surgical and anaesthetic variables to identify factors contributing to graft failure. Inclusion criteria were admission to our Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) between January 2009 and October 2013 with a major burn. After exclusion for death before hospital discharge or prior skin graft at a different hospital, 35 patients remained and were divided into those with successful autografts (n=16) and those with a failed autograft (n=19). For the purposes of this study, we defined poor autograft viability as requiring at least one additional skin graft to the same site. Logistic regression of variables was performed using SPSS (Version 22.0 IBMTM). Age, Sex, %Total Burn Surface Area or Belgian Outcome Burns Injury score did not significantly differ between groups. No differences were found in any surgical factor at logistic regression (graft site, harvest site, infection etc.). When all operations were analysed, the use of colloids was found to be significantly associated with graft failure (p=0.035, CI 95%) and this remained significant when only split thickness skin grafts (STSGs) and debridement operations were included (p=0.034, CI 95%). No differences were found in crystalloid use, intraoperative temperature, pre-operative haemoglobin and blood products or vasopressor use. This analysis highlights an independent association between colloids and graft failure which has not been previously documented.
Lal, Sonal Tina; Banipal, Raja Paramjeet Singh; Bhatti, Deepak John; Yadav, Hanuman Prasad
Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancer. Although the presence of eumelanin in dark skin is protective against the development of skin cancer, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the Indian population. To study the profile of skin cancer patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Malwa area of Punjab, India. Retrospective study was done to analyse the profile of skin cancer patients who attended the institution over one year from 1(st) December 2013 to 30(th) November 2014. A comprehensive review of aetiology and related risk factors was done to correlate the environmental factors with high skin cancer prevalence in this region. Skin cancer constituted (3.18%) 84 out of 2638 patients registered with cancer of all types. The age of the patients was 62±14.2 years and ranged from 27 to 92 yrs. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was the most common histological type(46/84, 54.76%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (31/84, 36.91%) and malignant melanoma (MM) (7/84, 8.33%). Male: female ratio was found to be 0.79:1. BCC showed higher female preponderance (p<0.05). Head and Neck was the commonest site involved (p<0.05). Majority (88%) of patients were from rural area. 92% of patients were directly into the profession of agriculture with history of prolonged exposure to sunlight. Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancers. This study highlights a paradoxically increasing trend of BCC and female preponderance. Head and neck is the most common site involved. Exposure to Ultra Violet B (UVB) radiation and higher levels of arsenic in drinking water has been reported to be associated with skin cancers. Limited studies show that levels of arsenic and pesticides were higher in the samples of drinking water in Malwa area of Punjab. Therefore a multipronged strategy to provide safe drinking water supply and discouraging the indiscriminate use of pesticides is recommended.
Fonseca, B L; dos Santos, B C; Martins, P; Bonorino, C; Corte, T W F; da Silva, V D; Bauer, M E
Chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure is a major environmental factor involved in extrinsic skin ageing (photo-ageing). Skin nerve fibres are significantly reduced in number following UV irradiation and new skincare compounds with neuroprotective effects are thus highly warranted. We developed a new skincare formulation from a plant extract and evaluated its neuroprotective effects of ex vivo UV irradiation. The new skincare emulsion was formulated from Echinacea purpurea extract and was enriched with antioxidants (patent no. PROV020110087075). Skin samples were obtained from 20 healthy patients enrolled for plastic surgery and were immediately treated with placebo (SPF 15) or test emulsions. Skin samples were exposed to UVA and UVB for 60 min. Nerve fibres were identified by immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody, anti-human CD56. Cell damage was quantified by image analysis. UVA and UVB significantly reduced (40-60%) densities of nerve endings in control samples treated with placebo (P < 0.001). Samples treated with test emulsion completely blocked UV-related effects on skin nerve endings. These neuroprotective effects were similarly observed regardless of age or tissue analysed (breast versus abdomen). Our new skincare formulation obtained from E. purpurea provides important neuroprotective effects of UV irradiation and could be used together with SPFs to prevent chronic deleterious effects of solar exposure. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
The aim of the present study was to determine the spectrum of skin diseases seen among adult obese patients referred to Farwaniya Hospital. A total of 437 overweight/obese subjects (200 men and 237 women) aged 18-74 years were enrolled in the study, which was conducted from October 2008 to November 2009. Demographic details such as age, sex, occupation, personal and family history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity were recorded. A thorough examination was performed by an experienced dermatologist (N.A.M.). Blood investigations such as complete blood count, fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels, liver function tests, kidney function tests, lipid profile, and thyroid function tests were done for all patients in addition to hormonal assay and abdominal sonar to exclude polycystic ovary disease for indicated patients. Common skin diseases found among these patients were plantar hyperkeratosis: n = 197; acanthosis nigricans: n = 144; skin tags: n = 131; striae cutis distensae: n = 102; intertrigo: n = 97; acne vulgaris: n = 94. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 87 patients, polycystic ovary syndrome/hyperandrogenism in 74 female patients, and hyperlipidemia in 209 patients. This study shows that certain dermatoses such as plantar hyperkeratosis, acanthosis nigricans, skin tags, striae cutis distensae, and intertrigo are more common among obese persons. Some, such as plantar hyperkeratosis, could serve as markers of obesity and its severity, while the presence of acanthosis nigricans and skin tags may point to underlying internal disease such as diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Martin, Richard; Henley, Jessica B; Sarrazin, Patrick; Seité, Sophie
Changes in the composition of microbial communities that colonize skin have been linked to several diseases including psoriasis. Nevertheless, the intra-individual dynamics and how these communities respond to balneotherapy remain poorly understood. This open label study was conducted between July and September 2012. Microbial communities of patients with psoriasis vulgaris were characterized prior and post a 3-week selenium-rich water balneotherapy treatment at the thermal care center La Roche-Posay (La Roche-Posay, France). Balneotherapy consisted of high-pressure filiform showers, baths, facial, and body spray treatments as well as La Roche-Posay thermal spring water (LRP-TSW) consumption. Swabs were taken from affected and proximal unaffected skin and the 16S rRNA bacterial gene was used to analyze the composition of bacterial communities. Using the same 16S rRNA gene tool, we tried to describe the LRP-TSW bacterial landscape. This study included 54 patients diagnosed with moderate to severe forms of psoriasis vulgaris. After eliminating individuals lacking paired samples from both visits, 29 individuals were analyzed for their microbiome profile. Shannon Diversity Index and global bacterial landscape indicate similar microbial communities on both unaffected and adjacent affected skin. PASI values decreased post-balneotherapy implying improvement of disease severity. No significant change in the Shannon Diversity Index was noticed at the end of the third week. The average taxonomic composition of skin microbial communities associated with unaffected and affected skin of psoriatic patients post-balneotherapy shows that treatment with LRP-TSW significantly increased the level of Xanthomonas genus and, to a lesser extent, Corynebacterium genus. The Xanthomonas genus belongs to the main Xanthomonadaceae family found in LRP-TSW and also on healthy skin. In psoriatic patients, a poor bacterial biodiversity was noticed and the bacterial communities were similar on
Stuart, R.; Bennett, N.; Forbes, A.; Grayson, M
BACKGROUND—Historically, 10 TU has been employed in Australia and the United Kingdom to perform the tuberculin skin test (TST). However, this makes it difficult to compare the rates of TST positivity with other countries such as the USA who use 5 TU. To assess the impact of the dose of tuberculin on the TST a comparison was made of TST responses in health care workers given a TST with both 5 and 10 TU. METHODS—Two TSTs were performed simultaneously in each health care worker using 5 and 10 TU. Each dose was randomly assigned in a blinded manner to the right or left forearm and read at 48-72 hours by a single nurse who was blinded to the assignment of the 5 and 10 TU doses. RESULTS—A total of 128 health care workers were enrolled, 119 (93%) of whom had a past history of BCG vaccination. The overall mean difference in paired reaction sizes for the two doses was 1.5 mm with 95% limits of agreement of -3.6 to 6.5 mm. CONCLUSION—A slightly larger TST reading was seen with 10 TU than with 5 TU. The mean difference of 1.5 mm between the two doses should be considered when comparing rates of TST positivity between countries who use different doses of tuberculin to perform the tuberculin skin test. PMID:10899248
Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Lamy, Zeni C.; Tingvall, Maria; Eriksson, Mats
Aim To synthesize and interpret qualitative research findings focusing on parental experiences of skin-to-skin care (SSC) for newborn infants. Background SSC induces many benefits for newborn infants and their parents. Three meta-analyses have been conducted on physiological outcomes, but no previous qualitative meta-synthesis on parental experiences of SSC has been identified. Design The present meta-synthesis was guided by the methodology described by Paterson and co-workers. Data sources Four databases were searched, without year or language limitations, up until December 2013. Manual searches were also performed. The searches and subsequent quality appraisal resulted in the inclusion of 29 original qualitative papers from 9 countries, reporting experiences from 401 mothers and 94 fathers. Review methods The meta-synthesis entails a meta-data analysis, analysis of meta-method, and meta-theory in the included primary studies. Based on the three analyses, the meta-synthesis represents a new interpretation of a phenomenon. The results of the meta-data analysis have been presented as a qualitative systematic review in a separate paper. Results When synthesizing and interpreting the findings from the included analyses, a theoretical model of Becoming a parent under unfamiliar circumstances emerged. Providing SSC seems to be a restorative as well as an energy-draining experience. A supportive environment has been described as facilitating the restorative experience, whereas obstacles in the environment seem to make the provision of SSC energy-draining for parents. When the process is experienced as positive, it facilitates the growth of parental self-esteem and makes the parents ready to assume full responsibility for their child. Conclusion The results show that SSC can be interpreted not only as a family-including and important health care intervention but also in terms of actually becoming a parent. The process of becoming a parent in this specific situation is
Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Lamy, Zeni C; Tingvall, Maria; Eriksson, Mats
To synthesize and interpret qualitative research findings focusing on parental experiences of skin-to-skin care (SSC) for newborn infants. SSC induces many benefits for newborn infants and their parents. Three meta-analyses have been conducted on physiological outcomes, but no previous qualitative meta-synthesis on parental experiences of SSC has been identified. The present meta-synthesis was guided by the methodology described by Paterson and co-workers. Four databases were searched, without year or language limitations, up until December 2013. Manual searches were also performed. The searches and subsequent quality appraisal resulted in the inclusion of 29 original qualitative papers from 9 countries, reporting experiences from 401 mothers and 94 fathers. The meta-synthesis entails a meta-data analysis, analysis of meta-method, and meta-theory in the included primary studies. Based on the three analyses, the meta-synthesis represents a new interpretation of a phenomenon. The results of the meta-data analysis have been presented as a qualitative systematic review in a separate paper. When synthesizing and interpreting the findings from the included analyses, a theoretical model of Becoming a parent under unfamiliar circumstances emerged. Providing SSC seems to be a restorative as well as an energy-draining experience. A supportive environment has been described as facilitating the restorative experience, whereas obstacles in the environment seem to make the provision of SSC energy-draining for parents. When the process is experienced as positive, it facilitates the growth of parental self-esteem and makes the parents ready to assume full responsibility for their child. The results show that SSC can be interpreted not only as a family-including and important health care intervention but also in terms of actually becoming a parent. The process of becoming a parent in this specific situation is influenced by external factors in three different levels; family and
Dong, Rui-Hua; Jia, Yue-Xiao; Qin, Chong-Chong; Zhan, Lu; Yan, Xu; Cui, Lin; Zhou, Yu; Jiang, Xingyu; Long, Yun-Ze
Current strategies for wound care provide limited relief to millions of patients who suffer from burns, chronic skin ulcers or surgical-related wounds. The goal of this work is to develop an in situ deposition of a personalized nanofibrous dressing via a handy electrospinning (e-spinning) device and evaluate its properties related to skin wound care. MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanoparticles decorated with silver nanoparticles (Ag-MSNs) were prepared by a facile and environmentally friendly approach, which possessed long-term antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity. Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) incorporated with Ag-MSNs was successfully electrospun (e-spun) into nanofibrous membranes. These in situ e-spun nanofibrous membranes allowed the continuous release of Ag ions and showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against two common types of pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In addition, the in vivo studies revealed that these antibacterial nanofibrous membranes could reduce the inflammatory response and accelerate wound healing in Wistar rats. The above results strongly demonstrate that such patient-specific dressings could be broadly applied in emergency medical transport, hospitals, clinics and at the patients' home in the near future.Current strategies for wound care provide limited relief to millions of patients who suffer from burns, chronic skin ulcers or surgical-related wounds. The goal of this work is to develop an in situ deposition of a personalized nanofibrous dressing via a handy electrospinning (e-spinning) device and evaluate its properties related to skin wound care. MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanoparticles decorated with silver nanoparticles (Ag-MSNs) were prepared by a facile and environmentally friendly approach, which possessed long-term antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity. Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) incorporated with Ag-MSNs was successfully electrospun (e-spun) into nanofibrous membranes. These in situ e
Cronfalk, Berit Seiger; Strang, Peter; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
This article explores relatives' experiences of receiving soft tissue massage as a support supplement while caring for a dying family member at home. In palliative home care, relatives play an important role as carers to seriously ill and dying family members. To improve their quality of life, different support strategies are of importance. Complementary methods, such as soft tissue massage have become an appreciated supplement for these patients. However, only few studies focus on relatives experiences of receiving soft tissue massage as a supplemental support. Qualitative design Nineteen relatives received soft tissue massage (hand or foot) nine times (25 minutes) in their homes. Open-ended semi-structured tape-recorded interviews were conducted once per relative after the nine times of massage, using qualitative content analysis. Soft tissue massage gave the relatives' feelings of 'being cared for', 'body vitality' and 'peace of mind'. For a while, they put worries of daily life aside as they just experienced 'being'. During massage, it became apparent that body and mind is constituted of an indestructible completeness. The overarching theme was 'inner power, physical strength and existential well-being in their daily lives'. All relatives experienced soft tissue massage positively, although they were under considerable stress. Soft tissue massage could be an option to comfort and support relatives in palliative home care. In palliative nursing care, soft tissue massage could present a worthy supplement in supporting caring relatives.
Greenwood, J E
The skin graft was born in 1869 and since then, surgeons have been using split skin grafts for wound repair. Nevertheless, this asset fails the big burn patient, who deserves an elastic, mobile and robust outcome but who receives the poorest possible outcome based on donor site paucity. Negating the need for the skin graft requires an autologous composite cultured skin and a material capable of temporising the burn wound for four weeks until the composite is produced. A novel, biodegradable polyurethane chemistry has been used to create two such products. This paper describes the design, production, optimisation and evaluation of several iterations of these products. The evaluation has occurred in a variety of models, both in vitro and in vivo, employing Hunterian scientific principles, and embracing Hunter's love and appreciation of comparative anatomy. The process has culminated in significant human experience in complex wounds and extensive burn injury. Used serially, the products offer robust and elastic healing in deep burns of any size within 6 weeks of injury.
Ezendam, J; Bokkers, B G H; Bil, W; Delmaar, J E
Contact allergy to preservatives is an important public health problem. Ideally, new substances should be evaluated for the risk on skin sensitisation before market entry, for example by using a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) as developed for fragrances. As a proof-of-concept, this QRA was applied to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI), a common cause of contact allergy. MI is used in different consumer products, including personal care products (PCPs) and household cleaning products (HCPs). Aggregate exposure to MI in PCPs and HCPs was therefore assessed with the Probabilistic Aggregated Consumer Exposure Model (PACEM). Two exposure scenarios were evaluated: scenario 1 calculated aggregate exposure on actual MI product concentrations before the restricted use in PCPs and scenario 2 calculated aggregate exposure using the restrictions for MI in PCPs. The QRA for MI showed that in scenarios 1 and 2, the proportion of the population at risk for skin sensitisation is 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. The restricted use of MI in PCPs does not seem very effective in lowering the risk on skin sensitization. To conclude, it is important to consider aggregate exposure from the most important consumer products into consideration in the risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tarun, Jose; Susan, Jose; Suria, Jacob; Susan, Veronica John; Criton, Sebastian
Normal healthy skin has potential of hydrogen (pH) range of 5.4-5.9 and a normal bacterial flora. Use of soap with high pH causes an increase in skin pH, which in turn causes an increase in dehydrative effect, irritability and alteration in bacterial flora. The majority of soaps and shampoos available in the market do not disclose their pH. The aim of this study was to assess the pH of different brands of bathing soaps and shampoos available in the market. The samples of soaps and shampoos were collected from shops in the locality. The samples of different brands are coded before the analysis of the pH. Solution of each sample was made and pH was measured using pH meter. Majority of the soaps have a pH within the range of 9-10. Majority of the shampoos have a pH within the range of 6-7. The soaps and shampoos commonly used by the population at large have a pH outside the range of normal skin and hair pH values. Therefore, it is hoped that before recommending soap to patient especially those who have sensitive and acne prone skin, due consideration is given to the pH factor and also that manufacturers will give a thought to pH of soaps and shampoos manufactured by them, so that their products will be more skin and hair friendly.
Rivera, D; Rommi, K; Fernandes, M M; Lantto, R; Tzanov, T
Despite the great number of substances produced by the skincare industry, very few of them seem to truly have an effect on the skin. Therefore, given the social implications surrounding physical appearance, the search for new bioactive compounds to prevent or attenuate skin ageing and enhance self-image is a priority of current research. In this context, being rich in valuable compounds, such as proteins, phenolics, lipids and vitamins, this study is focused on the potential activity of rapeseed press cake hydrolysates to be used as raw materials for skincare applications. In this study, the protein-rich press residue from the rapeseed oil industry was converted enzymatically into short-chain biologically active peptides using four protease products with varying substrate specificity - Alcalase 2.4L FG, Protex 6L, Protamex and Corolase 7089. The antioxidant, anti-wrinkle and anti-inflammatory activities of the obtained hydrolysates were evaluated in vitro while their biocompatibility with human skin fibroblasts was tested. All hydrolysates were biocompatible with skin fibroblasts after 24 h of exposure, while the non-hydrolysed extract induced cell toxicity. Alcalase 2,4L FG and Protex 6L-obtained hydrolysates were the most promising extracts showing improved bioactivities suitable for skin anti-ageing formulations, namely antioxidant activity, inhibiting approximately 80% cellular reactive oxidative species, anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle properties, inhibiting around 36% of myeloperoxidase activity and over 83% of elastase activity. The enzymatic technology applied to the rapeseed oil industry costream results in the release of bioactive compounds suitable for skincare applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
Vossenaar, M; Jaramillo, P M; Soto-Méndez, M-J; Panday, B; Hamelinck, V; Bermúdez, O I; Doak, C M; Mathias, P; Solomons, N W
Adequate nutrition is critical to child development and institutions such as day-care centers could potentially complement children's diets to achieve optimal daily intakes. The aim of the study was to describe the full-day diet of children, examining and contrasting the relative contribution of home-derived versus institutional energy and nutrient sources. The present comparison should be considered in the domain of a case-study format. The diets of 33, 3-6 y old children attending low-income day-care centers serving either 3 or a single meal were examined. The home-diet was assessed by means of 3 non-consecutive 24-hr recalls. Estimated energy and nutrient intakes at the centers and at home were assessed and related to Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). Nutrient densities, critical densities and main sources of nutrients were computed. We observed that in children attending the day-care center serving three meals, home-foods contributed less than half the daily energy (47.7%) and between 29.9% and 53.5% of daily nutrients. In children receiving only lunch outside the home, energy contribution from the home was 83.9% and 304 kcal lower than for children receiving 3 meals. Furthermore, between 59.0% and 94.8% of daily nutrients were provided at home. Daily energy, nutrient intakes and nutrient densities were well above the nutrient requirements for this age group, and particularly high for vitamin A. The overall dietary variety was superior in the situation of greater contribution of home fare, but overall the nutrient density and adequacy of the aggregate intakes did not differ in any important manner.
Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Jemec, Gregor B E; Diepgen, Thomas L; Gluud, Christian; Lindschou Hansen, Jane; Winkel, Per; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Agner, Tove
To evaluate the effect of a secondary prevention programme with education on skin care and individual counselling versus treatment as usual in healthcare workers with hand eczema. Randomised, observer blinded parallel group superiority clinical trial. Three hospitals in Denmark. 255 healthcare workers with self reported hand eczema within the past year randomised centrally and stratified by profession, severity of eczema, and hospital. 123 were allocated to the intervention group and 132 to the control group. Education in skin care and individual counselling based on patch and prick testing and assessment of work and domestic related exposures. The control was treatment as usual. The primary outcome was clinical severity of disease at five month follow-up measured by scores on the hand eczema severity index. The secondary outcomes were scores on the dermatology life quality index, self evaluated severity of hand eczema, skin protective behaviours, and knowledge of hand eczema from onset to follow-up. Follow-up data were available for 247 of 255 participants (97%). At follow-up, the mean score on the hand eczema severity index was significantly lower (improved) in the intervention group than control group: difference of means, unadjusted -3.56 (95% confidence interval -4.92 to -2.14); adjusted -3.47 (-4.80 to -2.14), both P<0.001 for difference. The mean score on the dermatology life quality index was also significantly lower (improved) in the intervention group at follow-up: difference of means: unadjusted -0.78, non-parametric test P=0.003; adjusted -0.92, -1.48 to -0.37). Self evaluated severity and skin protective behaviour by hand washings and wearing of protective gloves were also statistically significantly better in the intervention group, whereas this was not the case for knowledge of hand eczema. A secondary prevention programme for hand eczema improved severity and quality of life and had a positive effect on self evaluated severity and skin protective
Abdalhamid, Baha; Hinrichs, Steven H.; Garrett, Jodi L.; O'Neill, Jean M.; Hansen-Cain, Kristine M.; Armbrust, Amy A.; Iwen, Peter C.
A cost analysis of combining a tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-GT) to detect latent tuberculosis in newly hired health care workers was performed. An approximately 50% reduction in the cost of additional care was realized when workers with positive TST results were subsequently screened using the QFT-GT. PMID:20573876
Graham, Donald R; Talan, David A; Nichols, Ronald L; Lucasti, Christopher; Corrado, Michael; Morgan, Nancy; Fowler, Cynthia L
This study tested whether levofloxacin, at a new high dose of 750 mg, was effective for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs). Patients with complicated SSSIs (n=399) were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1 to 2 treatment arms: levofloxacin (750 mg given once per day intravenously [iv], orally, or iv/orally) or ticarcillin-clavulanate (TC; 3.1 g given iv every 4-6 hours) followed, at the investigator's discretion, by amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC; 875 mg given orally every 12 hours). In the clinically evaluable population, therapeutic equivalence was demonstrated between the levofloxacin and TC/AC regimens (success rates of 84.1% and 80.3%, respectively). In the microbiologically evaluable population, the overall rate of eradication was 83.7% in the levofloxacin treatment group and 71.4% in the TC/AC treatment group (95% confidence interval, -24.3 to -0.2). Both levofloxacin and TC/AC were well tolerated. These data demonstrate that levofloxacin (750 mg once per day) is safe and at least as effective as TC/AC for complicated SSSIs.
EFFECT of daily antiseptic body wash with octenidine on nosocomial primary bacteraemia and nosocomial multidrug-resistant organisms in intensive care units: design of a multicentre, cluster-randomised, double-blind, cross-over study
Meißner, Anne; Hasenclever, Dirk; Brosteanu, Oana; Chaberny, Iris Freya
Introduction Nosocomial infections are serious complications that increase morbidity, mortality and costs and could potentially be avoidable. Antiseptic body wash is an approach to reduce dermal micro-organisms as potential pathogens on the skin. Large-scale trials with chlorhexidine as the antiseptic agent suggest a reduction of nosocomial infection rates. Octenidine is a promising alternative agent which could be more effective against Gram-negative organisms. We hypothesise that daily antiseptic body wash with octenidine reduces the risk of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired primary bacteraemia and ICU-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in a standard care setting. Methods and analysis EFFECT is a controlled, cluster-randomised, double-blind study. The experimental intervention consists in using octenidine-impregnated wash mitts for the daily routine washing procedure of the patients. This will be compared with using placebo wash mitts. Replacing existing washing methods is the only interference into clinical routine. Participating ICUs are randomised in an AB/BA cross-over design. There are two 15-month periods, each consisting of a 3-month wash-out period followed by a 12-month intervention and observation period. Randomisation determines only the sequence in which octenidine-impregnated or placebo wash mitts are used. ICUs are left unaware of what mitts packages they are using. The two coprimary endpoints are ICU-acquired primary bacteraemia and ICU-acquired MDRO. Endpoints are defined based on individual ward-movement history and microbiological test results taken from the hospital information systems without need for extra documentation. Data on clinical symptoms of infection are not collected. EFFECT aims at recruiting about 45 ICUs with about 225 000 patient-days per year. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Leipzig (number 340/16-ek) in November 2016. Findings will be published in peer
Boersma, Petra; Van Weert, Julia C M; van Meijel, Berno; van de Ven, Peter M; Dröes, Rose-Marie
People with dementia in nursing homes benefit from person-centred care methods. Studies examining the effect of these methods often fail to report about the implementation of these methods. The present study aims to describe the implementation of the Veder contact method (VCM) in daily nursing home care. A process analysis will be conducted based on qualitative data from focus groups with caregivers and interviews with key figures. To investigate whether the implementation of VCM is reflected in the attitude and behaviour of caregivers and in the behaviour and quality of life of people with dementia, a controlled observational cohort study will be conducted. Six nursing home wards implementing VCM will be compared with six control wards providing Care As Usual. Quantitative data from caregivers and residents will be collected before (T0), and 9-12 months after the implementation (T1). Qualitative analysis and multilevel analyses will be carried out on the collected data and structured based on the constructs of the RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance). By using the RE-AIM framework this study introduces a structured and comprehensive way of investigating the implementation process and implementation effectiveness of person-centred care methods in daily dementia care.
Hsu, Ya-Hui; Hung, Hsing-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ching
Anti-cancer chemotherapy may cause skin-toxicity reactions. Different types of cooling packages affect chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions differently. To evaluate the effects of cooling packing care on chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A systematic review approach was used. Searches were conducted in databases including Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed and Airiti Library using the keywords "chemotherapy cutaneous toxicity", "chemotherapy skin reaction", "chemotherapy skin toxicity", "frozen glove", "frozen sock", "cooling packaging care", "ice gloves", "ice socks", "usual care", "severity", "comfort", "satisfaction", "severity", and "comfort". The search focused on articles published before December 2016. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5 articles involving relevant randomized controlled trials were extracted for review. Elasto-Gel ice gloves or ice socks that were chilled to -25°C- -30°C and used for 15 mins during initial chemotherapy, for one hour during chemotherapy infusion, and for 15 mins after chemotherapy were shown to improve the frequency and severity of chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions. Several studies were limited by small sample sizes and different types of cooling packing programs, temperature, timing, and frequency. Thus, further research is recommended to verify the effects of cooling packing care. Cancer patients who were treated with docetaxel or PLD and who used ice gloves or ice socks that were chilled to -25°C- -30°C for 15 mins during initial chemotherapy, for one hour during chemotherapy infusion, and for 15 mins after chemotherapy improved significantly in terms of the frequency and severity of their chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions. Local cooling packing care is a non-pharmacotherapy approach that is low cost and free of side effects. This review is intended to provide a reference for clinical care.
Nehal, Kishwer S.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind
Latest advances in confocal microscopy of skin cancers toward guiding patient care: a Mohs surgeon's review and perspective About 350 publications worldwide have reported the ability of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging to detect melanocytic skin lesions in vivo with specificity of 84-88% and sensitivity of 71-92%, and non-melanocytic skin lesions with specificity of 85-97% and sensitivity 100-92%. Lentigo maligna melanoma can be detected with sensitivity of 93% and specificity 82%. While the sensitivity is comparable to that of dermoscopy, the specificity is 2X superior, especially for lightly- and non-pigmented lesions. Dermoscopy combined with RCM imaging is proving to be both highly sensitive and highly specific. Recent studies have reported that the ratio of equivocal (i.e., would have been biopsied) lesions to detected melanomas dropped by ~2X when guided by dermoscopy and RCM imaging, compared to that with dermoscopy alone. Dermoscopy combined with RCM imaging is now being implemented to guide noninvasive diagnosis (to rule out malignancy and biopsy) and to also guide treatment, with promising initial impact: thus far, about 3,000 patients have been saved from biopsies of benign lesions. These are currently under follow-up monitoring. With fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) mosaicing, residual basal cell carcinomas can be detected in Mohs surgically excised fresh tissue ex vivo, with sensitivity of 94-97% and specificity 89-94%. FCM mosaicing is now being implemented for guiding Mohs surgery. To date, about 600 Mohs procedures have been performed, guided with mosaicing, and with pathology being performed in parallel to confirm the final outcome. These latest advances demonstrate the promising ability of RCM and FCM to guide patient care.
Antognoni, Fabiana; Lianza, Mariacaterina; Poli, Ferruccio; Buccioni, Michela; Santinelli, Claudia; Caprioli, Giovanni; Iannarelli, Romilde; Lupidi, Giulio; Damiani, Elisabetta; Beghelli, Daniela; Alunno, Alessia; Maggi, Filippo
The top flowering aerial parts of the Hypericum species are traditionally used to prepare ointments to heal cuts and burns. Sometimes even the fruits are used for these purposes. Hypericum androsaemum L., commonly known as tutsan or shrubby St. John's Wort, is a Mediterranean medicinal plant which has been traditionally used to prepare an ointment for treating cuts and wounds. To evaluate the extracts obtained from H. androsaemum red berries as functional ingredients for skin care formulations. The methanolic extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction while the aqueous extract was prepared by decoction; their composition was determined by HPLC analysis. Their biological activities were measured in terms of proliferation and migration of human fibroblasts, inhibition of collagenase activity, and immunomodulatory effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In addition, we evaluated their photostability by UV spectroscopy and their protective effects against APPH-induced hemolysis in red blood cells (RBC). The polar extracts contained significant amounts of shikimic (108,143.7-115,901.3mg/kg) and chlorogenic acids (45,781.1-57,002.7mg/kg). The main components of these extracts made an important contribution to a significant increase in human fibroblast migration. Both extracts were also active as collagenase inhibitors, with the aqueous one showing a greater inhibitory capacity (IC 50 value of 88.1µg/mL), similar to that of chlorogenic acid. The kinetic parameters determined for the enzymatic reaction revealed for both aqueous extract and chlorogenic acid an uncompetitive mechanism of inhibition. The methanolic extract showed important effects on PBMCs by modulating IL-6. Both extracts proved to be photostable in the UVA/B range and protected RBC against peroxidation at low concentrations. H. androsaemum red berries were proven to contain phytochemicals that improve skin regeneration, hence potentially employable in skin care formulations. Copyright
Chang, Man-Jau; Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Hsien-Cheh; Chang, Tsong-Min
Retention of water in the stratum corneum of skin epidermis plays an important role in regulation of skin function. Loss of water may decline skin appearance gradually and lead to irregular skin disorders. The root extract of Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LES) is known for its various pharmacological activities. However, the potential skin care effect of LES is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the moisturizing efficacy and skin barrier repairing activity of LES. For this study, 30 healthy Asian females (age 20-30) with healthy skin had applied the test emulsions twice daily over a period of 28 days. The skin properties were measured by skin bioengineering techniques. Our preliminary results indicated that LES show moisturizing effect on skin hydration in a time- and dose-dependent pattern, and the maximum increase in skin humidity was 11.77 +/- 1.18% for emulsion LES5.00. Particularly, LES-containing emulsions significantly improve skin barrier function by decreasing the value of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in a time- and dose-dependent pattern, and the maximum decrease in TEWL value was 7.68 +/- 0.79% for emulsion LES5.00. Taken together, our data demonstrate that LES is more effective in increasing skin humidity and decreasing the TEWL values, indicating the potential skin care effects of LES.
Östman, Malin; Ung, Eva Jakobsson; Falk, Kristin
Living with chronic heart failure (CHF) often involves lifelong contact with health care, more or less frequently, depending on fluctuating health-generating disruptions in everyday life. To reduce the influence on continuity in life, health-care professionals should preferably focus on supporting patients in managing their daily lives, based on their perspective. The aim of this study was to describe how the interaction in health-care encounters contributes to either continuity or discontinuity in the daily life for persons with CHF. Interviews with 18 participants were carried out, using the grounded theory method, through data collection and analysis. Two core concepts were constructed from data which reveal a model that illuminates the characteristics of the encounters, the actions of health-care professionals and the normative discourse. Patient-centred agenda consists of the categories: “Experiencing a subordinate approach,” “Objectifying during the encounter” and “Expected to be compliant.” This describes how health-care professionals enhance discontinuity in daily life by using a paternalistic approach in the encounter. Person-centred agenda consists of the categories: “Experiencing an empowering approach,” “Person-centredness during the encounter” and “Expected to be capable.” It describes how participants perceive that health-care professionals enable them to deal with everyday life which enhances continuity. The findings highlight the importance of health-care professionals’ attitudes and communication in encounters with patients. Health care must be designed to support and promote patients’ own strategic thinking by strengthening their self-image to enhance continuity in everyday life. The experience of discontinuity is based on the prevailing health-care culture which focuses on disease and medical treatment and regards it as superior to the illness experience in an everyday life context. We therefore strongly suggest a
Accounting for intended use application in characterizing the contributions of cyclopentasiloxane (D5) to aquatic loadings following personal care product use: antiperspirants, skin care products and hair care products.
Montemayor, Beta P; Price, Bradford B; van Egmond, Roger A
Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, commonly known as D5 (cyclopentasiloxane) has a wide application of use across a multitude of personal care product categories. The relative volatility of D5 is one of the key properties attributed to this substance that provide for the derived performance benefits from the use of this raw material in personal care formulations. On this basis, rapid evaporative loss following use of many products comprising D5 is expected following typical use application and corresponding wear time. Studies were conducted on three key product categories containing D5 (antiperspirants, skin care products and hair care products) to characterize the amount of D5 that may be destined to 'go down the drain' following simulated typical personal care use scenarios. Marketed antiperspirants and skin care products were applied to human subjects and hair care products were applied to human hair tressesand subsequently rinsed off at designated time points representative of typical consumer cleansing and personal hygiene habits. Wash water was collected at 0, 8 and 24h (antiperspirant and hair care analysis) and additionally at 4h (skin care analysis) post product application and samples were analyzed by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to quantify the concentration of D5 destined to be available to go down the drain in captured wash water. It is demonstrated that significant amounts of D5 in 'leave-on' application products evaporate during typical use and that the concentration of D5 available to go down the drain under such conditions of use is only a very small (negligible) fraction of that delivered immediately upon product application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hay, J; Kaphingst, K A; Baser, R; Li, Y; Hensley-Alford, S; McBride, C M
Genomic testing for common genetic variants associated with skin cancer risk could enable personalized risk feedback to motivate skin cancer screening and sun protection. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated whether skin cancer cognitions and behavioral factors, sociodemographics, family factors, and health information-seeking were related to perceived importance of learning about how (a) genes and (b) health habits affect personal health risks using classification and regression trees (CART). The sample (n = 1,772) was collected in a large health maintenance organization as part of the Multiplex Initiative, ranged in age from 25-40, was 53% female, 41% Caucasian, and 59% African-American. Most reported that they placed somewhat to very high importance on learning about how genes (79%) and health habits (88%) affect their health risks. Social influence actors were associated with information-seeking about genes and health habits. Awareness of family history was associated with importance of health habit, but not genetic, information-seeking. The investment of family and friends in health promotion may be a primary motivator for prioritizing information-seeking about how genes and health habits affect personal health risks and may contribute to the personal value, or personal utility, of risk information. Individuals who seek such risk information may be receptive to interventions aimed to maximize the social implications of healthy lifestyle change to reduce their health risks. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Carfoot, Sue; Williamson, Paula R; Dickson, Rumona
to examine the effects of early skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby on the initiation and duration of breast feeding. electronic databases--the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE,CINAHL and EMBASE. References of studies were examined to identify additional trials and contact was made with researchers in the field. Study selection criteria: randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in any language in which skin-to-skin contact between mothers and their healthy full-term newborn babies was compared to routine contact. Primary outcomes were success of first breast feed and duration of breast feeding. Secondary outcomes included, baby temperature and behaviour. STUDY-QUALITY ASSESSMENT: validity of included studies was assessed using criteria defined by the Cochrane Collaboration. Application of inclusion criteria, validity assessment and data extraction were carried out independently by two reviewers with a third reviewer to resolve differences. seven randomised controlled trials were identified. Five studies assessed duration of breast feeding with mixed results. None of the studies assessed the success of the first breast-feeding experience. Study quality was variable with methods of randomisation and blinding of assessment unclear in four of the five studies providing relevant results. the findings of this systematic review fail to support the current initiatives to implement changes in clinical practice to include skin-to-skin contact. Methodological flaws within the included studies prohibit firm conclusions being reached with regard to the effect of skin-to-skin contact on the duration of breast feeding, timing of first breast feed or baby physiological factors. The review highlights the need for further primary research to assess the effect of skin-to-skin contact on the breast-feeding experience.
Texas Child Care, 1993
Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…
Hawk, Joyce; Shannon, Mary
The incidence and prevalence of skin tears in long-term care (LTC) facilities has not been well established. To ascertain the point prevalence of reported skin tears, a retrospective review of incident reports was performed in 6 LTC facilities in western Pennsylvania from November 1, 2016 through December 31, 2016. Report data, including resident age; gender; mobility limitations; skin tear location, number, and cause (if known); occurrence time (7 am to 3 pm, 3 pm to 11 pm, or 11 pm to 7 am nursing shift); and history of previous skin tears, were abstracted. All data were entered into a statistical analysis program and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Period prevalence was used to determine prevalence rate; an independent t test was used to compare the presence of skin tears between genders. Differences between location and cause of skin tears were evaluated using a multinomial test of related proportions. A test of proportions was used to evaluate skin tear occurrence time (nursing shift) differences. The overall point prevalence rate was 9% (N = 1253 residents) ranging from 6 to 28 skin tears per facility. The average age of residents with a skin tear (n = 119) was 83.5 years. The majority (111, 93%) had mobility limitations. Falls accounted for 38 skin tears (31.9%), followed by propelling in a wheelchair (18, 15.1%; X2 =7.14; P = .008). Forearm skin tears (37, 31.1%) occurred significantly more frequently than lower leg skin tears (19, 16%; P = .016). Significantly more skin tears occurred during the 7 am to 3 pm shift (47, 39.5%) and 3 pm to 11 pm shift (49, 41.2%) than during the 11 pm to 7 am shift (23, 19.3%; X2 = 5.78; P <.01). The results of this study confirm skin tears are a significant problem among elderly residents in LTC, especially because the reported rate is likely lower than the actual rate. Research to further elucidate the incidence and prevalence of skin tears and associated risk factors is needed to help develop evidence-based risk
Steenfos, H; Tarnow, P; Blomqvist, G
Van Dongen, Isabella; Josephsson, Staffan; Ekstam, Lisa
This qualitative study explored how some working Austrians experienced and coped with changes in their daily occupations after becoming informal carers of persons who had had a stroke. The study provides insights into the working carers' occupational experiences and strategies during a period of pronounced life changes. Three participants, who were employed in full- or part-time work, as well as being informal carers of persons who had had a stroke, were interviewed on two occasions. The data from these interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analyses. Carers found themselves in an ongoing process, ranging from the disruption of daily occupations to their eventual restructure. First, the stroke led to involuntary changes in the carers' daily life, which resulted in challenges in their own, and in shared, occupations. Second, carers actively changed their values and performance of occupations, which appeared to be a strategy to shape their well-being. Paid work was found to be a stabilizing and balancing occupation, which contributed to coping and the well-being of carers. The authors' findings demonstrate the benefits of paid work and engagement in meaningful occupation for the carers' well-being. These results should encourage occupational therapists to be sensitive to the complexity of the lives of working informal carers.
Dettenkofer, M; Wilson, C; Gratwohl, A; Schmoor, C; Bertz, H; Frei, R; Heim, D; Luft, D; Schulz, S; Widmer, A F
To compare the efficacy of two commercially available, alcohol-based antiseptic solutions for preparation and care of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion sites, with and without octenidine dihydrochloride, a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was undertaken in the haematology units and in one surgical unit of two university hospitals. Adult patients with a non-tunnelled CVC were randomly assigned to two different skin disinfection regimens at the insertion site: 0.1% octenidine with 30% 1-propanol and 45% 2-propanol, and as control 74% ethanol with 10% 2-propanol. Endpoints were (i) skin colonization at the insertion site; (ii) positive culture from the catheter tip (> or = 15 CFU); and (iii) occurrence of CVC-associated bloodstream infection (defined according to criteria set by the CDC). Four hundred patients with inserted CVC were enrolled from May 2002 through April 2005. Both groups were similar in respect of patient characteristics and co-morbidities. Skin colonization at the CVC insertion site during the first 10 days was significantly reduced by octenidine treatment (relative difference octenidine vs. control: 0.21; 95%CI: 0.11-0.39, p <0.0001). Positive culture of the catheter tip was significantly less frequent in the octenidine group (7.9%) than in the control group (17.8%): OR = 0.39 (95%CI: 0.20-0.80, p 0.009). Patients treated with octenidine had a non-significant reduction in catheter-associated bloodstream infections (4.1% vs. 8.3%; OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.18-1.08, p 0.081). Side effects were similar in both groups. This randomized controlled trial supports the results of two observational studies demonstrating octenidine in alcoholic solution to be a better option than alcohol alone for the prevention of CVC-associated infections.
Gülcan, Ferda; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Klock, Kristin S; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug
To explore the association of dental health care utilization with oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) across time focusing ageing Norwegian and Swedish adults adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need related-factors as defined by Andersen's model. Data were based on Norwegian and Swedish 1942 birth-cohorts conducted in 2007 (age 65) and 2012 (age 70). In Norway, the response rates ranged from 54% to 58%. Corresponding figures in Sweden were from 72% to 73%. Self-administered questionnaires assessed OIDP, dental care utilization and predisposing, enabling and need related factors. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation was used to adjust for clustering in repeated data. Significant covariates of OIDP were satisfaction with dental services, dental care avoidance due to financial constraints, frightening experience with dental care during childhood and patient initiated dental visiting. Frequency and regularity of dental attendance were associated with OIDP in the Swedish cohort, only. In spite of country differences in the public co-financing of dental care, dental care utilization indicators were associated with OIDP across time in both cohorts. Encouraging regular and dentist initiated visiting patterns and strengthening beliefs in keeping own teeth could be useful in attempts to reduce poor oral health related quality of life in ageing people.
Machan, Mac; Zitelli, John; Brodland, David
On-site pathology services are an integral part of many dermatology and surgical dermatology practices in the United States. Assess the effectiveness and advantages of on-site pathology services. Biopsy data from 7 practices with on-site pathology services were reviewed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of malignancies from all lesional biopsies. Patient preference and convenience were queried and measured with satisfaction surveys. Of note, 1,052/1,379 (76.3%) of biopsies demonstrated a malignancy. Most patients underwent treatment of malignant lesions on a different day than the biopsy. Of the patients who scheduled a return visit for surgery on a later date, 42/246 (17.1%) reported incurring additional costs and 44/249 (17.7%) had a relative/friend who was inconvenienced. On-site pathology services provide efficient, effective, and convenient care for skin cancer patients. Fellowship-trained dermatologic surgeons use on-site pathology services to diagnose and treat clinically relevant nonmelanoma skin cancer.
Wysong, Ashley; Linos, Eleni; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Arron, Sarah T; Gladstone, Hayes; Tang, Jean Y
The rising incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is well documented, but data are limited on the number of visits and treatment patterns of NMSC in the outpatient setting. To evaluate practice and treatment patterns of NMSC in the United States over the last decade and to characterize differences according to sex, age, race, insurance type, and physician specialty. Adults with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis of NMSC were included in this cross-sectional survey study of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey between 1995 and 2007. Primary outcomes included population-adjusted NMSC visit rates and odds ratios of receiving a procedure for NMSC using logistic regression. Rates of NMSC visits increased between 1995 and 2007. The number of visits was significantly higher in men, particularly those aged 65 and older. Fifty-nine percent of NMSC visits were associated with a procedure, and the individuals associated with that visit were more likely to be male, to be seen by a dermatologist, and to have private-pay insurance. Nonmelanoma skin cancer visit rates increased from 1995 to 2007 and were higher in men than women. Visits to a dermatologist are more likely to be associated with a procedure for NMSC, and there may be discrepancies in treatment patterns based on insurance type and sex. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Spencer, C; Orr, D; Hallam, S; Tillmanns, E
Routine daily bathing of intensive care (ICU) patients with topical chlorhexidine reduces meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition. The aim of this study was to investigate whether repeated five-day cycles of daily topical octenidine could result in a similar effect. This was a two-year retrospective, uncontrolled study in a mixed medical and surgical ICU/high dependency unit, demonstrating a 76% reduction in MRSA acquisition but no significant reduction in all ICU-acquired bacteraemias. Chlorhexidine use is increasing but resistance is being reported. This pilot study found a similar reduction in MRSA acquisition with octenidine as an alternative to chlorhexidine. Further study is required to establish causality. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olejnik, Anna; Schroeder, Grzegorz; Nowak, Izabela
Recently there has been a growth of interest in the novel skin care formulations containing active ingredients such as low molecular weight peptides. In this paper we present new skincare formulations such as hydrogels, oil-in-water emulsions and water-in-oil emulsion containing a tetrapeptide (N-acetyl-Pro-Pro-Tyr-Leu). These formulations were characterized in terms of physicochemical parameters (pH, viscosity), stability and particle size distribution. Additionally, the diffusion parameters of the peptide in the obtained formulations were calculated based on the Einstein-Smoluchowski equation. Furthermore, in order to determine the penetration of the tetrapeptide through membranes its release kinetics were investigated. On the basis of release curves, the release rate constants were determined. The results proved that the properties of the formulations strongly determined the release rate of the tetrapeptide. The higher viscosity of the semisolid, the slower was the permeation through the membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Hsi-Hao; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Min-Yu; Lee, Yi-Che; Lin, Hsiu-Fang; Lin, Tsun-Mei; Yang, Su-Pen; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Su-Ching; Wang, Jiun-Ling
Bacterial colonization patterns in daily chlorhexidine care at the exit site in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were not known. We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial enrolling 89 PD patients. After stratification by initial Staphylococcus aureus (SA) carrier status, patients were randomly assigned to receive daily 4% chlorhexidine care (intervention group) or normal saline (control group) at the exit site. Monthly, we cultured bacteria from the exit site and nasal swabs for 1 year. The SA colonization rates at exit site at 6 and 12 months were significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (5.0% vs. 22.9%, p = 0.023 and 8.6% vs. 28.1%, p = 0.037 for 6 and 12 months, respectively). The Methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) colonization rate at exit site at 6 months was similar (5.7% vs. 2.5%,p = 0.596) in control and intervention group, but significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group at exit site at 12months (0% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.047). The gram-negative bacilli (GNB) colonization rates were similar between the intervention and control groups at 6 and 12 months. Genotyping of all MRSA isolates showed ST (sequence type) 59 was the most predominant clone. In conclusion, chlorhexidine care at the exit site in PD patients may be a good strategy for SA and MRSA decolonization. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02446158.
Soltanipoor, Maryam; Kezic, Sanja; Sluiter, Judith K; Rustemeyer, Thomas
Health care workers (HCW) are at high risk for developing occupational hand dermatitis (HD) due to frequent exposure to 'wet work'. Amongst HCWs, nurses are at highest risk, with an estimated point prevalence of HD ranging between 12 and 30%. The burden of disease is high with chronicity, sick leave, risk of unemployment and impaired quality of life. Despite evidence from the medical literature on the risk factors and the importance of skin care in the prevention of HD, in practice, compliance to skin care protocols are below 30%. New preventive strategies are obviously needed. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial, focusing on nurses performing wet work. In total, 20 wards are recruited to include 504 participating nurses in the study at baseline. The wards will be randomized to an intervention or a control group and followed up for 18 months. The intervention consists of the facilitation of creams being available at the wards combined with the continuous electronic monitoring of their consumption with regular feedback on skin care performance in teams of HCWs. Both the intervention and the control group receive basic education on skin protection (as 'care as usual'). Every 6 months, participants of both groups will fill in the questionnaires regarding exposure to wet work and skin protective behavior. Furthermore, skin condition will be assessed and samples of the stratum corneum collected. The effect of the intervention will be measured by comparing the change in Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI score) from baseline to 12 months. The Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF) levels, measured in the stratum corneum as an early biomarker of skin barrier damage, and the total consumption of creams per ward will be assessed as a secondary outcome. This trial will assess the clinical effectiveness of an intervention program to prevent hand dermatitis among health care workers TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), identification number NTR5564
Kim, Changsun; Kim, Hansol
Comparing a point-of-care (POC) test using the capillary blood obtained from skin puncture with conventional laboratory tests. In this study, which was conducted at the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital in April-July 2017, 232 patients were enrolled, and three types of blood samples (capillary blood from skin puncture, arterial and venous blood from blood vessel puncture) were simultaneously collected. Each blood sample was analyzed using a POC analyzer (epoc® system, USA), an arterial blood gas analyzer (pHOx®Ultra, Nova biomedical, USA) and venous blood analyzers (AU5800, DxH2401, Beckman Coulter, USA). Twelve parameters were compared between the epoc and reference analyzers, with an equivalence test, Bland-Altman plot analysis and linear regression employed to show the agreement or correlation between the two methods. The pH, HCO 3 , Ca 2+ , Na + , K + , Cl - , glucose, Hb and Hct measured by the epoc were equivalent to the reference values (95% confidence interval of mean difference within the range of the agreement target) with clinically inconsequential mean differences and narrow limits of agreement. All of them, except pH, had clinically acceptable agreements between the two methods (results within target value ≥80%). Of the remaining three parameters (pCO 2, pO 2 and lactate), the epoc pCO 2 and lactate values were highly correlated with the reference device values, whereas pO 2 was not. (pCO 2 : R 2 =0.824, y=-1.411+0.877·x; lactate: R 2 =0.902, y=-0.544+0.966·x; pO 2 : R 2 =0.037, y=61.6+0.431·x). Most parameters, except only pO 2 , measured by the epoc were equivalent to or correlated with those from the reference method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Al-Saffar, Farah; Ibrahim, Saif; Patel, Pujan; Jacob, Rafik; Palacio, Carlos; Cury, James
Skin rashes are infrequently encountered in the intensive care units, either as a result or as a cause of admission. The entities of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) form a spectrum of desquamating skin diseases that have multiple etiologies, the most common being drug-related reactions; very rarely, the cause may be cutaneous malignancies. We herein present a unique case of a 54-year-old male patient with psoriasis treated with methotrexate, who presented with a cellulitis-like clinical picture, then developed a severe progressive systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and progressed clinically to SJS, then TEN even after discontinuing the antibiotics and methotrexate. A skin biopsy demonstrated an aggressive and rapidly-progressing T-cell lymphoma. The present case highlights the necessity of skin biopsy when encountering SJS and TEN in the ICU in order to identify potentially treatable/controllable causes. Although it appeared reasonable to correlate TEN solely to medications, the skin biopsies clearly demonstrated an aggressive T-cell skin lymphoma. In a patient with a better general condition it may have been helpful to treat this malignancy. TEN is a life-threatening condition and skin biopsy is the cornerstone of diagnosis, despite the presence of multiple risk factors and the typical physical findings of a drug-induced reaction.
Wilder, Jocelyn R; Wegener, Duane T; David, Michael Z; Macal, Charles; Daum, Robert; Lauderdale, Diane S
A nationally representative sample of approximately 2000 individuals was surveyed to assess SSTI infections over their lifetime and then prospectively over six-months. Knowledge of MRSA, future likelihood to self-treat a SSTI and self-care behaviors was also queried. Chi square tests, linear and multinomial regression were used for analysis. About 50% of those with a reported history of a SSTI typical of MRSA had sought medical treatment. MRSA knowledge was low: 28% of respondents could describe MRSA. Use of protective self-care behaviors that may reduce transmission, such as covering a lesion, differed with knowledge of MRSA and socio-demographics. Those reporting a history of a MRSA-like SSTI were more likely to respond that they would self-treat than those without such a history (OR 2.05 95% CI 1.40, 3.01; p<0.001). Since half of respondents reported not seeking care for past lesions, incidence determined from clinical encounters would greatly underestimate true incidence. MRSA knowledge was not associated with seeking medical care, but was associated with self-care practices that may decrease transmission.
Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Laymon, Michael; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of over-the-counter treatments-ThermaCare HeatWraps (chemical reaction to produce heat above the skin), Icy Hot Patch, and Icy Hot Cream (topically applied menthol)-on skin and deep tissue temperature. This was a longitudinal crossover study. On each of 3 days, a ThermaCare HeatWrap, Icy Hot Cream, or Icy Hot Patch was applied randomly over the quadriceps muscle in 15 healthy volunteers with normal body mass. Skin and muscle temperature and blood flow were measured by laser flowmetry every 15 minutes for 2 hours. After 2 hours, mean temperature decreased by 2.1°C (7.0%; P = .02) in skin and 1.0°C (2.9%; P = .01) in muscle with Icy Hot Cream. Icy Hot Patch decreased skin and muscle temperature by 1.7°C (5.4%; P = .03) and 1.3°C (3.8%; P = .01), respectively. In contrast, ThermaCare raised skin and muscle temperature by 7.8°C (25.8%; P = .001) and 2.7°C (7.7%; P = .002), respectively; both were significantly warmer with ThermaCare vs either Icy Hot product (all P < .007). Icy Hot products produced a net decrease in skin blood flow (Cream: 56.7 flux [39.3%; P = .003]; Patch: 19.1 flux [16.7%; P = .045]). Muscle blood flow decreased with the Patch (6.7 flux [7.0%; P = .02]). After a period of fluctuations, Icy Hot Cream produced a net increase vs baseline of 7.0 flux (16.9%; P = .02). ThermaCare more than doubled blood flow in skin (83.3 flux [109.7%; P = .0003]) and muscle (25.1 flux [148.5%; P = .004]). In this group of 15 healthy volunteers, ThermaCare HeatWraps provided the greatest degree of tissue warming and increase in tissue blood flow.
Fjordside, Solveig; Morville, Annette
To review the literature on how older people perceive opportunities and limitations with regard to participation in autonomous decisions concerning their daily care in their own homes. The perception of personal control plays a critical role in an older person's health and well-being. Little is known about factors that facilitate or hinder older people's autonomous decision-making in their own homes. The study has been carried out as a literature review. The following databases were used: CINAHL, PubMed, PsykInfo, Cochrane, SweMed, Embase. Research studies range from 2009 to 2014. The review includes 12 publications. Four core themes are generated: older person's autonomy in their own home; autonomy and relationship; the balance between autonomy and dependency; older people's autonomy and the organisation of home care. Older people have a strong inner drive to maintain autonomy in their own home. The autonomy is challenged when the person becomes increasingly dependent on help. The relationship with carers is of vital importance with regard to the person's ability to make autonomous decisions. The organisation of home care restricts older people' scope for autonomy. Older people's own perspectives on autonomous decisions can contribute to the ongoing debate about how nursing care can be developed with respect to their autonomy. Nursing care demands attention to an older person's desire for autonomy despite dependency. A framework for systematic ethical discussions among carers may improve awareness about factors that facilitate or hinder good personalised care. The organisation of nursing care needs to be shaped in line with best practice for older people. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Neff, K J; Forde, R; Gavin, C; Byrne, M M; Firth, R G R; Daly, S; McAuliffe, F M; Foley, M; Coffey, M; Coulter-Smith, S; Kinsley, B T
Pre-pregnancy care improves pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy and multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy can both be used to achieve glycaemic targets, but few data are available to compare their efficacy in pre-pregnancy care. To compare MDI and CSII in pre-pregnancy care in T1DM. Retrospective database review of women with T1DM attending the Dublin Diabetes in Pregnancy Centre. 464 women with T1DM (40 treated with CSII) were included. Women attending for pre-pregnancy care had lower HbA1c levels at booking to antenatal services [52 ± 10 mmol/mol (6.9 ± 0.9 %) vs. 62 ± 16 mmol/mol (7.8 ± 1.5 %), p < 0.001], and booked at an earlier gestation (6 ± 2 vs. 8 ± 6 weeks, p < 0.001). In those who attended for pre-pregnancy care, the CSII group had lower HbA1c levels at booking than those using MDI [48 ± 8 mmol/mol (6.5 ± 0.7 %) vs. 53 ± 10 mmol/mol (7.0 ± 0.9 %), p = 0.03]. Gestational age at delivery and birth weight did not differ between groups. Caesarean section rates were associated with CSII use (p < 0.001), duration of diabetes (p = 0.002), and parity (p = 0.006). Nulliparous women using CSII with a longer history of diabetes were more likely to deliver by Caesarean section. There was no perinatal mortality. Pre-pregnancy care delivered by a specialist multi-disciplinary team effectively reduces HbA1c levels peri-conception. CSII use results in lower HbA1c levels in pre-pregnancy care in selected individuals and should be considered in women with T1DM planning pregnancy.
Inglese, Gary; Manson, Andrea; Townshend, Arden
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic and humanistic implications of using ostomy components to prevent subsequent peristomal skin complications (PSCs) in individuals who experience an initial, leakage-related PSC event. DESIGN: Cost-utility analysis. METHODS: We developed a simple decision model to consider, from a payer's perspective, PSCs managed with and without the use of ostomy components over 1 year. The model evaluated the extent to which outcomes associated with the use of ostomy components (PSC events avoided; quality-adjusted life days gained) offset the costs associated with their use. RESULTS: Our base case analysis of 1000 hypothetical individuals over 1 year assumes that using ostomy components following a first PSC reduces recurrent events versus PSC management without components. In this analysis, component acquisition costs were largely offset by lower resource use for ostomy supplies (barriers; pouches) and lower clinical utilization to manage PSCs. The overall annual average resource use for individuals using components was about 6.3% ($139) higher versus individuals not using components. Each PSC event avoided yielded, on average, 8 additional quality-adjusted life days over 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: In our analysis, (1) acquisition costs for ostomy components were offset in whole or in part by the use of fewer ostomy supplies to manage PSCs and (2) use of ostomy components to prevent PSCs produced better outcomes (fewer repeat PSC events; more health-related quality-adjusted life days) over 1 year compared to not using components. PMID:26633166
Powell, Roy J; Hayward, Christopher J; Snelgrove, Caroline L; Polverino, Kathleen; Park, Linda; Chauhan, Rohan; Evans, Philip H; Byford, Rachel; Charman, Carolyn; Foy, Christopher J W; Kingsley, Andrew
Skin tears are traumatic injuries occurring mostly on the extremities due to shearing and friction forces that separate the epidermis and the dermis from underlying tissues. They are common and occur mostly in older adults and those taking medications that compromise skin integrity. Pretibial skin tears can develop into leg ulcers, which require lengthy, expensive treatment to heal. Traumatic injuries are the second most common type of wounds after pressure ulcers in care homes and are the commonest reason for older adults to require the attention of a community nurse. Common causes of skin tear injuries are bumping into furniture and other obstacles, using mobility aids, transfer to/from wheelchairs, getting in and out of bed and falls. No effective preventative measures currently exist but knee-length, protective socks are now available that contain impact-resistant Kevlar fibres (of the type used in stab-proof vests) and cushioning layers underneath. In this pilot parallel group, randomised controlled trial, 90 people at risk of skin-tear injury will be randomised with equal allocation to receive the intervention or usual care. They will be recruited from care homes and from the community via general practices and a research volunteer database. Pilot outcomes include recruitment, eligibility, attrition, ascertainment of injuries and completion of outcome measures. Acceptability of the intervention and of study participation will be explored using semi-structured interviews. The proposed primary outcome for the future definitive trial is skin tear-free days. Secondary outcomes are skin tear severity, health status, specific skin-tears quality of life, capability and fear of falling, measured at baseline and the end of the study and in the event of a skin tear. The results of this study will be used to inform the development and design of a future randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a unique and innovative approach to
van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip
To capitalise on mHealth, we need to understand the use of mobile phones both in daily life and for health care. To assess the prevalence and factors that influence usage of mobile phones by caregivers of young children. A mixed methods approach was used, whereby a survey (N=1854) and semi-structured interviews (N=17) were conducted concurrently. The quantitative and qualitative data obtained were compared and integrated. Participants were caregivers of young children in Zhao County, Hebei Province, China. Four main themes were found: (i) trends in mobile phone ownership; (ii) usage of mobile phone functions; (iii) factors influencing replying to text messages; and (iv) uses of mobile phones for health care. The majority of 1,854 survey participants (1,620; 87.4%) used mobile phones, but usage was much higher among mothers (1,433; 92.6%) and fathers (41; 100.0%) compared to grandparents (142; 54.6%). Parents were able to send text messages, grandparents often not. Factors influencing the decision to reply to text messages in daily life were checking the mobile phone, trusting the sender, emotion or feeling when receiving a text message, the importance of replying and ease of use of text messages. Of 1,620 survey participants who used a mobile phone, about one in four (432; 26.7%) had used it for health care in the past three months and most (1,110; 93.5%) of 1,187 who had not wished to use their phone to receive health information. We found that usage of mobile phones is high, several factors influencing usage and an interest of caregivers to use phones for health care in Zhao County, rural China, which can be used to inform studies in settings with similar characteristics. Future work needs to assess factors influencing mobile phone usage in-depth to optimize experiences of users for specific mHealth-based interventions.
Voigt, Karen; Bojanowski, Stefan; Taché, Stephanie; Voigt, Roger; Bergmann, Antje
Medical care of homebound patients by home visits is an integral part of primary care in Germany and other industrialised countries. Owing to the sociodemography and changes in the health system, the need for home visits is projected to increase rather than decrease. Our study will provide information on content and organisation of home visits. This evidence is needed to assure sufficient medical care for homebound patients. Germany is one of the European nations with highest proportions of elderly age groups, so that our results will be indicative for other European countries with comparable organisation of primary care. This cross-sectional study is conducted over a period of 12 months. All home visits of each participating family practice are documented within a 1-week time period. The anonymous documentation of home visits is carried out by the family practitioner or medical assistant conducting the home visit. All Saxon Family practitioners received study information and were personally invited to participate in our study. Almost 303 (of 2677) family practitioners expressed their interest to participate to generate data on the content and organisational characteristics of home visits. Data analysis of more than 4000 home visits will take into account several patient-related and system-related parameters. Descriptive and multivariate analysis will be carried out by using non-parametric methods. Regarding expected cluster structure of the data, a multilevel analysis will be necessary. The study received ethical approval by the Ethical Commission of the TU Dresden and adheres to the Declaration of Helsinki. Considering that the results of our project will be indicative for ageing societies with comparable organisation of primary care, we will publish them in international open access journals concerned with healthcare and primary care research and disseminate them by a final symposium and at national/international scientific events. Published by the BMJ
Bernatchez, Stéphanie F.; Tucker, Joseph; Chiffoleau, Gwenael
Objective: Use test methods to assess the oxygen compatibility of various wound care products. Approach: There are currently no standard test methods specifically for evaluating the oxygen compatibility and safety of materials under hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) conditions. However, tests such as the oxygen index (OI), oxygen exposure (OE), and autogenous ignition temperature (AIT) can provide useful information. Results: The OI test measures the minimum oxygen concentration that will support candle-like burning, and it was used to test 44 materials. All but two exhibited an OI equal to or greater (safer) than a control material commonly used in HBO. The OE test exposes each material to an oxygen-enriched atmosphere (>99.5% oxygen) to monitor temperature and pressure for an extended duration. The results of the OE testing indicated that none of the 44 articles tested with this method self-ignited within the 60°C, 3 atm pressurized oxygen atmosphere. The AIT test exposes materials to a rapid ramp up in temperature in HBO conditions at 3 atm until ignition occurs. Ten wound care materials and seven materials usually avoided in HBO chambers were tested. The AIT ranged from 138°C to 384°C for wound care products and from 146°C to 420°C for the other materials. Innovation: This work provides useful data and recommendations to help develop a new standard approach for evaluating the HBO compatibility of wound care products to ensure safety for patients and clinicians. Conclusion: The development of an additional test to measure the risk of electrostatic discharge of materials in HBO conditions is needed. PMID:29098113
Ciucci, Enrica; Calussi, Pamela; Menesini, Ersilia; Mattei, Alessandra; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone
This study aimed to analyze the impact of winter weather conditions on young children's behavior and affective states by examining a group of 61 children attending day-care centers in Florence (Italy). Participants were 33 males, 28 females and their 11 teachers. The mean age of the children at the beginning of the observation period was 24.1 months. The day-care teachers observed the children's behavioral and emotional states during the morning before their sleeping time and filled in a questionnaire for each baby five times over a winter period of 3 weeks. Air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure and solar radiation data were collected every 15 min from a weather station located in the city center of Florence. At the same time, air temperature and relative humidity data were collected in the classroom and in the garden of each day-care center. We used multilevel linear models to evaluate the extent to which children's emotional and behavioral states could be predicted by weather conditions, controlling for child characteristics (gender and age). The data showed that relative humidity and solar radiation were the main predictors of the children's emotional and behavioral states. The outdoor humidity had a significant positive effect on frustration, sadness and aggression; solar radiation had a significant negative effect only on sadness, suggesting that a sunny winter day makes children more cheerful. The results are discussed in term of implications for parents and teachers to improve children's ecological environment.
Ciucci, Enrica; Calussi, Pamela; Menesini, Ersilia; Mattei, Alessandra; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone
This study aimed to analyze the impact of winter weather conditions on young children's behavior and affective states by examining a group of 61 children attending day-care centers in Florence (Italy). Participants were 33 males, 28 females and their 11 teachers. The mean age of the children at the beginning of the observation period was 24.1 months. The day-care teachers observed the children's behavioral and emotional states during the morning before their sleeping time and filled in a questionnaire for each baby five times over a winter period of 3 weeks. Air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure and solar radiation data were collected every 15 min from a weather station located in the city center of Florence. At the same time, air temperature and relative humidity data were collected in the classroom and in the garden of each day-care center. We used multilevel linear models to evaluate the extent to which children's emotional and behavioral states could be predicted by weather conditions, controlling for child characteristics (gender and age). The data showed that relative humidity and solar radiation were the main predictors of the children's emotional and behavioral states. The outdoor humidity had a significant positive effect on frustration, sadness and aggression; solar radiation had a significant negative effect only on sadness, suggesting that a sunny winter day makes children more cheerful. The results are discussed in term of implications for parents and teachers to improve children's ecological environment.
Schlessinger, Joel; Kenkel, Jeffrey; Werschler, Philip
A hydroquinone (HQ) skin care system has been designed for use in conjunction with nonsurgical procedures. The authors evaluate the efficacy of this system plus tretinoin for improving facial appearance in comparison to a standard skin care regimen in users of botulinum toxin Type A (BoNT-A). In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, parallel-group study, 61 patients who received upper facial treatment with BoNT-A at a plastic surgery or dermatology clinic were randomly assigned to apply either the HQ system (cleanser, toner, proprietary 4% hydroquinone, exfoliant, and sunscreen) plus 0.05% tretinoin cream or a standard skin care regimen (cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen) for 120 days. Outcomes were assessed by the investigators and through a patient questionnaire. Compared with standard skin care, the HQ system plus tretinoin resulted in significantly milder fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmentation at Days 30, 90, and 120 (p ≤ .05) and significantly superior overall ratings for each of nine patient assessments at Days 90 and 120 (p ≤ .05). A relatively greater proportion of patients using the HQ system plus tretinoin believed that their study treatment had further enhanced the improvements attained with BoNT-A (86% vs 8%). Both regimens were generally well tolerated. Adjunctive use of the HQ system plus tretinoin can further enhance the improvements in facial appearance attained with BoNT-A. Applying the HQ system plus tretinoin offers multiple clinical benefits over standard skin care, including significantly greater improvements in fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmentation.
Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to cosmetics, often containing mineral oil, and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study was performed against the background that occupational exposure to mineral oil has recently been shown to be associated with an increased risk for RA in man, and that injection of or percutaneous exposure to mineral-oil-containing cosmetics can induce arthritis in certain rat strains. Methods A population-based case-control study of incident cases of RA was performed among the population aged 18 to 70 years in a defined area of Sweden during May 1996 to December 2003. A case was defined as an individual from the study base, who received for the first time a diagnosis of RA according to the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria. Controls were randomly selected from the study base with consideration taken for age, gender and residential area. Cases (n = 1,419) and controls (n = 1,674) answered an extensive questionnaire regarding environmental and lifestyle factors including habits of cosmetic usage. The relative risk of developing RA was calculated for subjects with different cosmetic usage compared with subjects with low or no usage. Analysis was also performed stratifying the cases for presence/absence of rheumatoid factor and antibodies to citrulline-containing peptides. Results The relative risks of developing RA associated with use of cosmetics were all close to one, both for women and men, for different exposure categories, and in relation to different subgroups of RA. Conclusion This study does not support the hypothesis that ordinary usage of common cosmetics as body lotions, skin creams, and ointments, often containing mineral oil, increase the risk for RA in the population in general. We cannot exclude, however, that these cosmetics can contribute to arthritis in individuals carrying certain genotypes or simultaneously being exposed to other arthritis
Boersma, Petra; van Weert, Julia C M; van Meijel, Berno; Dröes, Rose-Marie
To perform a process analysis of the implementation of the Veder contact method for gaining insight into factors that influence successful implementation. Research showed that the original Veder method, which is a 'living-room theatre performance' provided by actors, positively influenced mood and quality of life of people with dementia. Training caregivers to execute such 'performances' and accomplish the same effects as actors proved difficult. However, key elements of the method were considered suitable for application in daily care, resulting in the development of a modified version of the method, named the Veder contact method. The Veder contact method combines elements from existing psychosocial interventions, e.g. reminiscence, validation and neuro-linguistic-programming with theatrical, poetic and musical communication, and applies this into daily care. For this process analysis a multiple case study design was used with the nursing home ward (n = 6) as the unit of analysis. Eight focus groups with caregivers (n = 42) and 12 interviews with stakeholders were held. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance framework, a thematic analysis was conducted. The reach of the intervention (43-86%) and aspects of implementation-effectiveness (e.g. increased experienced reciprocity in contact with residents) facilitated implementation. For adoption and implementation, both facilitators (e.g. development of competences, feasibility of the Veder contact method without requiring extra time investment) and barriers (e.g. insufficient support of management, resistance of caregivers against the Veder contact method, organisational problems) were identified. Little effort was put into maintenance: only one nursing home developed a long-term implementation strategy. The Veder contact method can be applied in daily care without additional time investments. Although adopted by many caregivers, some were reluctant using the Veder contact method
Background Video stimulated recall (VSR) is a method of enhancing participants’ accounts of the consultation using a video recording of the event to encourage and prompt recall in a post consultation interview. VSR is used in education and education research, and to a lesser extent in medical and nursing research. Little is known about the sort of research questions that lend themselves best to the use of VSR or the impact of the specific VSR procedure on study quality. This systematic review describes studies in primary care that have used the method and aims to identify the strengths, weaknesses and role of VSR. Methods A systematic literature search has been conducted to identify primary care consultation research using VSR. Two authors undertook data extraction and quality appraisal of identified papers and a narrative synthesis has been conducted to draw together the findings. In addition, theory on classifying VSR procedures derived from other disciplines is used as a lens through which to assess the relevance of VSR technique. Results Twenty eight publications were identified that reported VSR in primary care doctor-patient consultation research. VSR was identified as a useful method to explore specific events within the consultation, mundane or routine occurrences, non-spoken events and appears to particularly add value to doctor’s post consultation accounts. However, studies frequently had insufficient description of methods to properly evaluate both the quality of the study, and the influence of VSR technique on findings. Conclusions VSR is particularly useful for study of specific consultation events when a ‘within case’ approach is used in analysis, comparing and contrasting findings from the consultation and post-consultation interview. Alignment of the choice of VSR procedure and sampling to the study research question was established as particularly important in the quality of studies. Future researchers may consider the role of process
Paskins, Zoe; McHugh, Gretl; Hassell, Andrew B
Video stimulated recall (VSR) is a method of enhancing participants' accounts of the consultation using a video recording of the event to encourage and prompt recall in a post consultation interview. VSR is used in education and education research, and to a lesser extent in medical and nursing research. Little is known about the sort of research questions that lend themselves best to the use of VSR or the impact of the specific VSR procedure on study quality. This systematic review describes studies in primary care that have used the method and aims to identify the strengths, weaknesses and role of VSR. A systematic literature search has been conducted to identify primary care consultation research using VSR. Two authors undertook data extraction and quality appraisal of identified papers and a narrative synthesis has been conducted to draw together the findings. In addition, theory on classifying VSR procedures derived from other disciplines is used as a lens through which to assess the relevance of VSR technique. Twenty eight publications were identified that reported VSR in primary care doctor-patient consultation research. VSR was identified as a useful method to explore specific events within the consultation, mundane or routine occurrences, non-spoken events and appears to particularly add value to doctor's post consultation accounts. However, studies frequently had insufficient description of methods to properly evaluate both the quality of the study, and the influence of VSR technique on findings. VSR is particularly useful for study of specific consultation events when a 'within case' approach is used in analysis, comparing and contrasting findings from the consultation and post-consultation interview. Alignment of the choice of VSR procedure and sampling to the study research question was established as particularly important in the quality of studies. Future researchers may consider the role of process evaluation to understand further the impact of
Leis, Jerome A; Palmay, Lesley; Ho, Grace; Raybardhan, Sumit; Gill, Suzanne; Kan, Tiffany; Campbell, Jackie; Kiss, Alex; McCready, Janine B; Das, Pavani; Minnema, Brian; Powis, Jeff E; Walker, Sandra A N; Ferguson, Heather; Wong, Benny; Weber, Elizabeth
Beta-lactam allergy skin testing (BLAST) is recommended by antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) guidelines, yet few studies have systematically evaluated its impact when delivered at point-of-care. We conducted a pragmatic multicenter prospective evaluation of the use of point-of-care BLAST by ASPs. In staggered 3-month intervals, ASP teams at three hospitals received training by allergists to offer BLAST for eligible patients with infectious diseases receiving non-preferred beta-lactam therapy due to severity of their allergy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients receiving the preferred beta-lactam therapy. Of 827 patients with reported beta-lactam allergy over 15-months, beta-lactam therapy was preferred among 632(76%). During baseline periods, 50% (124/246) received preferred beta-lactam therapy based on history, compared with 60% (232/386) during the intervention periods (p=0.02), which improved further to 81% (313/386) upon provision of BLAST (p<0.001) without any increase in incidence of adverse drug reactions (4% vs. 3%; p=0.4). After adjusting for patient variables and the correlation between hospitals, the intervention period was associated with a 4.5-fold greater odds of receiving preferred beta-lactam therapy (95% CI, 2.4-8.2; p<0.0001). The use of BLAST at the point-of-care across three hospital ASPs resulted in greater use of preferred beta-lactam therapy without increasing the risk of adverse drug reactions. Longer term studies are needed to better assess the safety and clinical impact of this ASP intervention. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wagner, Julie; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Wolpert, Howard; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
This study investigated between- and within-person associations among mean levels and variability in affect, diabetes self-care behaviors, and continuously monitored glucose in Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Fifty participants (M [SD] age = 57.8 [11.7] years, 74% women, mean [SD] glycosylated hemoglobin A1c = 8.3% [1.5%]) wore a "blinded" continuous glucose monitor for 7 days, and they responded to twice daily automated phone surveys regarding positive affect, negative affect, and self-care behaviors. Higher mean levels of NA were associated with higher mean glucose (r = .30), greater percent hyperglycemia (r = .34) and greater percentage of out-of-range glucose (r = .34). Higher NA variability was also related to higher mean glucose (r = .34), greater percent of hyperglycemia (r = .44) and greater percentage of out-of-range glucose (r = .43). Higher positive affect variability was related to lower percentage of hypoglycemia (r = -.33). Higher mean levels of self-care behaviors were related to lower glucose variability (r = -.35). Finally, higher self-care behavior variability was related to greater percentage of hyperglycemia (r = .31) and greater percentage of out-of-range glucose (r = -.28). In multilevel regression models, within-person increases from mean levels of self-care were associated with lower mean levels of glucose (b = -7.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -12.8 to -1.9), lower percentage of hyperglycemia (b = -0.04, 95% CI = -0.07 to -0.01), and higher percentage of hypoglycemia (b = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.03) in the subsequent 10-hour period. Near-to-real time sampling documented associations of glucose with affect and diabetes self-care that are not detectable with traditional measures.
Ojeda, P; Sanz de Burgoa, V
Asthma is associated with high indirect costs due to lower work productivity and higher absenteeism and presenteeism. To study loss of productivity measured using the lost workday equivalent (LWDE) index and health care utilization in asthmatics depending on age, geographical location, time period, severity, and level of asthma control. In this cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological multicenter study, 120 allergists nationwide were asked to select asthmatic patients aged 18 to 65 years who were evenly distributed according to the 4 levels of asthma severity (Global Initiative on Asthma) during 3 different seasons. The participants collected sociodemographic data, spirometry values, Asthma Control Test (ACT) score, health care utilization data, perceived stress according to the Impact on Work Productivity Index (IMPALA, indice del Impacto de la Enfermedad en la Productividad Laboral), and score on the Sheehan disability scale. The LWDE index was used to measure the number of workdays lost and the number of workdays with asthma symptoms combined with the percentage for average performance at work. The study sample comprised 1098 patients (58.7% females; 48.5% aged 18-40 and 51.5% aged 41-65). According to the ACT score, disease was uncontrolled in 57.6% of patients, well controlled in 32.8%, and totally controlled in 9.6%. The mean cost due to workdays lost was Euro 285.81/patient/mo (95% CI, Euro 252.71-318.92). Indirect costs were significantly higher in older patients (41-65 years, Euro 405.08; 95% CI, 348.97-461.19), patients with more severe disease (Euro 698.95; 95% CI, 588.63-809.27), and patients with more poorly controlled asthma (Euro 466.86; 95% CI, Euro 414.39-519.33). The average cost of health care units per patient for each 3-month period was Euro1317.30 (95% CI, Euro 1151.34-Euro 1483.26). Indirect costs were significantly higher in older patients (Euro 2104.00 in patients aged 18-40 vs Euro 3301.55 in patients aged 41-65), in northern and
van Cranenburgh, O D; Krol, M W; Hendriks, M C P; de Rie, M A; Smets, E M A; de Korte, J; Sprangers, M A G
Assessing quality of care from the patient's perspective is considered to be highly relevant. As a standardized instrument in dermatology was lacking, we developed a patient experience questionnaire regarding chronic skin disease care: the Consumer Quality Index Chronic Skin Disease (CQI-CSD). (i) To evaluate the dimensional structure of the CQI-CSD, (ii) to assess its ability to distinguish between hospitals according to patients' experiences with quality of care, (iii) to explore patients' experiences with dermatological care and priorities for quality improvement according to the patients, and (iv) to optimize the questionnaire based on psychometric results and stakeholders' input. In a cross-sectional study 5647 adult patients who received dermatological care in the past 12 months in 20 hospitals were randomly selected and invited to fill out the questionnaire. Overall 1160 of 3989 eligible respondents (29% response rate, 30-87 per hospital) were included for analysis. The CQI-CSD comprised seven scales with high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0·74-0·92). The instrument's discriminative power was limited. Patients were positive about the care provided by nurses and doctors, but the provision of information by healthcare providers, accessibility of care and patient involvement could be improved. We optimized the CQI-CSD, resulting in a revised questionnaire containing 65 items. In conclusion, the CQI-CSD is a useful instrument to measure patient experiences with dermatological care. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.
Thomas, M; Rioual, E; Adamski, H; Roguedas, A-M; Misery, L; Michel, M; Chastel, F; Schmutz, J-L; Aubin, F; Marguery, M-C; Meyer, N
Knowledge, regarding sun protection, is essential to change behaviour and to reduce sun exposure of patients at risk for skin cancer. Patient education regarding appropriate or sun protection measures, is a priority to reduce skin cancer incidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge about sun protection and the recommendations given in a population of non-dermatologists physicians involved in the care of patients at high risk of skin cancer. This study is a cross-sectional study. Physicians were e-mailed an anonymous questionnaire evaluating the knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, sun protection and about the role of the physician in providing sun protection recommendations. Of the responders, 71.4% considered that the risk of skin cancer of their patients was increased when compared with the general population. All the responders knew that UV-radiations can contribute to induce skin cancers and 71.4% of them declared having adequate knowledge about sun protection measures. A proportion of 64.2% of them declared that they were able to give sun protection advices: using sunscreens (97.8%), wearing covering clothes (95.5%), performing regular medical skin examination (91.1%), to avoid direct sunlight exposure (77.8%), avoiding outdoor activities in the hottest midday hours (73.3%) and practising progressive exposure (44.4%). Non-dermatologist physicians reported a correct knowledge of UV-induced skin cancer risk factors. The majority of responders displayed adequate knowledge of sun protection measures and declared providing patients with sun protection recommendation on a regular basis. Several errors persisted. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
EFFECT of daily antiseptic body wash with octenidine on nosocomial primary bacteraemia and nosocomial multidrug-resistant organisms in intensive care units: design of a multicentre, cluster-randomised, double-blind, cross-over study.
Meißner, Anne; Hasenclever, Dirk; Brosteanu, Oana; Chaberny, Iris Freya
Nosocomial infections are serious complications that increase morbidity, mortality and costs and could potentially be avoidable. Antiseptic body wash is an approach to reduce dermal micro-organisms as potential pathogens on the skin. Large-scale trials with chlorhexidine as the antiseptic agent suggest a reduction of nosocomial infection rates. Octenidine is a promising alternative agent which could be more effective against Gram-negative organisms. We hypothesise that daily antiseptic body wash with octenidine reduces the risk of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired primary bacteraemia and ICU-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in a standard care setting. EFFECT is a controlled, cluster-randomised, double-blind study. The experimental intervention consists in using octenidine-impregnated wash mitts for the daily routine washing procedure of the patients. This will be compared with using placebo wash mitts. Replacing existing washing methods is the only interference into clinical routine.Participating ICUs are randomised in an AB/BA cross-over design. There are two 15-month periods, each consisting of a 3-month wash-out period followed by a 12-month intervention and observation period. Randomisation determines only the sequence in which octenidine-impregnated or placebo wash mitts are used. ICUs are left unaware of what mitts packages they are using.The two coprimary endpoints are ICU-acquired primary bacteraemia and ICU-acquired MDRO. Endpoints are defined based on individual ward-movement history and microbiological test results taken from the hospital information systems without need for extra documentation. Data on clinical symptoms of infection are not collected. EFFECT aims at recruiting about 45 ICUs with about 225 000 patient-days per year. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Leipzig (number 340/16-ek) in November 2016. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. DRKS-ID: DRKS00011282. © Article author
Berardesca, Enzo; Mortillo, Susan; Cameli, Norma; Ardigo, Marco; Mariano, Maria
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disease that adversely affects quality of life. The current study evaluates the efficacy of a shower cream and a lotion, each with skin-identical lipids and emollients, in the treatment of atopic dry skin of subjects with a history of atopic condition. In all, 40 healthy females with clinically dry skin on the lower legs were enrolled in the study and underwent 4 weeks of daily use of the shower cream and 2 additional weeks of both the shower cream and the body lotion. Subjects were evaluated at day 0, week 4, and week 6. Skin barrier function was assessed by Tewameter ® , skin hydration by Corneometer ® , smoothness and desquamation by Visioscan ® , and stratum corneum architecture by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). The investigator assessed the degree of dryness, roughness, redness, cracks, tingling and itch, and subjective self-assessment evaluated the perception of skin soothing, smoothness, and softness. Skin barrier function and skin moisture maintenance were significantly improved using the shower cream. The lotion with physiological lipids, together with the shower cream, also improved skin barrier function and moisture. Both the shower cream and the body lotion reduced clinical dryness, roughness, redness, cracks, tingling and itch, according to the dermatologist, and increased soothing, smoothness, and softness, according to the subjects of the study. The combination of a shower cream and a lotion with physiological lipids efficiently restores skin barrier function and increases skin hydration, becoming an effective skin-care option for patients with atopic dry skin. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Musuuza, Jackson S; Roberts, Tonya J; Carayon, Pascale; Safdar, Nasia
Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) of intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been shown to reduce healthcare-associated infections and colonization by multidrug resistant organisms. The objective of this project was to describe the process of daily CHG bathing and identify the barriers and facilitators that can influence its successful adoption and sustainability in an ICU of a Veterans Administration Hospital. We conducted 26 semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of 4 nurse managers (NMs), 13 registered nurses (RNs) and 9 health care technicians (HCTs) working in the ICU. We used qualitative content analysis to code and analyze the data. Dedoose software was used to facilitate data management and coding. Trustworthiness and scientific integrity of the data were ensured by having two authors corroborate the coding process, conducting member checks and keeping an audit trail of all the decisions made. Duration of the interviews was 15 to 39 min (average = 26 min). Five steps of bathing were identified: 1) decision to give a bath; 2) ability to give a bath; 3) decision about which soap to use; 4) delegation of a bath; and 5) getting assistance to do a bath. The bathing process resulted in one of the following three outcomes: 1) complete bath; 2) interrupted bath; and 3) bath not done. The outcome was influenced by a combination of barriers and facilitators at each step. Most barriers were related to perceived workload, patient factors, and scheduling. Facilitators were mainly organizational factors such as the policy of daily CHG bathing, the consistent supply of CHG soap, and support such as reminders to conduct CHG baths by nurse managers. Patient bathing in ICUs is a complex process that can be hindered and interrupted by numerous factors. The decision to use CHG soap for bathing was only one of 5 steps of bathing and was largely influenced by scheduling/workload and patient factors such as clinical stability, hypersensitivity to
Background Many countries have passed laws giving patients the right to participate in decisions about health care. People with dementia cannot be assumed to be incapable of making decisions on their diagnosis alone as they may have retained cognitive abilities. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how persons with dementia participated in making decisions about health care and how their family carers and professional caregivers influenced decision making. Methods This Norwegian study had a qualitative multi-case design. The triad in each of the ten cases consisted of the person with dementia, the family carer and the professional caregiver, in all 30 participants. Inclusion criteria for the persons with dementia were: (1) 67 years or older (2) diagnosed with dementia (3) Clinical Dementia Rating score 2, moderate dementia; (3) able to communicate verbally. The family carers and professional caregivers were then asked to participate. A semi-structured interview guide was used in interviews with family carers and professional caregivers. Field notes were written after participant observation of interactions between persons with dementia and professional caregivers during morning care or activities at a day centre. How the professional caregivers facilitated decision making was the focus of the observations that varied in length from 30 to 90 minutes. The data were analyzed using framework analysis combined with a hermeneutical interpretive approach. Results Professional caregivers based their assessment of mental competence on experience and not on standardized tests. Persons with dementia demonstrated variability in how they participated in decision making. Pseudo-autonomous decision making and delegating decision making were new categories that emerged. Autonomous decision making did occur but shared decision making was the most typical pattern. Reduced mental capacity, lack of available choices or not being given the opportunity to
Crocker, Tom; Young, John; Forster, Anne; Brown, Lesley; Ozer, Seline; Greenwood, Darren C
the worldwide population is ageing. One expected consequence of this is an increase in morbidity and an associated increased demand for long-term care. Physical rehabilitation is beneficial in older people, but relatively little is known about effects in residents of long-term care facilities. to examine the effects of physical rehabilitation on activities of daily living (ADL) in elderly residents of long-term care facilities. systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. We included studies that compared the effect of a physical rehabilitation intervention on independence in ADL with either no intervention or an alternative intervention in older people (over 60 years) living in long-term care facilities. We searched 19 databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar. Two researchers independently screened papers and extracted data. Outcomes of included studies were combined in a standardised mean difference random-effects meta-analysis. thirteen of 14 studies identified were included in the meta-analysis. Independence in ADL was improved by 0.24 standard units (95% CI: 0.11-0.38; P = 0.0005). This is equivalent to 1.3 points on the Barthel Index (0-20 scale). No significant differences in effect were found based on participant or intervention characteristics. Larger sample size and low attrition were associated with smaller estimates of effect. All studies were assessed to be at risk of bias. physical rehabilitation may improve independence for elderly long-term care facility residents, but mean effects are small. It is unclear which interventions are most appropriate.
Osakwe, Zainab Toteh; Larson, Elaine; Agrawal, Mansi; Shang, Jinjing
Older adult’s ability to self-manage illness is dependent on their ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL). Forty-five percent of those older than 65 years will have ongoing clinical needs after hospital discharge and require post-acute care (PAC) services in settings such as home health care (HHC) and skilled nursing facilities (SNF). The Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act (IMPACT) of 2014 requires PAC providers to begin collecting and reporting ADL data to build a coordinated approach to payment and standardize patient assessments and quality measurement. The aim of this integrative review was to compare the methods of assessing ADLs in HHC to SNF. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was used to ensure results were reported systematically. A scientific literature search without date restriction within the PubMed and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases was conducted. Two independent investigators assessed study quality using the quality appraisal instrument developed by Kmet and colleagues. Study quality ranged from 94.5% to 100%. Of the 18749 articles identified by the search, eight met inclusion criteria and four tools were identified that are used to assess ADLs in SNF and HHC. Although SNF and HHC collect similar ADL information, the range of content covered, item definitions, scoring, and psychometrics are not comparable across settings. PMID:28471793
Wang, Wei; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip
Introduction To capitalise on mHealth, we need to understand the use of mobile phones both in daily life and for health care. Objective To assess the prevalence and factors that influence usage of mobile phones by caregivers of young children. Materials and Methods A mixed methods approach was used, whereby a survey (N=1854) and semi-structured interviews (N=17) were conducted concurrently. The quantitative and qualitative data obtained were compared and integrated. Participants were caregivers of young children in Zhao County, Hebei Province, China. Results Four main themes were found: (i) trends in mobile phone ownership; (ii) usage of mobile phone functions; (iii) factors influencing replying to text messages; and (iv) uses of mobile phones for health care. The majority of 1,854 survey participants (1,620; 87.4%) used mobile phones, but usage was much higher among mothers (1,433; 92.6%) and fathers (41; 100.0%) compared to grandparents (142; 54.6%). Parents were able to send text messages, grandparents often not. Factors influencing the decision to reply to text messages in daily life were checking the mobile phone, trusting the sender, emotion or feeling when receiving a text message, the importance of replying and ease of use of text messages. Of 1,620 survey participants who used a mobile phone, about one in four (432; 26.7%) had used it for health care in the past three months and most (1,110; 93.5%) of 1,187 who had not wished to use their phone to receive health information. Conclusion We found that usage of mobile phones is high, several factors influencing usage and an interest of caregivers to use phones for health care in Zhao County, rural China, which can be used to inform studies in settings with similar characteristics. Future work needs to assess factors influencing mobile phone usage in-depth to optimize experiences of users for specific mHealth-based interventions. PMID:25789477
Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Gerdle, Björn; Björk, Jonas; Larsson, Britt
The clinical knowledge of factors related to the spread of pain on the body has increased and understanding these factors is essential for effective pain treatment. This population-based study examines local (LP), regional (RP), and widespread pain (WSP) on the body regarding comorbidities, pain aspects, and impact of pain and elucidates how the spread of pain varies over time. A postal questionnaire that addressed pain aspects (intensity, frequency, duration and anatomical spreading on a body manikin), comorbidities and implications of pain (i.e., work situation, physical activity, consumption of health care and experience of hospitality and treatment of health care) was sent to 9000 adults living in southeastern Sweden. Of these, 4774 (53 %) completed and returned the questionnaire. After 9 weeks, a follow-up questionnaire was sent to the 2983 participants who reported pain in the first questionnaire (i.e. 62 % of 4774 subjects). Of these, 1940 completed and returned the questionnaire (i.e. 65 % of 2983 subjects). The follow-up questionnaire included the same items as the first questionnaire. This study found differences in intensity, frequency and duration of pain, comorbidities, aspects of daily functioning and health care seeking in three pain categories based on spreading of pain: LP, RP and WSP. Compared to the participants with RP and LP, the participants with WSP had lower education and worse overall health, including more frequent heart disease and hypertension. In addition, participants with WSP had more intense, frequent, and long-standing pain, required more medical consultations, and experienced more impact on work. The participants with RP constituted an intermediate group regarding frequency and intensity of pain, and impact on work. The participants with LP were the least affected group regarding these factors. A substantial transition to RP had occurred by the 9-week follow-up. This study shows an association between increased spread of pain
Murphy, J; Holmes, J; Brooks, C
To estimate daily total energy expenditure (TEE) using a physical activity monitor, combined with dietary assessment of energy intake to assess the relationship between daily energy expenditure and patterns of activity with energy intake in people with dementia living in care homes. A cross-sectional study in care homes in the UK. Twenty residents with confirmed dementia diagnosis were recruited from two care homes that specialised in dementia care. A physical activity monitor (SensewearTM Armband, Body Media, Pittsburgh, PA) was employed to objectively determine total energy expenditure, sleep duration and physical activity. The armband was placed around the left upper triceps for up to 7 days. Energy intake was determined by weighing all food and drink items over 4 days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) including measurements of food wastage. The mean age was 78.7 (SD ± 11.8) years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.0 (SD ± 4.2) kg/m2; 50% were women. Energy intake (mean 7.4; SD ± 2.6) MJ/d) was correlated with TEE (mean 7.6; SD ± 1.8 MJ/d; r=0.49, p<0.05). Duration of sleeping ranged from 0.4-12.5 (mean 6.1) hrs/d and time spent lying down was 1.3-16.0 (8.3) hrs/d. On average residents spent 17.9 (6.3-23.4) hrs/d undertaking sedentary activity. TEE was correlated with BMI (r=0.52, p<0.05) and body weight (r=0.81, p<0.001) but inversely related to sleep duration (r=-0.59, p<0.01) and time lying down (r=-0.62, p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after taking BMI, sleep duration and time spent lying down into account, TEE was no longer correlated with energy intake. The results show the extent to which body mass, variable activity and sleep patterns may be contributing to TEE and together with reduced energy intake, energy requirements were not satisfied. Thus wearable technology has the potential to offer real-time monitoring to provide appropriate nutrition management that is more person-centred to prevent weight loss in dementia.
Mills, Katie; Emery, Jon; Lantaff, Rebecca; Radford, Michael; Pannebakker, Merel; Hall, Per; Burrows, Nigel; Williams, Kate; Saunders, Catherine L; Murchie, Peter; Walter, Fiona M
Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the UK. Incidence rates have quadrupled over the last 30 years and continue to rise, especially among younger people. As routine screening of the general population is not currently recommended in the UK, a focus on secondary prevention through early detection and prompt treatment in individuals at increased risk of melanoma could make an important contribution to improve melanoma outcomes. This paper describes the protocol for a phase II, multisite, randomised controlled trial, in the primary care setting, for patients at increased risk of melanoma. A skin self-monitoring (SSM) smartphone 'App' was used to improve symptom appraisal and encourage help seeking in primary care, thereby promoting early presentation with skin changes suspicious of melanoma. We aim to recruit 200 participants from general practice waiting rooms in the East of England. Eligible patients are those identified at higher melanoma risk (using a real-time risk assessment tool), without a personal history of melanoma, aged 18 to 75 years. Participants will be invited to a primary care nurse consultation, and randomised to the intervention group (standard written advice on skin cancer detection and sun protection, loading of an SSM 'App' onto the participant's smartphone and instructions on use including self-monitoring reminders) or control group (standard written advice alone). The primary outcomes are consultation rates for changes to a pigmented skin lesion, and the patient interval (time from first noticing a skin change to consultation). Secondary outcomes include patient sun protection behaviours, psychosocial outcomes, and measures of trial feasibility and acceptability. NHS ethical approval has been obtained from Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire research ethics committee (REC reference 16/EE/0248). The findings from the MelaTools SSM Trial will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and scientific conferences. ISCTRN16061621
Hong, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk
We propose a new method that measures skin conductance over clothes to nonintrusively monitor the changes in physiological conditions affecting skin conductance during daily activities. We selected the thigh-to-thigh current path and used an indirectly coupled 5-kHz AC current for the measurement. While varying the skin conductance by the Valsalva maneuver method, the results were compared with the traditional galvanic skin response (GSR) measured directly from the fingers. Skin conductance measured using a 5-kHz current displayed a highly negative correlation with the traditional GSR and the current measured over clothes reflected the rate of change of the conductance of the skin beneath.
Parchman, Michael L; Munoz, Abel
To examine skin and soft tissue infections presenting at 4 primary care clinics and assess if historical risk factors and examination findings were associated with a positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) culture. During the 10-month observational study (April 2007 through January 2008), physicians in 5 practices across South Texas collected history, physical examination findings, culture results, and antibiotic(s) prescribed for all patients presenting with a skin or soft tissue infection. Analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between historical indicators, location of lesions, and examination findings with a positive MRSA culture. Across 4 practices, 164 cases of skin and soft tissue infections were collected during 10 months. Of the 94 with a culture, 63 (67%) were MRSA positive. Patients working in or exposed to a health care setting were more likely to have a culture positive for MRSA, as were those presenting with an abscess. MRSA-positive lesions were also significantly smaller in size. Because of the high prevalence of MRSA skin and soft tissue infections among patients presenting to family physicians, presumptive treatment for MRSA may be indicated. However, increasing levels of resistance to current antibiotics is concerning and warrants development of alternative management strategies.
Turcotte, Pier-Luc; Larivière, Nadine; Desrosiers, Johanne; Voyer, Philippe; Champoux, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Hélène; Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie
Participation is a key determinant of successful aging and enables older adults to stay in their homes and be integrated into the community. Assessing participation needs involves identifying restrictions in the accomplishment of daily and social activities. Although meeting participation needs involves older adults, their caregivers and healthcare providers, little is known about their respective viewpoints. This study thus explored the participation needs of older adults having disabilities as perceived by the older adults themselves, their caregivers and healthcare providers. A qualitative multiple case study consisted of conducting 33 semi-structured interviews in eleven triads, each composed of an older adult, his/her caregiver and a healthcare provider recruited in a Health and Social Services Centre (HSSC) in Québec, Canada. Interview transcripts and reviews of clinical records were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics based on thematic saliency analysis methods. Aged 66 to 88 years, five older adults had physical disabilities, five had mild cognitive impairment and one had psychological problems, leading to moderate to severe functional decline. Caregivers and healthcare providers were mainly women, respectively retired spouses and various professionals with four to 32 years of clinical experience. Participation needs reported by each triad included all domains of participation. Needs related to daily activities, such as personal care, nutrition, and housing, were generally met. Regarding social activities, few needs were met by various resources in the community and were generally limited to personal responsibilities, including making decisions and managing budgets, and some community life activities, such as going shopping. Unmet needs were mainly related to social activities, involving leisure, other community life activities and interpersonal relationships, and some daily activities, including fitness and mobility. This study
Edwards, Helen E; Chang, Anne M; Gibb, Michelle; Finlayson, Kathleen J; Parker, Christina; O'Reilly, Maria; McDowell, Jan; Shuter, Patricia
To evaluate the implementation of the Champions for Skin Integrity model on facilitating uptake of evidence-based wound management and improving skin integrity in residents of aged care facilities. The incidence of skin tears, pressure injuries and leg ulcers increases with age, and such wounds can be a serious issue in aged care facilities. Older adults are not only at higher risk for wounds related to chronic disease but also injuries related to falls and manual handling requirements. A longitudinal, pre-post design. The Champions for Skin Integrity model was developed using evidence-based strategies for transfer of evidence into practice. Data were collected before and six months after implementation of the model. Data on wound management and skin integrity were obtained from two random samples of residents (n = 200 pre; n = 201 post) from seven aged care facilities. A staff survey was also undertaken (n = 126 pre; n = 143 post) of experience, knowledge and evidence-based wound management. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables. Where relevant, chi-square for independence or t-tests were used to identify differences between the pre-/postdata. There was a significant decrease in the number of residents with a wound of any type (54% pre vs 43% post, χ 2 4·2, p = 0·041), as well as a significant reduction in specific wound types, for example pressure injuries (24% pre vs 10% post, χ 2 14·1, p < 0·001), following implementation of the model. An increase in implementation of evidence-based wound management and prevention strategies was observed in the postimplementation sample in comparison with the preimplementation sample. This included use of limb protectors and/or protective clothing 6% pre vs 20% post (χ 2 17·0, p < 0·001) and use of an emollient or soap alternative for bathing residents (50% pre vs 74% post, χ 2 13·9, p = 0·001). Implementation of the model in this sample fostered an increase in implementation of
This article details an educational program designed to utilize nonlicensed personnel (certified nursing assistants [CNAs] and nursing assistants [NAs]) in the prevention of pressure ulcers and improved skin care in a 250-bed acute care facility in a suburban setting. The article is divided into 2 parts: A and B. Part A addresses the educational program, which was part of a major initiative for improving patient outcomes that included a review and standardization of skin care products and protocols. Part B addresses productivity enhancement and cost savings experienced because of changing bathing and incontinence care products and procedures. The educational program included instruction on time-saving methods for increasing productivity in bathing and incontinence care, and effectively promoted the importance of proper skin care and pressure ulcer prevention techniques. Methods incorporated into the educational training targeted different reading and comprehension levels, ranging from the use of PowerPoint slides, hands-on return demonstration, and group discussion related to pressure ulcer staging and wound treatment. These educational methods provided the participants with significant reinforcement of each day's learning objectives. Productivity enhancement and cost savings are addressed in part B, as well as the results of a time-motion study. Because of the program, CNAs/NAs were empowered in their integral caregiver roles. This program was part of a larger, major process improvement initiative, but the rate of acquired pressure ulcers declined from 2.17% in 2002 to 1.71% in 2003. This educational program was considered a contributor to the improved patient outcomes.
Molina, Rose; Venkatesh, Kartik; Schantz-Dunn, Julianna; Meadows, Audra; Nour, Nawal; Diouf, Khady
Background Currently there are no guidelines regarding optimal screening for latent tuberculosis infection during pregnancy. Objective This study measures completion rates and the concordance between the TSPOT.TB, a commercially available interferon gamma release assay (IGRA), and the traditional tuberculin skin test (TST) in a predominantly urban minority obstetrics practice. Design This is an observational cohort study of 141 pregnant women enrolled from an obstetrics practice with a large immigrant population. Women with a history of a positive TST result were excluded. Demographic and clinical risk factors for tuberculosis were assessed. Enrolled women underwent a T-SPOT.TB test and placement of TST, and returned in 48-72 h for TST interpretation. We calculated the completion rate and frequency of a positive result for each test, as well as the concordance between the T-SPOT.TB and TST. Results Among the 141 women enrolled, 75 % were either Latina or African-American, 44 % were born in a country with a high TB prevalence, and 52 % had received the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine. Seven women (5 %) had a positive screening test, a total of 3 positive T-SPOT.TB results and 6 positive TST results, and all were from countries with a high TB prevalence. The concordance of the two tests was 96.3 %. The completion rate for the T-SPOT.TB was 98 %, while the completion rate for the TST was 63 %. The IGRA test had a markedly higher completion rate in addition to maintaining high concordance with the two-step TST in this population of pregnant women with a high prevalence of prior TB exposure. Targeted screening of women from countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis may be warranted during prenatal care.
Kim, Min-Sik; Stees, Melinda; Karuturi, Bala Vamsi K; Vijayaraghavalu, Sivakumar; Peterson, Richard E; Madsen, Gary L; Labhasetwar, Vinod
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are used in sunscreen products to protect the skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays. However, following exposure to sunlight, the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 NPs can produce an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing skin cell damage, triggering an inflammatory response. In zebrafish model, we evaluated how well Pro-NP™ (biodegradable NPs containing superoxide dismutase and catalase) could protect them from TiO 2 NP-induced photo-oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the antioxidant properties of Pro-NP™ would protect zebrafish embryos from the phototoxic effects of TiO 2 NPs, improving overall survival and growth. Dechorionated embryos were treated with TiO 2 NPs alone or co-treated with Pro-NP™, and then exposed to simulated sunlight. Pro-NP™ by itself caused no toxicity; however, for embryos exposed to 100 μg/ml TiO 2 NPs, zebrafish survival was reduced to ∼40% and at 500 μg/ml to ∼10%. In contrast, at 100 μg/ml TiO 2 NP, co-treatment with Pro-NP™ increased zebrafish survival in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment also improved percent of embryos hatching and resulted in normal growth of zebrafish. On the other hand, embryos treated with TiO 2 NPs alone developed deformities, had reduced pigmentation, and showed severely truncated growth. Pro-NP™ afforded a greater level of protection against TiO 2 NP-induced phototoxicity than other antioxidants (vitamin E or N-acetylcysteine) commonly used in topical skin care formulations. We conclude that Pro-NP™ exert significant protective effects against TiO 2 NP-induced phototoxicity and could be developed as a safe, effective skin care product, used alone or in combination with sunscreen products to protect the skin from sun's UV radiation.
The effects of Snoezelen (multi-sensory behavior therapy) and psychiatric care on agitation, apathy, and activities of daily living in dementia patients on a short term geriatric psychiatric inpatient unit.
Staal, Jason A; Sacks, Amanda; Matheis, Robert; Collier, Lesley; Calia, Tina; Hanif, Henry; Kofman, Eugene S
A randomized, controlled, single-blinded, between group study of 24 participants with moderate to severe dementia was conducted on a geriatric psychiatric unit. All participants received pharmacological therapy, occupational therapy, structured hospital environment, and were randomized to receive multi sensory behavior therapy (MSBT) or a structured activity session. Greater independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) was observed for the group treated with MSBT and standard psychiatric inpatient care on the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (KI-ADL; P = 0.05) than standard psychiatric inpatient care alone. The combination treatment of MSBT and standard psychiatric care also reduced agitation and apathy greater than standard psychiatric inpatient care alone as measured with the Pittsburgh Agitation Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease (P = 0.05). Multiple regression analysis predicted that within the multi-sensory group, activities of daily living (KI-ADL) increased as apathy and agitation reduced (R2 = 0.42; p = 0.03). These data suggest that utilizing MSBT with standard psychiatric inpatient care may reduce apathy and agitation and additionally improve activities of daily living in hospitalized people with moderate to severe dementia more than standard care alone.
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... References Doroshow JH. Approach to the patient with cancer. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 179. National Cancer Institute website. Radiation therapy and you: support for ...
Rapegno, Noémie; Ravaud, Jean-François
Despite the context of individualization of public policies and promotion of independent living, residential care facilities (RCFs) (called "établissements medico-sociaux" in France) still represent the main system used by disabled people. Through a study of their daily mobility, this article proposes a geographical approach to the examination of factors influencing the social participation of disabled persons with motor impairments who live in residential care facilities. The data were collected in three stages from several sources. We first carried out 24 semi-directive interviews among supervisory staff in all the institutions in two regions of France (Greater Paris and Upper Normandy) to better understand the nature of services offered by medico-social facilities. We next did field work in greater detail in 10 of these institutions. We selected residents by random sampling. These first stages then allowed us to study the mobility of residents and record their perceptions. We conducted participant observation and interviews with 81 disabled residents within the 10 RCF. Data analysis enabled consideration not only of the role of the residential environment in people's daily mobility, but the role of the institutions as well. We identified three typical profiles of mobility practices depending on the facilities: "the islanders", living in isolated facilities far from public transportation, or in so-called "difficult" neighborhoods; people who alternate individual and group mobility in a more or less large area; and "the navigators" who have high mobility over a very large area, often living in facilities located in urban areas. The study also enabled an analysis of the obstacles and facilitators inside and outside the residential facilities. These place restrictions on social participation by disabled adults. However, possibilities for individual negotiation may enable bypassing some obstacles. The three ideal-type profiles of mobility analyzed constitute
Jones, Hannah; Santamaria, Nick
Focus on skin-to-skin contact (SSC) as a family-centered care intervention in Neonatal Intensive Special Care (NISC) Units continues to increase. Previously, SSC has been shown to improve neonatal physiological stability, support brain development, and promote bonding and attachment. Limited research exists investigating SSC duration and neonatal physiological responses. This study examined the relationship between SSC duration and the neonate's oxygen saturation, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and temperature. An observational cohort study was conducted at The Royal Women's Hospital NISC Unit in Melbourne, Australia. For each neonate participant, 1 SSC with their parent was studied (parent convenience) and neonatal physiological parameters recorded, with a bivariate correlation used to explore the relationship between the duration of SSC and the percentage of time during SSC that the neonate's physiological variables remained within a target range. No correlation existed between the duration of SSC and the neonatal physiological variables of oxygen saturation, HR, RR, and temperature. However, neonatal oxygen requirement was more often reduced across the duration of SSC. Due to previously documented benefits to neonates physiologically from SSC, and our supportive finding that SSC reduces neonatal oxygen requirement, we believe that this study adds to the evidence to support promotion of SSC in NISC Units. The duration of SSC does not appear to negatively impact the physiological effects to the neonate. Thus, SSC should be encouraged in all NISC Units to be conducted for the length of time the parent is able. This study should be repeated with a larger sample size.
Practice of skin-to-skin contact, exclusive breastfeeding and other newborn care interventions in Ethiopia following promotion by facility and community health workers: results from a prospective outcome evaluation.
Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Estifanos, Abiy Seifu; Sheferaw, Ephrem Daniel; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Rosado, Carina; Patton-Molitors, Rachel; Worku, Bogale; Rawlins, Barbara; Baqui, Abdullah
To assess the effects of a facility and community newborn intervention package on coverage of early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) and exclusive breastfeeding - the therapeutic components of kangaroo mother care. A multilevel community and facility intervention in Ethiopia trained health workers in 10 health centres and the surrounding communities to promote early SSC and exclusive breastfeeding for all babies born at home or in the facility. Changes in SSC and exclusive breastfeeding were assessed by comparing baseline and endline household surveys. Overall practice of SSC at any time following delivery increased significantly from 13.1 to 44.1% of mothers. Coverage of immediate SSC also increased significantly from 8.4 to 24.1%. Breastfeeding within the first hour increased from 51.4 to 67.9% and exclusive breastfeeding within the first three days increased from 86 to 95.8%. At endline, SSC was significantly higher among facility births than home births and community health workers had limited contact with mothers. While targeted behaviours improved overall, the programme did not achieve adequate increases in SSC and exclusive breastfeeding among home deliveries to expect a reduction in mortality for low birthweight babies. Newborn care programs in Ethiopia should continue to encourage facility delivery while strengthening coverage of community programmes. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, Hui-Hsuan; Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Bai, Yuh-Bin; Stanaway, Fiona; Lin, Jen-Der; Li, Chia-Lin
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and acute care utilization of community dwelling disabled older adults with an absence of help for activities of daily living (ADL). We analyzed cross-sectional data from a nationally representative sample of people aged 65 years and over (n=2904) participating in the 2009 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan. Disability was defined as self-reporting a lot of difficulty or complete inability to carry out one or more ADL tasks. Participants with disability were asked whether they received help in the form of personal assistance or assistive devices to complete ADL tasks, with a yes response indicating the presence of help and a no response indicating the absence of help. Hospitalization and emergency department visits was assessed as a dichotomous variable (any or none), respectively. An absence of available help for ADL disability was reported in 16.6% of disabled older adults. Disabled older adults reporting an absence of help were more likely to be female. After adjustment for other factors, compared to older adults without disability, older adults with disability not receiving help for ADL tasks were highly related to hospitalization (OR=4.57; 95%CI=[1.51-13.82]) and emergency department visits (OR=3.52; 95%CI=[1.15-10.76]) during the past year, respectively. We found that there is high prevalence of absence of help to perform ADL tasks in older adults with disability, and that this absence of help for ADL disability is associated with a greater burden of acute care utilization than those without disability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoon, Jeong-Ae; Park, Se-Gwan; Roh, Hyo-Lyun
[Purpose] This study was conducted to compare the correlation between social interaction and activities of daily living (ADL) between community-dwelling and long-term care facility stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The Subjects were 65 chronic stroke patients (32 facility-residing, 33 community-dwelling). The Evaluation Social Interaction (ESI) tool was used to evaluate social interaction and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) measure was used to evaluate ADL. [Results] Both social interaction and ADL were higher in community-dwelling than facility-residing stroke patients. There was a correlation between ESI and ADL for both motor and process skills among facility-residing patients, while only ADL process skills and ESI correlated among community-dwelling patients. In a partial correlation analysis using ADL motor and process skills as control variables, only process skills correlated with ESI. [Conclusion] For rehabilitation of stroke patients, an extended treatment process that combines ADL and social activities is likely to be required. Furthermore, treatment programs and institutional systems that can improve social interaction and promote health maintenance for community-dwelling and facility-residing chronic stroke patients are needed throughout the rehabilitation process.
Tucker, Rod; Patel, Mahendra; Layton, Alison L; Walton, Shernaz
To compare the diagnostic ability of pharmacists, nurses and general practitioners (GPs) for a range of skin conditions. An online study comprising 10 specifically developed dermatological case studies containing a digital image of the skin condition and a short case history. A total of 60 participants (20 representing each of pharmacists, GPs and primary care nurses) were required to identify the skin condition as well as the features in the case history that supported the diagnosis and the recommended first-line management approach for the condition. The mean diagnostic scores for each group were GPs = 8.8 (95% confidence interval, CI, 7.9-9.6), pharmacists = 6.2 (95% CI, 5.4-6.9) and nurses = 7.0 (95% CI, 6.1-7.9). Post hoc analysis revealed that the difference in mean diagnostic scores was significant (P < 0.05) between GPs and both pharmacists and nurses. However, pharmacists' diagnostic accuracy was similar to GPs' for some skin conditions such as tinea corporis, scabies and plantar warts and overall at least 40% of pharmacists correctly identified all conditions. This small study has demonstrated that for all of the skin conditions considered, pharmacists' overall diagnostic scores were significantly different from those of GPs but similar to those of nurses for the conditions assessed. However, further work with a larger sample is required to determine the accuracy of these preliminary findings and to establish whether advice given by pharmacists in practice results in the appropriate course of action being taken. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Rendon, Marta; Dibernardo, Barry; Bruce, Suzanne; Lucas-Anthony, Chere; Watson, Joanne
Objective: To evaluate treating epidermal melasma using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin 0.05% cream. Design: Multicenter open-label study with all patients receiving above-mentioned treatment for up to 24 weeks. Setting: Private dermatology and plastic surgery clinics and clinical research facilities. Participants: Thirty-seven adult females with moderate or marked epidermal melasma, melasma pigmentation of mild-to-marked intensity and Fitzpatrick skin type III to VI. Measurements: Melasma severity melasma pigmentation intensity melasma improvement, patient satisfaction, quality-of-life measures, erythema, dryness, peeling, burning/stinging. Results: No patient discontinued due to lack of efficacy or treatment-related adverse events. Treatment was associated with a significant reduction from baseline in melasma severity and melasma pigmentation intensity from Week 4 onward (P≤0.001), and 100 percent of patients showed improvement from Week 8 onward. At Week 24, 100 percent of patients were “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with the overall effectiveness of their treatment. Patients’ quality of life also improved (e.g., the proportion of patients feeling embarrassed or self-conscious about their skin “a lot” or “very much” declined from 78 percent at baseline to four percent at Week 24). Mean and median scores for erythema, dryness, peeling, and burning/stinging did not exceed trace levels. Conclusion: Treating moderate-to-severe melasma using the 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus 0.05% tretinoin can significantly reduce the severity of melasma and the intensity of melasma pigmentation within four weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated and associated with an improved quality of life and high levels of patient satisfaction. PMID:24307923
Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...
... skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, cryotherapy is used to ...
Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...
Günther, Anders C; Bottai, Matteo; Schandl, Anna R; Storm, Hanne; Rossi, Patrik; Sackey, Peter V
Many intensive care unit (ICU) patients describe pain and other adverse feelings that may impact long-term psychological morbidity. Sympathetically mediated palmar skin conductance variability is related to emotionally induced perspiration and correlates with pain levels in the perioperative setting but has not been studied in ICU patients. Twenty non-intubated and 20 intubated general ICU patients were included in this observational study. Patients were monitored with the MED-STORM Pain Monitoring System®. The number of skin conductance fluctuations per second (NSCF) was measured in parallel with bedside observation during one hour of intensive care, including rest, procedures and patient-staff interactions. Arousal-agitation level was monitored with the motor activity assessment scale (MAAS). Pain was monitored with the numeric rating scale (0 to 10) in patients able to communicate or by observation in patients unable to communicate. In non-intubated patients, NSCF increased with increasing stimulation/pain but also with higher MAAS (P=0.002). An interaction effect was found, with increased NSCF response to stimulation/pain with increasing MAAS (P<0.001). In critically ill patients, NSCF may be more useful evaluating emotional distress rather than pain alone. It needs to be assessed whether NSCF monitoring is clinically useful and whether controlling emotional distress with the aid of such monitoring may impact on patient care and outcomes.
Cooijmans, Kelly H M; Beijers, Roseriet; Rovers, Anne C; de Weerth, Carolina
Twenty-to-forty percent of women experience postpartum depressive symptoms, which can affect both the mother and infant. In preterm infants, daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between the mother and her infant has been shown to decrease maternal postpartum depressive symptoms. In full-term infants, only two studies investigated SSC effects on maternal depressive symptoms and found similar results. Research in preterm infants also showed that SSC improves other mental and physical health outcomes of the mother and the infant, and improves the quality of mother-infant relationship. This randomized controlled trial will investigate the effects of a SSC intervention on maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and additional outcomes in mothers and their full-term infants. Moreover, two potential underlying mechanisms for the relation between SSC and the maternal and infant outcomes will be examined, namely maternal oxytocin concentrations and infant intestinal microbiota. Design: A parallel-group randomized controlled trial. 116 mothers and their full-term infants. Mothers in the SSC condition will be requested to provide daily at least one continuous hour of SSC to their infant. The intervention starts immediately after birth and lasts for 5 weeks. Mothers in the control condition will not be requested to provide SSC. Maternal and infant outcomes will be measured at 2 weeks, 5 weeks, 12 weeks and 1 year after birth. maternal postpartum depressive symptoms. Secondary maternal outcomes: mental health (anxiety, stress, traumatic stress following child birth, sleep quality), physical health (physical recovery from the delivery, health, breastfeeding, physiological stress), mother-infant relationship (mother-infant bond, quality of maternal caregiving behavior). Secondary infant outcomes: behavior (fussing and crying, sleep quality), physical health (growth and health, physiological stress), general development (regulation capacities, social-emotional capacities
Tittl, L; Endig, S; Marten, S; Reitter, A; Beyer-Westendorf, I; Beyer-Westendorf, J
Direct acting non-Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) are characterized by a fixed dosing regimen. Despite the potential for relative underdosing due to large distribution volumes, dose adjustments for patients with high body mass index (BMI) are not recommended. Since efficacy and safety data in obese patients are scarce, we evaluated the impact of BMI on clinical outcomes in daily care patients treated with NOAC for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism. Using prospectively collected data from a non-interventional registry, cardiovascular (CV), major bleeding events (MB) and all-cause mortality were evaluated according to BMI classes. All outcome events were centrally adjudicated using standard scientific definitions. Between November 1st 2011 and December 31st 2016, 3432 patients were enrolled into the registry (61.3% rivaroxaban; 20% apixaban; 10.1% dabigatran, 8.6% edoxaban; mean follow-up 998.1 ± 542.9 days; median 1004 days). With increasing BMI (range 13.7-57.2 kg/m 2 ), the proportion of patients receiving standard (vs. reduced) NOAC dose increased from 64.7% (underweight) to 78.9% (obesity). Although obese patients had more cardiovascular risk factors compared to normal weight patients, on-treatment rates of clinical outcomes (CV, MB, all-cause-mortality) were lowest in overweight and obese patients. In a large set of real-life NOAC recipients we found no indication that high BMI is associated with inferior NOAC effectiveness or safety, which is in line with recent epidemiological data of a "BMI paradox" that indicates a somewhat protective effect of higher BMI regarding unfavourable outcomes also in patients receiving fixed dose NOAC anticoagulation without dose adjustment for higher BMI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Inagawa, Toshimitsu; Hamagishi, Toshio; Takaso, Yuji; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hibino, Yuri; Shibata, Aki; Ngoc, Nguyen T M; Okochi, Jiro; Hatta, Kotaro; Takamuku, Kiyoshi; Konoshita, Tadashi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki
Alzheimer's disease (AD) impairs cognitive functions, subsequently decreasing activity of daily living (ADL), and is frequently accompanied by lower limb fracture including hip fracture in the elderly. However, there have been few studies on what kinds of physical functions are affected or what degrees of dysfunction are produced by this combination. This study aims to clarify the relationship between decreased ADL and the combination of AD and lower limb fracture. We examined present illness and ADL in 4340 elderly aged 82.8 ± 9.36 years [average ± standard deviation (SD)] requiring nursing care and compared ADL between elderly with and without AD or lower limb fracture treated with surgery or conservatively using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with age and sex as covariants. We recognized that activities of cognitive function (p < 0.001), eating (dysphagia) (p < 0.001), eating (feeding) (p < 0.001), and toilet use (p < 0.001) in the elderly with AD were significantly lower than in those without the disease, even after adjusting for sex and age. Activities of bed mobility (p < 0.05), transfer and locomotion (p < 0.001), and bathing (p < 0.05) in the elderly with a fracture treated with surgery were significantly lower, which differed from the results of AD. Significant interactions of AD and fracture treated with surgery on the ADL scores for bed mobility (p < 0.001), dysphagia (p < 0.01), feeding (p < 0.001), and toilet use (p < 0.05) show that the combination had a much more profound influence on the ADL scores than AD or fracture alone. We obtained almost the same results for fractures treated conservatively as for fractures treated with surgery. These results demonstrated that the combined effects of AD and lower limb fracture were significantly greater than expected additive effects of AD and fracture, suggesting that the combination of AD and lower limb fracture has synergistic effects on almost all types of ADL except cognitive functions.
Shimizu, Rana; Nonomura, Yoshimune
We have developed an artificial skin that mimics the morphological and mechanical properties of human skin. The artificial skin comprises a polyurethane block possessing a microscopically rough surface. We evaluated the tactile sensations when skin-care cream was applied to the artificial skin. Many subjects perceived smooth, moist, and soft feels during the application process. Cluster analysis showed that these characteristic tactile feels are similar to those when skin-care cream is applied to real human skin. Contact angle analysis showed that an oil droplet spread smoothly on the artificial skin surface, which occurred because there were many grooves several hundred micrometers in width on the skin surface. In addition, when the skin-care cream was applied, the change in frictional force during the dynamic friction process increased. These wetting and frictional properties are important factors controlling the similarity of artificial skin to real human skin.
Schimanski, Carl Christoph; Staib, Frank; Göhler, Thomas; Hebart, Holger; Heike, Michael; Neise, Michael; Rudi, Jochen; Geer, Thomas; Dingeldein, Gerrit; Lang, Claudia; Ehscheidt, Peter; Flohr, Thomas; Josten, Klaus Maria; Karthaus, Meinolf; Schmittel, Alexander; Wierecky, Jan; Boller, Emil; Indorf, Martin; Wörns, Marcus-Alexander; Galle, Peter R; Moehler, Markus
Cetuximab-induced skin rash Gd3+ occurs in ≥16% patients (pts) (Heinemann et al., Lancet Oncol 15(10):1065-1075, 2014; Van Cutsem et al. J Clin Oncol 27(19):3117-25; 2009b). Survival, response, and toxicity parameters were re-evaluated under a pre-defined skin prophylaxis consistent of vitamin K1 ointment and oral doxycycline. This is a national, multicenter, phase 4, first-line mCRC (K-RAS wt) trial. Pts received irinotecan 180 mg/m² (d1), FA 400 mg/m² (d1), 5-FU 400 mg/m² (d1), 5-FU 2400 mg/m² (d1-2), and cetuximab [400 mg/m² (d1), and then 250 mg/m² qw], prophylactic 0.1% vitamin K1 ointment qd, and oral doxycycline 100 mg bid. 1-year PFS rate; secondary objectives: skin side-effects (grade, onset), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS) time, and overall survival (OS) time and safety. Twenty centers recruited 55 patients. Recruitment started Q1 2011 and ended Q3 2013 due to slow accrual. Characteristics were in line with CRYSTAL trial except for age and colonic location. 1-year PFS rate was 25.9%, mOS 21.8 months (m), and mPFS 8.5 m. ORR was 63.0%, DCR 77.8%. Rash Gd2+ occurred in 42.6% [median onset was 4.0 weeks (w)]; paronychia Gd2+ occurred in 22.2% (median onset 15.4w.); skin fissures Gd2+ occurred in 31.5% (median onset 19.9 weeks) 7% pts abandoned cetuximab treatment due to toxicity. Our data reveal encouraging improvements in skin reactions and their time to occurrence due to a pre-defined skin care.
Namrata; Ahmad, Shabi
Introduction Gastrointestinal fistulas are serious complications and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In majority of the patients, fistulas are treatable. However, the treatment is very complex and often multiple therapies are required. These highly beneficial treatment options which could shorten fistula closure time also result in considerable hospital cost savings. Aim This study was planned to study aetiology, clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality of enterocutaneous fistula and to evaluate the different surgical intervention techniques for closure of enterocutaneous fistula along with a comparative evaluation of different techniques for management of peristomal skin with special emphasis on aluminum paint, Karaya gum (Hollister) and Gum Acacia. Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad and its associated hospital (S.R.N. Hospital, Allahabad) for a period of five years. Results Majority of enterocutaneous fistula were of small bowel and medium output fistulas (500-1000 ml/24hours). Most of the patients were treated with conservative treatment as compared to surgical intervention. Large bowel fistula has maximum spontaneous closure rate compare to small bowel and duodenum. Number of orifice whether single or multiple does not appear to play statistically significant role in spontaneous closure of fistula. Serum Albumin is a significantly important predictor of spontaneous fistula closure and mortality. Surgical management appeared to be the treatment of choice in distal bowel fistula. The application of karaya gum (Hollister kit), Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint gave similar outcome. Conclusion Postoperative fistulas are the most common aetiology of enterocutaneous fistula and various factors do play role in management. Peristomal skin care done with Karaya Gum, Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint has almost equal efficiency in management of skin
Yamada, Maya; Iihara, Hirotoshi; Fujii, Hironori; Ishihara, Masashi; Matsuhashi, Nobuhisa; Takahashi, Takao; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Yoshinori
Although the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody panitumumab is effective in treating colorectal cancer, the occurrence of severe skin disorders often discontinues therapy. Herein, we investigated by a retrospective chart review the effect of prophylactic oral minocycline in combination with skin treatment using moisturizer on the incidence of skin disorders and tumor response in metastatic colorectal cancer patients who received panitumumab. In a total of 55 patients, 38 patients were eligible, consisting the pre-emptive group (N=25) and reactive group (N=13). Acneiform rash and other adverse events were graded according to the CTCAE v4.0. The occurrence of acneiform rash (grade ≥2) was significantly lower in pre-emptive group than in reactive group (44.0% vs. 84.6%, p=0.04). No significant differences in the occurrence of other adverse events were observed between the two groups. Tumor response was not significantly different between the two groups (36.0% vs. 7.7%, OR, 6.75; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.75-60.76, p=0.12). Mean time to treatment failure was 149.7 days and 110.2 days in the pre-emptive group and reactive treatment group, respectively (HR=0.58; 95% CI= 0.26-1.28, p=0.18). Prophylactic oral minocycline combined with skin care reduced panitumumab-induced acneiform rash without a significant influence on tumor response. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N
Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Jong, Miek C; Ermuth, Ulrike; Augustin, Matthias
To assess the outcome and safety of plant-based ointments versus usual care in the management of chronic skin diseases. Prospective mono-centric comparative analysis. Patients were recruited at an outpatient dermatology clinic and treated with plant-based ointments or care as usual. Main outcome criterion was the response rate, defined as the proportion of patients experiencing 'complete recovery' or 'major improvement' at 6, 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcome criteria were quality of life (SF-12 and EQ-5D), patient satisfaction and safety of treatment. A total of 112 patients with chronic skin diseases were evaluated of which 44 were treated with plant-based ointments (PO) and 68 received usual care (UC). The majority of patients suffered from psoriasis (PO: 50%; UC: 56%) or eczema (PO: 41%; UC: 32%) and were treated with homoeopathic topical ointments containing mahonia or cardiospermum or usual care creams containing calcipotriene and corticosteroids. The only significant difference in baseline status between the two groups was in disease severity score (PO: 1.8±0.7 versus UC: 2.4±0.8, p=0.0004). After two years, the main outcome of responders to treatment was 52.3% (95%-CI: 36.1-64.9) in the ointment and 41.2% (95%-CI: 20.4-42.2) in the UC group. Change in SF-12 (2 years compared to baseline), adjusted for baseline disease severity, was not significantly different between both groups; PO: 5.4 (95%-CI: 3.4-7.3) versus UC: 3.2 (95%-CI: 1.5-4.9). The adjusted EQ-5D was found to be significantly different between the two groups after two years, in favour of the ointment group; PO: 0.113 (95%-CI: 0.052-0.174) and UC: -0.008 (95%-CI: -0.055-0.038). Other secondary outcome parameters such as patient satisfaction and number of adverse drug reactions were comparable. The outcome of this study suggests at least therapeutic equivalence between plant-based ointments and usual care management of chronic skin diseases. As this non-randomised study was open to selection
Chen, Er-Mei; Liu, Chieh-Yu
This study examines how skin-to-skin contact between father and newborn affects the attachment relationship. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a regional teaching hospital and a maternity clinic in northern Taiwan. The study recruited 83 first-time fathers aged 20 years or older. By block randomization, participants were allocated to an experimental (n = 41) or a control (n = 42) group. With the exception of skin-to-skin contact (SSC), participants from each group received the same standard care. Both groups also received an Early Childcare for Fathers nursing pamphlet. During the first three days postpartum, the intervention group members were provided a daily SSC intervention with their respective infants. Each intervention session lasted at least 15 minutes in length. The outcome measure was the Father-Child Attachment Scale (FCAS). After adjusting for demographic data, the changes to the mean FCAS were found to be significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. We recommend that nurses and midwives use instructional leaflets and demonstrations during postpartum hospitalization, encouraging new fathers to take an active role in caring for their newborn in order to enhance father-neonate interactions and establish parental confidence. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number NCT02886767. PMID:28194281
Ellison, Kirsten L
Drawing from a collection of over 160 North American print advertisements for anti-aging skin care products from January to December of 2009, this paper examines the discourse of agelessness, a vision of esthetic perfection and optimal health that is continually referred to by gerontologists, cultural theorists, and scientific researchers as a state of being to which humankind can aspire. Employing critical discourse analysis through the use of semiotics and visual rhetoric, this paper explores the means through which anti-aging skin care advertisements present to their viewers a particular object of desire, looking, more specifically, at how agelessness is presented as a way out and ultimate transcendence of age. Through the analytical tools of semiotics and visual rhetoric, four visions of agelessness are identified and explored in this paper: Agelessness as Scientific Purity, Agelessness as Genetic Impulse, Agelessness as Nature's Essence, and Agelessness as Myth. Whether found in the heights of scientific purity, the inner core of our genetic impulse, the depths of nature's essence, or whether agelessness itself has reached its own, untouchable, mythic status, the advertisements in this study represent one of the most pervasive vehicles through which our current vision(s) of ageless perfection are reflected, reinforced, and suspended in a drop of cream. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
von Schwerin, Alexander
This paper brings together the history of risk and the history of DNA repair, a biological phenomenon that emerged as a research field in between molecular biology, genetics, and radiation research in the 1960s. The case of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), an inherited hypersensitivity to UV light and, hence, a disposition to skin cancer will be the starting point to argue that, in the 1970s and 1980s, DNA repair became entangled in the creation of new models of the human body at risk - what is here conceptually referred to as the vulnerability aspect of body history - and new attempts at cancer prevention and enhancement of the body associated with the new flourishing research areas of antimutagenesis and anticarcinogenesis. The aim will be to demonstrate that DNA repair created special attempts at disease prevention: molecular enhancement, seeking to identify means to increase the self-repair abilities of the body at the molecular level. Prevention in this sense meant enhancing the body's ability to cope with the environmental hazards of an already toxic world. This strategy has recently been adopted by the beauty industry, which introduced DNA care as a new target for skin care research and anti-aging formulas.
Lincoln, Katherine; Hyde, Jessica
In recent years, a new technology for autologous epidermal harvesting has been developed to produce epidermal skin grafts (ESGs) for use over wounds. This technology employs negative pressure and heat to raise the epidermal skin layer, allowing for consistent and reproducible epidermal harvesting. The aim of this case series is to present the authors' experience using an automated, epidermal harvesting system to produce ESGs to treat wounds of patients with multiple comorbidities. This case series was conducted between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. Patients with wounds (≤ 25 cm2) that failed to heal were treated with ESGs by a group of 3 wound care physicians in 2 outpatient wound care centers in a community health center setting. A total of 94 patients with 102 wounds were identified. Of the 94 patients, 3 were noncompliant and 9 were lost to follow-up. Therefore, 82 patients with 90 wounds were included in the analysis. The majority of wounds demonstrated epithelialization (83/90, 92.2%). Of the 90 wounds, 75 (83.3%) healed following epidermal grafting, 4 (4.4%) wounds displayed improvement, and 11 (12.2%) did not heal. Minimal or no pain at the donor site was reported by the patients, and all donor sites healed without complications. This case series provides additional evidence for the use of ESGs for the treatment of wounds that fail to heal.
Baron, Justine S; Sullivan, Katrina J; Swaine, Jillian M; Aspinall, Arlene; Jaglal, Susan; Presseau, Justin; Wolfe, Dalton; Grimshaw, Jeremy M
Systematic review. To examine use of theory and quality of reporting in skin care self-management interventions for people with SCI. International. The Theory Coding Scheme (TCS) and the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist were applied by two independent researchers to 17 interventions identified in a systematic review of self-management interventions for skin care in people with SCI. Six (35%) of the 17 interventions reviewed were reported to have a theoretical basis. Theories used included three of the most commonly featured in health behavior research (the Health Belief Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Transtheoretical Model). In these six interventions, theory was used to design content but not to select participants or tailor strategies. None of the interventions were used to test theories in the SCI population, or to propose theoretical refinements. Reporting quality was found to vary by TIDieR item, with 6-100% of interventions including recommended information. Information on two intervention fidelity items was missing in 53 and 82% of descriptions. Use of theory and reporting quality in SCI self-management research remains suboptimal, potentially slowing down advancements in this area of research. Rehabilitation researchers should direct their efforts toward improving these practices to help build a science of SCI self-management that is cumulative and reproducible by clinicians, scientists, and policy makers. This work was funded through a postdoctoral fellowship awarded to the first author by the Rick Hansen Institute.
Tarasov, Aleksandr A.; Chu, Hong; Buchwald, Kristian
Two years ago we reported about the development of solid state laser source for medical skin treatment with wavelength 310.6 nm and average power 200 mW. Here we describe the results of investigation of the advanced version of the laser, which is a more compact device with increased output power and flat top beam profile. Ti: Sapphire laser, the main module of our source, was modified and optimized such, that UV average power of the device was increased 1.7 times. Fiber optic homogenizer was replaced by articulated arm with diffraction diffuser, providing round spot with flat profile at the skin. We investigated and compare characteristics of Ti: Sapphire lasers with volume Bragg grating and with fused silica transmission grating, which was used first time for Ti: Sapphire laser spectral selection and tuning. Promising performance of last gratings is demonstrated.
Chen, Jin; Wei, Ning; Lopez-Garcia, Maria; Ambrose, Dianna; Lee, Jason; Annelin, Colin; Peterson, Teresa
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been studied as potential carriers for both dermal and transdermal drug delivery. SLN contain lipid droplets that are fully crystallized and have a highly-ordered crystalline structure. NLC are modified SLN in which the lipid phase contains both solid and liquid lipids at room temperature. SLN and NLC are thought to combine the advantages of polymeric particles, liposomes and emulsions. Therefore they provide high encapsulation percentages, better protection for incorporated actives and allow for control of desired release profile. In this work, Resveratrol, Vitamin E (VE), and Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) all potent antioxidants known to provide protection to the skin, were formulated into lipid nanoparticles. Several different formulations were successfully developed and demonstrated high uniformity and stability. Both resveratrol and VE lipid nanoparticles provided effective protection of actives against UV induced degradation. However, lipid nanoparticles did not show protection from UV degradation for EGCG in this work. An active release study exhibited a sustained release of resveratrol over 70% after 24h. Skin penetration studies showed that lipid nanoparticles directionally improved the penetration of resveratrol through the stratum corneum. Our findings suggest that lipid nanoparticles are promising viable carriers for the delivery of resveratrol and VE to provide longlasting antioxidant benefits to the skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
On-demand rather than daily-routine chest radiography prescription may change neither the number nor the impact of chest computed tomography and ultrasound studies in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit.
Kröner, Anke; Binnekade, Jan M; Graat, Marleen E; Vroom, Margreeth B; Stoker, Jaap; Spronk, Peter E; Schultz, Marcus J
Elimination of daily-routine chest radiographs (CXRs) may influence chest computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound practice in critically ill patients. This was a retrospective cohort study including all patients admitted to a university-affiliated intensive care unit during two consecutive periods of 5 months, one before and one after elimination of daily-routine CXR. Chest CT and ultrasound studies were identified retrospectively by using the radiology department information system. Indications for and the diagnostic/therapeutic yield of chest CT and ultrasound studies were collected. Elimination of daily-routine CXR resulted in a decrease of CXRs per patient day from 1.1 +/- 0.3 to 0.6 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.05). Elimination did not affect duration of stay or mortality rates. Neither the number of chest CT studies nor the ratio of chest CT studies per patient day changed with the intervention: Before elimination of daily-routine CXR, 52 chest CT studies were obtained from 747 patients; after elimination, 54 CT studies were obtained from 743 patients. Similarly, chest ultrasound practice was not affected by the change of CXR strategy: Before and after elimination, 21 and 27 chest ultrasound studies were performed, respectively. Also, timing of chest CT and ultrasound studies was not different between the two study periods. During the two periods, 40 of 106 chest CT studies (38%) and 18 of 48 chest ultrasound studies (38%) resulted in a change in therapy. The combined therapeutic yield of chest CT and ultrasound studies did not change with elimination of daily-routine CXR. Elimination of daily-routine CXRs may not affect chest CT and ultrasound practice in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit.
McKelvey, Wendy; Jeffery, Nancy; Clark, Nancy; Kass, Daniel; Parsons, Patrick J.
Background Mercury is a toxic metal that has been used for centuries as a constituent of medicines and other items. Objective We assessed exposure to inorganic mercury in the adult population of New York City (NYC). Methods We measured mercury concentrations in spot urine specimens from a representative sample of 1,840 adult New Yorkers in the 2004 NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cases with urine concentrations ≥ 20 μg/L were followed up with a telephone or in-person interview that asked about potential sources of exposure, including ritualistic/cultural practices, skin care products, mercury spills, herbal medicine products, and fish. Results Geometric mean urine mercury concentration in NYC was higher for Caribbean-born blacks [1.39 μg/L; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14–1.70] and Dominicans (1.04 μg/L; 95% CI, 0.82–1.33) than for non-Hispanic whites (0.67 μg/L; 95% CI, 0.60–0.75) or other racial/ethnic groups. It was also higher among those who reported at least 20 fish meals in the past 30 days (1.02 μg/L; 95% CI, 0.83–1.25) than among those who reported no fish meals (0.50 μg/L; 95% CI, 0.41–0.61). We observed the highest 95th percentile of exposure (21.18 μg/L; 95% CI, 7.25–51.29) among Dominican women. Mercury-containing skin-lightening creams were a source of exposure among those most highly exposed, and we subsequently identified 12 imported products containing illegal levels of mercury in NYC stores. Conclusion Population-based biomonitoring identified a previously unrecognized source of exposure to inorganic mercury among NYC residents. In response, the NYC Health Department embargoed products and notified store owners and the public that skin-lightening creams and other skin care products that contain mercury are dangerous and illegal. Although exposure to inorganic mercury is not a widespread problem in NYC, users of these products may be at risk of health effects from exposure. PMID:20923743
Introduction Many intensive care unit (ICU) patients describe pain and other adverse feelings that may impact long-term psychological morbidity. Sympathetically mediated palmar skin conductance variability is related to emotionally induced perspiration and correlates with pain levels in the perioperative setting but has not been studied in ICU patients. Methods Twenty non-intubated and 20 intubated general ICU patients were included in this observational study. Patients were monitored with the MED-STORM Pain Monitoring System®. The number of skin conductance fluctuations per second (NSCF) was measured in parallel with bedside observation during one hour of intensive care, including rest, procedures and patient-staff interactions. Arousal-agitation level was monitored with the motor activity assessment scale (MAAS). Pain was monitored with the numeric rating scale (0 to 10) in patients able to communicate or by observation in patients unable to communicate. Results In non-intubated patients, NSCF increased with increasing stimulation/pain but also with higher MAAS (P = 0.002). An interaction effect was found, with increased NSCF response to stimulation/pain with increasing MAAS (P < 0.001). In intubated patients, NSCF increased significantly with increasing stimulation/pain (P < 0.001). In contrast to non-intubated patients, no difference in NSCF between MAAS levels was found for any given degree of stimulation in intubated patients. Conclusions In critically ill patients, NSCF may be more useful evaluating emotional distress rather than pain alone. It needs to be assessed whether NSCF monitoring is clinically useful and whether controlling emotional distress with the aid of such monitoring may impact on patient care and outcomes. PMID:23510014
Pai, Madhukar; Gokhale, Kaustubh; Joshi, Rajnish; Dogra, Sandeep; Kalantri, Shriprakash; Mendiratta, Deepak K; Narang, Pratibha; Daley, Charles L; Granich, Reuben M; Mazurek, Gerald H; Reingold, Arthur L; Riley, Lee W; Colford, John M
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in health care workers has not been adequately studied in developing countries using newer diagnostic tests. To estimate latent tuberculosis infection prevalence in health care workers using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and a whole-blood interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) assay; to determine agreement between the tests; and to compare their correlation with risk factors. A cross-sectional comparison study of 726 health care workers aged 18 to 61 years (median age, 22 years) with no history of active tuberculosis conducted from January to May 2004, at a rural medical school in India. A total of 493 (68%) of the health care workers had direct contact with patients with tuberculosis and 514 (71%) had BCG vaccine scars. Tuberculin skin testing was performed using 1-TU dose of purified protein derivative RT23, and the IFN-gamma assay was performed by measuring IFN-gamma response to early secreted antigenic target 6, culture filtrate protein 10, and a portion of tuberculosis antigen TB7.7. Agreement between TST and the IFN-gamma assay, and comparison of the tests with respect to their association with risk factors. A large proportion of the health care workers were latently infected; 360 (50%) were positive by either TST or IFN-gamma assay, and 226 (31%) were positive by both tests. The prevalence estimates of TST and IFN-gamma assay positivity were comparable (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 38%-45% and 40%; 95% CI, 37%-43%, respectively). Agreement between the tests was high (81.4%; kappa = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.56-0.67). Increasing age and years in the health profession were significant risk factors for both IFN-gamma assay and TST positivity. BCG vaccination had little impact on TST and IFN-gamma assay results. Our study showed high latent tuberculosis infection prevalence in Indian health care workers, high agreement between TST and IFN-gamma assay, and similar association between positive test results and risk factors. Although TST and
Pathak, Anuj Kumar; Kumar, Subodh; Kumar, Manish; Dikshit, Harihar
Introduction Skin diseases are the major contributors of disease burden in society. It affects individuals of all ages, neonates to elderly. Owing to its chronic nature, it causes serious impact on quality of life and financial status of the sufferer and his family. The problem gets compounded with the inappropriate and irrational use of medicines. Periodic prescription audit in form of drug utilization study is a way to improve the quality of prescription and curb the menace of irrational prescribing which has become a global phenomenon. Aim This study aims to determine the drug utilization pattern and assess the economic burden of the patient with skin disease. Materials and Methods It was a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted over a period of three months from January to March 2015 in newly diagnosed cases attending outpatient department of Skin and VD, IGIMS, Patna. The prescriptions were analysed with the help of descriptive statistics and results were expressed in percentage. Results Total 752 prescriptions were analysed during the study. Male patients were lesser as compared to female as male to female ratio was 0.88. Over 50% of patients were in adolescent age group i.e. 21-40 years. Acne (17.95%) was most common disease in the study population followed by eczema and Dermatophytosis. Among the drugs, antihistaminics (24.13%) were prescribed most frequently followed by antifungals and antibiotics. Topical agents constituted almost 60% of the total prescription and average number of drugs per prescription was 5.13, irrespective of the dosage forms prescribed. Conclusion This drug utilization study provides an insight to the prescriber regarding various issues related to polypharmacy, cost analysis and prevalent disease pattern in the region. This study also suggests periodic evaluation of prescription pattern to monitor and improve quality of prescription in other departments of the hospital. PMID:27042479
... for Varicose Veins Sclerotherapy for Varicose Veins Back Hair Transplants Laser Treatments for Pre-Cancerous ... Skin Sagging skin in the lower face and neck is a natural part of the aging process. Why treat sagging ...
Sun, Jeong-Yun; Keplinger, Christoph; Whitesides, George M; Suo, Zhigang
Electronic skins (i.e., stretchable sheets of distributed sensors) report signals using electrons, whereas natural skins report signals using ions. Here, ionic conductors are used to create a new type of sensory sheet, called "ionic skin". Ionic skins are highly stretchable, transparent, and biocompatible. They readily measure strains from 1% to 500%, and pressures as low as 1 kPa. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Tayyib, Nahla; Coyer, Fiona
This article reports on the development and implementation process used to integrate a care bundle approach (a pressure ulcer [PU] prevention bundle to improve patients' skin integrity in intensive care) and the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU). The PU prevention care bundle demonstrated significant reduction in PU incidence, with the OMRU model providing a consolidated framework for the implementation of bundled evidence in an effective and consistent manner into daily clinical nursing practice.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin Biopsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Skin Biopsy What's in ... en español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a ...
Chen, Guoqiang; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Su, Ya; Janssen, Hans-Gerd
A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal standard. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode was applied for the detection of climbazole. For quantification, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition 293.0>69.0 was monitored for climbazole, and MRM transition 296.0>225.1 for the deuterated climbazole. The linear range ran from 4 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 ng mL(-1) and 4 ng mL(-1), respectively, which enabled quantification of climbazole on artificial skin and human scalp at ppb level (corresponding to 16 ng cm(-2)). For the sampling of climbazole from human scalp the buffer scrub method using a surfactant-modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was selected based on a performance comparison of tape stripping, the buffer scrub method and solvent extraction in in vitro studies. Using this method, climbazole deposition in in vitro and in vivo studies was successfully quantified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Skin roughness is a term commonly used in Japan to describe a poor skin condition related to a rough and dry skin surface that develops as a result of various damaging effects from the environment or skin inflammation. Recovery from skin roughness requires skin care for a long period, thus it is important to prevent development of such skin changes. PROTECT X2 contains agents used for a protective covering of the skin from frequent hand washing or use of alcohol-based disinfectants. These unique components are also thought to be effective to treat skin roughness of the dorsa of the hands and heels. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of PROTECT X2 to increase skin surface hydration state, as well as enhance the barrier function of the stratum corneum of the dorsa of the hands and heels in elderly individuals. A total of 8 elderly subjects and their caretakers without any skin diseases participated in the study. They applied PROTECT X2 by themselves to the dorsum area of 1 hand and heel 3 to 5 times daily for 1 month, while the opposite sides were left untreated. We measured stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before beginning treatment, then 1 week and 1 month after the start of treatment to compare between the treated and untreated skin. SC hydration state after applications of PROTECT X2 was 1.5- to 3.0-fold higher than that of the untreated skin in the dorsa of both hands and heels, indicating that the moisturizing ingredients accompanied by water were replenished in those areas where the cream was applied. Also, TEWL in the dorsum of the hands was 17.0-27.9% lower on the treated side, indicating improvement in SC barrier function. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that PROTECT X2 enhances water-holding in the SC and aids the barrier function of the skin in the dorsum of the hands. In addition, we consider that this formulation is useful for not only protecting the hands from the effects of such agents
... A yellow tint might indicate liver disease. And dark or unusual moles might be a warning sign ... Household Burns Your Microbes and You Healthy Skin Matters Skin Care and Aging Skin Cancer (Including Melanoma) ...
Wrighton-Smith, Peter; Sneed, Laurie; Humphrey, Frances; Tao, Xuguang; Bernacki, Edward
To determine the price point at which an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) is less costly than a tuberculin skin test (TST) for health care employee tuberculosis screening. A multidecision tree-based cost model incorporating inputs gathered from time-motion studies and parallel testing by IGRA and TST was conducted in a subset of our employees. Administering a TST testing program costs $73.20 per person screened, $90.80 per new hire, and $63.42 per annual screen. Use of an IGRA for employee health testing is cost saving at an IGRA test cost of $54.83 or less per test and resulted in higher completion rates because of the elimination of the need for a second visit to interpret the TST. Using an IGRA for employee health screening can be an institutional cost saving and results in higher compliance rates.
Bruce, Suzanne; Roberts, Wendy; Teller, Craig; Colvan, Lora
Chemical peels are versatile treatments that involve chemical exfoliation of the skin for cosmetic improvement. Deeper peels produce more significant results, but can be associated with longer healing time and potential complications. Novel chemical resurfacing treatments (AGE and MELA) were developed in Europe to produce skin resurfacing via controlled inflammation to promote cell regeneration with minimum negative effects associated with conventional peelings. The AGE Resurfacing regimen is indicated for the treatment of photoaging, and consists of multi-ingredient peeling solution with trichloroacetic acid, pyruvic acid, salicylic acid, mandelic acid, and lactobionic acid. The MELA Resurfacing regimen addresses hyperpigmentation concerns and contains mandelic acid, potassium azeloyl diglycinate, retinol, salicylic acid, phytic acid, lactobionic acid, and lactic acid. Results of previously conducted US clinical experience trial of AGE and MELA resurfacing protocols rated 81% of subjects with some level of improvement according to physician assessment.
To evaluate whether a daily skin care regimen used for 12 weeks could maintain the benefits achieved with AGE and MELA chemical resurfacing treatments.
Subjects who completed participation in the AGE and MELA skin resurfacing clinical trial were recruited to participate in a continuation trial and used a daily regimen of MDRejuvena facial products for 12 weeks. No other facial products were permitted. Physicians assessed the severity of individual skin parameters at baseline and week 12 and provided global assessment. Subjects assessed improvement of individual skin parameters at week 12 and provided an overall assessment.
Thirteen subjects participated in the 12-week continuation trial. According to the physician's global assessment, all subjects demonstrated some level of improvement at week 12 compared to baseline. Physician assessment showed a decrease in severity of all skin parameters assessed
Arung, Enos Tangke; Kuspradini, Harlinda; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro
In searching for a new material made from natural resources that could be used as a whitening agent, we focused on the plants used for skin treatment by the native people of East Kalimantan. The methanol extract of the leaves of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl showed antimelanogenesis activity in a melanin biosynthesis assay. By activity-guided fractionation, 7-methoxycoumarin (1) was isolated as an active compound. The IC50 of 1 on mushroom tyrosinase was 2360 μM (L-tyrosine was used as the substrate) and above 2840 μM (L-DOPA was used as the substrate), respectively. Regarding melanin formation inhibition in B16 melanoma cells, the IC50 of 1 was 1780 μM with 83% cell viability at IC50. Based on these results, we validated that the leaf extract is in line with the traditional use of the Dayak tribe in East Kalimantan. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Vehicle-Controlled Clinical Trial of an Alpha and Beta Defensin-Containing Anti-Aging Skin Care Regimen With Clinical, Histopathologic, Immunohistochemical, Photographic, and Ultrasound Evaluation.
Taub, Amy; Bucay, Vivian; Keller, Gregory; Williams, Jay; Mehregan, Darius
Anti-aging strategies utilizing stem cells are in the forefront. Alpha and beta defensins are natural immune peptides that have been shown to activate an LGR6-positive stem cell locus in the hair follicle, identified as the source of most new epidermal cells during acute wound healing. We investigated the ability of biomimetic alpha and beta defensin molecules, supplemented with supportive cosmetic ingredients, formulated into three skin care products, at improving the structure and function of aging skin. A participant- and investigator -blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial was performed in outpatient settings. Forty-four healthy female subjects, aged 41-71 years, skin types I-V, completed the study with 2/3 receiving full formula and 1/3 receiving the placebo formula. A skin care regimen of 3 products (serum, cream, and mask) containing alpha-defensin 5 and beta-defensin 3, and other cosmetic ingredients, was applied to the face, post-auricular, and neck skin two times per day for 12 weeks in those receiving full formula, whereas the placebo group received the identically packaged regimen without the active ingredients. Methods of evaluation included histopathology and immunohistochemistry (7 subjects), clinical evaluation of pores, superficial and deep wrinkles based on Griffiths scale, and high-resolution photography (all subjects). In addition, a subset of 15 patients were evaluated with the QuantifiCare system (3-dimensional imaging and skin care scores for evenness, pores, oiliness) and Cortex measurements (high-resolution skin ultrasound, TEWL, elasticity, color, and hydration). Data points for evaluation included baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. All patients used the same sunscreen and cleanser, which was provided to them. The full formula regimen caused a significantly (P equals 0.027) increased thickness of the epidermis as seen in histology, not seen in the placebo group, with no signs of inflammation. No excessive cell proliferation was
Daly, Jeanette M.; Ely, John W.; Levy, Barcey T.; Smith, Tara C.; Merchant, Mary L.; Bergus, George R.; Jogerst, Gerald J.
An estimated 95,000 people developed methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) infections during 2005 of which 14% were community-associated and 85% were hospital or other health setting associated, and 19,000 Americans died from these infections that year. Purpose: To explore health care providers' perspectives on management…
... The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. Melanoma, a more serious type of skin ... The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ...
Tirant, M; Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Wollina, U; Novotny, F; Roccia, M G; Maximov, G K; França, K; Lotti, T
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory dermatosis that causes significant distress and morbidity. Approximately 50% of patients with cutaneous psoriasis and 90% of patients with psoriatic arthritis demonstrate nail involvement of their psoriasis. Left untreated, nail psoriasis may progress to debilitating nail disease that leads to not only impairment of function but also on quality of life. We report the case of a 50-year-old male patient with recalcitrant nail dystrophies on the fingers since the age of 40, who responded successfully to Dr. Michaels® product family. The patient had a 35-year history of plaque psoriasis localised on the scalp, ears, groin, limbs, and trunk and with psoriatic arthritis. The nail symptoms consisted of onycholysis, onychomycosis, leukonychia, transverse grooves, nail plate crumbling and paronychia of the periungal skin. This case represents the efficacy and safety of the Dr. Michaels® (Soratinex® and Nailinex®) product family with successful resolution of nail dystrophies and surrounding paronychia with no reported adverse events.
Vikramkumar, Adaikalampillai Ganapathy; Kuruvila, Sheela; Ganguly, Satyaki
Autologous serum skin test (ASST) is a simple in-vivo clinical test for the detection of basophil histamine releasing activity and to diagnose chronic autoimmune urticaria (CAU) among chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) patients. Diagnosing these patients is also important as they may need high doses of antihistamines and systemic corticosteroids during acute exacerbations. The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of CAU among cases of CSU by using ASST. This was a cross-sectional study done among 48 patients presenting with CSU. Detailed history, physical examination and routine investigations were recorded for all patients. ASST was done on all the 48 patients. Of the 48 patients included in the study, 20 patients (41.6%) were ASST positive, while the remaining 28 (58%) were ASST negative. The median duration of disease in both ASST positive and negative patients was 1 year. ASST positivity was higher (66.6%) among patients with a history of round shaped weals, though not statistically significant. ASST positivity was seen in 5 (71.4%) out of seven patients with systemic involvement, which was again not statistically significant. Our study did not show any significant difference between patients with and without antibodies regarding mean age and sex distribution, clinical morphology of individual weals, duration, severity, systemic symptoms, angioedema, atopy, and association with other autoimmune conditions.
Geriatric assessment in daily oncology practice for nurses and allied health care professionals: Opinion paper of the Nursing and Allied Health Interest Group of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG).
Burhenn, Peggy S; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Begue, Aaron; Nightingale, Ginah; Cheng, Karis; Kenis, Cindy
The management of older persons with cancer has become a major public health concern in developed countries because of the aging of the population and the steady increase in cancer incidence with advancing age. Nurses and allied health care professionals are challenged to address the needs of this growing population. The International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) Nursing and Allied Health (NAH) Interest Group described key issues that nurses and allied health care professionals face when caring for older persons with cancer. The domains of the Geriatric Assessment (GA) are used as a guiding framework. The following geriatric domains are described: demographic data and social support, functional status, cognition, mental health, nutritional status, fatigue, comorbidities, polypharmacy, and other geriatric syndromes (e.g. falls, delirium). In addition to these geriatric domains, quality of life (QoL) is described based on the overall importance in this particular population. Advice for integration of assessment of these geriatric domains into daily oncology practice is made. Research has mainly focused on the role of treating physicians but the involvement of nurses and allied health care professionals is crucial in the care of older persons with cancer through the GA process. The ability of nurses and allied health care professionals to perform this assessment requires specialized training and education beyond standard oncology knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harris, M; Brathwaite, R; McGowan, Catherine R; Ciccarone, D; Gilchrist, G; McCusker, M; O'Brien, K; Dunn, J; Scott, J; Hope, V
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs (PWID). International data indicate up to one third of PWID have experienced an SSTI within the past month. Complications include sepsis, endocarditis and amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis. AA amyloidosis is a serious sequela of chronic SSTI among PWID. Though there is a paucity of literature reporting on AA amyloidosis among PWID, what has been published suggests there is likely a causal relationship between AA amyloidosis and injecting-related SSTI. If left untreated, AA amyloidosis can lead to renal failure; premature mortality among diagnosed PWID is high. Early intervention may reverse disease. Despite the high societal and individual burden of SSTI among PWID, empirical evidence on the barriers and facilitators to injecting-related SSTI prevention and care or the feasibility and acceptability of AA amyloidosis screening and treatment referral are limited. This study aims to fill these gaps and assess the prevalence of AA amyloidosis among PWID. Care and Prevent is a UK National Institute for Health Research-funded mixed-methods study. In five phases (P1-P5), we aim to assess the evidence for AA amyloidosis among PWID (P1); assess the feasibility of AA amyloidosis screening, diagnostic and treatment referral among PWID in London (P2); investigate the barriers and facilitators to AA amyloidosis care (P3); explore SSTI protection and risk (P4); and co-create harm reduction resources with the affected community (P5). This paper describes the conceptual framework, methodological design and proposed analysis for the mixed-methods multi-phase study. We are implementing the Care and Prevent protocol in London. The systematic review component of the study has been completed and published. Care and Prevent will generate an estimate of AA amyloidosis prevalence among community recruited PWID in London, with implications for the development of screening
Nipple adenoma in a female patient presenting with persistent erythema of the right nipple skin: case report, review of the literature, clinical implications, and relevancy to health care providers who evaluate and treat patients with dermatologic conditions of the breast skin.
Spohn, Gina P; Trotter, Shannon C; Tozbikian, Gary; Povoski, Stephen P
Nipple adenoma is a very uncommon, benign proliferative process of lactiferous ducts of the nipple. Clinically, it often presents as a palpable nipple nodule, a visible nipple skin erosive lesion, and/or with discharge from the surface of the nipple skin, and is primarily seen in middle-aged women. Resultantly, nipple adenoma can clinically mimic the presentation of mammary Paget's disease of the nipple. The purpose of our current case report is to present a comprehensive review of the available data on nipple adenoma, as well as provide useful information to health care providers (including dermatologists, breast health specialists, and other health care providers) who evaluate patients with dermatologic conditions of the breast skin for appropriately clinically recognizing, diagnosing, and treating patients with nipple adenoma. Fifty-three year old Caucasian female presented with a one year history of erythema and induration of the skin of the inferior aspect of the right nipple/areolar region. Skin punch biopsies showed subareolar duct papillomatosis. The patient elected to undergo complete surgical excision with right central breast resection. Final histopathologic evaluation confirmed nipple adenoma. The patient is doing well 31 months after her definitive surgical therapy. Since nipple adenoma represents a benign proliferative process of the nipple, complete surgical excision is curative. However, the coexistence of nipple adenoma and ipsilateral or contralateral breast cancer is well reported in the literature. The potential for a direct causal link or association of nipple adenoma and breast cancer cannot be fully excluded.
Lee, Grace C; Hall, Ronald G; Boyd, Natalie K; Dallas, Steven D; Du, Liem C; Treviño, Lucina B; Treviño, Sylvia B; Retzloff, Chad; Lawson, Kenneth A; Wilson, James; Olsen, Randall J; Wang, Yufeng; Frei, Christopher R
The incidence of outpatient visits for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) has substantially increased over the last decade. The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has made the management of S. aureus SSTIs complex and challenging. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors contributing to treatment failures associated with community-associated S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections SSTIs. This was a prospective, observational study among 14 primary care clinics within the South Texas Ambulatory Research Network. The primary outcome was treatment failure within 90 days of the initial visit. Univariate associations between the explanatory variables and treatment failure were examined. A generalized linear mixed-effect model was developed to identify independent risk factors associated with treatment failure. Overall, 21% (22/106) patients with S. aureus SSTIs experienced treatment failure. The occurrence of treatment failure was similar among patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus and those with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus SSTIs (19 vs. 24%; p = 0.70). Independent predictors of treatment failure among cases with S. aureus SSTIs was a duration of infection of ≥7 days prior to initial visit [aOR, 6.02 (95% CI 1.74-19.61)] and a lesion diameter size ≥5 cm [5.25 (1.58-17.20)]. Predictors for treatment failure included a duration of infection for ≥7 days prior to the initial visit and a wound diameter of ≥5 cm. A heightened awareness of these risk factors could help direct targeted interventions in high-risk populations.
Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications.
... a Concussion in Past Year AHA: Take Your Dog to Work -- And Reap the Health Benefits Could ... drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. Tap to switch to the Professional ... a Skin Cancer Body Check (Video) Pubic Lice (Video) Skin Cancer Additional ...
... of the body. The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands) make up the integumentary system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection. It protects the body from external factors such as bacteria, chemicals, and temperature.
von Grote, Erika C; Palaniswarmy, Kiruthi; Meckfessel, Matthew H
Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) affecting the hands is a common and difficult-to-manage condition. Occupations that necessitate contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing elevate the risk of ICD. Management strategies that do not adequately prevent accumulated damage and repair skin, can develop into chronic dermatoses which negatively impact work productivity and quality of life. A 2-step skin-care regimen (Excipial Daily Protection Hand Cream (EP) and Excipial Rapid Repair Hand Cream (ER), Galderma Laboratories, L.P.) has been developed as a daily-use management strategy to protect and repair vulnerable hands. The protective barrier cream is formulated with aluminum chlorohydrate and designed for pre-exposure application to enhance the skin's natural protective barrier and minimize excessive moisture while wearing protective gloves. The repair cream, a lipid-rich formulation, is intended for post-exposure application to rehydrate and facilitate the skin's natural healing process. The results of 3 clinical studies highlighted in this review demonstrate how the use of a 2-step skin-care regimen offers a greater protective effect against ICD than the use of barrier cream alone, and also how the formulation of the barrier cream used in these studies helps minimize the occlusion effect caused by gloves and does not interfere with the antibacterial efficacy of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. This 2-step skin-care regimen is effectively designed to manage and minimize the risk of ICD development in a variety of patients and provides clinicians an additional tool for helping patients manage ICD. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(12):1504-1510.
Skin tears are common in older people. They are acute wounds that are at high risk of becoming complex, chronic wounds due to the interplay between the physiological changes in the skin and trauma from the external environment. Skin tears have been reported to have prevalence rates equal to, or greater than, those for pressure ulcers. A comprehensive risk assessment should include assessment of the individual's general health (chronic/critical disease, polypharmacy and cognitive, sensory and nutritional status); mobility (history of falls, impaired mobility, dependent activities of daily living, and mechanical trauma); and skin (extremes of age, fragile skin and previous skin tears). A recognised classification system should be used to identify and document skin tears and guide treatment decisions in line with local wound management protocols. Nurses and carers are in a prime position to prevent, assess and manage skin tears.
Granero, J; Díaz de Rada, P; Lozano, L M; Martínez, J; Herrera, A
To analyse the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban vs. standard treatment (ST) in the prevention of venous thromboembolism after hip or knee replacement in daily clinical practice in Spain. A sub-analysis of the Spanish data in the XAMOS international observational study that included patients>18 years who received 10mg o.d. rivaroxaban or ST. up to 3 months after surgery. incidence of symptomatic/asymptomatic thromboembolic events, bleeding, mortality, and other adverse events; use of health resources and satisfaction after hospital discharge. Of the total 801 patients included, 410 received rivaroxaban and 391 ST (64.7% heparin, 24.0% fondaparinux, 11% dabigatran). The incidence of symptomatic thromboembolic events and major bleeding was similar in both groups (0.2% vs. 0.8% wit ST and 0.7% vs. 1.3% with ST [EMA criteria]/0.0% vs. 0.3% with ST [RECORD criteria]). The adverse events incidence associated with the drug was significantly higher rivaroxaban (overall: 4.4% vs. 0.8% with ST, P=.001; serious: 1.5% vs. 0.0% with ST, P=.03). The rivaroxaban used less health resources after discharge, and the majority considered the tolerability as «very good« and the treatment as «very comfortable». Rivaroxaban is at least as effective as ST in the prevention of venous thromboembolism prevention in daily clinical practice, with a similar incidence of haemorrhages. It provides greater satisfaction/comfort, and less health resources after discharge. These results should be interpreted taking into account the limitations inherent in observational studies. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others
Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…
Kutlubay, Zekayi; Tanakol, Ali; Engýn, Burhan; Onel, Cristina; Sýmsek, Ersin; Serdaroglu, Server; Tuzun, Yalçýn; Yilmaz, Erkan; Eren, Bülent
The newborn skin can be separated from adult's skin in several ways. In dermatologic examination it can be easily observed that it is thinner, less hairy and has less sweat and sebaceous gland secretions. These differentiations present especially in preterm newborns. Their skin is exposed to mechanical trauma, bacteria and weather, heat alterations. At birth, newborn skin is protected by the coverage of vernix caseosa, which has lubricating and antibacterial features and its pH ranges from 6.7 to 7.4. Beneath the vernix caseosa the skin has a pH of 5.5-6.0. In newborn dermatologic examination it is very important to distinguish transient benign dermatoses and severe diseases, make early diagnosis and treat congenital skin disorders. Although the benign cases are common in this life period, clinical presentations can be much more exaggerated, dramatic and cause a great deal of anxiety to parents. Therefore, as a doctor, knowing the dermatological, pathological and non-pathological common skin rashes guides the family in the right direction, offers advice to reduce uncertainty and time for the treatment of severe conditions and builds a confidential doctor-patient relationship. In this review, our aim is to provide a general overview to common skin rashes in newborn period.
Bukhary, Zakeya A; Amer, Soliman M; Emara, Magdy M; Abdalla, Mohammad E; Ali, Sahar A
Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) is highly specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is the preferred test in BCG-vaccinated individuals. The few studies that have screened health care workers (HCWs) in Saudi Arabia for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using IGRA have varied in agreement with the traditional tuberculin skin test (TST). Assess the prevalence of LTBI among HCWs working in the Hajj pilgrimage using IGRA and TST and measuring their agreement. Cross-sectional prospective. Multiple non-tertiary care hospitals. HCWs who worked during the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia in December 2015. Data was collected by standarized questionnaire. Samples were drawn and analyzed by standard methods. The prevalence of LTBI among HCW and the agreement by kappa statistic between QFT-GIT and TST. 520 subjects. Nurses accounted for 30.7% of the sample and physicians, 19.2%. The majority were BCG vaccinated (98.5%). There were a total of 56 positive by QFT-GIT and the LTBI rate was 10.8%. In 50 QFT positive/476 TST negative the LTBI rate was 10.5% in discordant tests, and in 6 QFT positive/44 TST positive it was 13.6% in concordant tests. The overall agreement between both tests was poor-83% and kappa was 0.02. LTBI prevalence was associated with longer employment (13.1 [9.2] years). The QFT-GIT positive test was significantly higher in physicians (P=.02) and in HCWs working in chest hospitals 16/76 (21.05%) (P=.001). Agreement between the tests was poor. QFT-GIT detected LTBI when TST was negative in HCWs who had a history of close contact with TB patients. A second step TST was not feasible within 2-3 weeks. None.
Jongeneel, W P; Delmaar, J E; Bokkers, B G H
A methodology to assess the health impact of skin sensitizers is introduced, which consists of the comparison of the probabilistic aggregated exposure with a probabilistic (individual) human sensitization or elicitation induction dose. The health impact of potential policy measures aimed at reducing the concentration of a fragrance allergen, geraniol, in consumer products is analysed in a simulated population derived from multiple product use surveys. Our analysis shows that current dermal exposure to geraniol from personal care and household cleaning products lead to new cases of contact allergy and induce clinical symptoms for those already sensitized. We estimate that this exposure results yearly in 34 new cases of geraniol contact allergy per million consumers in Western and Northern Europe, mainly due to exposure to household cleaning products. About twice as many consumers (60 per million) are projected to suffer from clinical symptoms due to re-exposure to geraniol. Policy measures restricting geraniol concentrations to <0.01% will noticeably reduce new cases of sensitization and decrease the number of people with clinical symptoms as well as the frequency of occurrence of these clinical symptoms. The estimated numbers should be interpreted with caution and provide only a rough indication of the health impact. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT) are used to identify latent tuberculosis infections (LTBIs). The aim of this study was to determine the agreement between these two tests among health care workers in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 177 tuberculosis (TB) laboratory staff and 67 non-TB staff. TST indurations of 10 mm or more were considered positive. The Student’s t-test and the chi-square test were used to compare the mean score and proportion of variables between the TB laboratory staff and the non-TB laboratory staff. Kappa statistics were used to evaluate the agreement between these tests, and logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors associated with positive results for each test. RESULTS: The prevalence of LTBIs according to both the QFT and the TST was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12% to 21%) and 16% (95% CI, 11% to 21%), respectively. The agreement between the QFT and the TST was 77.46%, with a kappa of 0.19 (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.34). CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of LTBI based on the QFT and the TST was not significantly different, the kappa statistic was low between these two tests for the detection of LTBIs. PMID:27457062
Tsankov, N; Mateev, D; Darlenski, R
The skin is the primary defence of the human body against external factors from physical, chemical, mechanical and biologic origin. Climatic factors together with low temperature and sun radiation affect the skin. The effect of climatic conditions in Antarctica on healthy skin has not been previously addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the skin hydration, greasiness and microrelief due to the extreme climatic environmental factors during the stay of the members of the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition. Fifty-nine Caucasian healthy subjects, 42 men and 17 women with mean age 50.9 years (27-68), were enrolled. The study was performed in five consecutive years from 2011 to 2016 at the Bulgarian Antarctic base camp at Livingston Island. The study protocol consisted of two parts: study A: duration of 15 days with measurement of skin physiology parameters on a daily basis, and study B: five measurements at baseline and at days 14, 30, 45 and 50 upon arrival in Antarctica. We measured three biophysical parameters related to skin physiology at cheek skin by an impedance measuring device. No statistically significant difference between parameters at the different measurement points. There is a variation in skin hydration reaching its lower point at day 11 and then returning to values similar to baseline. Initially, an increase in skin greasiness was witnessed with a sharp depression at day 11 and final values at day 15 resembling the ones at baseline. An increase, although not statistically significant, in skin roughness was observed in the first 15 days of the study. Study B showed no statistically significant variances between values of the three parameters. Our studies show the pioneer results of the effect of Antarctic climate on human skin physiology. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Chen, Wei-Yu; Fang, Chia-Lang; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Yang, Hung-Hsu; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You
The ablative fractional laser is a new modality used for surgical resurfacing. It is expected that laser treatment can generally deliver drugs into and across the skin, which is toxicologically relevant. The aim of this study was to establish skin absorption characteristics of antibiotics, sunscreens, and macromolecules via laser-treated skin and during postoperative periods. Nude mice were employed as the animal model. The skin received a single irradiation of a fractional CO2 laser, using fluences of 4-10 mJ with spot densities of 100-400 spots/cm(2). In vitro skin permeation using Franz cells was performed. Levels of skin water loss and erythema were evaluated, and histological examinations with staining by hematoxylin and eosin, cyclooxygenase-2, and claudin-1 were carried out. Significant signs of erythema, edema, and scaling of the skin treated with the fractional laser were evident. Inflammatory infiltration and a reduction in tight junctions were also observed. Laser treatment at 6 mJ increased tetracycline and tretinoin fluxes by 70- and 9-fold, respectively. A higher fluence resulted in a greater tetracycline flux, but lower skin deposition. On the other hand, tretinoin skin deposition increased following an increase in the laser fluence. The fractional laser exhibited a negligible effect on modulating oxybenzone absorption. Dextrans with molecular weights of 4 and 10 kDa showed increased fluxes from 0.05 to 11.05 and 38.54 μg/cm(2)/h, respectively. The optimized drug dose for skin treated with the fractional laser was 1/70-1/60 of the regular dose. The skin histology and drug absorption had recovered to a normal status within 2-3 days. Our findings provide the first report on risk assessment of excessive skin absorption after fractional laser resurfacing.
Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kim, Min-Gi
Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group.
Zhang, Jufen; Goode, Kevin M; Cuddihy, Paul E; Cleland, John G F
We sought to test the utility of weight gain algorithms to predict episodes of worsening heart failure (WHF) using home-telemonitoring data collected as part of the TEN-HMS study. Simple rule-of-thumb (RoT) algorithms (i.e. 3 lbs in 1 day and 5 lbs in 3 days) and a moving average convergence divergence (MACD) algorithm were compared. WHF was defined as hospitalization for WHF or worsening of breathlessness or leg oedema. Of 168 patients, 45 were hospitalized with WHF and 76 were hospitalized for other reasons. On average, weight gain occurred in the 14 days prior to WHF hospitalizations but not in the 14 days prior to non-WHF hospitalizations [1.9 +/- 4.7 lbs (0.9 +/- 2.1 kg) vs. -0.4 +/- 2.5 lbs (-0.2 +/- 1.1 kg), P < 0.0001]. The true alerts rate was higher for the RoT algorithms compared with the MACD (58 and 65% vs. 20%). However, the RoT algorithms had much higher false alert rates (54 and 58% vs. 9%) rendering them of little practical use for predicting WHF events. A MACD algorithm is more specific but less sensitive than RoT when trying to predict episodes of WHF based on daily weight measurements. However, many episodes of WHF do not appear to be associated with weight gain and therefore telemonitoring of weight alone may not have great value for heart failure management.
van Vliet, Liesbeth M; van Dulmen, Sandra; Thiel, Bram; van Deelen, Gerard W; Immerzeel, Stephanie; Godfried, Marc B; Bensing, Jozien M
Placebo effects (true biopsychological effects not attributable to the active ingredients of medical technical interventions) can be attributed to several mechanisms, such as expectancy manipulation and empathy manipulation elicited by a provider's communication. So far, effects have primarily been shown in laboratory settings. The aim of this study is to determine the separate and combined effects of expectancy manipulation and empathy manipulation during preoperative and postoperative tonsillectomy analgesia care on clinical adult patients' outcomes. Using a two-by-two randomised controlled trial, 128 adult tonsillectomy patients will be randomly assigned to one out of four conditions differing in the level of expectancy manipulation (standard vs enhanced) and empathy manipulation (standard vs enhanced). Day care ward nurses are trained to deliver the intervention, while patients are treated via the standard analgesia protocol and hospital routines. The primary outcome, perceived pain, is measured via hospital routine by a Numeric Rating Scale, and additional prehospitalisation, perihospitalisation and posthospitalisation questionnaires are completed (until day 3, ie, 2 days after the operation). The manipulation is checked using audio recordings of nurse-patient interactions. Although communication is manipulated, the manipulations do not cross norms or values of acceptable behaviour. Standard medical care is provided. The ethical committee of the UMC Utrecht and the local OLVG hospital committee approved the study. Results will be published via (inter)national peer-reviewed journals and a lay publication. NTR5994; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Al-Dawsari, Najla A; Amra, Nasir
Skin cancer is the ninth most common malignancy in Saudi Arabia. It represented 3.2% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases in the year 2010. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of skin cancer in relation to age, sex, and anatomic location among Saudi patients attending the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center in Dhahran, Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. We retrospectively reviewed the surgical pathology records of Saudi nationals from 1995 to 2014 at the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center, which directly provides for the healthcare needs of Saudi Aramco company employees and dependents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Tumor metastases to skin, skin involvement by primary breast carcinoma, and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma with secondary involvement by skin were excluded. The total number of primary skin tumors was 204. The commonest cutaneous malignancies were basal cell carcinoma (36%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (23%), with the head and neck being the commonest location for both tumors. Mycosis fungoides (MF) was the third most common malignancy (11%). Malignant melanoma was the fourth commonest skin malignancy (7%) with the lower extremities being the commonest location. The four most common skin cancers in our tertiary center in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, MF, and malignant melanoma. Other regions of Saudi Arabia report a similar pattern of skin cancers as our center, with MF having a higher frequency at our center. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.
Coyer, Fiona; Gardner, Anne; Doubrovsky, Anna
This study aimed to test the effectiveness of a bundle combining best available evidence to reduce the incidence of incontinence-associated dermatitis occurrences in critically ill patients. The study used a before and after design and was conducted in an adult intensive care unit of an Australian quartenary referral hospital. Data, collected by trained research nurses, included demographic and clinical variables, skin assessment, incontinence-associated dermatitis presence and severity. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the 207 patients enrolled, 146 patients were mechanically ventilated and incontinent thus eligible for analysis, 80 with 768days of observation in the after/intervention group and 66 with 733days of observation in the before group. Most patients were men, mean age 53 years. Groups were similar on demographic variables. Incontinence-associated dermatitis incidence was lower in the intervention group (15%; 12/80) compared to the control group (32%; 21/66) (p=0.016). Incontinence-associated dermatitis events developed later in the intensive care unit stay in the intervention group (Logrank=5.2, p=<0.022). This study demonstrated that the use of a bundle combining best available evidence reduced the incidence and delayed the development of incontinence-associated dermatitis occurrences in critically ill patients. Systematic ongoing patient assessments, combined with tailored prevention measures are central to preventing incontinence-associated dermatitis in this vulnerable patient group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Genetic counseling may ...
... The skin. In: Swartz MH, ed. Textbook of Physical Diagnosis: History and Examination . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 5. Review Date 4/14/2017 Updated by: Kevin Berman, ...
... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...
Lawton, Sandra; Littlewood, Sheelagh
Chronic vulval skin conditions are known to cause a significant reduction in the quality of life. Validated scales exist to measure the disease impact of general dermatologic conditions; however, none have been specifically derived to assess vulval disease. This study aimed to identify what symptoms and aspects of their lives are important for women with vulval skin conditions and to assess their usefulness in developing an assessment measure for monitoring disease activity and quality of life in women with vulval skin conditions. Participants were female patients attending a specialist vulval dermatology clinic at a tertiary referral center. Ten patients with a variety vulval skin conditions were interviewed to gain their experiences of living with a vulval skin condition. Using qualitative semistructured interviews, patients were asked open-ended questions about aspects of their disease that have affected them. These included the following: daily activities and social activities, physical functions, sexual activities, mobility, relationships, and an understanding of their vulval condition. Data was recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically with all aspects regarding quality of life and symptoms identified. Results are presented according to common themes identified, specifically physical symptoms, body image, the impact of the condition on sexual and physical function, issues affecting daily activities, and the journey traveled when accessing medical care. This qualitative study adds to the evidence that chronic vulval conditions are distressing and cause significant morbidity. It highlights further the need to devise a validated questionnaire which can be used in clinical practice looking specifically at disease impact and quality of life. It can only enhance the clinical consultation and facilitate discussion which is disease and person specific.
Nielsen, Lene Feldskov; Blume, Niels; Romme, Tina; Samuelsen, Peter; Everland, Hanne; Ifversen, Peter; Karlsmark, Tonny
Incidence of skin complications in ostomy patients constitutes a well-known and well-described problem. The reasons are, however, very difficult to describe because of the many factors contributing to the problem. This article describes the skin changes derived exclusively from the adhesives used in a carefully controlled, long-term study using two fundamentally different types of adhesives: a hydrocolloid adhesive and a zinc oxide adhesive. The adhesives were changed daily on the volar forearm of 11 volunteers for a 4-week period. Once a week, transepidermal water-loss (TEWL), water content of the skin, erythema and the peel force applied for removal of the adhesives were measured. On the last day of the study, a replica of the skin surface was obtained to determine changes in the skin topography, and a biopsy was taken to study changes at the cellular level. We found increased TEWL and decreased water content in skin treated with the zinc oxide adhesive, but increased water-loss and water content when the hydrocolloid adhesive was used. In addition, the area treated with zinc oxide adhesive showed significant increase of epidermal thickness, scaly appearance and parakeratosis with similarities to pathological dry skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, changes that were not found when using the hydrocolloid adhesive. The skin response seems to be the result of the content of zinc oxide and the mechanical interaction of the zinc oxide adhesive. We conclude that the nature of the adhesive plays an important role in the skin response to repeated application of adhesives, as seen in peristomal skin.
Background Previous studies suggest that patients with Chronic Daily Headache (CDH) have higher levels of anxiety and depressive disorders than patients with episodic migraine or tension-type headache. However, no study has considered the presence of psychiatric comorbidity in the analysis of personality traits. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and specific personality traits in CDH patients, exploring if specific personality traits are associated to headache itself or to the psychiatric comorbidity associated with headache. Methods An observational, cross-sectional study. Ninety-four CDH patients with and without medication overuse were included in the study and assessed by clinical psychiatric interview and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) as diagnostic tools. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) were afterwards administered. Patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity were compared. Further analyses were made by splitting the whole group according to the headache diagnosis and the presence or not of medication overuse. Results Psychiatric comorbidity was detected in 44 patients (46.8%) (group A) and was absent in the remaining 50 patients (53.2%) (group B). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most frequently diagnosed (43.6%). In the overall group, mean scores of MMPI-2 showed a high level in the so-called neurotic triad; in particular the mean score in the Hypochondriasis subscale was in the pathologic area (73.55 ± 13.59), while Depression and Hysteria scores were moderate but not severe (62.53 and 61.61, respectively). In content scales, score in Health Concern was also high (66.73). Group A presented higher scores compared to Group B in the following MMPI-2 subscales: Hypochondriasis (p = .036), Depression (p = .032), Hysteria (p < .0001), Hypomania (p = .030). Group B had a high score only in the
Rausa, Marialuisa; Cevoli, Sabina; Sancisi, Elisa; Grimaldi, Daniela; Pollutri, Gabriella; Casoria, Michela; Grieco, Daniela; Bisi, Alberto; Cortelli, Pietro; Pozzi, Euro; Pierangeli, Giulia
Previous studies suggest that patients with Chronic Daily Headache (CDH) have higher levels of anxiety and depressive disorders than patients with episodic migraine or tension-type headache. However, no study has considered the presence of psychiatric comorbidity in the analysis of personality traits. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and specific personality traits in CDH patients, exploring if specific personality traits are associated to headache itself or to the psychiatric comorbidity associated with headache. An observational, cross-sectional study. Ninety-four CDH patients with and without medication overuse were included in the study and assessed by clinical psychiatric interview and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) as diagnostic tools. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) were afterwards administered. Patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity were compared. Further analyses were made by splitting the whole group according to the headache diagnosis and the presence or not of medication overuse. Psychiatric comorbidity was detected in 44 patients (46.8%) (group A) and was absent in the remaining 50 patients (53.2%) (group B). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most frequently diagnosed (43.6%).In the overall group, mean scores of MMPI-2 showed a high level in the so-called neurotic triad; in particular the mean score in the Hypochondriasis subscale was in the pathologic area (73.55 ± 13.59), while Depression and Hysteria scores were moderate but not severe (62.53 and 61.61, respectively). In content scales, score in Health Concern was also high (66.73).Group A presented higher scores compared to Group B in the following MMPI-2 subscales: Hypochondriasis (p= .036), Depression (p= .032), Hysteria (p< .0001), Hypomania (p= .030). Group B had a high score only in the Hypochondriasis subscale. No significant
Ulbricht, S; Gross, B; Kunstmann, W; Meyer, C; John, U
To strengthen the position of physicians regarding problematic use and dependence of prescripted drugs a manual was issued by the German Medical Association in 2007. A study among participants in a training to qualify in "primary addiction treatment" was conducted. The utilisation of the manual, its relevance for routine care and self-estimated changes in drug prescription were examined. All 542 participants in training courses between 1.9.2008 and 31.12.2009 were asked about participation in a survey 12 weeks later. A number of 267 took part in this investigation. A proportion of 60,7 % among GPs that received the manual dealt with them beyond the training course. From 178 physicians, who confirmed the provision of drug prescription, a number of 56 stated changes in their drug prescription. A higher probabilty for changes in drug prescription was given in case of a high percentage of new informations that could be culled from the manual. The interest for the manual beyond the training course and the amount of self-estimated changes in drug prescription should encourage to use this within training measures in a systematic way. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
de Souza, Fernanda Mattos; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Pinheiro, Jair dos Santos; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Lacerda, Thamy Carvalho; Loureiro, Rafaela Borge; Carvalho, Jose Américo; Fregona, Geisa; Dias, Elias Santos; Cosme, Lorrayne Beliqui; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Riley, Lee Wood; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia
An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST) measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW) in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points. We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31), and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22). We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value. Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.
Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Podmelle, Fred; Waite, Peter D; Müller-Debus, Charlotte Friederieke; Hammes, Stefan; Funk, Wolfgang
Laser skin resurfacing of the face by CO₂-laser ablation is causing superficial wounds that need rapid recovery to reduce the risk of infection, the risk of chronification and as a result the risk of unaesthetic scars. The question being addressed by this study is to demonstrate benefit of betulin emulsion skin care after CO₂-laser wounds. The outcome of this aesthetic comparison between betulin emulsion, moist wound dressing and gauze covering in promoting the recovery process in laser skin ablation is to demonstrate improved aesthetic benefit for the patient. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Magnusson, Skuli; Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Rolfsson, Ottar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur Fertram
Improvised explosive devices and new directed energy weapons are changing warfare injuries from penetrating wounds to large surface area thermal and blast injuries. Acellular fish skin is used for tissue repair and during manufacturing subjected to gentle processing compared to biologic materials derived from mammals. This is due to the absence of viral and prion disease transmission risk, preserving natural structure and composition of the fish skin graft. The aim of this study was to assess properties of acellular fish skin relevant for severe battlefield injuries and to compare those properties with those of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane. We evaluated cell ingrowth capabilities of the biological materials with microscopy techniques. Bacterial barrier properties were tested with a 2-chamber model. The microstructure of the acellular fish skin is highly porous, whereas the microstructure of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane is mostly nonporous. The fish skin grafts show superior ability to support 3-dimensional ingrowth of cells compared to dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (p < 0.0001) and the fish skin is a bacterial barrier for 24 to 48 hours. The unique biomechanical properties of the acellular fish skin graft make it ideal to be used as a conformal cover for severe trauma and burn wounds in the battlefield. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Chang, Anne Lynn S; Chen, Suephy C; Osterberg, Lars; Brandt, Staci; von Grote, Erika C; Meckfessel, Matthew H
A skin care regimen which significantly improved atopic dermatitis and pruritus was evaluated for its efficacy and acceptability in senior subjects diagnosed with xerosis who also suffer from pruritus. This was an open-label, single-center study, designed to evaluate the daily use of a skin care regimen for 15 days. Assessments were made at baseline, day 8 and day 15 for visual skin dryness, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration, desquamation, subject-perceived itch and quality of life (QoL). Twenty-five subjects, ages 60-73 years, had significantly improved skin visual dryness, hydration, desquamation, itch and QoL at days 8 and 15, relative to baseline (P < .05). TEWL was improved, though not significantly. Subjects expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the results. This regimen provides geriatric patients with an easily incorporated skin routine to help improve a common symptom of aging skin which negatively affects QoL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
[Daily living activities and oral condition among care facility residents with severe intellectual disabilities. Comparative analyses between residents receiving tooth-brushing assistance and those not receiving tooth-brushing assistance].
Chiwata, Kaoru; Takeda, Fumi
To clarify 1) differences in daily living activities and oral condition among care facility residents with severe intellectual disabilities and 2) chronological changes in daily living activities and oral condition for residents receiving tooth-brushing assistance and those never receiving tooth-brushing assistance. Subjects were 44 residents at a care facility for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities, who underwent dental screening in July 1994 and October 2003. At each time point, daily living activities, behavior during oral health guidance, behavior during dental health screening and oral condition were compared between residents receiving tooth-brushing assistance (assistance group) and those not receiving tooth-brushing assistance (independent group). Furthermore, chronological changes were analyzed for residents requiring assistance at both screenings, those requiring assistance only at the second screening, and those not requiring assistance at either screening. 1) In the assistance group, 100% and 36.4% of residents were unable to brush their teeth independently in 1994 and 2003, respectively. Significant differences between the assistance and independent groups were observed in all items of behavior during dental health screening in 1994, but not in 2003. No significant intergroup differences in oral condition were observed in 1994, but differences were seen in 2003; when compared to the assistance group, the number of lost teeth was significantly higher in the independent group, while the number of remaining teeth was lower. 2) Regarding changes over the nine-year period, a significantly greater proportion of residents not requiring assistance at either screening and those requiring assistance only at the second screening finally required assistance in bathing. As for oral condition, no significant changes in healthy teeth were observed in residents requiring assistance at both screening time points, while significant increases in dental
Peristomal skin requires careful management to maintain its health and integrity. Although a wide range of skincare products is available, these should be used in response to clinical need, rather than routinely. This article discusses risks to peristomal skin, routine care, and use of products when the health of skin is compromised.
... early. Cancerous tissue can be removed with a minor surgical procedure. In many cases, that is all the treatment needed. Future lesions may occur. You will need to be vigilant about checking your skin and calling your doctor if you see changes. For more advanced cases, living with cancer during ...
Günel, Ceren; Eryılmaz, Aylin; Başal, Yeşim; Toka, Ali
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a fatal and rare disease, mainly located in extremity and body. Due to the good blood supply, the occurrence of this infective disease of skin and subcutaneous tissue/fascia is much rarer in the head and neck region. In this study, we represent periorbital necrotizing fasciitis case in a patient with normal immune system. The patient applied the emergency clinic with the complaints of swelling and redness on the left eye. It was found out that a skin incision occurred at 2 cm below the left eye with razor blade 2 days ago. After taking swab culture sample, patient was started on parenteral Vancomycin + Ampicillin-Sulbactam treatment. It was observed that necrosis spread within hours and an emergent deep surgical debridement was performed. Following the debridement, it was observed that periorbital edema began to regress prominently on the 1st day of the treatment. Treatment was carried on with daily wound care and parenteral antibiotherapy. The patient was discharged from the hospital with slightly cosmetic defect. PMID:25309766
Nybaek, H; Jemec, G B E
Ostomy patients are dependent on the integrity of their peristomal skin to maintain a normal lifestyle. Peristomal skin problems are thought to be common and may interfere with the use of ostomy pouching systems. This is a specialist area not commonly seen by dermatologists. This article seeks to provide an overview of the topic for the general dermatologist. A systematic literature search was conducted. The articles found were reviewed and relevant articles were selected by two investigators. Loss of skin integrity may be related to chemical injury, mechanical destruction, infectious conditions, immunological reactions, disease-related conditions. Peristomal irritant dermatitis caused by skin contact with ostomy effluent is by far the most ordinary condition seen. Mechanical trauma, infection and aggravation of pre-existing skin diseases are also seen. Allergic contact dermatitis, which is often cited as the cause of peristomal skin problems, appears to be a rare condition with an estimated prevalence of only 0.6%. In spite of the importance of the integrity of peristomal skin, the topic is poorly described in the literature. The existing publications suggest that although peristomal skin disease can be diagnosed and treated, additional information on both patients and physicians is necessary to optimize patient care.
Rendon, Marta; Dryer, Laurence
To evaluate the treatment of mild-to-moderate epidermal melasma and photodamage using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin 0.02% cream. Single-center, investigator-blinded study in 39 adult females with mild-to-moderate epidermal melasma, mild-to-marked pigmentation intensity, and Fitzpatrick skin type III to VI treated for 24 weeks. Improvements in melasma severity, pigmentation intensity, photodamage, and patient satisfaction were assessed at weeks 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24. Cutaneous tolerability was assessed by investigator (erythema, dryness, peeling) and patients (burning and stinging). Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout. Melasma severity, pigmentation intensity, and melasma area and severity index (MASI) scores relative to baseline were all significantly reduced from week 4 onward (P<.001). In addition, signs of facial photodamage were significantly improved. At week 24, 87.9% of patients were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with the overall treatment effectiveness and Quality of Life (QoL) was much improved. No patient discontinued due to lack of efficacy or treatment-related AEs. One patient (2.8%) reported severe cutaneous intolerability (erythema at week 4). Treating mild-to-moderate melasma using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus 0.02% tretinoin cream can significantly reduce the severity and intensity of melasma and associated pigmentation, and improve signs of photodamage within four weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated and associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.
Interrelationship of oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status, and cognitive ability with activities of daily living in Japanese elderly people receiving home care services due to physical disabilities.
Furuta, Michiko; Komiya-Nonaka, Manae; Akifusa, Sumio; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Adachi, Munehisa; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Kikutani, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa
Malnutrition and cognitive impairment lead to declines in activities of daily living (ADL). Nutritional status and cognitive ability have been shown to correlate with oral health status and swallowing function. However, the complex relationship among the factors that affect decline in ADL is not understood. We examined direct and indirect relationships among oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status, cognitive ability, and ADL in Japanese elderly people living at home and receiving home care services because of physical disabilities. Participants were 286 subjects aged 60 years and older (mean age, 84.5±7.9 years) living at home and receiving home care services. Oral health status (the number of teeth and wearing dentures) was assessed, and swallowing function was examined using cervical auscultation. Additionally, ADL, cognitive ability, and nutritional status were assessed using the Barthel Index, the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form, respectively. Path analysis was used to test pathways from these factors to ADL. The mean number of teeth present in the participants was 8.6±9.9 (edentates, 40.6%). Dysphagia, malnutrition, and severe cognitive impairment were found in 31.1%, 14.0%, and 21.3% of the participants, respectively. Path analysis indicated that poor oral health status and cognitive impairment had a direct effect on denture wearing, and the consequent dysphagia, in addition to cognitive impairment, was positively associated with malnutrition. Malnutrition as well as dysphagia and cognitive impairment directly limited ADL. A lower number of teeth are positively related to swallowing dysfunction, whereas denture wearing contributes to recovery of swallowing function. Dysphagia, cognitive impairment, and malnutrition directly and indirectly decreased ADL in elderly people living at home and receiving home nursing care. The findings suggest that preventing tooth loss and encouraging denture
Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...
... biopsy - skin; Skin cancer - biopsy; Melanoma - biopsy; Squamous cell cancer - biopsy; Basal cell cancer - biopsy; Mohs microsurgery ... dermatitis Infection from bacteria or fungus Melanoma Basal cell skin cancer Squamous cell skin cancer
... headache New daily persistent headache Hemicrania continua Chronic migraine This type typically occurs in people with a history of episodic migraines. Chronic migraines tend to: Affect one side or ...
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Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...
Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan
Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.
In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.
Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T
Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to a lesser extent prevent mortality. Current recommendations from professional societies regarding screening for skin cancer vary. To examine published data on the effectiveness of routine screening for skin cancer by a primary care provider, as part of an assessment for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality reviews. We used reference lists and expert recommendations to locate additional articles. Two reviewers independently reviewed a subset of 500 abstracts. Once consistency was established, the remainder were reviewed by one reviewer. We included studies if they contained data on yield of screening, screening tests, risk factors, risk assessment, effectiveness of early detection, or cost effectiveness. We abstracted the following descriptive information from full-text published studies of screening and recorded it in an electronic database: type of screening study, study design, setting, population, patient recruitment, screening test description, examiner, advertising targeted at high-risk groups or not targeted, reported risk factors of participants, and procedure for referrals. We also abstracted the yield of screening data including probabilities and numbers
Bentkover, Stuart H
This article presents a comprehensive clinical approach to plasma resurfacing for skin regeneration. Plasma technology, preoperative protocols, resurfacing technique, postoperative care, clinical outcomes, evidence-based results, and appropriate candidates for this procedure are discussed. Specific penetration depth and specific laser energy measurements are provided. Nitrogen plasma skin regeneration is a skin-resurfacing technique that offers excellent improvement of mild to moderate skin wrinkles and overall skin rejuvenation. It also provides excellent improvement in uniformity of skin color and texture in patients with hyperpigmentation with Fitzpatrick skin types 1 through 4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chughtai, Komal; Gupta, Rahul; Upadhaya, Sunil
Abstract Topical 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used more frequently to treat actinic keratosis. We are presenting a skin reaction as a side effect of this medication. Treatment for such cases of 5-FU-induced skin reactions is based on proper skin care and treatment of any superimposed infections. Medical providers should be aware of such side effects to provide their patients with proper instructions to avoid complications. PMID:28845237
Chughtai, Komal; Gupta, Rahul; Upadhaya, Sunil; Al Hadidi, Samer
Topical 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used more frequently to treat actinic keratosis. We are presenting a skin reaction as a side effect of this medication. Treatment for such cases of 5-FU-induced skin reactions is based on proper skin care and treatment of any superimposed infections. Medical providers should be aware of such side effects to provide their patients with proper instructions to avoid complications.
Differences in the skin surface pH and bacterial microflora due to the long-term application of synthetic detergent preparations of pH 5.5 and pH 7.0. Results of a crossover trial in healthy volunteers.
Korting, H C; Hübner, K; Greiner, K; Hamm, G; Braun-Falco, O
Skin cleansing preparations consisting of identical synthetic detergents but differing in pH-value (pH 5.5 and 7.0) were applied twice daily on the forehead and forearm of healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover trial. The skin surface pH was found to be significantly higher when the neutral preparation had been used, as was the propionibacterial count (p less than 0.05). The number of propionibacteria was significantly linked to the skin pH. Hence even minor differences in the pH of skin cleansing preparations seem to be of importance for the integrity of the skin surface. This should be taken into account when planning the formulation of optimal skin care products.
Ruggiero, Michele; Grande, Raffaele; Naso, Agostino; Butrico, Lucia; Rubino, Paolo; Placida, Girolamo Domenico; Cannistrà, Marco; Serra, Raffaele
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is the most advanced form of chronic venous disease (CVD), and is often associated with skin changes such as hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and venous skin ulceration that cause discomfort, pain, sleep disturbances, absenteeism in the workplace, disability and deteriorated quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of CVI and skin changes in patients who turn to Continuous Assistance Services due to the presence of disturbing symptoms of their condition. Data were evaluated by consulting the medical records, during a 16-month period, available with three Continuous Assistance Services of the Italian territory. The overall population of the referring centres consisted of 1186 patients [739 females (62·31%) and 447 males (37·69%)]. Seventy-nine patients (6·66%) consulted the emergency unit for venous symptoms related to CVD. Patients with more severe disease (CVI, categories C4-C6) represented the majority accounting for 60·75%, while patients with moderate disease (C3) accounted for 35·44% and patients with mild disease (C1-C2 stages) accounted for 3·79%. The main finding of this study is that despite CVI not being a disease that commonly requires medical emergency/urgency intervention, patients with CVI, especially in advanced stage with skin changes, may turn to Continuous Assistance Service for treating bothersome symptoms related to their condition. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Behan, James W; Sutton, Adam; Wysong, Ashley
Skin cancer is the most common of human cancers and outnumbers all other types of cancer combined in the USA by over threefold. The majority of non-melanoma skin cancers are easily treated with surgery or locally destructive techniques performed under local anesthesia in the cost-effective outpatient setting. However, there is a subset of "high-risk" cases that prove challenging in terms of morbidity, mortality, adjuvant treatment required, as well as overall cost to the health care system. In our opinion, the term "high risk" when applied to skin cancer can mean one of three things: a high-risk tumor with aggressive histologic and/or clinical features with an elevated risk for local recurrence or regional/distant metastasis, a high-risk patient with the ongoing development of multiple skin cancers, and a high-risk patient based on immunosuppression. We have recently proposed classifying NMSC as a chronic disease in a certain subset of patients. Although no consensus definition exists for a chronic disease in medicine, there are three components that are present in most definitions: duration of at least 1 year, need for ongoing medical care, and functional impairment and/or alteration of activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QOL). Immunosuppression can refer to exogenous (organ or stem cell transplant patients,) or endogenous (HIV, leukemia, lymphoma, genodermatoses with DNA mismatch repair problems or other immunosuppression) causes. These patients are at risk for high-risk tumors and/or the development of multiple tumors.
Goldhar, J. N.; Yong, P. Y.
With baby boomers aging, the medical community is ushered into a new era of patient care, that of cosmetic maintenance and rejuvenation. The authors critically review pharmacologic treatments for preventing and treating photodamaged skin. Issues concerning sunscreens, tretinoin, silicone tissue augmentation, fat transplantation, collagen replacement therapy, and chemical exfoliation of the skin are addressed. Images Figure 1 PMID:8495125
Cancer treatments can cause skin to become dry, itchy, red, or peel. Nails may become dark, yellow, or cracked. Learn about signs of skin problems that may need urgent medical care. Get a helpful list of questions to ask your doctor.
McGeoch, Graham R; Sycamore, Mark J; Shand, Brett I; Simcock, Jeremy W
In 2008, public specialist and general practice services in Canterbury were unable to manage demand for skin cancer treatment. Local clinicians decided the solution was to develop a see-and-treat skin excision clinic staffed by plastic surgeons and general practitioners (GPs), and the introduction of subsidised excisions in general practice. This paper describes the collaboration between clinicians, managers and funders and the results and quality management measures of these initiatives. There is an increasing incidence of skin cancer. GPs in Canterbury were unable to meet increasing demand for skin cancer treatment because some lacked confidence and competence in skin cancer management. There was no public funding for primary care management of skin cancer, driving patients to fully funded secondary care services. Secondary care services were at capacity, with no coordinated programme across primary and secondary care. The programme has resulted in a greater number of skin cancers being treated by the public health system, a reduction in waiting times for treatment, and fewer minor skin lesions being referred to secondary care. Quality measures have been achieved and are improving steadily. Development of the programme has improved working relationships between primary and secondary care clinicians. The strategy was to facilitate the working relationship between primary and secondary care and increase the capacity for skin lesion excisions in both sectors. Skin cancer management can be improved by a coordinated approach between primary and secondary care.
Enhancing activities of daily living of chronic stroke patients in primary health care by modified constraint-induced movement therapy (HOMECIMT): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial
Background Stroke leads to constant rehabilitation needs even at the chronic stage. However, although many stroke patients receive physical or occupational therapy in primary health care, treatment prescriptions do not generally specify therapeutic goals; in particular, participation is not established as an explicit therapeutic goal in the ambulatory setting. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a therapy regimen for chronic stroke patients (modified ‘constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) at home’) with impaired hand or arm function with regard to the prerequisites of participation in everyday activities: a sufficient arm and hand function. ‘CIMT at home’ will be compared with conventional physical and occupational therapy (‘therapy as usual’). Methods/design The study is a parallel cluster randomized controlled trial with therapy practices as clusters (n = 48). After written consent from the patients (n = 144), the therapists will be randomly assigned to treat either the intervention or the control group. Blinded external assessors will evaluate the patients using standardized outcome measures before and after the intervention, and six months later. The two coprimary endpoint assessments of arm and hand function as prerequisites for participation (defined as equal involvement in activities of daily living) are the motor activity log (quality of arm and hand use) and the Wolf motor function test (arm and hand function). These assessments are made four weeks post-treatment and relativized to baseline performance. Changes in primary outcomes will be analyzed with mixed models, which consider the hierarchical structure of the data and will be adjusted to the baseline measurements and sex. The primary analysis will be the comparison of the two randomized groups, with respect to the adjusted averages for each of the two coprimary endpoints. To keep an overall significance level of 5%, the two endpoints will be tested at the
Hubbard, Bradley A; Unger, Jacob G; Rohrich, Rod J
Topical skin care and its place in plastic surgery today are often overlooked by clinicians formulating a plan for facial rejuvenation. Not only is it important to consider topical skin care as part of comprehensive care, but clinicians should also be educated with the data available in today's literature. This review aims to familiarize the reader with the biological processes of skin aging and evidence-based clinical outcomes afforded by various topical therapies. Furthermore, this review will focus on solar damage, the value of retinoids, and how they can be used in conjunction with forms of treatment such as chemical peel, dermabrasion, and lasers. Finally, guidelines will be provided to help the physician administer appropriate skin care based on the data presented.
Vittner, Dorothy; Casavant, Sharon; McGrath, Jacqueline M
Although the benefits of skin-to-skin care (SSC) are well documented in the literature, practices in the clinical setting remain inconsistent. Although nurses' reported knowledge about SSC has improved, confusion still exists regarding safety and appropriateness. Existing qualitative literature primarily focuses on parents' experiences; yet it is crucial to describe the essence of professional caregivers' experiences to enhance facilitation and implementation of SSC. Most studies surrounding the caregiver's perspective and SSC have focused on barriers that impede implementation or examined the experience from the organizational perspective and general group experiences rather than individual personal experiences with SSC. This meta-ethnography integrated the findings from several discrete studies into a salient interpretative perspective, creating a relevant understanding of the process of SSC as a means of enhancing facilitation and implementation of SSC with hospitalized infants. An ethnographic meta-synthesis of qualitative literature was completed. As a result of this synthesis, the caregivers' experiences were separated into themes to articulate the phenomena juxtaposed from the 8 original studies that influence facilitation of SSC for the parent-infant dyad. Qualitative data analysis uncovered 4 overarching themes: (1) varying thresholds of getting started; (2) defining adequate resources; (3) navigating the demands and complexity of the infant; and (4) balancing parental readiness with infant needs. This ethnographic meta-synthesis confirms nurses have good intentions in supporting SSC practices, yet struggle to meet competing demands in their daily practice. Innovative and practical translations of SSC are needed to normalize SSC as the daily standard for premature infants.
Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo
As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.
Rubegni, P; Poggiali, S; Nami, N; Rubegni, M; Fimiani, M
With the progressive aging of the Italian population, geriatric health care has become a major issue for health authorities. However, little data is available regarding geriatric skin diseases. In order to provide rapid access to specialist help, in 2003 we created a dermatology clinic dedicated only to geriatric patients age 65 and older. To determine the characteristic pattern and the prevalence of various skin disorders among the geriatric patients seen at the clinic, we performed a retrospective and descriptive study of all skin diseases in patients seen in our office from January 2003 to December 2009. We evaluated: age, proportion and gender for all skin disease categories. A total of 2100 geriatric patients were examined. The male to female ratio was 1.4 to 1. The most common disorder was pruritus "sine materia" (18.9%) followed by benign tumors (13.5%); 9.1% of our patients presented with actinic keratoses and 13.2% with malignant tumors. As reported by others, the quality of life in patients with skin cancer was better than patients with rashes as skin cancer patients tended to wait longer before seeking specialist care. To improve the assessment of skin diseases, we often worked closely with The prevalence of skin diseases in our patients emphasized the importance of educating the elderly about sun protection, the early detection of skin cancer, the use of emollients and proper skin care in general.
The purpose of this study was to clarify whether skincare products are effective in preventing development of pressure ulcers in bedridden nursing home residents. The study sample consisted of 21 nursing home residents at a nursing home in Osaka, Japan who use diapers. Participants were assigned to 3 groups and compared to a control group. None of the subjects developed a pressure ulcer and had improved skin condition around the anus.
Walocko, Frances M; Tejasvi, Trilokraj
Teledermatology has drawn interest in the dermatologic community, because it allows for earlier detection of skin cancer in patients with poor access to health care. Using a combination of dermoscopy and digital photography, teledermatology has demonstrated acceptable concordance with face-to-face clinical diagnoses in multiple settings for pigmented skin lesions. Additional studies on using teledermatology to assess nonpigmented skin lesions are needed. Future advances in mobile teledermatology may help make this technology more widespread and affordable. Although teledermatology is not a replacement for regular total body skin examinations, it is a useful tool to significantly reduce the burden of dermatologic malignancies. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hong, Yang-Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Noh, Dong Ouk; Suh, Hyung Joo
Green tea contains numerous polyphenols, which have health-promoting effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tannase-converted green tea extract (TGE) formulation on the physical stability and activities of skin-related enzymes. Physical stability was evaluated by measuring the pH, precipitation, and colors at 25 ± 2 °C/ambient humidity and at 40 ± 2 °C/70% ± 5% relative humidity for 4 months. Activities of collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase as skin-related enzymes were assessed on TGE formulation. The concentrations of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and epicatechin-3-gallate in green tea extract were greatly decreased to the extent of negligible level when treated with tannase. The formulation containing 5% tannase-converted green tea extract showed relatively stable pH, precipitation, and color features for 16 weeks. When TGE was added to the formulation, there was a significant increase in the inhibition of elastase and tyrosinase activities ( p < 0.05) compared with the formulation containing 5% normal green tea extract. The TGE could be used in cosmetics as skin antiwrinkling or depigmenting agent.
Kon, Yuka; Ichikawa-Shigeta, Yoshie; Iuchi, Terumi; Nakajima, Yukari; Nakagami, Gojiro; Tabata, Keiko; Sanada, Hiromi; Sugama, Junko
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a skin barrier cream with moisturization and skin-protectant characteristics for improving the severity of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) pertaining to the skin physiology and appearance. We measured the following outcomes: (1) skin physiological characteristics indicating skin protection and enhancement of the skin's moisture barrier (stratum corneum hydration, dermis hydration level, transepidermal water loss, and skin pH); and (2) changes in skin appearance (the degree of erythema and pigmentation, and the sulcus cutis condition). Single-blind, cluster randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in a long-term care facility in Japan between November 7, 2011, and May 6, 2012. We used block randomization to obtain a random sample of 6 (4 experimental and 2 control) out of 10 available wards. All subjects were elderly women with IAD of the buttock or inner thigh. We assessed 295 patients, but only 33 met inclusion criteria; 18 were allocated to the experimental group and 15 were allocated to the control group. All participants were managed with cleansing with a skin cleanser and application of a moisturizer daily. In addition, a skin barrier cream designed to enhance the skin's moisture barrier and act as a protective barrier was applied to the skin of patients in the experimental group 3 times a day when absorptive briefs were changed. Skin physiological and appearance characteristics were scored only at the buttock or thigh area. All data were collected on days 1 and 14 of the study. Univariate analysis found that the erythema index was lower in the intervention group than in the control group at day 14 (P = .004). Multivariate analysis found significant associations between use of the skin barrier cream and increased stratum corneum hydration (β= .443, P = .031), decreased skin pH (β=-.439, P = .020), and magnitude of erythema (β=-.451, P = .018). Study findings suggest that a barrier
Evans, Randolph W
New daily persistent headache (NDPH), which is the acute onset of headache within 3 days and is persistent for 15 days or more each month for at least 3 months, is a predominantly female heterogeneous subtype of chronic daily headache, typically with migraine features of unknown etiology. NDPH may be a presentation of other primary headaches such as new onset migraine, tension, or benign thunderclap headache. The headaches can be difficult to treat. The diagnosis is one of excluding the many secondary types or NDPH mimics, which is especially critical early in the course of the disease when a secondary etiology is more likely. NDPH mimics include postmeningitis headache, NDPH with medication rebound, neoplasms, temporal arteritis, chronic meningitis, chronic subdural hematoma, post-traumatic headaches, sphenoid sinusitis, hypertension, subarachnoid hemorrhage, low cerebrospinal fluid pressure syndrome, cervical artery dissections, pseudotumor cerebri without papilledema, and cerebral venous thrombosis.
Dirt-binding particles consisting of hydrogenated castor oil beads constitute a nonirritating alternative for abrasive cleaning of recalcitrant oily skin contamination in a three-step programme of occupational skin protection.
Mahler, V; Erfurt-Berge, C; Schiemann, S; Michael, S; Egloffstein, A; Kuss, O
In occupational fields with exposure to grease, oil, metal particles, coal, black lead or soot, cleansing formulations containing abrasive bodies (e.g. refined walnut shell, corn, wood, plastic or pumice) are used. These may constitute an irritant per se. As an alternative, hydrogenated castor oil (also known as castor wax) beads have been developed as dirt-binding particles. A polar surface contributes to their mechanical cleaning effects in removal of oily grime. Standardized examination of the in vivo effects upon the skin barrier of castor wax beads in comparison with abrasive bodies and pure detergent. Three cleansing preparations - (i) detergent, (ii) detergent containing castor wax beads, (iii) detergent containing walnut shell powder - were each repetitively applied in vivo (four times daily for 3 weeks), mimicking workplace conditions, in 30 healthy volunteers (15 with and 15 without an atopic skin diathesis) and compared vs. (iv) no treatment. The treatment effects upon the skin barrier were monitored by repeated measurements of functional parameters [transepidermal water loss (TEWL), redness] and surface topography. After a 3-week treatment, a significant global treatment effect (P < 0.0001) was found in the atopic group concerning TEWL as indicator for barrier function. A significantly higher TEWL and increasing erythema in the area treated with detergent containing walnut shell powder reflected its irritant effect compared with castor wax beads dispensed in the identical detergent. Cleaning properties of the two formulas were comparably superior to detergent alone. Castor wax beads constitute a novel nonirritating alternative for abrasive cleaning of recalcitrant oily skin contamination appropriate for individuals with an atopic skin diathesis in a three-step programme of occupational skin protection. As the skin barrier may additionally be influenced by the composition of dirt and use of skin protection and skin care measures under real workplace
Rozen, Todd D
New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a unique form of chronic daily headache (CDH) which is marked by a daily headache from onset, typically occurring in individuals without a significant prior history of headaches. There are two subforms of NDPH: one which is self-limited and normally goes away without therapy, and a more chronic refractory form which is unresponsive to typical headache treatment strategies. The pathogenesis of NDPH is unknown but recent observations suggest a connection with cervical spine hypermobility and elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recognized triggers for NDPH include infection, stressful life events, and surgical procedures. Clinically, NDPH is characterized by continuous head pain of mild to severe intensity. Migrainous symptoms are common. The syndrome appears to affect women in their teens and 20s, while males develop NDPH later in life in their 50s or 60s. There are no recognized treatments for this condition, although treatment options will be discussed. Secondary mimics of NDPH will also be touched upon in this chapter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis (Yeast Infection) Dermatophytid Reaction Intertrigo Tinea Versicolor Overview of ... breasts. Common fungal skin infections are caused by yeasts (such as Candida or Malassezia furfur ) or dermatophytes , ...
... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...
... You at Risk? UVA & UVB Skin of Color Tanning Teacher Resources Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | Window ... Tribute Page | Share Your Story | Skin Cancer Information | Tanning | Get Involved Healthy Lifestyle Go With Your Own ...
Dignass, Axel U; Bokemeyer, Bernd; Adamek, Henning; Mross, Michael; Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Börner, Norbert; Silvennoinen, Jouni; Tan, Gie; Pool, Marco Oudkerk; Stijnen, Theo; Dietel, Peter; Klugmann, Tobias; Vermeire, Severine; Bhatt, Aomesh; Veerman, Henri
Oral mesalamine (5-aminosalicylate) is the current standard of care for mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. We investigated the efficacy and safety of once daily administration of prolonged-release mesalamine granules in maintenance of remission in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis, compared with the well established twice daily dosing regimen. In this multicenter, randomized, single blind, noninferiority trial, 362 patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis were randomly assigned (1:1) to groups that were given oral mesalamine 2 g, once daily, or 1 g, twice daily, for 12 months. The primary objective was to compare remission rates at 1 year, based on the ulcerative colitis disease activity index score, using Kaplan-Meier methodology. At 1 year, 70.9% of the group given 2 g mesalamine once daily remained in remission vs 58.9% of the group given 1 g mesalamine twice daily; this difference was statistically significant (P = .024), indicating the increased efficacy of once daily, compared with twice daily, dosing. Self-reported adherence to therapy, measured by visual analog scale score after 4, 8, and 12 months, was significantly greater in the group given 2 g mesalamine once daily, compared with twice daily, at all but 1 study visit (P < .05). Compliance measured by medication taken was not significantly different between the groups. The difference between the 2 groups in overall incidence of adverse events was not statistically significant (P = .23). Patients with ulcerative colitis given prolonged-release oral mesalamine 2 g once daily had better remission rates, acceptability, and self-reported adherence to therapy compared with patients given oral mesalamine 1 g twice daily.
Matar, Hazem; Larner, Joanne; Viegas, Vanessa; Kansagra, Sneha; Atkinson, Karen L; Shetage, Satyajit; Skamarauskas, John T; Theivendran, Baveetharan; Goldman, Virginia S; Chilcott, Robert P
Context Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a type of moisture-associated dermatitis caused by repeated skin exposure to urine or stool. A product that could mitigate such symptoms would have a significant impact on cost of care and patients' quality of life. Objective This study compared the clinical efficacy of RD1433 and a comparator product (Vaseline®) in preventing and treating experimental IAD skin lesions. Materials and methods For the "prevention" part of the study, skin sites in eight human volunteers were treated daily for 5 d with either RD1433 or Vaseline® immediately prior to synthetic urine exposure. In the "treatment" part, exposure to synthetic urine was substituted for Vaseline® or RD1433 application on the first 2 d to promote the development of skin lesions prior to the application of the products from day three. Product efficacy was quantified by visual scoring and an array of biophysical instruments. Results Both RD1433 and Vaseline® significantly reduced lesion progression when applied as a prophylactic. When applied as a treatment (following establishment of skin lesions), RD1433 demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in several measures of skin function whereas there was no statistically significant improvement following treatment with Vaseline®. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that RD1433 may be superior to Vaseline® in the prevention and treatment of experimental IAD lesions. Clearly, further work is required to establish the efficacy of RD1433 with patients in a clinical environment.
Oranges, Teresa; Dini, Valentina; Romanelli, Marco
Significance: The skin is a complex and dynamic organ that performs several vital functions. The maturation process of the skin starts at birth with the adaption of the skin to the comparatively dry environment compared to the in utero milieu. This adaptive flexibility results in the unique properties of infant skin. To deliver appropriate care to infant skin, it is necessary to understand that it is evolving with unique characteristics. Recent Advances: The role of biophysical noninvasive techniques in the assessment of skin development underlines the importance of an objective evaluation of skin physiology parameters. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, and pH values are measurable with specific instruments that give us an accurate and reproducible assessment during infant skin maturation. The recording of these values, following standard measurement procedures, allows us to evaluate the integrity of the skin barrier and to monitor the functionality of the maturing skin over time. Critical Issues: During the barrier development, impaired skin function makes the skin vulnerable to chemical damage, microbial infections, and skin diseases, possibly compromising the general health of the infant. Preterm newborns, during the first weeks of life, have an even less developed skin barrier and, therefore, are even more at risk. Thus, it is extremely important to evaluate the risk of infection, skin breakdown, topical agent absorption, and the risk of thermoregulation failure. Future Directions: Detailed and objective evaluations of infant skin maturation are necessary to improve infant skin care. The results of these evaluations should be formed into general protocols that will allow doctors and caregivers to give more personalized care to full-term newborns, preterm newborns, and infants. PMID:26487977
... red; Pinpoint red spots on the skin; Petechiae; Purpura ... in the newborn) Aging skin (ecchymosis) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (petechiae and purpura) Henoch-Schonlein purpura (purpura) Leukemia ( ...
Stapleton, Jerod L; Tatum, Kristina L; Devine, Katie A; Stephens, Sue; Masterson, Margaret; Baig, Amna; Hudson, Shawna V; Coups, Elliot J
The risk of developing skin cancer is elevated among childhood cancer survivors (CCS), particularly among those treated with radiation. This survey study examined the skin cancer surveillance behaviors of 94 CCS. Approximately 48% of CCS had ever conducted skin self-examination (SSE) and 31% had ever received a physician skin examination. Rates of physician skin examination were 2.5 times higher among CCS treated with radiation compared to those without radiation. However, rates of SSEs did not differ based on treatment history. These findings highlight the need to promote skin cancer surveillance as an important aspect of CCS survivorship care. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Holowacz, S; Blondeau, C; Guinobert, I; Guilbot, A; Hidalgo, S; Bisson, J F
Oral probiotics potential for the management of dermatological diseases is vast. However, results of available studies in skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD), are inconsistent, partly because probiotic effects are strain specific. Careful selection of probiotic strains is therefore indispensable to ensure efficacy of treatment. In this study, Lactobacillus salivarius LA307, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA305 and Bifidobacterium bifidum PI22, three strains that were previously identified for their interesting immunomodulatory properties in allergy and/or colitis models, were assessed in the prevention of chronic skin inflammation induced by repeated applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in hairless SKH-1 mice. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of skin lesions was performed together with measurements of serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-17, IL-22, IL-10 and IL-4. Daily oral treatment with the three strains at the dose of 1×10 9 cfu/day for 3 weeks limited the development of chronic skin inflammation, the effects being strain dependent. Indeed the two Lactobacillus strains significantly limited the intensity of skin inflammation both at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Macroscopic observations were correlated to the histological observations and the resulting microscopic score. This limitation of the development of AD-like skin lesions involved the modulation of cytokine production. Treatment with the two Lactobacillus strains induced a decrease in the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-22 and at the opposite an increase in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and also of IL-4. Globally, B. bifidum PI22 had lower benefits. These results obtained in mice suggest that L. salivarius LA307 and L. rhamnosus LA305 could be good candidates for preserving skin integrity and homeostasis via the modulation of the gut microbiota and that
Brimdyr, Kajsa; Cadwell, Karin; Stevens, Jeni; Takahashi, Yuki
Evidence supporting the practice of skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding soon after birth points to physiologic, social, and psychological benefits for both mother and baby. The 2009 revision of Step 4 of the WHO/UNICEF "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding" elaborated on the practice of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and her newly born baby indicating that the practice should be "immediate" and "without separation" unless documented medically justifiable reasons for delayed contact or interruption exist. While in immediate, continuous, uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact with mother in the first hour after birth, babies progress through 9 instinctive, complex, distinct, and observable stages including self-attachment and suckling. However, the most recent Cochrane review of early skin-to-skin contact cites inconsistencies in the practice; the authors found "inadequate evidence with respect to details … such as timing of initiation and dose." This paper introduces a novel algorithm to analyse the practice of skin to skin in the first hour using two data sets and suggests opportunities for practice improvement. The algorithm considers the mother's Robson criteria, skin-to-skin experience, and Widström's 9 Stages. Using data from vaginal births in Japan and caesarean births in Australia, the algorithm utilizes data in a new way to highlight challenges to best practice. The use of a tool to analyse the implementation of skin-to-skin care in the first hour after birth illuminates the successes, barriers, and opportunities for improvement to achieving the standard of care for babies. Future application should involve more diverse facilities and Robson's classifications. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Beechey, Rebekah; Priest, Laura; Peters, Micah; Moloney, Clint
Maintaining skin integrity in a community setting is an ongoing issue, as research suggests that the prevalence of skin tears within the community is greater than that in an institutional setting. While skin tear prevention and management principles in these settings are similar to those in an acute care setting, consideration of the environmental and psychological factors of the client is pivotal to prevention in a community setting. Evidence suggests that home environment assessment, education for clients and care givers, and being proactive in improving activities of daily living in a community setting can significantly reduce the risk of sustaining skin tears. The aim of this implementation project was to assess and review current skin tear prevention and management practices within the community setting, and from this, to implement an evidence-based approach in the education of clients and staff on the prevention of skin tears. As well. the project aims to implement evidence-based principles to guide clinical practice in relation to the initial management of skin tears, and to determine strategies to overcome barriers and non-compliance. The project utilized the Joanna Brigg's Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System audit tool for promoting changes in the community health setting. The implementation of this particular project is based in a region within Anglicare Southern Queensland. A small team was established and a baseline audit carried out. From this, multiple strategies were implemented to address non-compliance which included education resources for clients and caregivers, staff education sessions, and creating skin integrity kits to enable staff members to tend to skin tears, and from this a follow-up audit undertaken. Baseline audit results were slightly varied, from good to low compliance. From this, the need for staff and client education was highlighted. There were many improvements in the audit criteria following client and
Visscher, Marty O
Skin coloration is highly diverse, partly due to the presence of pigmentation. Color variation is related to the extent of ultraviolet radiation exposure, as well as other factors. Inherent skin coloration arises from differences in basal epidermal melanin amount and type. Skin color is influenced by both the quantity and distribution of melanocytes. The effectiveness of inherent pigmentation for protecting living cells also varies. This article discusses skin color, pigmentation, and ethnicity in relation to clinical practice. Color perception, skin typing/classification, and quantitation of pigmentation are reviewed in relation to ethnicity, environmental stresses/irritants, and potential treatment effects. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Singh, Navneet; Vishwanath, Gella; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Behera, Digambar
Limited data are available from India on treatment outcomes with oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We studied the demographic profile and treatment outcomes of patients with NSCLC, receiving first-line treatment with oral EGFR-TKIs. Retrospective study of newly diagnosed NSCLC patients treated with oral EGFR-TKIs over a 4-year period at a tertiary care institute in North India. Of 76 patients studied, females and non-smokers constituted 32.9% and 48.7%, respectively. Majority of patients had adenocarcinoma (59.2%), stage IV (64.5%) disease and Karnofsky performance status ≤ 70 (74.5%). Gefitinib was the most frequently used EGFR-TKI (92.1%). Most common indication for the use of EGFR-TKIs was poor performance status (65.8%). Among assessable patients, disease control and progressive disease were evident in 66% and 34%, respectively. Most common side effects were skin rash (17%) and diarrhoea (10.6%). Patients with and without skin rash differed significantly in relation to objective response to treatment (100% versus 23.1%) and overall survival (median not reached versus 178 days). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, malignant pleural effusion was associated with occurrence of rash (odds ratio = 0.19; 95% confidence interval = 0.04-0.95; p = 0.04). Oral EGFR-TKIs appear to be useful for the treatment of clinically selected patients with advanced NSCLC. Occurrence of skin rash was independently associated with treatment response and better survival in the current study.
Nogueira, Alessandra; Sidou, Farzaneh; Brocard, Sylvie
Moisturizers increase skin hydration and can serve as adjunctive care in dermatologic conditions such as xerosis, psoriasis vulgaris, atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis, in which dry skin is implicated. A non-irritating hydrating lotion (CDA lotion) was recently developed. We assessed the effect of CDA lotion on skin hydration in two randomized, evaluator-blind and intra-individual comparison studies. After a single application, CDA lotion induced significantly greater hydration than the non-treated control for at least 24 hours (p < 0.001). After 4 days of twice-daily application, compared with the non-treated control, CDA lotion induced significantly greater skin hydration up to 3 days after treatment cessation (p < 0.05) and significant improvement in the clinical skin dryness score up to 7 days after treatment cessation (p < 0.05). The immediate and cumulative hydration effects of CDA lotion were also compared to those of several currently available moisturizing products. In summary, application of CDA lotion increases skin hydration and alleviates the condition of skin dryness.
Hormbrey, E; Pandya, A; Giele, H
Painful split-skin-graft donor sites remain a common problem for patients. We undertook a prospective randomised trial to examine the comparative comfort and ease of care of two different donor-site dressings. One dressing is the alginate Kaltostat, the standard plastic-surgical dressing in the UK and abroad, and the other is the adhesive retention tape Mefix, a novel use of a readily available dressing. We randomised 50 patients requiring split-skin grafts to receive either alginate (Kaltostat) or retention (Mefix) donor-site dressings. Dressings were assessed by interview and questionnaire at 24, 72 h and 2 weeks, and by wound review at 2 weeks. Retention dressings were found to be more comfortable, required less nursing intervention and allowed patients easier mobility with a greater range of daily activities, especially washing, without compromising wound healing. We recommend adhesive retention dressings as cost-effective comfortable dressings, which readily conform to any donor site.
Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) is a dif cult and hard to manage condition. It occurs more frequently in certain occupations where contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing heightens the risk. Treatment for OICD includes patient education in addition to physical, topical, and systemic therapies. To review the pathogenesis and treatment options for OICD and evaluate the ef cacy of a selective skin-care regimen involv- ing a hand protectant cream alone as well as combined with a repair cream and speci c cleanser. A single-center open study was performed comprising 42 healthy male and female adult volunteers prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to frequent wet work or contact with detergents. Between day 0 and day 7, subjects applied a hand protectant cream as needed on both hands (at least twice daily). On days 7 to 14, subjects applied a hand protectant cream and cleanser as needed on both hands (at least twice daily) as well as a repair cream each evening. A diary log was given to each volunteer for application control and for a subjective evaluation of daily tolerability. In these subjects prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis, the hand protectant cream applied during the initial 7-day period was effective in restoring the damaged skin barrier and improving the stratum corneum hydration. A regimen that combined the hand protectant and repair creams with a speci c cleanser during a further 7-day period allowed contin- ued improvement of skin hydration and additional clinical bene ts while respecting the skin barrier function. The results of this study support the use of a 3-step approach for patients who are at risk of repeated exposure to external irritants. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(suppl 11):s81-85..
Gabe, Y; Osanai, O; Takema, Y
Ultraweak photon emission (UPE) is one potential method to evaluate the oxidative status of the skin in vivo. However, little is known about how the daily oxidative stress of the skin is related to skin aging-related alterations in vivo. We characterized the steady state UPE and performed a skin survey. We evaluated the skin oxidative status by UPE, skin elasticity, epidermal thickness and skin color on the inner upper arm, the outer forearm, and the buttock of 70 Japanese volunteers. The steady state UPE at the three skin sites increased with age. Correlation analysis revealed that the steady state UPE only from the buttock was related to skin elasticity, which showed age-dependent changes. Moreover, analysis by age group indicated that b* values of the inner upper arm of subjects in their 20s were inversely correlated with UPE as occurred in buttock skin. In contrast, photoaged skin did not show a clear relationship with steady state UPE because the accumulation of sun-exposure might influence the sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results suggest that steady state UPE reflects not only intrinsic skin aging and cutaneous color but also the current oxidative status independent of skin aging. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Berger, Ariel; Inglese, Gary; Skountrianos, George; Karlsmark, Tonny; Oguz, Mustafa
PURPOSE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of a ceramide-infused skin barrier (CIB) versus other skin barriers (standard of care) among patients who have undergone ostomy creation. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis, based on a decision-analytic model that was estimated using data from the ADVOCATE (A Study Determining Variances in Ostomy Skin Conditions And The Economic Impact) trial, which investigated stoma-related healthcare costs over 12 weeks among patients who recently underwent fecal ostomy, and from other sources. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Analysis was based on a hypothetical cohort of 1000 patients who recently underwent fecal ostomy; over a 1-year period, 500 patients were assumed to use CIB and 500 were assumed to use standard of care. METHODS: We adapted a previous economic model to estimate expected 1-year costs and outcomes among persons with a new ostomy assumed to use CIB versus standard of care. Outcomes of interest included peristomal skin complications (PSCs) (up to 2 during the 1-year period of interest) and quality-adjusted life days (QALDs); QALDs vary from 1, indicating a day of perfect health to 0, indicating a day with the lowest possible health (deceased). Subjects were assigned QALDs on a daily basis, with the value of the QALD on any given day based on whether the patient was experiencing a PSC. Costs included those related to skin barriers, ostomy accessories, and care of PSCs. The incremental cost-effectiveness of CIB versus standard of care was estimated as the incremental cost per PSC averted and QALD gained, respectively; net monetary benefit of CIB was also estimated. All analyses were run using the perspective of an Australian payer. RESULTS: On a per-patient basis, use of CIB was expected over a 1-year period to result in 0.16 fewer PSCs, an additional 0.35 QALDs, and a savings of A$180 (Australian dollars, US $137) in healthcare costs all versus standard of care. Management with CIB provided a net monetary benefit (calculated as
... the risk of skin cancer and premature skin aging just like too much sun. In fact, most tanning beds emit mainly UVA rays, which may increase the risk of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. Physical activity Being physically active is good for your skin! It increases the ...
Misery, L; Boussetta, S; Nocera, T; Perez-Cullell, N; Taieb, C
Sensitive skin appears as a very frequent condition, but there is no comparative data between countries. To perform an epidemiological approach to skin sensitivity in different European countries. An opinion poll was conducted in eight European countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland. This sample (4506 persons) was drawn from a representative sample of each population aged 15 years or older. Sensitive or very sensitive skin was declared by 38.4% and slightly or not sensitive skin by 61.6%. Women declared more sensitive skin than men. A dermatological disease was declared by 31.2% of people with very sensitive skin, 17.6% of those with sensitive skin, 8.7% of those with slightly sensitive skin and 3.7% of those who do not have sensitive skin. A history of childhood atopic dermatitis was more frequent in patients with sensitive or very sensitive skin. The interviewees who declared that they had dry or oily skin also reported significantly more frequently sensitive or very sensitive skin than those with normal skin. Sensitive and very sensitive skins were clearly more frequent in Italy and France. This study is the first study that compares skin sensitivity in European countries. Prevalence is high, but significant differences are noted between these countries. Dermatological antecedents (or treatments?) could be involved in the occurrence of skin sensitivity.
Background As a consequence of the disintegration of the state systems and the expansion of the European Union, there have been marked changes in the political and social affiliations of the countries of Eastern Europe. Of the 22 countries in Northeastern, Centraleastern, Southeastern and Eastern Europe, 12 are now members and 10 are "new" neighbours of the European Union. The accident insurance systems and changes in occupational accidents and occupational diseases in eastern European countries are described. Changes since EU and visible differences from non-EU countries are analysed. Special emphasis is given to occupational skin diseases. Methods The available data from the European Union (MISSOC and MISSCEEC Studies on the Social Protection Systems), the database "Social Security Worldwide" (SSW) of the International Social Security Association (ISSA), the International Labour Office Database (LABORSTA), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the annual statistical reports of the different countries were analysed with respect to changes in occupational accidents and occupational diseases. To find missing data, 128 ministries and authorities in the 22 countries in eastern Europe were researched and 165 persons contacted. Results The social insurance systems were very different in the different countries and some were better established than others. Moreover, not all data were available. For these reasons, detailed comparison was not always possible. The occupational accident rates are decreasing in more than half the countries. In contrast, the fatal accident rates have increased in half the countries. The number of newly registered occupational diseases is decreasing in more than half the countries. The rates for occupational skin diseases in 2006 were particularly high in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia. In half the countries (four out of eight), the number of occupational skin diseases is decreasing. A reliable analysis of any correlation between EU
Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus
Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in
Rayner, R; Carville, K; Leslie, G; Roberts, P
Skin tears are the most common wound among the elderly and have the potential to cause infection, form chronic wounds, reduce quality of life and increase health-care costs. Our aim was to identify studies that reviewed patient and skin characteristics associated with skin tears. A review of skin tear studies reported in the English literature between 1980 and 2013 was undertaken using the following electronic databases: PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, Evidence Based and Medicine Reviews (EBM). Search terms included aged, skin, tears or lacerations, skin tearing, geri tear, epidermal tear and prevalence. There were 343 articles found with using the search terms. After abstract review nine were found to be relevant to the search. The principle findings from these eight published articles and one unpublished study revealed that the most common patient characteristics were a history of skin tears, impaired mobility and impaired cognition. Skin characteristics associated with skin tears included senile purpura, ecchymosis and oedema. This review provides an overview of identified patient and skin characteristics that predispose the elderly to skin tears and exposes the lack of research within this domain. R. Rayner is a recipient of a 2013 Australian Postgraduate Award, Curtin University Postgraduate Scholarship and a Wound Management Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) PhD stipend. The School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University and the Silver Chain Group, Western Australia are participants in the Wound Management Innovation CRC. No conflict of interest exists among the authors.
Biro, Kathrin; Thaçi, Diamant; Ochsendorf, Falk R; Kaufmann, Roland; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning
Dexpanthenol is popular in treating various dermatoses and in skin care, but few controlled clinical trials have been performed. We investigated the efficacy of dexpanthenol in skin protection against irritation in a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. 25 healthy volunteers (age 18-45 years) were treated for the inner aspect of both forearms with either Bepanthol Handbalsam containing 5% dexpanthenol or placebo x2 daily for 26 days. From day 15-22, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 2% was applied to these areas x2 daily. Documentation comprised sebumetry, corneometry, pH value and clinical appearance (photographs). 21 volunteers completed the study, 3 were excluded because of non-compliance and 1 experienced a non-study-related, severe, adverse event. Only corneometry yielded a statistically significant difference, with decreased values following SLS challenge at the placebo sites (P < 0.05). Intraindividual comparisons showed superior results at the dexpanthenol-treated sites in 11 cases and in only 1 case at the placebo site. 6 volunteers experienced an irritant contact dermatitis, with more severe symptoms at the placebo site in 5 cases. In conclusion, dexpanthenol exhibits protective effects against skin irritation. The initiation of a study to evaluate the efficacy of dexpanthenol in preventing irritant occupational contact dermatitis under real workplace conditions is validated.
New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.
New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine a