Science.gov

Sample records for daily solar insolation

  1. Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-01

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  2. A calibrated, high-resolution goes satellite solar insolation product for a climatology of Florida evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paech, S.J.; Mecikalski, J.R.; Sumner, D.M.; Pathak, C.S.; Wu, Q.; Islam, S.; Sangoyomi, T.

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of incoming solar radiation (insolation) from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations have been produced for the state of Florida over a 10-year period (1995-2004). These insolation estimates were developed into well-calibrated half-hourly and daily integrated solar insolation fields over the state at 2 km resolution, in addition to a 2-week running minimum surface albedo product. Model results of the daily integrated insolation were compared with ground-based pyranometers, and as a result, the entire dataset was calibrated. This calibration was accomplished through a three-step process: (1) comparison with ground-based pyranometer measurements on clear (noncloudy) reference days, (2) correcting for a bias related to cloudiness, and (3) deriving a monthly bias correction factor. Precalibration results indicated good model performance, with a station-averaged model error of 2.2 MJ m-2/day (13%). Calibration reduced errors to 1.7 MJ m -2/day (10%), and also removed temporal-related, seasonal-related, and satellite sensor-related biases. The calibrated insolation dataset will subsequently be used by state of Florida Water Management Districts to produce statewide, 2-km resolution maps of estimated daily reference and potential evapotranspiration for water management-related activities. ?? 2009 American Water Resources Association.

  3. Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days, and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations and direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data, generally from 1952 to 1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/sq m per day, Btu/sq ft per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global KT (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global KT is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  4. Theoretical calculation of the interannual variability of the Earth's insolation with daily resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Based on the astronomical ephemerides DE-406, theoretical calculations have been performed of the interannual variability of the Earth's insolation related to celestial-mechanical processes for 365 points of a tropical year in the time period from 1900 to 2050. It has been determined that the average amplitude of variations of the interannual insolation is 0.310 W/m2 (0.023% of the solar constant). The calculated variations are characterized by strict periodicity that corresponds with the length of a synodic month. Connection between the extreme values of the calculated insolation variability and syzygies has been defined. The average amplitude of the calculated variability exceeds by 1.7 times (0.01% of the solar constant) the amplitude of the interannual variability in the 11-year variation of the total Earth's insolation.

  5. Predicting Daily Insolation with Hourly Cloud Height and Coverage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, T. P.; Dale, R. F.

    1983-04-01

    Solar radiation information is used in crop growth, boundary layer, entomological and plant pathological models, and in determining the potential use of active and passive solar energy systems. Yet solar radiation is among the least measured meteorological variables.A semi-physical model based on standard meteorological data was developed to estimate solar radiation received at the earth's surface. The radiation model includes the effects of Rayleigh scattering, absorption by water vapor and permanent gases, and absorption and scattering by aerosols and clouds. Cloud attenuation is accounted for by assigning transmission coefficients based on cloud height and amount. The cloud transmission coefficients for various heights and coverages were derived empirically from hourly observations of solar radiation in conjunction with corresponding cloud observations at West Lafayette, Indiana. The model was tested with independent data from West Lafayette and Indianapolis, Madison, WI, Omaha, NE, Columbia, MO, Nashville, TN, Seattle, WA, Los Angeles, CA, Phoenix, AZ, Lake Charles, LA, Miami, FL, and Sterling, VA. For each of these locations a 16% random sample of days was drawn within each of the 12 months in a year for testing the model. Excellent agreement between predicted and observed radiation values was obtained for all stations tested. Mean absolute errors ranged from 1.05 to 1.80 MJ m2 day1 and root-mean-square errors ranged from 1.31 to 2.32 MJ m2 day1. The model's performance judged by relative error was found to be independent of season and cloud amount for all locations tested.

  6. Insolation data for solar energy conversion derived from satellite measurements of earth radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thekaekara, M. P.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the irradiance of the sun at ground locations is essential for the design and evaluation of solar energy conversion systems. The primary source of such data is the global network of weather stations. Such stations are often too far apart and for most locations the data available are only daily total irradiance or monthly averages. Solar energy conversion programs require insolation data with considerably higher geographical and temporal resolution. Meteorological satellites gather routinely extensive data on the energy reflected and scattered into space by the earth-atmosphere system. A program has been initiated to use such data for deriving ground insolation for energy conversion. Some of the preliminary results of this program will be discussed.

  7. Influence of topographic complexity on solar insolation estimates for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, M.D.; Bennett, G.E.; Mietz, S.N.; Coggins, L.G.; Stevens, L.E.; Hueftle, S.; Blinn, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Rugged topography along the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons, exemplifies features common to canyon-bound streams and rivers of the arid southwest. Physical relief influences regulated river systems, especially those that are altered, and have become partially reliant on aquatic primary production. We measured and modeled instantaneous solar flux in a topographically complex environment to determine where differences in daily, seasonal and annual solar insolation occurred in this river system. At a system-wide scale, topographic complexity generates a spatial and temporal mosaic of varying solar insolation. This solar variation is a predictable consequence of channel orientation, geomorphology, elevation angles and viewshed. Modeled estimates for clear conditions corresponded closely with observed measurements for both instantaneous photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD: ??mol m-2 s-1) and daily insolation levels (relative error 2.3%, CI ??0.45, S.D. 0.3, n = 29,813). Mean annual daily insolation levels system-wide were estimated to be 36 mol m-2 d -1 (17.5 S.D.), and seasonally varied on average from 13.4-57.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. In comparison to identical areas lacking topographic effect (idealized plane), mean daily insolation levels were reduced by 22% during summer, and as much as 53% during winter. Depending on outlying topography, canyon bound regions having east-west (EW) orientations had higher seasonal variation, averaging from 8.1 to 61.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. For EW orientations, 70% of mid-channel sites were obscured from direct incidence during part of the year; and of these sites, average diffuse light conditions persisted for 19.3% of the year (70.5 days), and extended upwards to 194 days. This predictive model has provided an initial quantitative step to estimate and determine the importance of autotrophic production for this ecosystem, as well as a broader application for other

  8. Solar microclimatology. [tables (data) on insolation for application to solar energy conversion by electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenney, D. B.; Beauchamp, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    It has become apparent in recent years that solar energy can be used for electric power production by several methods. Because of the diffuse nature of the solar insolation, the area involved in any central power plant design can encompass several square miles. A detailed design of these large area collection systems will require precise knowledge of the local solar insolation. Detailed information will also be needed concerning the temporal nature of the insolation and the local spatial distribution. Therefore, insolation data was collected and analyzed for a network of sensors distributed over an area of several square kilometers in Arizona. The analyses of this data yielded probability distributions of cloud size, velocity, and direction of motion which were compared with data obtained from the National Weather Service. Microclimatological analyses were also performed for suitable modeling parameters pertinent to large scale electric power plant design. Instrumentation used to collect the data is described.

  9. Glacial cycles and solar insolation: the role of orbital, seasonal, and spatial variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, K.

    2010-11-01

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to evaluate the relative roles that orbital, seasonal, and spatial variations in solar insolation play in glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390kyr - present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that variations in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit have the greatest explanatory power and that obliquity, precession, and eccentricity are needed to generate an accurate simulation of glacial cycles. Seasonal variations in insolation play a lesser role, while cumulative summer-time insolation has little explanatory power. Finally, solar insolation in the Northern Hemisphere generates the more accurate in-sample simulation of surface temperature while ice volume is simulated most accurately by solar insolation in the Southern Hemisphere.

  10. Camera-based forecasting of insolation for solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manger, Daniel; Pagel, Frank

    2015-02-01

    With the transition towards renewable energies, electricity suppliers are faced with huge challenges. Especially the increasing integration of solar power systems into the grid gets more and more complicated because of their dynamic feed-in capacity. To assist the stabilization of the grid, the feed-in capacity of a solar power system within the next hours, minutes and even seconds should be known in advance. In this work, we present a consumer camera-based system for forecasting the feed-in capacity of a solar system for a horizon of 10 seconds. A camera is targeted at the sky and clouds are segmented, detected and tracked. A quantitative prediction of the insolation is performed based on the tracked clouds. Image data as well as truth data for the feed-in capacity was synchronously collected at one Hz using a small solar panel, a resistor and a measuring device. Preliminary results demonstrate both the applicability and the limits of the proposed system.

  11. SOLINS- SOLAR INSOLATION MODEL FOR COMPUTING AVAILABLE SOLAR ENERGY TO A SURFACE OF ARBITRARY ORIENTATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program, SOLINS, was developed to aid engineers and solar system designers in the accurate modeling of the average hourly solar insolation on a surface of arbitrary orientation. The program can be used to study insolation problems specific to residential and commercial applications where the amount of space available for solar collectors is limited by shadowing problems, energy output requirements, and costs. For tandem rack arrays, SOLINS will accommodate the use of augmentation reflectors built into the support structure to increase insolation values at the collector surface. As the use of flat plate solar collectors becomes more prevalent in the building industry, the engineer and designer must have the capability to conduct extensive sensitivity analyses on the orientation and location of solar collectors. SOLINS should prove to be a valuable aid in this area of engineering. SOLINS uses a modified version of the National Bureau of Standards model to calculate the direct, diffuse, and reflected components of total insolation on a tilted surface with a given azimuthal orientation. The model is based on the work of Liu and Jordan with corrections by Kusuda and Ishii to account for early morning and late afternoon errors. The model uses a parametric description of the average day solar climate to generate monthly average day profiles by hour of the insolation level on the collector surface. The model includes accommodation of user specified ground and landscape reflectivities at the collector site. For roof or ground mounted, tilted arrays, SOLINS will calculate insolation including the effects of shadowing and augmentation reflectors. The user provides SOLINS with data describing the array design, array orientation, the month, the solar climate parameter, the ground reflectance, and printout control specifications. For the specified array and environmental conditions, SOLINS outputs the hourly insolation the array will receive during an average day

  12. Effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption on solar insolation: Four case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.L.; Robert, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    The Southwest Technology Development Institute staff analyzed solar insolation data from four sites recorded during the years 1990 through 1992. Analyses were performed to identify and quantify the effects on insolation caused by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15th and 16th, 1991. The four monitoring stations that supplied the raw data for this report were: The Southwest Region Experiment Station in Las Cruces, New Mexico; The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado; The Solar Insolation Monitor Program station operated by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in Carrisa Plains, California; and The Solar Insolation monitor station at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Data from each of the sites were recorded by dedicated datalogging equipment. Every effort was made to prevent data acquisition system problems (e.g., drift of the datalogger clock) from influencing the accuracy of the results.

  13. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  14. Study on a Bioethanol Solar Reforming System with the Solar Insolation Fluctuation in Consideration of Heat Chemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; El-Sayed, Abeer Galal

    A bioethanol reforming system (FBSR) with a sunlight heat source is developed as a potential fuel supply system for distributed fuel cells. The temperature distribution of a catalyst layer in the reactor is not stable under conditions of unstable solar radiation and unstable outside air temperature; therefore, it is thought that the inversion rate of a reforming reaction will decrease. In this paper, heat transmission analysis was used in the catalyst layer of the reforming component of an FBSR, and temperature distribution, inversion rate, and process gas composition were investigated. Based on the results, the relationship between weather conditions and a hydrogen-generating rate was determined. When solar insolation was unstable, it turned out that the efficiency of the reforming component is reduced. Fluctuations of the solar insolation over a short period of time affect the hydrogen generating rate of an FBSR. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen production of an FBSR was simulated using meteorological data from a day in March and a day in August in a cold region (Sapporo). The analysis showed that efficiency of the reforming component exceeded 40% for both of the days.

  15. The Effects of Solar Insolation on Organic-rich Cometary Analogue Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, Susan M.; Smith, D. C.; Olney, R. D.; Cintala, M. J.

    2009-09-01

    Comets are believed to be a rich source of both water and organics to the early Earth. Exposure of comet nuclei to the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun can lead to chemical reactions within these complex bodies that result in a wide variety of complex organic molecules. In general, cometary dust is believed to be comprised of roughly half organic-rich and half inorganic components. Signatures in UV emission spectra of cometary dust (e.g. P/Halley, Hyakutake) suggest the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Likely candidates responsible for these features include pyrene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and napthalene. We have conducted a suite of experiments whereby both volatile-free and volatile-rich organic samples were insolated with a solar lamp (0.250-2.5 μm) to investigate the chemistry that may occur both in the upper crust in comets (devoid of volatiles), as well as in the ice-rich portion of comet nuclei. Samples include each of the PAHs listed above, independently and in combination with volatiles (e.g. water, CO2, NH3, CH3OH). The samples are intimately mixed, cooled in a liquid nitrogen dewar, and insolated under vaccuum to mimic conditions in space and exposure to solar radiation. The resulting organic components are isolated and analyzed via a GCMS (mass spectrometer) and FTIR (Infrared spectrometer) to identify both the resultant organic molecules and their infrared signatures that may be detected telescopically. This work was supported by a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation.

  16. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

    1979-01-01

    The performance and cost of the 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States were determined. The regional insolation data base is discussed. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several cades are presented.

  17. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States was studied. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs and energy costs. The regional variation in solar plant performance was assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity supplied by conventional utility power systems in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base is presented along with a description of the solar systems performance and costs. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades is given.

  18. Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume 1: An insolation, array shadowing, and reflector augmentation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A quick reference for obtaining estimates of available solar insolation for numerous locations and array angles is presented. A model and a computer program are provided which considered the effects of array shadowing reflector augmentation as design variables.

  19. Relationship of Solar Energy Installation Permits to Renewable Portfolio Standards and Insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Kirt Gordon

    Legislated renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) may not be the key to ensure forecast energy demands are met. States without a legislated RPS and with efficient permitting procedures were found to have approved and issued 28.57% more permits on average than those with a legislated RPS. Assessment models to make informed decisions about the need and effect of legislated RPSs do not exist. Decision makers and policy creators need to use empirical data and a viable model to resolve the debate over a nationally legislated RPS. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if relationships between the independent variables of RPS and insolation levels and the dependent variable of the percentage of permits approved would prove to be a viable model. The research population was 68 cities in the United States, of which 55 were used in this study. The return on investment economic decision model provided the theoretical framework for this study and the model generated. The output of multiple regression analysis indicated a weak to medium positive relationship among the variables. None of these relationships were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. A model using site specific data might yield significant results and be useful for determining which solar energy projects to pursue and where to implement them without Federal or State mandated RPSs. A viable model would bring about efficiency gains in the permitting process and effectiveness gains in promoting installations of solar energy-based systems. Research leading to the development of a viable model would benefit society by encouraging the development of sustainable energy sources and helping to meet forecast energy demands.

  20. The impact of orbitally-driven changes in solar insolation on “greenhouse” climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, S. C.; Herridge, J. D.; Thomas, D. J.; Marcantonio, F.

    2009-12-01

    We seek to determine the link between climate change and eccentricity-scale lithologic cycles found in early Paleogene deep-sea sediments. Through a multi proxy investigation of cyclic lithologic variations recorded at Shatsky Rise (NW Pacific Ocean, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 198), we test the hypotheses that orbital variations in solar insolation caused changes in wind intensity and aridity in dust source regions as well as the corrosiveness of global deep ocean waters. During the study interval at ~58Ma, Shatsky Rise was in the central tropical Pacific, situated far from any existing shoreline so that any terrigenous silicate material that reached the location likely was windblown dust. Variations in the grain size and flux of eolian material delivered to the open ocean are used as a proxy for atmospheric circulation patterns and vigor, and changes in the aridity and/or vegetation cover of dust source regions, respectively. We have determined the grain size and dust accumulation rates over eight consecutive 100 kyr eccentricity cycles. Median grain sizes ranged from 8.7Φ to 8.4Φ over the interval, suggesting relative wind intensity changes of 30-60%, but with no resolvable orbital periodicity. In contrast, 232Th (a proxy for continentally derived material) and sedimentological analyses indicate dust fluxes to Shatsky Rise varied on eccentricity timescales, with maximum accumulation occurring during eccentricity maxima. 232Th concentrations in the bulk sediment indicate that the entire detrital fraction is continentally derived and not authigenic. The calculated 232Th fluxes (0.9 -17.4 mg/cm2/kyr) agree well with sediment dust mass accumulation rates determined using traditional chemical extraction techniques (2.9 to 15.9 mg/cm2/kyr). Nd and Sr isotopic values of the “eolian” sediment fraction were less and more radiogenic than coeval seawater, respectively, supporting the assumption the material was derived from the continents and is not authigenic

  1. Parameterization of daily solar global ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Feister, U; Jäkel, E; Gericke, K

    2002-09-01

    Daily values of solar global ultraviolet (UV) B and UVA irradiation as well as erythemal irradiation have been parameterized to be estimated from pyranometer measurements of daily global and diffuse irradiation as well as from atmospheric column ozone. Data recorded at the Meteorological Observatory Potsdam (52 degrees N, 107 m asl) in Germany over the time period 1997-2000 have been used to derive sets of regression coefficients. The validation of the method against independent data sets of measured UV irradiation shows that the parameterization provides a gain of information for UVB, UVA and erythemal irradiation referring to their averages. A comparison between parameterized daily UV irradiation and independent values of UV irradiation measured at a mountain station in southern Germany (Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg at 48 degrees N, 977 m asl) indicates that the parameterization also holds even under completely different climatic conditions. On a long-term average (1953-2000), parameterized annual UV irradiation values are 15% and 21% higher for UVA and UVB, respectively, at Hohenpeissenberg than they are at Potsdam. Daily global and diffuse irradiation measured at 28 weather stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst German Radiation Network and grid values of column ozone from the EPTOMS satellite experiment served as inputs to calculate the estimates of the spatial distribution of daily and annual values of UV irradiation across Germany. Using daily values of global and diffuse irradiation recorded at Potsdam since 1937 as well as atmospheric column ozone measured since 1964 at the same site, estimates of daily and annual UV irradiation have been derived for this site over the period from 1937 through 2000, which include the effects of changes in cloudiness, in aerosols and, at least for the period of ozone measurements from 1964 to 2000, in atmospheric ozone. It is shown that the extremely low ozone values observed mainly after the eruption of Mt

  2. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV-Development of an insolation handbook and instrument package

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Recognizing a need for a coordinated approach to resolve energy problems, certain members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) met in September 1974 and agreed to develop an International Energy Program. The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established within the OECD to administer, monitor and execute this International Energy Program. In July 1975, Solar Heating and Cooling was selected as one of the sixteen technology fields for multilateral cooperation. Five project areas, called tasks, were identified for cooperative activities within the IEA Program to Develop and Test Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. The objective of one task was to obtain improved basic resource information for the design and operation of solar heating and cooling systems through a better understanding of the required insolation (solar radiation) and related weather data, and through improved techniques for measurement and evaluation of such data. At the February 1976 initial experts meeting in Norrkoeping, Sweden, the participants developed the objective statement into two subtasks. (1) an insolation handbook; and (2) a portable meteorological instrument package. This handbook is the product of the first subtask. The objective of this handbook is to provide a basis for a dialogue between solar scientists and meteorologists. Introducing the solar scientist to solar radiation and related meteorological data enables him to better express his scientific and engineering needs to the meteorologist; and introducing the meteorologist to the special solar radiation and meteorological data applications of the solar scientist enables him to better meet the needs of the solar energy community.

  3. Thermal analysis of the horizontal shipping container for normal conditions of transport with solar insolation

    SciTech Connect

    Stumpfl, E.; Feldman, M.R.; Anderson, J.C.

    1993-04-02

    A thermal analysis of the horizontal shipping container (HSC) was performed to determine the temperatures at the outer surface of the inner container during normal conditions of transport with incident solar radiation. There are two methods by which this analysis can be performed: (1) it can be run as a steady-state problem where it is assumed that the incident solar radiation is applied to the package 24 hours per day, or (2) it can be run as a cyclic transient problem where the incident solar radiation is applied for 12 hours per day and the other 12 hours there is assumed to be no incident solar radiation. The steady-state method was initially attempted, but the temperatures determined from this analysis were judged to be significantly higher than one would find in the cyclic case. Thus, it was deemed necessary to perform a transient analysis to determine a more realistic temperature distribution within the HSC during normal conditions of transport. The heat transfer code HEATING 7.1 was used to perform these calculations. HEATING 7.1 is a heat conduction code capable of handling radiation, convection (forced and natural), and heat flux boundary conditions. Heat generation within a material is also possible with HEATING 7.1 but was not used in any of the models presented here. The models used here are one-dimensional in the radial direction.

  4. Single and Double ITCZ in Aqua-Planet Models with Globally Uniform Sea Surface Temperature and Solar Insolation: An Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    It has been known for more than a decade that an aqua-planet model with globally uniform sea surface temperature and solar insolation angle can generate ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone). Previous studies have shown that the ITCZ under such model settings can be changed between a single ITCZ over the equator and a double ITCZ straddling the equator through one of several measures. These measures include switching to a different cumulus parameterization scheme, changes within the cumulus parameterization scheme, and changes in other aspects of the model design such as horizontal resolution. In this paper an interpretation for these findings is offered. The latitudinal location of the ITCZ is the latitude where the balance of two types of attraction on the ITCZ, both due to earth's rotation, exists. The first type is equator-ward and is directly related to the earth's rotation and thus not sensitive to model design changes. The second type is poleward and is related to the convective circulation and thus is sensitive to model design changes. Due to the shape of the attractors, the balance of the two types of attractions is reached either at the equator or more than 10 degrees away from the equator. The former case results in a single ITCZ over the equator and the latter case a double ITCZ straddling the equator.

  5. Comparison of speleothem δ 18O records from eastern China with solar insolation, ice core and marine records: Similarities and discrepancies on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Naijung; Chung, Weiling; Li, Hong-Chun; Lin, Huilin; Ku, Teh-Lung; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Yuan, Daoxian; Zhang, Meiliang; Lin, Yushi

    2011-04-01

    Four 230Th-dated δ 18O records in three stalagmites: one from Dragon Spring (stalagmite L12) and two from Golden Lion Caves (stalagmites JSD-01 and JSD-02) located in Libo County, southeast Guizhou, China, are presented. These records cover age ranges of 0.75-2 ka (late Holocene), 9-9.6 ka (early Holocene), 87.9-88.2 ka and 93.8-95.2 ka (late Pleistocene). They fit well with the published Dongge Cave record from the same area, where the climate has been much influenced by the East Asian Monsoon. The agreement reinforces the role of stalagmite δ 18O as a proxy for regional precipitation or monsoon strength. On millennial or longer time scales, the δ 18O record of Dongge Cave resembles those of Sanbao Cave in Hubei and Hulu Cave in Jiangsu of China. The matching of these records with the northern hemisphere solar-insolation variations points to the importance of insolation in affecting the East Asian Summer Monsoon strength on 10 3-10 4-yr scales. While the monsoon variations as depicted by these Chinese speleothem δ 18O records show a strong coupling to insolation's precession component (23-kyr period), other climate records of global significance extracted from oceanic and terrestrial deposits (e.g., deep-sea sediments, polar ice cores, cave deposits from non-monsoonal regions) do not. Although the latter records were thought to be also influenced by the large changes in global ice volume, they show variations modulated chiefly by insolation due to earth's eccentricity change (100-kyr period). It is hypothesized that precession variations control the distribution of solar insolation between the northern and southern hemispheres, the ITCZ position and the modulation of low-latitude summer monsoon variability. Increasing rainfall and/or summer/winter precipitation ratio brought about by strong summer monsoons leads to δ 18O depletion in stalagmites grown in monsoonal regions. One should use caution to compare speleothem δ 18O records with other paleoclimate

  6. Solar daily variation at geomagnetic observatories in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Zain; Kumbher, Abdul Salam

    2016-03-01

    A study of solar daily variation is performed using the famous Chapman-Miller method for solar cycles 22 & 23 (1986-2007). The objective is to study the characteristics of Sq variation at Pakistani geomagnetic observatories using solar harmonics and a more traditional five quietest day's method. The data recorded at the Karachi geomagnetic observatory for SC 22 and 23 and data sets from other Pakistani geomagnetic observatories; Sonmiani, Quetta and Islamabad are analyzed for H, D and Z components of the geomagnetic field. Except for the D and Z components at Karachi and Sonmiani and H component at Islamabad, the two solar daily variations correlated well with each other. Also, the synthesized daily variation from the solar harmonics of H, D and Z components explained the equivalent Sq current system reasonably well for all seasons. For H component, the first solar harmonic (s1) obtained from spherical harmonic analysis of the data, appeared as the largest harmonic with no significant changes for the seasonal division of data. However, for D and Z components, amplitudes are comparable, but undergo distinct variations. s1 for H and D components increases with magnetic activity while for Z component it is the largest for the medium phase of magnetic activity. With the sunspot number division of data, the weighted mean of the Wolf ratio of all three components is in good agreement with the previous studies. The synthesized solar daily variation for D component, S(D), at Karachi, Sonmiani, Quetta and Islamabad did not show any signs of winter anomaly for the period studied. However, S(D) variation at Karachi during winter season showed morning minimum followed by a maximum at local noon and another minimum in the afternoon. We suggest this could be the effects of Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly (EIA) observable at the Karachi observatory only during the winter season. Similarly, much disturbed in equinoctial and summer months, S(Z) illustrated an unwavering daily

  7. Direct insolation models

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, R.; Hulstrom, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Several recently published models of the direct component of the broadband insolation are compared for clear sky conditions. The comparison includes seven simple models and one rigorous model that is used as a basis for determining accuracy. Where possible, the comparison is made between the results of each model for each atmospheric constituent (H/sub 2/O, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, O/sub 2/, aerosol and molecular scattering) separately as well as for the combined effect of all of the constituents. Two optimum simple models of varying degrees of complexity are developed as a result of this comparison. The study indicates: aerosols dominate the attenuation of the direct beam for reasonable atmospheric conditions; molecular scattering is next in importance; water vapor is an important absorber; and carbon dioxide and oxygen are relatively unimportant as attenuators of the broadband solar energy.

  8. Nonlinear Insolation Forcing: A Physical Mechanism for Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on recent advances in the understanding of nonlinear insolation forcing for climate change. The amplitude-frequency resonances in the insolation variations induced by the Earth's changing obliquity are emergent and may provide a physical mechanism to drive the glaciation cycles. To establish the criterion that nonlinear insolation forcing is responsible for major climate changes, the cooperative phenomena between the frequency and amplitude of the insolation are defined as insolation pulsation. Coupling of the insolation frequency and amplitude variations has established an especially new and interesting series of insolation pulses. These pulses would modulate the insolation in such a way that the mode of insolation variations could be locked to generate the 100-kyr ice age cycle which is a long-time geophysical puzzle. The nonlinear behavior of insolation forcing is tested by energy balance and ice sheet climate models and the physical mechanism behind this forcing is explained in terms of pulse duration in the incoming solar radiation. Calculations of the solar energy flux at the top of the atmosphere show that the duration of the negative and positive insolation pulses is about 2 thousand years which is long enough to prolong glaciation into deep ice ages and cause rapid melting of large ice sheets in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. We have performed numerical simulations of climate response to nonlinear insolation forcing for the past 2 million years. Our calculated results of temperature fluctuations are in good agreement with the climate cycles as seen in the terrestrial biogenic silica (BDP-96-2) data as well as in the marine oxygen isotope (delta(sup 18)O) records.

  9. Site insolation and wind power characteristics. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, R E

    1980-08-01

    Design and operation of either large or small scale solar and wind energy conversion systems should be based, in part, on knowledge of expected solar and wind power trends. For this purpose, historic solar and wind data available at 101 National Weather Service stations were processed statistically. Preliminary planning data are provided for selected daily average solar and wind power conditions occurring and persisting for time periods of interest. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Empirical probabilities were constructed from the historic data to provide a reasonable inference of the chance of similar climatological conditions occurring at any given time in the future. (Diurnal wind power variations were also considered.) Ratios were also generated at each station to relate the global radiation data to insolation on a south-facing surface inclined at various angles. In addition, joint probability distributions were derived to show the proportion of days with solar and wind power within selected intervals.

  10. New operating strategies for molten salt in line focusing solar fields - Daily drainage and solar receiver preheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickhoff, Martin; Meyer-Grünefeldt, Mirko; Keller, Lothar

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays molten salt is efficiently used in point concentrating solar thermal power plants. Line focusing systems still have the disadvantage of elevated heat losses at night because of active freeze protection of the solar field piping system. In order to achieve an efficient operation of line focusing solar power plants using molten salt, a new plant design and a novel operating strategy is developed for Linear Fresnel- and Parabolic Trough power plants. Daily vespertine drainage of the solar field piping and daily matutinal refilling of the solar preheated absorber tubes eliminate the need of nocturnal heating of the solar field and reduce nocturnal heat losses to a minimum. The feasibility of this new operating strategy with all its sub-steps has been demonstrated experimentally.

  11. Simulated and Observed Trends in Daily Solar Radiation Coefficients of Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNellis, R.; Medvigy, D.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates the possibility of historical and future changes in daily scale surface solar radiation variability. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were computed for the daily downward surface solar radiation from (i) the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), and (ii) 15 GCMs that have contributed to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5). Regression analysis was used to identify trends in CVs. Analysis of the ISCCP observations indicated that there have been statistically significant changes in solar radiation variability for 35% of the globe since 1984. Particularly large increases were found for tropical Africa, the Maritime Continent, and parts of Eurasia. Similar trends were detected in multi-model ensembles of "AMIP" and "historical" CMIP5 simulations. Preliminary analysis indicates that these trends are enhanced in CMIP5 simulations of future climate. Such changes in daily climate variability will have consequences for any process depending nonlinearly on climate, including solar energy production, agriculture, and natural terrestrial ecosystems.

  12. Timing and significance of maximum and minimum equatorial insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Gildor, Hezi

    2008-01-01

    Variations in summer insolation at high northern latitudes on a timescale of 100 ka are very small. Thus a common belief is that the pronounced ~100 ka glacial cycles are not directly linked to the very weak 100 ka insolation periodicity. Here we show, analytically and numerically, that the annual maximum (and minimum) of daily equatorial insolation has pronounced eccentricity periodicities, with timescales of ~400 ka and ~100 ka, as well as a pronounced half-precession periodicity with timescale of ~11 ka. The timing of the maximum (and minimum) annual equatorial insolation may change around the equinoxes (solstices), alternating between the vernal and autumnal equinoxes (summer and winter solstices) where the time of the maximum (minimum) equatorial insolation may occur up to more than 1 month from the equinoxes (solstices). We also show that when considering the mean insolation of periods larger than 1 d, the ~11 ka periodicity becomes less dominant, and it vanishes when the averaging period is half a year; for the later case the maximum (minimum) may occur for any day in the annual cycle. The maximum equatorial insolation may alter the timing and amplitude of the maximum surface temperature of the summer hemisphere and in this way may drastically affect the Hadley circulation. Changes in Hadley circulation affect the heat and moisture transport from low to high latitudes, affecting the buildup of the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ice sheets.

  13. Exponential approximation for daily average solar heating or photolysis. [of stratospheric ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogley, A. C.; Borucki, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    When incorporating formulations of instantaneous solar heating or photolytic rates as functions of altitude and sun angle into long range forecasting models, it may be desirable to replace the time integrals by daily average rates that are simple functions of latitude and season. This replacement is accomplished by approximating the integral over the solar day by a pure exponential. This gives a daily average rate as a multiplication factor times the instantaneous rate evaluated at an appropriate sun angle. The accuracy of the exponential approximation is investigated by a sample calculation using an instantaneous ozone heating formulation available in the literature.

  14. Pluto's Insolation History: Latitudinal Variations and Effects on Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard P.

    2014-11-01

    Since previous insolation modeling in the early 1990’s, new atmospheric pressure data, increased computational power, and the upcoming flyby of the Pluto system by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft have generated new motivation and increased capabilities for the study of Pluto’s complex long-term (million-years) insolation history. The two primary topics of interest in studying Pluto’s insolation history are the variations in insolation patterns when integrated over different intervals and the evolution of diurnal insolation patterns over the last several decades. We find latitudinal dichotomies when comparing average insolation over timescales of days, decades, centuries, and millennia. Depending on the timescales of volatile migration, some consequences of these insolation patterns may be manifested in the surface features revealed by New Horizons. For any single rotation of Pluto there is a latitude that receives more insolation relative to the others. Often this is the sub-subsolar latitude but it can also be an arctic circle latitude when near-polar regions of Pluto experience the "midnight sun". We define the amount of that greatest insolation value over the course of one rotation as the "maximum diurnal insolation" (MDI). We find that MDI is driven to its highest values when Pluto’s obliquity creates a long arctic summer (or “midnight sun”) beginning just after perihelion. Pluto’s atmospheric pressure, as measured through stellar occultation observations during the past three decades, appears to correlate with Pluto's currently occurring midnight sun as quantified by the MDI parameter. If insolation (as parameterized by the MDI value) is the single dominant factor driving Pluto's atmospheric pressure, this “Midnight Sun Model” predicts that Pluto's maximum atmospheric pressure will be reached in 2017 followed by a steady decline. Pluto's maximum diurnal insolation value begins dropping after 2017 due to two factors: Pluto’s sub-solar point

  15. Reconstruction of daily solar UV irradiation from 1893 to 2002 in Potsdam, Germany.

    PubMed

    Junk, Jürgen; Feister, Uwe; Helbig, Alfred

    2007-08-01

    Long-term records of solar UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface are scarce. Radiative transfer calculations and statistical models are two options used to reconstruct decadal changes in solar UV radiation from long-term records of measured atmospheric parameters that contain information on the effect of clouds, atmospheric aerosols and ground albedo on UV radiation. Based on earlier studies, where the long-term variation of daily solar UV irradiation was derived from measured global and diffuse irradiation as well as atmospheric ozone by a non-linear regression method [Feister et al. (2002) Photochem Photobiol 76:281-293], we present another approach for the reconstruction of time series of solar UV radiation. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with measurements of solar UV irradiation taken at the Meteorological Observatory in Potsdam, Germany, as well as measured parameters with long-term records such as global and diffuse radiation, sunshine duration, horizontal visibility and column ozone. This study is focussed on the reconstruction of daily broad-band UV-B (280-315 nm), UV-A (315-400 nm) and erythemal UV irradiation (ER). Due to the rapid changes in cloudiness at mid-latitude sites, solar UV irradiance exhibits appreciable short-term variability. One of the main advantages of the statistical method is that it uses doses of highly variable input parameters calculated from individual spot measurements taken at short time intervals, which thus do represent the short-term variability of solar irradiance.

  16. Relationships between insolation and rattlesnake hibernacula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, B.T.; Nowak, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between insolation, climate, and hibernacula of black-tailed (Crotalus molossus), Great Basin (Crotalus lutosus), and western diamondback (Crotalus atrox) rattlesnakes at 4 sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah, Hibernacula were located through a combination of visual searches and radio telemetry from 1995 to 2003. We used global information systems to calculate insolation and compared hibernaculum insolation values with random points representing available insolation of the surrounding habitat. Insolation reflects soil temperatures, and we predicted that hibernacula in cool climates, at high elevations, and at high latitudes would have higher insolation relative to their surroundings, while hibernacula in warmer climates would not differ from their surroundings in insolation. Coolest temperatures, highest elevations, and highest latitudes occurred on the C. lutosus and C. molossus sites, where hibernaculum insolation was higher than surrounding insolation. Temperatures were intermediate on the high-elevation C. atrox site, where hibernaculum insolation did not differ from random-point insolation, Temperatures were highest on the low-elevation C. atrox site, where hibernaculum insolation was unexpectedly lower than random-point insolation, Our observations suggest that rattlesnakes in cool climates utilize hibernacula with insolation values higher than those of their surroundings, Rattlesnakes in warm climates utilize hibernacula with insolation values lower than or similar to those of their surroundings.

  17. Thermal modeling of packages for normal conditions of transport with insolation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.C.; Feldman, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for each special nuclear materials package, experimental tests or an analysis must be performed to determine the temperature distribution throughout the package when exposed to normal conditions of transport. These normal conditions include two cases - one with insolation and one without insolation. Insolation (total solar heat load) values to be used in the analyses are given in 10 CFR 71.71; however, the manner in which the insolation is to be applied is not specified. Several approaches can be taken: (1) perform a steady-state analysis assuming the insolation is applied continuously, (2) perform a transient analysis assuming the incident insolation is represented by a step function (i.e., insolation is applied and then not applied in 12-hour cycles), or (3) perform a transient analysis where the incident insolation is represented by a more complex function involving variables such as time of day. The purpose of this paper is to present these various approaches and examine the effect they have on package temperature distributions. The DC-1 shipping package with the Z88 can was used for the analyses to represent a typical thin-walled Celotex-based shipping package. The results of the study indicate that the method used in applying the insolation has a significant effect on the outermost portions of the package. Maximum outer container temperatures were found to vary by as much as 19.3{degree}C depending on which insolation method was used. Typically, internal package temperatures are more critical in this type of analysis. Since the total insolation over any 24-hour period is the same for all cases, internal package temperatures (secondary containment vessel, primary containment vessel, content, etc.) are relatively unaffected by the way in which the insolation is applied. Internal package temperatures vary no more than 2{degree}C for the three insolation methods investigated.

  18. Effects of vibrating insoles on standing balance in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hijmans, Juha M; Geertzen, Jan H B; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Hof, At L; Postema, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects on standing balance of random vibrations applied to the plantar side of the feet by vibrating insoles in subjects with neuropathy and nondisabled subjects. In four different conditions (eyes open or closed and with or without an attention-demanding task [ATD]), subjects with neuropathy secondary to diabetes mellitus (n = 17) and nondisabled subjects (n = 15) stood for 60 s on vibrating insoles placed on a force plate. During each condition, the insoles were turned on for 30 s and off for 30 s (random order). The calculated balance measures were mean velocity of the center of pressure displacements and root-mean-square of the velocity of these displacements in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. In subjects with neuropathy, an interaction effect between vibration and an ADT was found for balance. No effects of vibration on balance were found in nondisabled subjects. Vibrating insoles improved standing balance in subjects with neuropathy only when attention was distracted. Improvement of the insoles and their activation is needed to make their implementation in daily living possible and effective. PMID:19319766

  19. Solar radiation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. Presented here is a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  20. A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

  1. Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

  2. Spatial variations of temperature on a coastal site in Sweden as a response to insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercauteren, N.; Dahlberg, J.; Lam, N.; Destouni, G.; Hylander, K.

    2012-04-01

    Temperature and humidity are major factors controlling ecosystem development. In a context of changing climate, the spatial distribution of temperature is likely to be affected, and species distribution might be subsequently modified. In particular, topographic heterogeneity is affecting the micro-climate and thus regulates the expansion or restriction of species in a landscape. During a change of climate, certain species might become restricted to localized refugia, or on the contrary expand from old refugia when the overall landscape becomes favorable. In this research we are using GIS based model of incoming solar radiation and subsequently derived monthly averaged temperatures to increase the understanding of changes in local climate and how it affects species repartition. The model is based on topography and observed variations in atmospheric conditions and is accounting for site latitude, elevation, surface orientation, daily and seasonal shifts in sun angle and the effect of shadows from the surrounding topography. A 2500 km2 forested field site located on the western coast of Sweden, along the Baltic Sea, is investigated both in terms of temperature heterogeneity and plant communities. We derive 50 m resolution insolation maps and analyze the response of monthly temperature to insolation. Surface and near surface temperatures are measured by a dense network of temperature sensors during the spring and summer of 2011 and are used for comparison with the modeled temperature maps. We investigate the potential of this modeling approach to scale climate trend analysis down to local climate change in heterogeneous landscapes. We build on the methodology used by Huang et al. (2008) in a mountain ecosystem and develop it for use on a coastal site that is largely influence by the presence of the sea. The time lag that is appropriate between insolation and subsequent temperature response appears to be influenced by the presence of a large water body and follows an

  3. 21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical insole. 880.6280 Section 880.6280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6280 Medical insole. (a) Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical insole. 880.6280 Section 880.6280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6280 Medical insole. (a) Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical...

  5. 21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical insole. 880.6280 Section 880.6280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6280 Medical insole. (a) Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical...

  6. 21 CFR 880.6280 - Medical insole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical insole. 880.6280 Section 880.6280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6280 Medical insole. (a) Identification. A medical insole is a device intended for medical...

  7. The Effects of a Lateral Wedge Insole on Knee and Ankle Joints During Slope Walking.

    PubMed

    Uto, Yuki; Maeda, Tetsuo; Kiyama, Ryoji; Kawada, Masayuki; Tokunaga, Ken; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Fukudome, Kiyohiro; Ohshige, Tadasu; Yoshimoto, Yoichi; Yone, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a lateral wedge insole reduces the external knee adduction moment during slope walking. Twenty young, healthy subjects participated in this study. Subjects walked up and down a slope using 2 different insoles: a control flat insole and a 7° lateral wedge insole. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and force plate were used to examine the knee adduction moment, the ankle valgus moment, and the moment arm of the ground reaction force to the knee joint center in the frontal plane. The lateral wedge insole significantly decreased the moment arm of the ground reaction force, resulting in a reduction of the knee adduction moment during slope walking, similar to level walking. The reduction ratio of knee adduction moment by the lateral wedge insole during the early stance of up-slope walking was larger than that of level walking. Conversely, the lateral wedge insole increased the ankle valgus moment during slope walking, especially during the early stance phase of up-slope walking. Clinicians should examine the utilization of a lateral wedge insole for knee osteoarthritis patients who perform inclined walking during daily activity, in consideration of the load on the ankle joint. PMID:26252560

  8. Prediction of hourly and daily diffuse solar fraction in the city of Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihya, B.; Mechaqrane, A.; Tadili, R.; Bargach, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, 3-layers MLP (Multi-Layers Perceptron) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models have been developed and tested for predicting hourly and daily diffuse solar fractions at Fez city in Morocco. In parallel, some empirical models were tested. Three years of data (2009-2011) have been used for establishing the parameters of all tested models and 1 year (2012) to test their prediction performances. To select the best ANN (3-layers MLP) architecture, we have conducted several tests by using different combinations of inputs and by varying the number of neurons in the hidden layer. The output is only the diffuse solar fraction. The performances of each model were assessed on the basis of four statistic characteristics: mean absolute error (MAE), relative mean bias error (RMBE), relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and the degree of agreement (DA). Additionally, the coefficient of correlation ( R) is used to test the linear regression between predicted and observed data. The results indicate that the ANN model is more suitable for predicting diffuse solar fraction than the empirical tested models at Fez city in Morocco.

  9. Insolation patterns on synchronous exoplanets with obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    2009-11-01

    night disappear at β=90°. The insolation regime passes through several more transitions as β continues to increase toward 180°, but the surface distribution of insolation remains non-uniform in both latitude and longitude. Thus obliquity, like eccentricity, can protect certain areas of the planet from the worst extremes of temperature and solar radiation, and can improve the planet's habitability. These results also have implications for the direct detectability of extrasolar planets, and for the interpretation of their thermal emissions.

  10. The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E.; Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R.

    2010-08-15

    The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

  11. Development of Daily Solar Maximum Flare Flux Forecast Models for Strong Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seulki; Chu, Hyoungseok

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a set of daily solar maximum flare flux forecast models for strong flares using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods. We consider input parameters as solar activity data from January 1996 to December 2013 such as sunspot area, X-ray maximum flare flux and weighted total flux of the previous day, and mean flare rates of McIntosh sunspot group (Zpc) and Mount Wilson magnetic classification. For a training data set, we use the same number of 61 events for each C-, M-, and X-class from Jan. 1996 to Dec. 2004, while other previous models use all flares. For a testing data set, we use all flares from Jan. 2005 to Nov. 2013. The statistical parameters from contingency tables show that the ANN models are better for maximum flare flux forecasting than the MLR models. A comparison between our maximum flare flux models and the previous ones based on Heidke Skill Score (HSS) shows that our all models for X-class flare are much better than the other models. According to the Hitting Fraction (HF), which is defined as a fraction of events satisfying that the absolute differences of predicted and observed flare flux in logarithm scale are less than equal to 0.5, our models successfully forecast the maximum flare flux of about two-third events for strong flares. Since all input parameters for our models are easily available, the models can be operated steadily and automatically on daily basis for space weather service.

  12. Development of Daily Maximum Flare-Flux Forecast Models for Strong Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seulki; Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Chu, Hyoungseok; Park, Jongyeob

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a set of daily maximum flare-flux forecast models for strong flares (M- and X-class) using multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Our input parameters are solar-activity data from January 1996 to December 2013 such as sunspot area, X-ray maximum, and weighted total flare flux of the previous day, as well as mean flare rates of McIntosh sunspot group (Zpc) and Mount Wilson magnetic classifications. For a training dataset, we used 61 events each of C-, M-, and X-class from January 1996 to December 2004. For a testing dataset, we used all events from January 2005 to November 2013. A comparison between our maximum flare-flux models and NOAA model based on true skill statistics (TSS) shows that the MLR model for X-class and the average of all flares (M{+}X-class) are much better than the NOAA model. According to the hitting fraction (HF), which is defined as a fraction of events satisfying the condition that the absolute differences of predicted and observed flare flux on a logarithm scale are smaller than or equal to 0.5, our models successfully forecast the maximum flare flux of about two-thirds of the events for strong flares. Since all input parameters for our models are easily available, the models can be operated steadily and automatically on a daily basis for space-weather services.

  13. ASHMET: a computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Elkin, R.F.; Toelle, R.G.

    1980-05-01

    A computer code, ASHMET, has been developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors have been included. Climatological data for 248 US locations are built into the code. This report describes the methodology of the code, and its input and output. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.

  14. A Five-Year Data Set of Insolation from GOES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molling, C. C.; Heidinger, A. K.; Laszlo, I.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration produces insolation from the East and West Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites' (GOES) Imager in their GOES Surface and Insolation Product (GSIP). The GSIP 1/8x1/8 degree product is publicly available from April, 2009. Recently, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded a project to create a 5 year long data set using the algorithm used in GSIP. At the University of Wisconsin's Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, we have inserted the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave RAdiation Budget (SASRAB) into the Pathfinder ATMOSpheres-extended (PATMOS-x) cloud products satellite imagery processing system and computed 5 years worth of radiation and cloud products. The benefits of this data set include the following: direct+diffuse and diffuse insolation every 30 min from both GOES-East and -West at the pixel level (4km at nadir); Extended Northern Hemisphere coverage for most images, with Full Disk coverage every 3 hours; many related radiation, cloud, atmosphere, and surface products at the same resolution; 5 years worth of data available for analysis; monthly, seasonal, and annual summaries of many of the pixel level quantities on a 0.1 degree grid. Anticipated uses of the data set include siting for photovoltaic arrays, solar-thermal power generation, and passive solar systems, as well as environmental applications such as coral bleaching.

  15. Effects of insoles contact on static balance.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability.

  16. Effects of insoles contact on static balance

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability. PMID:27190460

  17. Insolation and the Precession Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2000-01-01

    Simple nonlinear climate models yield a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin omega, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and omega is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these periods. Two such models, a grey body and an energy balance climate model with an added quadratic term, produce e sin omega terms in temperature. These terms, which without feedback mechanisms achieve extreme values of about plus or minus 0.48 K for the grey body and plus or minus 0.64 K for the energy balance model, simultaneously cool one hemisphere while they warm the other. Moreover, they produce long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perigee is near northern solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the perigee is near southern solstice. Thus this seemingly paradoxical mechanism works against the standard model which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it may be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is close to the Earth during southern summer. The cold water eventually flows north, cooling the northern hemisphere. This might explain why the northern oceans lag the southern ones when it comes to orbital forcing.

  18. Solar Cooking

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    ... (kWh/m2/day) Amount of electromagnetic energy (solar radiation) incident on the surface of the earth. Also referred to as total or global solar radiation.   Midday insolation (kWh/m2/day) Average ...

  19. Temporal changes of the global reflectance of a wheat field as a function of daily solar irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franceschini, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Based on in situ measurements of incident and reflected solar irradiation over a wheat field, daily values of the surface reflectance, a scene signature, were determined for a crop year. Diagnoses of these data reveal the character of the signature, and its changes with time, crop stage, and the magnitude of incident irradiance. The latter varies inversely with cloud cover.

  20. Usability of NASA Satellite Imagery-Based Daily Solar Radiation for Crop Yield Simulation and Management Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Cassman, K. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Hoell, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    We tested the usability of NASA satellite imagery-based daily solar radiation for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions using the Hybrid-Maize model (www.hybridmaize.unl.edu). Solar radiation is one of the key inputs for crop yield simulation. Farm-specific crop management decisions using simulation models require long-term (i.e., 20 years or longer) daily local weather data including solar radiation for assessing crop yield potential and its variation, optimizing crop planting date, and predicting crop yield in a real time mode. Weather stations that record daily solar radiation have sparse coverage and many of them have record shorter than 15 years. Based on satellite imagery and other remote sensed information, NASA has provided estimates of daily climatic data including solar radiation at a resolution of 1 degree grid over the earth surface from 1983 to 2005. NASA is currently continuing to update the database and has plans to provide near real-time data in the future. This database, which is free to the public at http://power.larc.nasa.gov, is a potential surrogate for ground- measured climatic data for farm-specific crop yield simulation and management decisions. In this report, we quantified (1) the similarities between NASA daily solar radiation and ground-measured data atr 20 US sites and four international sites, and (2) the accuracy and precision of simulated corn yield potential and its variability using NASA solar radiation coupled with other weather data from ground measurements. The 20 US sites are in the western Corn Belt, including Iowa, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas. The four international sites are Los Banos in the Philippines, Beijing in China, Cali in Columbia, and Ibatan in Nigeria. Those sites were selected because of their high quality weather record and long duration (more than 20 years on average). We found that NASA solar radiation was highly significantly correlated (mean r2 =0.88**) with the ground

  1. A Comparison of Satellite Based, Modeled Derived Daily Solar Radiation Data with Observed Data for the Continental US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Jeffrey W.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Wilkens, Paul W.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Hoell, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Many applications of simulation models and related decision support tools for agriculture and natural resource management require daily meteorological data as inputs. Availability and quality of such data, however, often constrain research and decision support activities that require use of these tools. Daily solar radiation (SRAD) data are especially problematic because the instruments require electronic integrators, accurate sensors are expensive, and calibration standards are seldom available. The Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resources (NASA/POWER; power.larc.nasa.gov) project at the NASA Langley Research Center estimates daily solar radiation based on data that are derived from satellite observations of outgoing visible radiances and atmospheric parameters based upon satellite observations and assimilation models. The solar data are available for a global 1 degree x 1 degree coordinate grid. SRAD can also be estimated based on attenuation of extraterrestrial radiation (Q0) using daily temperature and rainfall data to estimate the optical thickness of the atmosphere. This study compares daily solar radiation data from NASA/POWER (SRADNP) with instrument readings from 295 stations (SRADOB), as well as with values that were estimated with the WGENR solar generator. WGENR was used both with daily temperature and precipitation records from the stations reporting solar data and records from the NOAA Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), thus providing two additional sources of solar data, SRADWG and SRADCO. Values of SRADNP for different grid cells consistently showed higher correlations (typically 0.85 to 0.95) with SRADOB data than did SRADWG or SRADCO for sites within the corresponding cells. Mean values of SRADOB, SRADWG and SRADNP for sites within a grid cell usually were within 1 MJm-2d-1 of each other, but NASA/POWER values averaged 1.1 MJm-2d-1 lower than SRADOB. The magnitude of this bias was greater at lower latitudes and during summer months and may be at

  2. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-08-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  3. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  4. Solar radiation incident on Mars and the outer planets - Latitudinal, seasonal, and atmospheric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Kraemer, D. R.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations of the daily solar radiation incident at the tops of the atmospheres of Mars and the outer planets and its variability with latitude and season are presented in a series of figures and tables. The changes in the latitudinal and seasonal distributions of daily surface insolation during the great Martian dust storm of 1971 (when Martian atmospheric optical depth increased from about tau = 0.1 to 2.0) were significant and dramatically illustrate the effect of atmospheric aerosols on surface insolation; i.e., the mean annual daily insolation at the poles decreased by more than a factor of 100 as tau increased from 0.1 to 2.0.

  5. Comparison of artificial intelligence methods and empirical equations to estimate daily solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2016-08-01

    In the present research, three artificial intelligence methods including Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) as well as, 48 empirical equations (10, 12 and 26 equations were temperature-based, sunshine-based and meteorological parameters-based, respectively) were used to estimate daily solar radiation in Kerman, Iran in the period of 1992-2009. To develop the GEP, ANN and ANFIS models, depending on the used empirical equations, various combinations of minimum air temperature, maximum air temperature, mean air temperature, extraterrestrial radiation, actual sunshine duration, maximum possible sunshine duration, sunshine duration ratio, relative humidity and precipitation were considered as inputs in the mentioned intelligent methods. To compare the accuracy of empirical equations and intelligent models, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute relative error (MARE) and determination coefficient (R2) indices were used. The results showed that in general, sunshine-based and meteorological parameters-based scenarios in ANN and ANFIS models presented high accuracy than mentioned empirical equations. Moreover, the most accurate method in the studied region was ANN11 scenario with five inputs. The values of RMSE, MAE, MARE and R2 indices for the mentioned model were 1.850 MJ m-2 day-1, 1.184 MJ m-2 day-1, 9.58% and 0.935, respectively.

  6. Clinical Cosmobiology - Sudden Cardiac Death and Daily / Monthly Geomagnetic, Cosmic Ray and Solar Activity - the Baku Study (2003-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Babayev, E. S.; Mustafa, F. R.; Abramson, E.; Israelevich, P.; Sulkes, J.

    2006-12-01

    Part of results of collaborative studies for revealing an influence of the periodical changes of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray activities on the sudden cardiac death (SCD) mortality is described in this paper. The data covering daily and monthly temporal distribution of SCD (788 patients in 36 months in 2003-2005), taken from all of emergency and first medical aid stations of grand Baku area, were analyzed and compared with certain cosmophysical parameters. It was obtained that SCD is higher on the highest and lowest daily levels of geomagnetic activity. Days with SCD are accompanied by higher cosmic ray (neutron) activity. The monthly number of SCD was inversely related to solar and geomagnetic activities while was positively linked with cosmic ray activity level. It was concluded that cosmic ray activity could be considered as one of regulating external/environmental factors in human homeostasis.

  7. Long-term variation in the ionosphere and lower thermosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hori, T.; Nose, M.; Otsuka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate characteristics of the long-term variation in the ionosphere and lower thermosphere, we analyzed the amplitude of geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) field daily variation using 1-h geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations within the period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) products (metadata database and analysis software) for finding and handling the long-term observation data obtained at many observatories. The Sq amplitude observed at these geomagnetic stations showed a clear solar activity dependence and tended to be enhanced during each solar maximum phase. The Sq amplitude was the smallest around the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009. This significant depression implies that the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation responsible for ionization of the upper atmosphere decreased during this solar cycle minimum. In order to examine a global distribution of the long-term trend in the Sq amplitude, we derived the residual Sq amplitude from the deviation from the fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude showed negative values over a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. Moreover, we estimate the neutral wind in the lower thermosphere from the Sq amplitude and height-integrated ionospheric conductivity in order to know the physical mechanism of the long-term trend in the residual Sq amplitude. As a result, the estimated thermospheric zonal and meridional winds showed a seasonal variation with a period of one year or less, but the solar activity dependence was unclear. This result suggests that the solar cycle dependence of the Sq amplitude may be mainly attributed to the variation of the ionospheric conductivity.

  8. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, Atsuki; Koyama, Yukinobu; Nose, Masahito; Hori, Tomoaki; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yatagai, Akiyo

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet (Sq) geomagnetic field daily variation have been investigated using 1-h geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic observation stations within the period of 1947 to 2013. The Sq amplitude observed at these geomagnetic stations showed a clear dependence on the 10- to 12-year solar activity cycle and tended to be enhanced during each solar maximum phase. The Sq amplitude was the smallest around the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008 to 2009. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude was approximately linear but about 53% of geomagnetic stations showed a weak nonlinear relation to the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second-order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947 to 2013 and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, the majority of trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed negative values over a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity at 100-km altitude and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71% of the geomagnetic stations. Furthermore, the residual Sq amplitude at the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  9. Optimal vitamin D3 daily intake of 2000IU inferred from modeled solar exposure of ancestral humans in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, Janusz W; Guzikowski, Jakub; Rajewska-Więch, Bonawentura

    2016-06-01

    Recently, high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (~110nmol/L) was found in the Hadza tribe still keeping ancient hunter-gather life style. This level could serve as optimal vitamin D level that was built during millennia of human evolution. The personal vitamin D3 effective solar exposures of the Hadza adults are estimated using radiative model simulations with input from the satellite observations over lake Eyasi (3.7°S, 35.0°E). The calculations are carried out assuming the Hadza typical clothing habits and specific scenarios of the out-door activity comprising early morning and late afternoon working time in sun and prolonged midday siesta in the shade. The modeled doses received by the Hadza are converted to the vitamin D3 effective daily doses pertaining to the lighter skinned persons. We propose a novel formula to get adequate vitamin D level - exposure of 1/3 MED around local noon to 1/3 part of the whole body during warm sub-period of the year in the low- and mid-latitude regions. Such daily solar exposure is equivalent to ~2000IU of vitamin D3 taken orally. For many contemporary humans with limited out-door activity habit achieving such daily norm requires vitamin D3 supplementation of 2000IU throughout the whole year. PMID:27043260

  10. Temperature based daily incoming solar radiation modeling based on gene expression programming, neuro-fuzzy and neural network computing techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landeras, G.; López, J. J.; Kisi, O.; Shiri, J.

    2012-04-01

    The correct observation/estimation of surface incoming solar radiation (RS) is very important for many agricultural, meteorological and hydrological related applications. While most weather stations are provided with sensors for air temperature detection, the presence of sensors necessary for the detection of solar radiation is not so habitual and the data quality provided by them is sometimes poor. In these cases it is necessary to estimate this variable. Temperature based modeling procedures are reported in this study for estimating daily incoming solar radiation by using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) for the first time, and other artificial intelligence models such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Traditional temperature based solar radiation equations were also included in this study and compared with artificial intelligence based approaches. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) RMSE-based skill score (SSRMSE), MAE-based skill score (SSMAE) and r2 criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe criteria were used to assess the models' performances. An ANN (a four-input multilayer perceptron with ten neurons in the hidden layer) presented the best performance among the studied models (2.93 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). A four-input ANFIS model revealed as an interesting alternative to ANNs (3.14 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). Very limited number of studies has been done on estimation of solar radiation based on ANFIS, and the present one demonstrated the ability of ANFIS to model solar radiation based on temperatures and extraterrestrial radiation. By the way this study demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of GEP models to model solar radiation based on daily atmospheric variables. Despite the accuracy of GEP models was slightly lower than the ANFIS and ANN models the genetic programming models (i.e., GEP) are superior to other artificial intelligence models in giving a simple explicit equation for the

  11. A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

  12. The level and persistence of equatorial spread F recorded daily during a year at solar maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, J. A.

    2001-05-01

    The prediction of equatorial bubbles, and of the resulting scintillation that disrupts trans-ionospheric communication and radar, is a particularly difficult problem of space weather. The fact that bubbles occur essentially at random prevents the systematic observation of their formation, hence progress in their prediction. However what can be observed systematically is the occurrence of strong bottomside spread F (BSSF), which is a necessary condition for bubble formation, and lower levels of BSSF which preclude this formation. This work records for the first time, spread F conditions on each day of a year at solar maximum. Using an array of ionospheric sounders located in the Western Hemisphere, four levels of spread F are recorded: three BSSF of no, weak, and strong; and the fourth as macroscopic bubbles. Because each irregularity level corresponds to a threshold level of maximum pre-reversal E x B drift velocity, the record of BSSF implies also a record of this fundamental parameter. Of particular importance, a given level of irregularity can persist for periods of as many as 10 successive days. Furthermore these periods can recur with the 27 day solar rotation period. Some of these periods correspond to recurring periods of magnetic activity, strong BSSF and bubbles to the lowest magnetic activity, and weak and no BSSF to the highest magnetic activity. Also considered is the relation to 10.7 cm solar flux which varies between 150-350 solar flux units during the year and often by that amount during a single solar rotation. However the influence of solar flux on irregularity level or on its persistence has yet to be determined. The examination of recurrence with solar rotation is limited because only 13.5 rotations occur during the year. In addition there is the limitation of seasonal dependence, especially because irregularity nearly disappears during Jun. and Jul. In addition, strong BSSF is maximum in Jan. and Dec., whereas strong BSSF accompanied by

  13. RESEARCH PAPER: Forecast daily indices of solar activity, F10.7, using support vector regression method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cong; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing-Song

    2009-06-01

    The 10.7 cm solar radio flux (F10.7), the value of the solar radio emission flux density at a wavelength of 10.7 cm, is a useful index of solar activity as a proxy for solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. It is meaningful and important to predict F10.7 values accurately for both long-term (months-years) and short-term (days) forecasting, which are often used as inputs in space weather models. This study applies a novel neural network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecasting daily values of F10.7. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in short-term F10.7 forecasting. The approach, based on SVR, reduces the dimension of feature space in the training process by using a kernel-based learning algorithm. Thus, the complexity of the calculation becomes lower and a small amount of training data will be sufficient. The time series of F10.7 from 2002 to 2006 are employed as the data sets. The performance of the approach is estimated by calculating the norm mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. It is shown that our approach can perform well by using fewer training data points than the traditional neural network.

  14. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Goldenfeld, M.; Shimshoni, M.; Siegel, R.

    1993-03-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stormy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population.

  15. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, E; Goldenfeld, M; Shimshoni, M; Siegel, R

    1993-02-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stromy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population. PMID:8468099

  16. Estimation of daily global solar radiation as a function of routine meteorological data in Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Francisco Javier; Yebra, María Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Solar radiation is the main responsible of many processes of the biophysical environment. Temperature changes, snow melt dynamics, carbon sequestration, evaporation from soils, plants, and open water bodies are explained by the amount of radiation received in a surface. Lack of direct observations and insufficient record length limit the ability to use global solar radiation information for resource use management and planning. Based on the general equation of Bristow and Campbell, we propose a modification that allows us to better represent atmospheric transmissivity as a function of routine meteorological variables and improve estimates of global solar radiation in Mediterranean and semi arid areas. The improved Bristow-Campbell model (IBC) is easy to use in any location where measurements of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity are available, and present a simple solution that can be used as proxy for relative humidity in case that variable is not been measured.

  17. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Semerádová, Daniela; Žalud, Zden ěk; Formayer, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily global radiation (RG) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequent crop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis of the RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central European climate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria and the Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, with seven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the Czech Republic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In the latter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the Ångström-Prescott formula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At the site level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showed the lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs. When the Ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviations greater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 per cent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lower when RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that RG estimates based on

  18. SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Solar-collector field experimental tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, J.C.; Al-Abbadi, N.

    1987-06-01

    The solar-collection field subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been operated successfully for two years. It has been demonstrated that during a one-year period, the solar-collector field can, on the average, provide about 2500 kWh of thermal energy a day for days with a daily insolation total greater than 4000 Wh/m/sup 2/. This is a yearlong solar-collector field average efficiency of 22.5%. In Yanbu, from October 1, 1985, until September 30, 1986, there were only 21 days (5.8%) when the daily direct-normal insolation was less than the mid-60% to 70% range with a peak output of 51 kW per solar collector. It has also been demonstrated that the Power Kinetics, Inc., square-dish solar collector has a problem due to the fixed aperture (outboard focus) that seriously hurts the performance of the solar collector during the summer months at this latitude. A location at latitudes greater than +-35/degree/ would see greatly improved daylong summer performance. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Earth Orbit v2.1: a 3-D visualization and analysis model of Earth's orbit, Milankovitch cycles and insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Gilb, R.

    2014-06-01

    Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism, causing, for example, the contemporary glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity, precession and obliquity. The interaction of the amplitudes, periods and phases of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing and duration of the seasons. This complexity makes Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, we present "Earth Orbit v2.1": an astronomically precise and accurate model that offers 3-D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcing. The model is developed in MATLAB® as a user-friendly graphical user interface. Users are presented with a choice between the Berger (1978a) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so that users can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. A 3-D orbital configuration plot, as well as various surface and line plots of insolation and insolation anomalies on various time and space scales are produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation output and the underlying solar declination computation are successfully validated against the results of Laskar et al. (2004) and Meeus (1998), respectively. The model outputs some ancillary parameters as well, e.g., Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and several relevant paleoclimatological data sets can be produced. Both

  20. Earth Orbit v2.1: a 3-D visualization and analysis model of Earth's orbit, Milankovitch cycles and insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Gilb, R.

    2013-11-01

    Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism, causing, for example, the contemporary glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity, precession and obliquity. The interaction of the amplitudes, periods and phases of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing of the seasons with respect to perihelion. This complexity makes Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, we present "Earth Orbit v2.1": an astronomically precise and accurate model that offers 3-D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcing. The model is developed in MATLAB® as a user-friendly graphical user interface. Users are presented with a choice between the Berger (1978a) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so that users can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. A 3-D orbital configuration plot, as well as various surface and line plots of insolation and insolation anomalies on various time and space scales are produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation output and the underlying solar declination computation are successfully validated against the results of Laskar et al. (2004) and Meeus (1998), respectively. The model outputs some ancillary parameters as well, e.g. Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and EPICA ice core CO2 and temperature data can be produced. Both

  1. A 3D Visualization and Analysis Model of the Earth Orbit, Milankovitch Cycles and Insolation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, Tihomir; Gilb, Roy

    2013-04-01

    Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism. Although controversies remain, ample geologic evidence supports the major role of the Milankovitch cycles in climate, e.g. glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity (main periodicities of ~100,000 and ~400,000 years), precession (quantified as the longitude of perihelion, main periodicities 19,000-24,000 years) and obliquity of the ecliptic (Earth's axial tilt, main periodicity 41,000 years). The combination of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing of the seasons with respect to perihelion, as well as season duration. The complex interplay of the Milankovitch orbital parameters on various time scales makes assessment and visualization of Earth's orbit and insolation variability challenging. It is difficult to appreciate the pivotal importance of Kepler's laws of planetary motion in controlling the effects of Milankovitch cycles on insolation patterns. These factors also make Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, an astronomically precise and accurate Earth orbit visualization model is presented. The model offers 3D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcings. Both research and educational uses are envisioned for the model, which is developed in Matlab® as a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). We present the user with a choice between the Berger et al. (1978) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the three Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other (and over much larger ranges than the naturally occurring ones), so the user can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry

  2. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  3. Bulk Insolation Models as Predictors for Locations for High Lunar Hydrogen Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Sanin, A.; Livengood, T.; Sagdeev, R.; Milikh, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we consider the bulk effects of surface illumination on topography (insolation) and the possible thermodynamic effects on the Moon's hydrogen budget. Insolation is important as one of the dominant loss processes governing distributions of hydrogen volatiles on the Earth, Mars and most recently Mercury. We evaluated three types of high latitude > 65 deg., illumination models that were derived from the Lunar Observing Laser Altimetry (LOLA) digital elevation models (DEM)'s. These models reflect varying accounts of solar flux interactions with the Moon's near-surface. We correlate these models with orbital collimated epithermal neutron measurements made by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND). LEND's measurements derive the Moon's spatial distributions of hydrogen concentration. To perform this analysis we transformed the topographic model into an insolation model described by two variables as each pixels 1) slope and 2) slope angular orientation with respect to the pole. We then decomposed the illumination models and epithermal maps as a function of the insolation model and correlate the datasets.

  4. Daily spectral effects on concentrating PV solar cells as affected by realistic aerosol optical depth and other atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueymard, Christian A.

    2009-08-01

    This contribution addresses the need for more information about the spectral effect affecting solar cells specifically designed for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications. Spectral effects result from differences between the actual (dynamically variable) solar spectrum incident on a solar cell in the field and the standard (fixed) solar spectrum used for rating purposes. A methodology is proposed to quantify this spectral effect at any site where basic atmospheric information exists, and predict what semiconductor material(s) may benefit from operating under non-standard conditions. Using the same SMARTS radiative code as for the development of the improved reference spectrum for concentrating PV rating, an analysis of the spectral sensitivity of five specific PV technologies to varying atmospheric factors is presented, using simulated spectra at 5-nm resolution. (The alternative of using the average photon energy (APE) concept was also considered, but proved inappropriate in the present context.) The technologies investigated here include a 21.5%-efficient CIGS cell, a 22%-efficient crystalline silicon cell (both appropriate for low-concentration applications), as well as three high-performance multijunction cells, which are specifically designed for high-concentration applications. To the difference of most previous studies, the approach taken here considers realistic atmospheric conditions. The proposed Daily Spectral Enhancement Factor (DSEF) is obtained from a typical daily-average incident spectrum, which is purposefully weighted to minimize the incidence of large spectral effects at low sun. Calculations of DSEF are performed here at fifteen world sites from an atmospheric monitoring network. These sites have largely different latitudes and climates, and yet are all potentially interesting for CPV applications. Results are obtained for a typical clear day of January and July, and for each of the five PV technologies just mentioned. This analysis

  5. Temperature, salinity, insolation and wasting disease of eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea in the 1930's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesen, W. B. J. T.; Van Katwijk, M. M.; Den Hartog, C.

    The possible role of temperature, salinity and insolation during the outbreak of 'wasting disease' of eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) in the 1930's was investigated for the Dutch Wadden Sea. An analysis of existing data indicates that salinity and temperature fluctuations played only a minor role. More important was the effect of insolation, as the early 1930's witnessed dull to very dull growing seasons. Daily sunshine figures of 1931 and 1932 were incorporated in an eelgrass growth simulation model. Simulation experiments predict that much of the then existing sublittoral eelgrass population would have succumbed, due to poor illumination conditions, even in the absence of the wasting disease.

  6. Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control.

  7. Early Pleistocene Glacial Cycles and the Integrated Summer Insolation Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybers, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Long-term variations in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation are generally thought to control glaciation. But the intensity of summer insolation is primarily controlled by 20,000-year cycles in the precession of the equinoxes, whereas early Pleistocene glacial cycles occur at 40,000-year intervals, matching the period of changes in Earth's obliquity. The resolution of this 40,000-year problem is that glaciers are sensitive to insolation integrated over the duration of the summer. The integrated summer insolation is primarily controlled by obliquity and not precession because, by Kepler's second law, the duration of the summer is inversely proportional to Earth's distance from the Sun.

  8. Early Pleistocene glacial cycles and the integrated summer insolation forcing.

    PubMed

    Huybers, Peter

    2006-07-28

    Long-term variations in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation are generally thought to control glaciation. But the intensity of summer insolation is primarily controlled by 20,000-year cycles in the precession of the equinoxes, whereas early Pleistocene glacial cycles occur at 40,000-year intervals, matching the period of changes in Earth's obliquity. The resolution of this 40,000-year problem is that glaciers are sensitive to insolation integrated over the duration of the summer. The integrated summer insolation is primarily controlled by obliquity and not precession because, by Kepler's second law, the duration of the summer is inversely proportional to Earth's distance from the Sun. PMID:16794041

  9. Estimation of daily global solar radiation using wavelet regression, ANN, GEP and empirical models: A comparative study of selected temperature-based approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Sayed Saber; Rezaverdinejad, Vahid; Nourani, Vahid

    2016-11-01

    Although the sunshine-based models generally have a better performance than temperature-based models for estimating solar radiation, the limited availability of sunshine duration records makes the development of temperature-based methods inevitable. This paper presents a comparative study between Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Wavelet Regression (WR) and 5 selected temperature-based empirical models for estimating the daily global solar radiation. A new combination of inputs including four readily accessible parameters have been employed: daily mean clearness index (KT), temperature range (ΔT), theoretical sunshine duration (N) and extraterrestrial radiation (Ra). Ten statistical indicators in a form of GPI (Global Performance Indicator) is used to ascertain the suitability of the models. The performance of selected models across the range of solar radiation values, was depicted by the quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots. Comparing these plots makes it evident that ANNs can cover a broader range of solar radiation values. The results shown indicate that the performance of ANN model was clearly superior to the other models. The findings also demonstrated that WR model performed well and presented high accuracy in estimations of daily global solar radiation.

  10. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

    2013-12-01

    The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can `run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375 W m-2, which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars.

  11. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

    2013-12-12

    The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375 W m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

  12. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

    2013-12-12

    The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375 W m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Solar Quiet Daily Sq Variation and Equatorial Electrojet Over Africa: Results From International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A.; Yumoto, K.; Bello, O.

    2010-12-01

    Space Environment Research Centre of Kyushu University, Japan, installed 13 units of Magnetic Data Acquisition Systems MAGDAS over Africa during the International Heliophysical Year IHY. Magnetic records from 10 stations along the African 96o Magnetic Meridian (Geographical 30o - 40o East) were examined for Solar quiet daily Sq variation in the three geomagnetic field components H, D and Z. Spatial variations of Sq in the geomagnetic components were examined. Signatures of equatorial electrojet and worldwide Sq were identified and studied in detail. H field experienced more variation within the equatorial electrojet zone. Diurnal and seasonal variations of the geomagnetic variations in the three components were discussed. Levels of inter-relationships between the Sq and its variability in the three components were statistically derived and interpreted in line with the mechanisms responsible for the variations of the geomagnetic field. Data from 2 magnetic observatories within equatorial electrojet EEJ strip and 2 stations outside the EEJ strip were employed to evaluate and study the signatures of the Equatorial electrojet over the African sector. The transient variations of the EEJ at two almost parallel axes using Lagos-Ilorin and Nairobi-Addis pairs were examined. The EEJ appear stronger in East than West Africa. The magnitudes and patterns of variation of EEJ strength along the two axes were examined for any simultaneity or otherwise of responses to ionospheric processes. The flow gradient of EEJ along the African sector was estimated and its diurnal variation studied.

  14. Daily global solar radiation prediction from air temperatures using kernel extreme learning machine: A case study for Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Mohammadi, Kasra; Chen, Hui-Ling; Narayana Samy, Ganthan; Petković, Dalibor; Ma, Chao

    2015-11-01

    Lately, the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) has gained considerable importance in the scientific area due to its great efficiency, easy implementation and fast training speed. In this paper, for the first time the potential of KELM to predict the daily horizontal global solar radiation from the maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) is appraised. The effectiveness of the proposed KELM method is evaluated against the grid search based support vector regression (SVR), as a robust methodology. Three KELM and SVR models are developed using different input attributes including: (1) Tmin and Tmax, (2) Tmin and Tmax-Tmin, and (3) Tmax and Tmax-Tmin. The achieved results reveal that the best predictions precision is achieved by models (3). The achieved results demonstrate that KELM offers favorable predictions and outperforms the SVR. For the KELM (3) model, the obtained statistical parameters of mean absolute bias error, root mean square error, relative root mean square error and correlation coefficient are 1.3445 MJ/m2, 2.0164 MJ/m2, 11.2464% and 0.9057%, respectively for the testing data. As further examination, a month-by-month evaluation is conducted and found that in six months from May to October the KELM (3) model provides further accuracy than overall accuracy. Based upon the relative root mean square error, the KELM (3) model shows excellent capability in the period of April to October while in the remaining months represents good performance.

  15. A wireless sensor insole for collecting gait data.

    PubMed

    Rösevall, John; Rusu, Cristina; Talavera, Guillermo; Carrabina, Jordi; Garcia, Joan; Carenas, Carlos; Breuil, Fanny; Reixach, Elisenda; Torrent, Marc; Burkard, Stefan; Colitti, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the EU project WIISEL - Wireless Insole for Independent and Safe Elderly Living, with the focus on sensors and wireless communications. Pressure and inertial sensors are embedded into insoles and a smartphone collects data utilizing Bluetooth Low Energy.

  16. Solar radiation on Mars: Update 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data are presented from which the daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. Given the optical depth of the Mars atmosphere, the global radiation is calculated from the normalized net flux function based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation. The direct beam was derived from the optical depth using Beer's law, and the diffuse component was obtained from the difference of the global and the direct beam radiation. The optical depths of the Mars atmosphere were derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the cameras used on the two Viking Landers.

  17. Solar energy microclimate as determined from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Ellis, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for determining solar insolation at the earth's surface using satellite broadband visible radiance and cloud imagery data, along with conventional in situ measurements. Conventional measurements are used to both tune satellite measurements and to develop empirical relationships between satellite observations and surface solar insolation. Cloudiness is the primary modulator of sunshine. The satellite measurements as applied in this method consider cloudiness both explicitly and implicitly in determining surface solar insolation at space scales smaller than the conventional pyranometer network.

  18. Effect of a textured insole on balance and gait symmetry.

    PubMed

    Aruin, Alexander S; Kanekar, Neeta

    2013-11-01

    Asymmetry of standing balance and gait is common in individuals with neurological disorders, and achieving symmetrical stance and gait is an important goal of rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a novel discomfort-induced approach (that is based on using a single textured insole) on the alteration in the symmetry of gait and balance. Eleven healthy subjects (6 females and 5 males, mean age of 28.0 ± 4.1 years) were tested using the Computerized Dynamic Posturography and GaitRite systems when standing or walking while wearing standard footwear with the textured insole positioned either in the left or in the right shoe, and without the insole. Significant immediate effect of the textured insole was seen in the outcome measures of static (weight bearing) and dynamic (weight symmetry index, strength symmetry) balance tests (p < 0.05) as well as in gait symmetry (single support and swing phases) (p < 0.05). The results of the study indicate that a textured insole can significantly modify the symmetry of stance and gait in healthy individuals. Pilot data from individuals with stroke also showed a reduction in the asymmetry of gait when walking with the single textured insole in the shoe on the unaffected side. This outcome provides support for future studies on the efficacy of the textured insole in minimizing asymmetry of gait and posture in individuals in need.

  19. Can textured insoles improve ankle proprioception and performance in dancers?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Karin, Janet; Begg, Rezaul; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-08-01

    With the aim of determining both the acute and the chronic effects of textured insoles on the ankle discrimination and performance ability of dancers, 60 ballet dancers from the Australian Ballet School, aged 14-19 years, were divided into three groups (two intervention groups and a control group), age- and level-matched. In the first 5 weeks (weeks 1 to 5), the first intervention group (GRP1) was asked to wear textured insoles in their ballet shoes and the second intervention group (GRP2) was not given textured insoles to wear. In the next 5 weeks (weeks 6 to 10), GRP2 was asked to wear the same type of textured insoles and GRP1 did not wear the textured insoles. The control group (CTRL) did not wear textured insoles during the whole 10 weeks. All participants were tested preintervention, after 5 weeks and after 10 weeks for ankle discrimination score (AUC scores). Dance performance was assessed by 5-7 dance teachers. Pre-to-post change in AUC scores was significantly greater for the groups wearing insoles than for the controls (P = .046) and the size of pre-to-post changes did not differ between the two intervention groups (P = .834). Significant correlation was found between ankle discrimination score and performance scores, using the textured insoles (r = .412; P = .024). In conclusion, the stimulation to the proprioceptive system arising from textured insoles worn for five weeks was sufficient to improve the proprioceptive ability and performance ability of ballet dancers.

  20. Solar and temporal effects on Escherichia coli concentration at a Lake Michigan swimming beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Korinek, Ginger C.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on solar inactivation of Escherichia coli in freshwater and in situ have been limited. At 63rd St. Beach, Chicago, Ill., factors influencing the daily periodicity of culturable E. coli, particularly insolation, were examined. Water samples for E. coli analysis were collected twice daily between April and September 2000 three times a week along five transects in two depths of water. Hydrometeorological conditions were continuously logged: UV radiation, total insolation, wind speed and direction, wave height, and relative lake level. On 10 days, transects were sampled hourly from 0700 to 1500 h. The effect of sunlight on E. coliinactivation was evaluated with dark and transparent in situ mesocosms and ambient lake water. For the study, the number of E. coli samples collected (n) was 2,676. During sunny days, E. coli counts decreased exponentially with day length and exposure to insolation, but on cloudy days, E. coli inactivation was diminished; the E. coli decay rate was strongly influenced by initial concentration. In situ experiments confirmed that insolation primarily inactivated E. coli; UV radiation only marginally affected E. coliconcentration. The relationship between insolation and E. coli density is complicated by relative lake level, wave height, and turbidity, all of which are often products of wind vector. Continuous importation and nighttime replenishment of E. coli were evident. These findings (i) suggest that solar inactivation is an important mechanism for natural reduction of indicator bacteria in large freshwater bodies and (ii) have implications for management strategies of nontidal waters and the use of E. coli as an indicator organism.

  1. A Shoe Insole Delivering Subsensory Vibratory Noise Improves Balance and Gait in Healthy Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Lipsitz, Lewis; Lough, Matthew; Niemi, James; Travison, Thomas; Howlett, Harold; Manor, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to test whether subsensory vibratory noise applied to the sole of the foot using a novel piezo-electric vibratory insole, can significantly improve sensation, enhance balance, and reduce gait variability in elderly people. We also aimed to determine the optimal level of vibratory noise, and whether the therapeutic effect would endure and the user’s sensory threshold would remain constant during the course of a day. Design A randomized single-blind crossover study of three subsensory noise stimulation levels on 3 separate days. Setting Balance and gait laboratory Participants 12 healthy community-dwelling elderly volunteers aged 65 – 90 years who could feel the maximum insole vibration. Intervention A urethane foam insole with the piezo-electric actuators delivering subsensory vibratory noise stimulation to the soles of the feet. Main Outcome Measures Balance, gait, and timed up-and-go tests. Results The vibratory insoles significantly improved performance on the timed up-and-go test, reduced the area of postural sway, and reduced the temporal variability of walking at both 70% and 85% of the sensory threshold and throughout the course of a day. Vibratory sensation thresholds remained relatively stable within and across study days. Conclusions This study provides proof of concept that the application of the principle of stochastic resonance to the foot sole sensory system using a new low voltage piezoelectric technology can improve measures of balance and gait that are associated with falls. Effective vibratory noise amplitudes range from 70% to 85% of the sensory thresholds and can be set once daily. PMID:25450133

  2. Daily Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing ... Tweet Email | Print Create a Daily Routine Daily Plan Activities Communication Food/Eating Get Tips on Personal Care Bathing ...

  3. Assessment of the global monthly mean surface insolation estimated from satellite measurements using global energy balance archive data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhanqing; Whitlock, Charles H.; Charlock, Thomas P.

    1995-01-01

    Global sets of surface radiation budget (SRB) have been obtained from satellite programs. These satellite-based estimates need validation with ground-truth observations. This study validates the estimates of monthly mean surface insolation contained in two satellite-based SRB datasets with the surface measurements made at worldwide radiation stations from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA). One dataset was developed from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) using the algorithm of Li et al. (ERBE/SRB), and the other from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) using the algorithm of Pinker and Laszlo and that of Staylor (GEWEX/SRB). Since the ERBE/SRB data contain the surface net solar radiation only, the values of surface insolation were derived by making use of the surface albedo data contained GEWEX/SRB product. The resulting surface insolation has a bias error near zero and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) between 8 and 28 W/sq m. The RMSE is mainly associated with poor representation of surface observations within a grid cell. When the number of surface observations are sufficient, the random error is estimated to be about 5 W/sq m with present satellite-based estimates. In addition to demonstrating the strength of the retrieving method, the small random error demonstrates how well the ERBE derives from the monthly mean fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). A larger scatter is found for the comparison of transmissivity than for that of insolation. Month to month comparison of insolation reveals a weak seasonal trend in bias error with an amplitude of about 3 W/sq m. As for the insolation data from the GEWEX/SRB, larger bias errors of 5-10 W/sq m are evident with stronger seasonal trends and almost identical RMSEs.

  4. Finite element analysis of heel pad with insoles.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gangming; Houston, Vern L; Garbarini, Mary Anne; Beattie, Aaron C; Thongpop, Chaiya

    2011-05-17

    To design optimal insoles for reduction of pedal tissue trauma, experimental measurements and computational analyses were performed. To characterize the mechanical properties of the tissues, indentation tests were performed. Pedal tissue geometry and morphology were obtained from magnetic resonance scan of the subject's foot. Axisymmetrical finite element models of the heel of the foot were created with 1/4 of body weight load applied. The stress, strain and strain energy density (SED) fields produced in the pedal tissues were computed. The effects of various insole designs and materials on the resulting stress, strain, and SED in the soft pedal tissues were analyzed. The results showed: (a) Flat insoles made of soft material provide some reductions in the maximum stress, strain and SED produced in the pedal tissues. These maximum values were computed near the calcaneus. (b) Flat insoles, with conical/cylindrical reliefs, provided more reductions in these maximum values than without reliefs. (c) Custom insoles, contoured to match the pedal geometry provide most reductions in the maximum stress, strain and SED. Also note, the maximum stress, strain and SED computed near the calcaneus were found to be about 10 times the corresponding peak values computed on the skin surface. Based on the FEA analysis, it can be concluded that changing insole design and using different material can significantly redistribute the stress/strain inside the heel pad as well as on the skin surface.

  5. Sever's injury: treatment with insoles provides effective pain relief.

    PubMed

    Perhamre, S; Janson, S; Norlin, R; Klässbo, M

    2011-12-01

    Sever's injury (apophysitis calcanei) is considered to be the dominant cause of heel pain among children between 8 and 15 years. The traditional advice is to reduce and modify the level of physical activity. Recommended treatment in general is the same as for adults with Achilles tendon pain. The purpose of the study was to find out if insoles, of two different types, were effective in relieving heel pain in a group of boys (n=38) attending a Sports Medicine Clinic for heel pain diagnosed as Sever's injury. The type of insole was randomized, and self-assessed pain during physical activity in the treatment phase with insoles was compared with pain in the corresponding pre- and post-treatment phases without insoles. There were no other treatments added and the recommendations were to stay on the same activity level. All patients maintained their high level of physical activity throughout the study period. Significant pain reduction during physical activity when using insoles was found. Application of two different types of insoles without any immobilization, other treatment, or modification of sport activities results in significant pain relief in boys with Sever's injury.

  6. Traffic and nucleation events as main sources of ultrafine particles in high-insolation developed world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, M.; Dall'Osto, M.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Gómez-Moreno, F.; Núñez, L.; Artíñano, B.; Costabile, F.; Gobbi, G. P.; Salimi, F.; Morawska, L.; Sioutas, C.; Querol, X.

    2015-05-01

    Road traffic emissions are often considered the main source of ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter smaller than 100 nm) in urban environments. However, recent studies worldwide have shown that - in high-insolation urban regions at least - new particle formation events can also contribute to UFP. In order to quantify such events we systematically studied three cities located in predominantly sunny environments: Barcelona (Spain), Madrid (Spain) and Brisbane (Australia). Three long-term data sets (1-2 years) of fine and ultrafine particle number size distributions (measured by SMPS, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) were analysed. Compared to total particle number concentrations, aerosol size distributions offer far more information on the type, origin and atmospheric evolution of the particles. By applying k-means clustering analysis, we categorized the collected aerosol size distributions into three main categories: "Traffic" (prevailing 44-63% of the time), "Nucleation" (14-19%) and "Background pollution and Specific cases" (7-22%). Measurements from Rome (Italy) and Los Angeles (USA) were also included to complement the study. The daily variation of the average UFP concentrations for a typical nucleation day at each site revealed a similar pattern for all cities, with three distinct particle bursts. A morning and an evening spike reflected traffic rush hours, whereas a third one at midday showed nucleation events. The photochemically nucleated particles' burst lasted 1-4 h, reaching sizes of 30-40 nm. On average, the occurrence of particle size spectra dominated by nucleation events was 16% of the time, showing the importance of this process as a source of UFP in urban environments exposed to high solar radiation. Nucleation events lasting for 2 h or more occurred on 55% of the days, this extending to > 4 h in 28% of the days, demonstrating that atmospheric conditions in urban environments are not favourable to the growth of photochemically nucleated particles. In

  7. Comparison of bacterial DNA profiles of footwear insoles and soles of feet for the forensic discrimination of footwear owners.

    PubMed

    Goga, Haruhisa

    2012-09-01

    It is crucial to identify the owner of unattended footwear left at a crime scene. However, retrieving enough DNA for DNA profiling from the owner's foot skin (plantar skin) cells from inside the footwear is often unsuccessful. This is sometimes because footwear that is used on a daily basis contains an abundance of bacteria that degrade DNA. Further, numerous other factors related to the inside of the shoe, such as high humidity and temperature, can encourage bacterial growth inside the footwear and enhance DNA degradation. This project sought to determine if bacteria from inside footwear could be used for footwear trace evidence. The plantar skins and insoles of shoes of volunteers were swabbed for bacteria, and their bacterial community profiles were compared using bacterial 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Sufficient bacteria were recovered from both footwear insoles and the plantar skins of the volunteers. The profiling identified that each volunteer's plantar skins harbored unique bacterial communities, as did the individuals' footwear insoles. In most cases, a significant similarity in the bacterial community was identified for the matched foot/insole swabs from each volunteer, as compared with those profiles from different volunteers. These observations indicate the probability to discriminate the owner of footwear by comparing the microbial DNA fingerprint from inside footwear with that of the skin from the soles of the feet of the suspected owner. This novel strategy will offer auxiliary forensic footwear evidence for human DNA identification, although further investigations into this technique are required.

  8. Effect of Optimal Daily Fertigation on Migration of Water and Salt in Soil, Root Growth and Fruit Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Solar-Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and

  9. Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and

  10. Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and

  11. Utility of NASA's daily solar and meteorological data for regional level modeling of wheat phenology and yield potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data products from the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Applied Science Energy Managed Program provide estimates of long-term meteorological conditions from assimilation models and surface solar energy fluxes derived from satellite observations. NASA's Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWE...

  12. Solar absorption cooling plant in Seville

    SciTech Connect

    Bermejo, Pablo; Pino, Francisco Javier; Rosa, Felipe

    2010-08-15

    A solar/gas cooling plant at the Engineering School of Seville (Spain) was tested during the period 2008-2009. The system is composed of a double-effect LiBr + water absorption chiller of 174 kW nominal cooling capacity, powered by: (1) a pressurized hot water flow delivered by mean of a 352 m{sup 2} solar field of a linear concentrating Fresnel collector and (2) a direct-fired natural gas burner. The objective of the project is to indentify design improvements for future plants and to serve as a guideline. We focused our attention on the solar collector size and dirtiness, climatology, piping heat losses, operation control and coupling between solar collector and chiller. The daily average Fresnel collector efficiency was 0.35 with a maximum of 0.4. The absorption chiller operated with a daily average coefficient of performance of 1.1-1.25, where the solar energy represented the 75% of generator's total heat input, and the solar cooling ratio (quotient between useful cooling and insolation incident on the solar field) was 0.44. (author)

  13. The specification of personalised insoles using additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Salles, André S; Gyi, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Research has been conducted to explore a process that delivers insoles for personalised footwear for the high street using additive manufacturing (AM) and to evaluate the use of such insoles in terms of discomfort. Therefore, the footwear personalisation process was first identified: (1) foot capture; (2) anthropometric measurements; (3) insole design; and (4) additive manufacturing. In order to explore and evaluate this process, recreational runners were recruited. They had both feet scanned and 15 anthropometric measurements taken. Personalised insoles were designed from the scans and manufactured using AM. Participants were fitted with footwear under two experimental conditions: personalised and control, which were compared in terms of discomfort. The mean ratings for discomfort variables were generally low for both conditions and no significant differences were detected between conditions. In general, the personalisation process showed promise in terms of the scan data, although the foot capture position may not be considered 'gold standard'. Polyamide, the material used for the insoles, demonstrated positive attributes: visual inspection revealed no signs of breaking. The footwear personalisation process described and explored in this study shows potential and can be considered a good starting point for designer and researchers.

  14. Evaluation of satellite-based, modeled-derived daily solar radiation data for the continental U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many applications of simulation models and related decision support tools for agriculture and natural resource management require daily meteorological data as inputs. Availability and quality of such data, however, often constrain research and decision support activities that require use of these to...

  15. Long-term prediction of solar and geomagnetic activity daily time series using singular spectrum analysis and fuzzy descriptor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmomeni, M.; Kamaliha, E.; Shafiee, M.; Lucas, C.

    2009-09-01

    Of the various conditions that affect space weather, Sun-driven phenomena are the most dominant. Cyclic solar activity has a significant effect on the Earth, its climate, satellites, and space missions. In recent years, space weather hazards have become a major area of investigation, especially due to the advent of satellite technology. As such, the design of reliable alerting and warning systems is of utmost importance, and international collaboration is needed to develop accurate short-term and long-term prediction methodologies. Several methods have been proposed and implemented for the prediction of solar and geomagnetic activity indices, but problems in predicting the exact time and magnitude of such catastrophic events still remain. There are, however, descriptor systems that describe a wider class of systems, including physical models and non-dynamic constraints. It is well known that the descriptor system is much tighter than the state-space expression for representing real independent parametric perturbations. In addition, the fuzzy descriptor models as a generalization of the locally linear neurofuzzy models are general forms that can be trained by constructive intuitive learning algorithms. Here, we propose a combined model based on fuzzy descriptor models and singular spectrum analysis (SSA) (FD/SSA) to forecast a number of geomagnetic activity indices in a manner that optimizes a fuzzy descriptor model for each of the principal components obtained from singular spectrum analysis and recombines the predicted values so as to transform the geomagnetic activity time series into natural chaotic phenomena. The method has been applied to predict two solar and geomagnetic activity indices: geomagnetic aa and solar wind speed (SWS) of the solar wind index. The results demonstrate the higher power of the proposed method-- compared to other methods -- for predicting solar activity.

  16. Simple device measures solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

  17. A Wireless Flexible Sensorized Insole for Gait Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Crea, Simona; Donati, Marco; De Rossi, Stefano Marco Maria; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Vitiello, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and development of a novel pressure-sensitive foot insole for real-time monitoring of plantar pressure distribution during walking. The device consists of a flexible insole with 64 pressure-sensitive elements and an integrated electronic board for high-frequency data acquisition, pre-filtering, and wireless transmission to a remote data computing/storing unit. The pressure-sensitive technology is based on an optoelectronic technology developed at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna. The insole is a low-cost and low-power battery-powered device. The design and development of the device is presented along with its experimental characterization and validation with healthy subjects performing a task of walking at different speeds, and benchmarked against an instrumented force platform. PMID:24412902

  18. An evaluation of personalised insoles developed using additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Salles, Andre S; Gyi, Diane E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and medium term use of personalised insoles, produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) with three-dimensional (3-D) foot scanning and computer aided design (CAD) systems. For that, 38 runners (19 pairings) were recruited. The experimental conditions were: personalised and control. The personalised condition consisted of trainers fitted with personalised glove fit insoles manufactured using AM and using foot scans to match the plantar geometry of the feet. The control condition consisted of the same trainers fitted with insoles also manufactured using AM but using scans of the original insole shape. Participants were allocated to one of the experimental conditions and wore the trainers for 3 months. Over this period they attended three laboratory sessions (at months 0, 1.5 and 3) and completed an Activity Diary after each training session. The footwear was evaluated in terms of discomfort and biomechanics. Lower discomfort ratings were found in the heel area (P ≤ 0.05) and for overall fit (P ≤ 0.05), with the personalised insole. However, discomfort was reported under the arch region for both conditions. With regard to the biomechanical data, differences between conditions were detected for ankle dorsiflexion at footstrike (P ≤ 0.05), maximum ankle eversion (P ≤ 0.05) and peak mean pressure under the heel (P ≤ 0.01): the personalised condition had lower values which may reduce injury risk. The personalisation of the geometry of insoles through advances in AM together with 3-D scanning and CAD technologies can provide benefits and has potential.

  19. Time-dependent MHD modeling of the global solar corona for year 2007: Driven by daily-updated magnetic field synoptic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. P.; Feng, X. S.; Xiang, C. Q.; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Xuepu; Wu, S. T.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we develop a time-dependent MHD model driven by the daily-updated synoptic magnetograms (MHD-DUSM) to study the dynamic evolution of the global corona with the help of the 3D Solar-Interplanetary (SIP) adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE) MHD model (SIP-AMR-CESE MHD Model). To accommodate the observations, the tangential component of the electric field at the lower boundary is specified to allow the flux evolution to match the observed changes of magnetic field. Meanwhile, the time-dependent solar surface boundary conditions derived from the method of characteristics and the mass flux limit are incorporated to couple the observation and the 3D MHD model. The simulated evolution of the global coronal structure during 2007 is compared with solar observations and solar wind measurements from both Ulysses and spacecrafts near the Earth. The MHD-DUSM model is also validated by comparisons with the standard potential field source surface (PFSS) model, the newly improved Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) empirical formula, and the MHD simulation with a monthly synoptic magnetogram (MHD-MSM). Comparisons show that the MHD-DUSM results have good overall agreement with coronal and interplanetary structures, including the sizes and distributions of coronal holes, the positions and shapes of the streamer belts, and the transitions of the solar wind speeds and magnetic field polarities. The MHD-DUSM results also display many features different from those of the PFSS, the WSA, and the MHD-MSM models.

  20. Clinical effects of lateral wedge arch support insoles in knee osteoarthritis: A prospective double-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-07-01

    We compared the short-term efficacy of rigid versus soft lateral wedge arch support (LWAS) insoles for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), as assessed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) system, through a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial.Participants who fulfilled the combined radiographic and clinical criteria for knee OA, as defined by the American College of Rheumatology, were randomly prescribed 1 pair of rigid or soft LWAS insoles. Body functions and structures were evaluated according to Kellgren-Lawrence scores, the Foot Posture Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, the pain-pressure threshold, postural stability, dynamic balance, and fall risk; activities and participation were assessed according to 10-m fast speed walking, stair climbing and chair rising times, and Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire responses; and knee OA-related health status was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, the pain-pressure threshold, physical activity, balance, Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire responses, and the KOOS were recorded before treatment and at 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-ups.We enrolled 90 participants, 70 women and 20 men, with mean ages of 60.6 ± 10.8 and 63.1 ± 10.8 years in the rigid and soft LWAS insole groups, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant time × group effect improvements in pain (P = 0.008 for the KOOS), stair ascent time (P = 0.003), daily living function (P = 0.003 for the KOOS), sports and recreation function (P = 0.012 for the KOOS), and quality of life (P = 0.021 for the KOOS) in the soft LWAS insole group.Patients with knee OA who used soft LWAS insoles for a short term showed more significant improvement than did those who used rigid LWAS insoles in pain, physical activity, daily living function, sports and recreation function

  1. Clinical effects of lateral wedge arch support insoles in knee osteoarthritis: A prospective double-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-07-01

    We compared the short-term efficacy of rigid versus soft lateral wedge arch support (LWAS) insoles for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), as assessed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) system, through a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial.Participants who fulfilled the combined radiographic and clinical criteria for knee OA, as defined by the American College of Rheumatology, were randomly prescribed 1 pair of rigid or soft LWAS insoles. Body functions and structures were evaluated according to Kellgren-Lawrence scores, the Foot Posture Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, the pain-pressure threshold, postural stability, dynamic balance, and fall risk; activities and participation were assessed according to 10-m fast speed walking, stair climbing and chair rising times, and Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire responses; and knee OA-related health status was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, the pain-pressure threshold, physical activity, balance, Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire responses, and the KOOS were recorded before treatment and at 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-ups.We enrolled 90 participants, 70 women and 20 men, with mean ages of 60.6 ± 10.8 and 63.1 ± 10.8 years in the rigid and soft LWAS insole groups, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant time × group effect improvements in pain (P = 0.008 for the KOOS), stair ascent time (P = 0.003), daily living function (P = 0.003 for the KOOS), sports and recreation function (P = 0.012 for the KOOS), and quality of life (P = 0.021 for the KOOS) in the soft LWAS insole group.Patients with knee OA who used soft LWAS insoles for a short term showed more significant improvement than did those who used rigid LWAS insoles in pain, physical activity, daily living function, sports and recreation function

  2. Modeling sugarcane growth in response to age, insolation, and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    How, K.T.S.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling sugarcane growth in response to age of cane, insolation and air temperature using first-order multiple regression analysis and a nonlinear approach is investigated. Data are restricted to one variety from irrigated fields to eliminate the impact of varietal response and rainfall. Ten first-order models are investigated. The predictant is cane yield from 600 field tests. The predictors are cumulative values of insolation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, or for each crop period derived from weather observations near the test plots. The low R-square values indicate that the selected predictor variables could not account for a substantial proportion of the variations of cane yield and the models have limited predictive values. The nonlinear model is based on known functional relationships between growth and age, growth and insolation, and growth and maximum temperature. A mathematical expression that integrates the effect of age, insolation and maximum temperature is developed. The constant terms and coefficients of the equation are determined from the requirement that the model must produce results that are reasonable when compared with observed monthly elongation data. The nonlinear model is validated and tested using another set of data.

  3. A Self-Powered Insole for Human Motion Recognition.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingzhou; Cao, Yalu; Zhao, Jingjing; Yin, Yajiang; Ye, Liangchen; Wang, Xiaofeng; You, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanical energy harvesting is a feasible solution for powering wearable sensors by directly driving electronics or acting as wearable self-powered sensors. A wearable insole that not only can harvest energy from foot pressure during walking but also can serve as a self-powered human motion recognition sensor is reported. The insole is designed as a sandwich structure consisting of two wavy silica gel film separated by a flexible piezoelectric foil stave, which has higher performance compared with conventional piezoelectric harvesters with cantilever structure. The energy harvesting insole is capable of driving some common electronics by scavenging energy from human walking. Moreover, it can be used to recognize human motion as the waveforms it generates change when people are in different locomotion modes. It is demonstrated that different types of human motion such as walking and running are clearly classified by the insole without any external power source. This work not only expands the applications of piezoelectric energy harvesters for wearable power supplies and self-powered sensors, but also provides possible approaches for wearable self-powered human motion monitoring that is of great importance in many fields such as rehabilitation and sports science. PMID:27649188

  4. A Self-Powered Insole for Human Motion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yingzhou; Cao, Yalu; Zhao, Jingjing; Yin, Yajiang; Ye, Liangchen; Wang, Xiaofeng; You, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanical energy harvesting is a feasible solution for powering wearable sensors by directly driving electronics or acting as wearable self-powered sensors. A wearable insole that not only can harvest energy from foot pressure during walking but also can serve as a self-powered human motion recognition sensor is reported. The insole is designed as a sandwich structure consisting of two wavy silica gel film separated by a flexible piezoelectric foil stave, which has higher performance compared with conventional piezoelectric harvesters with cantilever structure. The energy harvesting insole is capable of driving some common electronics by scavenging energy from human walking. Moreover, it can be used to recognize human motion as the waveforms it generates change when people are in different locomotion modes. It is demonstrated that different types of human motion such as walking and running are clearly classified by the insole without any external power source. This work not only expands the applications of piezoelectric energy harvesters for wearable power supplies and self-powered sensors, but also provides possible approaches for wearable self-powered human motion monitoring that is of great importance in many fields such as rehabilitation and sports science. PMID:27649188

  5. The risk characteristics of solar and geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolska, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    The main aim of this contribution is a deeper analysis of the influence of solar activity which is expected to have an impact on human health, and therefore on mortality, in particular civilization and degenerative diseases. We have constructed the characteristics that represent the risk of solar and geomagnetic activity on human health on the basis of our previous analysis of association between the daily numbers of death on diseases of the nervous system and diseases of the circulatory system and solar and geomagnetic activity in the Czech Republic during the years 1994 - 2013. We used long period daily time series of numbers of deaths by cause, long period time series of solar activity indices (namely R and F10.7), geomagnetic indicies (Kp planetary index, Dst) and ionospheric parameters (foF2 and TEC). The ionospheric parameters were related to the geographic location of the Czech Republic and adjusted for middle geographic latitudes. The risk characteristics were composed by cluster analysis in time series according to the phases of the solar cycle resp. the seasonal insolation at mid-latitudes or the daily period according to the impact of solar and geomagnetic activity on mortality by cause of death from medical cause groups of death VI. Diseases of the nervous system and IX. Diseases of the circulatory system mortality by 10th Revision of International Classification of Diseases WHO (ICD-10).

  6. Middle Holocene daily light cycle reconstructed from the strontium/calcium ratios of a fossil giant clam shell.

    PubMed

    Hori, Masako; Sano, Yuji; Ishida, Akizumi; Takahata, Naoto; Shirai, Kotaro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-04

    Insolation is an important component of meteorological data because solar energy is the primary and direct driver of weather and climate. Previous analyses of cultivated giant clam shells revealed diurnal variation in the Sr/Ca ratio, which might reflect the influence of the daily light cycle. We applied proxy method to sample from prehistoric era, a fossil giant clam shell collected at Ishigaki Island in southern Japan. The specimen was alive during the middle Holocene and thus exposed to the warmest climate after the last glacial period. This bivalve species is known to form a growth line each day, as confirmed by the analysis of the Sr enrichment bands using EPMA and facilitated age-model. We analyzed the Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios along the growth axis, measuring a 2-μm spot size at 2-μm interval using NanoSIMS. The Sr/Ca ratios in the winter layers are characterized by a striking diurnal cycle consisting of narrow growth lines with high Sr/Ca ratios and broad growth bands with low Sr/Ca ratios. These variations, which are consistent with those of the cultivated clam shell, indicate the potential for the reconstruction of the variation in solar insolation during the middle Holocene at a multi-hourly resolution.

  7. Middle Holocene daily light cycle reconstructed from the strontium/calcium ratios of a fossil giant clam shell

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Masako; Sano, Yuji; Ishida, Akizumi; Takahata, Naoto; Shirai, Kotaro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Insolation is an important component of meteorological data because solar energy is the primary and direct driver of weather and climate. Previous analyses of cultivated giant clam shells revealed diurnal variation in the Sr/Ca ratio, which might reflect the influence of the daily light cycle. We applied proxy method to sample from prehistoric era, a fossil giant clam shell collected at Ishigaki Island in southern Japan. The specimen was alive during the middle Holocene and thus exposed to the warmest climate after the last glacial period. This bivalve species is known to form a growth line each day, as confirmed by the analysis of the Sr enrichment bands using EPMA and facilitated age-model. We analyzed the Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios along the growth axis, measuring a 2-μm spot size at 2-μm interval using NanoSIMS. The Sr/Ca ratios in the winter layers are characterized by a striking diurnal cycle consisting of narrow growth lines with high Sr/Ca ratios and broad growth bands with low Sr/Ca ratios. These variations, which are consistent with those of the cultivated clam shell, indicate the potential for the reconstruction of the variation in solar insolation during the middle Holocene at a multi-hourly resolution. PMID:25736488

  8. Middle Holocene daily light cycle reconstructed from the strontium/calcium ratios of a fossil giant clam shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masako; Sano, Yuji; Ishida, Akizumi; Takahata, Naoto; Shirai, Kotaro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Insolation is an important component of meteorological data because solar energy is the primary and direct driver of weather and climate. Previous analyses of cultivated giant clam shells revealed diurnal variation in the Sr/Ca ratio, which might reflect the influence of the daily light cycle. We applied proxy method to sample from prehistoric era, a fossil giant clam shell collected at Ishigaki Island in southern Japan. The specimen was alive during the middle Holocene and thus exposed to the warmest climate after the last glacial period. This bivalve species is known to form a growth line each day, as confirmed by the analysis of the Sr enrichment bands using EPMA and facilitated age-model. We analyzed the Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios along the growth axis, measuring a 2-μm spot size at 2-μm interval using NanoSIMS. The Sr/Ca ratios in the winter layers are characterized by a striking diurnal cycle consisting of narrow growth lines with high Sr/Ca ratios and broad growth bands with low Sr/Ca ratios. These variations, which are consistent with those of the cultivated clam shell, indicate the potential for the reconstruction of the variation in solar insolation during the middle Holocene at a multi-hourly resolution.

  9. Nonlinear response of summer temperature to Holocene insolation forcing in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Benjamin F; Kelly, Ryan; Clarke, Gina H; Walker, Ian R; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2011-11-29

    Regional climate responses to large-scale forcings, such as precessional changes in solar irradiation and increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gases, may be nonlinear as a result of complex interactions among earth system components. Such nonlinear behaviors constitute a major source of climate "surprises" with important socioeconomic and ecological implications. Paleorecords are key for elucidating patterns and mechanisms of nonlinear responses to radiative forcing, but their utility has been greatly limited by the paucity of quantitative temperature reconstructions. Here we present Holocene July temperature reconstructions on the basis of midge analysis of sediment cores from three Alaskan lakes. Results show that summer temperatures during 10,000-5,500 calibrated years (cal) B.P. were generally lower than modern and that peak summer temperatures around 5,000 were followed by a decreasing trend toward the present. These patterns stand in stark contrast with the trend of precessional insolation, which decreased by ∼10% from 10,000 y ago to the present. Cool summers before 5,500 cal B.P. coincided with extensive summer ice cover in the western Arctic Ocean, persistence of a positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation, predominantly La Niña-like conditions, and variation in the position of the Alaskan treeline. These results illustrate nonlinear responses of summer temperatures to Holocene insolation radiative forcing in the Alaskan sub-Arctic, possibly because of state changes in the Arctic Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated land-atmosphere-ocean feedbacks.

  10. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  11. Impacts of different types of insoles on postural stability in older adults.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xingda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different types of insoles on postural stability in older adults. Four types of commercially available insoles were selected including the cupped insoles, textured insoles, rigid insoles, and soft insoles. The experiment included a static stance session and a walking session. In the static stance session, the participants stood upright on a force platform as still as possible, with feet together, arms by the side and looking straight ahead. The mean velocity of center-of-pressure time series obtained from the force platform was used to assess static postural stability. In the walking session, the participants walked on a treadmill at their self-selected comfortable speed for 4.5 min in each insole condition. Dynamic postural stability was assessed using the margin of stability. It was found that static postural stability was not affected by insoles, but cupped insoles improved dynamic postural stability, and rigid insole was associated with better dynamic postural stability compared to soft insoles. These findings can aid in better understanding the insole design features associated with improved postural stability in older adults.

  12. Solar drying in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, O. )

    1992-03-01

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has estimated that a quarter of crops are lost through inadequate handling after harvesting. The use of solar dryers can reduce these losses and improve the quality of food. Oliver Headley of the University of the West Indies overviews a range of dryers developed in the Caribbean region. Solar dryers have been used in various parts of the Caribbean for the past eighteen years. The main types are: closed cycle dryers with separate flat plate collector; open cycle dryers with roof vanes against direct sunlight; open cycle dryers with rockbed heat storage units; open cycle dryers with chimneys for air circulation; wire basket dryers with flow through ventilation; barn roof collectors feeding packed bed dryers. During the dry season (January to April), mean daily insolation in a typical Caribbean island is about 25 MJ/m{sup 2}. With such an abundant resource, solar crop drying emerged as a preferred method for the preservation of perishable commodities. In territories without fossil fuel reserves solar energy is an obvious alternative since it does not involve expenditure of scarce foreign exchange. Research and development work in solar crop drying was conducted both at experimental sites in the University and in rural districts throughout the region. Several types of dryer were designed and tested.

  13. Knee abduction angular impulses during prolonged running with wedged insoles.

    PubMed

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2013-07-01

    Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (α = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (α = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run.

  14. Control conditions for footwear insole and orthotic research.

    PubMed

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2016-07-01

    Footwear insoles/orthotics alter variables associated with musculoskeletal injury; however, their clinical effectiveness is inconclusive. One explanation for this is the possibility that control conditions may actually produce biomechanical changes that induce clinical responses. The purpose of this study was to compare insole/orthotic control conditions to identify if variables at the ground, ankle and knee that are associated with injury are altered relative to what participants would normally experience in their own shoes. Gait analysis was performed on 15 participants during walking and running while wearing (1) their own shoes, (2) #1 with a 3mm flat insole, (3) a standardized shoe, and (4) #3 with a 3mm flat insole, where external knee adduction moments, external knee adduction angular impulses, internal ankle inversion moments, and vertical ground reaction force loading rates were determined. Conditions 2-4 were expressed as percent changes relative to condition 1, and tests of proportions assessed if there were a significant number of individuals experiencing a biomechanically relevant change for each variable. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to identify group differences between conditions. The majority of movement-footwear-variable combinations contained a proportion of individuals experiencing biomechanically relevant changes compared to condition 1 that was significantly greater than the expected proportion of 20%. No systematic differences were found between conditions. This suggests that conditions 2-4 may alter biomechanics relative to baseline for many participants, but not in a consistent way across participants. It is recommended that participant's own footwear be used as control conditions in future trials where biomechanics are primary variables of interest. PMID:27477717

  15. FreeWalker: a smart insole for longitudinal gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baitong; Rajput, Kuldeep Singh; Tam, Wing-Kin; Tung, Anthony K H; Yang, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    Gait analysis is an important diagnostic measure to investigate the pattern of walking. Traditional gait analysis is generally carried out in a gait lab, with equipped force and body tracking sensors, which needs a trained medical professional to interpret the results. This procedure is tedious, expensive, and unreliable and makes it difficult to track the progress across multiple visits. In this paper, we present a smart insole called FreeWalker, which provides quantitative gait analysis outside the confinement of traditional lab, at low- cost. The insole consists of eight pressure sensors and two motion tracking sensors, i.e. 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope. This enables measurement of under-foot pressure distribution and motion sequences in real-time. The insole is enabled with onboard SD card as well as wireless data transmission, which help in continuous gait-cycle analysis. The data is then sent to a gateway, for analysis and interpretation of data, using a user interface where gait features are graphically displayed. We also present validation result of a subject's left foot, who was asked to perform a specific task. Experiment results show that we could achieve a data-sampling rate of over 1 KHz, transmitting data up to a distance of 20 meter and maintain a battery life of around 24 hours. Taking advantage of these features, FreeWalker can be used in various applications, like medical diagnosis, rehabilitation, sports and entertainment. PMID:26737102

  16. Kinetic Gait Analysis Using a Low-Cost Insole.

    PubMed

    Howell, Adam M; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Hayes, Heather A; Foreman, K Bo; Bamberg, Stacy J Morris

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal gait caused by stroke or other pathological reasons can greatly impact the life of an individual. Being able to measure and analyze that gait is often critical for rehabilitation. Motion analysis labs and many current methods of gait analysis are expensive and inaccessible to most individuals. The low-cost, wearable, and wireless insole-based gait analysis system in this study provides kinetic measurements of gait by using low-cost force sensitive resistors. This paper describes the design and fabrication of the insole and its evaluation in six control subjects and four hemiplegic stroke subjects. Subject-specific linear regression models were used to determine ground reaction force plus moments corresponding to ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion, knee flexion/extension, and knee abduction/adduction. Comparison with data simultaneously collected from a clinical motion analysis laboratory demonstrated that the insole results for ground reaction force and ankle moment were highly correlated (all >0.95) for all subjects, while the two knee moments were less strongly correlated (generally >0.80). This provides a means of cost-effective and efficient healthcare delivery of mobile gait analysis that can be used anywhere from large clinics to an individual's home.

  17. FreeWalker: a smart insole for longitudinal gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baitong; Rajput, Kuldeep Singh; Tam, Wing-Kin; Tung, Anthony K H; Yang, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    Gait analysis is an important diagnostic measure to investigate the pattern of walking. Traditional gait analysis is generally carried out in a gait lab, with equipped force and body tracking sensors, which needs a trained medical professional to interpret the results. This procedure is tedious, expensive, and unreliable and makes it difficult to track the progress across multiple visits. In this paper, we present a smart insole called FreeWalker, which provides quantitative gait analysis outside the confinement of traditional lab, at low- cost. The insole consists of eight pressure sensors and two motion tracking sensors, i.e. 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope. This enables measurement of under-foot pressure distribution and motion sequences in real-time. The insole is enabled with onboard SD card as well as wireless data transmission, which help in continuous gait-cycle analysis. The data is then sent to a gateway, for analysis and interpretation of data, using a user interface where gait features are graphically displayed. We also present validation result of a subject's left foot, who was asked to perform a specific task. Experiment results show that we could achieve a data-sampling rate of over 1 KHz, transmitting data up to a distance of 20 meter and maintain a battery life of around 24 hours. Taking advantage of these features, FreeWalker can be used in various applications, like medical diagnosis, rehabilitation, sports and entertainment.

  18. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  19. Insolation and Resulting Surface Temperatures of Study Regions on the Moon and Implications for Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Karin E.; Hiesinger, Harald

    2010-05-01

    The imaging spectrometer MERTIS (Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer) is part of the payload of ESA's BepiColombo mission, which is scheduled for launch in 2014 (Hiesinger et al., 2010). The instrument consists of an IR-spectrometer and radiometer, which observe the surface in the wavelength range of 7-14 and 7-40µm, respectively. The four scientific objectives are to a) study Mercury's surface composition, b) identify rock-forming minerals, c) globally map the surface mineralogy and d) study surface temperature and thermal inertia (Hiesinger et al., 2010; Helbert et al., 2005). Previous studies of the lunar surface have shown that thermal emission contributes to the observed signal from the surface and can influence the spectral characteristics, e.g. the depth of absorption bands (e.g. Clark, 2009; Pieters et al., 2009; Sunshine et al., 2009). Therefore accurate knowledge of the solar insolation and resulting thermal variations is needed. In order to calculate insolation and surface temperatures, we use a numerical model which has been described by Bauch et al. (2009). Surface temperatures are depending on the surface and subsurface bulk thermophysical properties, such as bulk density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, emissivity, and albedo. Topography also influences surface temperatures, as it changes the angle of solar incidence, but also leads to shadowed areas, e.g. the floors of polar craters. The model solves the one-dimensional heat transfer equation, based on a depth and temperature dependent thermal inertia. The surface boundary condition is based on the energy balance relation; the energy entering a surface equals the energy leaving the surface. In addition to the direct solar insolation, reflectance and scattering from adjacent surface regions also influence the surface temperatures. In preparation of the MERTIS experiment, we performed detailed thermal models of the lunar surface, which we extrapolated to Mercury. For our

  20. Insolation Effects on the Lunar Hydrogen Budget: Correlated Observations of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's LEND, LOLA and Diviner Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Litvak, M.; Milikh, G. M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Livengood, T. A.; Chin, G.; Harshman, K.; Droege, G.

    2012-12-01

    In this research we correlate the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO), Diviner radiometer temperature maps that characterize the Moon's thermal environment with maps derived from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA). In previous research, we found evidence that the Moon's Hydrogen budget was broadly influenced by insolation effects. In that analysis we implemented a transformation of LOLA's topography maps, thereby isolating poleward-facing and equator-facing slopes. We then integrated the LEND epithermal neutron maps over these regions and found that the epithermal neutron count rates were significantly lower in poleward-facing slopes vs. equivalent equator-facing slopes, yielding a localized "epithermal contrast". This result suggests higher H / H2O concentrations in poleward-facing slopes vs. comparable equator-facing slopes. It is also consistent with findings in terrestrial and Martian environments indicating similar H / H2O slope contrasts. In support of that finding we determined that the epithermal neutron rates over east and west-facing slopes were as predicted equivalent. The above effects were also similar for both North and South Poles. Together, this support indicated surface insolation is an important factor governing the Moon's Hydrogen budget. Temperature effects of insolation are primarily a function of a cosine process a = i cos Θ, which predicts the effective solar irradiation a, incident to a given surface as a function of its angular orientation Θ, to the source solar irradiation, i. Θ is locally a function of several variables including combined: seasonal, diurnal, topographic, latitude and regolith compositional effects which induces locally dependent and time variable temperature conditions. The Moons low obliquity and increased latitude predictably attenuate solar irradiation, which is well correlated with decreased near-surface temperatures towards the poles. Importantly, topographic

  1. Manufacturing and finite element assessment of a novel pressure reducing insole for Diabetic Neuropathic patients.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, A; Mossayebi, A R; Jamshidi, N; Naemi, R; Karimi, M T

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes is one of the metabolic diseases. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to diabetic foot ulcers and if it was not treated would lead to amputation. Foot ulcers can be prevented by using suitable insoles which are made of appropriate material and geometrically designed by constituent layers. In this study, single-layer and three-layer insoles have been compared during static and dynamic loading. The selected materials were silicone gel (SG), plastazote foam (PLZ), polyfoam (PF) and ethyl vinyl acetate foam (EVA). Four single-layer and 18 combinations of three-layer insoles were selected. Materials behaviors were determined by using a uniaxial pressure test. The description of stress and strain is obtained by using the model of three dimensional nonlinear Finite Element Method (FEM). Then samples were tested by using commercially available plantar pressure measurement system. The FEM results showed that the SG and PLZ insoles are more appropriate compared to single-layer insoles. The combinations of PLZ, SG and EVA (from top to bottom) are recognized as the best between three-layer insoles. Also the best three-layer insole is more effective in promoting a favourable stress and strain distribution than single-layer insoles, especially in dynamic mode. According to simulation results, three-layer insole decreases stress concentration by 9%. Also experimental tests showed that using three-layer insole decreases plantar pressure by 63% compared to barefoot condition bare foot. PMID:25536901

  2. Manufacturing and finite element assessment of a novel pressure reducing insole for Diabetic Neuropathic patients.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, A; Mossayebi, A R; Jamshidi, N; Naemi, R; Karimi, M T

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes is one of the metabolic diseases. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to diabetic foot ulcers and if it was not treated would lead to amputation. Foot ulcers can be prevented by using suitable insoles which are made of appropriate material and geometrically designed by constituent layers. In this study, single-layer and three-layer insoles have been compared during static and dynamic loading. The selected materials were silicone gel (SG), plastazote foam (PLZ), polyfoam (PF) and ethyl vinyl acetate foam (EVA). Four single-layer and 18 combinations of three-layer insoles were selected. Materials behaviors were determined by using a uniaxial pressure test. The description of stress and strain is obtained by using the model of three dimensional nonlinear Finite Element Method (FEM). Then samples were tested by using commercially available plantar pressure measurement system. The FEM results showed that the SG and PLZ insoles are more appropriate compared to single-layer insoles. The combinations of PLZ, SG and EVA (from top to bottom) are recognized as the best between three-layer insoles. Also the best three-layer insole is more effective in promoting a favourable stress and strain distribution than single-layer insoles, especially in dynamic mode. According to simulation results, three-layer insole decreases stress concentration by 9%. Also experimental tests showed that using three-layer insole decreases plantar pressure by 63% compared to barefoot condition bare foot.

  3. Dynamic modeling and sensitivity analysis of solar thermal energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Since the energy input to solar thermal conversion systems is both time variant and probabilistic, it is unlikely that simple steady-state methods for estimating lifetime performance will provide satisfactory results. The work described here uses dynamic modeling to begin identifying what must be known about input radiation and system dynamic characteristics to estimate performance reliably. Daily operation of two conceptual solar energy systems was simulated under varying operating strategies with time-dependent radiation intensity ranging from smooth input of several magnitudes to input of constant total energy whose intensity oscillated with periods from 1/4 hour to 6 hours. Integrated daily system output and efficiency were functions of both level and dynamic characteristics of insolation. Sensitivity of output to changes in total input was greater than one.

  4. Daily affect and daily beliefs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire; Daniels, Kevin

    2005-10-01

    Human resource directorate employees of a large United Kingdom public hospital (N=36) completed an initial questionnaire and then participated in a daily diary study. The questionnaire included measures of affect and beliefs about high work demands' influence on affect and work performance. The diary included measures of affect, extent of high work demands, and daily beliefs, corresponding to those measured in the questionnaire. Participants were required to complete the diary twice daily, before and after work over a 2-week period. Measures of affect after work were associated with beliefs concerning work demands' influence on work performance and on affect measured after work. Beliefs about work demands measured in the questionnaire were associated with subsequent daily assessments of beliefs.

  5. REL3.0 SW DAILY UTC

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-05

    ... Active Radiation Flux Cloud Fraction Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Satellite Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Astronomy ... ISCCP Data Table SSE Renewable Energy Readme Files:  Readme_3.0_sw_daily ...

  6. REL3.0 SW DAILY LOCAL

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-05

    ... Active Radiation Flux Cloud Fraction Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Satellite Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Astronomy ... ISCCP Data Table SSE Renewable Energy Readme Files:  Readme_3.0_sw_daily ...

  7. Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene variability and the role of insolation, ENSO, and the North American Monsoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh

    2012-01-01

    Over the period of instrumental records, precipitation maximum in the headwaters of the Colorado Rocky Mountains has been dominated by winter snow, with a substantial degree of interannual variability linked to Pacific ocean–atmosphere dynamics. High-elevation snowpack is an important water storage that is carefully observed in order to meet increasing water demands in the greater semi-arid region. The purpose here is to consider Rocky Mountain water trends during the Holocene when known changes in earth's energy balance were caused by precession-driven insolation variability. Changes in solar insolation are thought to have influenced the variability and intensity of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North American Monsoon and the seasonal precipitation balance between rain and snow at upper elevations. Holocene records are presented from two high elevation lakes located in northwest Colorado that document decade-to-century scale precipitation seasonality for the past ~ 7000 years. Comparisons with sub-tropical records of ENSO indicate that the snowfall-dominated precipitation maxima developed ~ 3000 and 4000 years ago, coincident with evidence for enhanced ENSO/PDO dynamics. During the early-to-mid Holocene the records suggest a more monsoon affected precipitation regime with reduced snowpack, more rainfall, and net moisture deficits that were more severe than recent droughts. The Holocene perspective of precipitation indicates a far broader range of variability than that of the past century and highlights the non-linear character of hydroclimate in the U.S. west.

  8. IHT: Tools for Computing Insolation Absorption by Particle Laden Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, R. W.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes IHT, a toolkit for computing radiative heat exchange between particles. Well suited for insolation absorption computations, it is also has potential applications in combustion (sooting flames), biomass gasification processes and similar processes. The algorithm is based on the 'Photon Monte Carlo' approach and implemented in a library that can be interfaced with a variety of computational fluid dynamics codes to analyze radiative heat transfer in particle-laden flows. The emphasis in this report is on the data structures and organization of IHT for developers seeking to use the IHT toolkit to add Photon Monte Carlo capabilities to their own codes.

  9. Standing balance on the ground -the influence of flatfeet and insoles.

    PubMed

    Takata, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Shinji; Okumura, Nobuhisa; Iwamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Mitsugu; Uchiyama, Eiichi

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether insoles change standing balance on the ground in normal and flat-footed subjects. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with flatfeet and 20 subjects with normal feet were included in this study. [Methods] Body sway was evaluated based on the center of pressure while subjects stood on the ground. Body sway was measured during upright standing with the feet 10 cm apart for 30 seconds. The total locus length and the area of body sway were then measured using a zebris system. Measurements were made under three sets of conditions: using BMZ insoles, which supported the cuboid; using Superfeet insoles, which supported the medial longitudinal arch; and with no insoles. [Results] The 3 insole conditions were compared. On level ground, the total locus length for the Superfeet insole was significantly less than those for the BMZ insole and no insole. [Conclusion] On level ground, Superfeet feet insoles were effective in stabilizing standing balance in both flat-footed and normal-footed subjects.

  10. Immediate and 1 week effects of laterally wedge insoles on gait biomechanics in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Weinhandl, Joshua T; Sudheimer, Sarah E; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Stewart, Kimberly; Hoch, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that approximately 45% of the U.S. population will develop knee osteoarthritis, a disease that creates significant economic burdens in both direct and indirect costs. Laterally wedged insoles have been frequently recommended to reduce knee abduction moments and to manage knee osteoarthritis. However, it remains unknown whether the lateral wedge will reduce knee abduction moments over a prolonged period of time. Thus, the purposes of this study were to (1) examine the immediate effects of a laterally wedged insole in individuals normally aligned knees and (2) determine prolonged effects after the insole was worn for 1 week. Gait analysis was performed on ten women with and without a laterally wedged insole. After participants wore the wedges for a week, a second gait analysis was performed with and without the insole. The wedged insole did not affect peak knee abduction moment, although there was a significant increase in knee abduction angular impulse after wearing the insoles for 1 week. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in vertical ground reaction force at the instance of peak knee abduction moment with the wedges. While the laterally wedged insole used in the current study did not alter knee abduction moments as expected, other studies have shown alterations. Future studies should also examine a longer acclimation period, the influence of gait speed, and the effect of different shoe types with the insole.

  11. Lo-Cal, Champaign, Illinois solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Jan. 1982 - Apr. 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spears, J. W.

    1982-06-01

    Performance data on a solar heated house are given. The Lo-Cal site is a single family residence in Illinois with a direct gain solar heating system equipped with 200 square feet of south facing triple glazed windows and an auxiliary 84,000 Btu hour forced air furnace. For the months of January through April 1982, the solar fraction was found to be 29%, corresponding to a saving of 3107 kWh of conventional fuel. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system, and for the collector and space heating subsystems. Also tabulated are monthly energy savings, weather, and passive system environment data. The building's performance is illustrated by graphs for each month of the daily insolation, auxiliary heat, building temperature, and ambient temperature.

  12. Embedded sensor insole for wireless measurement of gait parameters.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martí, Fernando; Martínez-García, María Sofía; García-Díaz, Santiago G; García-Jiménez, Javier; Palma, Alberto J; Carvajal, Miguel A

    2014-03-01

    This work presents the development of a portable, wireless activity monitoring system for the estimation of biomechanical gait parameters. The system uses a pair of instrumented insoles able to measure pressure from different points of the foot including four commercial piezoresistive pressure sensors and a three-axis accelerometer, all together integrated in the insole to determine foot forces during stance and swing phases. The system includes two kinds of analysis data, one on line with a RF communications to a computer, and another off line reading the data from SD memory card. Our system has been validated and tested in different trials, extracting several features during walking for ten participants by means of the combined information from the two kinds of sensors. With the combined data from the complete set of sensors, we can obtain highly valuable information on foot movement during the non-contact period, such as supination or pronation characteristics or anomalous movement during flight time. From our preliminary results, the variation of the lateral acceleration of the foot seems to be correlated with the amount of supination. PMID:24375153

  13. Dependence on solar elevation and the daily sunshine fraction of the correlation between monthly-average-hourly diffuse and global radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, A. )

    1992-01-01

    In the present work the authors study for Uccle, Belgium data (50{degree}48 minutes N, 4{degree}21 minutes E), the dependence on {anti {gamma}} and {sigma} of the correlations between {anti K}{sub d} = {anti I}{sub d}/{anti I}{sub o} and {anti I}{sub t} = {anti I}/{anti I}{sub o}, where {anti I}, {anti I}{sub d}, and {anti I}{sub o} are respectively, the monthly-average-hourly value of global, diffuse, and extraterrestrial radiation (all of them on a horizontal surface), {anti {gamma}} is the solar elevation at midhour and {sigma} the daily sunshine fraction. The dependence on {sigma} is studied for different ranges of values, from {sigma} = 0 to {sigma} > 0.9. The dependence on {anti {gamma}} is studied for {anti {gamma}} = 5{degree}, 10{degree}, 15{degree}, 25{degree}-30{degree}; 35{degree}-40{degree}; 45{degree}-60{degree} ({delta}{anti {gamma}} = 5{degree}). Relating the dependence on {sigma}, for increasing values of {sigma}({sigma} {>=} 0), there is an increase in {anti K}{sub d} with the increase in {anti K}{sub t}. For 0.42 < {anti K}{sub t} < 0.52 a maximum is obtained for {anti K}{sub d}. After the maximum, as the skies become clearer, {anti K}{sub d} decreases as {anti K}{sub t} increases. Relating the dependence on {anti {gamma}}, for each range of values of {sigma} ({sigma} > 0.2), values of the slope for linear {anti K}{sub d} = f({anti K}{sub t}) correlations show a tendency to decrease as {anti {gamma}} increases. For each value of {anti {gamma}} the slopes of the linear {anti K}{sub d} = f({anti K}{sub t}) correlations tend to decrease when {sigma} increases.

  14. Variation of solar cell sensitivity and solar radiation on tilted surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klucher, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    The validity is studied that one of various insolation models used to compute solar radiation incident on tilted surfaces from global data measured on horizontal surfaces. The variation of solar cell sensitivity to solar radiation is determined over a wide range of atmospheric condition. A new model was formulated that reduced the deviations between measured and predicted insolation to less than 3 percent. Evaluation of solar cell sensitivity data indicates small change (2-3 percent) in sensitivity from winter to summer for tilted cells. The feasibility of using such global data as a means for calibrating terrestrial solar cells is discussed.

  15. Arkansas solar retrofit guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is reported. The retrofits examined were greenhouses, air heaters and water heaters. The design, construction, and performance of the retrofits are described, along with some information about sun motion and orientation and greenhouse gardening. Appended are maps, tables, and graphs of insolation in Arkansas. (LEW)

  16. Insolation Effects on Lunar Hydrogen: Correlated observations of LEND and Second Order Insolation Effects Derived from LOLA Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mazarico, E.; Droege, G.; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) LEND Team; LOLA Team

    2011-12-01

    The Moon's polar permanent shadow regions (PSR) have long been considered the unique repository for volatile Hydrogen (H). This postulate was due to the extreme and persistently cold environment that has been maintained over eons of lunar history. However, we have recently reported two results that have challenged the PSR hypothesis. 1) that higher lunar H distributions are only weakly correlated to the PSR condition. 2) We suggest a relationship between higher H in the context of pole-facing slopes relative to equator facing slopes. Correlated observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA) have been performed indicating pole-facing slopes have 0.01 to 0.02 cps lower epithermal count rates than their equivalent equator-facing slopes. These bulk observations were hypothesis tested and indicate a significant and consistent relationship between topographically modulated insolation effects derived from specialized transformations of LOLA digital elevation models (DEM)'s and LEND maps for latitudes > 60 deg latitude. In this presentation we review the techniques and results from the recent high latitude analysis and apply similar techniques to equatorial regions. We also compare results to second order modeling results derived from long-term LOLA numerical modeling of insolation conditions on the Moon. Results from our low latitude analysis will be reported. We discuss interpretations and implications for Lunar Hydrogen studies

  17. Could Insoles Offload Pressure? An Evaluation of the Effects of Arch-supported Functional Insoles on Plantar Pressure Distribution during Race Walking.

    PubMed

    Song, Qipeng; Xu, Kaisheng; Yu, Bing; Zhang, Cui; Sun, Wei; Mao, Dewei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of functional insoles on plantar pressure distribution during race walking so as to reduce the high plantar pressure and force on race walkers, who tend to suffer from overuse injury. A total of 20 male race walkers aged 21.19 ± 3.66 years and with a mean height of 178.85 ± 14.07 cm were recruited as participants. Each participant completed a race walking with functional or normal insoles. Plantar pressure insoles were used to collect vertical plantar pressure data. A two-way analysis of variance with a mixed design was used to determine the difference between the two conditions. Results showed that the use of functional insoles reduces the peak pressure and the impulse in the metatarsophalangeal joints and heels and thus suggest that functional insoles reduce the overuse injury risks of these parts. The first ground reaction force peak also decreased. This result suggested that functional insoles reduce the risks of foot and leg injuries.

  18. Can orthotic insoles prevent lower limb overuse injuries? A randomized-controlled trial of 228 subjects.

    PubMed

    Mattila, V M; Sillanpää, P J; Salo, T; Laine, H-J; Mäenpää, H; Pihlajamäki, H

    2011-12-01

    Lower limb overuse injuries are common among people who are exposed to physical stress. Orthotic shoe insoles are widely used to prevent lower limb overuse injuries. Here, we conducted a randomized-controlled study to examine whether the use of orthotic insoles prevents lower limb overuse injuries. Participants (n=228) were randomly assigned to use (n=73) or not to use (n=147) orthotic insoles. The insoles were molded to the shape of the foot to provide support during physical activity. The main outcome measure in the present study was the physician-diagnosed lower limb overuse injury. Thirty-four (46.6%) subjects in the insole group were diagnosed with a lower limb overuse injury compared with 56 (38.1%) in the control group (P=0.29) during the 6-month study period. When body mass index and the results of a 12-min running test and muscle strength were adjusted in a Cox's regression model, the hazard ratio for lower limb overuse injury in the insole group was 1.3 (95% confidence intervals: 0.8-2.1) compared with the control group. Use of orthotic insoles was not associated with a decrease in lower limb overuse injuries. Our findings suggest that routine use of orthotic insoles does not prevent physical-stress-related lower limb injuries in healthy young male adults.

  19. [The influence of proprioceptive insoles (Bourdiol) on the sagittal curvature and inclination of the trunk].

    PubMed

    Müller-Gliemann, C; Drerup, B; Osada, N; Wetz, H H

    2006-11-01

    Proprioceptive insoles rely on the concept of Réné-Jaques Bourdiol, a French neurologist. The aim is to modulate plantar surface sensibility and to influence posture and statics of patients: it is hypothesized that the effect of modified afferent sensory input through proprioceptive stimulation of terminal muscle chains will have either a relaxing or stimulating effect on the whole body, which may be realized by affecting the posture. Small pads with a thickness of typically 1-3 mm are embedded into the insole to provide a specific stimulation. In fitting the insoles selectively to the individual patient the effect of the insoles on the trunk posture is taken as a feedback. This study investigates the influence of proprioceptive insoles on the sagittal curve in 20 selected patients. The protocol used a repeated measures research design. The measures of the sagittal curve were obtained using raster stereography. The four different conditions were: (1) barefoot, (2) convenient shoes without the insoles, (3) the same shoes with a placebo insole, and (4) the same shoes with neurological insoles. Evaluation of raster stereographs provided the kyphotic angle between T4 and T12 and lordotic angle between T12 and S1. Statistical evaluation was performed with the t-test for paired measurements. No significant differences were found in the sagittal profile. Only trunk inclination in normal posture was found to yield a significant difference (0.38 degrees) between placebo and neurological insoles. However, no clear statement on the efficiency of neurological insoles can be made.

  20. A Novel Shear Reduction Insole Effect on the Thermal Response to Walking Stress, Balance, and Gait

    PubMed Central

    Ammanath, Peethambaran; Le, Tima; Luring, Christopher; Wensman, Jeffrey; Grewal, Gurtej S.; Najafi, Bijan; Pop-Busui, Rodica

    2014-01-01

    Shear stresses have been implicated in the formation of diabetes-related foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel shear-reducing insole on the thermal response to walking, balance, and gait. Twenty-seven diabetes peripheral neuropathy patients were enrolled and asked to take 200 steps in both intervention and standard insoles. Thermal foot images of the feet were taken at baseline (1) following a 5-minute temperature acclimatization and (2) after walking. Testing order was randomized, and a 5-minute washout period was used between testing each insole condition. Sudomotor function was also assessed. Gait and balance were measured under single and dual task conditions using a validated body worn sensor system. The mean age was 65.1 years, height was 67.3 inches, weight was 218 pounds, and body mass index was 33.9, 48% were female, and 82% had type 2 diabetes. After walking in both insole conditions, foot temperatures increased significantly in standard insoles. The intervention insole significantly reduced forefoot and midfoot temperature increases (64.1%, P = .008; 48%, P = .046) compared to standard insoles. There were significant negative correlations with sudomotor function and baseline temperatures (r = .53-.57). The intervention demonstrated 10.4% less gait initiation double support time compared to standard insoles (P = .05). There were no differences in static balance measures. We found significantly lower forefoot and midfoot temperature increases following walking with shear-reducing insoles compared to standard insoles. We also found improvements in gait. These findings merit future study for the prevention of foot ulcer. PMID:25107709

  1. Foot model for tracking temperature of safety boot insoles: application to different insole materials in firefighter boots.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, César; Sánchez-Álvarez, Eduardo J; Huertas-Talón, José-Luis

    2016-01-01

    This research is based on the development of a human foot model to study the temperature conditions of a foot bottom surface under extreme external conditions. This foot model is made by combining different manufacturing techniques to enable the simulation of bones and tissues, allowing the placement of sensors on its surface to track the temperature values of different points inside a shoe. These sensors let researchers capture valuable data during a defined period of time, making it possible to compare the features of different safety boots, socks or soles, among others. In this case, it has been applied to compare different plantar insole materials, placed into safety boots on a high-temperature surface.

  2. Characteristics of long-term variation in the amlitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation using the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Gobal Observation NETwork (IUGONET) data analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet geomagnetic field daily variation (Sq) have been investigated using 1-hour geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations in a period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the IUGONET data analysis system. The Sq amplitude clearly showed a 10-12 year solar activity dependence and it tended to enhance during each solar maximum. During the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009, the Sq amplitude became the smallest in the investigated period. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude is approximately linear but 64 percent of geomagnetic stations show a weak nonlinear dependence on the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947-2013, and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed a negative value in a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71 percent of geomagnetic stations. On the other hand, the residual Sq amplitude in the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies the movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  3. Local effects of partly-cloudy skies on solar and emitted radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, D. A.; Griffin, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol and turbidity measurements were analyzed and the results are presented. The correlation of global insolation with cloud cover fractions for the first complete year's data set was completed. A theoretical model was developed to parameterize the effects of local aerosols upon insolation received at the ground using satellite radiometric data and insolation measurements under clear sky conditions. A February data set, composed of one minute integrated global insolation and direct solar irradiances, cloud cover fractions, meteorological data from nearby weather stations, and GOES East satellite radiometric data was collected to test the model and used to calculate the effects of local aerosols.

  4. Biomechanical effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles on unilateral weight bearing

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Tomonori; Kito, Nobuhiro; Yukimune, Masaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lateral wedge insoles reduce the peak external knee adduction moment and are advocated for patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, some patients demonstrate adverse biomechanical effects with treatment. In this study, we examined the immediate effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles under unilateral weight bearing. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. The subjects were assessed by using the foot posture index, and were divided into three groups: normal foot, pronated foot, and supinated foot groups. The knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm under the studied conditions were measured by using a three-dimensional motion capture system and force plates. [Results] In the normal and pronated groups, the change in knee adduction moment significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition compared with the medial wedge insole condition. In the normal group, the change in the knee-ground reaction force lever arm also significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition than under the medial wedge insole condition. [Conclusion] Lateral wedge insoles significantly reduced the knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm during unilateral weight bearing in subjects with normal feet, and the biomechanical effects varied according to individual foot alignment. PMID:26957775

  5. Biomechanical effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles on unilateral weight bearing.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Tomonori; Kito, Nobuhiro; Yukimune, Masaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lateral wedge insoles reduce the peak external knee adduction moment and are advocated for patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, some patients demonstrate adverse biomechanical effects with treatment. In this study, we examined the immediate effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles under unilateral weight bearing. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. The subjects were assessed by using the foot posture index, and were divided into three groups: normal foot, pronated foot, and supinated foot groups. The knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm under the studied conditions were measured by using a three-dimensional motion capture system and force plates. [Results] In the normal and pronated groups, the change in knee adduction moment significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition compared with the medial wedge insole condition. In the normal group, the change in the knee-ground reaction force lever arm also significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition than under the medial wedge insole condition. [Conclusion] Lateral wedge insoles significantly reduced the knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm during unilateral weight bearing in subjects with normal feet, and the biomechanical effects varied according to individual foot alignment.

  6. U.S. Solar Resource Maps and Tools from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. [Copied from http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html] Several types of solar maps are made available. The U.S. Solar resource maps show the resource potential for energy from photovoltaics and from concentrating solar power (CSP). Both sets of maps are available in low or high resolution. A dynamic map based on version 2 of PVWATTS calculates electrical energy performance estimates for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The map of U.S. Solar Measurement Station Locations is also dynamic, showing the spatial distribution of measurement stations across the U.S. that are monitored by programs and agencies such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program or NREL's Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM). Clicking on a station location will take the user to the website of that station. Finally, static map images providing solar resource information averaged by month are also available.

  7. Effect of flat insoles with different Shore A values on posture stability in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Van Geffen, J A; Dijkstra, P U; Hof, A L; Halbertsma, J P K; Postema, K

    2007-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether insoles with a low Shore A value (15 degrees) as prescribed for patients with a diabetic neuropathy have a negative effect on posture stability because these insoles may reduce somatosensory input under the feet. It was conducted in the Center for Rehabilitation, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands The study was observational and conducted on 30 diabetic patients (aged 37 - 82 years) with a neuropathy. Posture stability (body sway) was assessed in a shoe without insole, on a flat insole with a low Shore A value (15 degrees) and on a flat insole with a higher Shore A value (30 degrees). These assessments were done under four different conditions: (1) eyes open, no dual-task, (2) eyes closed, no dual-task, (3) eyes open, dual-task (mental arithmetic) and (4) eyes closed, dual-task. Additionally 10 healthy controls (aged 27 - 51 years) were assessed similarly. A significantly higher root-mean-square (rms) value of the anterior-posterior velocity, V(y), was found in patients compared with controls (3.4 cm/s vs. 1.2 cm/s, p < 0.05). Also a significant difference in rms value of the anterior-posterior velocity, V(y), was found between eyes open and eyes closed (1.9 cm/s vs. 2.7 cm/s, p < 0.05). No significant effects were found for insoles or dual tasks for the total group. In diabetic patients no significant effect was found of insoles on posture stability. The effect of closed eyes on posture stability was significantly larger for diabetic patients compared to controls. It was found that prescribing insoles with a low Shore A value (15 degrees), compared to insoles with a higher Shore A value (30 degrees) has no significant negative effect on posture stability in patients with a diabetic neuropathy.

  8. Validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles for vertical ground reaction force assessment in field situations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Ernst, Michael; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles (medilogic® insoles) when measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field situations. Various weights were applied to and removed from the insoles in static mechanical tests. The force values measured simultaneously by the insoles and force plates were compared for 15 subjects simulating work activities. Reliability testing during the static mechanical tests yielded an average interclass correlation coefficient of 0.998. Static loads led to a creeping pattern of the output force signal. An individual load response could be observed for each insole. The average root mean square error between the insoles and force plates ranged from 6.6% to 17.7% in standing, walking, lifting and catching trials and was 142.3% in kneeling trials. The results show that the use of insoles may be an acceptable method for measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field studies, except for kneeling positions.

  9. Analysis of walking improvement with dynamic shoe insoles, using two accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruoka, Yuriko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Shibasaki, Ryosuke; Tsuruoka, Masako

    2005-07-01

    The orthopedics at the rehabilitation hospital found that disorders caused by sports injuries to the feet or caused by lower-back are improved by wearing dynamic shoe insoles, these improve walking balance and stability. However, the relationship of the lower-back and knees and the rate of increase in stability were not quantitatively analyzed. In this study, using two accelerometers, we quantitatively analyzed the reciprocal spatiotemporal contributions between the lower-back and knee of patients with left lower-back pain by means of Relative Power Contribution Analysis. When the insoles were worn, the contribution of the left and right knee relative to the left lower-back pain was up to 26% ( p<0.05) greater than without the insoles. Comparing patients with and without insoles, we found that the variance in the step response analysis of the left and right knee decreased by up to 67% ( p<0.05). This shows an increase in stability.

  10. Effect of Laterally Wedged Insoles on the External Knee Adduction Moment across Different Reference Frames

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kitamura, Masako; Ushikubo, Tomohiro; Murata, Atsushi; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Sasho, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Biomechanical effects of laterally wedged insoles are assessed by reduction in the knee adduction moment. However, the degree of reduction may vary depending on the reference frame with which it is calculated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of reference frame on the reduction in the knee adduction moment by laterally wedged insoles. Methods Twenty-nine healthy participants performed gait trials with a laterally wedged insole and with a flat insole as a control. The knee adduction moment, including the first and second peaks and the angular impulse, were calculated using four different reference frames: the femoral frame, tibial frame, laboratory frame and the Joint Coordinate System. Results There were significant effects of reference frame on the knee adduction moment first and second peaks (P < 0.001 for both variables), while the effect was not significant for the angular impulse (P = 0.84). No significant interaction between the gait condition and reference frame was found in either of the knee adduction moment variables (P = 0.99 for all variables), indicating that the effects of laterally wedged insole on the knee adduction moments were similar across the four reference frames. On the other hand, the average percent changes ranged from 9% to 16% for the first peak, from 16% to 18% for the second peak and from 17% to 21% for the angular impulse when using the different reference frames. Conclusion The effects of laterally wedged insole on the reduction in the knee adduction moment were similar across the reference frames. On the other hand, Researchers need to recognize that when the percent change was used as the parameter of the efficacy of laterally wedged insole, the choice of reference frame may influence the interpretation of how laterally wedged insoles affect the knee adduction moment. PMID:26397375

  11. Effects of Textured Insoles on Balance in People with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Feng; Cole, Michael H.; Davids, Keith W.; Hennig, Ewald M.; Silburn, Peter A.; Netscher, Heather; Kerr, Graham K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Degradation of the somatosensory system has been implicated in postural instability and increased falls risk for older people and Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Here we demonstrate that textured insoles provide a passive intervention that is an inexpensive and accessible means to enhance the somatosensory input from the plantar surface of the feet. Methods 20 healthy older adults (controls) and 20 participants with PD were recruited for the study. We evaluated effects of manipulating somatosensory information from the plantar surface of the feet using textured insoles. Participants performed standing tests, on two different surfaces (firm and foam), under three footwear conditions: 1) barefoot; 2) smooth insoles; and 3) textured insoles. Standing balance was evaluated using a force plate yielding data on the range of anterior-posterior and medial-lateral sway, as well as standard deviations for anterior-posterior and medial-lateral sway. Results On the firm surface with eyes open both the smooth and textured insoles reduced medial-lateral sway in the PD group to a similar level as the controls. Only the textured insole decreased medial-lateral sway and medial-lateral sway standard deviation in the PD group on both surfaces, with and without visual input. Greatest benefits were observed in the PD group while wearing the textured insoles, and when standing on the foam surface with eyes closed. Conclusions Data suggested that textured insoles may provide a low-cost means of improving postural stability in high falls-risk groups, such as people with PD. PMID:24349486

  12. Effects of low-energy laser insolation upon the development of postradiation syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Rimma N.; Gomberg, Vladimir G.; Boiko, Vladimir A.; Pupkova, Ludmila S.; Reznikov, Leonid L.; Dadali, V. A.

    1996-04-01

    Basic pathogenic research as well as the studies of clinical therapeutic aspects dealing with the long-term gamma radiation effects are of utmost significance nowadays. The main goal of the present study was to establish the capability of low-energy laser insolation to oppose the free radical oxidative chain reactions inherent to the effects of radiation. Adequate doses of low- energy laser insolation were shown to produce positive effects upon the metabolism similar to those of pharmacologic radioprotectors.

  13. Effectiveness of moulded insoles in reducing plantar pressure in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Zequera, M; Stephan, S; Paul, J

    2007-01-01

    For an effective prevention of foot sole ulcers in diabetic patients, the Bioengineering and Signal processing group of the Electronics Department of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana developed a novel method for the computer assisted design and production of therapeutic insoles, integrating several technologies, such as: CAD/CAM registration of pressure on the foot sole, Podoscopy, and an expert system based on knowledge. The afore mentioned method allows topographical modeling of the insoles starting by the digitization in 3D of a cast of the foot sole surface of the patient and its computer assisted design taking into account the recommendations of the knowledge based system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on plantar pressure distribution of different insoles prescribed and manufactured with various techniques on a random group of patients with diabetes mellitus in the early stages of the disease. Four different types of insoles were manufactured by methods available in the market and by the computer model system proposed on a previous research, which was used in order to design and manufacture one of the insoles evaluated. The differences between the four types of insoles were established by comparing their effectiveness in plantar pressure reduction.

  14. The last interglacial climate: comparing direct and indirect impacts of insolation changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rasmus A.; Langen, Peter L.; Vinther, Bo M.

    2016-07-01

    The last interglacial climate was influenced by substantial changes in the annual insolation cycle that led to a warmer climate state with pronounced high northern latitude warming. We analyze the impact of the insolation changes 125,000 years before present using an equilibrium snapshot simulation with the EC-Earth coupled climate model at high spatial resolution. Using additional atmosphere-only simulations, we separate the direct impact from the changed insolation from the secondary contribution from changed sea surface conditions. These simulations are forced with a combination of last interglacial sea surface temperatures and sea ice conditions and pre-industrial insolation, and vice versa. The coupled simulation yields an annual mean global warming of approximately 0.5 °C compared to pre-industrial conditions. While the warming over the continents follows the annual cycle of the insolation anomalies, two regions exhibit persistent responses throughout the year: The tropical region exhibits lower temperatures and stronger monsoonal systems, while the Arctic region shows a warming of more than 2 °C in all seasons. The hybrid simulations reveal that the changed sea surface conditions dominate the response at high northern latitudes, including the North Atlantic region and Europe, while the direct insolation impact is more dominant in the tropics.

  15. Insolation forcing of early Holocene climate in Southern East Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, P. A.; Leng, M. J.; Gasse, F.; Johnson, T. C.

    2003-04-01

    Palaeoclimatic investigations in southern Tanzania and from Lake Malawi, has forced a re-evaluation of the processes controlling long-term climate changes in the region (Gasse et al., 2002; Johnson et al., 2002). In Lake Malawi at the last glacial maximum (LGM) abundant diatom periphyton (up to 30% at the LGM) and reduced biogenic silica accumulation in cores M98-1P and M98-2P suggests a low lake level and a relatively dry climate (Gasse et al., 2002). The implication is that orbital forcing of southern hemisphere climate was subservient to glacial boundary conditions (Johnson et al., 2002), in contrast to parts of southern tropical South America (Baker, 2002). The situation during the early Holocene, when orbital configuration should produce dry conditions in the southern tropics, is ambiguous. Carbonates precipitated in the southern basin of Lake Malawi, indicating a lowering of lake level and geochemical proxies from the north basin (biogenic silica and total phosphorus) suggest productivity fell, yet the diatom records from the northern basin are complacent, showing only shifts between different planktonic species. Here we present preliminary oxygen isotope data from diatom silica in an attempt to address the lake’s status at this time and implications for the precipitation-evaporation ratio (P-E). This is the first time this method has been applied to the sediments of a large African lake and some of the issues regarding the climatic calibration of the oxygen isotope ratios will be addressed. We will compare the isotope changes to other indicators from Lake Malawi and elsewhere in the region to investigate to what extent reduced insolation moderated the water balance of lakes in the southern tropics in contrast to the wet phase experienced by the equatorial lakes.

  16. Do spike insoles enhance postural stability and plantar-surface cutaneous sensitivity in the elderly?

    PubMed

    Palluel, Estelle; Nougier, Vincent; Olivier, Isabelle

    2008-03-01

    Balance problems are often related to a loss of plantar-sensitivity in elderly people. The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of plantar cutaneous inputs induced by a spike support surface to the control of stance. Nineteen elderly (mean age 69.0 years, range 62-80) and 19 young adults (mean age 25.9 years, range 21-32) were instructed to stand (standing session) or to walk (walking session) for 5 min with sandals equipped with spike insoles (spike condition). Both sessions also involved a no spike condition in which participants stood or walked for 5 min without these insoles (no spike condition). In all conditions, postural responses were assessed during unperturbed stance and were performed (1) immediately after putting the spike or the no spike insoles, and (2) 5 min after standing or walking with them. Sway parameters, such as centre of foot pressure mean location, surface area, mean speed, root mean square and median frequency on the antero-posterior and medio-lateral axes, were calculated. As postural performances are often related to plantar-surface sensitivity, cutaneous sensitivity threshold was also evaluated with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. Although no immediate effect of the spike insoles was found, results indicated that standing or walking for 5 min with sandals equipped with spike insoles led to a significant improvement of quiet standing in the elderly. Balance improvement was also observed in young adults. The results provided evidence that wearing sandals with spike insoles can contribute, at least temporarily, to the improvement of unperturbed stance in elderly people with relatively intact plantar cutaneous sensation. Further research is needed to assess the effects of longer and discontinuous stimulations with spike insoles on postural control.

  17. Greenland during the last interglacial: the relative importance of insolation and oceanic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rasmus A.; Langen, Peter L.; Vinther, Bo M.

    2016-09-01

    Insolation changes during the Eemian (the last interglacial period, 129 000-116 000 years before present) resulted in warmer than present conditions in the Arctic region. The NEEM ice core record suggests warming of 8 ± 4 K in northwestern Greenland based on stable water isotopes. Here we use general circulation model experiments to investigate the causes of the Eemian warming in Greenland. Simulations of the atmospheric response to combinations of Eemian insolation and preindustrial oceanic conditions and vice versa are used to disentangle the impacts of the insolation change and the related changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice conditions. The changed oceanic conditions cause warming throughout the year, prolonging the impact of the summertime insolation increase. Consequently, the oceanic conditions cause an annual mean warming of 2 K at the NEEM site, whereas the insolation alone causes an insignificant change. Taking the precipitation changes into account, however, the insolation and oceanic changes cause more comparable increases in the precipitation-weighted temperature, implying that both contributions are important for the ice core record at the NEEM site. The simulated Eemian precipitation-weighted warming of 2.4 K at the NEEM site is low compared to the ice core reconstruction, partially due to missing feedbacks related to ice sheet changes and an extensive sea ice cover. Surface mass balance calculations with an energy balance model further indicate that the combination of temperature and precipitation anomalies leads to potential mass loss in the north and southwestern parts of the ice sheet. The oceanic conditions favor increased accumulation in the southeast, while the insolation appears to be the dominant cause of the expected ice sheet reduction. Consequently, the Eemian is not a suitable analogue for future ice sheet changes.

  18. Sensitivity of Modeled Cretaceous Climate to Insolation Forcing Created by Varying Earth-Sun Orbital Relationships.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glancy, Thomas J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Rhythmic sedimentation patterns observed within the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, such as those in the Bridge Creek Limestone Member of the Greenhorn Limestone Formation exposed near Pueblo, Colorado, appear to be a response to episodic climate change. These climatic variations could, in turn, be forced by the periodic insolation change over the North American continent created by Milankovitch -scale Earth-Sun orbital relationships--eccentricity (100 kiloyears), obliquity (41 kiloyears) and precession of the equinox (23 kiloyears). To test the sensitivity of Cretaceous climate to changes in Milankovitch-scale insolation forcing, a set of seasonal simulations using maximum difference insolation forcing conditions was conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Climate Model using 100 MA Cretaceous paleogeography and paleotopography. Analysis showed statistically significant differences in surface temperature, precipitation, surface wind, storm track location, and upwelling occurred over many regions of the Cretaceous Earth, particularly in the summer and winter monsoon system. During Northern Hemisphere winter, differences in the position of storm passage over Cretaceous western North America under maximum difference insolation forcing conditions varies the precipitation received over the southern Western Interior Seaway at the location where the Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation was produced. Northern Hemisphere winter simulations removing all sea ice from the model showed little difference in the climatic effects observed over southwestern North America from the case with sea ice present. Additional simulations varying only the obliquity within the model suggest that the observed Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation patterns are controlled by climatic change produced by cyclic variation in the precession of the equinox and eccentricity insolation forcing, rather than by periodic change in

  19. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  20. Manual for solar specialists

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The objective of the manual is to meet the specific training needs of code enforcement personnel in connection with the examination of plans for and the inspection of solar energy installations. There is a brief historical review and discussion of geographical dependence of solar feasibility. The fundamentals of solar energy are presented to establish the quantity of solar energy which can be anticipated in a particular geographic location. The active, passive, and hybrid solar systems are described, telling how insolation is collected, stored, and distributed by various means. The physical and theoretical components of solar systems are related to specific code enforcement techniques. Also, the recommended requirements to code officials for solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems are reviewed and discussed. (LEW)

  1. Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to analyze whether vibratory insoles enhance balance stability for elderly fallers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chien-Chih; Yang, Wen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a common and devastating problem among elderly people. In a previous study, vibratory insoles were developed to improve postural stability for elderly fallers. To verify the effects of vibratory insoles, a two-stage experiment was conducted to collect center of pressure (COP) signals from 26 elderly fallers and 16 healthy young subjects while standing still. The DFA is used to analyze the behavior of different time-series data obtained from the trajectory of COP. Postural stability was compared by the DFA scaling exponent between a control condition (before using vibratory insoles) and a vibration condition (after using vibratory insoles). For elderly fallers, DFA scaling exponents 95% confidence interval were [1.434, 1.547] and [1.329, 1.451] under control and vibration conditions in the anteroposterior (AP) direction, respectively. The experimental results revealed that temporary stimuli of appropriate amplitude produced by vibration insoles enhanced postural stability in elderly fallers and was more obvious in the AP direction.

  2. Does Wearing Textured Insoles during Non-class Time Improve Proprioception in Professional Dancers?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, N; Tirosh, O; Adams, R; Karin, J; Waddington, G

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to determine whether textured insoles inserted in the sports shoes of young dancers improved their inversion and eversion ankle movement discrimination. 26 ballet dancers (14 female, 12 male) from the Australian Ballet School, ages 14-19 years, were divided into 2 groups according to sex and class levels. During the first 4 weeks, the first intervention group (GRP1) was asked to wear textured insoles in their sports shoes during non-class periods, and the second intervention group (GRP2) followed standard practice. In the next 4 weeks, GRP2 was asked to wear the textured insoles and GRP1 did not wear the textured insoles. Participants were tested pre-intervention, after 4 weeks, and at 8 weeks for both inversion and eversion ankle discrimination. In both inversion and eversion testing positions, interaction was found between the 2 groups and the 3 testing times (p<0.001), with significant differences between the first testing and the second testing (p=0.038 and p=0.019, respectively), and between the third testing and the second testing (p=0.003 and p=0.029, respectively). In conclusion, the stimulation to the proprioceptive system arising from textured insoles worn for 4 weeks was sufficient to improve the ankle proprioception of ballet dancers, in both inversion and eversion movements.

  3. Three dimensional stress analysis of diabetic insole: a finite element approach.

    PubMed

    Barani, Zohreh; Haghpanahi, Mohammad; Katoozian, Hamid

    2005-01-01

    Current research in foot biomechanics includes studies on prevention of recurrence of neuropathic foot ulcers. This paper attempts to prescribe accommodative insoles, which reduce plantar pressure levels particularly under the hallux. There is little quantitative information available regarding the effects of insole materials on reduction of plantar pressure. The insole models available in the literature are mostly two-dimensional (2-D). Hence, there is a need to develop a 3-D model with actual geometry which includes sufficient details. In this study a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the insole was constructed. A linear and non-linear static analysis using finite element method (FEM) was performed. Results were compared for different materials such as Silicon Gel, Plastozot, Polyfoam, and Ethinil Vinyl Acetate (EVA). Our 3-D finite element model was constructed using 16170 ten-node tetrahedral, mixed U-P (displacement-pressure), hyperelastic, solid elements. Four different hyperelastic and foam materials were used and compared and the loading condition was based on the mid-stance phase of the gait. This research has shown that most of these materials are very effective in terms of reduction of plantar stress concentrations. The technique used in this research provides a promising approach to understanding of behavior of insole materials and suggests a design guideline for therapeutic footwear and orthoses. PMID:15990421

  4. Three dimensional stress analysis of diabetic insole: a finite element approach.

    PubMed

    Barani, Zohreh; Haghpanahi, Mohammad; Katoozian, Hamid

    2005-01-01

    Current research in foot biomechanics includes studies on prevention of recurrence of neuropathic foot ulcers. This paper attempts to prescribe accommodative insoles, which reduce plantar pressure levels particularly under the hallux. There is little quantitative information available regarding the effects of insole materials on reduction of plantar pressure. The insole models available in the literature are mostly two-dimensional (2-D). Hence, there is a need to develop a 3-D model with actual geometry which includes sufficient details. In this study a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the insole was constructed. A linear and non-linear static analysis using finite element method (FEM) was performed. Results were compared for different materials such as Silicon Gel, Plastozot, Polyfoam, and Ethinil Vinyl Acetate (EVA). Our 3-D finite element model was constructed using 16170 ten-node tetrahedral, mixed U-P (displacement-pressure), hyperelastic, solid elements. Four different hyperelastic and foam materials were used and compared and the loading condition was based on the mid-stance phase of the gait. This research has shown that most of these materials are very effective in terms of reduction of plantar stress concentrations. The technique used in this research provides a promising approach to understanding of behavior of insole materials and suggests a design guideline for therapeutic footwear and orthoses.

  5. Effects of ankle exercises on balance ability when using shoe height insoles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Han, Seulki; Lee, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ankle exercises on balance ability when using shoe height insoles. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adults in their 20s, who were students, were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group (n=15/group). Individuals in the experimental group wore height-adjustable silicon insoles measuring 3, 5, and 7 cm three times per week for four weeks. The ankle exercise program consisted of stretching exercises, resistance training, and a balance exercise. [Results] There was a significant improvement in the balance ability of the experimental group for all height insoles (3, 5, and 7 cm) following the exercise program, as compared with before the exercise program. There was no significant improvement in the balance ability of the control group for all height insoles following the exercise program as compared with before the exercise program. The experimental group exhibited a significant improvement in balance ability following the exercise program for all the height insoles as compared with the control group. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, active ankle exercises are helpful in preventing ankle joint damage, as they improve balance ability. PMID:27799702

  6. New methods for evaluating physical and thermal comfort properties of orthotic materials used in insoles for patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wai Ting; Yick, Kit Lun; Ng, Sun Pui; Yip, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Orthotic insoles are commonly used in the treatment of the diabetic foot to prevent ulcerations. Choosing suitable insole material is vital for effective foot orthotic treatment. We examined seven types of orthotic materials. In consideration of the key requirements and end uses of orthotic insoles for the diabetic foot, including accommodation, cushioning, and control, we developed test methods for examining important physical properties, such as force reduction and compression properties, insole-skin friction, and shear properties, as well as thermal comfort properties of fabrication materials. A novel performance index that combines various material test results together was also proposed to quantify the overall performance of the insole materials. The investigation confirms that the insole-sock interface has a lower coefficient of friction and shearing stress than those of the insole-skin interface. It is also revealed that material brand and the corresponding density and cell volume, as well as thickness, are closely associated with the performance of moisture absorption and thermal comfort. On the basis of the proposed performance index, practitioners can better understand the properties and performance of various insole materials, thus prescribing suitable orthotic insoles for patients with diabetic foot.

  7. Using an optimization approach to design an insole for lowering plantar fascia stress--a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Chun; Gung, Yih-Wen; Shih, Shih-Liang; Feng, Chi-Kuang; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Yu, Chung-Huang; Chen, Chen-Sheng

    2008-08-01

    Plantar heel pain is a commonly encountered orthopedic problem and is most often caused by plantar fasciitis. In recent years, different shapes of insole have been used to treat plantar fasciitis. However, little research has been focused on the junction stress between the plantar fascia and the calcaneus when wearing different shapes of insole. Therefore, this study aimed to employ a finite element (FE) method to investigate the relationship between different shapes of insole and the junction stress, and accordingly design an optimal insole to lower fascia stress.A detailed 3D foot FE model was created using ANSYS 9.0 software. The FE model calculation was compared to the Pedar device measurements to validate the FE model. After the FE model validation, this study conducted parametric analysis of six different insoles and used optimization analysis to determine the optimal insole which minimized the junction stress between plantar fascia and calcaneus. This FE analysis found that the plantar fascia stress and peak pressure when using the optimal insole were lower by 14% and 38.9%, respectively, than those when using the flat insole. In addition, the stress variation in plantar fascia was associated with the different shapes of insole.

  8. Insolation, erosion, and morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H. U.; Mottola, S.; Davidsson, B.; Schröder, S. E.; Skorov, Y.; Kührt, E.; Groussin, O.; Pajola, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Naletto, G.; Sabau, L.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Oklay, N.; Tubiana, C.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The complex shape of comet 67P and its oblique rotation axis cause pronounced seasonal effects. Irradiation and hence activity vary strongly. Aims: We investigate the insolation of the cometary surface in order to predict the sublimation of water ice. The strongly varying erosion levels are correlated with the topography and morphology of the present cometary surface and its evolution. Methods: The insolation as a function of heliocentric distance and diurnal (spin dependent) variation is calculated using >105 facets of a detailed digital terrain model. Shading, but also illumination and thermal radiation by facets in the field of view of a specific facet are iteratively taken into account. We use a two-layer model of a thin porous dust cover above an icy surface to calculate the water sublimation, presuming steady state and a uniform surface. Our second model, which includes the history of warming and cooling due to thermal inertia, is restricted to a much simpler shape model but allows us to test various distributions of active areas. Results: Sublimation from a dirty ice surface yields maximum erosion. A thin dust cover of 50 μm yields similar rates at perihelion. Only about 6% of the surface needs to be active to match the observed water production rates at perihelion. A dust layer of 1 mm thickness suppresses the activity by a factor of 4 to 5. Erosion on the south side can reach more than 10 m per orbit at active spots. The energy input to the concave neck area (Hapi) during northern summer is enhanced by about 50% owing to self-illumination. Here surface temperatures reach maximum values along the foot of the Hathor wall. Integrated over the whole orbit this area receives the least energy input. Based on the detailed shape model, the simulations identify "hot spots" in depressions and larger pits in good correlation with observed dust activity. Three-quarters of the total sublimation is produced while the sub-solar latitude is south, resulting in a

  9. A 3D Earth orbit model; visualization and analysis of Milankovitch cycles and insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilb, R. D.; Kostadinov, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    An astronomically precise and accurate Earth orbit graphical model, Earth orbit v2.0, is presented. The model offers 3D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcings. Prevalent paleoclimatic theories invoke Milankovitch cycles as a major forcing mechanism capable of shifting Earth's climate regimes on time scales of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Variability of eccentricity (ellipticity of orbit), precession (longitude of perihelion) and obliquity (Earth's axial tilt) changes parameters such as amplitude of seasonal insolation, timing of seasons with respect to perihelion, and total annual insolation. Hays et al. (1976) demonstrated a strong link between Milankovitch cycles and paleoclimatological records, which has been confirmed and expanded many times since (e.g. Berger et al., 1994; Berger et al., 2010). The complex interplay of several orbital parameters on various time scales makes assessment and visualization of Earth's orbit and spatio-temporal insolation variability challenging. It is difficult to appreciate the pivotal importance of Kepler's laws of planetary motion in controlling the effects of Milankovitch cycles on insolation patterns on various spatio-temporal scales. These factors also make Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. The model allows substantial user control in a robust, yet intuitive and user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Matlab. We present the user with a choice between Berger et al. (1978) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. Berger solutions span from -1 Myr to +1 Myr, while Laskar provides solutions from -101 Myr to +21 Myr since J2000. Users can also choose a "demo" mode which allows the three Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so the user can isolate the effects of each on orbital geometry and insolation. For example, extreme eccentricity can be

  10. Seasonal Variation in Daily Temperature Ranges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruschy, David L.; Baker, Donald G.; Skaggs, Richard H.

    1991-12-01

    Abrupt spring and autumnal changes in the daily temperature range, from low winter values to higher nonwinter values, were noted in the Minneapolis-St. Paul temperature record. Since this feature was even more evident in five rural and small town Minnesota stations, it can be accepted as real.The inverse relationship found between surface albedo and the daily temperature range indicated that the reduced winter temperature range is associated with snow cover. A second factor controlling the temperature range is cloud cover. This led to the conclusion that variation in net solar radiation is the primary factor.A strong statistical relationship between daily temperature range and the three variables considered (solar radiation, albedo, and cloud cover) was limited to the spring and fall. In March-April the statistically significant factors were solar radiation and albedo, while in October-November they were solar radiation and cloud cover. For the October-December period albedo was also statistically important.

  11. The lasting effects of spike insoles on postural control in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Palluel, Estelle; Olivier, Isabelle; Nougier, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the lasting effects of a tactile sensitivity enhancement induced by spike insoles on the control of stance in the elderly. Healthy elderly subjects (n = 19, mean age = 68.8) and young adults (n = 17, mean age = 24.3) were instructed to stand or to walk for 5 minutes with sandals equipped with spike insoles. Postural control was evaluated four times during unperturbed stance: (1) before putting on the sandals equipped with spike insoles, (2) 5 minutes after standing or walking with them, (3) immediately after placing thin, smooth, and flexible insoles (no spike insoles) into the sandals to avoid the cutaneous contact with the spikes, and (4) after a sitting rest of 5 minutes with the no spike insoles. Sway parameters such as surface area, mean speed and root mean square were recorded. The present results suggest that (1) whatever the session (i.e. standing or walking) and the population, the artificial sensory message elicited by the spikes improved postural sway and, (2) the elderly were particularly perturbed when the tactile sensitivity enhancement device was removed. Whatever the age, the enriched sensory context provided by this tactile sensitivity enhancement device led to a better postural control; its suppression entailed a reweighting of the plantar cutaneous information. The difficulty that the elderly had to adjust the relative contribution of the different inputs probably reflected their poorer central integrative mechanisms for the reconfiguration of the postural set. A reduced peripheral sensitivity may also explain these postural deficits.

  12. Medially posted insoles consistently influence foot pronation in runners with and without anterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Chang, Ryan; TenBroek, Trampas; Hamill, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a common injury among runners and effectively treated with posted insoles and foot orthotics. While clinically effective, the underlying biomechanical mechanisms that bring about these improvements remain debatable. Several methodological factors contribute to the inconsistent biomechanical findings, including errors associated with removing and reattaching markers, inferring foot motion from markers placed externally on a shoe, and redefining segmental coordinate systems between conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of medially posted insoles on lower extremity kinematics in runners with and without AKP while trying to limit the influence of these methodological factors. Kinematics of 16 asymptomatic and 17 runners with AKP were collected while running with and without insoles. Reflective markers were attached to the surface of the calcaneus and kept in place (as opposed to detached) between conditions, eliminating the error associated with reattaching markers and redefining segmental coordinate systems. Using these methods, no significant interactions between insole and injury and the main effect of injury were detected (p>0.05); therefore, means were pooled across injury. Insoles, on average, reduced peak eversion by 3.6° (95% confidence interval -2.9° to -4.3°), peak eversion velocity by 53.2°/s (95% confidence interval -32.9 to -73.4) and eversion range of motion by 1.33 (95% confidence interval -0.8 to -1.9). However, while insoles systematically reduced eversion variables, they had small influences on the transverse plane kinematics of the tibia or knee, indicating that they may bring about their clinical effect by influencing other variables.

  13. Effect of custom-made and prefabricated insoles on plantar loading parameters during running with and without fatigue.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Macián-Romero, Cecili; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists whether custom-made insoles are more effective in reducing plantar loading compared to prefabricated insoles. Forty recreational athletes ran using custom-made, prefabricated, and the original insoles of their running shoes, at rest and after a fatigue run. Contact time, stride rate, and plantar loading parameters were measured. Neither the insole conditions nor the fatigue state modified contact time and stride rate. Addressing prevention of running injuries, post-fatigue loading values are of great interest. Custom-made insoles reduced the post-fatigue loading under the hallux (92 vs. 130 kPa, P < 0.05), medial midfoot (70 vs. 105 kPa, P < 0.01), and lateral midfoot (62 vs 96 kPa, P < 0.01). Prefabricated insoles provoked reductions in post-fatigue loading under the toes (120 vs. 175 kPa, P < 0.05), medial midfoot (71 vs. 105 kPa, P < 0.01), and lateral midfoot (68 vs. 96 kPa, P < 0.01). Regarding both study insoles, custom-made insoles reduced by 31% and 54% plantar loading under the medial and lateral heel compared to the prefabricated insoles. Finally, fatigue state did not influence plantar loading regardless the insole condition. In long-distance races, even a slight reduction in plantar loading at each foot strike may suppose a significant decrease in the overall stress experienced by the foot, and therefore the use of insoles may be an important protective mechanism for plantar overloading.

  14. Effect of custom-made and prefabricated insoles on plantar loading parameters during running with and without fatigue.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Macián-Romero, Cecili; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists whether custom-made insoles are more effective in reducing plantar loading compared to prefabricated insoles. Forty recreational athletes ran using custom-made, prefabricated, and the original insoles of their running shoes, at rest and after a fatigue run. Contact time, stride rate, and plantar loading parameters were measured. Neither the insole conditions nor the fatigue state modified contact time and stride rate. Addressing prevention of running injuries, post-fatigue loading values are of great interest. Custom-made insoles reduced the post-fatigue loading under the hallux (92 vs. 130 kPa, P < 0.05), medial midfoot (70 vs. 105 kPa, P < 0.01), and lateral midfoot (62 vs 96 kPa, P < 0.01). Prefabricated insoles provoked reductions in post-fatigue loading under the toes (120 vs. 175 kPa, P < 0.05), medial midfoot (71 vs. 105 kPa, P < 0.01), and lateral midfoot (68 vs. 96 kPa, P < 0.01). Regarding both study insoles, custom-made insoles reduced by 31% and 54% plantar loading under the medial and lateral heel compared to the prefabricated insoles. Finally, fatigue state did not influence plantar loading regardless the insole condition. In long-distance races, even a slight reduction in plantar loading at each foot strike may suppose a significant decrease in the overall stress experienced by the foot, and therefore the use of insoles may be an important protective mechanism for plantar overloading. PMID:24823258

  15. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Data Release 5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set contains over 200 parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems.The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree].

  16. Control Electronics for Solar/Flywheel Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Control circuit automatically directs flow of electrical energy to and from motor with flywheel that constitutes storage element of solar-power system. When insolation is sufficient for charging, power is supplied by solar-cell array to load and motor. During periods of darkness, motor made to act as generator, drawing kinetic energy from flywheel and supplying it to load.

  17. Effects of custom-made insoles on idiopathic pes cavus foot during walking.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Kyu; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Won, Yonggwan; Kim, Jung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    From a subject group of pes cavus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of lower limbs, based on plantar foot pressure and electromyography (EMG) activities, by the effects on two kind of custom-made insoles. Ten individuals among thirty females with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pes cavus (mean age (SD): 22.3 (0.08) years) were selected for the study. The plantar foot pressure data and EMG activities of four lower limb muscles were collected, when subjects walked on a treadmill, under three different experimental conditions. The plantar foot pressure data was analyzed, after the bilateral foot was divided into three areas of masks and into four sections of stance phase, to compare plantar foot pressure. The EMG activities were analyzed for integrated EMG (IEMG) value. The results show that plantar foot pressure concentrated in particular parts is decreased by custom-made insoles. In the case of EMG, all the muscle activities decreased significantly. The custom-made insoles dispersed pressure concentrated by the higher medial longitudinal arch and improved the efficient use of muscles. In particular, the extension structure in the forefoot of custom-made insoles was more efficient for pes cavus. Therefore, it could help patients to walk, by offering support to prevent the disease of pes cavus deformity, and to relieve the burden and fatigue in the lower limbs on gait.

  18. Orthotic insoles do not prevent physical stress-induced low back pain.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Ville M; Sillanpää, Petri; Salo, Tuula; Laine, Heikki-Jussi; Mäenpää, Heikki; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2011-01-01

    Orthotic insoles are suggested to prevent low back pain. This randomized controlled study assessed if customised orthotic insoles prevent low back pain. Healthy military conscripts (n = 228; mean age 19 years, range 18-29) were randomly assigned to use either customised orthotic insoles (treatment group, n = 73) or nothing (control group, n = 147). The main outcome measure was low back pain requiring a physician visit and resulting in minimum 1 day suspension from military duty. Twenty-four (33%) treated subjects and 42 (27%) control subjects were suspended from duty due to low back pain (p = 0.37; risk difference 4.3%; 95% CI: -8.7 to 17.3%). Mean suspension duration was 2 days (range 1-7) in both groups. Four (5%) treated subjects and eight (5%) control subjects were released from duty due to persistent low back pain (p = 0.92; risk difference 0%; 95% CI: -6 to 6%). Use of orthotic insoles is therefore not recommended to prevent physical stress-related low back pain.

  19. Temperature, precipitation, and insolation effects on autumn vegetation phenology in temperate China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Fu, Yongshuo H; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Huang, Mengtian; Li, Xiran; Piao, Shilong

    2016-02-01

    Autumn phenology plays a critical role in regulating climate-biosphere interactions. However, the climatic drivers of autumn phenology remain unclear. In this study, we applied four methods to estimate the date of the end of the growing season (EOS) across China's temperate biomes based on a 30-year normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS). We investigated the relationships of EOS with temperature, precipitation sum, and insolation sum over the preseason periods by computing temporal partial correlation coefficients. The results showed that the EOS date was delayed in temperate China by an average rate at 0.12 ± 0.01 days per year over the time period of 1982-2011. EOS of dry grassland in Inner Mongolia was advanced. Temporal trends of EOS determined across the four methods were similar in sign, but different in magnitude. Consistent with previous studies, we observed positive correlations between temperature and EOS. Interestingly, the sum of precipitation and insolation during the preseason was also associated with EOS, but their effects were biome dependent. For the forest biomes, except for evergreen needle-leaf forests, the EOS dates were positively associated with insolation sum over the preseason, whereas for dry grassland, the precipitation over the preseason was more dominant. Our results confirmed the importance of temperature on phenological processes in autumn, and further suggested that both precipitation and insolation should be considered to improve the performance of autumn phenology models.

  20. Temperature, precipitation, and insolation effects on autumn vegetation phenology in temperate China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Fu, Yongshuo H; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Huang, Mengtian; Li, Xiran; Piao, Shilong

    2016-02-01

    Autumn phenology plays a critical role in regulating climate-biosphere interactions. However, the climatic drivers of autumn phenology remain unclear. In this study, we applied four methods to estimate the date of the end of the growing season (EOS) across China's temperate biomes based on a 30-year normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS). We investigated the relationships of EOS with temperature, precipitation sum, and insolation sum over the preseason periods by computing temporal partial correlation coefficients. The results showed that the EOS date was delayed in temperate China by an average rate at 0.12 ± 0.01 days per year over the time period of 1982-2011. EOS of dry grassland in Inner Mongolia was advanced. Temporal trends of EOS determined across the four methods were similar in sign, but different in magnitude. Consistent with previous studies, we observed positive correlations between temperature and EOS. Interestingly, the sum of precipitation and insolation during the preseason was also associated with EOS, but their effects were biome dependent. For the forest biomes, except for evergreen needle-leaf forests, the EOS dates were positively associated with insolation sum over the preseason, whereas for dry grassland, the precipitation over the preseason was more dominant. Our results confirmed the importance of temperature on phenological processes in autumn, and further suggested that both precipitation and insolation should be considered to improve the performance of autumn phenology models. PMID:26340580

  1. On the Departure from Isothermality of Pluto's Volatile Ice due to Local Insolation and Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, Laurence M.; Stansberry, John A.

    2015-11-01

    Pluto’s atmosphere is known to be supported by the vapor pressure of ices that are volatile at low temperature, primarily N2 and secondarily CH4 and CO. The atmospheric bulk is regulated by the globally average temperature of the ice, which is determined by a radiative balance between the diurnally average insolation absorbed globally by the volatile ice and the global volatile ice thermal radiation. This bulk is sufficient that Pluto’s atmosphere is close to hydrostatic equilibrium, though this may not remain so as Pluto continues to move towards aphelion. With the weight of the atmosphere currently distributed evenly around the body, the ice temperature is expected to be globally isothermal in absence of topographic variations, due to the transport of latent heat from regions of high insolation to low insolation through sublimation and condensation. Images returned from the New Horizons spacecraft show topographical features, including mountain ranges that extend above 3.5 km, with albedo variations that suggest a topographical dimension or dependence of the volatile ice deposits. In general, the conditions often applied to a volatile atmosphere of hydrostatic equilibrium and vapor-solid phase equilibrium are approximations that may not always both be appropriate. This is particularly the case in the presence of topography when the atmospheric lapse rate differs from the wet adiabat. We present our results of an investigation of the effect of variable insolation and topography on Pluto’s local ice temperature assuming an atmosphere close to hydrostatic equilibrium.

  2. Effects of custom-made insoles on idiopathic pes cavus foot during walking.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Kyu; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Won, Yonggwan; Kim, Jung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    From a subject group of pes cavus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of lower limbs, based on plantar foot pressure and electromyography (EMG) activities, by the effects on two kind of custom-made insoles. Ten individuals among thirty females with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pes cavus (mean age (SD): 22.3 (0.08) years) were selected for the study. The plantar foot pressure data and EMG activities of four lower limb muscles were collected, when subjects walked on a treadmill, under three different experimental conditions. The plantar foot pressure data was analyzed, after the bilateral foot was divided into three areas of masks and into four sections of stance phase, to compare plantar foot pressure. The EMG activities were analyzed for integrated EMG (IEMG) value. The results show that plantar foot pressure concentrated in particular parts is decreased by custom-made insoles. In the case of EMG, all the muscle activities decreased significantly. The custom-made insoles dispersed pressure concentrated by the higher medial longitudinal arch and improved the efficient use of muscles. In particular, the extension structure in the forefoot of custom-made insoles was more efficient for pes cavus. Therefore, it could help patients to walk, by offering support to prevent the disease of pes cavus deformity, and to relieve the burden and fatigue in the lower limbs on gait. PMID:26406066

  3. Solar Irradiance from GOES Albedo performance in a Hydrologic Model Simulation of Snowmelt Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumargo, E.; Cayan, D. R.; McGurk, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    In many hydrologic modeling applications, solar radiation has been parameterized using commonly available measures, such as the daily temperature range, due to scarce in situ solar radiation measurement network. However, these parameterized estimates often produce significant biases. Here we test hourly solar irradiance derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) visible albedo product, using several established algorithms. Focusing on the Sierra Nevada and White Mountain in California, we compared the GOES irradiance and that from a traditional temperature-based algorithm with incoming irradiance from pyranometers at 19 stations. The GOES based estimates yielded 21-27% reduction in root-mean-squared error (average over 19 sites). The derived irradiance is then prescribed as an input to Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). We constrain our experiment to the Tuolumne River watershed and focus our attention on the winter and spring of 1996-2014. A root-mean-squared error reduction of 2-6% in daily inflow to Hetch Hetchy at the lower end of the Tuolumne catchment was achieved by incorporating the insolation estimates at only 8 out of 280 Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) within the basin. Our ongoing work endeavors to apply satellite-derived irradiance at each individual HRU.

  4. Temporal behavior of a ventilated claystone at the Tournemire URL: Cross-spectral analyses focused on daily harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, David; Matray, Jean-Michel; Ababou, Rachid

    2014-12-01

    The main topic of this communication is the presentation of study, auscultation and supervision procedures of deep geological radioactive waste storage repositories using natural harmonic forcings. In this paper, the effects of natural ventilation on the macroscopic behavior of a clayrock are investigated by means of time series recorded underground over a period of two years in the eastern part of Gallery 1996 at the Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL). This study is based on time series acquired in theatmosphere, at the gallery wall surface, and inside the rock mass. It includes measured signals from 6 thermo-hygrometers, 5 crack-meters (measuring the displacement of 2 shrinkage cracks and 3 tectonic fractures), and a 1 meter-FDR (Frequency Domain Reflectometry) profile probe equipped with 6 sensors for measuring the volumetric pore-water content into the rock mass. Auto-spectral and cross-spectral analyses using the concept of Singular Spectrum Harmonics (SSHs and cross-SSHs) are developed. Our analyses and interpretations focus here mainly on the solar diurnal atmospheric tide (denoted S1 ). This tide corresponds to the insolation cycle of the Earth atmosphere during a mean Solar Day (24 h 00 min). This component is tracked throughout the various measured signals ("Spectral Tracking" of tide fluctuations across signals). This is equivalent, in a way, to analyzing the temporal behavior of the URL during a "Mean Solar Day on Earth". Results indicate that the daily natural forcing caused mainly by a combination of barometric and temperature related fluctuations, is the most important effect overall on our various signals. The daily harmonic induces the fluctuations of gallery air temperature, relative and absolute air humidity and it leads to desaturation of the claystone, which in turn leads to the claystone deformation and damage. The effects of the annual harmonic SA may also be significant (it was fully analyzed in the more complete version of

  5. Sensitivity of modeled Cretaceous climate to insolation forcing created by varying Earth-Sun orbital relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Glancy, T.J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Rhythmic sedimentation patterns observed within the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, such as those in the Bridge Creek Limestone Member of the Greenhorn Limestone Formation exposed near Pueblo, Colorado, appear to be a response to episodic climate change. These climatic variations could, in turn, be forced by the periodic insolation change over the North American continent created by Milankovitch-scale Earth-Sun orbital relationships - eccentricity (100 kiloyears), obliquity (41 kiloyears) and precession of the equinox (23 kiloyears). To test the sensitivity of Cretaceous climate to changes in Milankovitch-scale insolation forcing, a set of seasonal simulations using maximum difference insolation forcing conditions was conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Climate Model using 100 MA Cretaceous paleogeography and paleotopography. Analysis showed statistically significant differences in surface temperature, precipitation, surface wind, storm track location, and upwelling occurred over many regions of the Cretaceous Earth, particularly in the summer and winter monsoon system. During Northern Hemisphere winter, differences in the position of storm passage over Cretaceous western North America under maximum difference insolation forcing conditions varies the precipitation received over the southern Western Interior Seaway at the location where the Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation was produced. Northern Hemisphere winter simulations removing all sea ice from the model showed little difference in the climatic effects observed over southwestern North America from the case with sea ice present. Additional simulations varying only the obliquity within the model suggest that the observed Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation patterns are controlled by climatic change produced by cyclic variation in the precession of the equinox and eccentricity insolation forcing.

  6. Insolation-driven changes in atmospheric circulation over the past 116,000 years in subtropical Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Francisco W; Burns, Stephen J; Karmann, Ivo; Sharp, Warren D; Vuille, Mathias; Cardoso, Andrea O; Ferrari, José A; Dias, Pedro L Silva; Viana, Oduvaldo

    2005-03-01

    During the last glacial period, large millennial-scale temperature oscillations--the 'Dansgaard/Oeschger' cycles--were the primary climate signal in Northern Hemisphere climate archives from the high latitudes to the tropics. But whether the influence of these abrupt climate changes extended to the tropical and subtropical Southern Hemisphere, where changes in insolation are thought to be the main direct forcing of climate, has remained unclear. Here we present a high-resolution oxygen isotope record of a U/Th-dated stalagmite from subtropical southern Brazil, covering the past 116,200 years. The oxygen isotope signature varies with shifts in the source region and amount of rainfall in the area, and hence records changes in atmospheric circulation and convective intensity over South America. We find that these variations in rainfall source and amount are primarily driven by summer solar radiation, which is controlled by the Earth's precessional cycle. The Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles can be detected in our record and therefore we confirm that they also affect the tropical hydrological cycle, but that in southern subtropical Brazil, millennial-scale climate changes are not as dominant as they are in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:15744298

  7. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  8. A method for subject-specific modelling and optimisation of the cushioning properties of insole materials used in diabetic footwear.

    PubMed

    Chatzistergos, Panagiotis E; Naemi, Roozbeh; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a numerical method that can be used to investigate the cushioning properties of different insole materials on a subject-specific basis. Diabetic footwear and orthotic insoles play an important role for the reduction of plantar pressure in people with diabetes (type-2). Despite that, little information exists about their optimum cushioning properties. A new in-vivo measurement based computational procedure was developed which entails the generation of 2D subject-specific finite element models of the heel pad based on ultrasound indentation. These models are used to inverse engineer the material properties of the heel pad and simulate the contact between plantar soft tissue and a flat insole. After its validation this modelling procedure was utilised to investigate the importance of plantar soft tissue stiffness, thickness and loading for the correct selection of insole material. The results indicated that heel pad stiffness and thickness influence plantar pressure but not the optimum insole properties. On the other hand loading appears to significantly influence the optimum insole material properties. These results indicate that parameters that affect the loading of the plantar soft tissues such as body mass or a person's level of physical activity should be carefully considered during insole material selection. PMID:25937545

  9. Possible signals of poleward surface ocean heat transport, of Arctic basal ice melt, and of the twentieth century solar maximum in the 1904-2012 Isle of Man daily timeseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. B.; Matthews, J. B. R.

    2014-01-01

    This is the second of two papers on observational timeseries of top of ocean heat capture. The first reports hourly and daily meridional central tropical Pacific top 3 m timeseries showing high Southern Hemisphere evaporation (2.67 m yr-1) and Northern Hemisphere trapped heat (12 MJ m-2 day-1). We suggested that wind drift/geostrophic stratified gyre circulation transported warm water to the Arctic and led to three phases of Arctic basal ice melt and fluxes of brackish nutrient-rich waters to north Atlantic on centennial timescales. Here we examine daily top metre 1904-2012 timeseries at Isle of Man west coast ~54° N for evidence of tropical and polar surface waters. We compare these to Central England (CET) daily land-air temperatures and to Arctic floating ice heat content and extent. We find three phases of ocean surface heating consistent with basal icemelt buffering greenhouse gas warming until a regime shift post-1986 led to the modern surface temperature rise of ~1 °C in 20 yr. Three phases were: warming +0.018 °C yr-1 from 1904-1939, slight cooling -0.002 °C yr-11940-86 and strong warming +0.037 °C yr-1 1986-2012. For the same periods CET land-air showed: warming +0.015 °C yr-1, slight cooling -0.004 °C yr-1, about half SST warming at +0.018 °C yr-1. The mid-century cooling and a 1959/1963 hot/cold event is consistent with sunspot/solar radiation maximum 1923-2008 leading to record volumes of Arctic ice meltwater and runoff that peaked in 1962/3 British Isles extreme cold winter. The warming Arctic resulted in wind regime and surface water regime shifts post 1986. This coincides with the onset of rapid Arctic annual ice melt. Continued heat imbalance is likely to lead to tidewater glacier basal icemelt and future sealevel rise after remaining relatively stable over 4000 yr. Our work needs confirmation by further fieldwork concentrating on the dynamics and thermodynamics of ocean top 3 m that controls the 93 % anthropogenic global warming in the

  10. Effect of postural insoles on static and functional balance in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Christovão, Thaluanna C. L.; Pasini, Hugo; Grecco, Luanda A. C.; Ferreira, Luiz A. B.; Duarte, Natália A. C.; Oliveira, Cláudia S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improved gait efficiency is one of the goals of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Postural insoles can allow more efficient gait by improving biomechanical alignment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the combination of postural insoles and ankle-foot orthoses on static and functional balance in children with CP. METHOD: A randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. After meeting legal requirements and the eligibility criteria, 20 children between four and 12 years of age were randomly allocated either to the control group (CG) (n=10) or the experimental group (EG) (n=10). The CG used placebo insoles and the EG used postural insoles. The Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go Test, Six-Minute Walk Test, and Gross Motor Function Measure-88 were used to assess balance as well as the determination of oscillations from the center of pressure in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions with eyes open and closed. Three evaluations were carried out: 1) immediately following placement of the insoles; 2) after three months of insole use; and 3) one month after suspending insole use. RESULTS: The EG achieved significantly better results in comparison to the CG on the Timed Up-and-Go Test as well as body sway in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. CONCLUSION: Postural insoles led to an improvement in static balance among children with cerebral palsy, as demonstrated by the reduction in body sway in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. Postural insole use also led to a better performance on the Timed Up-and-Go Test. PMID:25651134

  11. The timing of Mediterranean sapropel deposition relative to insolation, sea-level and African monsoon changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Katharine; Grimm, Rosina; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Marino, Gianluca; Rohling, Eelco

    2016-04-01

    The periodic deposition of organic rich layers or 'sapropels' in eastern Mediterranean sediments can be linked to orbital-driven changes in the strength and location of (east) African monsoon precipitation. Sapropels are therefore an extremely useful tool for establishing orbital chronologies, and for providing insights about African monsoon variability on long timescales. However, the link between sapropel formation, insolation variations, and African monsoon 'maxima' is not straightforward because other processes (notably, sea-level rise) may have contributed to their deposition, and because there are uncertainties about monsoon-sapropel phase relationships. For example, different phasings are observed between Holocene and early Pleistocene sapropels, and between proxy records and model simulations. To address these issues, we have established geochemical and ice-volume-corrected planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope records for sapropels S1, S3, S4, and S5 in core LC21 from the southern Aegean Sea. The records have a radiometrically constrained chronology that has already been synchronised with the Red Sea relative sea-level record, and this allows us to examine in detail the timing of sapropel deposition relative to insolation, sea-level, and African monsoon changes. Our records suggest that the onset of sapropel deposition and monsoon run-off was near synchronous, yet insolation-sapropel/monsoon phasings varied, whereby monsoon/sapropel onset was relatively delayed (with respect to insolation maxima) after glacial terminations. We suggest that large meltwater discharges into the North Atlantic modified the timing of sapropel deposition by delaying the timing of peak African monsoon run-off. Hence, the previous assumption of a systematic 3-kyr lag between insolation maxima and sapropel midpoints may lead to overestimated insolation-sapropel phasings. We also surmise that both monsoon run-off and sea-level rise were important buoyancy-forcing mechanisms for

  12. Obliquity signals at low latitudes: a result of the cross-equatorial tropical insolation gradient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosmans, Joyce; Hilgen, Frederik; Lourens, Lucas

    2013-04-01

    Despite the near-zero obliquity-induced insolation changes at the tropics, an obliquity signal is present in various sediment records at low latitudes. A number of hypotheses have been brought forward to explain the presence of obliquity at the tropics, especially in North-African records of monsoon strength. Firstly, the latitude of the tropics changes from 22° to 24.5°, shifting the area under the influence of the monsoon by ~300 km, which could influence its poleward penetration. A second hypothesis involves the strengthening of the austral winter insolation gradient at times of high obliquity, forcing stronger trade winds which become part of the North-African monsoonal south-westerlies, intensifying the North-African summer monsoon. Thirdly, influences of higher latitudes, where obliquity-induced changes in insolation are larger, could strengthen the North-African monsoon through increased northerly moisture transport into the monsoon region and a strengthened Asian low pressure system. The fourth hypothesis is based on the insolation gradient, specifically the cross-equatorial insolation gradient between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. This insolation gradient drives the differential sensible heating between the two limbs of the winter hemisphere Hadley Cell and therefore the strength of the monsoon. This hypothesis suggests that the obliquity signal in the tropics arises without influence from higher latitudes. Using a high-resolution coupled climate model, EC-Earth, we can oppose the first three hypotheses. Comparing two experiments of low and high obliquity we find a more northward North-African monsoon during high obliquity, as suggested by the first hypothesis. However, we find that precession has a much larger effect on the northward extend of the North-African monsoon. Also, we find a very small increase in trade wind strength over the South-Atlantic for obliquity. Furthermore, spectral analysis shows that the winter hemispheric insolation

  13. Insolation-induced mid-Brunhes transition in Southern Ocean ventilation and deep-ocean temperature.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qiuzhen

    2013-02-14

    Glacial-interglacial cycles characterized by long cold periods interrupted by short periods of warmth are the dominant feature of Pleistocene climate, with the relative intensity and duration of past and future interglacials being of particular interest for civilization. The interglacials after 430,000 years ago were characterized by warmer climates and higher atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide than the interglacials before, but the cause of this climatic transition (the so-called mid-Brunhes event (MBE)) is unknown. Here I show, on the basis of model simulations, that in response to insolation changes only, feedbacks between sea ice, temperature, evaporation and salinity caused vigorous pre-MBE Antarctic bottom water formation and Southern Ocean ventilation. My results also show that strong westerlies increased the pre-MBE overturning in the Southern Ocean via an increased latitudinal insolation gradient created by changes in eccentricity during austral winter and by changes in obliquity during austral summer. The stronger bottom water formation led to a cooler deep ocean during the older interglacials. These insolation-induced differences in the deep-sea temperature and in the Southern Ocean ventilation between the more recent interglacials and the older ones were not expected, because there is no straightforward systematic difference in the astronomical parameters between the interglacials before and after 430,000 years ago. Rather than being a real 'event', the apparent MBE seems to have resulted from a series of individual interglacial responses--including notable exceptions to the general pattern--to various combinations of insolation conditions. Consequently, assuming no anthropogenic interference, future interglacials may have pre- or post-MBE characteristics without there being a systematic change in forcings. These findings are a first step towards understanding the magnitude change of the interglacial carbon dioxide concentration around 430

  14. Insolation-induced mid-Brunhes transition in Southern Ocean ventilation and deep-ocean temperature.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qiuzhen

    2013-02-14

    Glacial-interglacial cycles characterized by long cold periods interrupted by short periods of warmth are the dominant feature of Pleistocene climate, with the relative intensity and duration of past and future interglacials being of particular interest for civilization. The interglacials after 430,000 years ago were characterized by warmer climates and higher atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide than the interglacials before, but the cause of this climatic transition (the so-called mid-Brunhes event (MBE)) is unknown. Here I show, on the basis of model simulations, that in response to insolation changes only, feedbacks between sea ice, temperature, evaporation and salinity caused vigorous pre-MBE Antarctic bottom water formation and Southern Ocean ventilation. My results also show that strong westerlies increased the pre-MBE overturning in the Southern Ocean via an increased latitudinal insolation gradient created by changes in eccentricity during austral winter and by changes in obliquity during austral summer. The stronger bottom water formation led to a cooler deep ocean during the older interglacials. These insolation-induced differences in the deep-sea temperature and in the Southern Ocean ventilation between the more recent interglacials and the older ones were not expected, because there is no straightforward systematic difference in the astronomical parameters between the interglacials before and after 430,000 years ago. Rather than being a real 'event', the apparent MBE seems to have resulted from a series of individual interglacial responses--including notable exceptions to the general pattern--to various combinations of insolation conditions. Consequently, assuming no anthropogenic interference, future interglacials may have pre- or post-MBE characteristics without there being a systematic change in forcings. These findings are a first step towards understanding the magnitude change of the interglacial carbon dioxide concentration around 430

  15. The effect of cushioning insoles on back and lower extremity pain in an industrial setting.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, John R

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low back pain and lower extremity pain in a group of factory workers and determine the effect of cushioning insoles on low back pain and lower extremity pain. Data were gathered via questionnaire from 306 employees of an aircraft engine assembly factory. A subset of 40 workers who had reported significant levels of back or lower extremity pain were sampled for four consecutive 12-hour shifts wearing their normal footwear and then a week later for four consecutive shifts wearing cushioning insoles. High levels of low back pain and lower extremity pain were reported by workers on the plant floor, but low back pain was poorly correlated to lower extremity pain (r = 0.371). The effect of insoles on the subset of 40 workers was to lower low back pain by 38%, foot pain by 37%, and knee pain by 38% (p < .001). The reduction in low back pain, however, was not correlated to the reduction in lower extremity pain; workers reporting a decrease in low back pain differed from those reporting less lower extremity pain.

  16. The impact of the diurnal insolation cycle on the tropical cyclone heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Morgan E.; Perez-Betancourt, Diamilet; Wing, Allison A.

    A hurricane, or tropical cyclone, is understood as a heat engine that moves heat from the warm sea surface to the cold tropopause. The efficiency of this engine depends in part on the strength and duration of solar heating. Over land, peak rainfall associated with individual thunderstorms occurs in the late afternoon. Over ocean, with its markedly higher surface heat capacity, deep convection responds more to radiational cooling than daytime surface heating. However, the role of daily varying solar forcing on the dynamics of tropical cyclones is poorly understood. Recently, Dunion et al. (2014) reported significant, repeating diurnal behavior propagating outward from tropical cyclone centers, using infrared imagery from nine years of North Atlantic tropical cyclones. We study the impact of the diurnal cycle on tropical cyclones using a high resolution 3D numerical model, the System for Atmospheric Modeling (Khairoutdinov and Randall 2003). Simulations are run with and without variable sunlight. We are able to reproduce the observational finding of Dunion et al. (2014), and further identify a diurnally-varying residual circulation in the tropical cyclone at midlevels. The impact of the diurnal cycle on the equilibrium dynamics of tropical cyclones is also discussed.

  17. The timing of Mediterranean sapropel deposition relative to insolation, sea-level and African monsoon changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. M.; Grimm, R.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Marino, G.; Ziegler, M.; Rohling, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin is sensitive to global sea-level changes and African monsoon variability on orbital timescales. Both of these processes are thought to be important to the deposition of organic-rich sediment layers or 'sapropels' throughout the eastern Mediterranean, yet their relative influences remain ambiguous. A related issue is that an assumed 3-kyr lag between boreal insolation maxima and sapropel mid-points remains to be tested. Here we present new geochemical and ice-volume-corrected planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope records for sapropels S1 (Holocene), S3, S4, and S5 (Marine Isotope Stage 5) in core LC21 from the southern Aegean Sea. The records have a radiometrically constrained chronology that has already been synchronised with the Red Sea relative sea-level record, and this allows detailed examination of the timing of sapropel deposition relative to insolation, sea-level, and African monsoon changes. We find that sapropel onset was near-synchronous with monsoon run-off into the eastern Mediterranean, but that insolation-sapropel/monsoon phasings were not systematic through the last glacial cycle. These latter phasings instead appear to relate to sea-level changes. We propose that persistent meltwater discharges into the North Atlantic (e.g., at glacial terminations) modified the timing of sapropel deposition by delaying the timing of peak African monsoon run-off. These observations may reconcile apparent model-data offsets with respect to the orbital pacing of the African monsoon. Our observations also imply that the previous assumption of a systematic 3-kyr lag between insolation maxima and sapropel midpoints may lead to overestimated insolation-sapropel phasings. Finally, we surmise that both sea-level rise and monsoon run-off contributed to surface-water buoyancy changes at times of sapropel deposition, and their relative influences differed per sapropel case, depending on their magnitudes. Sea-level rise was clearly important for

  18. USAF solar thermal applications overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauger, J. S.; Simpson, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Process heat applications were compared to solar thermal technologies. The generic process heat applications were analyzed for solar thermal technology utilization, using SERI's PROSYS/ECONOMAT model in an end use matching analysis and a separate analysis was made for solar ponds. Solar technologies appear attractive in a large number of applications. Low temperature applications at sites with high insolation and high fuel costs were found to be most attractive. No one solar thermal technology emerges as a clearly universal or preferred technology, however,, solar ponds offer a potential high payoff in a few, selected applications. It was shown that troughs and flat plate systems are cost effective in a large number of applications.

  19. Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaek, Ekkachai

    The lack of effort by mainstream architects in integrating energy-efficient strategies in architectural designing is due to the complexity in a building's energy conscious concepts and theories, the difficulties to visualize and quantify energy consumption, and the late implementing of energy consumption analysis in the conventional design process. This task would be accomplishing by a building system's engineer where results might be determined only after the basic architectural design has been completed. An effective simple tool and method should then be available to assist architects in building's energy-efficient designing at the beginning of the design. The building's energy consumption is directly and mainly influenced by the relationship of the sun, site, and its building configuration. The solar radiations will first impact on the building's envelope, which will have a direct effect on the amount of energy a building will consume. If an architect can define or map the intensity of solar energy on the site's buildable volume, and use this information to determine the levels of solar insolation, a more energy efficient building form can be proposed. This research hypothesis has shared the fundamental techniques of the Solar Envelope projection by Professor Ralph Knowles [Knowles, 1981] of the University of Southern California. However a different approach is taken by including the influence of regional restrictions and the surrounding buildings' shadows when projecting of solar volumes and solar envelope. The research methodology will discuss the development of a computer-based approach to develop a three-dimensional architectural form based on an insolation map related to the design site. The prototype computer program is referred as the Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA). The solar insolation volume of the site is determined by integrating three types of computer-generated models include the Buildable Volume model based on design constraints

  20. Time variation analysis of the daily Forbush decrease indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Sankar Narayan; Ghosh, Koushik; Panja, Subhash Chandra

    2011-08-01

    In the present paper we have analyzed the daily Forbush decrease indices from January 1, 1967 to December 31, 2003. First filtering the time series by Simple Exponential Smoothing, we have applied Scargle Method of Periodogram on the processed time series in order to search for its time variation. Study exhibits periodicities around 174, 245, 261, 321, 452, 510, 571, 584, 662, 703, 735, 741, 767, 774, 820, 970, 1062, 1082, 1489, 1715, 2317, 2577, 2768, 3241 and 10630 days with confidence levels higher than 90%. Some of these periods are significantly similar to the observed periodicities of other solar activities, like solar filament activity, solar electron flare occurrence, solar-flare rate, solar proton events, solar neutrino flux, solar irradiance, cosmic ray intensity and flare, spectrum of the sunspot, solar wind, southern coronal hole area and solar cycle, which may suggest that the Forbush decrease behaves similarly to these solar activities and these activities may have a common origin.

  1. Effect of therapeutic insoles on the medial longitudinal arch in patients with flatfoot deformity: a three-dimensional loading computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Masamitsu; Ikoma, Kazuya; Hara, Yusuke; Imai, Kan; Maki, Masahiro; Ikeda, Takumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Inoue, Nozomu; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Background Insoles are frequently used in orthotic therapy as the standard conservative treatment for symptomatic flatfoot deformity to rebuild the arch and stabilize the foot. However, the effectiveness of therapeutic insoles remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of therapeutic insoles for flatfoot deformity using subject-based three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) models by evaluating the load responses of the bones in the medial longitudinal arch in vivo in 3D. Methods We studied eight individuals (16 feet) with mild flatfoot deformity. CT scans were performed on both feet under non-loaded and full-body-loaded conditions, first with accessory insoles and then with therapeutic insoles under the same conditions. Three-dimensional CT models were constructed for the tibia and the tarsal and metatarsal bones of the medial longitudinal arch (i.e., first metatarsal bone, cuneiforms, navicular, talus, and calcaneus). The rotational angles between the tarsal bones were calculated under loading with accessory insoles or therapeutic insoles and compared. Findings Compared with the accessory insoles, the therapeutic insoles significantly suppressed the eversion of the talocalcaneal joint. Interpretation This is the first study to precisely verify the usefulness of therapeutic insoles (arch support and inner wedges) in vivo. PMID:25457972

  2. Use of an Enactive Insole for Reducing the Risk of Falling on Different Types of Soil Using Vibrotactile Cueing for the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Otis, Martin J. -D.; Ayena, Johannes C.; Tremblay, Louis E.; Fortin, Pascal E.; Ménélas, Bob-Antoine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Our daily activities imply displacements on various types of soil. For persons with gait disorder or losing functional autonomy, walking on some types of soil could be challenging because of the risk of falling it represents. Methods In this paper, we present, in a first part, the use of an enactive shoe for an automatic differentiation of several types of soil. In a second part, using a second improved prototype (an enactive insole), twelve participants with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and nine age-matched controls have performed the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test on six types of soil with and without cueing. The frequency of the cueing was set at 10% above the cadence computed at the lower risk of falling (walking over the concrete). Depending on the cadence computed at the lower risk, the enactive insole activates a vibrotactile cueing aiming to improve gait and balance control. Finally, a risk index is computed using gait parameters in relation to given type of soil. Results The frequency analysis of the heel strike vibration allows the differentiation of various types of soil. The risk computed is associated to an appropriate rhythmic cueing in order to improve balance and gait impairment. The results show that a vibrotactile cueing could help to reduce the risk of falling. Conclusions Firstly, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of reducing the risk of falling while walking on different types of soil using vibrotactile cueing. We found a significant difference and a significant decrease in the computed risks of falling for most of types of soil especially for deformable soils which can lead to fall. Secondly, heel strike provides an approximation of the impulse response of the soil that can be analyzed with time and frequency-domain modeling. From these analyses, an index is computed enabling differentiation the types of soil. PMID:27603211

  3. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect.

  4. Plantar pressure relief under the metatarsal heads: therapeutic insole design using three-dimensional finite element model of the foot.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Sung-Jae; Lee, Peter Vee Sin

    2015-02-26

    Therapeutic footwear with specially-made insoles is often used in people with diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis to relieve ulcer risks and pain due to high pressures from areas beneath bony prominences of the foot, in particular to the metatarsal heads (MTHs). In a three-dimensional finite element study of the foot and footwear with sensitivity analysis, effects of geometrical variations of a therapeutic insole, in terms of insole thicknesses and metatarsal pad (MP) placements, on local peak plantar pressure under MTHs and stress/strain states within various forefoot tissues, were determined. A validated musculoskeletal finite element model of the human foot was employed. Analyses were performed in a simulated muscle-demanding instant in gait. For many design combinations, increasing insole thicknesses consistently reduce peak pressures and internal tissue strain under MTHs, but the effects reach a plateau when insole becomes very thick (e.g., a value of 12.7mm or greater). Altering MP placements, however, showed a proximally- and a distally-placed MP could result in reverse effects on MTH pressure-relief. The unsuccessful outcome due to a distally-placed MP may attribute to the way it interacts with plantar tissue (e.g., plantar fascia) adjacent to the MTH. A uniform pattern of tissue compression under metatarsal shaft is necessary for a most favorable pressure-relief under MTHs. The designated functions of an insole design can best be achieved when the insole is very thick, and when the MP can achieve a uniform tissue compression pattern adjacent to the MTH.

  5. Suppression of insolation heating induced by electromagnetic scatteringdue to fine spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horie, J.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Manaka, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Ashida, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, i.e., the greatest earthquake in the Japanese history, and the successive disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant have caused a fatal electric power shortage problem in summer in 2011. It is of key importance to reduce electricity demand and to save the energy. About one third of the total electricity demand at the peak consumption in summer is for the air-conditioning in the household and office sectors in Japan. It is, therefore, necessary to think deliberately of the reduction of electric power demand for air-conditioning. In fact, the temperature of materials rises when they are exposed to the sunlight (insolation heating) in particular in summer and the air-conditioning would become necessary for restoring the comfort in insolated housings. The energy for the air-conditioning is spent to pump out the heat changed in the materials of the insolated housings and would be proportional to the temperature to lower down. It is, therefore, clear that the reduction of the energy for the air-conditioning would strongly depend on relaxation of temperature rise or the insulation of insolated materials. Insolation heating could be suppressed when the materials are coated with paint admixed with fine silica spheres (insulating paint). By coating buildings' walls and roofs with such paint, the temperature of interior rooms could be kept lower without air-conditioning. These insulation effects are well known and have been utilized in the past, but have hardly been analyzed theoretically yet. Theoretical analysis would greatly enhance the effects of the suppression of insolation heating. In preceding studies, Ohkawa et al.(2009; 2011) and Mikada et al.(2011) focused on the electromagnetic wave scattering induced by fine spheres and developed the analytical method using superposition of scattered waves from each sphere (the first Born approximation), and indicated that the size of the spheres is one of the

  6. Sensory enhancing insoles improve athletic performance during a hexagonal agility task.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Daniel L; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Gravelle, Denise C; Petersen, Kelsey; Ryzman, Rachael; Niemi, James; Lesniewski-Laas, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    Athletes incorporate afferent signals from the mechanoreceptors of their plantar feet to provide information about posture, stability, and joint position. Sub-threshold stochastic resonance (SR) sensory enhancing insoles have been shown to improve balance and proprioception in young and elderly participant populations. Balance and proprioception are correlated with improved athletic performance, such as agility. Agility is defined as the ability to quickly change direction. An athlete's agility is commonly evaluated during athletic performance testing to assess their ability to participate in a competitive sporting event. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SR insoles during a hexagonal agility task routinely used by coaches and sports scientists. Twenty recreational athletes were recruited to participate in this study. Each athlete was asked to perform a set of hexagonal agility trials while SR stimulation was either on or off. Vicon motion capture was used to measure feet position during six successful trials for each stimulation condition. Stimulation condition was randomized in a pairwise fashion. The study outcome measures were the task completion time and the positional accuracy of footfalls. Pairwise comparisons revealed a 0.12s decrease in task completion time (p=0.02) with no change in hopping accuracy (p=0.99) when SR stimulation was on. This is the first study to show athletic performance benefits while wearing proprioception and balance improving equipment on healthy participants. With further development, a self-contained sensory enhancing insole device could be used by recreational and professional athletes to improve movements that require rapid changes in direction.

  7. Critical insolation-CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganopolski, A.; Winkelmann, R.; Schellnhuber, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    The past rapid growth of Northern Hemisphere continental ice sheets, which terminated warm and stable climate periods, is generally attributed to reduced summer insolation in boreal latitudes. Yet such summer insolation is near to its minimum at present, and there are no signs of a new ice age. This challenges our understanding of the mechanisms driving glacial cycles and our ability to predict the next glacial inception. Here we propose a critical functional relationship between boreal summer insolation and global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, which explains the beginning of the past eight glacial cycles and might anticipate future periods of glacial inception. Using an ensemble of simulations generated by an Earth system model of intermediate complexity constrained by palaeoclimatic data, we suggest that glacial inception was narrowly missed before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The missed inception can be accounted for by the combined effect of relatively high late-Holocene CO2 concentrations and the low orbital eccentricity of the Earth. Additionally, our analysis suggests that even in the absence of human perturbations no substantial build-up of ice sheets would occur within the next several thousand years and that the current interglacial would probably last for another 50,000 years. However, moderate anthropogenic cumulative CO2 emissions of 1,000 to 1,500 gigatonnes of carbon will postpone the next glacial inception by at least 100,000 years. Our simulations demonstrate that under natural conditions alone the Earth system would be expected to remain in the present delicately balanced interglacial climate state, steering clear of both large-scale glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere and its complete deglaciation, for an unusually long time.

  8. Critical insolation-CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganopolski, Andrey; Winkelmann, Ricarda; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Past rapid growth of Northern Hemisphere continental ice sheets, which terminated rather stable and warm climate periods, is generally attributed to reduced summer insolation in boreal latitudes (Milanković , 1941; Hays et al., 1976, Paillard, 1998). Yet pertinent summer insolation is near to its minimum at present (Berger and Loutre, 2002), and there are no signs of a new ice age (Kemp et al., 2011). This challenges our scientific understanding of the mechanisms driving glacial cycles and our ability to predict the next glacial inception (Masson-Delmotte et al., 2013). Here we propose a fundamental functional relationship between boreal summer insolation and global CO2 concentration, which explains the beginning of the past eight glacial cycles and can anticipate future periods when glacial inception may occur again. Using a simulations ensemble generated by an Earth system model of intermediate complexity constrained by paleoclimatic data, we show that glacial inception was narrowly missed before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. This can be explained by the combined effect of relatively high late-Holocene CO2 concentration and low orbital eccentricity of the Earth (Loutre and Berger, 2003). Additionally, our analysis shows that even in the absence of human perturbations no significant buildup of ice sheets would occur within the next several thousand years and that the current interglacial would likely last for another 50,000 years. However, moderate anthropogenic cumulative CO2 emissions of 1000 to 1500 GtC may already postpone the next glacial inception by at least 100,000 years (Archer and Ganopolski, 2005; Paillard, 2006). Our simulations demonstrate that under natural conditions alone the Earth system would be expected to stay in the delicate interglacial climate state, steering clear of both large-scale glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere and its complete deglaciation, for an unusually long time.

  9. Critical insolation-CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception.

    PubMed

    Ganopolski, A; Winkelmann, R; Schellnhuber, H J

    2016-01-14

    The past rapid growth of Northern Hemisphere continental ice sheets, which terminated warm and stable climate periods, is generally attributed to reduced summer insolation in boreal latitudes. Yet such summer insolation is near to its minimum at present, and there are no signs of a new ice age. This challenges our understanding of the mechanisms driving glacial cycles and our ability to predict the next glacial inception. Here we propose a critical functional relationship between boreal summer insolation and global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, which explains the beginning of the past eight glacial cycles and might anticipate future periods of glacial inception. Using an ensemble of simulations generated by an Earth system model of intermediate complexity constrained by palaeoclimatic data, we suggest that glacial inception was narrowly missed before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The missed inception can be accounted for by the combined effect of relatively high late-Holocene CO2 concentrations and the low orbital eccentricity of the Earth. Additionally, our analysis suggests that even in the absence of human perturbations no substantial build-up of ice sheets would occur within the next several thousand years and that the current interglacial would probably last for another 50,000 years. However, moderate anthropogenic cumulative CO2 emissions of 1,000 to 1,500 gigatonnes of carbon will postpone the next glacial inception by at least 100,000 years. Our simulations demonstrate that under natural conditions alone the Earth system would be expected to remain in the present delicately balanced interglacial climate state, steering clear of both large-scale glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere and its complete deglaciation, for an unusually long time. PMID:26762457

  10. Critical insolation-CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception.

    PubMed

    Ganopolski, A; Winkelmann, R; Schellnhuber, H J

    2016-01-14

    The past rapid growth of Northern Hemisphere continental ice sheets, which terminated warm and stable climate periods, is generally attributed to reduced summer insolation in boreal latitudes. Yet such summer insolation is near to its minimum at present, and there are no signs of a new ice age. This challenges our understanding of the mechanisms driving glacial cycles and our ability to predict the next glacial inception. Here we propose a critical functional relationship between boreal summer insolation and global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, which explains the beginning of the past eight glacial cycles and might anticipate future periods of glacial inception. Using an ensemble of simulations generated by an Earth system model of intermediate complexity constrained by palaeoclimatic data, we suggest that glacial inception was narrowly missed before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The missed inception can be accounted for by the combined effect of relatively high late-Holocene CO2 concentrations and the low orbital eccentricity of the Earth. Additionally, our analysis suggests that even in the absence of human perturbations no substantial build-up of ice sheets would occur within the next several thousand years and that the current interglacial would probably last for another 50,000 years. However, moderate anthropogenic cumulative CO2 emissions of 1,000 to 1,500 gigatonnes of carbon will postpone the next glacial inception by at least 100,000 years. Our simulations demonstrate that under natural conditions alone the Earth system would be expected to remain in the present delicately balanced interglacial climate state, steering clear of both large-scale glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere and its complete deglaciation, for an unusually long time.

  11. The Principal Components of Adult Female Insole Shape Align Closely with Two of Its Classic Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Domjanic, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The plantar surface of the human foot transmits the weight and dynamic force of the owner’s lower limbs to the ground and the reaction forces back to the musculoskeletal system. Its anatomical variation is intensely studied in such fields as sports medicine and orthopedic dysmorphology. Yet, strangely, the shape of the insole that accommodates this surface and elastically buffers these forces is neither an aspect of the conventional anthropometrics of feet nor an informative label on the packet that markets supplementary insoles. In this paper we pursue an earlier suggestion that insole form in vertical view be quantified in terms of the shape of the foot not at the plane of support (the “footprint”) but some two millimeters above that level. Using such sections extracted from laser scans of 158 feet of adult women from the University of Zagreb, in conjunction with an appropriate modification of today’s standard geometric morphometrics (GMM), we find that the sectioned form can be described by its size together with two meaningful relative warps of shape. The pattern of this shape variation is not novel. It is closely aligned with two of the standard footprint measurements, the Chippaux-Šmiřák arch index and the Clarke arch angle, whose geometrical foci (the former in the ball of the foot, the latter in the arch) it apparently combines. Thus a strong contemporary analysis complements but does not supplant the simpler anthropometric analyses of half a century ago, with implications for applied anthropology. PMID:26308442

  12. Thermal effects of insolation propagation into the regoliths of airless bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert Hamilton; Matson, Dennis L.

    1987-01-01

    The planetary surface thermal models used in the present study are composed of particles which, while bright and optically thin in the visual, are dark and opaque in the thermal IR. It is assumed that insolation is absorbed over a finite regolith distance whose scale length relative to diurnal skin depth for thermal diffusion can be substantial. Attention is given to the lower daytime and higher nighttime temperatures predicted by comparison with models assuming absorption only at the surface. It is noted that, with sufficiently deep penetration of insulation and high thermal IR particle opacity, a solid-state greenhouse can result.

  13. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846

  14. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  15. Classification and mass production technique for three-quarter shoe insoles using non-weight-bearing plantar shapes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuh-Ping; Chou, Yi-Jiun; Sue, Chun-Chia

    2009-07-01

    We have developed a technique for the mass production and classification of three-quarter shoe insoles via a 3D anthropometric measurement of full-size non-weight-bearing plantar shapes. The plantar shapes of fifty 40-60-year-old adults from Taiwan were categorized and, in conjunction with commercially available flat or leisure shoe models, three-quarter shoe-insole models were generated using a CAD system. Applying a rapid prototype system, these models were then used to provide the parameters for manufacturing the shoe insoles. The insoles developed in this study have been classified into S, M and L types that offer user-friendly options for foot-care providers. We concluded that these insoles can mate tightly with the foot arch and disperse the pressure in the heel and forefoot over the foot arch. Thus, practically, the pressure difference over the plantar region can be minimised, and the user can experience comfort when wearing flat or leisure shoes.

  16. Immediate Effect of Postural Insoles on Gait Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Preliminary Randomized Controlled Double-blind Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Duarte, Natália Almeida Carvalho; Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Improved gait efficiency is one of the goals of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Postural insoles can allow more efficient gait by improving biomechanical alignment. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of postural insoles on gait performance of children with CP classified as levels I or II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). [Subjects and Methods] the study was a randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. After meeting the legal aspects and the eligibility criteria, 10 children between four and 12 years old were randomly divided into a two groups: a control group (n=5), and an experimental group (n=5). Children in the control group used a placebo insoles, and children in the experimental group used postural insoles. Evaluation consisted of three-dimensional gait analysis under three conditions: barefoot, shoes without insoles and shoes with postural insoles or shoes with placebo insoles. [Results] Regarding the immediate effects of insole use, significant improvements in gait velocity and cadence were observed in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. [Conclusion] The use of postural insoles led to improvements in gait velocity and cadence of the children with cerebral palsy classified as levels I or II of the GMFCS.

  17. Dairy farm hot water: an economic evaluation of solar collectors vs. heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Heid, W.G. Jr.; Williams, E.V.

    1982-01-01

    Two alternative systems for heating water - solar collectors and heat exchangers - were compared to determine the more economical choice by dairy farmers. Btu requirements and discounted payback were estimated for three dairy herd sizes, 40, 90, and 140 cows. The analysis was performed for two locations in Kansas, Dodge City and Topeka. These locations were chosen because their average daily insolation is around 600,000 Btu/ft/sup 2/ which is representative of many of the dairying regions in the western half of the United States. Both the solar hot water and the heat exchanger systems analyzed in this study were sized according to manufacturer specifications. For the basic analysis, it was assumed that the solar collector system was 52% efficient and supplied a solar fraction of about 50%. Performance of the heat exchanger was measured at three levels, 60, 70, and 80%. The fraction of Btu requirements supplied varied with herd size. Herd size is an important factor to consider as farmers select the more appropriate alternative technology. Discounted payback for heat exchangers decreased rapidly as herd size increased, reaching 1 to 2 years, with tax credits, for the 140-cow herd size. Because less hot water per cow is needed in large dairies, heat exchangers will supply a large percentage of the hot water requirements for a 140-cow herd dairy. Heat exchangers appear to be ideally suited, both technically and economically, for commercial-sized dairy herds. Conversely, the discounted payback for solar hot water systems was about the same for all three herd sizes and above the payback level of heat exchangers even at the small herd size. Only for herds of less than 40 cows are solar hot water systems competitive with heat exchangers.

  18. Local effects of partly-cloudy skies on solar and emitted radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, D. A.; Venable, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    A computer automated data acquisition system for atmospheric emittance, and global solar, downwelled diffuse solar, and direct solar irradiances is discussed. Hourly-integrated global solar and atmospheric emitted radiances were measured continuously from February 1981 and hourly-integrated diffuse solar and direct solar irradiances were measured continuously from October 1981. One-minute integrated data are available for each of these components from February 1982. The results of the correlation of global insolation with fractional cloud cover for the first year's data set. A February data set, composed of one-minute integrated global insolation and direct solar irradiance, cloud cover fractions, meteorological data from nearby weather stations, and GOES East satellite radiometric data, was collected to test the theoretical model of satellite radiometric data correlation and develop the cloud dependence for the local measurement site.

  19. Inverse dynamics calculations during gait with restricted ground reaction force information from pressure insoles.

    PubMed

    Forner-Cordero, A; Koopman, H J F M; van der Helm, F C T

    2006-02-01

    The number of consecutive strides that can be recorded in measurements of gait have been limited due to the number of force plates and dimensions of the measurement field. In addition, the feet are constrained to land on the force plates. A method to calculate the inverse dynamics from the motion and incomplete information from the ground reaction forces (GRF), vertical component and its application point, is presented and compared to the calculations based on force plate measurements. This method is based on the estimation of the three-dimensional GRF during walking with pressure insoles. RMS errors were lower than 20 W for knee joint power compared to those derived from force plate measurements. The errors were larger during double stance phase due to errors in the application point measured with the insoles. This method, with some technical improvement, could be implemented in new gait analysis protocols measuring several consecutive steps either on a treadmill or over ground, depending on the motion-measurement system, without constraining foot placement.

  20. Development of SmartStep: an insole-based physical activity monitor.

    PubMed

    Sazonov, Edward S; Hegde, Nagaraj; Tang, Wenlong

    2013-01-01

    In our previous research we developed a SmartShoe--a shoe based physical activity monitor that can reliably differentiate between major postures and activities, accurately estimate energy expenditure of individuals, measure temporal gait parameters, and estimate body weights. In this paper we present the development of the next stage of the SmartShoe evolution--SmartStep, a physical activity monitor that is fully integrated into an insole, maximizing convenience and social acceptance of the monitor. Encapsulating the sensors, Bluetooth Low Energy wireless interface and the energy source within an assembly repeatedly loaded with high forces created during ambulation presented new design challenges. In this preliminary study we tested the ability of the SmartStep to measure the pressure differences between static weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities (such as no load vs. sitting vs. standing) as well as capture pressure variations during walking. We also measured long-term stability of the sensors and insole assembly under cyclic loading in a mechanical testing system.

  1. Stride Counting in Human Walking and Walking Distance Estimation Using Insole Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Phuc Huu; Lee, Jinwook; Kwon, Ae-Ran; Jeong, Gu-Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method of estimating walking distance based on a precise counting of walking strides using insole sensors. We use an inertial triaxial accelerometer and eight pressure sensors installed in the insole of a shoe to record walkers’ movement data. The data is then transmitted to a smartphone to filter out noise and determine stance and swing phases. Based on phase information, we count the number of strides traveled and estimate the movement distance. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method, we created two walking databases on seven healthy participants and tested the proposed method. The first database, which is called the short distance database, consists of collected data from all seven healthy subjects walking on a 16 m distance. The second one, named the long distance database, is constructed from walking data of three healthy subjects who have participated in the short database for an 89 m distance. The experimental results show that the proposed method performs walking distance estimation accurately with the mean error rates of 4.8% and 3.1% for the short and long distance databases, respectively. Moreover, the maximum difference of the swing phase determination with respect to time is 0.08 s and 0.06 s for starting and stopping points of swing phases, respectively. Therefore, the stride counting method provides a highly precise result when subjects walk. PMID:27271634

  2. Stride Counting in Human Walking and Walking Distance Estimation Using Insole Sensors.

    PubMed

    Truong, Phuc Huu; Lee, Jinwook; Kwon, Ae-Ran; Jeong, Gu-Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method of estimating walking distance based on a precise counting of walking strides using insole sensors. We use an inertial triaxial accelerometer and eight pressure sensors installed in the insole of a shoe to record walkers' movement data. The data is then transmitted to a smartphone to filter out noise and determine stance and swing phases. Based on phase information, we count the number of strides traveled and estimate the movement distance. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method, we created two walking databases on seven healthy participants and tested the proposed method. The first database, which is called the short distance database, consists of collected data from all seven healthy subjects walking on a 16 m distance. The second one, named the long distance database, is constructed from walking data of three healthy subjects who have participated in the short database for an 89 m distance. The experimental results show that the proposed method performs walking distance estimation accurately with the mean error rates of 4.8% and 3.1% for the short and long distance databases, respectively. Moreover, the maximum difference of the swing phase determination with respect to time is 0.08 s and 0.06 s for starting and stopping points of swing phases, respectively. Therefore, the stride counting method provides a highly precise result when subjects walk. PMID:27271634

  3. Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M.; Siringan, F. P.; Hori, M.; Okumura, Y.; Banner, J. L.; Lin, K.; Jiang, X.; Taylor, F. W.

    2013-12-01

    Many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate archives capture the response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation, as well as abrupt climate changes such as the Younger Dryas (YD). The response is commonly a direct one in Holocene and YD archives. In the case of insolation, increased summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land, as captured in stalagmite δ18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using maritime stalagmite records from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the Palawan stalagmite δ18O record, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar response to changing insolation and hence, a trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in two partially replicated stalagmite δ18O records is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene, despite the decrease of summer insolation over the Holocene. We interpret the Holocene trend observed at Palawan to be the result of an increase in the maritime monsoon that balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an interpretation that is consistent with previously published results from coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model runs. Seawater δ18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. The direct relationship between monsoon rainfall over land as recorded in the YD interval in Chinese stalagmite records is also observed in maritime monsoon rainfall during the YD at Palawan: both records get drier during the YD cold interval. This agreement between YD stalagmite records from China and Palawan contrasts sharply with the inverse relationship between these records over the Holocene. We further investigate the nature of

  4. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  5. Guide to exporting for US solar companies

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.

    1981-06-01

    Reasons for US solar manufacturers to export are discussed; and, after a descision has been made to export solar equipment and technology, how to export and where to export are primary goals. The manual presents some basic information to answer the how and where. It provides information concerning the services which are currently available to facilitate entry into foreign markets and the basic social, economic, and solar insolation data on over 70 foreign markets are presented. Statistical profile information for the 70 countries include population; per capita income; primary languages, literacy rate; ratio of urban and rural areas; monetary unit; population density; GNP; energy production; energy consumption; energy reserves; trade with US. (MCW)

  6. Why are the Daily Sunspot Observations Interesting? One Observer's Perspective (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, F.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) Daily sunspot counts made for the AAVSO Solar Section may cause the observer to feel in touch with the daily (and longer-term) changes on the sun's surface, and this connection may be more interesting when the solar observer remains aware of the larger solar and geomagnetic environment. The daily sunspot observations may become more interesting when correlated with transient events including solar flares, filaments, coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections that can be followed in near-real time multi-wavelength X-ray and UV solar images as well as particle flux and magnetic field measurements.

  7. Design and experimental testing of the performance of an outdoor LiBr/H{sub 2}O solar thermal absorption cooling system with a cold store

    SciTech Connect

    Agyenim, Francis; Knight, Ian; Rhodes, Michael

    2010-05-15

    A domestic-scale prototype experimental solar cooling system has been developed based on a LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption system and tested during the 2007 summer and autumn months in Cardiff University, UK. The system consisted of a 12 m{sup 2} vacuum tube solar collector, a 4.5 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, a 1000 l cold storage tank and a 6 kW fan coil. The system performance, as well as the performances of the individual components in the system, were evaluated based on the physical measurements of the daily solar radiation, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, mass flow rates and electrical consumption by component. The average coefficient of thermal performance (COP) of the system was 0.58, based on the thermal cooling power output per unit of available thermal solar energy from the 12 m{sup 2} Thermomax DF100 vacuum tube collector on a hot sunny day with average peak insolation of 800 W/m{sup 2} (between 11 and 13.30 h) and ambient temperature of 24 C. The system produced an electrical COP of 3.6. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the new concept of cold store at this scale, with chilled water temperatures as low as 7.4 C, demonstrating its potential use in cooling domestic scale buildings. (author)

  8. Tips for Daily Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Share Plus on Google Plus I Have Alzheimer's Disease alz.org | IHaveAlz I Have Alz Homepage Know ... others living with Alzheimer's back to top The Alzheimer's ... living with the disease, share their personal insights about the daily strategies ...

  9. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  10. Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.; Mathews, John; Manross, Kevin

    1995-12-01

    Calcium K plage, H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored daily on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The plage and sunspot area have been measured by image processing. The purpose of the project is to investigate the degree of correlation between plage area and solar irradiance. The plage variation shows the expected variation produced by solar rotation and the longer secular changes produced by the solar cycle. The H alpha and sunspot plage area reached a minimum in about late 1994 or early 1995. This is in agreement with the K2 spectral index obtained daily from Sacramento Peak Observatory. The Calcium K plage area minimum seems delayed with respect to the others mentioned above. The minimum of the K line plage area is projected to come within the last few months of 1995.

  11. An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamazaki, Y.; Yumoto, K.; Cardinal, M.G.; Fraser, B.J.; Hattori, P.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J.Y.; Lynn, K.J.W.; Marshall, R.; McNamara, D.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nikiforov, V.M.; Otadoy, R.E.; Ruhimat, M.; Shevtsov, B.M.; Shiokawa, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-01-01

    An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation has been constructed based on geomagnetic data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for geomagnetically quiet days (Kp ??? 2+), the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet daily variations (S) and lunar quiet daily variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  13. Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Emphasis was placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ utilizing a unique solar cell array roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5 percent efficiency at 28 C and 100 mW/sq cm insolation are used to generate 10 kW (peak). An all electric home is considered with lead acid battery storage, DC AC inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  14. An Ambulatory System for Gait Monitoring Based on Wireless Sensorized Insoles.

    PubMed

    González, Iván; Fontecha, Jesús; Hervás, Ramón; Bravo, José

    2015-07-09

    A new gait phase detection system for continuous monitoring based on wireless sensorized insoles is presented. The system can be used in gait analysis mobile applications, and it is designed for real-time demarcation of gait phases. The system employs pressure sensors to assess the force exerted by each foot during walking. A fuzzy rule-based inference algorithm is implemented on a smartphone and used to detect each of the gait phases based on the sensor signals. Additionally, to provide a solution that is insensitive to perturbations caused by non-walking activities, a probabilistic classifier is employed to discriminate walking forward from other low-level activities, such as turning, walking backwards, lateral walking, etc. The combination of these two algorithms constitutes the first approach towards a continuous gait assessment system, by means of the avoidance of non-walking influences.

  15. An Ambulatory System for Gait Monitoring Based on Wireless Sensorized Insoles

    PubMed Central

    González, Iván; Fontecha, Jesús; Hervás, Ramón; Bravo, José

    2015-01-01

    A new gait phase detection system for continuous monitoring based on wireless sensorized insoles is presented. The system can be used in gait analysis mobile applications, and it is designed for real-time demarcation of gait phases. The system employs pressure sensors to assess the force exerted by each foot during walking. A fuzzy rule-based inference algorithm is implemented on a smartphone and used to detect each of the gait phases based on the sensor signals. Additionally, to provide a solution that is insensitive to perturbations caused by non-walking activities, a probabilistic classifier is employed to discriminate walking forward from other low-level activities, such as turning, walking backwards, lateral walking, etc. The combination of these two algorithms constitutes the first approach towards a continuous gait assessment system, by means of the avoidance of non-walking influences. PMID:26184199

  16. Optimal Planning Strategy for Large PV/Battery System Based on Long-Term Insolation Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yona, Atsushi; Uchida, Kosuke; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as some of the best alternative energy sources. Usually the power output of PV system fluctuates depending on weather conditions. In order to control the fluctuating power output for PV system, it requires control method of energy storage system. This paper proposes an optimization approach to determine the operational planning of power output for PV system with battery energy storage system (BESS). This approach aims to obtain more benefit for electrical power selling and to smooth the fluctuating power output for PV system. The optimization method applies genetic algorithm (GA) considering PV power output forecast error. The forecast error is based on our previous works with the insolation forecasting at one day ahead by using weather reported data, fuzzy theory and neural network(NN). The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by the computer simulations.

  17. An Ambulatory System for Gait Monitoring Based on Wireless Sensorized Insoles.

    PubMed

    González, Iván; Fontecha, Jesús; Hervás, Ramón; Bravo, José

    2015-01-01

    A new gait phase detection system for continuous monitoring based on wireless sensorized insoles is presented. The system can be used in gait analysis mobile applications, and it is designed for real-time demarcation of gait phases. The system employs pressure sensors to assess the force exerted by each foot during walking. A fuzzy rule-based inference algorithm is implemented on a smartphone and used to detect each of the gait phases based on the sensor signals. Additionally, to provide a solution that is insensitive to perturbations caused by non-walking activities, a probabilistic classifier is employed to discriminate walking forward from other low-level activities, such as turning, walking backwards, lateral walking, etc. The combination of these two algorithms constitutes the first approach towards a continuous gait assessment system, by means of the avoidance of non-walking influences. PMID:26184199

  18. Foot alignments influence the effect of knee adduction moment with lateral wedge insoles during gait.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Tomonori; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Iwamoto, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Yuta; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Kito, Nobuhiro; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Lateral wedge insoles (LWIs) reduce the peak external knee adduction moment (KAM). However, the efficacy of LWIs is limited in certain individuals for whom they fail to decrease KAM. Possible explanations for a lack of desired LWI response are variations in foot alignments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the immediate biomechanical effects of LWIs depend on individual foot alignments during gait. Fifteen healthy adults participated in this study. Their feet were categorized as normal, pronated, and supinated using the foot posture index. All subjects were subsequently requested to perform a normal gait under barefoot and LWI conditions. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to record the kinematic and kinetic data, included peak KAM, KAM impulse (KAAI), center of pressure displacement, and knee-ground reaction force lever arm (KLA). Furthermore, lower limb frontal plane kinematic parameters at the rear foot, ankle, knee, and hip were evaluated. Among all feet, there was no significant difference in the peak KAM and KAAI between the conditions. In contrast, the peak KAM was significantly reduced under the LWI condition relative to the barefoot condition in the normal foot group. Reductions in the peak KAM were correlated with a more lateral center of pressure and reduced KLA. In addition, a reduced KLA was correlated with decreased hip adduction. LWIs significantly reduced the peak KAM in normal feet, indicating that biomechanical effects of LWIs vary between individual foot alignments. Our findings suggest that it is helpful to assess individual foot alignment to ensure adequate insole treatment for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  19. Foot alignments influence the effect of knee adduction moment with lateral wedge insoles during gait.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Tomonori; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Iwamoto, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Yuta; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Kito, Nobuhiro; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Lateral wedge insoles (LWIs) reduce the peak external knee adduction moment (KAM). However, the efficacy of LWIs is limited in certain individuals for whom they fail to decrease KAM. Possible explanations for a lack of desired LWI response are variations in foot alignments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the immediate biomechanical effects of LWIs depend on individual foot alignments during gait. Fifteen healthy adults participated in this study. Their feet were categorized as normal, pronated, and supinated using the foot posture index. All subjects were subsequently requested to perform a normal gait under barefoot and LWI conditions. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to record the kinematic and kinetic data, included peak KAM, KAM impulse (KAAI), center of pressure displacement, and knee-ground reaction force lever arm (KLA). Furthermore, lower limb frontal plane kinematic parameters at the rear foot, ankle, knee, and hip were evaluated. Among all feet, there was no significant difference in the peak KAM and KAAI between the conditions. In contrast, the peak KAM was significantly reduced under the LWI condition relative to the barefoot condition in the normal foot group. Reductions in the peak KAM were correlated with a more lateral center of pressure and reduced KLA. In addition, a reduced KLA was correlated with decreased hip adduction. LWIs significantly reduced the peak KAM in normal feet, indicating that biomechanical effects of LWIs vary between individual foot alignments. Our findings suggest that it is helpful to assess individual foot alignment to ensure adequate insole treatment for patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:27541338

  20. Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M. B.; Siringan, F. P.; Banner, J. L.; lin, K.; Taylor, F. W.

    2012-12-01

    The response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation over the Holocene is recorded in many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate reconstructions. The response is commonly direct; more summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land as captured in stalagmite δ18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using a maritime stalagmite record from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the stalagmite δ18O record from Palawan, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in stalagmite δ18O is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene. Our explanation for the Holocene trend observed at Palawan is that the increase in the maritime monsoon balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an explanation that is consistent with previously published coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model results. Seawater δ18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. However, the decrease in maritime monsoon rainfall during the Younger Dryas at Palawan matches that observed in Chinese stalagmite records, meeting our original expectation of a similar wet season response in the various Asian-Australian monsoon records. One explanation for the similar Younger Dryas response in these monsoon records is the influence of seasonal changes in sea ice coverage, as previously suggested. A stalagmite δ18O record from Borneo (~800 km SE of Palawan), which lacks evidence of the Younger Dryas, provides supporting evidence for this explanation.

  1. A behavioral model for estimating population exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Diffey, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Determining the variability of solar UV exposure of different members of a population by direct measurement demands high compliance over an extended period of time by a large number of people. An alternative approach is to model the variables that affect personal exposure and this is the basis of the method reported here, which uses a random sampling technique to explore variability of exposure at different times of the year by habitués. It is shown that there are large variations in daily personal erythemal exposure, more so for indoor workers living in northern Europe than those resident in Florida, which are due not only to seasonal changes in ambient, but just as importantly to seasonal variation in behavior. Not surprisingly, holiday and summer weekend exposure account for the largest daily UV doses. Northern Europeans who take their summer vacation in Florida can double their exposure during this period compared with holidaying at home and this illustrates just how important sun protection measures should be during recreational exposure in areas of high insolation if the annual UV burden is to be sensibly controlled. PMID:18208455

  2. Spatial synchronization of an insole pressure distribution system with a 3D motion analysis system for center of pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Fradet, Laetitia; Siegel, Johannes; Dahl, Marieke; Alimusaj, Merkur; Wolf, Sebastian I

    2009-01-01

    Insole pressure systems are often more appropriate than force platforms for analysing center of pressure (CoP) as they are more flexible in use and indicate the position of the CoP that characterizes the contact foot/shoe during gait with shoes. However, these systems are typically not synchronized with 3D motion analysis systems. The present paper proposes a direct method that does not require a force platform for synchronizing an insole pressure system with a 3D motion analysis system. The distance separating 24 different CoPs measured optically and their equivalents measured by the insoles and transformed in the global coordinate system did not exceed 2 mm, confirming the suitability of the method proposed. Additionally, during static single limb stance, distances smaller than 7 mm and correlations higher than 0.94 were found between CoP trajectories measured with insoles and force platforms. Similar measurements were performed during gait to illustrate the characteristics of the CoP measured with each system. The distance separating the two CoPs was below 19 mm and the coefficient of correlation above 0.86. The proposed method offers the possibility to conduct new experiments, such as the investigation of proprioception in climbing stairs or in the presence of obstacles.

  3. Accelerated greenhouse gases versus slow insolation forcing induced climate changes in southern South America since the Mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Ana Laura; Silvestri, Gabriel E.; Rojas, Maisa; Tonello, Marcela S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper is a pioneering analysis of past climates in southern South America combining multiproxy reconstructions and the state-of-the-art CMIP5/PMIP3 paleoclimatic models to investigate the time evolution of regional climatic conditions from the Mid-Holocene (MH) to the present. This analysis allows a comparison between the impact of the long term climate variations associated with insolation changes and the more recent effects of anthropogenic forcing on the region. The PMIP3 multimodel experiments suggest that changes in precipitation over almost all southern South America between MH and pre-industrial (PI) times due to insolation variations are significantly larger than those between PI and the present, which are due to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Anthropogenic forcing has been particularly intense over western Patagonia inducing reduction of precipitation in summer, autumn and winter as a consequence of progressively weaker westerly winds over the region, which have moved further poleward, between ca. 35-55°S and have become stronger south of about 50°S. Orbital variations between the MH to the PI period increased insolation over southern South America during summer and autumn inducing warmer conditions in the PI, accentuated by the effect of anthropogenic forcing during the last century. On the other hand, changes in orbital parameters from the MH to the PI period reduced insolation during winter and spring inducing colder conditions, which have been reversed by the anthropogenic forcing.

  4. Shock-absorbing insoles reduce the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries sustained during Royal Marine training.

    PubMed

    House, Carol; Reece, Allyson; Roiz de Sa, Dan

    2013-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries (LLOIs) sustained during Royal Marine training could be reduced by issuing the recruits with shock-absorbing insoles (SAIs) to wear in their military boots. This was a retrospective longitudinal trial conducted in two phases. Injury data from 1,416 recruits issued with standard Saran insoles and 1,338 recruits issued with SAI were compared. The recruits in the two groups were of similar height, body mass, and aerobic fitness and followed the same training course. The incidence of LLOI sustained by the recruits was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group (19.0%) compared to the Saran Insole Group (31.7%). The incidences of lower limb stress fractures, tibial periostitis, tenosynovitis of foot, achilles tendonopathy, other tendonopathy and anterior knee pain were lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group. Tibial stress fracture incidence was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group but metatarsal and femoral stress fracture incidences were the same for the two insole groups. Thus, issuing SAIs to military recruits undertaking a sustained, arduous physical training program with a high incidence of LLOI would provide a beneficial reduction in the incidence of LLOI.

  5. A solar powered vaccine storage refrigerator that can be powered by a single truck battery

    SciTech Connect

    Schlussler, L.

    1999-07-01

    In developing countries, kerosene powered vaccine storage refrigerators are gradually being replaced by PV powered units. The weak link in these solar powered systems is typically the deep cycle battery bank. When the batteries fail, replacements will probably have to be imported. Often the logistics of funding, recycling and transportation of these batteries may be difficult to arrange. Sun Frost has developed a vaccine refrigerator that will run on a single 100 amp battery, an automotive battery if need be. Vaccine is stored in the refrigerator section of these units, while the freezer section is used to freeze ice packs to transport the vaccine. This new dual compressor model keeps the battery bank in a shallow cycle mode by shutting off the freezer compartment when the battery is significantly discharged. The PV system can then keep the refrigerator compartment running while shallow cycling the battery even during the most severe weather conditions. The system operation has been simulated by using daily solar data. Results show that the operation of the freezer will rarely be interrupted. Another advantage is that if this system is installed in a location where insolation levels are lower than expected, the refrigerator compartment will maintain reliable operation for keeping the vaccines cold, while only the freezer's ice making capabilities would be effected.

  6. Effect of posture-control insoles on function in children with cerebral palsy: Randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral palsy (CP) is a posture and movement disorder and different therapeutic modalities, such as the use of braces, have sought to favor selective motor control and muscle coordination in such patients. The aim of the proposed study is to determine the effect of the combination of posture-control insoles and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) improving functional limitation in children with CP. Methods/Design The sample will be composed of 24 children with CP between four and 12 years of age. After the signing of the statement of informed consent, the children will be randomly allocated to two groups: a control group using AFOs alone and an experimental group using both posture-control insoles and AFOs. Evaluations will be performed on five occasions: without any accessory (insoles or AFOs), immediately after, one month after, six months after and one year after AFOs or insole and AFOs use. The evaluation will involve the analysis of gait, static and functional balance, mobility and hypertonia. The three-dimensional assessment of gait will involve the eight-camera SMART-D SMART-D 140® system (BTS Engineering), two Kistler force plates (model 9286BA) and an eight-channel, wireless FREEEMG® electromyography (BTS Engineering). Static balance will be assessed using a Kistler force plate (model 9286BA). Clinical functional balance and mobility will be assessed using the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go Test and Six-Minute Walk Test. The posture-control insoles will be made of ethylene vinyl acetate, with thermal molding for fixation. The fixed orthoses will be made of polypropylene and attached to the ankle region (AFO). The results will be analyzed statistically, with the level significance set to 5% (p < 0.05). Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: RBR6d342s (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/news/) PMID:23033863

  7. Survey of quantitative data on the solar energy and its spectra distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thekaekara, M. P.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of available quantitative data on the total and spectral solar irradiance at ground level and outside the atmosphere. Measurements from research aircraft have resulted in the currently accepted NASA/ASTM standards of the solar constant and zero air mass solar spectral irradiance. The intrinsic variability of solar energy output and programs currently under way for more precise measurements from spacecraft are discussed. Instrumentation for solar measurements and their reference radiation scales are examined. Insolation data available from the records of weather stations are reviewed for their applicability to solar energy conversion. Two alternate methods of solarimetry are briefly discussed.

  8. Ankle motion influences the external knee adduction moment and may predict who will respond to lateral wedge insoles?: an ancillary analysis from the SILK trial

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, G.J.; Parkes, M.J.; Forsythe, L.; Felson, D.T.; Jones, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Lateral wedge insoles are a potential simple treatment for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients by reducing the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). However in some patients, an increase in their EKAM is seen. Understanding the role of the ankle joint complex in the response to lateral wedge insoles is critical in understanding and potentially identifying why some patients respond differently to lateral wedge insoles. Method Participants with medial tibiofemoral OA underwent gait analysis whilst walking in a control shoe and a lateral wedge insole. We evaluated if dynamic ankle joint complex coronal plane biomechanical measures could explain and identify those participants that increased (biomechanical non-responder) or decreased (biomechanical responder) EKAM under lateral wedge conditions compared to the control shoe. Results Of the 70 participants studied (43 male), 33% increased their EKAM and 67% decreased their EKAM. Overall, lateral wedge insoles shifted the centre of foot pressure laterally, increased eversion of the ankle/subtalar joint complex (STJ) and the eversion moment compared to the control condition. Ankle angle at peak EKAM and peak eversion ankle/STJ complex angle in the control condition predicted if individuals were likely to decrease EKAM under lateral wedge conditions. Conclusions Coronal plane ankle/STJ complex biomechanical measures play a key role in reducing EKAM when wearing lateral wedge insoles. These findings may assist in the identification of those individuals that could benefit more from wearing lateral wedge insoles. PMID:25749010

  9. Altering gait by way of stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot: the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles in older fallers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that textured insoles can alter gait and standing balance by way of enhanced plantar tactile stimulation. However, to date, this has not been explored in older people at risk of falling. This study investigated the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles on gait and double-limb standing balance in older fallers. Methods Thirty older adults >65 years (21 women, mean [SD] age 79.0 [7.1]), with self-reported history of ≥2 falls in the previous year, conducted tests of level-ground walking over 10 m (GAITRite system), and double-limb standing with eyes open and eyes closed over 30 seconds (Kistler force platform) under two conditions: wearing textured insoles (intervention) and smooth (control) insoles in their usual footwear. Results Wearing textured insoles caused significantly lower gait velocity (P = 0.02), step length (P = 0.04) and stride length (P = 0.03) compared with wearing smooth insoles. No significant differences were found in any of the balance parameters (P > 0.05). Conclusions A textured insole worn by older adults with a history of falls significantly lowers gait velocity, step length and stride length, suggesting that this population may not have an immediate benefit from this type of intervention. The effects of prolonged wear remain to be investigated. PMID:22546376

  10. The last interglacial climate in EC-Earth - comparing the direct and indirect impacts of the insolation changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker Pedersen, Rasmus; Langen, Peter Lang; Vinther, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The last interglacial warm climate state was influenced by substantial changes in the annual insolation cycle. The impact of the insolation changes has been investigated using a time-slice simulation with the EC-Earth earth system model. The model climate was forced with the insolation and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from 125,000 years before present, and the resulting quasi-equilibrium state has been analyzed and compared to a pre-industrial climate state. The simulations indicate an annual mean global warming of approximately 1 K. The tropical region exhibits lower temperatures and stronger monsoonal systems, while the Arctic region shows a warming of about 3 K throughout the year. Arctic sea ice changes appear to be an important driver of warming, especially in relation to a northward shift of the ice edge in the North Atlantic region. Proxy data from ice and ocean sediment cores indicate substantial warming in parts of the North Atlantic region that could be related to similar sea ice changes. The relative importance of the sea ice and sea surface temperature changes and the direct contribution from the insolation is further investigated using a series of experiments in an atmosphere-only version of the model. Based on the results from the coupled model, we assess the relative contributions using hybrid simulations of the atmospheric response to a combination of last interglacial sea surface temperatures and sea ice conditions and pre-industrial insolation, and vice versa. Special attention is given to the simulated response over the Greenland ice sheet and the potential implications for proxy data from ice cores. Both temperature and precipitation changes could impact the ice core records, and the seasonal and spatial changes over Greenland are analyzed in detail. At the NEEM ice core location, a general warming tendency is accompanied by an increase of summer snowfall that contributes to a further increase of the precipitation

  11. A comparison of customised and prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration: a participant-blinded randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration may be prevented if the mechanical stress transmitted to the plantar tissues is reduced. Insole therapy is one practical method commonly used to reduce plantar loads and ulceration risk. The type of insole best suited to achieve this is unknown. This trial compared custom-made functional insoles with prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for ulceration of neuropathic diabetic feet. Method A participant-blinded randomised controlled trial recruited 119 neuropathic participants with diabetes who were randomly allocated to custom-made functional or prefabricated insoles. Data were collected at issue and six month follow-up using the F-scan in-shoe pressure measurement system. Primary outcomes were: peak pressure, forefoot pressure time integral, total contact area, forefoot rate of load, duration of load as a percentage of stance. Secondary outcomes were patient perceived foot health (Bristol Foot Score), quality of life (Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life). We also assessed cost of supply and fitting. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results There were no differences between insoles in peak pressure, or three of the other four kinetic measures. The custom-made functional insole was slightly more effective than the prefabricated insole in reducing forefoot pressure time integral at issue (27% vs. 22%), remained more effective at six month follow-up (30% vs. 24%, p=0.001), but was more expensive (UK £656 vs. £554, p<0.001). Full compliance (minimum wear 7 hours a day 7 days per week) was reported by 40% of participants and 76% of participants reported a minimum wear of 5 hours a day 5 days per week. There was no difference in patient perception between insoles. Conclusion The custom-made insoles are more expensive than prefabricated insoles evaluated in this trial and no better in reducing peak pressure. We recommend that where clinically appropriate, the more cost effective prefabricated insole

  12. An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  13. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  14. Insolation driven biomagnetic response to the Holocene Warm Period in semi-arid East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Suzhen; Deng, Chenglong; Xiao, Jule; Li, Jinhua; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Liao; Yi, Liang; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2015-01-01

    The Holocene Warm Period (HWP) provides valuable insights into the climate system and biotic responses to environmental variability and thus serves as an excellent analogue for future global climate changes. Here we document, for the first time, that warm and wet HWP conditions were highly favourable for magnetofossil proliferation in the semi-arid Asian interior. The pronounced increase of magnetofossil concentrations at ~9.8 ka and decrease at ~5.9 ka in Dali Lake coincided respectively with the onset and termination of the HWP, and are respectively linked to increased nutrient supply due to postglacial warming and poor nutrition due to drying at ~6 ka in the Asian interior. The two-stage transition at ~7.7 ka correlates well with increased organic carbon in middle HWP and suggests that improved climate conditions, leading to high quality nutrient influx, fostered magnetofossil proliferation. Our findings represent an excellent lake record in which magnetofossil abundance is, through nutrient availability, controlled by insolation driven climate changes. PMID:25614046

  15. Investigations on postural stability and spatiotemporal parameters of human gait using developed wearable smart insole.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratan; Kumar, Neelesh

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of spatiotemporal parameters of human gait is important for designing new, intelligent and efficient prosthetic and orthotic devices. The paper presents a novel application of smart insole for measuring force generated at various pressure points during dynamic gait on a human foot. Besides recording and analysing the spatiotemporal parameters during stance phase, the developed sensor is also used for development of active orthotic devices. Data from the sensors is analysed in LabVIEW software for detection of plantar force and temporal gait parameters. The smart instrumentation allows processing, display and storage of gait parameters and gait events in real time. Variations of pressure pattern reported by gait experiments can also be used in identifying an accidental fall. This information will be used as a feedback signal for controlling the motion of an indigenously developed gait assistive device, i.e. an active orthotic device. Pressure at the heel and great toe points is higher than the metatarsal heads during dynamic walk. It is higher at the heel and metatarsals points than the toe point during standing position.

  16. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenneth L

    2005-10-13

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago.

  18. Insolation driven biomagnetic response to the Holocene Warm Period in semi-arid East Asia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suzhen; Deng, Chenglong; Xiao, Jule; Li, Jinhua; Paterson, Greig A; Chang, Liao; Yi, Liang; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2015-01-23

    The Holocene Warm Period (HWP) provides valuable insights into the climate system and biotic responses to environmental variability and thus serves as an excellent analogue for future global climate changes. Here we document, for the first time, that warm and wet HWP conditions were highly favourable for magnetofossil proliferation in the semi-arid Asian interior. The pronounced increase of magnetofossil concentrations at ~9.8 ka and decrease at ~5.9 ka in Dali Lake coincided respectively with the onset and termination of the HWP, and are respectively linked to increased nutrient supply due to postglacial warming and poor nutrition due to drying at ~6 ka in the Asian interior. The two-stage transition at ~7.7 ka correlates well with increased organic carbon in middle HWP and suggests that improved climate conditions, leading to high quality nutrient influx, fostered magnetofossil proliferation. Our findings represent an excellent lake record in which magnetofossil abundance is, through nutrient availability, controlled by insolation driven climate changes.

  19. The engineering analysis of solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. S.; Hamilton, C. L.; Hester, O. V.

    1978-01-01

    A necessary precursor to construction of well-designed, efficient, and economically viable solar energy systems is the engineering analysis not only of the systems themselves but also of the solar radiation that will drive them. This paper presents the first steps in such an analysis to support the design of solar thermal power systems. A rationale for development of an integrated approach to this analysis is outlined, and elements of the approach are described. A dynamic computer simulation of a conceptual system was employed in an initial sensitivity analysis to explore how performance estimates might be affected by the precision and amount of detail in solar radiation data used as model input. A measurement program, including instrumentation, used to characterize precisely and in detail the solar resource at one location is described as is a probabilistic model derived from it, for predicting insolation as a function of time.

  20. Physical Behavior in Older Persons during Daily Life: Insights from Instrumented Shoes.

    PubMed

    Moufawad El Achkar, Christopher; Lenoble-Hoskovec, Constanze; Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Major, Kristof; Büla, Christophe; Aminian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Activity level and gait parameters during daily life are important indicators for clinicians because they can provide critical insights into modifications of mobility and function over time. Wearable activity monitoring has been gaining momentum in daily life health assessment. Consequently, this study seeks to validate an algorithm for the classification of daily life activities and to provide a detailed gait analysis in older adults. A system consisting of an inertial sensor combined with a pressure sensing insole has been developed. Using an algorithm that we previously validated during a semi structured protocol, activities in 10 healthy elderly participants were recorded and compared to a wearable reference system over a 4 h recording period at home. Detailed gait parameters were calculated from inertial sensors. Dynamics of physical behavior were characterized using barcodes that express the measure of behavioral complexity. Activity classification based on the algorithm led to a 93% accuracy in classifying basic activities of daily life, i.e., sitting, standing, and walking. Gait analysis emphasizes the importance of metrics such as foot clearance in daily life assessment. Results also underline that measures of physical behavior and gait performance are complementary, especially since gait parameters were not correlated to complexity. Participants gave positive feedback regarding the use of the instrumented shoes. These results extend previous observations in showing the concurrent validity of the instrumented shoes compared to a body-worn reference system for daily-life physical behavior monitoring in older adults. PMID:27527172

  1. Physical Behavior in Older Persons during Daily Life: Insights from Instrumented Shoes

    PubMed Central

    Moufawad el Achkar, Christopher; Lenoble-Hoskovec, Constanze; Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Major, Kristof; Büla, Christophe; Aminian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Activity level and gait parameters during daily life are important indicators for clinicians because they can provide critical insights into modifications of mobility and function over time. Wearable activity monitoring has been gaining momentum in daily life health assessment. Consequently, this study seeks to validate an algorithm for the classification of daily life activities and to provide a detailed gait analysis in older adults. A system consisting of an inertial sensor combined with a pressure sensing insole has been developed. Using an algorithm that we previously validated during a semi structured protocol, activities in 10 healthy elderly participants were recorded and compared to a wearable reference system over a 4 h recording period at home. Detailed gait parameters were calculated from inertial sensors. Dynamics of physical behavior were characterized using barcodes that express the measure of behavioral complexity. Activity classification based on the algorithm led to a 93% accuracy in classifying basic activities of daily life, i.e., sitting, standing, and walking. Gait analysis emphasizes the importance of metrics such as foot clearance in daily life assessment. Results also underline that measures of physical behavior and gait performance are complementary, especially since gait parameters were not correlated to complexity. Participants gave positive feedback regarding the use of the instrumented shoes. These results extend previous observations in showing the concurrent validity of the instrumented shoes compared to a body-worn reference system for daily-life physical behavior monitoring in older adults. PMID:27527172

  2. Theoretical Variation of Solar Radiation in a Tropical Mountain Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flórez Botero, L. Z.; Ochoa, A.; Jiménez, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Solar radiation over the earth's surface varies in response to global factors such as the atmosphere and the relative movement of Earth around the sun, and local factors related to the earth's surface features and topography. The aim of this study is to know the effect of local factors in spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation in a tropical mountain valley in Colombia. We estimated the potential solar radiation on simplified schemes of valleys by the means of theoretical exercises with different slopes and aspects for further analysis. Despite the closeness of the studied area to the line of Ecuador where the annual variation of radiation is almost zero we detected some differences. Changes were found in solar radiation on different valley schemes in terms of hours of sunshine and total energy that reaches the surface depending on the slope, the orientation of the slopes and the diurnal variation of the solar altitude angle. Results suggest that different aspects lead changes in the annual insolation up to 4 MJ / m2 on June and a lag of about two hours in the diurnal cycle of insolation in the southeast (135°) and northwest (315°) facing peaks with the highest radiation around 8 hours after sunrise. The annual variation cycle, related to the slope, does not show major changes, but the diurnal cycle of the cells with the major slope has the lower insolation with a maximum of about one hour before the other cells. Finally, a better understanding of the real dynamics of sunshine in the Valley of Aburrá - Colombia is possible knowing the variation of the annual cycle and the diurnal cycle of insolation in a synthetic valley reliant on the different aspects and slopes allows. This represents an opportunity to improve urban planning and rural productive activities that depends directly on the availability of energy.

  3. [Clinical relevance of unloading in cartilage therapy of the knee--shoe insoles, knee braces or additional operative procedure?].

    PubMed

    Kraus, T M; Imhoff, A B; Ateschrang, A; Stöckle, U; Schröter, S

    2015-02-01

    Restoration of a neutral biomechanical environment and reduction of overload is an important factor contributing to the success of any cartilage repair procedure. Reduction of overload can by achieved by so called unloading procedures in order to reduce intraarticular pressure from the repair zone. Unloading can be achieved via loss of weight, wedged shoe insoles, knee braces or via operations such as osteotomies around the knee joint. The cartilage therapy and the concomitant unloading procedure should be adapted to the individual pathology and realistic aims of the patient. Wedged insoles and braces are the least invasive treatment methods. In comparison, however, beneficial effects of braces outline those of laterally wedged heels. Nevertheless long-term compliance with insoles and braces is poor. Concerning braces either because the positive effects of the braces are too small or because the adverse effects are too large. Unloading in the long run may only be achieved through operative procedures. When an osteotomy seems to be too invasive the arthroscopic release of the posterior oblique ligament might be an option. Patients with an intact contralateral chondral status, medium to slight malalignment who want to remain at high activity levels, remain good candidates for unloading osteotomies.

  4. Climatic and insolation control on the high-resolution total air content in the NGRIP ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicher, Olivier; Baumgartner, Matthias; Schilt, Adrian; Schmitt, Jochen; Schwander, Jakob; Stocker, Thomas F.; Fischer, Hubertus

    2016-10-01

    Because the total air content (TAC) of polar ice is directly affected by the atmospheric pressure and temperature, its record in polar ice cores was initially considered as a proxy for past ice sheet elevation changes. However, the Antarctic ice core TAC record is known to also contain an insolation signature, although the underlying physical mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Here we present a high-resolution TAC record over the whole North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core, covering the last 120 000 years, which independently supports an insolation signature in Greenland. Wavelet analysis reveals a clear precession and obliquity signal similar to previous findings on Antarctic TAC, with a different insolation history. In our high-resolution record we also find a decrease of 4-6 % (4-5 mL kg-1) in TAC as a response to Dansgaard-Oeschger events (DO events). TAC starts to decrease in parallel to increasing Greenland surface temperature and slightly before CH4 reacts to the warming but also shows a two-step decline that lasts for several centuries into the warm interstadial. The TAC response is larger than expected considering only changes in air density by local temperature and atmospheric pressure as a driver, pointing to a transient firnification response caused by the accumulation-induced increase in the load on the firn at bubble close-off, while temperature changes deeper in the firn are still small.

  5. The effects of total contact insole with forefoot medial posting on rearfoot movement and foot pressure distributions in patients with flexible flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Tang, Simon Fuk-Tan; Chen, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chih-Kuan; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chen, Chih-Kuang

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of total contact insole with forefoot medial posting (TCIFMP) orthosis in patients with flexible flatfoot. The TCIFMP insole was custom- mode, made from semi-rigid plastazote and PPT. Using the gait analysis and the plantar-pressure measure systems, we investigate rearfoot motion and plantar pressure redistribution in these patients. The results of this study showed that the excessive valgus movement of the rearfoot can be reduced significantly by the TCIFMP insole in these patients. Besides, there were significant decreases in the peak pressure under the toe, lateral metatarsal, lateral foot and heel areas. Therefore, we suggested that the TCIFMP insole is an effective orthotic device for rearfoot motion control, plantar pressure reduction and re-distribution in patients with flexible flatfoot.

  6. Destruction of Sun-Grazing Comet C-2011 N3 (SOHO) Within the Low Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Brown, J. C.; Battams, K.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Liu, W.; Hudson, H.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of comets in Sun-grazing orbits that survive solar insolation long enough to penetrate into the Suns inner corona provide information on the solar atmosphere and magnetic field as well as on the makeup of the comet. On 6 July 2011, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observed the demise of comet C2011 N3 (SOHO) within the low solar corona in five wavelength bands in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The comet penetrated to within 0.146 solarradius (100,000 kilometers) of the solar surface before its EUV signal disappeared.

  7. Fast adjustment of the climate system to changes in atmospheric CO2 and solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.; Bala, G.

    2011-12-01

    A key issue in the study of global climate change is the climate response to external forcing. When radiative forcing is applied to the climate system, the climate system starts to respond, resulting in changes in temperature and other fields. A new quasi-equilibrium climate state is achieved when the global mean net energy balance at the top-of-atmosphere returns to zero. The adjustment of the climate system is governed by different processes on different timescales. Within days to months, the climate system adjusts mainly to the imposed forcing and the change of land surface temperature. On longer timescale of years to centuries, when the ocean temperature starts to respond, changes in sea surface temperature exert a strong control on the adjustment of the climate system. By performing ensemble simulations using Hadley Center climate model, HadCM3L, we investigate climate system response to the applied forcing in the forms of additional atmospheric carbon dioxide and an increase in solar insolation. Both carbon dioxide and solar forcing affects the Earth's radiation balance and carbon dioxide also affects the climate system through its impact on plant stomata. We focus on the daily evolution of climate response within a timescale of one month over land and oceans. We will provide a mechanistic understanding of why increasing atmospheric CO2 causes a reduction in global-mean precipitation in the absence of sea surface temperature change. We will also discuss the adjustment of radiative forcing and the usefulness in radiative forcing as a predictor of equilibrium climate change. A discussion of the climate response from daily to millennium timescale will also be presented.

  8. Summer insolation is the primary driver for orbital-scale dust storm variability in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serno, Sascha; Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Kienast, Stephanie S.; Haug, Gerald H.

    2016-04-01

    Eolian dust plays an important role in the global climate system through its influence on radiation, albedo and precipitation properties, and through delivering micronutrients like iron to the oceans. Glacial periods of Earth's climate are recognized to be dustier than interglacials, but the conditions leading to greater dust mobilization are poorly defined. We present a high-resolution dust flux record based on 230Th-normalised 4He flux from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 882 in the Subarctic North Pacific covering the last 170,000 years. Today, dust storms in the vast dry regions of East Asia are almost exclusively springtime phenomena, due to a specific set of climate conditions driven by the seasonal evolution of the meridional temperature gradient between high and low latitudes. The dust flux record points to high dust storm activity in East Asia during cold periods, with highest dust flux during Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 5d. We interpret periods of higher dust supply as the result of an expansion of the dust season into the summer, primarily controlled by reduced summer insolation at high latitudes and resulting lower air temperatures in Siberia over orbital timescales. Changes in the extent of the large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets in North America and Fennoscandinavia, and atmospheric teleconnections, act as a secondary control. On millennial timescales, the occurrence of Heinrich Stadials 1 and 11 signals during the last two terminations in Subarctic North Pacific dust records indicates that dust flux variability over millennial timescales was influenced by climate changes in the North Atlantic.

  9. A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, J.; Robutel, P.; Joutel, F.; Gastineau, M.; Correia, A. C. M.; Levrard, B.

    2004-12-01

    We present here a new solution for the astronomical computation of the insolation quantities on Earth spanning from -250 Myr to 250 Myr. This solution has been improved with respect to La93 (Laskar et al. \\cite{Laskar1993}) by using a direct integration of the gravitational equations for the orbital motion, and by improving the dissipative contributions, in particular in the evolution of the Earth-Moon System. The orbital solution has been used for the calibration of the Neogene period (Lourens et al. \\cite{Lourens2004}), and is expected to be used for age calibrations of paleoclimatic data over 40 to 50 Myr, eventually over the full Palaeogene period (65 Myr) with caution. Beyond this time span, the chaotic evolution of the orbits prevents a precise determination of the Earth's motion. However, the most regular components of the orbital solution could still be used over a much longer time span, which is why we provide here the solution over 250 Myr. Over this time interval, the most striking feature of the obliquity solution, apart from a secular global increase due to tidal dissipation, is a strong decrease of about 0.38 degree in the next few millions of years, due to the crossing of the s6+g5-g6 resonance (Laskar et al. \\cite{Laskar1993}). For the calibration of the Mesozoic time scale (about 65 to 250 Myr), we propose to use the term of largest amplitude in the eccentricity, related to g2-g5, with a fixed frequency of 3.200''/yr, corresponding to a period of 405 000 yr. The uncertainty of this time scale over 100 Myr should be about 0.1%, and 0.2% over the full Mesozoic era.

  10. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  11. Results from a test facility for solar cells in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedstrom, J.; Kallback, B.; Sigurd, D.

    Climatological and design characteristics of the Swedish solar cell test station are presented, together with theoretical models for determining cell operating parameters. On-line data is collected on insolation, voltages, and panel temperatures, with the capability thus far applied to simultaneous testing of six cell modules. The system is equipped for 1 kW of input. The modules are removed once a year for cleaning and inspection to reveal defective cells and measure performance in a solar simulator. Power losses to date have been 4-5 pct due to dust and 3-4 pct due to snow cover, which occurs in winter when little insolation is available. Optimization of the voltage load has resulted in annual cell outputs within 96 pct of that projected for a peak power tracking mode.

  12. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  13. Influence of the Solar Luminosity on the Glaciations, sea Level Changes and Resulting Earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shopov, Y. Y.; Stoykova, D. A.; Tsankov, L. T.; Sanabria, M. E.; Georgieva, D. I.; Ford, D. C.; Georgiev, L. N.

    2002-12-01

    Glaciations were attributed to variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). But the best ever dated paleoclimatic record (from Devils Hole, Nevada) demonstrated that the end of the last glacial period (termination II) happened 10 000 years before the one suggested by the orbital variations, i.e. the result appeared before the reason. This fact suggests that there is something wrong in the theory. Calcite speleothems luminescence of organics depends exponentially upon soil temperatures that are determined primarily by the solar radiation. So the microzonality of luminescence of speleothems may be used as an indirect Solar Insolation (radiation) proxy index. We obtained luminescence solar insolation proxy records in speleothems (from Jewel Cave, South Dakota, US and Duhlata cave, Bulgaria). These records exhibit very rapid increasing of the solar insolation at 139 kyrs BP responsible for the termination II (the end of the last glaciation) and demonstrate that solar luminosity variations contribute to Earth's heating almost as much as the orbital variations of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). The most powerful cycle of the solar luminosity (11500 yrs) is responsible for almost 1/2 of the variations in solar insolation experimental records. Changes in the speed of Earth's rotation during glacial- interglacial transitions produce fracturing of the Earth's crust and major earthquakes along the fractures. The intensity of this process is as higher as faster is the change of the sea level and as higher is its amplitude. Glaciations and deglaciations drive changes of the sea level. Much higher dimensions of this process should be caused by eruptive increasing of solar luminosity, which may be caused only by collision of large asteroids with the Sun. We demonstrate that such collision may cause "Bible Deluge" type of event.

  14. Three computer codes to read, plot and tabulate operational test-site recorded solar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, S. D.; Sampson, R. S., Jr.; Stonemetz, R. E.; Rouse, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Computer programs used to process data that will be used in the evaluation of collector efficiency and solar system performance are described. The program, TAPFIL, reads data from an IBM 360 tape containing information (insolation, flowrates, temperatures, etc.) from 48 operational solar heating and cooling test sites. Two other programs, CHPLOT and WRTCNL, plot and tabulate the data from the direct access, unformatted TAPFIL file. The methodology of the programs, their inputs, and their outputs are described.

  15. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  16. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, V.E.; Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  17. Solar radiation: absence of air pollution trends at Mauna Loa.

    PubMed

    Ellis, H T; Pueschel, R F

    1971-05-21

    Measurements of solar radiation made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, over a period of 13 years give no evidence that human activities affect atmospheric turbidity on a global scale. Short-term fluctuations in insolation appear to be associated with naturally produced tropospheric aerosols. The intrusion of volcanic dust into the stratosphere results in prolonged increases in atmospheric opacity due to the extended residence times of aerosols in the stratosphere. PMID:5572907

  18. Development and testing of shingle-type solar cell molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F.

    1978-01-01

    The details of a shingle module design which produces in excess of 97 watts/sq m of module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and at 60 C are reported. This selected design employs a tempered glass coverplate to provide the primary solar cell structural support. The fabrication and testing of a preproduction module of this design has demonstrated that this selected approach will meet the environmental testing requirements imposed by the contract.

  19. Estimating solar radiation for plant simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, T.; French, V.; Leduc, S.

    1985-01-01

    Five algorithms producing daily solar radiation surrogates using daily temperatures and rainfall were evaluated using measured solar radiation data for seven U.S. locations. The algorithms were compared both in terms of accuracy of daily solar radiation estimates and terms of response when used in a plant growth simulation model (CERES-wheat). Requirements for accuracy of solar radiation for plant growth simulation models are discussed. One algorithm is recommended as being best suited for use in these models when neither measured nor satellite estimated solar radiation values are available.

  20. The Nonlinear Response of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean-Atmosphere System to Periodic Variations in Insolation and its Association with the Abrupt Climate Transitions during the Quaternary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    The evidences of climate changes during the Quaternary are abundant but the physical mechanisms behind the climate transitions are controversial. The theory of Milankovitch takes into account the periodic orbital variations and the solar radiation received by the Earth as the main explanation for the glacial-interglacial cycles. However, some gaps in the theory still remain. In this study, we propose elucidating some of these gaps by approaching the Equatorial Pacific Ocean as a large oscillator, capable of triggering climate changes in different temporal scales. A mathematical model representing El Ninõ-like phenomena, based on Duffing equation and modulated by the astronomical cycle of 100 ka, was used to simulate the variability of the equatorial Pacific climate system over the last 2 Ma. The physical configuration of the Pacific Ocean, expressed in the equation, explains the temporal limit of the glacial-interglacial cycles. According to the simulation results, consistent with paleoclimate records, the amplification of the effects of the gradual variation of the Earth's orbit eccentricity - another unclear question - is due to the feedback mechanism of the Pacific ocean-atmosphere system, which responds non-linearly to small variations in insolation forcing and determines the ENSO-like phase (warm or cold) at different time scales and different intensities. The approach proposed here takes into account that the abrupt transitions between the ENSO-like phases, and the consequent changes in the sea surface temperature (SST) along the Equatorial Pacific Ocean, produce reactions that act as secondary causes of the temperature fluctuations that result in a glaciation (or deglaciation) - as the drastic change on the rate of evaporation/precipitation around the globe, and the increase (or decrease) of the atmospheric CO2 absorption by the phytoplankton. The transitional behavior between the warm and the cold phases, according to the presented model, is enhanced as

  1. Effects of insolation on habitability and the isotopic history of Martian water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John

    Three aspects of the Habitability of the Northern Plains of Mars to organics and terrestrial-like microbial life were assessed. (1) Protection offered by small surface features and; (2) the breakdown of rocks to form soils were examined using a radiative transfer computer model. Two separate sublimation experiments provided a basis to improve; (3) estimates of the amount of available water today and in the past by determining the fractionation of HDO between present-day reservoirs. (1) UV radiation sterilizes the hardiest of terrestrial organisms within minutes on the Martian surface. Small surface features including pits, trenches, flat faces and overhangs may create "safe havens" for organisms by blocking much of the UV flux. In the most favorable cases, this flux is sufficiently reduced such that organic in-fall could accumulate beneath overhanging surfaces and in pits and cracks while terrestrial microorganisms could persist for several tens of martian years. (2) The production of soils on the surface is considered by analogy with the arid US Southwest. Here differential insolation of incipient cracks of random orientations predicts crack orientation distributions consistent with field observations by assuming that only crack orientations which shield their interiors, minimizing their water loss, can grow, eventually disrupting the clast. (3) Disaggregated water ice to simulate the polar caps was produced by flash freezing in liquid nitrogen and crushing. When dust was added to the mixtures, the D/H ratio of the sublimate gas was seen to decrease with time from the bulk ratio. The more dust was added to the mixture, the more pronounced was this effect. The largest fractionation factor observed during these experiments was 2.5. Clean ice was also prepared and overlain by dust to simulate ground ice. Here, the movement of water vapor was modeled using an effective diffusivity that incorporated both adsorption on grains and diffusion. For low temperatures (<-55

  2. Solar Pumped Lasers and Their Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1980, NASA has been pursuing high power solar lasers as part of the space power beaming program. Materials in liquid, solid, and gas phases have been evaluated against the requirements for solar pumping. Two basic characteristics of solar insolation, namely its diffuse irradiance and 5800 K blackbody-like spectrum, impose rather stringent requirements for laser excitation. However, meeting these requirements is not insurmountable as solar thermal energy technology has progressed today, and taking advantage of solar pumping lasers is becoming increasingly attractive. The high density photons of concentrated solar energy have been used for mainly electric power generation and thermal processing of materials by the DOE Solar Thermal Technologies Program. However, the photons can interact with materials through many other direct kinetic paths, and applications of the concentrated photons could be extended to processes requiring photolysis, photosynthesis, and photoexcitation. The use of solar pumped lasers on Earth seems constrained by economics and sociopolitics. Therefore, prospective applications may be limited to those that require use of quantum effects and coherency of the laser in order to generate extremely high value products and services when conventional and inexpensive means are ineffective or impossible. The new applications already proposed for concentrated solar photons, such as destruction of hazardous waste, production of renewable fuel, production of fertilizer, and air/water pollution controls, may benefit from the use of inexpensive solar pumped laser matched with the photochemical kinetics of these processes.

  3. Solar pumped lasers and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ja H.

    Since 1980, NASA has been pursuing high power solar lasers as part of the space power beaming program. Materials in liquid, solid, and gas phases have been evaluated against the requirements for solar pumping. Two basic characteristics of solar insolation, namely its diffuse irradiance and 5800 K blackbody-like spectrum, impose rather stringent requirements for laser excitation. However, meeting these requirements is not insurmountable as solar thermal energy technology has progressed today, and taking advantage of solar pumping lasers is becoming increasingly attractive. The high density photons of concentrated solar energy have been used for mainly electric power generation and thermal processing of materials by the DOE Solar Thermal Technologies Program. However, the photons can interact with materials through many other direct kinetic paths, and applications of the concentrated photons could be extended to processes requiring photolysis, photosynthesis, and photoexcitation. The use of solar pumped lasers on Earth seems constrained by economics and sociopolitics. Therefore, prospective applications may be limited to those that require use of quantum effects and coherency of the laser in order to generate extremely high value products and services when conventional and inexpensive means are ineffective or impossible. The new applications already proposed for concentrated solar photons, such as destruction of hazardous waste, production of renewable fuel, production of fertilizer, and air/water pollution controls, may benefit from the use of inexpensive solar pumped laser matched with the photochemical kinetics of these processes.

  4. The Sub-Daily Distribution of Snowmelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, R.; Gooseff, M. N.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The hydrologic cycle in many mountainous headwaters around the world have snowmelt dominated hydrographs. In addition to water resources for communities and ecosystems, high rates of snowmelt can cause flooding that results in damages to infrastructure. The standard in the United States flood forecasting looks primarily at rainfall estimates but lacks estimates for high rates of snowmelt in regions such as the Southern Rocky Mountains. Recent studies have shown that events such as a 10 year 24 hour snowmelt event is as much as 45% greater than the same recurrence interval rain event. Additionally, this 24 hour snowmelt likely occurs over a much shorter time period due to snowmelt being primarily driven by solar radiation. This study presents and tests a sub-daily temporal distribution of snowmelt. The snowmelt distribution presented herein is tested against hourly data for known daily melt rates from snow telemetry (SNOTEL) stations, and then for conditions when weekly or bi-weekly snow loss is known. It is additionally utilized for modeling a one-dimensional soil profile for infiltration across the soil-snow interface. The intent of this study is to create a less computationally intensive method than the mass energy approach and improve upon the simple degree-day method for the representation of snowmelt at sub-daily time steps. This can be used for streamflow, groundwater recharge, soil moisture distribution, and other land surface modeling efforts. Results of the study display strong agreement with hourly SNOTEL data from Colorado Front Range stations for an assumed 8-hour melt period. Peak flow estimates from snowmelt driven floods could be estimated from long-term datasets to calculate frequency of these flood events. Further application of this sub-daily distribution of snowmelt could be for partially or fully glaciated watersheds with modifications for differences in latitude and/or elevation causing longer or shorter periods of melt per day.

  5. A smart pressure-sensitive insole that reminds you to walk correctly: an orthotic-less treatment for over pronation.

    PubMed

    Berengueres, Jose; Fritschi, Michael; McClanahan, Ray

    2014-01-01

    We equipped an insole with a force sensor that can detect in real time when a foot over pronates. When such behavior is detected, we warn the user so they can correct their posture by using their own muscles. The effectiveness of this novel way to correct over pronation posture is evaluated over a two-week period. The use of vibrotactile feedback reduces over pronation by 30% to 50% during the first week. The natural benefits of the proposed method vs. use of passive orthotics are also presented. PMID:25570495

  6. Projected techno-economic improvements for advanced solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Manvi, R.; Roschke, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The projected characteristics of solar thermal power plants (with outputs up to 10 MWe) employing promising advanced technology subsystems/components are compared to current (or pre-1985) steam-Rankine systems. Improvements accruing to advanced technology development options are delineated. The improvements derived from advanced systems result primarily from achieving high efficiencies via solar collector systems which (1) capture a large portion of the available insolation and (2) concentrate this captured solar flux to attain high temperatures required for high heat engine/energy conversion performance. The most efficient solar collector systems employ two-axis tracking. Attractive systems include the central receiver/heliostat and the parabolic dish.

  7. Solar excitation of CdS/Cu2S photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boer, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Solar radiation of five typical clear weather days and under a variety of conditions is used to determine the spectral distribution of the photonflux at different planes of a CdS/Cu2S solar cell. The fractions of reflected and absorbed flux are determined at each of the relevant interfaces and active volume elements of the solar cell. The density of absorbed photons is given in respect to spectral and spatial distribution. The variance of the obtained distribution, with changes in insolation and absorption spectra of the active solar cell layers, is indicated. A catalog of typical examples is given in the appendix.

  8. Ash loading and insolation at Hanford, Washington during and after the eruption of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laulainen, N. S.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of volcanic ash suspended in the atmosphere on the incident solar radiation was monitored at the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) subsequent to the major eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980. Passage of the ash plume over Hanford resulted in a very dramatic decrease of solar radiation intensity to zero. A reduction in visibility to less than 1 km was observed, as great quantities of ash fell out of the plume onto the ground. Ash loading in the atmosphere remained very high for several days following the eruption, primarily as a result of resuspension from the surface. Visibilities remained low (2 to 8 km) during this period. Estimates of atmospheric turbidity were made from the ratio of diffuse-to-direct solar radiation; these turbidities were used to estimate extinction along a horizontal path, a quantity which can be related to visibility. Comparisons of observed and estimated visibilities were very good, in spite of the rather coarse approximations used in the estimates. Atmospheric clarity and visibility improved to near pre-eruption conditions following a period of rain showers. The diffuse-to-direct ratio of solar radiation provided a useful index for estimating volcanic ash loading of the atmosphere.

  9. Kinetic and kinematic changes with the use of valgus knee brace and lateral wedge insoles in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fantini Pagani, Cynthia H; Hinrichs, Maren; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2012-07-01

    The effect of a valgus knee brace and a lateral wedged insole on knee and ankle kinematics and kinetics was evaluated in ten patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). The knee orthosis was tested in two valgus adjustments (4° and 8°), and the laterally wedged insole was fabricated with an inclination of 4°. A motion capture system and force platforms were used for data collection and joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics. The valgus moment applied by the orthosis was also measured using a strain gauge implemented in the orthosis' rotational axis. For the second peak knee adduction moment, decreases of 18%, 21%, and 7% were observed between baseline and test conditions for the orthosis in 4° valgus, in 8° valgus, and insole, respectively. Similar decreases were observed for knee lever arm in the frontal plane. Knee adduction angular impulse decreased 14%, 18%, and 7% from baseline to conditions for the orthosis in 4° valgus, in 8° valgus, and insole, respectively. Knee angle in the frontal plane reached a more valgus position during gait using the valgus knee brace. The valgus moment applied by the orthosis with 8° valgus adjustment was 30% higher than with 4° valgus adjustment. The valgus knee orthosis was more effective than the laterally wedged insole in reducing knee adduction moment in patients with medial knee OA.

  10. Reconciling Consumer and Utility Objectives in the Residential Solar PV Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michael R.

    Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet that growing trend will be influenced multiple competing interests between various stakeholders, namely the utility, consumers and technology provides. This study provides a series of analyses---utility-side, consumer-side, and combined analyses---to understand and evaluate the effect of increases in residential solar PV market penetration. Three urban regions have been selected as study locations---Chicago, Phoenix, Seattle---with simulated load data and solar insolation data at each locality. Various time-of-use pricing schedules are investigated, and the effect of net metering is evaluated to determine the optimal capacity of solar PV and battery storage in a typical residential home. The net residential load profile is scaled to assess system-wide technical and economic figures of merit for the utility with an emphasis on intraday load profiles, ramp rates and electricity sales with increasing solar PV penetration. The combined analysis evaluates the least-cost solar PV system for the consumer and models the associated system-wide effects on the electric grid. Utility revenue was found to drop by 1.2% for every percent PV penetration increase, net metering on a monthly or annual basis improved the cost-effectiveness of solar PV but not battery storage, the removal of net metering policy and usage of an improved the cost-effectiveness of battery storage and increases in solar PV penetration reduced the system load factor. As expected, Phoenix had the most favorable economic scenario for residential solar PV, primarily due to high solar insolation. The study location---solar insolation and load profile---was also found to affect the time of year at which the largest net negative system load was realized.

  11. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

    2013-07-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient.

  12. Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Daily Activity in Terms of Ground Reaction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T. (Inventor); Breit, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to record and analyze habitual daily activity in terms of the history of gait-related musculoskeletal loading is disclosed. The device consists of a pressure-sensing insole placed into the shoe or embedded in a shoe sole, which detects contact of the foot with the ground. The sensor is coupled to a portable battery-powered digital data logger clipped to the shoe or worn around the ankle or waist. During the course of normal daily activity, the system maintains a record of time-of-occurrence of all non-spurious foot-down and lift-off events. Off line, these data are filtered and converted to a history of foot-ground contact times, from which measures of cumulative musculoskeletal loading, average walking- and running-specific gait speed, total time spent walking and running, total number of walking steps and running steps, and total gait-related energy expenditure are estimated from empirical regressions of various gait parameters to the contact time reciprocal. Data are available as cumulative values or as daily averages by menu selection. The data provided by this device are useful for assessment of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health and risk factors associated with habitual patterns of daily activity.

  13. Insolation and Resulting Surface Temperatures of the Kuiper-Rudaki Study Region on Mercury.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Karin E.; Hiesinger, Harald; D'Amore, Mario; Helbert, Jörn; Weinauer, Julia

    2016-04-01

    The imaging spectrometer MERTIS (Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer) is part of the payload of ESA's BepiColombo mission, which is scheduled for launch in 2017 [1]. The instrument consists of an IR-spectrometer and radiometer, which observe the surface in the wavelength range of 7-14 and 7-40μm, respectively. The four scientific objectives are to a) study Mercury's surface composition, b) identify rock-forming minerals, c) globally map the surface mineralogy and d) study surface temperature and thermal inertia [1, 2]. In preparation of the MERTIS experiment, we performed detailed thermal models of the lunar surface, which we extrapolated to Mercury. In order to calculate insolation and surface temperatures, we use a numerical model, which has been described by [7]. Surface temperatures are dependent on the surface and subsurface bulk thermophysical properties, such as bulk density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, emissivity, topography, and albedo. Lunar and Mercurian surface temperatures show the same general characteristics. Both have very steep temperature gradients at sunrise and sunset, due to the lack of an atmosphere. However, there are major differences due to the orbital characteristics. On Mercury the 3:2 resonant rotation rate and the eccentric orbit causes local noon at longitudes 0° and 180° to coincide with perihelion, which leads to "hot poles". At longitudes 90° and 270° , local noon coincides with aphelion, which results in "cold poles" [8]. At these longitudes brief secondary sunrises and sunsets are visible, when Mercury's orbital angular velocity exceeds the spin rate during perihelion [8]. Here we present diurnal temperature curves of the Kuiper-Rudaki study region, based on thermophysical estimates and MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging [9]) albedo data with a resolution of 1000m/px. Our study region spans more than 90° along the equator, thus allowing us to study both, hot and

  14. Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  15. Influence of pressure-relief insoles developed for loaded gait (backpackers and obese people) on plantar pressure distribution and ground reaction forces.

    PubMed

    Peduzzi de Castro, Marcelo; Abreu, Sofia; Pinto, Viviana; Santos, Rubim; Machado, Leandro; Vaz, Mario; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this study were to test the effects of two pressure relief insoles developed for backpackers and obese people on the ground reaction forces (GRF) and plantar pressure peaks during gait; and to compare the GRF and plantar pressures among normal-weight, backpackers, and obese participants. Based on GRF, plantar pressures, and finite element analysis two insoles were manufactured: flat cork-based insole with (i) corkgel in the rearfoot and forefoot (SLS1) and with (ii) poron foam in the great toe and lateral forefoot (SLS2). Gait data were recorded from 21 normal-weight/backpackers and 10 obese participants. The SLS1 did not influence the GRF, but it relieved the pressure peaks for both backpackers and obese participants. In SLS2 the load acceptance GRF peak was lower; however, it did not reduce the plantar pressure peaks. The GRF and plantar pressure gait pattern were different among the normal-weight, backpackers and obese participants.

  16. Riding the Wave to Reach the Masses: Natural Events in Early Twentieth Century Portuguese Daily Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula

    2012-01-01

    This paper brings together science communicated in newspapers in Portugal by looking at how news on natural events were communicated in two different newspapers--the capital newspaper "Diario de Noticias" ("Daily News") and the "Diario dos Acores" ("Azores Daily"). In particular, we look at how the 1900 solar eclipse, a hot topic throughout…

  17. Prescriptive proprioceptive insoles and dental orthotics change the frontal plane position of the atlas (C1), mastoid, malar, temporal, and sphenoid bones: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rothbart, Brian A

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this series of case studies was to determine if the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas could be altered using dental orthotics, prescriptive insoles, or both concurrently. The cranial radiographs of four patients were reviewed for the study. Three of the patients were diagnosed as having a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction and a preclinical clubfoot deformity. The fourth patient was diagnosed as having a TMJ dysfunction, a preclinical clubfoot deformity and a Catetgory II sacral occipital subluxation, as designated in the chiropractic's Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT). Each patient had a series of four cranial radiographs taken using a modified orthogonal protocol. In two patients, improvement towards orthogonal was achieved when using both prescriptive dental orthotics and prescriptive insoles concurrently. Improvement towards orthogonal was less apparent when using only the prescriptive dental orthotic. No improvement or a negative frontal plane shift was noted when using only the prescriptive proprioceptive insoles. In the third patient, the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas increased (away from orthogonal) when using the generic proprioceptive insoles alone or in combination with a prescriptive dental orthotic. In the fourth patient, the frontal plane position of the cranial bones improved using the dental orthotic. However, the proprioceptive insoles, when used alone or in combination with the dental orthotic, increased the frontal plane position of the cranial bones and atlas. This study demonstrates that changes in the frontal plane position of the cranial and atlas bones can occur when using proprioceptive insoles and/or dental orthotics.

  18. Criteria for the evaluation of laser solar energy converter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Assuming that a parabolic insolation-collection mirror-based solar pumped laser has a collector and heat emitter whose weights are proportional to their areas, and that the weight of the laser is negligible by comparison, the output power/unit weight can be expressed in terms of the efficiencies and working temperatures of the system. This ratio appears to be several times higher for an IBr laser than for one operating on C3F7I, because the solar utilization efficiency is greater for the former despite its lower working temperature.

  19. Value of thermal storage in solar IPH systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hock, S.M.; Karpuk, M.E.

    1980-12-01

    The value of thermal storage for three solar industrial process heat systems has been determined for storage capacities of 3 to 4000 hours. The dominant source of storage value is backup fuel savings with additional value derived from increased capital equipment utilization and elimination. A computer simulation was used to model the operation of the solar IPH system and predict the amount of fuel saved by heat delivered from storage. Sensitivity of storage value to process temperature, collector cost, load profile, insolation, and storage efficiency have been calculated. Storage values ranged from near zero to as high as $42/kWh of storage capacity.

  20. Solar Radiation Modeling and Measurements for Renewable Energy Applications: Data and Model Quality; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.

    2003-03-01

    Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software and for outdoor pyranometer calibrations is outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data.

  1. Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

  2. A Comparison of Ground Reaction Forces Determined by Portable Force-Plate and Pressure-Insole Systems in Alpine Skiing

    PubMed Central

    Nakazato, Kosuke; Scheiber, Peter; Müller, Erich

    2011-01-01

    For the determination of ground reaction forces in alpine skiing, pressure insole (PI) systems and portable force plate (FP) systems are well known and widely used in previous studies. The purposes of this study were 1) to provide reference data for the vertical component of the ground reaction forces (vGRF) during alpine skiing measured by the PI and FP systems, and 2) to analyze whether the differences in the vGRF measured by the PI and the FP depend on a skier’s level, skiing mode and pitch. Ten expert and ten intermediate level skiers performed 10 double turns with the skiing technique “Carving in Short Radii” as High Dynamic Skiing mode and “Parallel Ski Steering in Long Radii” as Low Dynamic Skiing mode on both the steep (23 °) and the flat (15 °) slope twice. All subjects skied with both the PI and the FP system simultaneously. During the outside phase, the mean vGRF and the maximum vGRF determined by the FP are greater than the PI (p < 0.01). Additionally during the inside phase, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01). During the edge changing phases, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01). However, the minimum vGRF during the edge changing phases determined by the FP were smaller than the PI (p < 0.01) in the High-Steep skiing modes of Experts and Intermediates (p < 0.001). We have found that generally, the PI system underestimates the total vGRF compared to the FP system. However, this difference depends not only the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing), but also is affected by the skier’s level, the skiing mode performed and pitch. Key points Typically, during the steering phases of the ski turns the total vGRFs measured by the pressure-insole system were lower compared to the portable force-plate system. However, in some skiing modes during the edge changing phase, the pressure-insole system overestimates the total vGRF compared to the portable force-plate system

  3. Test-retest reliability of an insole plantar pressure system to assess gait along linear and curved trajectories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have assessed reliability of insole technology for evaluating foot pressure distribution during linear walking. Since in natural motion straight walking is intermingled with turns, we determined the test-retest reliability of insole assessment for curved as well as linear trajectories, and estimated the minimum number of steps required to obtain excellent reliability for each output variable. Methods Sixteen young healthy participants were recruited. Each performed, two days apart, two sessions of three walking conditions: linear (LIN) and curved, clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW). The Pedar-X system was used to collect pressure distribution. Foot print was analyzed both as a whole and as subdivided into eight regions: medial and lateral heel, medial and lateral arch, I metatarsal head, II-V metatarsal heads, hallux, lateral toes. Reliability was assessed by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for clinically relevant variables from analysis of 50 steps per trajectory: Peak Force (PF); Peak Pressure (PP); Contact Area (CA); Stance Duration (S). Results When considering whole-foot, all variables showed an ICC >0.80, therefore highly reliable. This was true for both LIN and curved trajectories. There was no difference in ICC of the four variables between left and right foot. When collapsing foot and trajectories, S had a lower ICC than PP and CA, and PP lower than CA. Mean percent error between the values of first and second session was <5%. When separately considering the eight foot regions, ICCs of PF, PP and CA for all regions and trajectories were generally >0.90, indicating excellent reliability. In curved trajectories, S showed smaller ICCs. Since the least ICC value for S was 0.60 in LIN trajectory, we estimated that to achieve an ICC ≥0.90 more than 200 steps should be collected. Conclusions High reliability of insole dynamic variables (PF, PP, CA) is obtained with 50 steps using the Pedar-X system. On the

  4. Calibration standards and field instruments for the precision measurement of insolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. S.; Berdahl, C. M.; Kendall, J. M., Sr.

    1978-01-01

    The design of a fieldworthy survey instrument based on a developed radiation calibration standard is discussed. The radiometer system, a fieldworthy modification of Pacrad, is an all-weather solar radiometer, and a field test is described which demonstrates the instrument's stability in severe environments over an extended period of time. It is suggested that the instrument may be considered a transfer standard as well as a radiometer. It is hoped that future modifications might reduce the 15-deg view angle and improve the tracking system to eliminate weekly manual declination adjustments.

  5. Design of landfill daily cells.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the daily cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where daily soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large daily cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill.

  6. Experience with a grid-interactive solar photovoltaic electric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, S. I.; Benson, C. M.

    A water/glycol-cooled solar photovoltaic array used at Mississippi County (Arkansas) Community College is described, and preliminary results from systems checkout are given. The system has a rated output of 240 kW in summer (with 845 W/sq m insolation at 30 C), and delivers 11.5 million BTU of heat output in winter. Excess power is diverted into the local utility power grid. Preliminary tests indicate that single row output is 3300 W with 904 W/sq m insolation, whereas 5.33 kW/row is expected. However, by realigning position sensors for the tracking drives, readjusting the focal position of the receivers, and cleaning reflectors and cell faces, a 60% increase in output should occur.

  7. Solar Energy Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Last year the people of Cleveland, Ohio were troubled by natural gas shortages during one of the coldest winters on record. The severe winter generated a great deal of interest in solar energy as an alternative source of heat. Home owners, home builders and civic officials wanted to know just how much solar energy is available in Cleveland. Now they get a daily report through the city's news media, from information supplied as a community service by NASA's Lewis Research Center. Lewis routinely makes daily measurements of solar energy as part of its continuing research in behalf of the Department of Energy. The measuring device is a sun sensor called a pyranometer (upper photo) located atop a building at the NASA Center. To make the information conveniently available to news media, Lewis developed a Voice Output Integrating Insolometer, an automated system that acquires information from the sun sensor and translates it into a recorded telephone message. The Lewis pyranometer collects sun data for 15 hours daily and measures the total solar energy yield. For reporting to the public, the information is electronically converted to a specific reading. A media representative calling in gets a voice-synthesized announcement of a two or three digit number; the number corresponds to the kilowatt-hours of solar energy that would be available to a typical 500-square-foot solar collector system. Response in Cleveland has been favorable and interest is developing in other parts of the country.

  8. Winter to Spring Transition in Europe 48-45 degrees N: From Temperature Control by Advection to Control by Insolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Hu, H.; Jusem, J. C.; Starr, D.

    1999-01-01

    As established in previous studies, and analyzed further herein for the years 1988-1998, warm advection from the North Atlantic is the predominant control of the surface-air temperature in northern-latitude Europe in late winter. This thesis is supported by the substantial correlation Cti between the speed of the southwesterly surface winds over the eastern North Atlantic, as quantified by a specific Index Ina, and the 2-meter level temperature Ts over central Europe (48-54 deg N; 5-25 deg E), for January, February and early March. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation Cti drops drastically (quite often it is negative). The change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature. As (a) the sun rises higher in the sky, (b) the snows melt (the surface absorptivity can increase by a factor of 3.0), (c) the ocean-surface winds weaken, and (d) the temperature difference between land and ocean (which we analyze) becomes small, absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control of the continental temperature. We define the onset of spring by this transition, which evaluated for the period of our study occurs at pentad 16 (Julian Date 76, that is, March 16). The control by insolation means that the surface is cooler under cloudy conditions than under clear skies. This control produces a much smaller interannual variability of the surface temperature and of the lapse rate than prevailing in winter, when the control is by advection. Regional climatic data would be of greatest value for agriculture and forestry if compiled for well-defined seasons. For continental northern latitudes, analysis presented here of factors controlling the surface temperature appears an appropriate tool for this task.

  9. A Multi-Stage Human Factors and Comfort Assessment of Instrumented Insoles Designed for Use in a Connected Health Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard; Quinlan, Leo R.; Glynn, Liam; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Scharf, Thomas; Carenas, Carlos; Reixach, Elisenda; Garcia, Joan; Carrabina, Jordi; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2015-01-01

    Wearable electronics are gaining widespread use as enabling technologies, monitoring human physical activity and behavior as part of connected health infrastructures. Attention to human factors and comfort of these devices can greatly positively influence user experience, with a subsequently higher likelihood of user acceptance and lower levels of device rejection. Here, we employ a human factors and comfort assessment methodology grounded in the principles of human-centered design to influence and enhance the design of an instrumented insole. A use case was developed and interrogated by stakeholders, experts, and end users, capturing the context of use and user characteristics for the instrumented insole. This use case informed all stages of the design process through two full design cycles, leading to the development of an initial version 1 and a later version 2 prototype. Each version of the prototype was subjected to an expert human factors inspection and controlled comfort assessment using human volunteers. Structured feedback from the first cycle of testing was the driver of design changes implemented in the version 2 prototype. This prototype was found to have significantly improved human factors and comfort characteristics over the first version of the prototype. Expert inspection found that many of the original problems in the first prototype had been resolved in the second prototype. Furthermore, a comfort assessment of this prototype with a group of young healthy adults showed it to be indistinguishable from their normal footwear. This study demonstrates the power and effectiveness of human factors and comfort assessment methodologies in influencing and improving the design of wearable devices. PMID:26694468

  10. A Multi-Stage Human Factors and Comfort Assessment of Instrumented Insoles Designed for Use in a Connected Health Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Harte, Richard; Quinlan, Leo R; Glynn, Liam; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Scharf, Thomas; Carenas, Carlos; Reixach, Elisenda; Garcia, Joan; Carrabina, Jordi; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2015-12-16

    Wearable electronics are gaining widespread use as enabling technologies, monitoring human physical activity and behavior as part of connected health infrastructures. Attention to human factors and comfort of these devices can greatly positively influence user experience, with a subsequently higher likelihood of user acceptance and lower levels of device rejection. Here, we employ a human factors and comfort assessment methodology grounded in the principles of human-centered design to influence and enhance the design of an instrumented insole. A use case was developed and interrogated by stakeholders, experts, and end users, capturing the context of use and user characteristics for the instrumented insole. This use case informed all stages of the design process through two full design cycles, leading to the development of an initial version 1 and a later version 2 prototype. Each version of the prototype was subjected to an expert human factors inspection and controlled comfort assessment using human volunteers. Structured feedback from the first cycle of testing was the driver of design changes implemented in the version 2 prototype. This prototype was found to have significantly improved human factors and comfort characteristics over the first version of the prototype. Expert inspection found that many of the original problems in the first prototype had been resolved in the second prototype. Furthermore, a comfort assessment of this prototype with a group of young healthy adults showed it to be indistinguishable from their normal footwear. This study demonstrates the power and effectiveness of human factors and comfort assessment methodologies in influencing and improving the design of wearable devices.

  11. A Multi-Stage Human Factors and Comfort Assessment of Instrumented Insoles Designed for Use in a Connected Health Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Harte, Richard; Quinlan, Leo R; Glynn, Liam; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Scharf, Thomas; Carenas, Carlos; Reixach, Elisenda; Garcia, Joan; Carrabina, Jordi; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2015-01-01

    Wearable electronics are gaining widespread use as enabling technologies, monitoring human physical activity and behavior as part of connected health infrastructures. Attention to human factors and comfort of these devices can greatly positively influence user experience, with a subsequently higher likelihood of user acceptance and lower levels of device rejection. Here, we employ a human factors and comfort assessment methodology grounded in the principles of human-centered design to influence and enhance the design of an instrumented insole. A use case was developed and interrogated by stakeholders, experts, and end users, capturing the context of use and user characteristics for the instrumented insole. This use case informed all stages of the design process through two full design cycles, leading to the development of an initial version 1 and a later version 2 prototype. Each version of the prototype was subjected to an expert human factors inspection and controlled comfort assessment using human volunteers. Structured feedback from the first cycle of testing was the driver of design changes implemented in the version 2 prototype. This prototype was found to have significantly improved human factors and comfort characteristics over the first version of the prototype. Expert inspection found that many of the original problems in the first prototype had been resolved in the second prototype. Furthermore, a comfort assessment of this prototype with a group of young healthy adults showed it to be indistinguishable from their normal footwear. This study demonstrates the power and effectiveness of human factors and comfort assessment methodologies in influencing and improving the design of wearable devices. PMID:26694468

  12. Providing daily updated weather data for online risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petritsch, R.; Hasenauer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Daily weather data are an important constraint for diverse applications in ecosystem research. In particular, temperature and precipitation are the main drivers for forest ecosystem productivity. Mechanistic modeling theory heavily relies on daily values for minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, incident solar radiation and vapor pressure. These data are usually provided by interpolation techniques using measured values from surrounding stations or weather generators based on monthly mean values. One well-known and frequently used software packages is DAYMET which was adapted and validated for Austrian purposes. The calculation includes the interpolation of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation based on near-by measurements and the subsequent extrapolation of incident solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit based on the temperature and precipitation values. The Austrian version of DAYMET uses daily weather data from more than 400 measuring stations all over Austria from 1960 to 2005. Due to internal procedures of DAYMET daily values for a whole year are estimated together; thus, the update of the database may only be done with full year records. Whether this approach convenient for retrospective modeling studies risk assessment (e.g. drought stress, forest fire, insect outbreaks) needs a higher update frequency than a full year. At best the measurements would be available immediately after they are taken. In practice the update frequency is limited by the operational provision of daily weather data. The aim of this study is to implement a concept for providing daily updated weather data as it could be used for continuous risk assessment. First we built a new climate database containing all available daily measurements. It is based on a well-established Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and may be accessed and extended using the Standard Query Language (SQL). Secondly, we re-implemented the interpolation logic for temperature

  13. Tractor Operation and Daily Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, J. M.; And Others

    Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

  14. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  15. The effect of different types of insoles or shoe modifications on medial loading of the knee in persons with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard K; Chapman, Graham J; Parkes, Matthew J; Forsythe, Laura; Felson, David T

    2015-11-01

    Many conservative treatments exist for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) which aims to reduce the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). The objective of this study was to determine the difference between different shoes and lateral wedge insoles on EKAM, knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort when walking in individuals with medial knee OA. Seventy individuals with medial knee OA underwent three-dimensional walking gait analysis in five conditions (barefoot, control shoe, typical wedge, supported wedge, and mobility shoe) with pain and comfort recorded concurrently. The change in EKAM, KAAI, external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort were assessed using multiple linear regressions and pairwise comparisons. Compared with the control shoe, lateral wedge insoles and barefoot walking significantly reduced early stance EKAM and KAAI. The mobility shoe showed no effect. A significant reduction in latter stance EKAM was seen in the lateral wedge insoles compared to the other conditions, with only the barefoot condition reducing the external knee flexion moment. However, the mobility shoe showed significant immediate knee pain reduction and improved comfort scores. Different lateral wedge insoles show comparable reductions in medial knee loading and in our study, the mobility shoe did not affect medial loading.

  16. The effect of different types of insoles or shoe modifications on medial loading of the knee in persons with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Graham J.; Parkes, Matthew J.; Forsythe, Laura.; Felson, David T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many conservative treatments exist for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) which aims to reduce the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). The objective of this study was to determine the difference between different shoes and lateral wedge insoles on EKAM, knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort when walking in individuals with medial knee OA. Seventy individuals with medial knee OA underwent three‐dimensional walking gait analysis in five conditions (barefoot, control shoe, typical wedge, supported wedge, and mobility shoe) with pain and comfort recorded concurrently. The change in EKAM, KAAI, external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort were assessed using multiple linear regressions and pairwise comparisons. Compared with the control shoe, lateral wedge insoles and barefoot walking significantly reduced early stance EKAM and KAAI. The mobility shoe showed no effect. A significant reduction in latter stance EKAM was seen in the lateral wedge insoles compared to the other conditions, with only the barefoot condition reducing the external knee flexion moment. However, the mobility shoe showed significant immediate knee pain reduction and improved comfort scores. Different lateral wedge insoles show comparable reductions in medial knee loading and in our study, the mobility shoe did not affect medial loading. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1646–1654, 2015. PMID:25991385

  17. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  18. Solar Village--Educational Initiative for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Ilyian, Salman; Toren, Zehava; Anabosi, Fawzi

    2003-01-01

    Explains a model of a solar village in the context of the school which does not contribute to air pollution by using only solar energy. Suggests that pupils would be active participants in building systems and understanding the contact between the knowledge of the basic science of solar energy and the technology processes in daily life.…

  19. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Jensen, R. N.; Knoll, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. A 1,180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row were calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every five minutes using a minicomputer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  20. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Knoll, R. H.; Jensen, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. An 1180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row are calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every 5 minutes using a mini-computer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  1. Residential heating costs: a comparison of geothermal, solar and conventional resources

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1980-08-01

    The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, cimate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

  2. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  3. Conceptual design of a solar cogeneration facility at Pioneer Mill Co. , Ltd

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Results are reported of a conceptual design study of the retrofit of a solar central receiver system to an existing cogeneration facility at a Hawaii raw sugar factory. Background information on the site, the existing facility, and the project organization is given. Then the results are presented o the work to select the site specific configuration, including the working fluid, receiver concept, heliostat field site, and the determination of the solar facility size and of the role of thermal storage. The system selected would use water-steam as its working fluid in a twin-cavity receiver collecting sunlight from 41,420 m/sup 2/ of heliostat mirrors. The lates version of the system specification is appended, as are descriptions of work to measure site insolation and a site insolation mathematical model and interface data for the local utility. (LEW)

  4. Karasek Home, Blackstone, Massachusetts solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Nov. 1981 - Mar. 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, M.

    1982-06-01

    The Karasek Home is a single family Massachusetts residence whose active-solar-energy system is equipped with 640 square feet of trickle-down liquid flat-plate collectors, storage in a 300-gallon tank and a 2000-gallon tank embedded in a rock bin in the basement, and an oil-fired glass-lined 40-gallon domestic hot water tank for auxiliary water and space heating. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the collector, storage, space heating, and domestic hot water subsystems. For each month a graph is presented of collector array efficiency versus the difference between the inlet water temperature and ambient temperature divided by insolation. Typical system operation is illustrated by graphs of insolation and temperatures at different parts of the system versus time for a typical day. The typical system operating sequence for a day is also graphed as well as solar energy utilization and heat losses.

  5. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX Model

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    SOLARFLUX is a geographical information system (GIS) based computer program (running under ARC/INFO and GRID) that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. A convenient user interface allows specification of program parameters including latitude, time interval for simulation, file name of a topographic surface, atmospheric conditions (transmittivity), and file names for output. The user specifies a topographic surface as an array of elevation values (GRID). SOLARFLUX generates five basic types of output: 1) total direct radiation, 2) duration of direct sunlight, 3) total diffuse radiation, 4) skyview factor, and 5) hemispherical viewsheds of sky obstruction for specified surface locations. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modeling insolation on complex surfaces, our theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modeling.

  6. Observability of market daily volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  7. Awareness of Daily Life Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris

    The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and daily routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.

  8. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Contemporary Newman, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    An economic evaluation of performance of the solar energy system (based on life cycle costs versus energy savings) for five cities considered to be representative of a broad range of environmental and economic conditions in the United States is discussed. The considered life cycle costs are: hardware, installation, maintenance, and operating costs for the solar unique components of the total system. The total system takes into consideration long term average environmental conditions, loads, fuel costs, and other economic factors applicable in each of five cities. Selection criteria are based on availability of long term weather data, heating degree days, cold water supply temperature, solar insolation, utility rates, market potential, and type of solar system.

  9. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Contemporary Newman, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An economic evaluation of performance of the solar energy system (based on life cycle costs versus energy savings) for five cities considered to be representative of a broad range of environmental and economic conditions in the United States is discussed. The considered life cycle costs are: hardware, installation, maintenance, and operating costs for the solar unique components of the total system. The total system takes into consideration long term average environmental conditions, loads, fuel costs, and other economic factors applicable in each of five cities. Selection criteria are based on availability of long term weather data, heating degree days, cold water supply temperature, solar insolation, utility rates, market potential, and type of solar system.

  10. Electric power - Photovoltaic or solar dynamic?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Hallinan, G. J.; Hieatt, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the power system for supplying the Space Station with insolation-generated electricity is the main Phase B task at NASA-Lewis Center. The advantages and limitations of two types of power systems, the photovoltaic arrays (PV) and the solar dynamic system (SD), are discussed from the points of view of cost, overall systems integration, and growth. Subsystems of each of these options are described, and a sketch of a projected SD system is shown. The PV technology is well developed and proven, but its low efficiency calls for solar arrays of large areas, which affect station dynamics, control, and drag compensation. The SD systems would be less costly to operate than VP, and are more efficient, needing less deployed area. The major drawback of the SD is its infancy. The conservative and forgiving designs for some of its components must still be created and tested, and the development risks assessed.

  11. Biologically effective dose of solar ultraviolet radiation estimated by spore dosimetry in Tokyo since 1980.

    PubMed

    Munakata, N

    1993-09-01

    The biologically effective dose of solar UV radiation has been measured in Tokyo since 1980 using Bacillus subtilis spores. To determine the cumulative dose in a half day, several samples of UV-sensitive spores were exposed in successive intervals from the solar-noon time. Because fluence-survival curves were exponential, the number of lethal hits received by the spores was calculated for each interval and termed inactivation dose (ID). The total number of hits obtained in a half day (half-day ID) was correlated with the amount of global insolation by a power-function regression. The regression analyses were performed for the data collected on 35 days from 1980 to 1986 and for the data collected on 53 days from 1989 to 1991. The latter data set yielded significantly larger estimates of half-day ID relative to the insolation than the former. These analyses suggested that the biologically effective dose relative to the insolation increased about 30% at some time in the later part of 1980s at this location. Changes of solar activity, air pollution and stratospheric ozone layer were considered as potentially responsible for this increase, but identification of the causative factors requires further efforts.

  12. A novel tool for continuous fracture aftercare - Clinical feasibility and first results of a new telemetric gait analysis insole.

    PubMed

    Braun, Benedikt J; Bushuven, Eva; Hell, Rebecca; Veith, Nils T; Buschbaum, Jan; Holstein, Joerg H; Pohlemann, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Weight bearing after lower extremity fractures still remains a highly controversial issue. Even in ankle fractures, the most common lower extremity injury no standard aftercare protocol has been established. Average non weight bearing times range from 0 to 7 weeks, with standardised, radiological healing controls at fixed time intervals. Recent literature calls for patient-adapted aftercare protocols based on individual fracture and load scenarios. We show the clinical feasibility and first results of a new, insole embedded gait analysis tool for continuous monitoring of gait, load and activity. Ten patients were monitored with a new, independent gait analysis insole for up to 3 months postoperatively. Strict 20 kg partial weight bearing was ordered for 6 weeks. Overall activity, load spectrum, ground reaction forces, clinical scoring and general health data were recorded and correlated. Statistical analysis with power analysis, t-test and Spearman correlation was performed. Only one patient completely adhered to the set weight bearing limit. Average time in minutes over the limit was 374 min. Based on the parameters load, activity, gait time over 20 kg weight bearing and maximum ground reaction force high and low performers were defined after 3 weeks. Significant difference in time to painless full weight bearing between high and low performers was shown. Correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between weight bearing and clinical scoring as well as pain (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Score rs=0.74; Olerud-Molander Score rs=0.93; VAS pain rs=-0.95). Early, continuous gait analysis is able to define aftercare performers with significant differences in time to full painless weight bearing where clinical or radiographic controls could not. Patient compliance to standardised weight bearing limits and protocols is low. Highly individual rehabilitation patterns were seen in all patients. Aftercare protocols should be adjusted to real

  13. Progressing Deployment of Solar Photovoltaic Installations in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Calvin Lee

    2011-07-01

    This dissertation evaluates the likelihood of solar PV playing a larger role in national and state level renewable energy portfolios. I examine the feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays on college campuses, the financials associated with large-scale solar PV arrays and finally, the influence of environmental, economic, social and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays in the United States. Chapter two investigates the challenges and feasibility of college campuses adopting a net-zero energy policy. Using energy consumption data, local solar insolation data and projected campus growth, I present a method to identify the minimum sized solar PV array that is required for the City College campus of the Los Angeles Community College District to achieve net-zero energy status. I document how current energy demand can be reduced using strategic demand side management, with remaining energy demand being met using a solar PV array. Chapter three focuses on the financial feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays, using the proposed City College campus array as an example. I document that even after demand side energy management initiatives and financial incentives, large-scale solar PV arrays continue to have ROIs greater than 25 years. I find that traditional financial evaluation methods are not suitable for environmental projects such as solar PV installations as externalities are not taken into account and therefore calls for development of alternative financial valuation methods. Chapter four investigates the influence of environmental, social, economic and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays across the United States using ZIP code level data from the 2000 US Census. Using data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Open PV project, I document where residential solar PVs are currently located. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was run to evaluate the influence of selected variables

  14. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  15. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  16. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-07-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  17. Regional Per Capita Solar Electric Footprint for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2007-12-01

    In this report, we quantify the state-by-state per-capita 'solar electric footprint' for the United States. We use state-level data on population, electricity consumption, economic activity and solar insolation, along with solar photovoltaic (PV) array packing density data to develop a range of estimates of the solar electric footprint. We find that the solar electric footprint, defined as the land area required to supply all end-use electricity from solar photovoltaics, is about 181 m2 per person in the United States. Two key factors that influence the magnitude of the state-level solar electric footprint include how industrial energy is allocated (based on location of use vs. where goods are consumed) and the assumed distribution of PV configurations (flat rooftop vs. fixed tilt vs. tracking). The solar electric footprint is about 0.6% of the total land area of the United States with state-level estimates ranging from less than 0.1% for Wyoming to about 9% for New Jersey. We also compare the solar electric footprint to a number of other land uses. For example, we find that the solar electric footprint is equal to less than 2% of the land dedicated to cropland and grazing in the United States.

  18. Terrestrial cooling and solar variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agee, E. M.

    1982-01-01

    Observational evidence from surface temperature records is presented and discussed which suggests a significant cooling trend over the Northern Hemisphere from 1940 to the present. This cooling trend is associated with an increase of the latitudinal gradient of temperature and the lapse rate, as predicted by climate models with decreased solar input and feedback mechanisms. Evidence suggests that four of these 80- to 100-year cycles of global surface temperature fluctuation may have occurred, and in succession, from 1600 to the present. Interpretation of sunspot activity were used to infer a direct thermal response of terrestrial temperature to solar variability on the time scale of the Gleissberg cycle (90 years, an amplitude of the 11-year cycles). A physical link between the sunspot activity and the solar parameter is hypothesized. Observations of sensible heat flux by stationary planetary waves and transient eddies, as well as general circulation modeling results of these processes, were examined from the viewpoint of the hypothesis of cooling due to reduced insolation.

  19. Performance tests and efficiency analysis of Solar Invictus 53S - A parabolic dish solar collector for direct steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Umer; Ali, Wajahat

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on Solar Invictus 53S `system'; an economically effective solar steam generation solution designed and developed by ZED Solar Ltd. The system consists of a dual axis tracking parabolic solar dish and bespoke cavity type receiver, which works as a Once Through Solar Steam Generator `OTSSG' mounted at the focal point of the dish. The overall performance and efficiency of the system depends primarily on the optical efficiency of the solar dish and thermal efficiency of the OTSSG. Optical testing performed include `on sun' tests using CCD camera images and `burn plate' testing to evaluate the sunspot for size and quality. The intercept factor was calculated using a colour look-back method to determine the percentage of solar rays focused into the receiver. Solar dish tracking stability tests were carried out at different times of day to account for varying dish elevation angles and positions, movement of the sunspot centroid was recorded and logged using a CCD camera. Finally the overall performance and net solar to steam efficiency of the system was calculated by experimentally measuring the output steam parameters at varying Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) levels at ZED Solar's test facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Thermal losses from OTSSG were calculated using the known optical efficiency and measured changes in output steam enthalpy.

  20. Daily cycles in coastal dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

  1. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  2. Formation of gullies on Mars: link to recent climate history and insolation microenvironments implicate surface water flow origin.

    PubMed

    Head, James W; Marchant, David R; Kreslavsky, Mikhail A

    2008-09-01

    Features seen in portions of a typical midlatitude Martian impact crater show that gully formation follows a geologically recent period of midlatitude glaciation. Geological evidence indicates that, in the relatively recent past, sufficient snow and ice accumulated on the pole-facing crater wall to cause glacial flow and filling of the crater floor with debris-covered glaciers. As glaciation waned, debris-covered glaciers ceased flowing, accumulation zones lost ice, and newly exposed wall alcoves continued as the location for limited snow/frost deposition, entrapment, and preservation. Analysis of the insolation geometry of this pole-facing crater wall, and similar occurrences in other craters at these latitudes on Mars, shows that they are uniquely favored for accumulation of snow and ice, and a relatively more rapid exposure to warmer summer temperatures. We show that, after the last glaciation, melting of residual snow and ice in alcoves could have formed the fluvial channels and sedimentary fans of the gullies. Recent modeling shows that top-down melting can occur in these microenvironments under conditions similar to those currently observed on Mars, if small amounts of snow or frost accumulate in alcoves and channels. Accumulation and melting is even more favored in the somewhat wetter, relatively recent geological past of Mars, after the period of active glaciation. PMID:18725636

  3. Cloud cover estimation: Use of GOES imagery in development of cloud cover data base for insolation assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huning, J. R.; Logan, T. L.; Smith, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of using digital satellite data to establish a cloud cover data base for the United States, one that would provide detailed information on the temporal and spatial variability of cloud development are studied. Key elements include: (1) interfacing GOES data from the University of Wisconsin Meteorological Data Facility with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's VICAR image processing system and IBIS geographic information system; (2) creation of a registered multitemporal GOES data base; (3) development of a simple normalization model to compensate for sun angle; (4) creation of a variable size georeference grid that provides detailed cloud information in selected areas and summarized information in other areas; and (5) development of a cloud/shadow model which details the percentage of each grid cell that is cloud and shadow covered, and the percentage of cloud or shadow opacity. In addition, comparison of model calculations of insolation with measured values at selected test sites was accomplished, as well as development of preliminary requirements for a large scale data base of cloud cover statistics.

  4. Screen-printed piezoelectric shoe-insole energy harvester using an improved flexible PZT-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almusallam, A.; Torah, R. N.; Zhu, D.; Tudor, M. J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports improved screen-printed piezoelectric composites that can be printed on fabrics or flexible substrates. The materials are flexible and are processed at lower temperature (130°C). One main PZT particle size (2μm) was mixed separately with smaller piezoelectric particles (0.1, 0.3 and 0.8μm) with different weight ratios to investigate the piezoelectric property d33. The blended PZT powder was then mixed with 40% polymer binder and printed on Alumina substrates. The applied poling field, temperature and time were 8MV/m, 160°C and 10min, respectively. The optimum material gives a d33 of 36pC/N with particle sizes of 2μm and 0.8μm and mixed percentages of 82% and 18%, respectively. A screen-printed piezoelectric shoe-insoles (PSI) has been developed as a self-powered force mapping sensor. The PSI was simulated, fabricated and tested. ANSYS results show that one element of PSI sole can produce an open- circuit voltage of 3V when a human of average weight of 70kg makes a gait strike. Experimental results show that one element produced 2V which is less than the simulated results because of the reduction of poling field for the practical device.

  5. The Relationship Between Reductions in Knee Loading and Immediate Pain Response Whilst Wearing Lateral Wedged Insoles in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Richard K.; Chapman, Graham J.; Forsythe, Laura; Parkes, Matthew J.; Felson, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of lateral wedge insoles (LWIs) in medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) have shown reductions in the average external knee adduction moment (EKAM) but no lessening of knee pain. Some treated patients actually experience increases in the EKAM which could explain the overall absence of pain response. We examined whether, in patients with painful medial OA, reductions in the EKAM were associated with lessening of knee pain. Each patient underwent gait analysis whilst walking in a control shoe and two LWI’s. We evaluated the relationship between change in EKAM and change in knee pain using Spearman Rank Correlation coefficients and tested whether dichotomizing patients into biomechanical responders (decreased EKAM) and non-responders (increased EKAM) would identify those with reductions in knee pain. In 70 patients studied, the EKAM was reduced in both LWIs versus control shoe (−5.21% and −6.29% for typical and supported wedges, respectively). The change in EKAM using LWIs was not significantly associated with the direction of knee pain change. Further, 54% were biomechanical responders, but these persons did not have more knee pain reduction than non-responders. Whilst LWIs reduce EKAM, there is no clearcut relationship between change in medial load when wearing LWIs and corresponding change in knee pain. PMID:24903067

  6. 'Niigata S3' is a new strawberry cultivar suitable for forcing culture under low temperature and insolation conditions.

    PubMed

    Hamato, Naonori; Kotake, Osamu; Ono, Nagaaki; Kurashima, Hiroshi; Nakano, Masaru; Iwamoto, Yuzuri; Takahashi, Yoshihiko

    2014-12-01

    'Niigata S3' is a new strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivar that is early flowering and possesses high soluble solid content and good coloration. It was selected from a cross between Kei812 (seed parent) and 'Asuka-Ruby' (pollen parent). The first harvest date of 'Niigata S3' was December 27, 34 days earlier than 'Echigohime' and 9 days earlier than 'Asuka-Ruby' (means of 2007 and 2008). The marketable yield of 'Niigata S3' was 85% of 'Echigohime', 107% of 'Asuka-Ruby', while the early yield was 145% of 'Echigohime', 85% of 'Asuka-Ruby' (based on 2007 and 2008 means). The shape of the fruit is long conical, and its skin color medium-red. The fruit skin hardness of 'Niigata S3' was 31.5 g/mm(2), which was harder than 'Echigohime', and its average soluble solid content was 11.4%, which was higher than the values for 'Echigohime' and 'Asuka-Ruby' (2008). Furthermore, 'Niigata S3' did not bear apical overripe fruit. This new cultivar is adaptable to the climatic conditions of Niigata, as well as other regions that experience low winter temperatures and insolation. PMID:25914600

  7. Formation of gullies on Mars: Link to recent climate history and insolation microenvironments implicate surface water flow origin

    PubMed Central

    Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.; Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.

    2008-01-01

    Features seen in portions of a typical midlatitude Martian impact crater show that gully formation follows a geologically recent period of midlatitude glaciation. Geological evidence indicates that, in the relatively recent past, sufficient snow and ice accumulated on the pole-facing crater wall to cause glacial flow and filling of the crater floor with debris-covered glaciers. As glaciation waned, debris-covered glaciers ceased flowing, accumulation zones lost ice, and newly exposed wall alcoves continued as the location for limited snow/frost deposition, entrapment, and preservation. Analysis of the insolation geometry of this pole-facing crater wall, and similar occurrences in other craters at these latitudes on Mars, shows that they are uniquely favored for accumulation of snow and ice, and a relatively more rapid exposure to warmer summer temperatures. We show that, after the last glaciation, melting of residual snow and ice in alcoves could have formed the fluvial channels and sedimentary fans of the gullies. Recent modeling shows that top-down melting can occur in these microenvironments under conditions similar to those currently observed on Mars, if small amounts of snow or frost accumulate in alcoves and channels. Accumulation and melting is even more favored in the somewhat wetter, relatively recent geological past of Mars, after the period of active glaciation. PMID:18725636

  8. a Study of the Impact of Insolation on Remote Sensing-Based Landcover and Landuse Data Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becek, K.; Borkowski, A.; Mekik, Ç.

    2016-06-01

    We examined the dependency of the pixel reflectance of hyperspectral imaging spectrometer data (HISD) on a normalized total insolation index (NTII). The NTII was estimated using a light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital surface model (DSM). The NTII and the pixel reflectance were dependent, to various degrees, on the band considered, and on the properties of the objects. The findings could be used to improve land cover (LC)/land use (LU) classification, using indices constructed from the spectral bands of imaging spectrometer data (ISD). To study this possibility, we investigated the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at various NTII levels. The results also suggest that the dependency of the pixel reflectance and NTII could be used to mitigate the shadows in ISD. This project was carried out using data provided by the Hyperspectral Image Analysis Group and the NSF-funded Centre for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM), University of Houston, for the purpose of organizing the 2013 Data Fusion Contest (IEEE 2014). This contest was organized by the IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Technical Committee.

  9. Evidence for insolation and Pacific forcing of late glacial through Holocene climate in the Central Mojave Desert (Silver Lake, CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Matthew E.; Knell, Edward J.; Anderson, William T.; Lachniet, Matthew S.; Palermo, Jennifer; Eeg, Holly; Lucero, Ricardo; Murrieta, Rosa; Arevalo, Andrea; Silveira, Emily; Hiner, Christine A.

    2015-09-01

    Silver Lake is the modern terminal playa of the Mojave River in southern California (USA). As a result, it is well located to record both influences from the winter precipitation dominated San Bernardino Mountains - the source of the Mojave River - and from the late summer to early fall North American monsoon at Silver Lake. Here, we present various physical, chemical and biological data from a new radiocarbon-dated, 8.2 m sediment core taken from Silver Lake that spans modern through 14.8 cal ka BP. Texturally, the core varies between sandy clay, clayey sand, and sand-silt-clay, often with abrupt sedimentological transitions. These grain-size changes are used to divide the core into six lake status intervals over the past 14.8 cal ka BP. Notable intervals include a dry Younger Dryas chronozone, a wet early Holocene terminating 7.8 - 7.4 cal ka BP, a distinct mid-Holocene arid interval, and a late Holocene return to ephemeral lake conditions. A comparison to potential climatic forcings implicates a combination of changing summer - winter insolation and tropical and N Pacific sea-surface temperature dynamics as the primary drivers of Holocene climate in the central Mojave Desert.

  10. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  11. Developing hourly weather data for locations having only daily weather data

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, S.G.; Herold, K.E.; Jakob, F.E.; Lundstrom, D.K.

    1983-06-01

    A methodology was developed to modify an hourly TMY weather tape to be representative of a location for which only average daily weather parameters were avilable. Typical hourly and daily variations in solar flux, and other parameters, were needed to properly exercise a computer model to predict the transient performance of a solar controlled greenhouse being designed for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The starting point was a TMY tape for Yuma, Arizona, since the design temperatures for summer and winter are nearly identical for Yuma and Riyadh. After comparing six of the most important weather variables, the hourly values on the Yuma tape were individually adjusted to give the same overall daily average conditions as existed in the long-term Riyadh data. Finally, a statistical analysis was used to confirm quantitatively that the daily variations between the long term average values for Riyadh and the modified TMY weather tape for Yuma matched satisfactorily.

  12. Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Cole, Jason; Curry, Charles L.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Kravitz, Ben; Moore, John C.; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Geoengineering via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation. To study rice and maize production changes in China, we used results from 10 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G2 scenario to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. G2 prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% a-1 increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2) for 50 years. We first evaluated the DSSAT model using 30 years (1978-2007) of daily observed weather records and agriculture practices for 25 major agriculture provinces in China and compared the results to observations of yield. We then created three sets of climate forcing for 42 locations in China for DSSAT from each climate model experiment: (1) 1pctCO2, (2) G2, and (3) G2 with constant CO2 concentration (409 ppm) and compared the resulting agricultural responses. In the DSSAT simulations: (1) Without changing management practices, the combined effect of simulated climate changes due to geoengineering and CO2 fertilization during the last 15 years of solar reduction would change rice production in China by -3.0 ± 4.0 megaton (Mt) (2.4 ± 4.0%) as compared with 1pctCO2 and increase Chinese maize production by 18.1 ± 6.0 Mt (13.9 ± 5.9%). (2) The termination of geoengineering shows negligible impacts on rice production but a 19.6 Mt (11.9%) reduction of maize production as compared to the last 15 years of geoengineering. (3) The CO2 fertilization effect compensates for the deleterious impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation due to geoengineering on rice production, increasing rice production by 8.6 Mt. The elevated CO2 concentration enhances maize production in G2, contributing 7.7 Mt (42.4%) to the total increase. Using the DSSAT crop model, virtually all of the climate models agree on the sign of the responses, even though

  13. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

  14. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  15. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  16. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

    1988-01-01

    An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

  17. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  18. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Solaron Akron, Akron, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Akron, Ohio is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions. The analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results show that only in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where insolation is 1828 Btu/sq ft/day and the conventional energy cost is high, is this solar energy system marginally profitable.

  19. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat, phase 1 design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    The system consists of 42,420 sq ft of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors are oriented in a North-South configuration and track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) is circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370 F and 450 F respectively. These temperatures are constantly maintained via a variable flow rate through the collectors (the flow rate varies in direct proportion to the level of insolation). Superheated steam is the final product of the solar energy system. Final steam quality at the steam generator is 420 F and 165 Psia.

  20. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Solaron Akron, Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Akron, Ohio is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions. The analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results show that only in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where insolation is 1828 Btu/sq ft/day and the conventional energy cost is high, is this solar energy system marginally profitable.

  1. The 1-kW solar Stirling experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giandomenico, A.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to demonstrate electrical power generation using a small free-piston Stirling engine and linear alternator in conjunction with a parabolic solar collector. A test bed collector, formerly used at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory, was renovated and used to obtain practical experience and to determine test receiver performance. The collector was mounted on a two-axis tracker, with a cold water calorimeter mounted on the collector to measure its efficiency, while a separate, independently tracking radiometer was used to measure solar insolation. The solar receiver was designed to absorb energy from the collector, then transfer the resulting thermal energy to the Stirling engine. Successful testing of receiver/collector assembly yielded valuable inputs for design of the Stirling engine heater head.

  2. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  3. Solar index generation and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

  4. Noise in pressure transducer readings produced by variations in solar radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, S. F.; Davis, G.A.; Loheide, S.P.; Butler, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in solar radiation can produce noise in readings from gauge pressure transducers when the transducer cable is exposed to direct sunlight. This noise is a result of insolation-induced heating and cooling of the air column in the vent tube of the transducer cable. A controlled experiment was performed to assess the impact of variations in solar radiation on transducer readings. This experiment demonstrated that insolation-induced fluctuations in apparent pressure head can be as large as 0.03 m. The magnitude of these fluctuations is dependent on cable color, the diameter of the vent tube, and the length of the transducer cable. The most effective means of minimizing insolation-induced noise is to use integrated transducer-data logger units that fit within a well. Failure to address this source of noise can introduce considerable uncertainty into analyses of hydraulic tests when the head change is relatively small, as is often the case for tests in highly permeable aquifers or for tests using distant observation wells.

  5. NOAA Data Rescue of Key Solar Databases and Digitization of Historical Solar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, H. E.

    2006-08-01

    Over a number of years, the staff at NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has worked to rescue key solar databases by converting them to digital format and making them available via the World Wide Web. NOAA has had several data rescue programs where staff compete for funds to rescue important and critical historical data that are languishing in archives and at risk of being lost due to deteriorating condition, loss of any metadata or descriptive text that describe the databases, lack of interest or funding in maintaining databases, etc. The Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division at NGDC was able to obtain funds to key in some critical historical tabular databases. Recently the NOAA Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded a project to digitize historical solar images, producing a large online database of historical daily full disk solar images. The images include the wavelengths Calcium K, Hydrogen Alpha, and white light photos, as well as sunspot drawings and the comprehensive drawings of a multitude of solar phenomena on one daily map (Fraunhofer maps and Wendelstein drawings). Included in the digitization are high resolution solar H-alpha images taken at the Boulder Solar Observatory 1967-1984. The scanned daily images document many phases of solar activity, from decadal variation to rotational variation to daily changes. Smaller versions are available online. Larger versions are available by request. See http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/SOLAR/ftpsolarimages.html. The tabular listings and solar imagery will be discussed.

  6. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  7. March 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

  8. Solar energy harvesting in the epicuticle of the oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Marian; Hod, Idan; Zaban, Arie; Boden, Stuart A.; Bagnall, Darren M.; Galushko, Dmitry; Bergman, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Oriental hornet worker correlates its digging activity with solar insolation. Solar radiation passes through the epicuticle, which exhibits a grating-like structure, and continues to pass through layers of the exo-endocuticle until it is absorbed by the pigment melanin in the brown-colored cuticle or xanthopterin in the yellow-colored cuticle. The correlation between digging activity and the ability of the cuticle to absorb part of the solar radiation implies that the Oriental hornet may harvest parts of the solar radiation. In this study, we explore this intriguing possibility by analyzing the biophysical properties of the cuticle. We use rigorous coupled wave analysis simulations to show that the cuticle surfaces are structured to reduced reflectance and act as diffraction gratings to trap light and increase the amount absorbed in the cuticle. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was constructed in order to show the ability of xanthopterin to serve as a light-harvesting molecule.

  9. Anisotropy of Reflected Solar Short Wave Radiation on a Snow Surface: Ground Measurements and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, E.; Greuell, W.; Oerlemans, J.; Knap, W.; Stammes, P.

    2004-05-01

    The retrieval of albedo of snow and ice masses by satellite is still troubled by the fact that these types of surfaces reflect anisotropically. This means that the reflectance of solar radiation on such an ice mass depends on viewing and insolation angle relative to its surface as well as its optical and (small and large scale) spatial characteristics. As in satellite observation the reflected radiation from a certain surface at a certain moment is usually recorded from one single viewing angle relative to the surface only, the interpretation of the measured reflectance value to total reflectance and albedo is not straightforward and corrections for anisotropy are necessary. To gain more knowledge of the anisotropy in the reflected radiation on snow and ice masses, we study the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) as a function of insolation angle and for different ice mass types. This study includes ground measurements and modelling and covers both snow pack and glacier ice. Here we will only discuss BRDF of snow pack. In March 2003 BRDF of snow is measured in Davos (Switzerland) on snow pack of different type considering snow grain size and form, pollution with aerosol deposit (and sediment) and liquid water content in Landsat TM bands 2 and 4 and MODIS 5 and 6. From these measurements anisotropy shows to be mainly depending on the effective insolation angle, with strongest anisotropy for great insolation angles, especially in the forward scattering direction. Effects of snow metamorphosis were seen in BRDF exhibiting stronger anistropy variation with effective insolation angle after compared to before solar noon. Minimal effect of varying anisotropy with insolation angle or snow type is seen in near-nadir viewing angles. This spring our focus is on the modelling of snow BRDF with the aid of a radiative transfer model for an atmosphere with cirrus clouds, which is developed by Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KMNI) and will be

  10. Solar and Photovoltaic Data from the University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (UO SRML)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The UO SRML is a regional solar radiation data center whose goal is to provide sound solar resource data for planning, design, deployment, and operation of solar electric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. The laboratory has been in operation since 1975. Solar data includes solar resource maps, cumulative summary data, daily totals, monthly averages, single element profile data, parsed TMY2 data, and select multifilter radiometer data. A data plotting program and other software tools are also provided. Shade analysis information and contour plots showing the effect of tilt and orientation on annual solar electric system perfomance make up a large part of the photovoltaics data.(Specialized Interface)

  11. Patrol Officer Daily Noise Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2015-01-01

    established by the OSHA or ACGIH occupational exposure levels from the daily occupational tasks that were monitored. PMID:26011417

  12. Daily regulation of hormone profiles.

    PubMed

    Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The highly coordinated output of the hypothalamic biological clock does not only govern the daily rhythm in sleep/wake (or feeding/fasting) behaviour but also has direct control over many aspects of hormone release. In fact, a significant proportion of our current understanding of the circadian clock has its roots in the study of the intimate connections between the hypothalamic clock and multiple endocrine axes. This chapter will focus on the anatomical connections used by the mammalian biological clock to enforce its endogenous rhythmicity on the rest of the body, using a number of different hormone systems as a representative example. Experimental studies have revealed a highly specialised organisation of the connections between the mammalian circadian clock neurons and neuroendocrine as well as pre-autonomic neurons in the hypothalamus. These complex connections ensure a logical coordination between behavioural, endocrine and metabolic functions that will help the organism adjust to the time of day most efficiently. For example, activation of the orexin system by the hypothalamic biological clock at the start of the active phase not only ensures that we wake up on time but also that our glucose metabolism and cardiovascular system are prepared for this increased activity. Nevertheless, it is very likely that the circadian clock present within the endocrine glands plays a significant role as well, for instance, by altering these glands' sensitivity to specific stimuli throughout the day. In this way the net result of the activity of the hypothalamic and peripheral clocks ensures an optimal endocrine adaptation of the metabolism of the organism to its time-structured environment. PMID:23604480

  13. Results of heating mode performance tests of a solar-assisted heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of a heat pump, utilizing 8.16 square meters of low-cost solar collectors as the evaporator in a Freon-114 refrigeration cycle, was determined under actual insolation conditions during the summer and fall of 1976. C.O.P.'s (coefficient of performance) greater than 3 were obtained with condensing temperatures around 78 C and evaporating temperatures around 27 C. Ambient temperatures were about 3 C above evaporating temperatures. Similar performance levels were obtained at other insolation and temperature conditions. Experience with the system has identified some component and system changes which should increase the obtainable C.O.P. to about 4.0. These are described along with the system's design rationale. The accumulated data are presented as an appendix.

  14. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at Landsat spatial scales during the BEAREX'08 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Martha C.; Kustas, William P.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Gao, Feng; Hain, Christopher; Prueger, John H.; Evett, Steven; Colaizzi, Paul; Howell, Terry; Chávez, José L.

    2012-12-01

    Robust spatial information about environmental water use at field scales and daily to seasonal timesteps will benefit many applications in agriculture and water resource management. This information is particularly critical in arid climates where freshwater resources are limited or expensive, and groundwater supplies are being depleted at unsustainable rates to support irrigated agriculture as well as municipal and industrial uses. Gridded evapotranspiration (ET) information at field scales can be obtained periodically using land-surface temperature-based surface energy balance algorithms applied to moderate resolution satellite data from systems like Landsat, which collects thermal-band imagery every 16 days at a resolution of approximately 100 m. The challenge is in finding methods for interpolating between ET snapshots developed at the time of a clear-sky Landsat overpass to provide complete daily time-series over a growing season. This study examines the efficacy of a simple gap-filling algorithm designed for applications in data-sparse regions, which does not require local ground measurements of weather or rainfall, or estimates of soil texture. The algorithm relies on general conservation of the ratio between actual ET and a reference ET, generated from satellite insolation data and standard meteorological fields from a mesoscale model. The algorithm was tested with ET retrievals from the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance model and associated DisALEXI flux disaggregation technique, which uses Landsat-scale thermal imagery to reduce regional ALEXI maps to a finer spatial resolution. Daily ET at the Landsat scale was compared with lysimeter and eddy covariance flux measurements collected during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment of 2008 (BEAREX08), conducted in an irrigated agricultural area in the Texas Panhandle under highly advective conditions. The simple gap-filling algorithm performed

  15. Williamson Home, Ipswich, Mass. solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Nov. 1981 - Apr. 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, M.

    1982-06-01

    Data on solar water and space heating systems are given. The Williamson Home in Massachusetts is a single family residence whose active-solar-energy system is designed to supply 47% of the space heating and 91% of the hot water. The system is equipped with 339 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 240-cubic-foot rock bin for storage, a propane-gas furnace and a 100-gallon propane gas hot water tank for auxiliary heating. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the collector, hot water, and space heating subsystems. Also tabulated are solar coefficients of performance, solar operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions. Also given is a graph of collector array efficiency versus the difference between the inlet water and ambient temperatures divided by insolation. System operation is illustrated by graphs of typical insolation data and outside ambient and indoor temperatures, collector operating periods and inlet/outlet temperatures, and typical storage and distribution temperatures versus time for a typical day. The system operating sequence and solar energy utilization and losses are also graphed.

  16. Solar Power System Evaluated for the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    distribution power cables use various gauges of copper conductors with ethylene tetrafluoroethylene insulation. To assess power system design options and sizing, we developed a dedicated Fortran code to predict detailed power system performance and estimate system mass. This code also modeled the requisite Mars surface environments: solar insolation, Sun angles, dust storms, dust deposition, and thermal and ultraviolet radiation. Using this code, trade studies were performed to assess performance and mass sensitivities to power system design parameters (photovoltaic array geometry and orientation) and mission parameters (landing date and landing site latitude, terrain slope, and dust storm activity). Mission analysis cases were also run. Power results are shown in this graph for an analysis case with a September 1, 2012, landing date; 18.95 North latitude landing site; two seasonal dusts storms; and tent arrays. To meet user load requirements and the ISRU energy requirement, an 8-metric ton (MT) power system and 4000-m2 photovoltaic array area were required for the assumed advanced CuInS2 thin-film solar cell technology. In this figure, the top curve is the average daytime photovoltaic array power, the middle curve is average daytime user load power, and the bottom curve is nighttime power. At mission day 1, daytime user power exceeds 120 kW before falling off to 80 kW at the end of the mission. Throughout the mission, nighttime user power is set to the nighttime power requirement. In this analysis, "nighttime" is defined as the 13- to 15-hr period when array power output is below the daytime power requirement. During dust storms, power system capability falls off dramatically so that by mission day 900, a daily energy balance cannot be maintained. Under these conditions, the ISRU plant is placed in standby mode, and the regenerative fuel cell energy storage is gradually discharged to meet user loads.

  17. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  18. Validation of the guidelines for portable meteorological instrument packages. Task IV. Development of an insolation handbook and instrumentation package

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to show how the objective of developing guidelines for a solar energy related portable meteorology instrument package, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA), was carried out and preliminarily demonstrated and validated. A project to develop guidelines for such packages was initiated at IEA's Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings Program Expert's Meeting held in Norrkoping, Sweden in February 1976. An international comparison of resultant devices was conducted on behalf of the IEA at a conference held in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, in 1978. Results of the 1978 Hamburg comparison of two devices and the Swiss Mobile Solar Radiation System, using German meteorological standards, are discussed. The consensus of the IEA Task Group is that the objective of the subtask has been accomplished.

  19. Corrigendum to "Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum - a model study" published in Clim. Past, 7, 1103-1122, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, F.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Kučera, M.; Grimm, R.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Schmiedl, G.; Emeis, K.-C.

    2011-11-01

    Nine thousand years ago (9 ka BP), the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration close to the minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of this "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM) on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated by the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular, a subsurface warming in the Cretan and western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and a reconstruction from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. As a novel approach, we propose a reinterpretation of the reconstruction, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column rather than at a single depth. We claim that such a depth-integrated approach is more adequate for surface temperature comparison purposes in a situation where the upper ocean structure in the past was different from the present-day. In this case, the depth-integrated interpretation of the proxy data strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal with the subsurface summer warming being recorded by both model and proxies, with a small shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region, a process never identified before, but potentially

  20. A cellular glass substrate solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedard, R.; Bell, D.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a second generation point focusing solar concentration is discussed. The design is based on reflective gores fabricated of thin glass mirror bonded continuously to a contoured substrate of cellular glass. The concentrator aperture and structural stiffness was optimized for minimum concentrator cost given the performance requirement of delivering 56 kWth to a 22 cm diameter receiver aperture with a direct normal insolation of 845 watts sq m and an operating wind of 50 kmph. The reflective panel, support structure, drives, foundation and instrumentation and control subsystem designs, optimized for minimum cost, are summarized. The use of cellular glass as a reflective panel substrate material is shown to offer significant weight and cost advantages compared to existing technology materials.

  1. Altering Knee Abduction Angular Impulse Using Wedged Insoles for Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain in Runners: A Six-Week Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewinson, Ryan T.; Wiley, J. Preston; Humble, R. Neil; Worobets, Jay T.; Stefanyshyn, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine if a change in internal knee abduction angular impulse (KAAI) is related to pain reduction for runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP) by comparing lateral and medial wedge insole interventions, and increased KAAI and decreased KAAI groups. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID# NCT01332110). Setting Biomechanics laboratory and community. Patients Thirty-six runners with physician-diagnosed PFP enrolled in the trial, and 27 were analyzed. Interventions Runners with PFP were randomly assigned to either an experimental 3 mm lateral wedge or control 6 mm medial wedge group. Participants completed a biomechanical gait analysis to quantify KAAIs with their assigned insole, and then used their assigned insole for six-weeks during their regular runs. Usual pain during running was measured at baseline and at six-week follow-up using a visual analog scale. Statistical tests were performed to identify differences between wedge types, differences between biomechanical response types (i.e. increase or decrease KAAI), as well as predictors of pain reduction. Main Outcome Measures Percent change in KAAI relative to neutral, and % change in pain over six weeks. Results Clinically meaningful reductions in pain (>33%) were measured for both footwear groups; however, no significant differences between footwear groups were found (p = 0.697). When participants were regrouped based on KAAI change (i.e., increase or decrease), again, no significant differences in pain reduction were noted (p = 0.146). Interestingly, when evaluating absolute change in KAAI, a significant relationship between absolute % change in KAAI and % pain reduction was observed (R2 = 0.21; p = 0.030), after adjusting for baseline pain levels. Conclusion The greater the absolute % change in KAAI during running, the greater the % reduction in pain over six weeks, regardless of wedge type, and whether KAAIs increased or decreased. Lateral and medial wedge insoles were

  2. Postoperative insole-paedobarographic gait analysis for patients with flap coverages of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing areas of the foot.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Marcotty, M V; Sutmoeller, K; Kopp, J; Vogt, P M

    2012-04-01

    Functional results regarding shoe modifications, gait analysis and long-term durability of the reconstructed foot have not been reported using insole paedobarography. This article presents insole-paedobarographic gait analysis and discusses the various pressure distribution patterns following the reconstruction of the foot. This retrospective study reports on the clinical and functional results in 23 out of 39 patients who received flap coverage of their feet in our department in the period from 2001 to 2010. Mean follow-up time amounted to 46.6 months. Patients were separated into two groups, those with flap coverage to the sole of the foot (group 1) and those with flap coverage to non-weight-bearing areas of the foot (group 2). Gait analysis was accomplished by using insole paedobarography. The results of the gait analysis have shown that in both patient groups, when comparing affected feet with sound feet, the affected feet were exposed to significantly less support time (group 1; affected vs. sound feet: 0.44 ± 0.07 s vs. 0.55 ± 0.11 s, p = 0.047), (group 2; affected vs. sound feet: 0.47 ± 0.07 s vs. 0.54 ± 0.07 s, p = 0.029). In addition, in both patient groups, the analysis of peak-pressure distributions revealed greater pressures on the affected feet compared to the sound feet (group 1; affected vs. sound feet: 47.9 ± 10.13 N cm(-2) vs. 36.3 ± 7.5 N cm(-2), p = 0.008), (group 2; affected vs. sound feet: 38.08 ± 13.98 N cm(-2) vs. 32.92 ± 14.77 N cm(-2), p = 0.061). The insole paedobarography can contribute to a more precise gait analysis following a soft-tissue reconstruction not only of the sole but also of other foot regions as well. It can help to identify and correct movement sequences and peak-pressure distributions which are damaging to the flaps. The resulting potential minimisation of the ulceration rate can lead to a further optimisation in the rate of completely rehabilitated patients and a reduction in the revision rate.

  3. To develop a dynamic model of a collector loop for purpose of improved control of solar heating and cooling. Final technical report. [TRNSYS code

    SciTech Connect

    Herczfeld, P R; Fischl, R

    1980-01-01

    The program objectives were to (1) assess the feasibility of using the TRNSYS computer code for solar heating and cooling control studies and modify it wherever possible, and (2) develop a new dynamic model of the solar collector which reflects the performance of the collector under transient conditions. Also, the sensitivity of the performance of this model to the various system parameters such as collector time constants, flow rates, turn-on and turn-off temperature set points, solar insolation, etc., was studied. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  4. SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Exxon Research and Engineering. System design final report, Volume 1. Design description seawater feed (System A)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The design of a solar powered water desalination system is presented. Design data including insolation and climate of the Yanbu, Saudi Arabia site are included. Two solar desalination designs were developed including: (1) a conceptual baseline plant powered by a solar central receiver-heliostat field, and (2) a pilot plant that demonstrates and evaluates the design features of the baseline plant. The desalination process involves a hybrid reverse osmosis/multiple effect distillation process. The performance and economics of the design plants are analyzed. (BCS)

  5. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect are made at the Stanford Solar Observatory. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about 1%. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large-scale magnetic field structures.

  6. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect mode at the Sanford Solar Observatory are presented. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about one percent. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large scale magnetic field structures.

  7. Early Results from Solar Dynamic Space Power System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Mason, Lee S.

    1996-01-01

    A government/industry team designed, built and tested a 2-kWe solar dynamic space power system in a large thermal vacuum facility with a simulated Sun at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Lewis facility provides an accurate simulation of temperatures, high vacuum and solar flux as encountered in low-Earth orbit. The solar dynamic system includes a Brayton power conversion unit integrated with a solar receiver which is designed to store energy for continuous power operation during the eclipse phase of the orbit. This paper reviews the goals and status of the Solar Dynamic Ground Test Demonstration project and describes the initial testing, including both operational and performance data. System testing to date has accumulated over 365 hours of power operation (ranging from 400 watts to 2.0-W(sub e)), including 187 simulated orbits, 16 ambient starts and 2 hot restarts. Data are shown for an orbital startup, transient and steady-state orbital operation and shutdown. System testing with varying insolation levels and operating speeds is discussed. The solar dynamic ground test demonstration is providing the experience and confidence toward a successful flight demonstration of the solar dynamic technologies on the Space Station Mir in 1997.

  8. Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

    Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

  9. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6…

  10. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einolf, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

  11. Daily Oral Language: Is It Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Jeff L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the Daily Oral Language (DOL) program aimed at helping students learn mechanics of writing through daily editing exercises. This nine-month study sought to determine if DOL improved editing skills and actual writing skills of seventy fourth-grade students. While the results of this study did not statistically demonstrate the…

  12. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  13. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  14. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  15. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  16. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  17. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  18. Weather, season, and daily stroke admissions in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies examining daily temperature and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with daily hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and daily mean temperature, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of temperature, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean daily temperature had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8°C) observed. A 1°C lower average temperature over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and temperature was weaker and apparent only below 22°C, with a 1°C lower average temperature (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.

  19. Daily rhythm of nociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, AJM; Merlin, NJ; Vijaya, C; Jayaprakash, S; Murugesh, N

    2004-03-25

    BACKGROUND: Many behavioral and physiological variables exhibit daily rhythmicity. Few investigations of the daily rhythmicity in nociception have been conducted, and conflicting results have been obtained. The present study evaluated the daily rhythmicity in nociception in Wistar rats. METHODS: Nociception was investigated by Eddy's hot plate method, tail immersion method, and tail clip method. The latency between the noxious stimulus and the animal's response was recorded as reaction time. Separate groups of rats were tested in 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. RESULTS: There was clear daily variation in response latency. Reaction time was shortest a few hours before lights-on and longest at the light-dark transition. CONCLUSION: Nociception exhibits robust daily rhythmicity in rats. Sensitivity to pain is highest late in the dark phase of the light-dark cycle and lowest at the light-dark transition.

  20. Daily rhythm of nociception in rats

    PubMed Central

    Christina, AJM; Merlin, NJ; Vijaya, C; Jayaprakash, S; Murugesh, N

    2004-01-01

    Background Many behavioral and physiological variables exhibit daily rhythmicity. Few investigations of the daily rhythmicity in nociception have been conducted, and conflicting results have been obtained. The present study evaluated the daily rhythmicity in nociception in Wistar rats. Methods Nociception was investigated by Eddy's hot plate method, tail immersion method, and tail clip method. The latency between the noxious stimulus and the animal's response was recorded as reaction time. Separate groups of rats were tested in 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. Results There was clear daily variation in response latency. Reaction time was shortest a few hours before lights-on and longest at the light-dark transition. Conclusion Nociception exhibits robust daily rhythmicity in rats. Sensitivity to pain is highest late in the dark phase of the light-dark cycle and lowest at the light-dark transition. PMID:15043763

  1. Yearlong, Daily Assessments of Bio-Optical Distributions under Perennial Ice Cover in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laney, S. R.; Toole, J. M.; Krishfield, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past three years eight Ice-Tethered Profilers have been outfitted with a new bio-optical sensor suite and have been deployed under perennial ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. This sensor suite enables the measurement of chlorophyll (a proxy for algal biomass), colored dissolved organic matter concentration, and particular backscatter intensities throughout the entire upper 750 m of the under-ice water column. An irradiance sensor additionally provides concurrent measurements of the light field underneath ice cover during times of the year that receive insolation. Two of these profilers have operated for a full year, returning multiple daily profiles of these basic biogeochemical optical properties with sub-meter vertical resolution. These observations provide unprecedented insight into the basic optical seasonality of the pelagic ocean environment under perennial ice cover, including the timing of important biogeochemical events in the Arctic such as periods of high under-ice productivity and the subsequent export of organic matter to the deep ocean.

  2. Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  3. Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  4. Solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, D.

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  5. Optimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell backed by a metallic surface-relief grating.

    PubMed

    Solano, Manuel; Faryad, Muhammad; Hall, Anthony S; Mallouk, Thomas E; Monk, Peter B; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-02-10

    The rigorous coupled-wave approach was used to compute the plane-wave absorptance of a thin-film tandem solar cell with a metallic surface-relief grating as its back reflector. The absorptance is a function of the angle of incidence and the polarization state of incident light; the free-space wavelength; and the period, duty cycle, the corrugation height, and the shape of the unit cell of the surface-relief grating. The solar cell was assumed to be made of hydrogenated amorphous-silicon alloys and the back reflector of bulk aluminum. The incidence and the grating planes were taken to be identical. The AM1.5 solar irradiance spectrum was used for computations in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range. Inspection of parametric plots of the solar-spectrum-integrated (SSI) absorption efficiency and numerical optimization using the differential evolution algorithm were employed to determine the optimal surface-relief grating. For direct insolation, the SSI absorption efficiency is maximizable by appropriate choices of the period, the duty cycle, and the corrugation height, regardless of the shape of the corrugation in each unit cell of the grating. A similar conclusion also holds for diffuse insolation, but the maximum efficiency for diffuse insolation is about 20% smaller than for direct insolation. Although a tin-doped indium-oxide layer at the front and an aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layer between the semiconductor material and the backing metallic layer change the optimal depth of the periodic corrugations, the optimal period of the corrugations does not significantly change.

  6. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  7. Holocene evolution of summer winds and marine productivity in the tropical Indian Ocean in response to insolation forcing: data-model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassinot, F. C.; Marzin, C.; Braconnot, P.; Marti, O.; Mathien-Blard, E.; Lombard, F.; Bopp, L.

    2011-07-01

    The relative abundance of Globigerinoides bulloides was used to infer Holocene paleo-productivity changes on the Oman margin and at the southern tip of India. Today, the primary productivity at both sites reaches its maximum during the summer season, when monsoon winds result in local Eckman pumping, which brings more nutrients to the surface. On a millennium time-scale, however, the % G. bulloides records indicate an opposite evolution of paleo-productivity at these sites through the Holocene. The Oman Margin productivity was maximal at ~9 ka (boreal summer insolation maximum) and has decreased since then, suggesting a direct response to insolation forcing. On the contrary, the productivity at the southern tip of India was minimum at ~9 ka, and strengthened towards the present. Paleo-reconstructions of wind patterns, marine productivity and foraminifera assemblages were obtained using the IPSL-CM4 climate model coupled to the PISCES marine biogeochemical model and the FORAMCLIM ecophysiological model. These reconstructions are fully coherent with the marine core data. They confirm that the evolution of particulate export production and foraminifera assemblages at our two sites were directly linked with the strength of the upwelling. Model simulations at 9 ka and 6 ka BP show that the relative evolution between the two sites since the early Holocene can be explained by the weakening but also the southward shift of monsoon winds over the Arabian Sea during boreal summer.

  8. The role of shoe design on the prediction of free torque at the shoe-surface interface using pressure insole technology.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Brian Thomas; Fitzsimons, Kathleen; Braman, Jerrod; Haut, Roger

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to expand on previous work to validate the use of pressure insole technology in conjunction with linear regression models to predict the free torque at the shoe-surface interface that is generated while wearing different athletic shoes. Three distinctly different shoe designs were utilised. The stiffness of each shoe was determined with a material's testing machine. Six participants wore each shoe that was fitted with an insole pressure measurement device and performed rotation trials on an embedded force plate. A pressure sensor mask was constructed from those sensors having a high linear correlation with free torque values. Linear regression models were developed to predict free torques from these pressure sensor data. The models were able to accurately predict their own free torque well (RMS error 3.72 ± 0.74 Nm), but not that of the other shoes (RMS error 10.43 ± 3.79 Nm). Models performing self-prediction were also able to measure differences in shoe stiffness. The results of the current study showed the need for participant-shoe specific linear regression models to insure high prediction accuracy of free torques from pressure sensor data during isolated internal and external rotations of the body with respect to a planted foot. PMID:27240101

  9. Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishina, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

  10. Comparison of DOE-2 and TRNSYS solar-heating-system simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, A.; Morgan, M.

    1980-12-01

    The analysis and comparison of the output of the solar energy section of DOE-2 called Component Based Simulator (CBS) and TRNSYS are discussed. The adequacy and sensitivity of CBS when various active solar energy collectors and systems were interfaced with a standard space heating system were investigated. The analysis included both single- and double-glazed collectors with selectively and nonselectively coated absorbing surfaces located in four different environments. The results of the study show the agreement between the two programs to be remarkably similar. Graphs are presented to illustrate the minor differences in annual average collector efficiency and annual average part solar as well as the thermal load and insolation levels. In addition, difficulties encountered by the researchers when performing this study and when attempting to model the collector systems with each program's components are discussed and recommendations offered to facilitate the solar simulation process for future CBS users.

  11. Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, J. W.; Borzoni, J. T.; Holland, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relevant design parameters in the fabrication of a solar collector for heating liquids were examined. The objective was to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost, flat-plate solar collector with high collection efficiency, high durability, and requiring little maintenance. Computer-aided math models of the heat transfer processes in the collector assisted in the design. The preferred physical design parameters were determined from a heat transfer standpoint and the absorber panel configuration, the surface treatment of the absorber panel, the type and thickness of insulation, and the number, spacing and material of the covers were defined. Variations of this configuration were identified, prototypes built, and performance tests performed using a solar simulator. Simulated operation of the baseline collector configuration was combined with insolation data for a number of locations and compared with a predicted load to determine the degree of solar utilization.

  12. High altitude current-voltage measurement of GaAs/Ge solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Russell E., Jr.; Brinker, David J.; Emery, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of high-voltage (Voc of 1.2 V) gallium arsenide on germanium tandem junction solar cells at air mass 0.22 showed that the insolation in the red portion of the solar spectrum is insufficient to obtain high fill factor. On the basis of measurements in the LeRC X-25L solar simulator, these cells were believed to be as efficient as 21.68 percent AM0. Solar simulator spectrum errors in the red end allowed the fill factor to be as high as 78.7 percent. When a similar cell's current-voltage characteristic was measured at high altitude in the NASA Lear Jet Facility, a loss of 15 percentage points in fill factor was observed. This decrease was caused by insufficient current in the germanium bottom cell of the tandem stack.

  13. Theoretical studies on performance evaluation of solar thermoelectronic energy converter with graphene emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olawole, Olukunle; de, Dilip

    In this paper we consider detailed energy dynamics of solar thermoelectronic energy converter using graphene as the emitter. The emitter is heated by solar energy concentrated by a parabolic mirror concentrator. We study the performance evaluation of the energy conversion using temperature dependent work function of graphene and model the space charge problem by introducing a factor in the emitter and collector current densities. We present computations on power output and efficiency as function of solar insolation, height of emitter from the base of the mirror, reflection coefficient of the mirror, temperature and work function of collector. Effect of molecular doping on the performance of the graphene solar tech is also discussed. Please schedule our papers so that they are well separated in time for presentations.

  14. Investigation of the Relative Effects of Insolation, Groundwater, and Spatial Variability in Temperature Dynamics of Two Headwater Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belica, L.; Caldwell, P. V.; Mitasova, H.; McCarter, J. B.; Smith, J.; Nelson, S. A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Forested headwater streams account for much of the aquatic species diversity and contribute valuable recreational fisheries in the mountains of the Southeastern United States. Stream temperature is key regulator of headwater ecosystems and thermal regime is such a critical factor that it limits where many species can survive, grow, and successfully reproduce. Forested headwater streams are dynamic systems located in complex terrain. The variability of heat exchange between a stream and its surroundings results in thermal variations along its course. Understanding the spatial variability of heat fluxes along headwater streams is important to understanding the thermal dynamics and their effects on the biota. Solar radiation and groundwater inflow are two primary components of the heat budget of headwater streams and are spatially variable over short distances. A comparative analysis of north-facing and south-facing watersheds the Coweeta Basin of the Southern Appalachian Mountains found that temperatures of north-facing streams were cooler than south-facing streams for most of the year, but were warmer in summer. A north-south watershed pair with similar discharge, drainage areas, elevation, slope, and landcover characteristics was selected for further study. Water temperature was monitored longitudinally from the stream origins to the outlets beginning in late 2014. Preliminary data suggested variation in solar radiation resulting from the spatial heterogeneity of evergreen and deciduous trees and seasonal changes in leaf density could explain temperature patterns. We used the Subcanopy Solar Radiation Model, which accounts for topographic and vegetative shading by using a light penetration index derived from LIDAR data, to produce spatially explicit estimates of solar radiation and elucidate spatial and temporal variations in solar radiation along the two streams. Groundwater influence on stream temperature dynamics was investigated using salt-dilution gaging

  15. Astronomical forcing, insolation and millennial-scale climate variability: evidence from the North Atlantic Ocean (IODP Expedition 306, Site U1313) during the Early-Middle Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Patrizia; Crowhurst, Simon; Naafs, David; Barbante, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Since the seminal work by Hays, Imbrie and Shackleton (1976), a plethora of studies mostly based on marine sediments collected during DSDP-ODP-IODP Expeditions has demonstrated a correlation between orbital variations and climatic change. However, information on how changes in orbital boundary conditions affected the frequency and amplitude of millennial-scale climate variability is still fragmentary. Here we examine the record of climatic conditions from MIS 23 to 17 (c. 920-670 ka) using high-resolution stable isotope records from benthic and planktonic foraminifera from a sedimentary sequence in the North Atlantic (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 306, Site U1313) in order to evaluate the climate system's response in the millennial band to known orbitally induced insolation changes. Special emphasis is placed on Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19, an interglacial centred at around 785 ka during which the insolation appears comparable to the current orbital geometry: MIS 19 is characterised by a minimum of the 400-kyr eccentricity cycle, subdued amplitude of precessional changes, and small amplitude variations in insolation making this marine isotopic stage a potential astronomical analogue for the Holocene and its future evolution, if this remains governed by natural forcing (Loutre and Berger 2000). Benthic and planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope values indicate relatively stable conditions during the peak warmth of MIS 19, but sea-surface and deep-water reconstructions start diverging during the transition towards the glacial MIS 18, when large, cold excursions disrupt the surface waters whereas low amplitude millennial scale fluctuations persist in the deep waters as recorded by the oxygen isotope signal (Ferretti et al., 2015). The glacial inception occurred at ˜779 ka, in agreement with an increased abundance of tetra-unsaturated alkenones, reflecting the influence of icebergs and associated meltwater pulses and high-latitude waters at the study

  16. Texasgulf solar cogeneration program. Mid-term topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The status of technical activities of the Texasgulf Solar Cogeneration Program at the Comanche Creek Sulfur Mine is described. The program efforts reported focus on preparation of a system specification, selection of a site-specific configuration, conceptual design, and facility performance. Trade-off studies performed to select the site-specific cogeneration facility configuration that would be the basis for the conceptual design efforts are described. Study areas included solar system size, thermal energy storage, and field piping. The conceptual design status is described for the various subsystems of the Comanche Creek cogeneration facility. The subsystems include the collector, receiver, master control, fossil energy, energy storage, superheat boiler, electric power generation, and process heat subsystems. Computer models for insolation and performance are also briefly discussed. Appended is the system specification. (LEW)

  17. Some solar dish/heat engine design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.L.

    1984-11-01

    Tradeoff decisions are an essential feature of solar dish/electric system design. The often competing characteristics of the various subsystems require careful analysis before a designer can create an optimal performance, minimal cost final product. Discussed here are design factors such as the dish concentration ratio as a function of operating temperature; the module performance characteristics of Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling heat engines; hybrid operation economics; optimum module size; and thermodynamic effects. It is shown that for heat engines operating at 1370/sup 0/C or above, the dish concentration ratio needs to be at least 2000 and the optimum dish diameter is between 14 m and 19 m. High engine efficiency as a result of increased temperature is shown to be not always desirable for solar modules. The second-law thermodynamic results indicate single insolation reflection is desired over the use of terminal concentrators or multiple reflections.

  18. Development and Testing of Shingle-type Solar Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and testing of a shingle-type terrestrial solar cell module which produces 98 watts/sq m of exposed module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and 61 C are reported. These modules make it possible to easily incorporate photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings by simply nailing the modules to the plywood roof sheathing. This design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. These cells are individually bonded to the embossed surface of a 3 mm thick thermally tempered hexagon-shaped piece of glass. Polyvinyl butyral is used as the laminating adhesive.

  19. Irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.; Jones, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. The model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14 percent real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8 percent. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98 percent of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71 percent) of the total market.

  20. Remaining Line Opacity Problems for the Solar Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurucz, R. L.

    1992-03-01

    We need high-resolution, high-signal-to-noise spectra of the sun with complete spectral coverage. The solar spectrum provides the insolation that controls the atmospheric chemistry of the earth and of all the solar system bodies. It is important for stellar astrophysics as the "standard" stellar spectrum because it can be observed better than that of any other star. It is important for understanding the sun, for it allows us to study the conditions and motions at its surface. It is an important high-temperature laboratory source for atomic and molecular spectroscopy. To interpret the spectrum we require accurate energy levels, accurate wavelengths, accurate gf values, accurate damping constants. We require hyperfine splitting, isotopic splitting, and Zeeman splitting. We require completeness in order to deconvolve blends. We need every level below the lowest ionization or dissociation energy. For molecules that is every vibrational and rotational level. Key words: ATOMIC PROCESSES - MOLECULAR PROCESSES - TRANSITION PROBABILITIES - SUN: SPECTRA

  1. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 558, February 1991. Part 1 (prompt reports). data for January 1991, December 1990, and late data

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.E.

    1991-02-01

    Contents: Detailed index for 1990-1991; Data for January 1991: Solar-terrestrial environment, IUWDS alert periods (Advance and Worldwide), Solar activity indices, Solar flares, Solar radio emission, Stanford mean solar magnetic field; Data for December 1990: Solar active regions, Sudden ionospheric disturbances, Solar radio spectral observations, Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, Geomagnetic indices; Late data: Geomagnetic activity indices November 1990, Interplanetary plasma data: Pioneer Venus solar wind daily values January-October 1990.

  2. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to global scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.; Hain, C. R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Schultz, L.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Cammalleri, C.; D'Urso, G.; Pimstein, A.; Gao, F.

    2010-08-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (soil moisture, advection, air temperature) are affecting plant stress. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil+canopy) land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5-10 km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI), spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions of 30 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe and, Africa and other continents

  3. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to continental scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.; Hain, C. R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Schultz, L.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Cammalleri, C.; D'Urso, G.; Pimstein, A.; Gao, F.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection) are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy) land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI) spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa and other

  4. CONC/11: A computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The CONC/11 computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems is discussed. This program is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. The CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended FORTRAN (similar to FORTRAN 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers. A user's manual is also provided for this program.

  5. Effect of variation of angle of inclination on the performance of low-concentration-ratio compound parabolic concentrating solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    A.F. Kothdiwala; Norton, B.; Eames, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal heat transfer in line-axis, symmetric, compound parabolic concentrating solar energy collectors (CPCs) has been investigated and a theoretical numerical model has been developed. The model allows the effect of the angle of axial inclination of an east-west aligned CPC and hence the effect of the latitudinal and tracking configuration of the CPC system on performance to be determined. The internal and external convective heat transfer correlations employed are angular dependent. The variation of convective, radiative, conductive and overall heat transfer coefficients and system efficiency for a range of angular inclinations, concentration ratios, total insolations and beam to diffuse insolation factors are presented graphically. The results demonstrate that there is a 10% variation in convective heat transfer with angle of inclination for low concentration CPCs (i.e. C=1.5). 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. CONC/11: a computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-02-15

    CONC/11 is a computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. It is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended Fortran (similar to Fortran 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers.

  7. REL3.0 LPSA DAILY

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-02

    ... Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 Langley Parameterized Shortwave Model Daily Data in Native grid binary format News:  LPSA ... Clouds Radiation Budget Spatial Coverage:  (-90, 90)(-180,180) Spatial Resolution:  ...

  8. AMSR2 Daily Arctic Sea Ice - 2014

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this animation, the daily Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from March 21, 2014 through the 3rd of August, 2014. Over the water, Arctic sea ice changes from da...

  9. The case for solar/hydrogen energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escher, W. J. D.

    Available solar technologies for producing H2-based fuels for all uses by the turn of the century are discussed. Although the annual global insolation is over 20 times the total remaining fossil fuels, the source is diffuse and variable, and areas of greatest input are not collocated with sites of greatest use. Therefore, the H2 supply must be transportable and storable, and the production facilities require large areas. Hydrogen fuels have a naturally occurring, nearly limitless supply, water, are nonpolluting, recyclable, and have the highest energy conversion efficiency of all liquid fuels. The production energy sources feasible before the year 2000 are identified as thermal heat engines, solar cells, hydroelectric plants, and wind turbines. Water electrolysis is concluded to be the sole method available for solar/hydrogen systems, and it is shown that ocean cryotanker transport of H2 fuels could be accomplished at the same efficiency and cost as with LNG fuels. Systems for production and/or storage of H2 fuels for the home, in automobiles, and on ocean platforms are described, and an international program to develop the H2-based fuel system is recommended.

  10. [Daily life disability associated with dementia].

    PubMed

    Asada, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Daily life disability associated with dementia including Alzheimer disease involves a series of difficulties in performing daily tasks. People with this disability have difficulty in being active individually, participating in society, and carrying out daily tasks. Evidence suggests that its causes are lesions in specific areas of the brain. For example, focal lesions appear to be specifically correlated with symptoms of apraxia and agnosia. In general, cognitive decline in the course of dementing illnesses worsens as brain lesions expand. This may be accompanied by the impairment of other organs. However, brain lesions appear to be the overall cause of daily life disability associated with dementia. There are three basic measures that can be taken in response to daily life disability : first, analysis of normal daily life activities ; next, the observation of how the activities of people with dementia deviate from the normal pattern ; and finally, collecting information on caregivers' effective practices to appropriately respond to these deviations. Care for daily life disability associated with dementia should aim to maximize the performance of people with dementia based on their existing abilities. To do this, it is important to recognize disruptions to the normal flow of activity, and understand clues pointing to the causes of these disruptions. In order to examine the daily life disability associated with dementia, we conducted preliminary experiments on the background brain activity. For this purpose, capsaicin derived from red pepper was used to stimulate taste bud receptors on the tongue. During this physiological process, we examined the response within the brain, and observed activity in specific brain regions. For further studies on the background of the disability, we will use fMRI and magnetoencephalography.

  11. Communicating Solar Astronomy to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaji, Kentaro; Solar Observatory NAOJ, The

    2015-08-01

    The Sun is the nearest star to us, so that the public is greatly interested in the Sun itself and in solar activity. The Solar Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan is one of the solar research divisions. Various data of the Sun obtained with our instruments, systematically accumulated more than one hundred years since 1910s, are open to not only researchers but also the public as online database. So, we have many chances that the public request solar images for the education and the media. In addition, we release daily solar observation informations on the web and with social media and guide visitors to our observation facilities. It is reviewed about the public relations and outreach activities of the Solar Observatory, including recent solar observation topics.

  12. Simulation of daily energy budget and mean soil temperatures at an arid site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, A. D.

    1990-03-01

    Soil temperature is often inadequately based upon relatively few measurements at widely dispersed locations. Within arid regions, such as the desert southwestern United States, soils, microclimates, and thus soil temperature may be markedly heterogeneous. Because extensive measurement of soil temperature is often not feasible, models are needed that simulate soil temperature based on readily available soil survey and “above-ground” weather information. This paper describes a simple energy-budget based model for simulating daily mean temperatures within a bare arid land soil. The model requires basic information on soil physical properties, and daily weather data including air temperature, windspeed, rainfall, and solar radiation to calculate daily surface energy budget components and surface temperature. One of two alternative numerical methods is then used to calculated subsurface temperatures. Tests of the model using 1987 daily temperature data from an arid site at Yuma, Arizona resulted in root mean square deviations within 1.4°C between daily modeled and measured temperatures at both 0.05 and 0.10 m depths. Sensitivity analysis showed modeled temperatures at 0.05 m depth to be most sensitive to parameters affecting the surface energy balance such as air temperature and solar radiation. Modeled temperatures at 1.0m depth were relatively more sensitive to initial temperature conditions and to parameters affecting distribution of energy within the profile such as thermal conductivity.

  13. Solar Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  14. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  15. Nimbus-7 ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Eugene; Hickey, John R.; Kyle, H. Lee; Alton, Bradley M.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1988-01-01

    Seven years and five months of Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) solar data are available on a single ERB Solar Analysis Tape (ESAT). The period covered is November 16, 1978 through March 31, 1986. The Nimbus-7 satellite performs approximately 14 orbits per day and the ERB solar telescope observes the sun once per orbit as the satellite crosses the southern terminator. The solar data were carefully calibrated and screened. Orbital and daily mean values are given for the total solar irradiance plus other spectral intervals (10 solar channels in all). In addition, selected solar activity indicators are included on the ESAT. The ESAT User's Guide is an update of the previous ESAT User's Guide (NASA TM 86143) and includes more detailed information on the solar data calibration, screening procedures, updated solar data plots, and applications to solar variability. Details of the tape format, including source code to access ESAT, are included.

  16. Recurrence of solar activity - Evidence for active longitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the autocorrelation coefficients of the daily Wolf sunspot numbers over a period of 128 years reveal a number of interesting features of the variability of solar activity. Besides establishing periodicities for the solar rotation, solar activity cycle, and, perhaps, the 'Gleissberg Cycle', they suggest that active longitudes do exist, but with much greater strength and persistence in some solar cycles than in others. Evidence is adduced for a variation in the solar rotation period, as measured by sunspot number, of as much as two days between different solar cycles.

  17. Solar Lentigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyperpigmented) lesion caused by natural or artificial ultraviolet (UV) light. Solar lentigines may be single or multiple. This ... simplex) because it is caused by exposure to UV light. Solar lentigines are benign, but they do indicate ...

  18. Variability of solar ultraviolet irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    A model of solar Lyman alpha irradiance developed by multiple linear regression analysis, including the daily values and 81-day running means of the full disk equivalent width of the Helium line at 1083 nm, predicts reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. In contrast, Lyman alpha models calculated from the 10.7-cm radio flux overestimate the observed variations in the rising portion and maximum period of solar cycle, and underestimates them during solar minimum. Models are shown of Lyman alpha based on the He-line equivalent width and 10.7-cm radio flux for those time intervals when no satellite observations exist, namely back to 1974 and after April 1989, when the measurements of the Solar Mesosphere Satellite were terminated.

  19. Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    PubMed

    Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2014-06-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner.

  20. Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    PubMed

    Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2014-06-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner. PMID:24718363

  1. Methodology to estimate variations in solar radiation reaching densely forested slopes in mountainous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sypka, Przemysław; Starzak, Rafał; Owsiak, Krzysztof

    2016-05-01

    Solar radiation reaching densely forested slopes is one of the main factors influencing the water balance between the atmosphere, tree stands and the soil. It also has a major impact on site productivity, spatial arrangement of vegetation structure as well as forest succession. This paper presents a methodology to estimate variations in solar radiation reaching tree stands in a small mountain valley. Measurements taken in three inter-forest meadows unambiguously showed the relationship between the amount of solar insolation and the shading effect caused mainly by the contour of surrounding tree stands. Therefore, appropriate knowledge of elevation, aspect and tilt angles of the analysed planes had to be taken into consideration during modelling. At critical times, especially in winter, the diffuse and reflected components of solar radiation only reached some of the sites studied as the beam component of solar radiation was totally blocked by the densely forested mountain slopes in the neighbourhood. The cross-section contours and elevation angles of all obstructions are estimated from a digital surface model including both digital elevation model and the height of tree stands. All the parameters in a simplified, empirical model of the solar insolation reaching a given horizontal surface within the research valley are dependent on the sky view factor (SVF). The presented simplified, empirical model and its parameterisation scheme should be easily adaptable to different complex terrains or mountain valleys characterised by diverse geometry or spatial orientation. The model was developed and validated (R 2 = 0.92 , σ = 0.54) based on measurements taken at research sites located in the Silesian Beskid Mountain Range. A thorough understanding of the factors determining the amount of solar radiation reaching woodlands ought to considerably expand the knowledge of the water exchange balance within forest complexes as well as the estimation of site productivity.

  2. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Merrigan, M.A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. Sundstrand Corporation is developing a ORC-SDPS candidate for the Space Station that uses toluene as the organic fluid and LiOH as the TES material. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  4. Buying Solar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joe

    Presented are guidelines for buying solar systems for the individual consumer. This is intended to help the consumer reduce many of the risks associated with the purchase of solar systems, particularly the risks of fraud and deception. Engineering terms associated with solar technology are presented and described to enable the consumer to discuss…

  5. Tracking daily land surface albedo and reflectance anisotropy with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, Yanmin

    A new algorithm provides daily values of land surface albedo and angular reflectance at a 500-m spatial resolution using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments currently in orbit on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. To overcome the day-to-day variance in observed surface reflectance induced by differences in view and solar illumination angles, the algorithm uses the RossThickLiSparse-Reciprocal bidirectional reflectance model, which is fitted to all MODIS observations of a 500-m resolution cell acquired during a 16-day moving window. Individual observations are weighted by their quality, observation coverage, and proximity to the production date of interest. Product quality is measured by (1) the root mean square error (RMSE) of observations against the best model fit; and (2) the ability of the angular sampling pattern of the observations at hand to determine reflectance model parameters accurately. A regional analysis of model fits to data from selected MODIS data tiles establishes the bounds of these quality measures for application in the daily algorithm. The algorithm, which is now available to users of direct broadcast satellite data from MODIS, allows daily monitoring of rapid surface radiation and land surface change phenomena such as crop development and forest foliage cycles. In two demonstrations, the daily algorithm captured rapid change in plant phenology. The growth phases of a winter wheat crop, as monitored at the Yucheng agricultural research station in Yucheng, China, matched MODIS daily multispectral reflectance data very well, especially during the flowering and heading stages. The daily algorithm also captured the daily change in autumn leaf color in New England, documenting the ability of the algorithm to work well over large regions with varying degrees of cloud cover and atmospheric conditions. Daily surface albedos measured using ground-based instruments on towers at the agricultural and

  6. Synoptic observations of near surface processes of an insolated ice-dust body under space conditions: The case of KOSI 9 and 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiel, K.; Koelzer, G.; Lorenz, E.; Kochan, H.; Gebhard, J.; Gruen, E.

    1993-01-01

    The recent experiments of the Comet Simulation Project, KOSI 9 and KOSI 10, for the first time yielded synoptic results of physically correlated phenomena near the surface of insolated porous ice dust mixtures (90% H2O, 10% olivine, 0.1% fine dispersed carbon, sample mean density 0.40 +/- 0.001 g/cm(sup 3)) under space conditions. Correlations were observed e.g. between (1) grain size of emitted dust and dust mantle formation; (2) surface avalanches and local surface temperature; and (3) lateral variations of the surface temperature and the thickness of the dust mantle at the end of the experiment. The dynamic surface processes and the observed structural parameters of the dust mantle and the emitted mineral residues are discussed in view of real comets.

  7. The response of SST to insolation and ice sheet variability from MIS 3 to MIS 11 in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Flores, José Abel; Martrat, Belen; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record based on the Uk'37 index from the PRGL1 borehole (Promess1) drilled on the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions (GL). This is the first continuous and high-resolution record in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea from marine oxygen isotope stage 3 (MIS) 3 to MIS 11. Due the location of the GL, the SST proxy can be considered to be a reliable tool to study the climate link between high latitude and midlatitude. During glacial inceptions, the northern ice sheet signal via cold northwesterly winds was first recorded in our study area in comparison with southern locations, highlighting the strong sensitivity of this location to high-latitude dynamics. Moreover, the amplitude of the millennial-scale variability in the western Mediterranean basin seems to be the result of both ice sheet and insolation variability.

  8. Severe to Extreme Solar Storms: Magnetic Field Complexity and Warnings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstedt, H.

    2014-12-01

    The most pressing space weather warnings are those of the most intense solar flares and coronal mass ejections. By now we have studied the extreme solar storms in May 1921, October-November 2003 and July 2012. A solid torus model was developed to explain the extreme solar storms of May 1921. The most recent extreme solar storm in July 2012 makes it possible to use magnetic field data of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and derived magnetic field complexity parameters of the SHARP system. Preliminary daily probabilistic warnings of severe solar flares, based on SDO magnetic field complexity and SHARP parameters will be presented. The general goal is to try to integrate the topological with the probabilistic approach into a daily warning system of severe to extreme solar storms.

  9. Holocene evolution of summer winds and marine productivity in the tropical Indian Ocean in response to insolation forcing: data-model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassinot, F. C.; Marzin, C.; Braconnot, P.; Marti, O.; Mathien-Blard, E.; Lombard, F.; Bopp, L.

    2011-02-01

    The relative abundance of Globigerinoides bulloides was used to infer Holocene paleo-productivity changes at ODP Site 723 (19°03' N, 57°37' E; Oman Margin) and core MD77-191 (07°30' N, 76°43' E; Southern tip of India). Today, the primary productivity at both sites peaks during the summer season, when monsoon winds result in local Eckman pumping, which brings more nutrients to the surface. On a millennium time-scale, however, the % G.~bulloides records indicate an opposite evolution of paleo-productivity at these sites through the Holocene. The Oman Margin productivity was maximal at ~9 ka (boreal summer insolation maximum) and decreased since then, suggesting a direct response to insolation forcing. On the opposite, the productivity at the southern tip of India was minimum at ~9 ka, and strengthened towards the present. Paleo-reconstructions of wind patterns, marine productivity and foraminifera assemblages were obtained using the IPSL-CM4 climate model coupled to the PISCES marine biogeochemical model and the FORAMCLIM ecophysiological model. These reconstructions are fully coherent with the marine core data. They confirm that the evolution of particulate export production and foraminifera assemblages at our two sites have been directly linked with the strength of the upwelling. Model simulations at 9 ka and 6 ka BP show that the relative evolution between the two sites since the early Holocene can be explained by the weakening but also the southward shift of monsoon winds over the Arabian sea during boreal summer.

  10. Dynamic modeling and experimental simulation of active solar energy systems for the evaluation of control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, S. R.; Warren, M. L.; Wahlig, M.

    1980-07-01

    Dynamic modeling and experimental simulation are used to evaluate control strategies for active solar energy systems. Performance of proportional and on/off collector loop controllers are evaluated and compared using a theoretical dynamic collector model. The effect of controls and control strategies on hydronic space heating system performance is discussed. Both the computer model and the test facility allow evaluation of control strategies using various flow rates, controller set points, insolation patterns, ambient temperature conditions, and collector types. The test facility also allows comparison of collector and load loop flow stragegies based on various system configurations and building load demands.

  11. Report on tests of a passive phase change solar diode for space heating

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, T.J.; Wattles, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Passive solar space conditioning systems suffer from the need for, and high cost of movable insulation devices to limit nighttime losses. Additionally, phase change materials (PCM) which melt only partially have been found to be less than cost-effective when compared to the low cost and predictable performance of water mass. Current PCM products used in passive applications suffer from low melt percentages due to insufficient exposure to insolation. Flow visualization tests under heating and cooling cycles have shown a unique diode device to show promise for space heating, cooling and water heating applications.

  12. Performance of the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, S. J.; Howe, R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Davies, G. R.; Elsworth, Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) has been operating with a full complement of six stations since 1992. Over 20 years later, we look back on the network history. The meta-data from the sites have been analysed to assess performance in terms of site insolation, with a brief look at the challenges that have been encountered over the years. We explain how the international community can gain easy access to the ever-growing dataset produced by the network, and finally look to the future of the network and the potential impact of nearly 25 years of technology miniaturisation.

  13. Thermal energy storage for organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic space power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidenreich, G. R.; Parekh, M. B.

    An organic Rankine cycle-solar dynamic power system (ORC-SDPS) comprises a concentrator, a radiator, a power conversion unit, and a receiver with a thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem which charges and discharges energy to meet power demands during orbital insolation and eclipse periods. Attention is presently given to the criteria used in designing and evaluating an ORC-SDPS TES, as well as the automated test facility employed. It is found that a substantial data base exists for the design of an ORC-SDPS TES subsystem.

  14. Solar Indices Forecasting Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henney, Carl John; Shurkin, Kathleen; Arge, Charles; Hill, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Progress to forecast key space weather parameters using SIFT (Solar Indices Forecasting Tool) with the ADAPT (Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport) model is highlighted in this presentation. Using a magnetic flux transport model, ADAPT, we estimate the solar near-side field distribution that is used as input into empirical models for predicting F10.7(solar 10.7 cm, 2.8 GHz, radio flux), the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, and selected bands of solar far ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance. Input to the ADAPT model includes the inferred photospheric magnetic field from the NISP ground-based instruments, GONG & VSM. Besides a status update regarding ADAPT and SIFT models, we will summarize the findings that: 1) the sum of the absolute value of strong magnetic fields, associated with sunspots, is shown to correlate well with the observed daily F10.7 variability (Henney et al. 2012); and 2) the sum of the absolute value of weak magnetic fields, associated with plage regions, is shown to correlate well with EUV and FUV irradiance variability (Henney et al. 2015). This work utilizes data produced collaboratively between Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The ADAPT model development is supported by AFRL. The input data utilized by ADAPT is obtained by NISP (NSO Integrated Synoptic Program). NSO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The 10.7 cm solar radio flux data service, utilized by the ADAPT/SIFT F10.7 forecasting model, is operated by the National Research Council of Canada and National Resources Canada, with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  15. New daily persistent headache: an update.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Todd D

    2014-07-01

    New daily persistent headache is a primary headache disorder marked by a unique temporal profile which is daily from onset. For many sufferers this is their first ever headache. Very little is known about the pathogenesis of this condition. It might be a disorder of abnormal glial activation with persistent central nervous system inflammation and it may be a syndrome that occurs in individuals who have a history of cervical hypermobility. At present there is no known specific treatment and many patients go for years to decades without any improvement in their condition despite aggressive therapy. This article will present an up-to-date overview of new daily persistent headache on the topics of clinical presentation, treatment, diagnostic criteria, and presumed pathogenesis. It will also provide some of the authors own treatment suggestions based on recognized triggering events and some suggestions for future clinical trials. PMID:24820732

  16. Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

  17. Solar nutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    The topics covered include: an overview of the subject of solar neutrinos, a brief summary of the theory of stellar evolution, a description of the main sources of solar neutrinos, a brief summary of the results of the Brookhaven C1-37 experiment, an anaysis of the principal solar neutrino experiments, and a discussion of how solar neutrino experiments can be used to detect the collapse of stars in the Galaxy. A description of how the Ga-71 experiment can be used to decide whether the origin of the present discrepancy between theory and observation lies in conventional solar models or conventional physics is presented.

  18. Solar flair.

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, John S

    2003-01-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams. PMID:12573926

  19. Solar flair.

    PubMed

    Manuel, John S

    2003-02-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams.

  20. Solar Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsnyai, B.F.

    2000-10-04

    Solar opacities are presented from the center of the Sun to the photosphere. The temperatures, densities and hydrogen mass fractions are taken from the standard solar model. For the heavy element abundances the Grevesse mixture is used. In the solar interior photoabsorption is dominated by free-free absorption and they compare two sets of opacities based on two different models for the inverse bremsstrahlung. The radiative luminosities calculated from the two sets of opacities are compared with those predicted by previous models of the standard solar model and also with the known luminosity of the Sun. pressures, specific heats and the speed of sound in the solar plasma are also presented.

  1. Solar flair.

    PubMed

    Manuel, John S

    2003-02-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams. PMID:12573926

  2. Estimating solar access of typical residential rooftops: A case study in San Jose, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen M.; Gupta, Smita; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2008-03-03

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes rooftop shading in a residential neighborhood of San Jose, CA, one of four regions analyzed in a wider study of the solar access of California homes.High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a 4 km2 residential neighborhood. Hourly shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.In the year in which surface heights were measured (2005), shadows from all sources ("total shading") reduced the insolation received by S-, SW-, and W-facing residential roofing planes in the study area by 13 - 16percent. Shadows cast by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels reduced insolation by no more than 2percent. After 30 years of simulated maximal tree growth, annual total shading increased to 19 - 22percent, and annual extraparcel shading increased to 3 - 4percent.

  3. Daily estimates of soil ingestion in children.

    PubMed Central

    Stanek, E J; Calabrese, E J

    1995-01-01

    Soil ingestion estimates play an important role in risk assessment of contaminated sites, and estimates of soil ingestion in children are of special interest. Current estimates of soil ingestion are trace-element specific and vary widely among elements. Although expressed as daily estimates, the actual estimates have been constructed by averaging soil ingestion over a study period of several days. The wide variability has resulted in uncertainty as to which method of estimation of soil ingestion is best. We developed a methodology for calculating a single estimate of soil ingestion for each subject for each day. Because the daily soil ingestion estimate represents the median estimate of eligible daily trace-element-specific soil ingestion estimates for each child, this median estimate is not trace-element specific. Summary estimates for individuals and weeks are calculated using these daily estimates. Using this methodology, the median daily soil ingestion estimate for 64 children participating in the 1989 Amherst soil ingestion study is 13 mg/day or less for 50% of the children and 138 mg/day or less for 95% of the children. Mean soil ingestion estimates (for up to an 8-day period) were 45 mg/day or less for 50% of the children, whereas 95% of the children reported a mean soil ingestion of 208 mg/day or less. Daily soil ingestion estimates were used subsequently to estimate the mean and variance in soil ingestion for each child and to extrapolate a soil ingestion distribution over a year, assuming that soil ingestion followed a log-normal distribution. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:7768230

  4. An experimental investigation of a natural convection solar air loop

    SciTech Connect

    Mastrullo, R.; Mazzei, P.; Vanoli, R.

    1983-12-01

    The interest that has been shown in the use of solar energy to heat dwellings following the ''passive'' design criteria does not correspond to the development of accurate theoretical and experimental analysis. This is particularly true for natural circulation solar air heaters. A significant application of these components is wall panel to complement south-facing windows in supplying solar heat directly to buildings. This idea, formerly suggested by Trombe et al., leads to various realizations, one of which was theoretically investigated by present authors. A convective loop panel consists of a glass layer and a black absorber that is backed by insulation. In the configuration shown the air flows in the channel in front of the absorber and the deflecting panel allows cool air to settle to the bottom of the U channel, preventing reverse thermocirculation during night or very low insolation periods. Since thermocirculation is the primary mode of heat transfer for the solar air heaters, the definition of an accurate convection model for the channel is essential for performance predictions. Studies on this subject - free convection between asymmetrically heated vertical planes - deal mainly with theoretical solutions for laminar flow, with the two usual boundary conditions. As the heat transfer process in the solar air loop cannot be expected to follow this model, there is the need of extensive experimental investigation.

  5. Dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. C.; Fourakis, E.; Hammer, J. M.; Smith, G. A.; Grosskreutz, J. C.; Mcbride, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effort undertaken during this program led to the selection of the water-superheated steam (850 psig/900 F) crescent central receiver as the preferred concept from among 11 candidate systems across the technological spectrum of the dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity. The solar power plant designs were investigated in the range of plant capacities from 100 to 1000 Mw(e). The investigations considered the impacts of plant size, collector design, feed-water temperature ratio, heat rejection equipment, ground cover, and location on solar power technical and economic feasibility. For the distributed receiver systems, the optimization studies showed that plant capacities less than 100 Mw(e) may be best. Although the size of central receiver concepts was not parametrically investigated, all indications are that the optimal plant capacity for central receiver systems will be in the range from 50 to 200 Mw(e). Solar thermal power plant site selection criteria and methodology were also established and used to evaluate potentially suitable sites. The result of this effort was to identify a site south of Inyokern, California, as typically suitable for a solar thermal power plant. The criteria used in the selection process included insolation and climatological characteristics, topography, and seismic history as well as water availability.

  6. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G−S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G−S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity. PMID:25755261

  7. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W

    2015-03-24

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G-S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G-S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity.

  8. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  9. Solar Sailing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  10. Generating daily weather data for ecosystem modelling in the Congo River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petritsch, Richard; Pietsch, Stephan A.

    2010-05-01

    Daily weather data are an important constraint for diverse applications in ecosystem research. In particular, temperature and precipitation are the main drivers for forest ecosystem productivity. Mechanistic modelling theory heavily relies on daily values for minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, incident solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit. Although the number of climate measurement stations increased during the last centuries, there are still regions with limited climate data. For example, in the WMO database there are only 16 stations located in Gabon with daily weather measurements. Additionally, the available time series are heavily affected by measurement errors or missing values. In the WMO record for Gabon, on average every second day is missing. Monthly means are more robust and may be estimated over larger areas. Therefore, a good alternative is to interpolate monthly mean values using a sparse network of measurement stations, and based on these monthly data generate daily weather data with defined characteristics. The weather generator MarkSim was developed to produce climatological time series for crop modelling in the tropics. It provides daily values for maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. The monthly means can either be derived from the internal climate surfaces or prescribed as additional inputs. We compared the generated outputs observations from three climate stations in Gabon (Lastourville, Moanda and Mouilla) and found that maximum temperature and solar radiation were heavily overestimated during the long dry season. This is due to the internal dependency of the solar radiation estimates to precipitation. With no precipitation a cloudless sky is assumed and thus high incident solar radiation and a large diurnal temperature range. However, in reality it is cloudy in the Congo River Basin during the long dry season. Therefore, we applied a correction factor to solar radiation and temperature range

  11. Solar urticaria in an infant.

    PubMed

    Harris, A; Burge, S M; George, S A

    1997-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl presented with a history of an erythematous rash which occurred immediately after exposure to sunlight and had been a problem since birth. Extensive laboratory investigations to exclude genophotodermatoses, photosensitivity secondary to metabolic disorders and photoaggravated dermatoses were negative. Monochromator irradiation phototesting demonstrated immediate erythematous flares to all ultraviolet B (UVB), UVA and visible wavelengths up to 500 nm. A diagnosis of solar urticaria was made and she responded to loratidine 10 mg daily. We believe this is the first report of solar urticaria, confirmed by phototesting with a monochromator so early in life.

  12. Photovoltaic solar array technology required for three wide scale generating systems for terrestrial applications: rooftop, solar farm, and satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Three major options for wide-scale generation of photovoltaic energy for terrestrial use are considered: (1) rooftop array, (2) solar farm, and (3) satellite station. The rooftop array would use solar cell arrays on the roofs of residential or commercial buildings; the solar farm would consist of large ground-based arrays, probably in arid areas with high insolation; and the satellite station would consist of an orbiting solar array, many square kilometers in area. The technology advancement requirements necessary for each option are discussed, including cost reduction of solar cells and arrays, weight reduction, resistance to environmental factors, reliability, and fabrication capability, including the availability of raw materials. The majority of the technology advancement requirements are applicable to all three options, making possible a flexible basic approach regardless of the options that may eventually be chosen. No conclusions are drawn as to which option is most advantageous, since the feasibility of each option depends on the success achieved in the technology advancement requirements specified.

  13. Solar Energy Economics Revisited: The Promise and Challenge of Orbiting Reflectors for World Energy Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, Kenneth W.; Gilbreath, William P.; Bowen, Stuart W.

    1978-01-01

    A system of orbiting, large-area, low mass density reflector satellites which provide nearly continuous solar energy to a world-distributed set of conversion sites is examined under the criteria for any potential new energy system: technical feasibility, significant and renewable energy impact, economic feasibility and social/political acceptability. Although many technical issues need further study, reasonable advances in space technology appear sufficient to implement the system. The enhanced insolation is shown to greatly improve the economic competitiveness of solar-electric generation to circa 1995 fossil/nuclear alternatives. The system is shown to have the potential for supplying a significant fraction of future domestic and world energy needs. Finally, the environmental and social issues, including a means for financing such a large shift to a world solar energy dependence, is addressed.

  14. Deriving Daily Purpose through Daily Events and Role Fulfillment among Asian American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using daily diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), daily purpose was positively related to daily…

  15. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  16. Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…

  17. REL3.0 LPLA DAILY NC

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-02

    ... Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 Langley Parameterized Longwave Model daily Data in 1x1 Degree NetCDF Format News:  LPLA ... Clouds Radiation Budget Spatial Coverage:  (-90, 90)(-180,180) Spatial Resolution:  ...

  18. REL3.0 LPSA DAILY NC

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-02

    ... Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 Langley Parameterized Shortwave Model Daily Data in 1x1 Degree NetCDF Format News:  LPSA ... Clouds Radiation Budget Spatial Coverage:  (-90, 90)(-180,180) Spatial Resolution:  ...

  19. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  20. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...